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Sample records for barn owl tyto

  1. Microsatellite markers characterized in the barn owl (Tyto alba) and of high utility in other owls (Strigiformes: AVES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Akos; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Küpper, Clemens; Major, Agnes; Lee, Patricia L M; Hoffmann, Gyula; Mátics, Róbert; Dawson, Deborah A

    2009-11-01

    We have identified 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the barn owl (Tyto alba), five from testing published owl loci and 10 from testing non-owl loci, including loci known to be of high utility in passerines and shorebirds. All 15 loci were sequenced in barn owl, and new primer sets were designed for eight loci. The 15 polymorphic loci displayed two to 26 alleles in 56-58 barn owls. When tested in 10 other owl species (n = 1-6 individuals), between four and nine loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are suitable for studies of population structure and parentage in owls.

  2. Female plumage spottiness signals parasite resistance in the barn owl (Tyto alba)

    OpenAIRE

    Roulin, A.; Riols, C; Dijkstra, C; Ducrest, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    The hypothesis that extravagant ornaments signal parasite resistance has received support in several species for ornamented males but more rarely for ornamented females. However, recent theories have proposed that females should often be under sexual selection, and therefore females may signal the heritable capacity to resist parasites. We investigated this hypothesis in the socially monogamous barn owl, Tyto alba, in which females exhibit on average more and larger black spots on the plumage...

  3. Avian pox virus infection in a common barn owl (Tyto alba in southern Brazil

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    Gilberto D. Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A young common barn owl (Tyto alba was referred to the Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre (Nurfs, Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, after been found in a barn of a brick factory in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The bird was apathic, weak and with crusty lesions in the featherless areas (eyes, beak, legs, and died soon after arrival at Nurfs. Necropsy and histopathological examination of the lesions were carried out. The hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the cutaneous lesions, several eosinophilic intracyto-plasmic inclusion bodies in epithelial cells (Bollinger bodies, as well as particles characteristic of poxvirus, observed by electronic microscopy, confirmed the infection by avian poxvirus, what highlights the importance of Tyto alba as carrier of the virus in the wild.

  4. Evolutionary conservation of Kv3.1 in the barn owl Tyto alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Lars; Schlüter, Tina; Wagner, Hermann; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2013-01-01

    For prey capture in the dark, the barn owl Tyto alba has evolved into an auditory specialist with an exquisite capability of sound localization. Adaptations include asymmetrical ears, enlarged auditory processing centers, the utilization of minute interaural time differences, and phase locking along the entire hearing range up to 10 kHz. Adaptations on the molecular level have not yet been investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that divergence in the amino acid sequence of the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv3.1 contributes to the accuracy and high firing rates of auditory neurons in the barn owl. We therefore cloned both splice variants of Kcnc1, the gene encoding Kv3.1. Both splice variants, Kcnc1a and Kcnc1b, encode amino acids identical to those of the chicken, an auditory generalist. Expression analyses confirmed neural-restricted expression of the channel. In summary, our data reveal strong evolutionary conservation of Kcnc1 in the barn owl and point to other genes involved in auditory specializations of this animal. The data also demonstrate the feasibility to address neuroethological questions in organisms with no reference genome by molecular approaches. This will open new avenues for neuroethologists working in these organisms.

  5. Barn Owl pellets (Aves: Tyto furcata) reveal a higher mammalian richness in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The northern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro harbors the largest coastal sandy plains (restingas) of southeastern Brazil, severely threatened due to recent human occupation. In this context, mammal inventories becomes urgent to support biodiversity conservation and management policies. This paper aims to update the knowledge on the mammalian species richness of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park by analyzing pellets of the Barn owl Tyto furcata. The analyses of 4745 mammalian bone frag...

  6. Trace metals in primary feathers of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba guttatus) in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneman, W D; Douben, P E

    1993-01-01

    The number of Barn Owls in The Netherlands has been reduced substantially over the last few decades. Death as a result of poisoning seems unlikely, but the pathology of all bird species found dead in The Netherlands between 1975 and 1988 (n = 15 422) shows that 21% of all the birds were contaminated. However, the most important factor responsible for the decline in Barn Owl numbers in The Netherlands has not yet been established. As a part of a new national protection plan for the Barn Owl, the role of heavy metals has been investigated. Concentrations of heavy metals in the primary feathers of the Barn Owl varied according to their position in the wing; especially As, Sb, Fe and Zn whose concentrations depended on the place of the primary feather in the wing and the part of the vane which is used for the monitoring. The HS7 feather vane appears to provide a good estimate, even though the metal concentrations of this feather are always slightly lower than the concentrations in mixed samples of all ten primaries. It is recommended that they are used as a standard. Many factors affect metal concentrations. Increasing levels with age are found, presumably because metals are stored during growth at the end of the feathers as a method of reducing possible harmful effects. No significant correlations were found between the metal concentrations in the organs and those in the feather. Kidney and liver concentrations are always lower than the generally accepted levels for pathological damage of these organs. Even though metal concentrations in Barn Owl feathers are high compared with those reported for other birds in the Netherlands, it is concluded that Barn Owls are not adversely affected by current levels of heavy metal contamination in The Netherlands.

  7. Compounding effects on nest-site dispersal of Barn Owls Tyto alba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huffeldt, Nicholas Per; Aggerholm, Iben Næs; Brandtberg, Nathia Hass

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Recovery distances of Barn Owls ringed as pulli are conditional on ringing date but not on population density. Aims To test whether ring recovery distances (proxy for natal dispersal distances) were conditional on population density and reproductive timing. Methods We used ringing data...... from 0 to 100 days after ringing, being stable thereafter, and was also impacted by brood size. Owls ringed very early or late in the breeding season were more likely to be recovered

  8. Genetic divergence analysis of the Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and the Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile using COI sequence

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    Colihueque, Nelson; Gantz, Alberto; Rau, Jaime Ricardo; Parraguez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper new mitochondrial COI sequences of Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile are reported and compared with sequences from other parts of the World. The intraspecific genetic divergence (mean p-distance) was 4.6 to 5.5% for the Common Barn Owl in comparison with specimens from northern Europe and Australasia and 3.1% for the Short-eared Owl with respect to samples from north America, northern Europe and northern Asia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinctive groups for the Common Barn Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) plus Central and North America, (ii) northern Europe and (iii) Australasia, and two distinctive groups for the Short-eared Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) and (ii) north America plus northern Europe and northern Asia. The level of genetic divergence observed in both species exceeds the upper limit of intraspecific comparisons reported previously for Strigiformes. Therefore, this suggests that further research is needed to assess the taxonomic status, particularly for the Chilean populations that, to date, have been identified as belonging to these species through traditional taxonomy. PMID:26668551

  9. Genetic divergence analysis of the Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and the Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile using COI sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colihueque, Nelson; Gantz, Alberto; Rau, Jaime Ricardo; Parraguez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper new mitochondrial COI sequences of Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile are reported and compared with sequences from other parts of the World. The intraspecific genetic divergence (mean p-distance) was 4.6 to 5.5% for the Common Barn Owl in comparison with specimens from northern Europe and Australasia and 3.1% for the Short-eared Owl with respect to samples from north America, northern Europe and northern Asia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinctive groups for the Common Barn Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) plus Central and North America, (ii) northern Europe and (iii) Australasia, and two distinctive groups for the Short-eared Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) and (ii) north America plus northern Europe and northern Asia. The level of genetic divergence observed in both species exceeds the upper limit of intraspecific comparisons reported previously for Strigiformes. Therefore, this suggests that further research is needed to assess the taxonomic status, particularly for the Chilean populations that, to date, have been identified as belonging to these species through traditional taxonomy.

  10. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Mark L L M; Krings, Markus; Wagner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

  11. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L L M Boumans

    Full Text Available Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola, and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

  12. The Binaural Interaction Component in Barn Owl (Tyto alba) Presents few Differences to Mammalian Data.

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    Palanca-Castan, Nicolas; Laumen, Geneviève; Reed, Darrin; Köppl, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is an evoked potential that reflects the responses to sound by brainstem neural centers. The binaural interaction component (BIC) is obtained by subtracting the sum of the monaural ABR responses from the binaural response. Its latency and amplitude change in response to variations in binaural cues. The BIC is thus thought to reflect the activity of binaural nuclei and is used to non-invasively test binaural processing. However, any conclusions are limited by a lack of knowledge of the relevant processes at the level of individual neurons. The aim of this study was to characterize the ABR and BIC in the barn owl, an animal where the ITD-processing neural circuits are known in great detail. We recorded ABR responses to chirps and to 1 and 4 kHz tones from anesthetized barn owls. General characteristics of the barn owl ABR were similar to those observed in other bird species. The most prominent peak of the BIC was associated with nucleus laminaris and is thus likely to reflect the known processes of ITD computation in this nucleus. However, the properties of the BIC were very similar to previously published mammalian data and did not reveal any specific diagnostic features. For example, the polarity of the BIC was negative, which indicates a smaller response to binaural stimulation than predicted by the sum of monaural responses. This is contrary to previous predictions for an excitatory-excitatory system such as nucleus laminaris. Similarly, the change in BIC latency with varying ITD was not distinguishable from mammalian data. Contrary to previous predictions, this behavior appears unrelated to the known underlying neural delay-line circuitry. In conclusion, the generation of the BIC is currently inadequately understood and common assumptions about the BIC need to be reconsidered when interpreting such measurements.

  13. Mammal prey of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Parque Luro Reserve, La Pampa, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Abstract The diet of the barn owl was studied through the analysis of pellets obtained in various sites within the Parque Luro reserve, located in an area of xerophyte Caldén forests. The study of 1241 prey items revealed a high dominance of the cricetid rodents Calomys sp., Akodon molinae and Eligmodontia typus, followed by other 8 species of rodents, one species of marsupial and undetermined birds a...

  14. Phylogenetic systematics of Barn Owl (Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769)) complex inferred from mitochondrial rDNA (16S rRNA) taxonomic implication

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769), occurs worldwide and shows a considerable amount of morphological and geographical variations, leading to the recognition of many subspecies throughout the world. Yet, no comprehensive study has not been done on this species. Data from mitochondrial gene (16S Ribosomal RNA (16S)) with 569 bp length were analyzed for 41 individuals around the world. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analysis showed two distinct clades includin...

  15. Mammal prey of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba in Parque Luro Reserve, La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tiranti

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the barn owl was studied through the analysis of pellets obtained in various sites within the Parque Luro reserve, located in an area of xerophyte Caldén forests. The study of 1241 prey items revealed a high dominance of the cricetid rodents Calomys sp., Akodon molinae and Eligmodontia typus, followed by other 8 species of rodents, one species of marsupial and undetermined birds and anuran amphibians. For comparing the diets from a relatively undisturbed forested area (Parque Luro and a deforested site, two subcollections of pellets were analyzed. Differences in FNB values and in the prevalence and composition of prey assemblages were observed between these areas. Riassunto Mammiferi predati dal Barbagianni (Tyto alba nella Riserva Parque Luro, La Pampa, Argentina - La dieta del Barbagianni (Tyto alba è stata studiata attraverso l'analisi delle borre ottenute in varie località all'interno della riserva Parque Luro, situata in un'area con boschi xerofili a Prosopis caldenia. Lo studio di 1241 campioni ha rivelato un'elevata prevalenza di roditori cricetidi Calomys sp., Akodon molinae and Eligmodontia typus, seguiti da altre 8 specie di roditori, una specie di marsupiali e uccelli e anfibi anuri indeterminati. Per il confronto delle diete sono state analizzate due sub-raccolte di borre di rapaci provenienti da un'area boscata relativamente indisturbata e da un sito disboscato. In queste aree sono state osservate differenze nei valori della FNB e nella prevalenza e composizione delle prede.

  16. Phylogenetic systematics of Barn Owl (Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769 complex inferred from mitochondrial rDNA (16S rRNA taxonomic implication

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    Mansour Aliabadian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769, occurs worldwide and shows a considerable amount of morphological and geographical variations, leading to the recognition of many subspecies throughout the world. Yet, no comprehensive study has not been done on this species. Data from mitochondrial gene (16S Ribosomal RNA (16S with 569 bp length were analyzed for 41 individuals around the world. Maximum likelihood (ML, maximum parsimony (MP and Bayesian analysis showed two distinct clades including alba clad (old world and furcata clad (new world. The amount of genetic variation within each of these clades ranged from 0.5-1.7 but variation between clades was 3.7. This data may suggest that Barn owls of the Old World may be a separate species from those of the New World.

  17. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cada...

  18. Morphometric characterisation of wing feathers of the barn owl Tyto alba pratincola and the pigeon Columba livia

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    Klaas Michael

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the barn owl, and a generalist, the pigeon. This report presents a comparison between the feathers of the barn owl and the pigeon and emphasise the specific characteristics of the owl's feathers on macroscopic and microscopic level. An understanding of the features and mechanisms underlying this silent flight might eventually be employed for aerodynamic purposes and lead to a new wing design in modern aircrafts. Results A variety of different feathers (six remiges and six coverts, taken from several specimen in either species, were investigated. Quantitative analysis of digital images and scanning electron microscopy were used for a morphometric characterisation. Although both species have comparable body weights, barn owl feathers were in general larger than pigeon feathers. For both species, the depth and the area of the outer vanes of the remiges were typically smaller than those of the inner vanes. This difference was more pronounced in the barn owl than in the pigeon. Owl feathers also had lesser radiates, longer pennula, and were more translucent than pigeon feathers. The two species achieved smooth edges and regular surfaces of the vanes by different construction principles: while the angles of attachment to the rachis and the length of the barbs was nearly constant for the barn owl, these parameters varied in the pigeon. We also present a quantitative description of several characteristic features of barn owl feathers, e.g., the serrations at the leading edge of the wing, the fringes at the edges of each feather, and the velvet-like dorsal surface. Conclusion The quantitative

  19. The cervical spine of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola: I. Anatomy of the vertebrae and regionalization in their S-shaped arrangement.

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    Markus Krings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Owls possess an extraordinary neck and head mobility. To understand this mobility it is necessary to have an anatomical description of cervical vertebrae with an emphasis on those criteria that are relevant for head positioning. No functional description specific to owls is available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: X-ray films and micro-CT scans were recorded from American barn owls (Tyto furcata pratincola and used to obtain three-dimensional head movements and three-dimensional models of the 14 cervical vertebrae (C1-C14. The diameter of the vertebral canal, the zygapophyseal protrusion, the distance between joint centers, and the pitching angle were quantified. Whereas the first two variables are purely osteological characteristics of single vertebrae, the latter two take into account interactions between vertebrae. These variables change in characteristic ways from cranial to caudal. The vertebral canal is wide in the cranial and caudal neck regions, but narrow in the middle, where both the zygapophyseal protrusion and the distance between joint centers are large. Pitching angles are more negative in the cranial and caudal neck regions than in the middle region. Cluster analysis suggested a complex regionalization. Whereas the borders (C1 and C13/C14 formed stable clusters, the other cervical vertebrae were sorted into 4 or 5 additional clusters. The borders of the clusters were influenced by the variables analyzed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A statistical analysis was used to evaluate the regionalization of the cervical spine in the barn owl. While earlier measurements have shown that there appear to be three regions of flexibility of the neck, our indicators suggest 3-7 regions. These many regions allow a high degree of flexibility, potentially facilitating the large head turns that barn owls are able to make. The cervical vertebral series of other species should also be investigated using statistical criteria to further

  20. Representation of spatial and spectro-temporal cues in the midbrain and forebrain of North American barn owls (Tyto furcata pratincola)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The barn owl is a crepuscular and nocturnal bird of prey that relies mainly on its acoustic system for the identification and localization of potential prey. The barn owl is able to localize even faint sounds in a natural environment precisely. Like mammals, barn owls use the interaural time difference (ITD) for the localization of the azimuthal sound source position. In the barn owl’s auditory system, ITD is processed in two separate pathways, the midbrain and forebrain pathways, which are b...

  1. Improvements of sound localization abilities by the facial ruff of the barn owl (Tyto alba as demonstrated by virtual ruff removal.

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    Laura Hausmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When sound arrives at the eardrum it has already been filtered by the body, head, and outer ear. This process is mathematically described by the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs, which are characteristic for the spatial position of a sound source and for the individual ear. HRTFs in the barn owl (Tyto alba are also shaped by the facial ruff, a specialization that alters interaural time differences (ITD, interaural intensity differences (ILD, and the frequency spectrum of the incoming sound to improve sound localization. Here we created novel stimuli to simulate the removal of the barn owl's ruff in a virtual acoustic environment, thus creating a situation similar to passive listening in other animals, and used these stimuli in behavioral tests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HRTFs were recorded from an owl before and after removal of the ruff feathers. Normal and ruff-removed conditions were created by filtering broadband noise with the HRTFs. Under normal virtual conditions, no differences in azimuthal head-turning behavior between individualized and non-individualized HRTFs were observed. The owls were able to respond differently to stimuli from the back than to stimuli from the front having the same ITD. By contrast, such a discrimination was not possible after the virtual removal of the ruff. Elevational head-turn angles were (slightly smaller with non-individualized than with individualized HRTFs. The removal of the ruff resulted in a large decrease in elevational head-turning amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The facial ruff a improves azimuthal sound localization by increasing the ITD range and b improves elevational sound localization in the frontal field by introducing a shift of iso-ILD lines out of the midsagittal plane, which causes ILDs to increase with increasing stimulus elevation. The changes at the behavioral level could be related to the changes in the binaural physical parameters that occurred after the

  2. On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Camilla T; Holand, Anna M; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Roulin, Alexandre

    2014-05-01

    Genetic evaluation using animal models or pedigree-based models generally assume only autosomal inheritance. Bayesian animal models provide a flexible framework for genetic evaluation, and we show how the model readily can accommodate situations where the trait of interest is influenced by both autosomal and sex-linked inheritance. This allows for simultaneous calculation of autosomal and sex-chromosomal additive genetic effects. Inferences were performed using integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), a nonsampling-based Bayesian inference methodology. We provide a detailed description of how to calculate the inverse of the X- or Z-chromosomal additive genetic relationship matrix, needed for inference. The case study of eumelanic spot diameter in a Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) population shows that this trait is substantially influenced by variation in genes on the Z-chromosome ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). Further, a simulation study for this study system shows that the animal model accounting for both autosomal and sex-chromosome-linked inheritance is identifiable, that is, the two effects can be distinguished, and provides accurate inference on the variance components.

  3. Small mammals in barn owl, Tyto alba, pellets from central-east Sardinia / Dati sui micromammiferi da borre di barbagianni, Tyto alba, di un sito della Sardegna centro-orientale

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    Claudio Di Russo

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During May 1985, Barn Owl pellets were collected in a central-east Sardinia localities (M. Albo-Nuoro, near the natura1 cave called "Sa conca manna de Loccoli". Pellets contained 208 preys (2.48 per pellets of which 73% was represented by 4 species of rodents and 25% by 2 insectivore species. Diversity index of the diet was 1.36 (Shannon, 0.70 (Gini-Simpson. The most common rodent prey was Apodemus sylvaticus (40%, while for insectivores Crocidura russula (16%. Ecologica1 and faunistical comparisons were performed with other 8 tyrrhenic Tyto alba localities, using thermoxerophily index, climatic index (De Martonne, faunistical affinity index (Sørensen and biocoenotic affinity index (Renkonen. Riassunto Dall'analisi delle 208 prede raccolte nei resti alimentari del Barbagianni, si è trovato che Apodemus sylvaticus risulta la specie dominante fra i Roditori (40% e Crocidura russula fra gli Insettivori (16%. Sono effettuati confronti di tipo ecologico e faunistico con altri 8 siti insulari e peninsulari tirrenici di Barbagianni, utilizzando indici di termoxerofilia, climatico di De Martonne, di affinità faunistica (Sørensen e biocenotica (Renkonen.

  4. Barn owl (Tyto alba predation on small mammals and its role in the control of hantavirus natural reservoirs in a periurban area in southeastern Brazil

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    L. Magrini

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to inventory the species of small mammals in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on regurgitated pellets of the barn owl and to compare the frequency of rodent species in the diet and in the environment. Since in the region there is a high incidence of hantavirus infection, we also evaluate the importance of the barn owl in the control of rodents that transmit the hantavirus. Data on richness and relative abundance of rodents in the municipality were provided by the Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, from three half-yearly samplings with live traps. In total, 736 food items were found from the analysis of 214 pellets and fragments. Mammals corresponded to 86.0% of food items and were represented by one species of marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis and seven species of rodents, with Calomys tener (70.9% and Necromys lasiurus (6.7% being the most frequent. The proportion of rodent species in barn owl pellets differed from that observed in trap samplings, with Calomys expulsus, C. tener and Oligoryzomys nigripes being consumed more frequently than expected. Although restricted to a single place and based on few individuals, the present study allowed the inventory of eight species of small mammals in Uberlândia. The comparison of the relative frequencies of rodent species in the diet and in the environment indicated selectivity. The second most preyed upon species was N. lasiurus, the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. In this way, the barn owl might play an important role in the control of this rodent in the region, contributing to the avoidance of a higher number of cases of hantavirus infection.

  5. 巴基斯坦旁遮普中部仓鸮食性的季节性变化%Seasonal variation in the diet of the barn owl Tyto alba stertens in central Punjab, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad MAHMOOD-UL-HASSAN; Mirza Azhar BEG; Habib ALI

    2007-01-01

    在巴基斯坦对仓鸮食性的季节变化进行了研究.通过分析连续3年在6个地区搜集的2 360个仓鸮回吐食物团,发现其食物主要是小型哺乳动物(95.6%).其中,家鼩(Suncus murinus)有最高的比例,达65.6%(冬季最多78%,夏季最少27%).就生物量而言,小型哺乳动物占仓鸮食物总生物量的99%[动物学报 53(3):431-436,2007].%Seasonal and climatic changes influence the diet of the barn owl Tyto alba throughout its range. We conducted the first long-term study in Pakistan to understand seasonal changes in the diet of this raptor. Regurgitated pellets (n=2 360) were collected for three years from six districts of central Punjab. An analysis of these pellets revealed that the barn owl depended mainly on small mammals (95.6%) for its food. The house shrew Suncus murinus was the main food item (65.6%) in its diet. It was the most common prey item in winter (78%) and was consumed the least during summer (27%). This seasonal rise and fall in the frequency of shrews in the diet was related to an inverse pattern of rise and fall in the frequency of rodents, birds and bats. Small mammals contributed 99% of the biomass consumed by the barn owl[Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(3):431-436,2007].

  6. Rodenticides in British barn owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, I; Wyllie, I; Freestone, P

    1990-01-01

    Out of 145 Barn Owls found dead through accidents (66%), starvation (32%), shooting (2%) and poisoning (Owls for successive periods of 1, 3 and 6 days. All six owls fed on difenacoum-dosed mice survived all three treatments, in which up to an estimated 101.7 microg of difenacoum was consumed, and the coagulation times of their blood returned to near normal in less than 5-23 days. Four of the six owls fed on brodifacoum-dosed mice died 6-17 days after the 1-day treatment, but the survivors also survived the 3-day and 6-day treatments. Those that died had each eaten 3 mice, with a combined weight of about 105g and a total brodifacoum content of about 46.07 microg, which was equivalent to a dose of 0.150-0.182 mg kg(-1) of owl body weight. After death these owls had 0.63-1.25 micro g(-1) of brodifacoum in their livers. Blood from the survivors would not coagulate at 9 days post-treatment, but did so at 16 days in one bird and between 38 and 78 days in the other. It is concluded that: (1) Barn Owls in Britain are now widely exposed to second-generation rodenticides; (2) not all owls exposed to these chemicals are likely to receive a lethal dose; (3) brodifacoum is more toxic to owls than difenacoum; and (4) while there is yet no evidence that rodenticides have had any appreciable effect on Barn Owl populations in Britain, further monitoring of residue levels and population trends in desirable.

  7. Small mammal communities of the "Monte Rufeno" Natural Reserve (Latium, Italy: data from Barn Owl Tyto alba pellets / I popolamenti di micromammiferi della Riserva Naturale "Monte Rufeno" (Lazio: dati da borre di barbagianni Tyto alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Aloise

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A high number of preys (7,147 specimens from barn owl pellets were collected in 15 sites of Monte Rufeno Natural Reserve. The 97.42% were small mammals, belonging to at least 6 species of Insectivora, 3 species of Chiroptera and 8 of Rodentia. The use of adequate indexes showed as expected, a high faunistic and biocenotic affinity among all sites of the Natural Reserve. Moreover, the values of trophic leve1 are analogous to the mean values found by others in the province of Rome. The biotic diversity is low and this result can be explained with predation of the barn owls over the most anthropizated areas out of the Natural Reserve. Faunistic and biocenotic indexes were utilized to compare the study area with other localities of Centra1 Italy characterized by typical mediterranean or temperate bioclimate. In one of the sites studied (Podernovo, seasonal changes of predation were analyzed. Riassunto In 15 siti posti all'interno della Riserva Naturale "Monte Rufeno" sono state raccolte numerose borre di Barbagianni Tyto alba in cui sono state rinvenute 7147 prede di cui il 97.42% costituito da micromammiferi. Alcuni indici ecologici (affinità biocenotica e faunistica, diversità biotica, termoxerofilia, antropizzazione, livello trofico sono stati applicati ai dati relativi ai micromammiferi terragnoli. Un confronto faunistico e biocenotico è stato effettuato tra i siti del comprensorio ed alcune località dell'Italia centrale caratteristiche di ambienti a bioclima mediterraneo o temperato. In uno dei siti studiati (Podernovo è stato possibile analizzare l'andamento stagionale della predazione.

  8. La dieta de la lechuza (Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes en hábitats naturales y antropogénicos de la región central de Cuba Diet of Barn Owl (Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes in natural and anthropogenic habitat in central Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Hernández-Muñoz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar los hábitos tróficos de la lechuza, Tyto alba, se analizaron 1232 egagrópilas recolectadas entre 1994 y 2001 en 24 localidades de la región central de Cuba. Se encontraron 3943 presas; los roedores exóticos (Mus musculus y Rattus spp. fueron las presas dominantes y representaron 80% del total. Otros tipos de presas fueron de menor frecuencia; por ejemplo, insectos (6.1%, murciélagos (5%, anfibios (4.8%, aves (3.6% y reptiles (0.2%. Se agruparon las localidades de recolecta de egagrópilas en 2 categorías de hábitat: antropogénicos y naturales, para explorar el efecto de los disturbios antrópicos en la dieta de la lechuza. Contrario a lo esperado, no se encontró variación significativa en el índice de amplitud trófica de Levins (Bantropogénicos= 1.32 ± 0.3 vs Bnaturales = 1.38 ± 0.4. La composición de la dieta en ambos hábitats no difiere, al menos en la proporción de las diferentes clases, aunque existe la tendencia a depredar más aves en hábitats naturales que en sitios perturbados donde los insectos son más frecuentes. Los resultados sugieren que tanto en hábitats antropogénicos como naturales, las lechuzas se comportan como depredadores efectivos de las poblaciones de roedores múridos introducidos.To determine food habits of Barn Owl, Tyto alba, we analyzed 1232 pellets collected from 24 localities in central Cuba from 1994 to 2001. The pellets yielded 3943 prey items, with introduced rodents (Mus musculus and Rattus spp. being the primary prey, accounting for 80% of items in the diet. Other prey classes were of minor frequency; e.g., insects (6.1%, bats (5%, amphibians (4.8%, birds (3.6%, and reptiles (0.2%.We grouped pellet collection localities into 2 habitat categories: "anthropogenic" and "natural," to explore the effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the diet Barn Owl. Contrary to our expectation, we found no significant difference in the Levin's niche-breadth index (B, calculated for the

  9. A specimen of Sorex cfr. samniticus in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un Sorex cfr. samniticus (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di Tyto alba delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

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    Giovanni Ferrara

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of Sorex sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to Sorex samniticus Altobello, 1926. The genus Sorex was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of Sorex in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di Sorex cfr. samniticus da borre di Tyto alba delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  10. Diversity and similarity of trophic system "Barn Owl - terrestrial mammals" in the volcanic districts of Latium (Italy / Diversità ed affinità dei sistemi trofici "Tyto alba - mammiferi terragnoli" nei comprensori vulcanici del Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Aste

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bony remains of about ten thousands small terrestrial mammals preyed by Barn Owl in six volcanic districts of Latium were examined and relevant biocoenotic parameters (such as biotic diversity, thermoxerophily index, Renkonen's and Faith's indexes calculated. Diversity values exhibit no apparent correlation with a number of environmental and biocoenotic parameters of non-anthropic origin - i.e.: district age, height on sea level, latitude, biocoenotic (Renkonen's and faunistic (Faith's affinities. Conversely, a clearly significant, negative correlation with landscape anthropization was shown, revealing the importance of man's impact in shaping functional connections in the terrestrial communities of studied region. Riassunto L'esame del sistema trofico in argomento in 6 distretti vulcanici del Lazio ha posto in evidenza che la diversità biotica è significativamente e inversamente correlata con l'antropizzazione territoriale, ma non con altri fattori ambientali di origine anantropica.

  11. Prey composition modulates exposure risk to anticoagulant rodenticides in a sentinel predator, the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduhn, Anke; Esther, Alexandra; Schenke, Detlef; Gabriel, Doreen; Jacob, Jens

    2016-02-15

    Worldwide, small rodents are main prey items for many mammalian and avian predators. Some rodent species have pest potential and are managed with anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). ARs are consumed by target and non-target small mammals and can lead to secondary exposure of predators. The development of appropriate risk mitigation strategies is important and requires detailed knowledge of AR residue pathways. From July 2011 to October 2013 we collected 2397 regurgitated barn owl (Tyto alba) pellets to analyze diet composition of owls on livestock farms in western Germany. 256 of them were fresh pellets that were collected during brodifacoum baiting. Fresh pellets and 742 liver samples of small mammals that were trapped during baiting in the same area were analyzed for residues of ARs. We calculated exposure risk of barn owls to ARs by comparing seasonal diet composition of owls with AR residue patterns in prey species. Risk was highest in autumn, when barn owls increasingly preyed on Apodemus that regularly showed AR residues, sometimes at high concentrations. The major prey species (Microtus spp.) that was consumed most frequently in summer had less potential to contribute to secondary poisoning of owls. There was no effect of AR application on prey composition. We rarely detected ARs in pellets (2 of 256 samples) but 13% of 38 prey individuals in barn owl nests were AR positive and substantiated the expected pathway. AR residues were present in 55% of 11 barn owl carcasses. Fluctuation in non-target small mammal abundance and differences in AR residue exposure patterns in prey species drives exposure risk for barn owls and probably other predators of small mammals. Exposure risk could be minimized through spatial and temporal adaption of AR applications (avoiding long baiting and non-target hot spots at farms) and through selective bait access for target animals.

  12. Otoacoustic interrelationships of the barn owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A.; Köppl, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Significant debate still exists about the biophysical mechanisms at work in otoacoustic emission (OAE) generation and how such may differ between mammals and non-mammals given gross morphological differences (e.g., existence of basilar membrane traveling waves, degree of tectorial membrane coupling). To further elucidate general principles at work, we examined the barn owl for interrelationships between spontaneous emissions (SOAEs) and those evoked using a single tone (SFOAEs). First, most ears exhibited SOAEs as a stable periodic `rippling' whose peak-to-peak spacing was relatively constant (˜0.4 kHz). Some ears showed substantially larger narrowband peaks, although their statistical distributions were highly noisy. Second, significant interactions between a low-level tone and SOAE activity were observed via an interference pattern as the tone frequency was swept. Using a suppression paradigm to extract SFOAEs as the residual, the magnitude exhibited a stable pattern of peaks and valleys unique to each ear. Third, SFOAE phase exhibited significant accumulation as frequency was swept, with a phase-gradient delay of approximately 2 ms that was constant across frequency. The amount of SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peaks tended to cluster about an integral number of cycles, as previously observed for humans. Taken together, our data suggest that the principles underlying how active hair cells work together (e.g., entrainment, phase coherence) are shared between widely different inner ear morphologies, leading to the generation of OAEs with similar properties.

  13. An Overlooked Cost for the Velvety Plumage of Owls: Entanglement in Adhesive Vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Airam; Siverio, Felipe; Barone, Rubén; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Negro, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    We used data collected during 1995– 2007 at the only Wildlife Rehabilitation Center on Tenerife Island (Canary Islands) to quantify entangle- ment mortality of owls. At least 66 of 1,206 Long- eared (Asio otus) and 5 of 231 Barn (Tyto alba) owls admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation Center were en- tangled in burr bristlegrass (Setaria adhaerens). Twelve (18.2%) of the 66 Long-eared Owls died as a result of entanglement while one of five Barn Owls ...

  14. Sex-linked inheritance, genetic correlations and sexual dimorphism in three melanin-based colour traits in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, A; Jensen, H

    2015-03-01

    Theory states that genes on the sex chromosomes have stronger effects on sexual dimorphism than genes on the autosomes. Although empirical data are not necessarily consistent with this theory, this situation may prevail because the relative role of sex-linked and autosomally inherited genes on sexual dimorphism has rarely been evaluated. We estimated the quantitative genetics of three sexually dimorphic melanin-based traits in the barn owl (Tyto alba), in which females are on average darker reddish pheomelanic and display more and larger black eumelanic feather spots than males. The plumage traits with higher sex-linked inheritance showed lower heritability and genetic correlations, but contrary to prediction, these traits showed less pronounced sexual dimorphism. Strong offspring sexual dimorphism primarily resulted from daughters not expressing malelike melanin-based traits and from sons expressing femalelike traits to similar degrees as their sisters. We conclude that in the barn owl, polymorphism at autosomal genes rather than at sex-linked genes generate variation in sexual dimorphism in melanin-based traits.

  15. Natural selection in a postglacial range expansion: the case of the colour cline in the European barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniazza, Sylvain; Kanitz, Ricardo; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Burri, Reto; Gaigher, Arnaud; Roulin, Alexandre; Goudet, Jérôme

    2014-11-01

    Gradients of variation--or clines--have always intrigued biologists. Classically, they have been interpreted as the outcomes of antagonistic interactions between selection and gene flow. Alternatively, clines may also establish neutrally with isolation by distance (IBD) or secondary contact between previously isolated populations. The relative importance of natural selection and these two neutral processes in the establishment of clinal variation can be tested by comparing genetic differentiation at neutral genetic markers and at the studied trait. A third neutral process, surfing of a newly arisen mutation during the colonization of a new habitat, is more difficult to test. Here, we designed a spatially explicit approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) simulation framework to evaluate whether the strong cline in the genetically based reddish coloration observed in the European barn owl (Tyto alba) arose as a by-product of a range expansion or whether selection has to be invoked to explain this colour cline, for which we have previously ruled out the actions of IBD or secondary contact. Using ABC simulations and genetic data on 390 individuals from 20 locations genotyped at 22 microsatellites loci, we first determined how barn owls colonized Europe after the last glaciation. Using these results in new simulations on the evolution of the colour phenotype, and assuming various genetic architectures for the colour trait, we demonstrate that the observed colour cline cannot be due to the surfing of a neutral mutation. Taking advantage of spatially explicit ABC, which proved to be a powerful method to disentangle the respective roles of selection and drift in range expansions, we conclude that the formation of the colour cline observed in the barn owl must be due to natural selection.

  16. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su Soricidae, Talpidae ed Arvicolidae d'Italia predati da Tyto alba (Scopoli 1769

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning Tyto alba diets in peninsular Italy about: - Sorex minutus, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - Sorex araneus (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - Crocidura suaveolens and - Suncus etruscus, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - Talpa caeca, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - Talpa romana

  17. Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Millsap, B.A.; Pendleton, Beth Giron

    1990-01-01

    Eight species of owls regularly occur and may breed in one or more of the southeastern states. Several additional northern or western species appear irregularly as accidentals or during years of southward incursions. In the Southeast, the most common and wide- spread owls are the common barn-owl, eastern screech-owl, great horned owl and barred owl; the most restricted is the burrowing owl. The long-eared, short-eared, and northern saw-whet owls are primarily winter visitors in this region, although small and very localized nesting populations of short-eared owls may occur in Virginia. Long-eared owls and northern saw-whet owls may occur in West Virginia and northern saw-whet owls may occur in the highlands of Tennessee and North Carolina. Several owls of the Southeast are Blue-listed as threatened, endangered, or of local concern, including the common barn-owl, eastern screech-owl, burrow'ing owl and short-eared owl. The nesting status of the long-eared owl and northern saw-whet owl are still poorly known. These two owls should be included on stat and regional lists of species of special concern. Important limiting factors for all owls of the Southeast include habitat loss and human related mortality. Management issues center on obtaining a data base useful in predicting the effects of current forest management practices on owl populations and encouraging use of forestry techniques that least impact owls. Research needs include initiating studies of all aspects of the life history and habitat relationships of each owl species.

  18. Improvement of directionality and sound-localization by internal ear coupling in barn owls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hermann; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kettler, Lutz

    Mark Konishi was one of the first to quantify sound-localization capabilities in barn owls. He showed that frequencies between 3 and 10 kHz underlie precise sound localization in these birds, and that they derive spatial information from processing interaural time and interaural level differences....... However, despite intensive research during the last 40 years it is still unclear whether and how internal ear coupling contributes to sound localization in the barn owl. Here we investigated ear directionality in anesthetized birds with the help of laser vibrometry. Care was taken that anesthesia...... time difference in the low-frequency range, barn owls hesitate to approach prey or turn their heads when only low-frequency auditory information is present in a stimulus they receive. Thus, the barn-owl's sound localization system seems to be adapted to work best in frequency ranges where interaural...

  19. MODELLING OWL MORTALITY ON ROADS OF ALENTEJO (SOUTHERN PORTUGAL)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Clara; Grilo, Clara; Mira, António

    2008-01-01

    Owls are one of the birds of prey most commonly found dead along roads. Thus, we investigated the importance of 22 environmental variables on the owl casualties and developed predictive models to estimate the likelihood of owl-vehicle collisions in Alentejo, southern Portugal. We recorded 123 corpses of three owl species, the Barn Owl Tyto alba made up 43% (n=53) of the road-kills, followed by the Little Owl Athene noctua (29%, n=36) and the Tawny Owl Strix aluco (28%, n=34), along ...

  20. Barn owl feathers as biomonitors of mercury: sources of variation in sampling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Inês; Lourenço, Rui; Marques, Ana; Coelho, João Pedro; Coelho, Cláudia; Pereira, Eduarda; Rabaça, João E; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    Given their central role in mercury (Hg) excretion and suitability as reservoirs, bird feathers are useful Hg biomonitors. Nevertheless, the interpretation of Hg concentrations is still questioned as a result of a poor knowledge of feather physiology and mechanisms affecting Hg deposition. Given the constraints of feather availability to ecotoxicological studies, we tested the effect of intra-individual differences in Hg concentrations according to feather type (body vs. flight feathers), position in the wing and size (mass and length) in order to understand how these factors could affect Hg estimates. We measured Hg concentration of 154 feathers from 28 un-moulted barn owls (Tyto alba), collected dead on roadsides. Median Hg concentration was 0.45 (0.076-4.5) mg kg(-1) in body feathers, 0.44 (0.040-4.9) mg kg(-1) in primary and 0.60 (0.042-4.7) mg kg(-1) in secondary feathers, and we found a poor effect of feather type on intra-individual Hg levels. We also found a negative effect of wing feather mass on Hg concentration but not of feather length and of its position in the wing. We hypothesize that differences in feather growth rate may be the main driver of between-feather differences in Hg concentrations, which can have implications in the interpretation of Hg concentrations in feathers. Finally, we recommend that, whenever possible, several feathers from the same individual should be analysed. The five innermost primaries have lowest mean deviations to both between-feather and intra-individual mean Hg concentration and thus should be selected under restrictive sampling scenarios.

  1. The barn owl wing: an inspiration for silent flight in the aviation industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Thomas; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Wagner, Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Barn owls are specialists in prey detection using acoustic information. The flight apparatus of this bird of prey is most efficiently adapted to the hunting behavior by reducing flight noise. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms owls make use of could help minimize the noise disturbances in airport or wind power plant neighborhood. Here, we characterize wings of barn owls in terms of an airfoil as a role model for studying silent flight. This characterization includes surface and edge specialization (serrations, fringes) evolved by the owl. Furthermore, we point towards possible adaptations of either noise suppression or air flow control that might be an inspiration for the construction of modern aircraft. Three-dimensional imaging techniques such as surface digitizing, computed tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to investigate the wings and feathers in high spatial resolution. We show that wings of barn owls are huge in relation to their body mass resulting in a very low wing loading which in turn enables a slow flight and an increased maneuverability. Profiles of the wing are highly cambered and anteriorly thickened, especially at the proximal wing, leading to high lift production during flight. However, wind tunnel experiments showed that the air flow tends to separate at such wing configurations, especially at low-speed flight. Barn owls compensated this problem by evolving surface and edge modifications that stabilize the air flow. A quantitative three-dimensionally characterization of some of these structures is presented.

  2. Low frequency eardrum directionality in the barn owl induced by sound transmission through the interaural canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettler, Lutz; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2016-01-01

    The middle ears of birds are typically connected by interaural cavities that form a cranial canal. Eardrums coupled in this manner may function as pressure difference receivers rather than pressure receivers. Hereby, the eardrum vibrations become inherently directional. The barn owl also has...... a large interaural canal, but its role in barn owl hearing and specifically in sound localization has been controversial so far. We discuss here existing data and the role of the interaural canal in this species and add a new dataset obtained by laser Doppler vibrometry in a free-field setting....... Significant sound transmission across the interaural canal occurred at low frequencies. The sound transmission induces considerable eardrum directionality in a narrow band from 1.5 to 3.5 kHz. This is below the frequency range used by the barn owl for locating prey, but may conceivably be used for locating...

  3. Low frequency eardrum directionality in the barn owl induced by sound transmission through the interaural canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Lutz; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-10-01

    The middle ears of birds are typically connected by interaural cavities that form a cranial canal. Eardrums coupled in this manner may function as pressure difference receivers rather than pressure receivers. Hereby, the eardrum vibrations become inherently directional. The barn owl also has a large interaural canal, but its role in barn owl hearing and specifically in sound localization has been controversial so far. We discuss here existing data and the role of the interaural canal in this species and add a new dataset obtained by laser Doppler vibrometry in a free-field setting. Significant sound transmission across the interaural canal occurred at low frequencies. The sound transmission induces considerable eardrum directionality in a narrow band from 1.5 to 3.5 kHz. This is below the frequency range used by the barn owl for locating prey, but may conceivably be used for locating conspecific callers.

  4. New early Pliocene owls from Langebaanweg, South Africa, with first evidence of Athene south of the Sahara and a new species of Tyto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pavia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fossiliferous Upper Varswater Formation at Langebaanweg (South Africa produced remains of at least five species of owls (Strigiformes. Tyto richae sp. nov. is the first palaeospecies of Tytonidae described from an African fossil site, though indeterminate remains referable to the genus Tyto are known from the Middle Miocene of Morocco, the early Pliocene of Ethiopia, and the Pliocene of Tanzania. Athene inexpectata sp. nov. is not only the earliest documented fossil evidence for the genus worldwide, but also the first record of a species of Athene in Africa south of the Sahara. Proportions of its hind limb indicate that At. inexpectata sp. nov. probably has been as terrestrial as its modern relative At. cunicularia. A few additional remains represent the earliest fossil evidence for the genera Asio and Bubo on the African continent, though the poor preservation of these bones prevents more detailed identifications. A distal tibiotarsus of a small owl about the size of At. inexpectata sp. nov. indicates the presence of a fifth, as yet indeterminate, species of owl at Langebaanweg. Biogeographical and palaeoecological implications of this assemblage of owls are discussed.

  5. Female plumage spottiness signals parasite resistance in the barn owl (Tyto alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, A; Riols, C; Dijkstra, C.; Ducrest, A.L

    2001-01-01

    The hypothesis that extravagant ornaments signal parasite resistance has received support in several species for ornamented males but more rarely for ornamented females. However, recent theories have proposed that females should often be under sexual selection, and therefore females may signal the h

  6. Effects of vole fluctuations on the population dynamics of the barn owl Tyto alba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Roos, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Many predator species feed on prey that fluctuates in abundance from year to year. Birds of prey can face large fluctuations in food abundance i.e. small mammals, especially voles. These annual changes in prey abundance strongly affect the reproductive success and mortality of the individual predato

  7. Visual pop-out in barn owls: Human-like behavior in the avian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Julius; Beissel, Christian; Rohn, Friederike; Adato, Yair; Wagner, Hermann; Ben-Shahar, Ohad

    2015-01-01

    Visual pop-out is a phenomenon by which the latency to detect a target in a scene is independent of the number of other elements, the distractors. Pop-out is an effective visual-search guidance that occurs typically when the target is distinct in one feature from the distractors, thus facilitating fast detection of predators or prey. However, apart from studies on primates, pop-out has been examined in few species and demonstrated thus far in rats, archer fish, and pigeons only. To fill this gap, here we study pop-out in barn owls. These birds are a unique model system for such exploration because their lack of eye movements dictates visual behavior dominated by head movements. Head saccades and interspersed fixation periods can therefore be tracked and analyzed with a head-mounted wireless microcamera--the OwlCam. Using this methodology we confronted two owls with scenes containing search arrays of one target among varying numbers (15-63) of similar looking distractors. We tested targets distinct either by orientation (Experiment 1) or luminance contrast (Experiment 2). Search time and the number of saccades until the target was fixated remained largely independent of the number of distractors in both experiments. This suggests that barn owls can exhibit pop-out during visual search, thus expanding the group of species and brain structures that can cope with this fundamental visual behavior. The utility of our automatic analysis method is further discussed for other species and scientific questions.

  8. The impact of uropygial gland secretions on mechanically induced wearing of barn owl and pigeon body feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Benjamin; Müsse, Annika; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Bird feathers are remarkable structures light but yet durable providing insulation and the ability of flight. Owls are highly specialized birds of prey, widely known for their ability to y silently which is enabled by (micro-) structural specializations of the feathers. The barn owl replaces feathers less frequently in comparison to other same sized birds like pigeons, indicating a much better resistance against material fatigue of these delicate microstructures. We used axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) of water drop contact angles as a non-destructive method of characterizing wearing processes in feathers. We hypothesized that feathers become more wettable when worn. We also investigated the impact of ethanol treatment in order to remove fatty residues of the uropygial gland secretions, barn owls and pigeons use for preening, on ageing processes. Ethanol treatment resulted in a slight, but significant increase of water repellency in barn owl but not in pigeon flight feathers. Our preliminary data also suggest that the uropygial gland secretions decelerate the wearing process of the feather keratin. We observed this effect in both species, however, it was more distinct for barn owl uropygial gland secretions. The results of this study, obtained by contact angle measurements used as a non-destructive evaluation method of material fatigue, yield insights into the material fatigue of feathers and the decelerating effect of uropygial gland secretions on wear on the other hand.

  9. Agricultural land use and human presence around breeding sites increase stress-hormone levels and decrease body mass in barn owl nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Bettina; Béziers, Paul; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    Human activities can have a suite of positive and negative effects on animals and thus can affect various life history parameters. Human presence and agricultural practice can be perceived as stressors to which animals react with the secretion of glucocorticoids. The acute short-term secretion of glucocorticoids is considered beneficial and helps an animal to redirect energy and behaviour to cope with a critical situation. However, a long-term increase of glucocorticoids can impair e.g. growth and immune functions. We investigated how nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) are affected by the surrounding landscape and by human activities around their nest sites. We studied these effects on two response levels: (a) the physiological level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, represented by baseline concentrations of corticosterone and the concentration attained by a standardized stressor; (b) fitness parameters: growth of the nestlings and breeding performance. Nestlings growing up in intensively cultivated areas showed increased baseline corticosterone levels late in the season and had an increased corticosterone release after a stressful event, while their body mass was decreased. Nestlings experiencing frequent anthropogenic disturbance had elevated baseline corticosterone levels, an increased corticosterone stress response and a lower body mass. Finally, breeding performance was better in structurally more diverse landscapes. In conclusion, anthropogenic disturbance affects offspring quality rather than quantity, whereas agricultural practices affect both life history traits.

  10. Reverse correlation analysis of auditory-nerve fiber responses to broadband noise in a bird, the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Bertrand; Köppl, Christine; Peña, Jose L

    2015-02-01

    While the barn owl has been extensively used as a model for sound localization and temporal coding, less is known about the mechanisms at its sensory organ, the basilar papilla (homologous to the mammalian cochlea). In this paper, we characterize, for the first time in the avian system, the auditory nerve fiber responses to broadband noise using reverse correlation. We use the derived impulse responses to study the processing of sounds in the cochlea of the barn owl. We characterize the frequency tuning, phase, instantaneous frequency, and relationship to input level of impulse responses. We show that, even features as complex as the phase dependence on input level, can still be consistent with simple linear filtering. Where possible, we compare our results with mammalian data. We identify salient differences between the barn owl and mammals, e.g., a much smaller frequency glide slope and a bimodal impulse response for the barn owl, and discuss what they might indicate about cochlear mechanics. While important for research on the avian auditory system, the results from this paper also allow us to examine hypotheses put forward for the mammalian cochlea.

  11. Avian wing geometry and kinematics of a free-flying barn owl in flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Thomas; Konrath, Robert

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents results of high-resolution three-dimensional wing shape measurements performed on free-flying barn owls in flapping flight. The applied measurement technique is introduced together with a moving camera set-up, allowing for an investigation of the free flapping flight of birds with high spatial and temporal resolution. Based on the three-dimensional surface data, a methodology for parameterizing the wing profile along with wing kinematics during flapping flight has been developed. This allowed a description of the spanwise varying kinematics and aerodynamic parameters (e.g. effective angles of attack, camber, thickness) of the wing in dependence on the flapping phase. The results are discussed in detail using the data of a single flight, whereas a comparison of some kinematic parameters obtained from different flights is given too.

  12. Independence of echo-threshold and echo-delay in the barn owl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Nelson

    Full Text Available Despite their prevalence in nature, echoes are not perceived as events separate from the sounds arriving directly from an active source, until the echo's delay is long. We measured the head-saccades of barn owls and the responses of neurons in their auditory space-maps while presenting a long duration noise-burst and a simulated echo. Under this paradigm, there were two possible stimulus segments that could potentially signal the location of the echo. One was at the onset of the echo; the other, after the offset of the direct (leading sound, when only the echo was present. By lengthening the echo's duration, independently of its delay, spikes and saccades were evoked by the source of the echo even at delays that normally evoked saccades to only the direct source. An echo's location thus appears to be signaled by the neural response evoked after the offset of the direct sound.

  13. A link between eumelanism and calcium physiology in the barn owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Alexandre; Dauwe, Tom; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel; Beaud, Michel

    2006-09-01

    In many animals, melanin-based coloration is strongly heritable and is largely insensitive to the environment and body condition. According to the handicap principle, such a trait may not reveal individual quality because the production of different melanin-based colorations often entails similar costs. However, a recent study showed that the production of eumelanin pigments requires relatively large amounts of calcium, potentially implying that melanin-based coloration is associated with physiological processes requiring calcium. If this is the case, eumelanism may be traded-off against other metabolic processes that require the same elements. We used a correlative approach to examine, for the first time, this proposition in the barn owl, a species in which individuals vary in the amount, size, and blackness of eumelanic spots. For this purpose, we measured calcium concentration in the left humerus of 85 dead owls. Results showed that the humeri of heavily spotted individuals had a higher concentration of calcium. This suggests either that plumage spottiness signals the ability to absorb calcium from the diet for both eumelanin production and storage in bones, or that lightly spotted individuals use more calcium for metabolic processes at the expense of calcium storage in bones. Our study supports the idea that eumelanin-based coloration is associated with a number of physiological processes requiring calcium.

  14. In vivo Recordings from Low-Frequency Nucleus Laminaris in the Barn Owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanca-Castan, Nicolas; Köppl, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Localization of sound sources relies on 2 main binaural cues: interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences. ITD computing is first carried out in tonotopically organized areas of the brainstem nucleus laminaris (NL) in birds and the medial superior olive (MSO) in mammals. The specific way in which ITD are derived was long assumed to conform to a delay line model in which arrays of systematically arranged cells create a representation of auditory space, with different cells responding maximally to specific ITD. This model conforms in many details to the particular case of the high-frequency regions (above 3 kHz) in the barn owl NL. However, data from recent studies in mammals are not consistent with a delay line model. A new model has been suggested in which neurons are not topographically arranged with respect to ITD and coding occurs through assessment of the overall response of 2 large neuron populations – 1 in each brainstem hemisphere. Currently available data comprise mainly low-frequency (owl and compare it to data from other avian and mammalian studies. Our data are consistent with a delay line model, so differences between ITD processing systems are more likely to have originated through divergent evolution of different vertebrate groups.

  15. Divorce in the barn owl: securing a compatible or better mate entails the cost of re-pairing with a less ornamented female mate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, A N; Roulin, A

    2014-06-01

    Two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses can explain why divorce is an adaptive strategy to improve reproductive success. Under the 'better option hypothesis', only one of the two partners initiates divorce to secure a higher-quality partner and increases reproductive success after divorce. Under the 'incompatibility hypothesis', partners are incompatible and hence they may both increase reproductive success after divorce. In a long-term study of the barn owl (Tyto alba), we address the question of whether one or the two partners derive fitness benefits by divorcing. Our results support the hypothesis that divorce is adaptive: after a poor reproductive season, at least one of the two divorcees increase breeding success up to the level of faithful pairs. By breeding more often together, faithful pairs improve coordination and thereby gain in their efficiency to produce successful fledglings. Males would divorce to obtain a compatible mate rather than a mate of higher quality: a heritable melanin-based signal of female quality did not predict divorce (indicating that female absolute quality may not be the cause of divorce), but the new mate of divorced males was less melanic than their previous mate. This suggests that, at least for males, a cost of divorce may be to secure a lower-quality but compatible mate. The better option hypothesis could not be formally rejected, as only one of the two divorcing partners commonly succeeded in obtaining a higher reproductive success after divorce. In conclusion, incompatible partners divorce to restore reproductive success, and by breeding more often together, faithful partners improve coordination.

  16. Nocturnal raptors (owls: contributions to study of its popularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lindelia Rincón Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research characterizes the nocturnal birds of prey on the campus of Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC; in English, Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia, in addition to the contribution to the study of its popularity, with students in fifth grade from two educational institutions, one, of the urban context, and other, of the rural context. The study involved the implementation of the didactic component to promote recognition of their biological significance in elementary school students. Among the findings two species of nocturnal birds of prey were identified: common currucutú owl (Tropical Screech Owl, Megascops choliba and the barn owl (Tyto alba, with a relative abundance of 12 individuals and 10 individuals, respectively. It also includes changes in perception from students regarding beliefs and superstitions about such species, which favors the recognition of the biological role in the ecosystem and the need for its conservation.

  17. Distribution of the characteristics of barbs and barbules on barn owl wing feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, Matthias; Wagner, Hermann

    2017-03-03

    Owls are known for the development of a silent flight. One conspicuous specialization of owl wings that has been implied in noise reduction and that has been demonstrated to change the aerodynamic behavior of the wing is a soft dorsal wing surface. The soft surface is a result of changes in the shape of feather barbs and barbules in owls compared with other bird species. We hypothesized that as the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing change along its chordwise and spanwise direction, so may the shape of the barbs and barbules. Therefore, we examined in detail the shapes of the barbs and barbules in chordwise and spanwise directions. The results showed changes in the shapes of barbs and barbules at the anterior and distal parts of the wing, but not at more posterior parts. The increased density of hook radiates at the distalmost wing position could serve to stiffen that vane part that is subject to the highest forces. The change of pennulum length in the anterior part of the wing and the uniformity further back could mean that a soft surface may be especially important in regions where flow separation may occur.

  18. Differential anuran bone preservation in a taphocenoti sample of Barn owl pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sanchiz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los restos procedentes de la depredación de rapaces nocturnas son el componente tafocenótico más importante de los anfibios recuperados en yacimientos del Cuaternario europeo. En este trabajo se analiza un depósito actual de egagrópilas de Lechuza común (Tyto alba, próximo a su destrucción tafocenótica, procedente de Campos y Salave (Asturias. Se han recuperado 4973 huesos de anuros, pertenecientes a 140 individuos. Para dos de las especies presentes (Discoglossus galganoi y Rana temporaria, se calcula el grado de conservación, capacidad de identificacion y variaciones en la diferencia del Número Mínimo de individuos de cada uno de los elementos principales del esqueleto. No hay diferencias significativas de conservación entre elementos bilaterales, ni de proporción de elementos entre especies, detectándose en cambio grandes variaciones en resistencia estructural de cada hueso, y por ende en su facilidad para ser recuperados. El ílion se confirma como elemento individual que presenta la mayor capacidad de conservarse y ser recuperado, siendo una base firme para la identificacion taxonómica.

  19. Theoretical foundations of the sound analog membrane potential that underlies coincidence detection in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Go; Funabiki, Kazuo; Carr, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of neurons encode temporal information via phase-locked spikes. In the avian auditory brainstem, neurons in the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) send phase-locked synaptic inputs to coincidence detector neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL) that mediate sound localization. Previous modeling studies suggested that converging phase-locked synaptic inputs may give rise to a periodic oscillation in the membrane potential of their target neuron. Recent physiological recordings in vivo revealed that owl NL neurons changed their spike rates almost linearly with the amplitude of this oscillatory potential. The oscillatory potential was termed the sound analog potential, because of its resemblance to the waveform of the stimulus tone. The amplitude of the sound analog potential recorded in NL varied systematically with the interaural time difference (ITD), which is one of the most important cues for sound localization. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying ITD computation in the NM-NL circuit, we provide detailed theoretical descriptions of how phase-locked inputs form oscillating membrane potentials. We derive analytical expressions that relate presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic factors to the signal and noise components of the oscillation in both the synaptic conductance and the membrane potential. Numerical simulations demonstrate the validity of the theoretical formulations for the entire frequency ranges tested (1-8 kHz) and potential effects of higher harmonics on NL neurons with low best frequencies (<2 kHz).

  20. Determining the ecological status and possible anthropogenic impacts on the grass owl (Tyto capensis) population in the East Rand Highveld, Gauteng.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    With the increase in the number of fast-moving vehicles and the simultaneous development of road building technology, roadside bird mortality has become an increasingly important environmental issue that has the potential to do serious damage to already vulnerable bird populations. This project was therefore initiated after an alarming number of owls were found dead along the N17 and R550 roads in the rural areas between Springs and Devon in the East Rand highveld of Gauteng Province. Five hu...

  1. Bidirectional regulation of the cAMP response element binding protein encodes spatial map alignment in prism-adapting barn owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Grant S; DeBello, William M

    2008-10-01

    The barn owl midbrain contains mutually aligned maps of auditory and visual space. Throughout life, map alignment is maintained through the actions of an instructive signal that encodes the magnitude of auditory-visual mismatch. The intracellular signaling pathways activated by this signal are unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) provides a cell-specific readout of instructive information. Owls were fitted with prismatic or control spectacles and provided rich auditory-visual experience: hunting live mice. CREB activation was analyzed within 30 min of hunting using phosphorylation state-specific CREB (pCREB) and CREB antibodies, confocal imaging, and immunofluorescence measurements at individual cell nuclei. In control owls or prism-adapted owls, which experience small instructive signals, the frequency distributions of pCREB/CREB values obtained for cell nuclei within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) were unimodal. In contrast, in owls adapting to prisms or readapting to normal conditions, the distributions were bimodal: certain cells had received a signal that positively regulated CREB and, by extension, transcription of CREB-dependent genes, whereas others received a signal that negatively regulated it. These changes were restricted to the subregion of the inferior colliculus that received optically displaced input, the rostral ICX, and were not evident in the caudal ICX or central nucleus. Finally, the topographic pattern of CREB regulation was patchy, not continuous, as expected from the actions of a topographically precise signal encoding discrete events. These results support a model in which the magnitude of CREB activation within individual cells provides a readout of the instructive signal that guides plasticity and learning.

  2. Sub-lethal effects of the anticoagulant rodenticides bromadiolone and chlorophacinone on breeding performances of the barn owl (Tyto alba in oil palm plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Hasber

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Štúdia skúma vplyv prvej generácie antikoagulacného rodenticídu chlórofacinonu a druhej generácie bromadiolonu na parametre hniezdenej úspešnosti plamienky driemavej na plantážach palmy olejovej. Založili sa tri pokusné plochy: jedna ošetrená chlórofacinonom, dalšia s bromadiolonom a tretia kontrolná bez rodenticídu. Na chemicky ošetrených plochách sa pocas hniezdnej sezóny rodenticíd vykladal štyri krát. Obsadenost hniezdnych búdok, velkost znášky, pocet vyliahnutých mládat a podiel vyletených mládat plamienky sa zistovali v týždenných intervaloch. Z obsadených hniezd sa tiež v týždenných intervaloch zbierali vývržky. Z výsledkov vyplýva, že podiel obsadených búdok bol štatisticky významne vyšší na chemicky neošetrenej ploche než na plochách s vyloženou otrávenou návnadou. Rovnako aj parametre hniezdenia - velkost znášky, pocet vyliahnutých mládat a pocet vyletených mládat - dosahovali vyšších hodnôt na neošetrenej ploche. Z výsledkov z vysokoúcinnej kvapalinovej chromatografie (HPLC vyplýva, že 20,56 % (priemerná koncentrácia rezíduí: 1 ,335 ± 0,073 lg/g a 28,89 % (priemerná koncentrácia rezíduí: 0,777 ± 0,032 lg/g z vývržkov zozbieraných v rodenticídom ošetrených plochách obsahovalo rezíduá bromadiolonu alebo chlórofacinonu. Priemerná velkost znášky a pocet vyletených mládat negatívne korelovali s priemernou koncentráciou rezíduí rodenticídov vo vývržkoch a s relatívnym podielom vývržkov obsahujúcich tieto rezíduá (R2 k 0.44, P 0.05. Zovšeobecnujúc možno konštatovat, že cím vyššie bolo množstvo chemických rezíduí vo vývržkoch, tým nižšie boli parametre hniezdnej úspešnosti

  3. DNA barcoding as a tool for elucidating species delineation in wide-ranging species as illustrated by owls (Tytonidae and Strigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Aliabadian, Mansour

    2013-11-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I (cox1) can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification of animal species, and for the discovery of new species across the tree of life. Distinguishing species using this universal molecular marker, a technique known as DNA barcoding, relies on the identifying the gap between intra- and interspecific divergence. One of the difficulties could be wide-ranging, cosmopolitan species that show large amounts of morphological variation. The barn owl Tyto alba is a case in point. It occurs worldwide and varies morphologically, leading to the recognition of many subspecies or, more recently, species. We analysed data from the cox1 gene for 31 individuals of seven subspecies, and compared this with 214 sequences from 29 other owl species. Phylogenetic analysis of the T. alba samples gives very strong support for an Old World alba-clade (three subspecies) and a New World furcata-clade (four subspecies) that are genetically equidistant. The amount of intraspecific variation within each of these clades ranges from 0.66-0.99%, but variation among these clades ranges from 5.33-6.20%. Combined these data suggest that barn owl of the Old World is indeed best considered a separate species different from that of the New World. For combined dataset, sample size of owl species (n between 1 and 21 sequences) increased with geographic range size but we did not find significant relationships between interspecific divergence and sample size or between interspecific divergence and geographic range. For 21/24 species of owls with sample sizes of n ≥4 the maximum interspecific divergences was ≤ 3.00%. However, similar to those found in barn owls, the largest amount of divergence (3.23-4.09%) was present in two other wide-ranging species (Strix nebulosa and Aegolius funereus) raising the possibility of multiple species in other wide-ranging owls as well.

  4. Revisiting the “visible burrow system”: The impact of the group, social rank, and gender on voles under owl attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodek, Sivan; Eilam, David

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, corticosterone levels and behavior were compared between voles (Microtus socialis) that were attacked by a barn owl (Tyto alba) and voles that did not experience such attack. Both female and male voles were exposed to the owl either together with their group mates or when socially isolated. As hypothesized, corticosterone levels were higher in voles after the owl attack, and were higher in females than in males. However, blood corticosterone was higher in voles that experienced the attack in groups compared with the socially-isolated voles. The latter result seems enigmatic, since group members usually benefit from the “social buffering” conferred by their group-mates. It is suggested that contagious vigilance among group members accounts for the higher mean corticosterone level in grouped compared to socially-isolated voles, overshadowing the possible impact of social buffering. We also found a negative correlation between body mass and corticosterone level, with more high-mass voles showing low corticosterone levels compared with low mass voles. This finding accords with a previous study in which the behavior of high-mass voles was less affected by owl attack compared to low-mass voles. The novelty of the present results therefore lies in supporting, at the hormonal level, past behavioral findings in rats and voles, and in demonstrating that high-mass voles, by virtue of their physical strength and perhaps also their life experience, are less stressed by the owl attack and become the leaders and stabilizers of their groups.

  5. A new species of masked-owl (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae) from Seram, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Poulsen, Michael Køie; Haryoko, Tri; Reeve, Andrew Hart; Fabre, Pierre-Henri

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of masked-owl from the lower montane forest of Seram, one of the largest islands in the Moluccas of eastern Indonesia, for which we propose the name Tyto almae (Seram Masked-Owl), sp. nov. Molecular (mitochondrial cyt-b) differences show that Tyto sororcula of Buru and Tanimbar is closely related to T novaehollandiae of Australia and New Guinea (-1% uncorrected pairwise distance), and that Tyto almae of Seram differs by -3% (uncorrected pairwise distance) from both of them. These differences are further corroborated by morphology and colouration. Although a photograph from Seram published in 1987 had already established the presence of a Tyto owl on the island, ours represents the first specimen of this species. The bird was mist-netted in wet, mossy lower montane forest at an elevation of 1,350 m. No further observations of the owl were made during four weeks of fieldwork in Seram.

  6. Owl Pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Craig D.

    1987-01-01

    Provides complete Project WILD lesson plans for 20-45-minute experiential science learning activity for grades 3-7 students. Describes how students construct a simple food chain through examination of owl pellets. Includes lesson objective, method, background information, materials, procedure, evaluation, and sources of owl pellets and posters.…

  7. Environmental Assessment for Routine and Recurring Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Operations at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Environmental Impact Report for the West Mojave Plan. U.S. Department of the Interior, 8 BLM California Desert District Office, Moreno Valley...Amphispiza belli), barn owl (Tyto alba ), house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Joshua tree woodlands...associated with aquatic habitats. Barn owls (Tyto alba ) are known to inhabit buildings on the flightline. During the evening, owls feed on small rodents

  8. Elf Owl [ds14

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set contains a database of all known positive observations of elf owls in California. This data set is a companion to Elf Owl Surveys which portrays the...

  9. Statistical properties of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in one bird and three lizard species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanDijk, P; Manley, GA; Gallo, L; Pavusa, A; Taschenberger, G

    1996-01-01

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were recorded in the barn owl Tyto alba guttata (five ears), and in three lizard species (Callopistes maculatus, one ear; Varanus exanthematicus, seven ears; Gerrhonotus leiocephalus, one ear). The barn owl ears emitted one or two emission frequencies; the lizard ea

  10. Owls On Silent Wings. The Wonder Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ann C.

    This curriculum guide is all about owls and provides information on the folklore related to owls, present populations, explanations of physical characteristics, exploring owl pellets, burrowing owls, snowy owls, and great horned owls. Included are eight activities using owl cards, owl pellets, puzzles, and origami. This guide aims to increase…

  11. Mor-barn samspillet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røhder, Katrine; Davidsen, Kirstine Agnete; Trier, Christopher Høier;

    2015-01-01

    Denne artikel beskæftiger sig med, hvordan risiko og modstandsdygtighed overføres fra forældre til barn, når mor lider af en alvorlig psykisk lidelse. Vi vil argumentere for, at det er helt centralt at undersøge forældre-barn relationen og det tidlige samspil, hvis man vil forstå spædbarnets...

  12. Owl: electronic datasheet generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Tao, Jenhan; Wheatley, F Carter; Desai, Devina H; Lozanoski, Thomas M; Shah, Pooja D; Awtry, Jake A; Jin, Shawn S; Haddock, Traci L; Densmore, Douglas M

    2014-12-19

    Owl ( www.owlcad.org ) is a biodesign automation tool that generates electronic datasheets for synthetic biological parts using common formatting. Data can be retrieved automatically from existing repositories and modified in the Owl user interface (UI). Owl uses the data to generate an HTML page with standard typesetting that can be saved as a PDF file. Here we present the Owl software tool in its alpha version, its current UI, its description of input data for generating a datasheet, its example datasheets, and the vision of the tool's role in biodesign automation.

  13. Klar til barn : Kundskabsoversigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Bo; Guldager, Else; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Sofie

    forældrene er i fare for at reagere voldeligt over for deres børn. Et af de aspekter, der adskiller Klar til barn fra andre lignende projekter i Danmark, er, at forældrekursernes udformning og indhold er baseret på en grundig research af internationale erfaringer med forældreuddannelsestilbud. Konceptet blev...

  14. Det postmoderne barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Den nye psykologi fokuserer på dynamik og intersubjektivitet, mens den gamle var optaget af faser og udviklingstrin. Den postmoderne forståelse af det lille barn opfatter ikke faserne som aflåste, historiske sandheder, men som levende narrativer. Og så får det nye børnesyn indflydelse på Frode og...

  15. Barred Owl [ds8

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data define the current range of Barred and hybrid Barred/Spotted Owls in California. The current range includes the coastal mountains of northern California...

  16. Learning from an Owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeves, Adrian

    1988-01-01

    Describes one creative writing teacher's use of an owl as a focal point for writing activities and how the writing activities aided the students' personal and creative development. Provides samples of student writing. (ARH)

  17. Mixed-Media Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The fun of creating collages is there are unlimited possibilities for the different kinds of materials one can use. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students created an owl using mixed media.

  18. Barn med Asperger syndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlström, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    Det här examensarbetet handlar om barn med Asperger syndrom. Syftet med arbetet var att ta reda på vad Asperger syndrom är och hur man som lärare kan hjälpa dessa elever på bästa sätt. Jag är intresserad av elever som har det svårt och antar att jag någon gång under min tid som lärare kommer att stöta på dessa elever. Arbetet inleds med en teorigenomgång där jag främst går igenom de utmärkande dragen hos barn med Asperger syndrom. Där går jag också bl a igenom orsaker till Asperger och diagn...

  19. Final Oahe Dam/Lake Oahe Master Plan Missouri River, South Dakota and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    of shoreline, more shoreline than the State of California . At its maximum operating pool elevation of 1620 feet m.s.l., the storage capacity of...by buffalograss (Bouteloua dactyloides), grama (Bouteloua spp.), wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.), needlegrass (Stipa spp.), and wildflowers such as...American woodcock (Scolopax minor), California gull (Larus californicus), black tern (Chlidonias niger), barn owl (Tyto alba), burrowing owl, long

  20. Sexing young snowy owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.; Detienne, J.; Talbot, S.; Gray, K.

    2011-01-01

    We predicted sex of 140 Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) nestlings out of 34 nests at our Barrow, Alaska, study area to develop a technique for sexing these owls in the field. We primarily sexed young, flightless owls (3844 d old) by quantifying plumage markings on the remiges and tail, predicting sex, and collecting blood samples to test our field predictions using molecular sexing techniques. We categorized and quantified three different plumage markings: two types of bars (defined as markings that touch the rachis) and spots (defined as markings that do not touch the rachis). We predicted sex in the field assuming that males had more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on the remiges and rectrices. Molecular data indicated that we correctly sexed 100% of the nestlings. We modeled the data using random forests and classification trees. Both models indicated that the number and type of markings on the secondary feathers were the most important in classifying nestling sex. The statistical models verified our initial qualitative prediction that males have more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on flight feathers P6P10 for both wings and tail feathers T1 and T2. This study provides researchers with an easily replicable and highly accurate method for sexing young Snowy Owls in the field, which should aid further studies of sex-ratios and sex-related variation in behavior and growth of this circumpolar owl species. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  1. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger,; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  2. OWL Web Ontology Language XML Presentation Syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Masahiro; Euzenat, Jérôme; Patel-Schneider, Peter

    2003-01-01

    hori2003a; This document describes an XML presentation syntax and XML Schemas for OWL 1.0 sublanguages: OWL Lite, OWL DL, and OWL Full. This document has been written to meet the requirement that OWL 1.0 should have an XML serialization syntax (R15 in [OWL Requirement]). It is not intended to be a normative specification. Instead, it represents a suggestion of one possible XML presentation syntax for OWL.

  3. Owl Pellet Paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Lisa K.

    2013-01-01

    In this activity for the beginning of a high school Biology 1 evolution unit, students are challenged to reconstruct organisms found in an owl pellet as a model for fossil reconstruction. They work in groups to develop hypotheses about what animal they have found, what environment it inhabited, and what niche it filled. At the end of the activity,…

  4. Owl Research that's Good for the Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristol, Daniel A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes and illustrates how to build nest boxes to provide city homes for screech owls to reestablish a healthy ecological balance. Outlines how to conduct a pellet analysis of an owl's diet and how to study screech owl territoriality. (NEC)

  5. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  6. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: XML serialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motik, B.; Patel-Schneider, P.; Bechhofer, S.; Cuenca Grau, B.; Fokoue, A.; Hoekstra, R.; Parsia, B.

    2008-01-01

    The OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, informally OWL 2, is an ontology language for the Semantic Web with formally defined meaning. OWL 2 ontologies provide classes, properties, individuals, and data values and are stored as Semantic Web documents. OWL 2 ontologies can be used along with information writ

  7. Verbalizing OWL in Attempto controlled English

    OpenAIRE

    Kaljurand, K; Fuchs, N E

    2007-01-01

    We describe a verbalization of the logical content of OWL ontologies — using OWL 1.1 without data-valued properties — in Attempto Controlled English (ACE). Because ACE is a subset of English, the verbalization makes OWL ontologies accessible to people with no training in formal methods. We conclude that OWL can be verbalized in concise and understandable English provided that a certain naming style is adopted for OWL individuals, classes, and properties.

  8. Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, H.D.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Anderson, N.L.; Keane, J.J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S.M.; Tell, L.A.; Sehgal, R.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis courina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n=17) and unique lineages (n=12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. ?? 2008 Ishak et al.

  9. Burrowing owl survey : 1994 report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report of burrowing owl nesting activity in the Central Region of Colorado in 1994, produced by the Colorado Division of Wildlife. There is little long term data on...

  10. On a new Owl from Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büttikofer, J.

    1889-01-01

    Amongst the last birds received from Mr. Stampfli, there was a very peculiar new Owl, which I propose to name Bubo lettii, after its discoverer Mr. Lett, our former landlord and huntsman at Schieffelinsville. This Owl shows no affinity to any of the Owls at present known from the old world, but migh

  11. Fast Mapping Algorithm from WSDL to OWL-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf B. El-Sisi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently semantic web services represent the most technology developed for machine to machine interaction. The problem of discovering and selecting the most suitable web service represents a challenge for semantic web services. In this paper performance evaluation of mapping algorithm from web services annotations (WSDL to semantic annotations (OWL-S based on ontology search engine is presented. During mapping process primitive type remains without change. The complex type are converted to OWL ontology by extracted them and passing to ontology search and standardization process without need of conversion into temporary ontology. The keywords extracted in the linguistic search phase and are extended using word net. The mapping algorithm and its modification are implemented in Java and evaluated by 310 files WSDL. The output results of two algorithms are identical. But the proposed modified algorithm is faster than mapping algorithm.

  12. Dynamic web service composition based on OWL-S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing DONG; Yongtao SUN; Sheng YANG; Kang ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Composing existing web services for enterprise applications may enable higher level of reuse. However the composition processes are mostly static and lack of support for runtime redesign. In this paper, we describe our approach to the extension of the OWL-S ontology framework for dynamic web service composition. We raise the level of abstraction and propose an abstract service layer so that web services can be composed at the abstract service level instead of the concrete level. Each abstract service is attached with an instance pool including all instances of the abstract service to facilitate fail-over and dynamic compositions.

  13. Til forsvar for barns spontane lek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Sundsdal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Barndommens far, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778, og senere, barnehagens grunnlegger, Friedrich Frøbel (1782-1852, var begge opptatt av barndom og barns mulighet til å tape tid. Dette ble betegnet som negativ pedagogikk og innebar blant annet at barn skulle fordrive tiden med det som passet for barn: lek. Barna skulle få holde på for seg selv, voksne skulle ikke bedrive undervisning, men la barn oppdage verden selv. Disse tankene har vært sentrale for vår moderne forestilling om barndom, og de har vært premissgivende for Barnekonvensjonen som slår fast at alle barn har rett til å leke. Også i dag har leken en sentral posisjon når vi snakker om barndom, men nå knyttes den til en forestilling om å vinne tid. Barn blir nå skjøvet fremover slik at de ikke skal kaste bort tiden - tape tiden - men utnytte den mest mulig effektivt med tanke på et fremtidig resultat. Denne logikken har bidratt til at FN i 2013 gikk ut og advarte om at barns rett til lek er truet. I denne artikkelen vil vi forfølge FNs forsvar for barns spontane lek. Vi vil gjøre dette blant annet ved å vise at lekens egenverdi står stadig sterkere innen en rekke forskningstradisjoner.

  14. Transient dynamics of invasive competition: barred owls, spotted owls, habitat, and the demons of competition present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Katie M; Anthony, Robert G; Andrews, Lawrence S

    2011-10-01

    The recent range expansion of Barred Owls (Strix varia) into the Pacific Northwest, where the species now co-occurs with the endemic Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina), resulted in a unique opportunity to investigate potential competition between two congeneric, previously allopatric species. The primary criticism of early competition research was the use of current species' distribution patterns to infer past processes; however, the recent expansion of the Barred Owl and the ability to model the processes that result in site occupancy (i.e., colonization and extinction) allowed us to address the competitive process directly rather than inferring past processes through current patterns. The purpose of our study was to determine whether Barred Owls had any negative effects on occupancy dynamics of nesting territories by Northern Spotted Owls and how these effects were influenced by habitat characteristics of Spotted Owl territories. We used single-species, multi-season occupancy models and covariates quantifying Barred Owl detections and habitat characteristics to model extinction and colonization rates of Spotted Owl pairs in southern Oregon, USA. We observed a strong, negative association between Barred Owl detections and colonization rates and a strong positive effect of Barred Owl detections on extinction rates of Spotted Owls. We observed increased extinction rates in response to decreased amounts of old forest at the territory core and higher colonization rates when old-forest habitat was less fragmented. Annual site occupancy for pairs reflected the strong effects of Barred Owls on occupancy dynamics with much lower occupancy rates predicted for territories where Barred Owls were detected. The strong Barred Owl and habitat effects on occupancy dynamics of Spotted Owls provided evidence of interference competition between the species. These effects increase the importance of conserving large amounts of contiguous, old-forest habitat to maintain

  15. Competitive interactions and resource partitioning between northern spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    The federally threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is the focus of intensive conservation efforts that have led to much forested land being reserved as habitat for the owl and associated wildlife species throughout the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Recently, however, a relatively new threat to spotted owls has emerged in the form of an invasive competitor: the congeneric barred owl (S. varia). As barred owls have rapidly expanded their populations into the entire range of the northern spotted owl, mounting evidence indicates that they are displacing, hybridizing with, and even killing spotted owls. The range expansion by barred owls into western North America has made an already complex conservation issue even more contentious, and a lack of information on the ecological relationships between the 2 species has hampered recovery efforts for northern spotted owls. We investigated spatial relationships, habitat use, diets, survival, and reproduction of sympatric spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon, USA, during 2007–2009. Our overall objective was to determine the potential for and possible consequences of competition for space, habitat, and food between these previously allopatric owl species. Our study included 29 spotted owls and 28 barred owls that were radio-marked in 36 neighboring territories and monitored over a 24-month period. Based on repeated surveys of both species, the number of territories occupied by pairs of barred owls in the 745-km2 study area (82) greatly outnumbered those occupied by pairs of spotted owls (15). Estimates of mean size of home ranges and core-use areas of spotted owls (1,843 ha and 305 ha, respectively) were 2–4 times larger than those of barred owls (581 ha and 188 ha, respectively). Individual spotted and barred owls in adjacent territories often had overlapping home ranges, but interspecific space sharing was largely restricted to broader foraging areas in the home range

  16. Particle-image velocimetry investigation of the fluid-structure interaction mechanisms of a natural owl wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzen, A; Roidl, B; Schröder, W

    2015-09-15

    The increasing interest in the development of small flying air vehicles has given rise to a strong need to thoroughly understand low-speed aerodynamics. The barn owl is a well-known example of a biological system that possesses a high level of adaptation to its habitat and as such can inspire future small-scale air vehicle design. The combination of the owl-specific wing geometry and plumage adaptations with the flexibility of the wing structure yields a highly complex flow field, still enabling the owl to perform stable and at the same time silent low-speed gliding flight. To investigate the effects leading to such a characteristic flight, time-resolved stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry (TR-SPIV) measurements are performed on a prepared natural owl wing in a range of angles of attack 0° ≤ α ≤ 6° and Reynolds numbers 40,000 ≤ Re(c) ≤ 120,000 based on the chord length at a position located at 30% of the halfspan from the owl's body. The flow field does not show any flow separation on the suction side, whereas flow separation is found on the pressure side for all investigated cases. The flow field on the pressure side is characterized by large-scale vortices which interact with the flexible wing structure. The good agreement of the shedding frequency of the pressure side vortices with the frequency of the trailing-edge deflection indicates that the structural deformation is induced by the flow field on the pressure side. Additionally, the reduction of the time-averaged mean wing curvature at high Reynolds numbers indicates a passive lift-control mechanism that provides constant lift in the entire flight envelope of the owl.

  17. OWL: Yet to arrive on the Web of Data?

    CERN Document Server

    Glimm, Birte; Krötzsch, Markus; Polleres, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Seven years on from OWL becoming a W3C recommendation, and two years on from the more recent OWL 2 W3C recommendation, OWL has still experienced only patchy uptake on the Web. Although certain OWL features (like owl:sameAs) are very popular, other features of OWL are largely neglected by publishers in the Linked Data world. This may suggest that despite the promise of easy implementations and the proposal of tractable profiles suggested in OWL's second version, there is still no "right" standard fragment for the Linked Data community. In this paper, we (1) analyse uptake of OWL on the Web of Data, (2) gain insights into the OWL fragment that is actually used/usable on the Web, where we arrive at the conclusion that this fragment is likely to be a simplified profile based on OWL RL, (3) propose and discuss such a new fragment, which we call OWL LD (for Linked Data).

  18. Long-term data set of small mammals from owl pellets in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Nora; Galicia, David; Ariño, Arturo H; Escala, Carmen

    2016-09-27

    We describe the pellet sampling data set from the Vertebrate Collection of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Navarra. This data set compiles all information about small mammals obtained from the analysis of owl pellets. The collection consists on skulls, mandibles, and some skeletons of 36 species of more than 72,000 georeferenced specimens. These specimens come from the Iberian Peninsula although most samples were collected in Navarra, a highly diverse transitional area of 10,000 kilometre square sitting across three biogeographical regions. The collection spans more than forty years and is still growing as a result of the establishment of a barn owl pellet monitoring network in 2015. The program will provide critical information about the evolution of the small mammals' community in this transition zone as it changes over time.

  19. Experiences with Aber-OWL, an Ontology Repository with OWL EL Reasoning

    KAUST Repository

    Slater, Luke

    2016-04-19

    Ontologies are widely used in biology and biomedicine for the annotation and integration of data, and hundreds of ontologies have been developed for this purpose. These ontologies also constitute large volumes of formalized domain knowledge, usually expressed in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Computational access to the knowledge contained within them relies on the use of automated reasoning. We have developed Aber-OWL, an ontology repository that provides OWL EL reasoning to answer queries and verify the consistency of ontologies. Aber-OWL also provides a set of web services which provide ontology-based access to scientific literature in Pubmed and Pubmed Central, SPARQL query expansion to retrieve linked data, and integration with Bio2RDF. Here, we report on our experiences with Aber-OWL and outline a roadmap for future development. Aber-OWL is freely available at http://aber-owl.net.

  20. Killing One Owl Species to Save Another

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Jun. 2011, American wildlife officials released a controversial new plan to protect the spotted owls eliminating their cousins. In the past 20 years, much has been done to bring the spotted owls back, but they are still on the decline.

  1. Behandlas barn olika? : Smärtskattning på barn efter skoliosoperation

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Linda; Zetterlund, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Inledning: Postoperativ smärta hos barn är fortfarande ett problem trots förbättrade arbetsrutiner och smärtbehandling. Smärtskattning på barn och speciellt barn med kognitiva nedsättningar kräver att sjuksköterskorna har kunskap om tillgängliga smärtskattningsinstrument. På så vis ges alla barn möjlighet att smärtskattas. Syfte: Att undersöka hur ofta sjuksköterskor smärtskattar barn som opereras för skolios postoperativt. Design: En retrospektiv studie. Metod: Journalgranskningen genomförde...

  2. Owl Mountain Partnership : An external assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — External review of the Owl Mountain Partnership (OMP) to identify benefits and successes associatedwith collaborative work through the perceptions of participating...

  3. The vestibular system of the owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, K. E.; Correia, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    Five owls were given vestibular examinations, and two of them were sacrificed to provide serial histological sections of the temporal bones. The owls exhibited a curious variability in the postrotatory head nystagmus following abrupt deceleration; sometimes a brisk nystagnus with direction opposite to that appropriate to the stimulus would occur promptly after deceleration. It was found also that owls can exhibit a remarkable head stability during angular movement of the body about any axis passing through the skull. The vestibular apparatus in the owl is larger than in man, and a prominent crista neglecta is present. The tectorial membrane, the cupula, and the otolithic membranes of the utricle, saccule, and lagena are all attached to surfaces in addition to the surfaces hearing hair cells. These attachments are very substantial in the utricular otolithic membrane and in the cupula.

  4. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  5. Owls and larks in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina ePfeffer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans come in different chronotypes and, particularly, the late chronotype (the so-called owl has been shown to be associated with a number of health risks. Recent studies indicate that laboratory mice also display various chronotypes. In mice as well as in humans, the chronotype shows correlations with the period length and rhythm stability. In addition, some mouse models for human diseases show alterations in their chronotypic behavior which are comparable to those humans. Thus, analysis of the behavior of mice is a powerful tool to unravel the molecular and genetic background of the chronotype and the prevalence of risks and diseases that are associated with it. In this review, we summarize the correlation of chronotype with free-running period length and rhythm stability in the most commonly used inbred mouse strains, in mice with a compromised molecular clockwork and in a mouse model for neurodegeneration.

  6. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  7. 78 FR 57171 - Experimental Removal of Barred Owls To Benefit Threatened Northern Spotted Owls; Record of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... result, conservation efforts for the northern spotted owl have been largely focused on habitat protection... conservation benefit of threatened northern spotted owls (notice of intent) in the Federal Register (74 FR... to fill the opportunities. Our initial overtures to zoos and zoological parks resulted in interest...

  8. 78 FR 44588 - Experimental Removal of Barred Owls To Benefit Threatened Northern Spotted Owls; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... scientific collecting permits under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-712; MBTA) for lethal and... barred owl removal on spotted owl site occupancy, reproduction, and survival (USFWS 2011, p. III-65). The... reproduction (Olson et al. 2004, p. 1048; Anthony et al. 2006, p. 32; Forsman et al. 2011, pp. 41-43,...

  9. Improving strategies to assess competitive effects of barred owls on northern spotted owls in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Weekes, Anne

    2011-01-01

    A scientific study has determined that survey methods designed for spotted owls do not always detect barred owls that are actually present in spotted owl habitat. The researchers suggest that strategies to address potential interactions between spotted owls and barred owls will require carefully designed surveys that account for response behaviors and imperfect detection of both species. Species-specific sampling methods, which are proposed, can be used by forest managers to determine the occurrence and distribution of barred owls with high confidence. This fact sheet provides highlights of the research (Wiens and others, 2011).

  10. Owl Pellet Analysis--A Useful Tool in Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a technique by which the density and hunting habits of owls can be inferred from their pellets. Owl pellets--usually small, cylindrical packages of undigested bone, hair, etc.--are regurgitated by a roosting bird. A series of activities based on owl pellets are provided. (CP)

  11. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers in the Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus, Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus and Snowy Owl B. scandiacus for use in population genetics, individual identification and parentage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Cody R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using DNA from blood and feathers, we screened twenty-four microsatellite primer pairs initially developed for six strigid owls, and four primer pairs shown to be polymorphic across avian taxa, for their utility in Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus), Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus), and Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus). Eight of these primers reliably amplified polymorphic fragments in Great Horned Owl, eleven in Short-eared owl, and ten in Snowy Owl. Analyses of results from presumably unrelated owls demonstrate the utility of these loci for individual identification, parentage assignment, and population genetics studies.

  12. Moonlight makes owls more chatty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Penteriani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lunar cycles seem to affect many of the rhythms, temporal patterns and behaviors of living things on Earth. Ambient light is known to affect visual communication in animals, with the conspicuousness of visual signals being largely determined by the light available for reflection by the sender. Although most previous studies in this context have focused on diurnal light, moonlight should not be neglected from the perspective of visual communication among nocturnal species. We recently discovered that eagle owls Bubo bubo communicate with conspecifics using a patch of white throat plumage that is repeatedly exposed during each call and is only visible during vocal displays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we provide evidence that this species uses moonlight to increase the conspicuousness of this visual signal during call displays. We found that call displays are directly influenced by the amount of moonlight, with silent nights being more frequent during periods with no-moonlight than moonlight. Furthermore, high numbers of calling bouts were more frequent at moonlight. Finally, call posts were located on higher positions on moonlit nights. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the idea that moon phase affects the visual signaling behavior of this species, and provide a starting point for examination of this method of communication by nocturnal species.

  13. Gota úrica visceral em coruja suindara (Tyto alba de vida livre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiara dos Santos Sales

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A gota úrica é uma doença metabólica caracterizada pela deposição de cristais de urato e ácido úrico em tecidos do corpo, que pode acometer répteis, mamíferos e aves. Neste trabalho, relata-se um caso de achados post mortem compatíveis com gota úrica visceral em um exemplar de coruja suindara (Tyto alba de vida livre. Macroscopicamente, o pericárdio apresentava-se completamente esbranquiçado, espesso e aderido ao miocárdio e o fígado e ambos os rins apresentavam áreas esbranquiçados sugerindo acúmulo de urato. A microscopia do tecido cardíaco e hepático revelou pericardite fibrinosa e perihepatite necrosante respectivamente. Congestão pulmonar e infiltrado inflamatório heterofílico multifocal no parênquima renal também foram visualizados. As alterações encontradas são compatíveis com as descritas na literatura para gota úrica visceral em aves, podendo até serem consideradas como lesões patognomônicas. Este é o primeiro relato de gota úrica visceral em um rapinante de vida livre no Brasil.

  14. F-OWL: An Inference Engine for Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Youyong; Finin, Tim; Chen, Harry

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and using the data and knowledge encoded in semantic web documents requires an inference engine. F-OWL is an inference engine for the semantic web language OWL language based on F-logic, an approach to defining frame-based systems in logic. F-OWL is implemented using XSB and Flora-2 and takes full advantage of their features. We describe how F-OWL computes ontology entailment and compare it with other description logic based approaches. We also describe TAGA, a trading agent environment that we have used as a test bed for F-OWL and to explore how multiagent systems can use semantic web concepts and technology.

  15. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  16. Analysis of the OWL ontologies: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; García, Juan; Therón-Sánchez, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Web Ontology Language (OWL) es una de las últimas recomendaciones de la World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) para desarrollar ontologías. El uso de ontologías OWL debe implicar la posibilidad de la evaluación de la calidad y exactitud. Se han propuesto una gran diversidad de herramientas y métricas para alcanzar este objetivo. OntoQA ONTOMETRIC, representa las herramientas más importantes para evaluar ontologías que suelen apoyarse en mediciones. Este trabajo analiza todas estas herramientas ...

  17. Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

  18. A survey of Italian compost dairy barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Leso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost-bedded pack barns (CBPB, generally known as compost dairy barns, are alternative housing systems for dairy cows. In these barns, the whole surface of the resting area is covered with a deepbedded pack that is frequently stirred in order to incorporate fresh manure into the pack and to enhance the evaporation of water. Experiences with CBPB for dairy cows are reported in literature from the US, Israel, the Netherlands and Austria. Potential advantages of these housing systems regard animal welfare and manure management. Since 2006, this housing system has been widely applied in Italy. However, there is still little scientific knowledge available about Italian CBPB. This study aims to describe the housing system, assess producers’ satisfaction and measure performance of dairy cows housed in CBPB. Ten commercial dairy farms in northern Italy were involved in the study. All pens in each farm were surveyed to determine the total available surface area, bedded area and pack depth. A questionnaire was submitted to each farm manager in order to investigate management practices, labour requirement, amount of bedding materials used and producers’ satisfaction. The temperature of the bedded pack was measured in summer and in winter. Data from the Italian Dairy Association were collected for each herd over a period of one year (from September 2011 to September 2012. In the barns involved in the study, the average total available area was 10.9 m2/cow and the average pack area was 6.7 m2/cow. The bedded pack was aerated 1.4 times per day.The most commonly used bedding material in these farms was dry sawdust. The consumption of bedding materials was 8.1 m3/cow per year. A tendency towards inverse correlation was found between the space per cow and the amount of bedding needed per cow (R2=0.395; P=0.051. Operations related to pack management required 4.1 hours of labour per cow per year. A direct relationship was found between the bedded area space

  19. Barn og unge i det nye medielandskapet

    OpenAIRE

    Basmadjian, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven tar for seg hvordan den digitale utviklingen fører til utfordringer i samfunnet. Gjennom å drøfte begrepet mediedanning tar den for seg hvordan denne utviklingen fører til at dagens barn og unge som blir født inn og vokser opp i et samfunn som er grunnleggende annerledes enn for bare noen år siden. Ettersom tilgangen på digitale nyvinninger og sosiale medier er «allestedsnærværende» stiller dette også krav til deres evne til å forstå og bruke denne teknologien på en bærek...

  20. Representing social reality in OWL 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a design pattern that allows for the OWL 2 DL representation of concepts central to social reality: roles. The work presented here is motivated by experiences in the development of the LKIF Core ontology of basic legal concepts [10,8]. This paper applies modelling steps identie

  1. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  2. Pulmonary effects of exposure to pig barn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Baljit

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Swine production has undergone rapid transformation from family owned operation to a large scale industrial enterprise. Since increasing number of pigs are reared on a large scale in confined buildings, some of the swine barn workers may be employed to work eight hours per day. Swine barn workers suffer from higher incidences of impaired air flow and lung inflammation, which is attributed to high intensity and interrupted exposures to pig barn air. The air in these barns contains gases, dust, microbes and endotoxin with endotoxin being the major suspect as the cause of lung dysfunction. This review attempts to describe the current state of knowledge of incidences and mechanisms of pulmonary dysfunction following exposure to the barn air.

  3. Comparison of the Diet of Two Desert-living Owls, the Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus and Little Owl ( Athene noctua from Southern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M. Scott

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The diet of two sympatric owl species, the long-eared owl ( Asio otus and the little owl ( Athene noctua was investigated in an arid area of southern Mongolia using pellet analysis. In total 334 pellets of long-eared owl and 52 pellets of little owl were analysed, revealing the presence of five small mammal species (Dipodidae, three Muridae and one Soricidae, small birds and invertebrate fragments. Accumulative composition plots indicated a batch size of 35 - 60 pellets was sufficient to reveal representative diet composition. Small mammals comprised the largest component of the diet of long- eared owls with four species recorded, Phodopus was the most frequently occurring (85 %, followed by Meriones (33 %. Bird and invertebrate remains were also found in long-eared owl pellets but comprised less than 2 %. In contrast, invertebrates were the highest occurring component of the diet of little owls (35 %, with small mammals occurring in only 40 % of pellets. Meriones was the most frequently recorded small mammal in little owl pellets (23 % and contributed the greatest in terms of overall rodent biomass. There was a highly statistically significant difference in the diet of the two species (÷ 2 = 2043, d.f. = 4, P < 0.001. Levin’s measure of niche breadth was greater for little owls (0.71 than long-eared owls (0.51, but overall the two species had low niche overlap using Levin’s index (0.22. These results are discussed in relation to previous findings of these two species.

  4. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Samantha R.; Noon, Barry R.; Wiens, David; Ripple, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the barred owl (Strix varia) has expanded its range into the Pacific Northwest of the United States resulting in pronounced effects on the demography and behavior of the northern spotted owl (S. occidentalis caurina). The range expansion has brought together historically allopatric species, creating the potential for significant changes in the avian predator community with possible cascading effects on food-web dynamics. The adverse effects of the barred owl on the behavior and demography of the northern spotted owl are well-documented, but little is known about the immediate and long-term effects changes in the predator community may have on native species composition and ecosystem processes. Based on northern spotted owl and barred owl selection for diet and habitat resources, there is a potential for trophic cascades within the region's predator and prey communities, differing responses by their shared and unique prey species, and possible direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes. We explored the possible ecological consequences of the barred owl range expansion to wildlife communities of the Pacific Northwest based on the theoretical underpinnings of predator–prey relationships, interspecific competition, intraguild predation, and potential cascading trophic interactions. Negative effects on fitness of northern spotted owls because of interspecific competition with barred owls are strong selection forces that may contribute to the regional extinction of the northern spotted owl. In addition, we posit that shared prey species and those uniquely consumed by barred owls, along with other competing native predators, may experience changes in behavior, abundance, and distribution as a result of increased rates of predation by rapidly expanding populations of barred owls.

  5. 22 Matt Barnes 再出发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Husky

    2008-01-01

    太阳队·前锋·201厘米·28岁上季成绩·6.7分·42.3%投篮·4.4篮板如果你是我们的忠实读者,就会发现巴恩斯(Matt Barnes)在过去13个月内已经第三度登上这个单元了。究竟,这位生涯单季平均得分从没超过10分的球员,有何值得我们一再报导的地方呢?

  6. Does petroleum development affect burrowing owl nocturnal space-use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: cscobie@ualberta.ca, email: tiw@ualberta.ca, email: bayne@ualberta.ca

    2011-07-01

    Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.

  7. Detecting Burrowing Owl Bloodmeals in Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christine B; Eisen, Rebecca J; Belthoff, James R

    2016-03-01

    Pulex irritans L. is a cosmopolitan flea species that infests a wide variety of hosts. In North America it generally parasitizes large wild mammals, but in the Pacific Northwest an association has emerged between P. irritans and the western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea). While investigators have recognized this association for decades, it has not been clear if P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls, or if the owls serve exclusively as phoretic hosts. Here we describe using a real-time assay that was originally developed to identify bloodmeals in Ugandan cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis Bouché) to detect burrowing owl DNA in P. irritans collected from burrowing owls in southern Idaho. Of 50 fleas tested, 12 had no detectable vertebrate bloodmeal. The remaining 38 (76%) contained burrowing owl DNA. The assay did not detect vertebrate DNA in unfed fleas exposed to owl or mouse pelts and is therefore unlikely to detect DNA in fleas from vertebrates that have served exclusively as phoretic hosts. We conclude that P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls. We discuss the potential implications of this finding for burrowing owl conservation and enzootic plague dynamics.

  8. Translating the Foundational Model of Anatomy into OWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Natalya F; Rubin, Daniel L

    2008-01-01

    The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) represents the result of manual and disciplined modeling of the structural organization of the human body. It is a tremendous resource in bioinformatics that facilitates sharing of information among applications that use anatomy knowledge. The FMA was developed in Protégé and the Protégé frames language is the canonical representation language for the FMA. We present a translation of the original Protégé frame representation of the FMA into OWL. Our effort is complementary to the earlier efforts to represent FMA in OWL and is focused on two main goals: (1) representing only the information that is explicitly present in the frames representation of the FMA or that can be directly inferred from the semantics of Protégé frames; (2) representing all the information that is present in the frames representation of the FMA, thus producing an OWL representation for the complete FMA. Our complete representation of the FMA in OWL consists of two components: an OWL DL component that contains the FMA constructs that are compatible with OWL DL; and an OWL Full component that imports the OWL DL component and adds the FMA constructs that OWL DL does not allow.

  9. 基于OWL-S扩展UDDI的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦方俊; 陈维斌

    2007-01-01

    在对OWL-S与WSDL研究的基础上,利用OWL-S对Web服务建模,并结合WSDL(Web Service Definition Language)详细描述服务接口。基于OWL-S扩展标准UDDI(Universal Description,Discovery and Integration),利用OWL-S的语义描述能力弥补UDDI在Web服务功能描述方面的不足,使得扩展后的UDDI具备基于功能内容语义的服务匹配能力。

  10. Owl, werewolf, firefly: Animal trace narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Wandelli Loth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The route by a network of narrators from different eras finds a trace of animality in the look and in the flâneur writing, since Restif de La Bretonne proposed, in the eighteenth century, the similarity between the reporter/narrator and a night bird. This track permits that one proposes the category of the owl-narrator, which puts into practice an inhuman method of looking at the shadow areas of the cities. Here considered as narratives of the dark, this cartography runs several textualities intertwined by the desire to see what is beneath the everyday life – from Bretonne and Mercier, through Poe, Baudelaire, João do Rio and arriving to Clarice Lispector. Sometimes, the owl narrative disappears to resurge in every city where there is a stubborn wanderer who overcomes the invisibility spot on the human eye. The crowds go ahead inattentively, overshadowed by the proliferation of signs and advertisements, they march to the future without looking back. The owl does not; it retains the time to envision the disappearance of singularities and to foresee what the today story points out as more clandestine. As claims Benjamin (1994, p. 231, “thinking not only includes the movement of ideas, but also their immobilization”. The walk by the early writer-reporters allows us to consider that the owl-flâneur inaugurates not only himself, but also this kind of narrative based on a poetic of looking to the rubble. The physical roaming characterizes it, but does not determine the narrative, as it does not determine the trip, the inner displacement. Mostly, the impulse to see the unknown awakens other obscured powers, reintegrating them to the perception of the urban movements and driving the narrative to walk, to hear, to smell, to feel. In the nightly flight by means of a pivoting look, literature announces the survivals that do not cease to disappear in front of the contemporary life.

  11. Marknadsföring till barn : Etik och ansvar

    OpenAIRE

    Haire, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Detta examensarbete handlar om marknadsföring till barn, samt etiken och ansvaret kring ämnet. Ansvaret ligger mestadels hos marknadsförarna och föräldrarna. Marknadsföring till barn bedöms strängare av juridiska bestämmelser än vanlig marknadsföring, eftersom att barn är mera mottagliga och inte har samma erfarenhet som vuxna. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att få fram allmänt om marknadsföring till barn, etiska frågeställningar, samhällsansvaret samt ansvaret hos marknadsförare, föräldra...

  12. Species boundaries in non-tropical Northern Hemisphere Owls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    A survey is presented of the status of species boundaries in nontropical Northern Hemisphere owls in order to investigate the reality of the biological and geographical species concept applied to these owls in current handbooks. At the same time the practicability of evolutionary systematics as oppo

  13. An Overview of OWL, a Language for Knowledge Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolovits, Peter; And Others

    This is a description of the motivation and overall organization of the OWL language for knowledge representation. OWL consists of a linguistic memory system (LMS), a memory of concepts in terms of which all English phrases and all knowledge of an application domain are represented; a theory of English grammar which tells how to map English…

  14. Judging Amy: Automated legal assessment using OWL 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, S.; Hoekstra, R.; Breuker, J.; Wortel, L.; El-Ali, A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most salient tasks in law is legal assessment, and concerns the problem of determining whether some case is allowed or disallowed given an appropriate body of legal norms. In this paper we describe a system and Protégé 4 plugin, called OWL Judge, that uses standard OWL 2 DL reasoning for

  15. The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Catherine; Forsman, Eric D.; Franklin, Alan B.; Davis, Raymond J.; White, Gary C.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Doherty, Paul F.; Bailey, Larissa; Clark, Darren A.; Ackers, Steven H.; Andrews, Lawrence S.; Augustine, Benjamin; Biswell, Brian L.; Blakesley, Jennifer; Carlson, Peter C.; Clement, Matthew J.; Diller, Lowell V.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Green, Adam; Gremel, Scott A.; Herter, Dale R.; Higley, J. Mark; Hobson, Jeremy; Horn, Rob B.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; McCafferty, Christopher; McDonald, Trent; McDonnell, Kevin; Olson, Gail S.; Reid, Janice A.; Rockweit, Jeremy; Ruiz, Viviana; Saenz, Jessica; Sovern, Stan G.

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of species' vital rates and an understanding of the factors affecting those parameters over time and space can provide crucial information for management and conservation. We used mark–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected during 1985–2013 to evaluate population processes of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in 11 study areas in Washington, Oregon, and northern California, USA. We estimated apparent survival, fecundity, recruitment, rate of population change, and local extinction and colonization rates, and investigated relationships between these parameters and the amount of suitable habitat, local and regional variation in meteorological conditions, and competition with Barred Owls (Strix varia). Data were analyzed for each area separately and in a meta-analysis of all areas combined, following a strict protocol for data collection, preparation, and analysis. We used mixed effects linear models for analyses of fecundity, Cormack-Jolly-Seber open population models for analyses of apparent annual survival (ϕ), and a reparameterization of the Jolly-Seber capture–recapture model (i.e. reverse Jolly-Seber; RJS) to estimate annual rates of population change (λRJS) and recruitment. We also modeled territory occupancy dynamics of Northern Spotted Owls and Barred Owls in each study area using 2-species occupancy models. Estimated mean annual rates of population change (λ) suggested that Spotted Owl populations declined from 1.2% to 8.4% per year depending on the study area. The weighted mean estimate of λ for all study areas was 0.962 (± 0.019 SE; 95% CI: 0.925–0.999), indicating an estimated range-wide decline of 3.8% per year from 1985 to 2013. Variation in recruitment rates across the range of the Spotted Owl was best explained by an interaction between total winter precipitation and mean minimum winter temperature. Thus, recruitment rates were highest when both total precipitation (29 cm) and

  16. Geographic variation and genetic structure in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.; Forsman, E.D.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    We examined genetic variation, population structure, and definition of conservation units in Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis). Spotted Owls are mostly non-migratory, long-lived, socially monogamous birds that have decreased population viability due to their occupation of highly-fragmented late successional forests in western North America. To investigate potential effects of habitat fragmentation on population structure, we used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to examine genetic variation hierarchically among local breeding areas, subregional groups, regional groups, and subspecies via sampling of 21 breeding areas (276 individuals) among the three subspecies of Spotted Owls. Data from 11 variable bands suggest a significant relationship between geographic distance among local breeding groups and genetic distance (Mantel r = 0.53, P genetic drift. Merging nuclear data with recent mitochondrial data provides support for designation of an Evolutionary Significant Unit for Mexican Spotted Owls and two overlapping Management Units for Northern and California Spotted Owls.

  17. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: structural specification and functional-style syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motik, B.; Patel-Schneider, P.F.; Parsia, B.; Bock, C.; Fokoue, A.; Haase, P.; Hoekstra, R.; Horrocks, I.; Ruttenberg, A.; Sattler, U.; Smith, M.

    2008-01-01

    The OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, informally OWL 2, is an ontology language for the Semantic Web with formally defined meaning. OWL 2 ontologies provide classes, properties, individuals, and data values and are stored as Semantic Web documents. OWL 2 ontologies can be used along with information writ

  18. Genetic and environmental components of variation in eumelanin and phaeomelanin sex-traits in the barn owl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, A; Dijkstra, C

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanism underlying the expression of melanin-based sex-traits may help us to understand their signalling function. Potential sources of inter-individual variation are the total amount of melanins produced but also how biochemical precursors are allocated into the eumelanin and pha

  19. Realizing Semantic Web Services Description with OWL-S Ontology%应用OWL-S实现Web服务的语义描述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 张晓林

    2005-01-01

    OWL-S顶级本体结构入手,详细介绍了应用OWL-S实现服务概貌、服务过程模型以及服务绑定等语义描述的方法,并通过一个网上售书的电子商务实例具体说明.

  20. Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high temperature extremes: The OptiBarn project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One important aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to extreme events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor temperatures for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High temperature extremes are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future temperature extremes. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high temperature extremes. In a first step we identify various multivariate high temperature extremes for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high temperature events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high temperature extremes.

  1. XQOWL: An Extension of XQuery for OWL Querying and Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aims of the so-called Web of Data is to be able to handle heterogeneous resources where data can be expressed in either XML or RDF. The design of programming languages able to handle both XML and RDF data is a key target in this context. In this paper we present a framework called XQOWL that makes possible to handle XML and RDF/OWL data with XQuery. XQOWL can be considered as an extension of the XQuery language that connects XQuery with SPARQL and OWL reasoners. XQOWL embeds SPARQL queries (via Jena SPARQL engine in XQuery and enables to make calls to OWL reasoners (HermiT, Pellet and FaCT++ from XQuery. It permits to combine queries against XML and RDF/OWL resources as well as to reason with RDF/OWL data. Therefore input data can be either XML or RDF/OWL and output data can be formatted in XML (also using RDF/OWL XML serialization.

  2. Mapping relational database into OWL Structure with data semantic preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Gherabi, Noreddine; Bahaj, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a solution for migrating an RDB into Web semantic. The solution takes an existing RDB as input, and extracts its metadata representation (MTRDB). Based on the MTRDB, a Canonical Data Model (CDM) is generated. Finally, the structure of the classification scheme in the CDM model is converted into OWL ontology and the recordsets of database are stored in owl document. A prototype has been implemented, which migrates a RDB into OWL structure, for demonstrate the practical applicability of our approach by showing how the results of reasoning of this technique can help improve the Web systems.

  3. REDESIGN OF COMMONLY USED TOBACCO CURING BARNS IN ZIMBABWE FOR INCREASED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPECIAL MUSONI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Zimbabwe two types of barns are commonly used for tobacco curing, namely the traditional and Rocket barns. The traditional barn and the Rocket Barn loose 98.5% and 55.6% of the energy supplied respectively. The latter is 43.6% more thermally efficient than the traditional barn. There is, however, potential of increasing the energy efficiency of both barns. In this study, a design that incorporates structural changes to reduce heat loss as well as recovery of heat was developed. The design is a combination of commercially available components, and allows for ventilation heat re-use and increased heat transfer from furnace ducts to the drying chamber. The structure was found to be 54.7% more thermally efficient than the Rocket barn and 74.2% more efficient than the traditional barn. The new design needs to be field-tested so that it can be adopted by tobacco farmers.

  4. MBsums. A Mathematica package for the representation of Mellin-Barnes integrals by multiple sums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochman, Michal; Riemann, Tord

    2015-11-15

    Feynman integrals may be represented by the Mathematica package AMBRE and MB as multiple Mellin-Barnes integrals. With the Mathematica package MBsums we transform these Mellin-Barnes integrals into multiple sums.

  5. Barns psykosociala hälsa i skolmiljö

    OpenAIRE

    Nysand, Maria; Hannus, Martina; Jaakkola, Riina

    2010-01-01

    Vårt examensarbete ingår i ett delprojekt i KLUCK2 och syftar till att undersöka skolan som fysisk och psykosocial miljö. Ämnesområdet för examensarbetet är barns psyko-sociala hälsa i relation till mobbning, stress och trivsel i skolmiljö. Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka vad som uppmärksammas i ny forskning kring barns psykosociala hälsa och vilka faktorer som framkallar psykosocial ohälsa eller hälsa hos barn i skolan. Detta examensarbete genomförs som en litteraturstudie. Under...

  6. OWL 2 learn profile: an ontology sublanguage for the learning domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiyanthuduwage, Sudath R; Schwitter, Rolf; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2016-01-01

    Many experimental ontologies have been developed for the learning domain for use at different institutions. These ontologies include different OWL/OWL 2 (Web Ontology Language) constructors. However, it is not clear which OWL 2 constructors are the most appropriate ones for designing ontologies for the learning domain. It is possible that the constructors used in these learning domain ontologies match one of the three standard OWL 2 profiles (sublanguages). To investigate whether this is the case, we have analysed a corpus of 14 ontologies designed for the learning domain. We have also compared the constructors used in these ontologies with those of the OWL 2 RL profile, one of the OWL 2 standard profiles. The results of our analysis suggest that the OWL 2 constructors used in these ontologies do not exactly match the standard OWL 2 RL profile, but form a subset of that profile which we call OWL 2 Learn.

  7. Modeling co-occurrence of northern spotted and barred owls: accounting for detection probability differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Larissa L.; Reid, Janice A.; Forsman, Eric D.; Nichols, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Barred owls (Strix varia) have recently expanded their range and now encompass the entire range of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). This expansion has led to two important issues of concern for management of northern spotted owls: (1) possible competitive interactions between the two species that could contribute to population declines of northern spotted owls, and (2) possible changes in vocalization behavior and detection probabilities of northern spotted owls induced by presence of barred owls. We used a two-species occupancy model to investigate whether there was evidence of competitive exclusion between the two species at study locations in Oregon, USA. We simultaneously estimated detection probabilities for both species and determined if the presence of one species influenced the detection of the other species. Model selection results and associated parameter estimates provided no evidence that barred owls excluded spotted owls from territories. We found strong evidence that detection probabilities differed for the two species, with higher probabilities for northern spotted owls that are the object of current surveys. Non-detection of barred owls is very common in surveys for northern spotted owls, and detection of both owl species was negatively influenced by the presence of the congeneric species. Our results suggest that analyses directed at hypotheses of barred owl effects on demographic or occupancy vital rates of northern spotted owls need to deal adequately with imperfect and variable detection probabilities for both species.

  8. Design methodology for the robotic milking barn : modelling, simulation, validation and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halachmi, I.

    1999-01-01

    The traditional barn design is a milking parlour oriented. To integrate a milking robot the barn should be redesigned according to the robotic milking concept. The entire system (barn design, feeding and cow-traffic routines, management practices) should encourage 'voluntary milking', i.e., it shoul

  9. Towards OWL-based Knowledge Representation in Petrology

    CERN Document Server

    Shkotin, Alex; Kudryavtsev, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our work on development of OWL-driven systems for formal representation and reasoning about terminological knowledge and facts in petrology. The long-term aim of our project is to provide solid foundations for a large-scale integration of various kinds of knowledge, including basic terms, rock classification algorithms, findings and reports. We describe three steps we have taken towards that goal here. First, we develop a semi-automated procedure for transforming a database of igneous rock samples to texts in a controlled natural language (CNL), and then a collection of OWL ontologies. Second, we create an OWL ontology of important petrology terms currently described in natural language thesauri. We describe a prototype of a tool for collecting definitions from domain experts. Third, we present an approach to formalization of current industrial standards for classification of rock samples, which requires linear equations in OWL 2. In conclusion, we discuss a range of opportunities arising ...

  10. Semantically-Rigorous Systems Engineering Modeling Using Sysml and OWL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. Steven; Rouquette, Nicolas F.

    2012-01-01

    The Systems Modeling Language (SysML) has found wide acceptance as a standard graphical notation for the domain of systems engineering. SysML subsets and extends the Unified Modeling Language (UML) to define conventions for expressing structural, behavioral, and analytical elements, and relationships among them. SysML-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, and have been used for diverse projects in military aerospace, scientific exploration, and civil engineering. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) has found wide acceptance as a standard notation for knowledge representation. OWL-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, as well as auxiliary assets such as reasoners and application programming interface libraries, etc. OWL has been applied to diverse projects in a wide array of fields. While the emphasis in SysML is on notation, SysML inherits (from UML) a semantic foundation that provides for limited reasoning and analysis. UML's partial formalization (FUML), however, does not cover the full semantics of SysML, which is a substantial impediment to developing high confidence in the soundness of any conclusions drawn therefrom. OWL, by contrast, was developed from the beginning on formal logical principles, and consequently provides strong support for verification of consistency and satisfiability, extraction of entailments, conjunctive query answering, etc. This emphasis on formal logic is counterbalanced by the absence of any graphical notation conventions in the OWL standards. Consequently, OWL has had only limited adoption in systems engineering. The complementary strengths and weaknesses of SysML and OWL motivate an interest in combining them in such a way that we can benefit from the attractive graphical notation of SysML and the formal reasoning of OWL. This paper describes an approach to achieving that combination.

  11. Insect-foraging in captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovich, Christy K; Rivera, Jeanette; Evans, Sian

    2010-08-01

    Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to determine if there were any age or sex differences in their ability to capture insect prey. Because owl monkeys cooperate in parental care and in food-sharing, we expected social interactions involving insect prey. We found that owl monkeys most often snatched flying insects from the air and immobilized crawling insects against a substrate using their hands. Immatures and adult female owl monkeys attempted to capture prey significantly more often than did adult males; however, there was no difference in the proportion of attempts that resulted in capture. Social interactions involving prey appeared similar to those with provisioned food, but possessors of prey resisted begging attempts more so than did possessors of other food. Owl monkeys attempted to capture prey often (mean = 9.5 +/- 5.8 attempts/h), and we speculate that the protein and lipid content of captured prey is important for meeting the metabolic demands for growth and reproduction.

  12. California spotted owls: Chapter 5 in Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Suzanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) are habitat specialists that are strongly associated with late-successional forests. For nesting and roosting, they require large trees and snags embedded in a stand with a complex forest structure (Blakesley et al. 2005, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, Verner et al. 1992b). In mixedconifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California spotted owls typically nest and roost in stands with high canopy closure (≥75 percent) [Note: when citing studies, we use terminology consistent with Jennings et al. (1999), however, not all studies properly distinguish between canopy cover and closure and often use the terms interchangeably (see chapter 14 for clarification)] and an abundance of large trees (>24 in (60 cm) diameter at breast height [d.b.h.]) (Bias and Gutiérrez 1992, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, LaHaye et al. 1997, Moen and Gutiérrez 1997, Verner et al. 1992a). The California spotted owl guidelines (Verner et al. 1992b) effectively summarized much of the information about nesting and roosting habitat. Since that report, research on the California spotted owl has continued with much of the new information concentrated in five areas: population trends, barred owl (Strix varia) invasion, climate effects, foraging habitat, and owl response to fire.

  13. Combined particle-image velocimetry and force analysis of the three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction of a natural owl wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzen, A; Roidl, B; Schröder, W

    2016-04-01

    Low-speed aerodynamics has gained increasing interest due to its relevance for the design process of small flying air vehicles. These small aircraft operate at similar aerodynamic conditions as, e.g. birds which therefore can serve as role models of how to overcome the well-known problems of low Reynolds number flight. The flight of the barn owl is characterized by a very low flight velocity in conjunction with a low noise emission and a high level of maneuverability at stable flight conditions. To investigate the complex three-dimensional flow field and the corresponding local structural deformation in combination with their influence on the resulting aerodynamic forces, time-resolved stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry and force and moment measurements are performed on a prepared natural barn owl wing. Several spanwise positions are measured via PIV in a range of angles of attack [Formula: see text] 6° and Reynolds numbers 40 000 [Formula: see text] 120 000 based on the chord length. Additionally, the resulting forces and moments are recorded for -10° ≤ α ≤ 15° at the same Reynolds numbers. Depending on the spanwise position, the angle of attack, and the Reynolds number, the flow field on the wing's pressure side is characterized by either a region of flow separation, causing large-scale vortical structures which lead to a time-dependent deflection of the flexible wing structure or wing regions showing no instantaneous deflection but a reduction of the time-averaged mean wing curvature. Based on the force measurements the three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction is assumed to considerably impact the aerodynamic forces acting on the wing leading to a strong mechanical loading of the interface between the wing and body. These time-depending loads which result from the flexibility of the wing should be taken into consideration for the design of future small flying air vehicles using flexible wing structures.

  14. Bedded pack barns for dairy cattle in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, P.J.; Boer, de H.C.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Ouweltjes, W.; Poelarends, J.J.; Driehuis, F.

    2014-01-01

    The bedded pack barn offers good perspective on animal welfare, animal health and public perception, but has disadvantages in terms of mineral management (nitrogen losses and fertilising value) and the presence of TAS (Thermophilic Aerobic Spore formers). Bedded packs with compost have a too high am

  15. Spatial and Nonspatial Escape Strategies in the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Fiona E.; Reiserer, Randall S.; Tomarken, Andrew J.; McDonald, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    The Barnes maze is a spatial memory task that requires subjects to learn the position of a hole that can be used to escape the brightly lit, open surface of the maze. Two experiments assessed the relative importance of spatial (extra-maze) versus proximal visible cues in solving the maze. In Experiment 1, four groups of mice were trained either…

  16. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  17. Evaluating multiloop Feynman integrals by Mellin-Barnes representation

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, V A

    2004-01-01

    The status of analytical evaluation of double and triple box diagrams is characterized. The method of Mellin-Barnes representation as a tool to evaluate master integrals in these problems is advocated. New MB representations for massive on-shell double boxes with general powers of propagators are presented.

  18. Barnes maze testing strategies with small and large rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Ferguson, Sherry A

    2014-02-26

    Spatial learning and memory of laboratory rodents is often assessed via navigational ability in mazes, most popular of which are the water and dry-land (Barnes) mazes. Improved performance over sessions or trials is thought to reflect learning and memory of the escape cage/platform location. Considered less stressful than water mazes, the Barnes maze is a relatively simple design of a circular platform top with several holes equally spaced around the perimeter edge. All but one of the holes are false-bottomed or blind-ending, while one leads to an escape cage. Mildly aversive stimuli (e.g. bright overhead lights) provide motivation to locate the escape cage. Latency to locate the escape cage can be measured during the session; however, additional endpoints typically require video recording. From those video recordings, use of automated tracking software can generate a variety of endpoints that are similar to those produced in water mazes (e.g. distance traveled, velocity/speed, time spent in the correct quadrant, time spent moving/resting, and confirmation of latency). Type of search strategy (i.e. random, serial, or direct) can be categorized as well. Barnes maze construction and testing methodologies can differ for small rodents, such as mice, and large rodents, such as rats. For example, while extra-maze cues are effective for rats, smaller wild rodents may require intra-maze cues with a visual barrier around the maze. Appropriate stimuli must be identified which motivate the rodent to locate the escape cage. Both Barnes and water mazes can be time consuming as 4-7 test trials are typically required to detect improved learning and memory performance (e.g. shorter latencies or path lengths to locate the escape platform or cage) and/or differences between experimental groups. Even so, the Barnes maze is a widely employed behavioral assessment measuring spatial navigational abilities and their potential disruption by genetic, neurobehavioral manipulations, or drug

  19. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  20. John Dewey's Socially Instrumental Practice at the Barnes Foundation and the Role of "Transferred Values" in Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Margaret Hess

    2012-01-01

    When Albert Barnes established an art education program at the Barnes Foundation in 1924, he asked John Dewey to become the first president and director of education. Barnes and Dewey enjoyed a sustained and fruitful relationship with regard to aesthetic experience and scientific theory as applied to education. Barnes and Dewey shared a serious…

  1. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Nocturnal Owl Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nocturnal owl surveys are part of a larger effort on the Julia Butler Hansen Refuge (JBH) to track long-term changes in wildlife occurrence. Six owl species are on...

  2. 75 FR 63800 - Information Collection; Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol AGENCY: Forest Service... currently approved information collection, Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol. DATES: Comments must be...: Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol. OMB Number: 0596-0087. Expiration Date of Approval: 04/30/2011....

  3. 77 FR 50526 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for the Northern Spotted Owl, Skamania, Klickitat, and Yakima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for the Northern Spotted Owl, Skamania... take of the threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) at a level that enables the... would also authorize incidental take of the spotted owl as a result of management activities during...

  4. 77 FR 12985 - Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl: Minimizing Regulatory Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of February 28, 2012 Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl: Minimizing... Department of the Interior (Department) proposed critical habitat for the northern spotted owl. The proposal... should be designated as critical habitat for the spotted owl, based on a full evaluation of all...

  5. 76 FR 37141 - Notice of Availability for Comment: Draft Recovery Plan, First Revision; Mexican Spotted Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...; Mexican Spotted Owl AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request... recovery plan, first revision, for the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) under the Endangered... will also accept any new information on the status of the Mexican spotted owl throughout its range...

  6. Habitat selection by owls in a seasonal semi-deciduous forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Menq

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper tested the hypothesis that the structural components of vegetation have impact over the distribution of owl species in a fragment of a semi-deciduous seasonal forest. This paper also determined which vegetation variables contributed to the spatial distribution of owl species. It was developed in the Perobas Biological Reserve (PBR between September and December 2011. To conduct the owl census, a playback technique was applied at hearing points distributed to cover different vegetation types in the study area. A total of 56 individual owls of six species were recorded: Tropical Screech-Owl (Megascops choliba, Black-capped Screech-Owl (Megascops atricapilla, Tawny-browed Owl (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum, Mottled Owl (Strix virgata and Stygian Owl (Asio stygius. The results suggest that the variables of vegetation structure have impact on the occurrence of owls. The canopy height, the presence of hollow trees, fallen trees and glades are the most important structural components influencing owl distribution in the sampled area.

  7. Mellin-Barnes Representation of the Topological String

    CERN Document Server

    Krefl, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We invoke integrals of Mellin-Barnes type to analytically continue the Gopakumar-Vafa resummation of the topological string free energy in the string coupling constant, leading to additional non-perturbative terms. We also discuss in a similar manner the refined and Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit version thereof. The derivation is straight-forward and essentially boils down to taking residue. This allows us to confirm some related conjectures in the literature at tree-level.

  8. Det raske og det syge nyfødte barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peitersen, Birgit; Pedersen, Pernille; Pryds, Ole

    NEONATOLOGI er en lære- og håndbog om det raske og det syge nyfødte barn. Den henvender sig især til sundhedspersonale, der arbejder med nyfødte børn – herunder sygeplejersker, jordemødre og medicinske kandidater. I de første kapitler gennemgås almene emner som fosterets udvikling, muligheder...

  9. Tutorial on Modeling VAT Rules Using OWL-DL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Larsen, Ken Friis

    This paper reports on work in progress. We present a methodology for constructing an OWL-DL model of a subset of Danish VAT rules. It is our intention that domain experts without training in formal modeling or computer science should be able to create and maintain the model using our methodology....... In an ERP setting such a model could reduce the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and increase the quality of the system. We have selected OWL-DL because we believe that description logic is suited for modeling VAT rules due to the decidability of important inference problems that are key to the way we plan...... to use the model and because OWL-DL is relatively intuitive to use....

  10. Annual Report of Monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Barnes, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 150) located in Washington County, in north-central Kansas (Figure 1.1). Barnes is located in Section 9, Township 4 South, Range 5 East, at approximate latitude 39°43'0'' north and longitude 96°52'25'' west (USGS 1968). The city lies in a transition zone between the Flint Hills and the glaciated region. The area’s topography consists of gently sloping hills of Pleistocene loess (< 20 ft) overlying a shale unit and interbedded shale, limestone, and siltstone of the Permian Chase Group. Groundwater for the public water supply is obtained from wells PWS2 and PWS3 at reported depths of 155 ft and 160 ft, respectively, located in the northwestern portion of the city. The water is produced from the bedrock aquifer of the Chase Group. Section 2 summarizes the hydrogeologic conceptual site model. This report summarizes findings for groundwater inspection in Barnes.

  11. Morphological Variations of Leading-Edge Serrations in Owls (Strigiformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weger

    Full Text Available Owls have developed serrations, comb-like structures, along the leading edge of their wings. Serrations were investigated from a morphological and a mechanical point of view, but were not yet quantitatively compared for different species. Such a comparative investigation of serrations from species of different sizes and activity patterns may provide new information about the function of the serrations.Serrations on complete wings and on tenth primary remiges of seven owl species were investigated. Small, middle-sized, and large owl species were investigated as well as species being more active during the day and owls being more active during the night. Serrations occurred at the outer parts of the wings, predominantly at tenth primary remiges, but also on further wing feathers in most species. Serration tips were oriented away from the feather rachis so that they faced into the air stream during flight. The serrations of nocturnal owl species were higher developed as demonstrated by a larger inclination angle (the angle between the base of the barb and the rachis, a larger tip displacement angle (the angle between the tip of the serration and the base of the serration and a longer length. Putting the measured data into a clustering algorithm yielded dendrograms that suggested a strong influence of activity pattern, but only a weak influence of size on the development of the serrations.Serrations are supposed to be involved in noise reduction during flight and also depend on the aerodynamic properties that in turn depend on body size. Since especially nocturnal owls have to rely on hearing during prey capture, the more pronounced serrations of nocturnal species lend further support to the notion that serrations have an important function in noise reduction. The differences in shape of the serrations investigated indicate that a silent flight requires well-developed serrations.

  12. Gongylonema sp. infection in the scops owl (Otus scops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperón, Fernando; Martín, María Paz; Lopes, Francisca; Orejas, Patricia; Carrero, Laura; Muñoz, María Jesús; Alonso, Raúl

    2013-12-01

    Since 1997, it has been observed that fledging scops owls often develop necrotic plaques in their oral cavities, which in severe cases can even affect bone tissue. This condition has been defined as a necrotic oropharyngeal disease based on gross lesions. In 2011 alone, thirty-five cases were identified at the Brinzal Owl Rescue Centre (Madrid, Spain), of which four were chosen to perform a complete diagnostic study. Histopathology was carried out in three cases and cytology in one case. Using morphological traits cytology identified two larvae as third-stage larvae of a Spiruridae nematode. Histology detected parasite sections in the mucosal epithelium of the mouth of one owl. In addition, four samples of mucosal lesions were subjected to a PCR amplification of the nematode ribosomal RNA gene using a pair of universal primers, three of which were positive. Of available sequences, the sequence obtained showed the closest affinity to that of Gongylonema pulchrum (97.8-98.0%). Clinical treatment was based on supportive therapy, the daily removal of caseous material from the oral cavity and the administration of fenbendazol (50mg/kg PO for 5 days). Approximately 60% of the affected scops owls that arrived at the rescue centre in 2011 were cured and released back into the wild. Clinical, pathological and molecular findings are consistent with Gongylonema sp. infection. Since no evidence of the presence of adult parasites was found, we suggest that these scops owls should be considered as accidental hosts. This is the first description of severe Gongylonema infection in fledgling scops owls, a disease can lead to starvation and death if proper treatment is not provided.

  13. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Temperature distribution of air source heat pump barn with different air flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhao, G. Q.

    2016-08-01

    There are two type of airflow form in tobacco barn, one is air rising, the other is air falling. They are different in the structure layout and working principle, which affect the tobacco barn in the distribution of temperature field and velocity distribution. In order to compare the temperature and air distribution of the two, thereby obtain a tobacco barn whose temperature field and velocity distribution are more uniform. Taking the air source heat pump tobacco barn as the investigated subject and establishing relevant mathematical model, the thermodynamics of the two type of curing barn was analysed and compared based on Fluent. Provide a reasonable evidence for chamber arrangement and selection of outlet for air source heat pump tobacco barn.

  15. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains.

  16. Aber-OWL: a framework for ontology-based data access in biology

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-01-28

    Background: Many ontologies have been developed in biology and these ontologies increasingly contain large volumes of formalized knowledge commonly expressed in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Computational access to the knowledge contained within these ontologies relies on the use of automated reasoning. Results: We have developed the Aber-OWL infrastructure that provides reasoning services for bio-ontologies. Aber-OWL consists of an ontology repository, a set of web services and web interfaces that enable ontology-based semantic access to biological data and literature. Aber-OWL is freely available at http://aber-owl.net. Conclusions: Aber-OWL provides a framework for automatically accessing information that is annotated with ontologies or contains terms used to label classes in ontologies. When using Aber-OWL, access to ontologies and data annotated with them is not merely based on class names or identifiers but rather on the knowledge the ontologies contain and the inferences that can be drawn from it.

  17. Tracking movements of Athene owls: the application of North American experiences to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holroyd, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration and dispersal are important ecological and evolutionary processes and understanding them is a requirement for species conservation efforts. Burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia, the North American equivalent of little owl, A. noctua, is migratory in the northern parts of its range. In Canada their populations have declined dramatically and are classified as endangered. Movements of burrowing owls have been studied using banding (ringing, VHF telemetry, stable isotopes, genetics (DNA, geolocators and satellite transmitters. Geolocators and satellite transmitters provide the most reliable information about migrations but to operate successfully they are both dependent upon exposure to sunlight, which can be limited for nocturnal owls. Ringing encounters and winter influxes of little owls into Spain, including the Balearic Islands, indicate that some migration movement may be occurring. A stable isotope study could determine if wintering owls in southern Europe includes owls originating in northern Europe.

  18. Effects of experimental removal of barred owls on population demography of northern spotted owls in Washington and Oregon—2015 progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Dugger, Katie M.; Lewicki, Krista E.; Simon, David C.

    2016-03-14

    Evidence indicates that competition with newly established barred owls (Strix varia) is causing rapid declines in populations of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), and that the longterm persistence of spotted owls may be in question without additional management intervention. A pilot study in California showed that lethal removal of barred owls in combination with habitat conservation may be able to slow or even reverse population declines of spotted owls at local scales, but it remains unknown whether similar results can be obtained in larger areas with different forest conditions and where barred owls are more abundant. In 2015, we implemented a before-after-controlimpact (BACI) experimental design on two study areas in Oregon and Washington with at least 20 years of pre-treatment demographic data on spotted owls to determine if removal of barred owls can improve population trends of spatially associated spotted owls. Here we provide an overview of our research accomplishments and preliminary results in Oregon and Washington in 2015.

  19. Compost bedded pack dairy barn management, performance, and producer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R A; Taraba, J L; Day, G B; Damasceno, F A; Bewley, J M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research was to characterize herd performance, producer satisfaction and recommendations, and management practices used by compost bedded pack (CBP) managers in Kentucky (42 farms and 47 CBP facilities). Farms were visited between October 2010 and March 2011. A random selection of cows housed solely in the CBP were scored for locomotion and hygiene. Changes in monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association performance records, including milk production, SCC, reproductive performance, and daily bulk-tank somatic cell count after moving into the CBP were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS 9.3; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The GLM procedure of SAS (SAS 9.3) was used to develop models to describe CBP moisture, CBP temperature at 20.3 cm, and mean herd hygiene. Producers provided 9.0 ± 2.2 m2 of pack space per cow (n = 44). Barns constructed with an attached feed alley cost $1,051 ± 407 per cow (n = 40). Barns constructed without an attached feed alley cost $493 ± 196 per cow (n = 13). Kiln-dried shavings required 0.05 ± 0.04 m3 of bedding per cow per day (n = 15). Green shavings required 0.07 ± 0.06 m3 of bedding per cow per day (n = 12). The most-frequently cited benefits of the CBP included cow comfort (n = 28), cow cleanliness (n = 14), and the low-maintenance nature of the system (n = 10). Increased stirring frequency, stirring depth, and ambient temperature increased pack temperature, measured at 20.3 cm below the CBP surface. Increased stirring depth, pasture-adjusted space per cow, and drying rate decreased CBP moisture. Mean herd locomotion and hygiene scores were 1.5 ± 0.3 (n = 34) and 2.2 ± 0.4 (n = 34), respectively. Increased 20.3-cm depth CBP temperature and ambient temperatures improved mean herd hygiene. Bulk-tank somatic cell count decreased from the year before to the year after moving into the CBP barn (323,692 ± 7,301 vs. 252,859 ± 7,112 cells/mL, respectively) for farms using the CBP barn as the primary

  20. EMDR-behandling  : Barns och ungdomars upplevelser en kvalitetssäkringsstudie 

    OpenAIRE

    Fredin, Ingela

    2005-01-01

    Föreliggande studie är dels ett led i att kvalitetssäkra EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) som behandlingsmetod för barn och ungdomar och dels att utröna om behandlingen bidragit till ett förbättrat mående. EMDR som behandlingsmetod för barn och ungdomar har stöd i kontrollerade studier, men ytterligare forskning behövs. I den här studien deltog åtta barn och ungdomar med varierande diagnoser, vilka fått EMDR-behandling i barn- och ungdomspsykiatrisk öppenvård. Behandlingen...

  1. Reproductive working effort in Danish little owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsegård-Rasmussen, M.; Sunde, P.; Thorup, K.

    Reduced reproductive success, caused by energy constraints during breeding, is suspected to be one of the reasons for an ongoing decline in the Danish population of little owls (Athene noctua). To measure any food stress during the breeding period, working effort was defined as the minimum flight...

  2. Owls see in stereo much like humans do

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, R.F. van der

    2011-01-01

    While 3D experiences through binocular disparity sensitivity have acquired special status in the understanding of human stereo vision, much remains to be learned about how binocularity is put to use in animals. The owl provides an exceptional model to study stereo vision as it displays one of the hi

  3. tOWL: a temporal Web Ontology Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milea, Viorel; Frasincar, Flavius; Kaymak, Uzay

    2012-02-01

    Through its interoperability and reasoning capabilities, the Semantic Web opens a realm of possibilities for developing intelligent systems on the Web. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is the most expressive standard language for modeling ontologies, the cornerstone of the Semantic Web. However, up until now, no standard way of expressing time and time-dependent information in OWL has been provided. In this paper, we present a temporal extension of the very expressive fragment SHIN(D) of the OWL Description Logic language, resulting in the temporal OWL language. Through a layered approach, we introduce three extensions: 1) concrete domains, which allow the representation of restrictions using concrete domain binary predicates; 2) temporal representation , which introduces time points, relations between time points, intervals, and Allen's 13 interval relations into the language; and 3) timeslices/fluents, which implement a perdurantist view on individuals and allow for the representation of complex temporal aspects, such as process state transitions. We illustrate the expressiveness of the newly introduced language by using an example from the financial domain.

  4. Territorial calls in the Little Owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars B.; Sunde, Peter; Rahbek, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of quantifying spatio-temporal and social factors affecting territorial calls in LittleOwls,we collected data on the calling behaviour of radio tracked individuals from a low-density population in Northern Jutland, Denmark. There was considerable seasonal variation in calling activity...

  5. The "Owl Trail"--A Sensory Awareness Rope Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Constructed and experienced by students engaged in an outdoor education class at East Stroudsburg State College in Pennsylvania, the "Owl Trail" is a self guided rope trail (600 yards in length) employing such devices as sensory corrals, bridges, and "go to" ropes (ropes attached to the main rope which provide side trip…

  6. Night Owl: Maryland's After-Hours Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Deborah C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses "Night Owl," a Maryland public library's after hours telephone reference service. Issues include project start-up, user profiles, types of questions, volume, after hours reference accessibility, security, costs, service limits, publicity, staffing, and employee turnover. Similar services in other states are cited. (Contains six…

  7. Use of OWL in the legal domain (statement of interest)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Clark, K; Patel-Schneider, P.F

    2008-01-01

    The Leibniz Center for Law at the University of Amsterdam is involved in several research projects that deal with the integration of knowledge representation with legal texts. For many of these projects, the use of ontologies in OWL DL plays an important, if not a central role. In this statement of

  8. Brominated flame retardants in Belgian little owl (Athene noctua) eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, V.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Dauwe, T.; Schepens, P.; Eens, M. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Since the 1960s, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are widely used in textiles, plastics, electronic equipment and other materials. Their massive use has led to the ubiquitous presence of PBDEs in the environment and in biota in which the PBDE levels seem to increase rapidly. High concentrations of some congeners may cause adverse effects in both wildlife and in human populations1 and this has led to the growing concern of scientists over the last decade and to the need for more data on environmental levels of PBDEs. The little owl (Athene noctua) is a small sedentary predator, which makes it a very suitable biomonitoring species. This owl species feeds on a variety of preys, including small mammals and birds, reptiles, amphibians, earthworms and beetles, depending on the season and the local circumstances. Because very limited information is available about contamination levels in the little owl, a study was conducted to determine the concentrations of PBDEs, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in deserted or addled eggs of little owls in Belgium. Eggs have been used successfully as a monitoring tool for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in several studies. Although the analysis of POPs in deserted or addled eggs has clear limitations, these can be partially avoided by analysing only highly persistent components, for which the original composition will not change due to 'posthatching' microbiological degradation.

  9. Variation in working effort in Danish Little Owls Athene noctua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsegård-Rasmussen, Miriam H.; Sunde, Peter; Thorup, K.

    2009-01-01

    with extinction. The study is based on 143 one-hour surveys of breeding and 274 surveys of non-breeding Little Owls (27 territorial individuals on 14 territories). Working effort is calculated as the total linear distance between all observed consecutive telemetry fixes during one-hour surveys (Minimum Flight...

  10. Diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littles, C.J.; Williford, D.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Winter diets of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are little known. We determined the diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas by analyzing the contents of 182 pellets collected over four winters (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004) in three habitat types (agricultural, mainland grassland, and barrier island). Remains of a total of 7476 prey items were recovered, 98% of which were arthropods. Gryllidae (crickets) formed the largest component (50%) of the prey, followed by lepidopteran larvae (13%), beetles (8%), spiders (7%), and earwigs (6%). Although vertebrates, primarily small mammals and birds, represented only 2% of prey items by number, they represented most (71%) of the biomass. Northern pygmy mice (Baiomys taylori) and fulvous harvest mice (Reithrodontomys fulveccens) were the two most frequently consumed vertebrate species. In all habitats, arthropods, especially orthopterans, were the primary prey item by number, whereas vertebrates, primarily small mammals, were the most important by biomass. Greater consumption of arthropods by Burrowing Owls in agricultural areas may be a factor contributing to owl use of these highly altered environments. ?? 2007 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  11. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  12. Population dynamics of spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakesley, J.A.; Seamans, M.E.; Conner, M.M.; Franklin, A.B.; White, Gary C.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Munton, T.E.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; Steger, G.N.; McDonald, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is the only spotted owl subspecies not listed as threatened or endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act despite petitions to list it as threatened. We conducted a meta-analysis of population data for 4 populations in the southern Cascades and Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1990 to 2005 to assist a listing evaluation by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study areas (from N to S) were on the Lassen National Forest (LAS), Eldorado National Forest (ELD), Sierra National Forest (SIE), and Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SKC). These study areas represented a broad spectrum of habitat and management conditions in these mountain ranges. We estimated apparent survival probability, reproductive output, and rate of population change for spotted owls on individual study areas and for all study areas combined (meta-analysis) using model selection or model-averaging based on maximum-likelihood estimation. We followed a formal protocol to conduct this analysis that was similar to other spotted owl meta-analyses. Consistency of field and analytical methods among our studies reduced confounding methodological effects when evaluating results. We used 991 marked spotted owls in the analysis of apparent survival. Apparent survival probability was higher for adult than for subadult owls. There was little difference in apparent survival between male and female owls. Model-averaged mean estimates of apparent survival probability of adult owls varied from 0.811 ?? 0.021 for females at LAS to 0.890 ?? 0.016 for males at SKC. Apparent survival increased over time for owls of all age classes at LAS and SIE, for adults at ELD, and for second-year subadults and adults at SKC. The meta-analysis of apparent survival, which included only adult owls, confirmed an increasing trend in survival over time. Survival rates were higher for owls on SKC than on the other study areas. We analyzed data

  13. Designing the optimal robotic milking barn, Part 1: Quantifying facility usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halachmi, I.; Metz, J.H.M.; Maltz, E.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Speelman, L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the stochastic nature of the usage of facilities in a robotic milking barn, independent of the barn layout. It presents experimental data obtained by monitoring 10 dairy cows over a period of 18 days. To minimize restrictions to the access of cows to the facilitie

  14. Social interactions of dairy cows introduced postpartally to a separated barn section - pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of reduced social activity of early lactating dairy cows when transferred postpartally to a separated barn section (S, group size 9.3 SD 2.1) vs. to a barn section of the main lactating herd (H, group size 130.1 SD 57.9) was tested. Social interactions of 12 cows in S and 14 cows i...

  15. Designing the optimal robotic milking barn, part 2: behaviour-based simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halachmi, I.

    2000-01-01

    Robotic milking affects factors that determine the barn layout, such as cow behaviour, farm routine, feeding procedure and management practices. As there is hardly any experience with robotic barns, and each farmer has his own management attitude, depending on his personality and local conditions; t

  16. Unheralded Historian: Mary Sheldon Barnes and Primary Source Material in History Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, James A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In the latter part of the nineteenth century, Mary Sheldon Barnes emerged as a leading historical methods professor and history textbook author. Although men dominated the field, she wrote several articles and books alone or with her husband Earl Barnes about primary source materials and teaching. She lived during an era in United States history…

  17. Designing the optimal robotic milking barn by applying a queuing network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halachmi, I.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wald, van der J.; Beek, van P.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2003-01-01

    The design of various conventional dairy barns is based on centuries of experience, but there is hardly any experience with robotic milking barns (RMB). Furthermore, as each farmer has his own management practices, the optimal layout is `site dependent¿. A new universally applicable design methodolo

  18. Barnes Ice Cap South Dome Trilateration Net Survey Data 1970-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Barnes Ice Cap data set contains survey measurements of a network of 43 stakes along a 10 km flow line on the northeast flank of the south dome of the Barnes Ice...

  19. Barns kommunikasjon med ulike typer kart - en progressiv tilnærming til kartlesing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Bjerva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Utgangspunktet for denne studien er en erkjennelse av hvor vanskelig det kan være for barn å samhandle med det symbolske kartet. Hovedmålet for prosjektet var å utvikle sikrere viten om hvordan barn kommuniserer med ulike typer kart. Det er utarbeidet en modell (Bjerva, Græsli, & Sigurjónsson, 2010 som viser hvordan vi kan utvikle ferdigheten kartlesing hos barn. Vi har undersøkt 106 barn i alderen 3 til 12 år om hvordan de mestrer direkte representasjoner (detaljfoto og perspektiv representasjoner (håndtegnet skråkart. Forskningsdesignet har en økologisk tilnærming hvor datainnsamlingen har foregått i terrenget. Resultatene indikerer at selv små barn mestrer antatt kompliserte oppgaver når de blir presentert for enkle hjelpemidler.

  20. A Process for the Representation of openEHR ADL Archetypes in OWL Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, Alex Mateus; Peres, Leticia Mara; Didonet Del Fabro, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    ADL is a formal language to express archetypes, independent of standards or domain. However, its specification is not precise enough in relation to the specialization and semantic of archetypes, presenting difficulties in implementation and a few available tools. Archetypes may be implemented using other languages such as XML or OWL, increasing integration with Semantic Web tools. Exchanging and transforming data can be better implemented with semantics oriented models, for example using OWL which is a language to define and instantiate Web ontologies defined by W3C. OWL permits defining significant, detailed, precise and consistent distinctions among classes, properties and relations by the user, ensuring the consistency of knowledge than using ADL techniques. This paper presents a process of an openEHR ADL archetypes representation in OWL ontologies. This process consists of ADL archetypes conversion in OWL ontologies and validation of OWL resultant ontologies using the mutation test.

  1. New four-dimensional integrals by Mellin-Barnes transform

    CERN Document Server

    Allendes, Pedro; Kondrashuk, Igor; Cuello, Eduardo A Notte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the calculation by Mellin-Barnes transform of a especial class of integrals. It contains double integrals in the position space in d = 4-2e dimensions, where e is parameter of dimensional regularization. These integrals contribute to the effective action of the N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The integrand is a fraction in which the numerator is a logarithm of ratio of spacetime intervals, and the denominator is the product of powers of spacetime intervals. According to the method developed in the previous papers, in order to make use of the uniqueness technique for one of two integrations, we shift exponents in powers in the denominator of integrands by some multiples of e. As the next step, the second integration in the position space is done by Mellin-Barnes transform. For normalizing procedure, we reproduce first the known result obtained earlier by Gegenbauer polynomial technique. Then, we make another shift of exponents in powers in the denominator to create the logarith...

  2. Annual report of monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-25

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, in 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). The results of that investigation indicated that carbon tetrachloride contamination is present in groundwater at low to moderate levels in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation also indicated that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began periodic groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the direction of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. Through 2010, sampling was conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b, 2010) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Long

  3. Standardized Monitoring Strategies for Burrowing Owls on DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    whether each owl was detected visually, vocally , or both. Each adult owl detected at a survey point gets its own line, juveniles associated with one...measurements (tail length, meta-tarsus, wing chord ) are made on adult birds that allow comparison of body size between sexes and sites. Age...Burrowing Owls will have a brood patch. Adult Left Wing 180 Use the method shown in Appendix II to measure the owl’s left wing chord length. Record

  4. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis): Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Krysta H; Girard, Yvette A; Woods, Leslie; Johnson, Christine K

    2016-12-01

    Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina) in California during 2011-2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis). The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  5. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  6. Spatial behaviour of little owls (Athene noctua) in a decreasing farmland population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, P.; Thorup, K.; Jacobsen, L. B.

    We describe basic spatial behaviour and social organisation in the small and declining Danish population of little owls. The behaviour was mainly studied using radio tracking during 2005-2007 of 14 pairs of little owls, representing a total of 29 individuals.......We describe basic spatial behaviour and social organisation in the small and declining Danish population of little owls. The behaviour was mainly studied using radio tracking during 2005-2007 of 14 pairs of little owls, representing a total of 29 individuals....

  7. Genetic consequences of population decline in the Danish population of the little owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Pellegrino, Irene; Cucco, Maroc

    2012-01-01

    Background: Danish populations of the little owl (Athene noctua) have experienced dramaticdeclines in size over the past century. Before 1960 the little owl population was abundantin Denmark (estimated N>2000), but between 1960 and 1980 the population declinedrapidly, and since 1980 the little owl...... population has survived only in small and fragmentedareas. Question: Is the decline in population size associated with reduced genetic variation in theseDanish populations of the little owl? Are the populations genetically fragmented?Field site: Samples were collected from birds in Denmark (from 57457″N...

  8. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David W.; Van Riper, Charpes III

    2014-01-01

    We studied a small isolated population of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from 1996–1997 in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Park, southeastern Arizona, USA. All mixed-conifer and pine-oak forest patches in the park were surveyed for Spotted Owls, and we located, captured, and radio-tagged 10 adult birds representing five mated pairs. Using radio-telemetry, we examined owl home range characteristics, roost habitat, and monitored reproduction within these five territories. Breeding season (Mar–Sep) home range size for 10 adult owls (95% adaptive kernel isopleths) averaged 267 ha (±207 SD), and varied widely among owls (range 34–652 ha). Mean home range size for owl pairs was 478 ha (±417 ha SD), and ranged from 70–1,160 ha. Owls that produced young used smaller home ranges than owls that had no young. Six habitat variables differed significantly between roost and random sites, including: percent canopy cover, number of trees, number of vegetation layers, average height of trees, average diameter of trees, and tree basal area. Radio-marked owls remained in their territories following small prescribed management fires within those territories, exhibiting no proximate effects to the presence of prescribed fire.

  9. Nanoscale Bio-Molecular Control Using EC-OWLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P; Voros, J; Hubbell, J A; Textor, M

    2002-11-20

    A recently developed technique termed ''Electrochemical Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy'' (EC-OWLS) [1] combines evanescent-field optical sensing with electrochemical control of surface adsorption processes. Initial EC-OWLS investigations efficiently monitored molecular surface adsorption and layer thickness changes of an adsorbed polymer layer examined in situ as a function of potential applied to a waveguide1. A layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) served as both a high refractive index waveguide for optical sensing, and a conductive electrode; an electrochemical flow-through fluid cell incorporated working, reference and counter electrodes. Poly(L-lysine)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) served as a model, polycation adsorbate. Results indicate that adsorption and desorption of PLL-g-PEG from aqueous buffer are a function of applied potential, and that binding events subsequent to PLL-g-PEG functionalization are dependent on reorganization in the molecular adlayer.

  10. Airborne ocean water lidar (OWL) real time processor (RTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryszko, M.

    1995-03-01

    The Hyperflo Real Time Processor (RTP) was developed by Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation as a part of the Naval Air Warfare Center's Ocean Water Lidar (OWL) system. The RTP was used for real time support of open ocean field tests at Barbers Point, Hawaii, in March 1993 (EMERALD I field test), and Jacksonville, Florida, in July 1994 (EMERALD I field test). This report describes the system configuration, and accomplishments associated with the preparation and execution of these exercises. This document is intended to supplement the overall test reports and provide insight into the development and use of the PTP. A secondary objective is to provide basic information on the capabilities, versatility and expandability of the Hyperflo RTP for possible future projects. It is assumed herein that the reader has knowledge of the OWL system, field test operations, general lidar processing methods, and basic computer architecture.

  11. Automatic Generation of OWL Ontology from XML Data Source

    CERN Document Server

    Yahia, Nora; Ahmed, AbdelWahab

    2012-01-01

    The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) can be used as data exchange format in different domains. It allows different parties to exchange data by providing common understanding of the basic concepts in the domain. XML covers the syntactic level, but lacks support for reasoning. Ontology can provide a semantic representation of domain knowledge which supports efficient reasoning and expressive power. One of the most popular ontology languages is the Web Ontology Language (OWL). It can represent domain knowledge using classes, properties, axioms and instances for the use in a distributed environment such as the World Wide Web. This paper presents a new method for automatic generation of OWL ontology from XML data sources.

  12. QuantEYE: The Quantum Optics Instrument for OWL

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, D; Fosbury, R A E; Naletto, G; Nilsson, R; Occhipinti, T; Tamburini, F; Uthas, H; Zampieri, L

    2005-01-01

    QuantEYE is designed to be the highest time-resolution instrument on ESO:s planned Overwhelmingly Large Telescope, devised to explore astrophysical variability on microsecond and nanosecond scales, down to the quantum-optical limit. Expected phenomena include instabilities of photon-gas bubbles in accretion flows, p-mode oscillations in neutron stars, and quantum-optical photon bunching in time. Precise timescales are both variable and unknown, and studies must be of photon-stream statistics, e.g., their power spectra or autocorrelations. Such functions increase with the square of the intensity, implying an enormously increased sensitivity at the largest telescopes. QuantEYE covers the optical, and its design involves an array of photon-counting avalanche-diode detectors, each viewing one segment of the OWL entrance pupil. QuantEYE will work already with a partially filled OWL main mirror, and also without [full] adaptive optics.

  13. Dyscoria Associated with Herpesvirus Infection in Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Dyscoria was noted in a female owl monkey and 2 of her offspring. The third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two male monkeys paired with the female died, 1 of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all 3 animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring w...

  14. Physical Structure of Planetary Nebulae. I. The Owl Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, M A; Manchado, A; Kwitter, K B

    2003-01-01

    The Owl Nebula is a triple-shell planetary nebula with the outermost shell being a faint bow-shaped halo. We have obtained deep narrow-band images and high-dispersion echelle spectra in the H-alpha, [O III], and [N II] emission lines to determine the physical structure of each shell in the nebula. These spatio-kinematic data allow us to rule out hydrodynamic models that can reproduce only the nebular morphology. Our analysis shows that the inner shell of the main nebula is slightly elongated with a bipolar cavity along its major axis, the outer nebula is a filled envelope co-expanding with the inner shell at 40 km/s, and the halo has been braked by the interstellar medium as the Owl Nebula moves through it. To explain the morphology and kinematics of the Owl Nebula, we suggest the following scenario for its formation and evolution. The early mass loss at the TP-AGB phase forms the halo, and the superwind at the end of the AGB phase forms the main nebula. The subsequent fast stellar wind compressed the superwi...

  15. The Structure and Noise Reduction Capacity of Owl Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Justin; Clark, Ian; Alexander, Nathan; Devenport, William; Daly, Conor; Peake, Nigel; Glegg, Stewart

    2014-11-01

    Many species of owl rely on specialized plumage to reduce their self-noise levels and enable hunting in acoustic stealth. In contrast to the leading-edge comb and compliant trailing-edge fringe attributes of owls, the aeroacoustic impact of the fluffy down material on the upper wing surface remains largely speculative as a means to eliminate aerodynamic noise across a broad range of frequencies. Photographic analysis of the owl down reveals a unique forest-like structure, whereby the down fibers rise straight up from the wing surface and then bend into the flow direction to form a porous canopy, with an open area fraction of approximately 70%. Experimental measurements demonstrate that the canopy feature reduces dramatically the turbulent pressure levels on the wing surface by up to 30dB, which affects the roughness noise characteristic of the down in a manner consistent with the theory of flows over and through vegetation. Mathematical models developed for the turbulence noise generation by the down fibers and for the mixing-layer instability above the porous canopy furnish a theoretical basis to understand the influence of the down geometric structure on its self-noise signature and noise suppression characteristics.

  16. Features of owl wings that promote silent flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Hermann; Weger, Matthias; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2017-02-06

    Owls are an order of birds of prey that are known for the development of a silent flight. We review here the morphological adaptations of owls leading to silent flight and discuss also aerodynamic properties of owl wings. We start with early observations (until 2005), and then turn to recent advances. The large wings of these birds, resulting in low wing loading and a low aspect ratio, contribute to noise reduction by allowing slow flight. The serrations on the leading edge of the wing and the velvet-like surface have an effect on noise reduction and also lead to an improvement of aerodynamic performance. The fringes at the inner feather vanes reduce noise by gliding into the grooves at the lower wing surface that are formed by barb shafts. The fringed trailing edge of the wing has been shown to reduce trailing edge noise. These adaptations to silent flight have been an inspiration for biologists and engineers for the development of devices with reduced noise production. Today several biomimetic applications such as a serrated pantograph or a fringed ventilator are available. Finally, we discuss unresolved questions and possible future directions.

  17. Semantics of OWL-S process model based on temporal description logic%基于时序描述逻辑的Web服务本体语言过程模型语义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 刘士仪; 年福忠

    2013-01-01

    Concerning the problem that Ontology Web Language for Services ( OWL-S) process model lacks capacity for dynamic interaction and timing characteristics, a formalization method based on temporal description logic for process model was proposed. It described the atomic processes and composite processes of the OWL-S process model, and then the dynamic semantic of OWL-S process model was obtained. Finally, the formal modeling of OWL-S process model was realized. The experimental results show that the proposed method is feasible, and it provides the foundation for the analysis and validation.%针对Web服务本体语言(OWL-S)过程模型存在动态交互和时序特征表达能力不足的问题,提出一种基于时序描述逻辑的过程模型形式化方法.通过对OWL-S过程模型的原子过程和组合过程语义进行形式化的描述,得到了OWL-S的过程模型的动态语义,最终实现了对OWL-S过程模型的形式化建模.实例结果验证了所提方法的可行性,为进一步的分析和验证提供了基础.

  18. Using detection dogs to conduct simultaneous surveys of northern spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina and barred owls (Strix varia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Wasser

    Full Text Available State and federal actions to conserve northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina habitat are largely initiated by establishing habitat occupancy. Northern spotted owl occupancy is typically assessed by eliciting their response to simulated conspecific vocalizations. However, proximity of barred owls (Strix varia-a significant threat to northern spotted owls-can suppress northern spotted owl responsiveness to vocalization surveys and hence their probability of detection. We developed a survey method to simultaneously detect both species that does not require vocalization. Detection dogs (Canis familiaris located owl pellets accumulated under roost sites, within search areas selected using habitat association maps. We compared success of detection dog surveys to vocalization surveys slightly modified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Draft 2010 Survey Protocol. Seventeen 2 km × 2 km polygons were each surveyed multiple times in an area where northern spotted owls were known to nest prior to 1997 and barred owl density was thought to be low. Mitochondrial DNA was used to confirm species from pellets detected by dogs. Spotted owl and barred owl detection probabilities were significantly higher for dog than vocalization surveys. For spotted owls, this difference increased with number of site visits. Cumulative detection probabilities of northern spotted owls were 29% after session 1, 62% after session 2, and 87% after session 3 for dog surveys, compared to 25% after session 1, increasing to 59% by session 6 for vocalization surveys. Mean detection probability for barred owls was 20.1% for dog surveys and 7.3% for vocal surveys. Results suggest that detection dog surveys can complement vocalization surveys by providing a reliable method for establishing occupancy of both northern spotted and barred owl without requiring owl vocalization. This helps meet objectives of Recovery Actions 24 and 25 of the Revised Recovery Plan for the

  19. Prey composition and habitat use of the small and declining Danish population of Little Owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, N.; Svenne, S.; Sunde, P.

    The population of little owl in Denmark has declined severely during the last 30 years. Many possible causes have been proposed, but the exact cause of this trend is still unknown. Therefore acquirering knowledge about the owls is important.......The population of little owl in Denmark has declined severely during the last 30 years. Many possible causes have been proposed, but the exact cause of this trend is still unknown. Therefore acquirering knowledge about the owls is important....

  20. A Semantic Learning Object (SLOWeb-Editor based on Web Ontology Language (OWL using a New OWL2XSLO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhair Rimale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, we see a strong demand for real-time information, with a rapid growth of m-learning. We also see that there are many educational resources on the Internet. Learning objects (LOs are designed as a means of reusing these resources. Most of these LOs are built for e-learning systems based on desktop computers, which prevents their use on mobile devices. A LO is an area that is open to research and has a lot of potential in the creation, adaptation and production of learning content. There are standards that describe LOs in general as IEEE LOM, SCORM. Semantic web and its associated technologies are increasingly used in electronic document editing while separating the content from the presentation. Creating a LO with the semantic web is complex and raises difficulties because of the editing tools that require general knowledge of XML syntax and related technologies. In this paper, the authors propose a new OWL2XSLO approach based on ontologies (OWL allowing the generation of XML-Schemas LOs. They then derive a semantic LO web editor based on OWL2XSLO approach for the generation of a content type enabling the editing of interactive LOs with XML technology and which can then be integrated into LMS and adapted to the mobile display.

  1. 77 FR 14061 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Northern Spotted Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Northern Spotted Owl; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Northern Spotted Owl AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... designated critical habitat for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) under the...

  2. 77 FR 27010 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Northern Spotted Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ...; Revised Critical Habitat for the Northern Spotted Owl AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... designated critical habitat for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina), and announced the... the northern spotted owl is extended to July 6, 2012. Please note comments submitted...

  3. 76 FR 38575 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl... Spotted Owl available for public review and comment from September 15 through November 15, 2010...

  4. OWL (On-Lie Webstories for Learning): A Unique Web-based Literacy Resource for Primary/Elementary Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliebo, Moira; Durnford, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes Online Webstories for Learning (OWL), a Web-based resource for elementary school literacy education that was initially developed for use in the United Kingdom. Discusses the importance of including narrative, how OWL is being adapted for use in other countries, and off-line class activities suggested as part of OWL. (Contains 8…

  5. "Not in the Middle Ages"?: Alan Garner's "The Owl Service" and the Literature of Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses connecting with the Middle Ages in adolescent fiction. Discusses how, in "The Owl Service," Garner addresses a relationship between adolescence in the late twentieth century and an aspect of the past--specifically the Middle Ages. Considers how "The Owl Service" is a story energized by myth, concerning the…

  6. Summer Professional Development in Chemistry for Inservice Teachers Using OWL Quick Prep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Cynthia B.; Pamplin, Kim L.; Blake, Robert E.; Mason, Diana S.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary teachers participating in summer professional development chemistry workshops in Texas used an online chemistry tutoring program, OWL Quick Prep (Day et al. in OWL: Online Web-based Learning, Brooks-Cole Cengage Learning, Florence, KY, 1997) as a part of the inservice training. Self-reported demographic data were used to identify factors…

  7. 77 FR 74688 - Final Recovery Plan, First Revision; Mexican Spotted Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Final Recovery Plan, First Revision; Mexican Spotted Owl AGENCY: Fish and... Service, announce the availability of our final recovery plan, first revision, for the Mexican Spotted Owl... and threatened wildlife and plants. ADDRESSES: If you wish to view the recovery plan, you may obtain...

  8. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  9. Post-fledging behaviour of juveniles in the Little Owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe; Thorup, Kasper; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Before dispersal, social and spatial behaviour in owls has only been briefly studied. We used radio tracking to monitor age-influenced social and spatial behaviour in 10 juvenile Little Owls (Athene noctua) from nests in Northern Jutland, Denmark. On average, the post-fledging dependency period...

  10. Predators control post-fledging mortality in tawny owls, Strix aluco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter

    2005-01-01

    , pathogens) for individual survival as well as population productivity is largely unknown in most terrestrial birds. Survival and behaviour of 131 radio-tagged tawny owls (Strix aluco) during the post-fledging dependency period were studied for each of three years with high food abundance and three years...... to be an important selective agent for early breeding in the tawny owl....

  11. Towards Self-managed Pervasive Middleware using OWL/SWRL ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2008-01-01

    Self-management for pervasive middleware is important to realize the Ambient Intelligence vision. In this paper, we present an OWL/SWRL context ontologies based self-management approach for pervasive middleware where OWL ontology is used as means for context modeling. The context ontologies are i...

  12. 77 FR 14036 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Experimental Removal of Barred Owls to Benefit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... collecting permits under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-712; MBTA) for lethal and non-lethal... effects of barred owl removal on spotted owl site occupancy, reproduction, and survival (USFWS 2011, p... reproduction (Olson et al. 2004, p. 1048; Anthony et al. 2006, p. 32; Forsman et al. 2011, pp. 41-43,...

  13. Reasoning in the OWL 2 Full Ontology Language using First-Order Automated Theorem Proving

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Michael

    2011-01-01

    OWL 2 has been standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as a family of ontology languages for the Semantic Web. The most expressive of these languages is OWL 2 Full, but to date no reasoner has been implemented for this language. Consistency and entailment checking are known to be undecidable for OWL 2 Full. We have translated a large fragment of the OWL 2 Full semantics into first-order logic, and used automated theorem proving systems to do reasoning based on this theory. The results are promising, and indicate that this approach can be applied in practice for effective OWL reasoning, beyond the capabilities of current Semantic Web reasoners. This is an extended version of a paper with the same title that has been published at CADE 2011, LNAI 6803, pp. 446-460. The extended version provides appendices with additional resources that were used in the reported evaluation.

  14. Prey selection of Tawny owls (Strix aluco) on Yellow necked mouse and Bank Vole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsom, H. M.; Sunde, P.; Overskaug, K.

    As predators owls may have a strong impact on mortality of their favourite prey, and may therefore act as important selective agents on their prey species. Little is known, however, about whether owls choose prey randomly or if some prey items suffer a higher risk of predation due to certain life...... history traits. The aim of this master thesis study was to investigate any prey selection of tawny owls on two prey species, yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Our hypotheses were that the level of exposure might differ between prey items of different sex......, age, and size, causing some individuals to suffer a higher risk of predation from tawny owls than others.The results suggest that males suffer a higher risk of predation from tawny owls than females, and that the different age groups may also experience different risk of predation. It also suggests...

  15. Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Field in a New Bulk Tobacco Curing Barn Based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhipeng; Guo, Duoduo; Li, Shoucang; Hu, Yaohua

    2017-01-01

    A new structure bulk tobacco curing barn was presented. To study the temperature and humidity field in the new structure tobacco curing barn, a 3D transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed using porous medium, species transport, κ-ε turbulence and discrete phase models. The CFD results demonstrated that (1) the temperature and relative humidity predictions were validated by the experimental results, and comparison of simulation results with experimental data showed a fairly close agreement; (2) the temperature of the bottom and inlet area was higher than the top and outlet area, and water vapor concentrated on the top and outlet area in the barn; (3) tobacco loading density and thickness of tobacco leaves had an explicit effect on the temperature distributions in the barn. PMID:28146128

  16. Chicken barn climate and hazardous volatile compounds control using simple linear regression and PID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Bakar, M. A. A.; Shukor, S. A. A.; Saad, F. S. A.; Kamis, M. S.; Mustafa, M. H.; Khalid, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    The hazardous volatile compounds from chicken manure in chicken barn are potentially to be a health threat to the farm animals and workers. Ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) produced in chicken barn are influenced by climate changes. The Electronic Nose (e-nose) is used for the barn's air, temperature and humidity data sampling. Simple Linear Regression is used to identify the correlation between temperature-humidity, humidity-ammonia and ammonia-hydrogen sulphide. MATLAB Simulink software was used for the sample data analysis using PID controller. Results shows that the performance of PID controller using the Ziegler-Nichols technique can improve the system controller to control climate in chicken barn.

  17. Evaluating two-loop massive operator matrix elements with Mellin-Barnes integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierenbaum, I.; Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S.

    2006-07-15

    We calculate massive 5-propagator 2-loop integrals for operator matrix elements in the light-cone expansion, using Mellin-Barnes techniques and representations through generalized hypergeometric functions. (Orig.)

  18. Reliable low-cost devices for monitoring ammonia concentrations and emissions in naturally ventilated dairy barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Ndegwa, Pius M; Joo, HungSoo; Neerackal, George M; Harrison, Joseph H; Stöckle, Claudio O; Liu, Heping

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the use of two relatively cost-effective devices for determining NH3 concentrations in naturally ventilated (NV) dairy barns including an Ogawa passive sampler (Ogawa) and a passive flux sampler (PFS). These samplers were deployed adjacent to sampling ports of a photoacoustic infrared multigas spectroscope (INNOVA), in a NV dairy barn. A 3-day deployment period was deemed suitable for both passive samplers. The correlations between concentrations determined with the passive samplers and the INNOVA were statistically significant (r = 0.93 for Ogawa and 0.88 for PFS). Compared with reference measurements, Ogawa overestimated NH3 concentrations in the barn by ∼ 14%, while PFS underestimated NH3 concentrations by ∼ 41%. Barn NH3 emission factors per animal unit (20.6-21.2 g d(-1) AU(-1)) based on the two passive samplers, after calibration, were similar to those obtained with the reference method and were within the range of values reported in literature.

  19. SEMANTIC ENHANCED UDDI USING OWL-S PROFILE ONTOLOGY FOR THE AUTOMATIC DISCOVERY OF WEB SERVICES IN THE DOMAIN OF TELECOMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lakshmana Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current web services which are evolved in the telecom domain such as payment web services, Yellow pages web services, operator web services, weather web services are failed to bring down the semantic as they used to prove its syntactic description. The reason for bringing down the semantic description into already existing web services will invoke certain operations like automatic discovery of web services, automatic composition of the necessary services, automatic invocation of web services and automatic monitoring of the execution process. At present the web services in the domain of telecommunication is following the parlay X standard. The parlay X has given a set of standard web service API’s for the telecom. The each of the services will have its own interface, services and types In this study in order to bring down the semantic representation we have proposed an idea to enable the semantic through the upper ontology like OWL-S and then how to map OWL-S to UDDI registry and also we have discussed some of the issues that we have faced while mapping OWL-S into UDDI registry. So the approach which we are going to propose improves the accuracy of the telecommunication network services description, discovery and matching, unifies the semantic representation of telecommunications network and Internet services.

  20. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  1. What Do Owls, Salamanders, Flycatchers and Cuckoos Have In Common?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrave, Maria A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Wildlife Management

    2016-09-27

    This is an article from the Los Alamos Living magazine. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on a beautiful and unique landscape that provides important protected habitat to many species, including a few that are federally-listed as threatened or endangered. These species are the Jemez Mountains Salamander, the Mexican Spotted Owl, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher, the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, and the New Mexico Meadow Jumping Mouse. Part of the job of the Laboratory's wildlife biologists is to survey for these species each year and determine what actions need to be taken if they are found.

  2. Selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Forsom, Heidi Malene; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2012-01-01

    Differential predation on certain classes of individuals within prey populations might make owls strong selective agents on their prey. We investigated selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis, A.f.) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus, M.g.) for two...... years by comparing prey from owl nests with live-trapped individuals. The owls killed significantly more male M.g. (73%) than females, but not more than expected from traps (57%). For A.f., owls selected adults in favour of subadults, and for adults, individuals with longer femurs. Adult males of A.......f. killed by owls had significantly heavier testes in relation their size than the trapped males. Prey selection did not correlate with size-adjusted body or spleen mass. Owl-killed A.f. had higher prevalences of the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides sp. than trapped individuals, but hosted similar...

  3. Selective Predation of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) on Yellow-Necked Mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Forsom, Heidi Malene; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2012-01-01

    Differential predation on certain classes of individuals within prey populations might make owls strong selective agents on their prey. We investigated selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis, A.f.) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus, M.g.) for two...... years by comparing prey from owl nests with live-trapped individuals. The owls killed significantly more male M.g. (73%) than females, but not more than expected from traps (57%). For A.f., owls selected adults in favour of subadults, and for adults, individuals with longer femurs. Adult males of A.......f. killed by owls had significantly heavier testes in relation their size than the trapped males. Prey selection did not correlate with size-adjusted body or spleen mass. Owl-killed A.f. had higher prevalences of the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides sp. than trapped individuals, but hosted similar...

  4. Habitat associations of small mammals in southern Brazil and use of regurgitated pellets of birds of prey for inventorying a local fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. Scheibler

    Full Text Available We inventoried terrestrial small mammals in an agricultural area in southern Brazil by using trapping and prey consumed by Barn Owls (Tyto alba and White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus. Small mammals were trapped in three habitat types: corn fields, uncultivated fields ("capoeiras", and native forest fragments. A total of 1,975 small mammal specimens were trapped, another 2,062 identified from the diet of Barn Owls, and 2,066 from the diet of White-tailed Kites. Both trapping and prey in the predators' diet yielded 18 small mammal species: three marsupials (Didelphis albiventris, Gracilinanus agilis, and Monodelphis dimidiata and 15 rodents (Akodon paranaensis, Bruceppatersonius iheringi, Calomys sp., Cavia aperea, Euryzygomatomys spinosus, Holochilus brasiliensis, Mus musculus, Necromys lasiurus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oryzomys angouya, Oxymycterus sp.1, Oxymycterus sp.2, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758. The greatest richness was found in the uncultivated habitat. We concluded that the three methods studied for inventorying small mammals (prey in the diet of Barn Owls, White-tailed Kites, and trapping were complementary, since together, rather than separately, they produced a better picture of local richness.

  5. OWL应用接口的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of APIs for OWL Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊振辉; 于娟

    2015-01-01

    The paper comparatively analyzes three types of APIs for OWL, including Jena API、Protégé API and OWL API, from aspects of characteristics, platforms which they base on, languages which they can process and OWL ontology models. It focuses on commonly-used functions of OWL API and obtains related conclusions: (1) Jena API cannot achieve all functions of OWL because it bases on RDF triple;(2) OWL API is specifically designed for OWL and it supports structural specification of OWL2 which is the latest edition of OWL;(3) current APIs for OWL ontology mostly base on Java platform, whereas APIs base on other platforms (e.g. .net plat-form) have not appeared.%比较分析了Jena API、Protégé API、OWL API这三种OWL应用接口(API)的特点、所基于的平台、可处理的语言以及描述OWL本体的模型,重点介绍了OWL API的常用基本功能,得出了相关结论:(1)Jena API基于RDF三元组的特点使其不能实现OWL语言的全部功能;(2)OWL API针对OWL语言设计,且支持最新的OWL2语言的结构规范;(3)目前这些API都是基于Java平台的,对于其它平台(如.net平台),尚未见有成熟的API出现。

  6. Rehabilitation of farmhouses and barns: limits of salt content

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Hilde; Godts, Sebastiaan

    2016-09-01

    The rehabilitation of historic buildings is a practice that aims to turn a historic property into a state of contemporary comfort for private or commercial use, while preserving its historic, architectural and cultural value, respecting items of authenticity, compatibility and sustainability. What once was a modest use of locally fired brick and mortar has become the subject of ambitious rehabilitation campaigns conforming to the rules of comfort and hygiene of the twenty-first century. A pre-investigation concerning the diagnosis of damage phenomena and the risk assessment of interventions is a crucial aspect for the success of a restoration campaign. The question of "How to optimally preserve a monument within its current conditions" is replaced by "How can a monument optimally perform in the conditions suited to the assigned rehabilitation project". Today historic farms and their surroundings, after being abandoned for several decades, are the subject of different types of private or commercial rehabilitation projects. An example of such a project is the farm "Hof De Pleyne" in Loppem (West-Flanders, Belgium). The project intended to integrate a restaurant kitchen into the former animal barn. The limits of salt content with respect to the desired rehabilitation facilities while respecting safety regulations are presented.

  7. A new owl species of the genus Otus (aves: strigidae) from Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, George; King, Ben F; Verbelen, Philippe; Trainor, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    The avifauna of Indonesia is one of the richest in the world but the taxonomic status of many species remains poorly documented. The sole species of scops owl known from Lombok has long been assigned to the widespread Moluccan Scops Owl Otus magicus on the basis of superficial similarities in morphology. Field work in 2003 has shown that the territorial song of the scops owls inhabiting the foothills of Gunung Rinjani differs dramatically from that of O. magicus and is more similar to those of Rufescent Scops Owl O. rufescens and Singapore Scops Owl O. cnephaeus. Detailed comparisons of sound recordings and museum specimens with those of other scops owls in Wallacea and the Indo-Malayan region have confirmed the distinctiveness of the Lombok population. We describe Otus jolandae as a new species, the Rinjani Scops Owl. It is locally common at elevations from 25-1350 m. and occurs within Gunung Rinjani National Park. The new species is known from seven specimens collected by Alfred Everett in 1896. Otus jolandae represents the first endemic bird species from Lombok.

  8. Exploiting Semantic Web Technologies to Develop OWL-Based Clinical Practice Guideline Execution Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Borna; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2016-01-01

    Computerizing paper-based CPG and then executing them can provide evidence-informed decision support to physicians at the point of care. Semantic web technologies especially web ontology language (OWL) ontologies have been profusely used to represent computerized CPG. Using semantic web reasoning capabilities to execute OWL-based computerized CPG unties them from a specific custom-built CPG execution engine and increases their shareability as any OWL reasoner and triple store can be utilized for CPG execution. However, existing semantic web reasoning-based CPG execution engines suffer from lack of ability to execute CPG with high levels of expressivity, high cognitive load of computerization of paper-based CPG and updating their computerized versions. In order to address these limitations, we have developed three CPG execution engines based on OWL 1 DL, OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + semantic web rule language (SWRL). OWL 1 DL serves as the base execution engine capable of executing a wide range of CPG constructs, however for executing highly complex CPG the OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + SWRL offer additional executional capabilities. We evaluated the technical performance and medical correctness of our execution engines using a range of CPG. Technical evaluations show the efficiency of our CPG execution engines in terms of CPU time and validity of the generated recommendation in comparison to existing CPG execution engines. Medical evaluations by domain experts show the validity of the CPG-mediated therapy plans in terms of relevance, safety, and ordering for a wide range of patient scenarios.

  9. Genetic structure, introgression, and a narrow hybrid zone between northern and California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowclough, G F; Groth, J G; Mertz, L A; Gutiérrez, R J

    2005-04-01

    The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is a threatened subspecies and the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is a subspecies of special concern in the western United States. Concern for their continued viability has arisen because of habitat loss caused by timber harvesting. The taxonomic status of the northern subspecies has been the subject of continuing controversy. We investigated the phylogeographical and population genetic structure of northern and California spotted owls with special reference to their region of contact. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences confirmed the existence of two well-differentiated lineages connected by a narrow hybrid zone in a region of low population density in north central California. Maximum-likelihood estimates indicated bidirectional gene flow between the lineages but limited introgression outside the region of contact. The lengths of both the mtDNA hybrid zone and the reduced density patch were similar and slightly exceeded estimates of natal dispersal distances. This suggests that the two subspecies were in secondary contact in a hybrid zone trapped by a population density trough. Consequently, the zone of interaction is expected to be geographically stable. We discovered a third, rare clade of haplotypes, which we interpreted to be a result of incomplete lineage sorting; those haplotypes result in a paraphyletic northern spotted owl with respect to the California spotted owl. A congeneric species, the barred owl (Strix varia), occasionally hybridizes with spotted owls; our results indicated an upper bound for the frequency of barred owl mtDNA haplotypes in northern spotted owl populations of 3%.

  10. OWL reasoning framework over big biological knowledge network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huajun; Chen, Xi; Gu, Peiqin; Wu, Zhaohui; Yu, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, huge amounts of data are generated in the domain of biology. Embedded with domain knowledge from different disciplines, the isolated biological resources are implicitly connected. Thus it has shaped a big network of versatile biological knowledge. Faced with such massive, disparate, and interlinked biological data, providing an efficient way to model, integrate, and analyze the big biological network becomes a challenge. In this paper, we present a general OWL (web ontology language) reasoning framework to study the implicit relationships among biological entities. A comprehensive biological ontology across traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine (WM) is used to create a conceptual model for the biological network. Then corresponding biological data is integrated into a biological knowledge network as the data model. Based on the conceptual model and data model, a scalable OWL reasoning method is utilized to infer the potential associations between biological entities from the biological network. In our experiment, we focus on the association discovery between TCM and WM. The derived associations are quite useful for biologists to promote the development of novel drugs and TCM modernization. The experimental results show that the system achieves high efficiency, accuracy, scalability, and effectivity.

  11. OWL Reasoning Framework over Big Biological Knowledge Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, huge amounts of data are generated in the domain of biology. Embedded with domain knowledge from different disciplines, the isolated biological resources are implicitly connected. Thus it has shaped a big network of versatile biological knowledge. Faced with such massive, disparate, and interlinked biological data, providing an efficient way to model, integrate, and analyze the big biological network becomes a challenge. In this paper, we present a general OWL (web ontology language reasoning framework to study the implicit relationships among biological entities. A comprehensive biological ontology across traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and western medicine (WM is used to create a conceptual model for the biological network. Then corresponding biological data is integrated into a biological knowledge network as the data model. Based on the conceptual model and data model, a scalable OWL reasoning method is utilized to infer the potential associations between biological entities from the biological network. In our experiment, we focus on the association discovery between TCM and WM. The derived associations are quite useful for biologists to promote the development of novel drugs and TCM modernization. The experimental results show that the system achieves high efficiency, accuracy, scalability, and effectivity.

  12. 基于ORM的OWL2本体可视化表达%Visualization Expression of OWL 2 Ontology Based on Object Role Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文林; 刘大昕

    2011-01-01

    In order to address the problem that it is difficult to read and understand ontology expressed by OWL 2 for domain experts who have no related knowledge, this paper proposes complete mapping rules to represent OWL 2 axioms with Object Role Modeling(ORM). Based on semantic equivalent translation of models and extension of model constructions, OWL 2 primitives, class expressions, class axioms, object and data property axioms, and key axioms can be visualized by ORM directly. However, the built-in data types, class equivalent axioms, and transitivity axioms can be only visualized by expanded ORM.%无相关技术背景的领域专家较难直接阅读和理解OWL 2本体.为此,提出一种使用对象角色建模(ORM)可视化表达OWL 2本体的方法,并介绍一系列相应规则.通过语义等价的模型变换和扩展构造原语,使用ORM可视化表达OWL 2的构造原语、类表达式、类公理、对象特性公理、数据特性公理和键公理.实验结果表明,内置数据类型、类等价公理和对象特性的传递性公理需要对ORM进行扩展才能表达,其余OWL2类和公理均可语义无损地转换为ORM模型.

  13. Live blind snakes (Leptotyphlops dulcis) in eastern screech owl (Otus asio) nests: a novel commensalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, F R; Baldridge, R S

    1987-03-01

    Eastern screech owls bring live blind snakes to their nestlings, whereas all other prey are delivered dead. Some of the snakes are eaten but most live in nest debris, where they eat soft-bodied insect larvae from the decomposer community in fecal matter, pellets, and uneaten prey. Consumption of larvae may reduce larval parasitism on owl nestlings or larval competition with nestlings for food stored in the nest, because nestlings with live-in blind snakes grow faster and experience lower mortality than same-season broods lacking snakes. We propose a commensalistic association in which the screech owl benefits reproductively and the live-in blind snake is not affected.

  14. Daudzlietotāju režīms OWL redaktorā

    OpenAIRE

    Putniņš, Jānis

    2010-01-01

    Darbs „Daudzlietotāju atbalsts OWL redaktorā” apraksta kā var strādāt ar OWL redaktoru TDA platformā daudzlietotāju režīmā. Tas nozīmē iespēju vairākiem lietotājiem vienlaikus apstrādāt kādu UML/OWL diagrammu ar SVN repozitorija starpniecību. Modulis realizēts Lua valodā.

  15. Characterization of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from broiler chicken barn bioaerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier; Hildebrandt, Kelsie; Metcalfe, Andrew; Rempel, Heidi; Bittman, Shabtai; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa

    2012-12-01

    In this study we isolated and characterized Staphylococcus xylosus, a coagulase-negative staphylococcal species considered as commensal and one of the prevalent staphylococcal species found in poultry bioaerosol. Isolates were obtained using air samplers and selective phenylethyl alcohol agar for gram-positive bacteria during 35-d periods at different times of the day. A total of 200 colonies were recovered and after basic biochemical tests were performed, presumptive staphylococci were subsequently identified by API Staph strips. A total of 153 (76.5%) staphylococci were found, among which 84 were S. xylosus (46 and 38 isolated inside and outside, respectively). Biofilm formation was observed in 86.9% of S. xylosus isolates, whereas 79.8% of them showed hemolytic activity. There was a strong correlation (92.5%) between biofilm formation and hemolytic activity. All 84 S. xylosus isolates were susceptible to amikacin, ampicillin/sulbactam, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, kanamycin, linezolid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Resistance to nalidixic acid (86.9%), novobiocin (85.7%), penicillin (70.2%), lincomycin (46.4%), oxacillin (42.9%), ampicillin (27.4%), tetracycline (21.4%), erythromycin (11.9%), bacitracin (10.7%), and streptomycin (2.4%) was observed among the isolates. Resistance to tetracycline, lincomycin, erythromycin, and β-lactam antibiotics was occasionally linked to the tetK, linA, ermB, and blaZ genes, respectively. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA results showed similarity of 15 to 99% between isolates collected outside and inside the barn, indicating genetic diversity of these isolates. Our study indicates that characterization of poultry bioaerosol coagulase-negative staphylococcal species such as S. xylosus is necessary for assessing their safety status for both poultry and humans.

  16. Memory Revisited in Julian Barnes's The Sense of an Ending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Oró Piqueras

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An accumulation of years brings with it an accumulation of experiences. The revision of such experiences usually becomes more recurrent after retirement, a transition time from one period of life to another and, as such, a time in which we, human beings, have a tendency to take stock of our lives. This is actually one of the main issues present in Julian Barnes's last novel The Sense of an Ending (2011. When the main protagonist, a retired man quite comfortable and contented with his present life, receives an unexpected inheritance from the mother of a girlfriend from his university years, he is forced to track down a part of his life that he had left at the back of his mind a long time ago. As he explains his story, the protagonist and narrator of the novel raises a number of questions related to the quality and function of memory as one gets into old age. He experiments the unreliability of memory and questions to what extent memory is constructed through the remembered emotions that invaded him over that episode of his life rather than through the events as they actually took place. On the other hand, the act of revisiting and revising that specific episode, brings with it feelings of guilt and remorse as the protagonist realises that his past acts were not as noble as he remembered them to be. However, these acts are part of the past and they cannot be changed; thus, another question that the novel raises is how to account for those actions of which one does not feel proud and, more importantly, how to manage those bad memories as one gets older

  17. Analysis of thermal characteristics of electrical wiring for load groups in cattle barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo Hyun; Yoo, Sang-Ok; Kim, Sung Chul; Hwang, Dong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of electrical wirings depending on the number of operating load by connecting four types of electrical wirings that are selected by surveying the conditions for the electric fans, automatic waterers and halogen warm lamps that were installed in cattle barns in different years. The conditions of 64 cattle barns were surveyed and an experimental test was conducted at a cattle barn. The condition-survey covered inappropriate design, construction and misuse of electrical facility, including electrical wiring mostly used, and the mode of load current was evaluated. The survey showed that the mode of load current increased as the installation year of the fans, waterers and halogen lamps became older. Accordingly, the cattle barn manager needed to increase the capacity of the circuit breaker, which promoted the degradation of insulation of the electrical wires' sheath and increased possibility for electrical fires in the long-run. The test showed that the saturation temperature of the wire insulated sheath increased depending on the installation year of the load groups, in case of VCTFK and VFF electric wires, therefore, requiring their careful usage in the cattle barns.

  18. Exposure affects the risk of an owl being mobbed - experimental evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Elsemarie K.

    2006-01-01

    Mobbing is a widespread anti-predator strategy in birds, and predators are generally expected to avoid mobbing. For example, observational studies suggest that the cryptic roosting behaviour of nocturnal predators, such as many owls, may be a strategy to limit mobbing. In this paper, we present...... the results of the first experimental study investigating to what degree roost exposure influences the risk of being mobbed, and the intensity of a mobbing incidence once initiated. To determine these factors, we used an experimental setup with taxidermic mounts of tawny owls Strix aluco in Grib Skov forest......, Denmark. The risk of an owl being mobbed during a 50 min morning survey period increased with the exposure of its roosting position, from 24% when hidden to 85% when openly exposed. The corresponding increase in the afternoon was from 6% to 36%. This suggests that an owl may minimize the mobbing rate...

  19. Status assessment and conservation plan for the western burrowing owl in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) is a grassland specialist distributed throughout w. North America, primarily in open areas with short...

  20. Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge and the Owl Moutain Partnership riparian/meadow management demonstration project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) and the Owl Mountain Partnership (OMP) are implementing a 5-year riparian/meadow management demonstration project. The...

  1. Rodents new to the diet of the western burrowing owl(athene CUNICULARIA HYPUGAEA )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiluford, D.L.; Woodin, M.C.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Hickman, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The northern pygmy mouse (Baiomys taylori), fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), and Merriam's pocket mouse (Pemgnathus merriami) are new to the diet of the western burrowing owl (Athene cuniculana hypugaed). All three species were identified from remains in regurgitated pellets collected from roost sites of burrowing owls in southern Texas over a period of 4 winters. Together, northern pygmy mice and fulvous harvest mice represented 58% of mammals identified in 182 pellets regurgitated by western burrowing owls. Merriam's pocket mouse accounted for only 4% of identified mammalian prey. Frequency of occurrence in pellets was 16% for northern pygmv mice, 11% for fulvous harvest mice, and 3% for Merriam's pocket mice. The primary reason for absence of these species in previous studies of foods of western burrowing owls is that most were conducted in latitudes north of these southern-distributed species of mammals.

  2. Northern Saw-whet Owl Banding Project 1997 Erie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the results of an effort on Erie National Wildlife Refuge to net and band Northern Saw-whet Owls in October and November, 1997. The project...

  3. Influence of vegetation on the nocturnal foraging behaviors and vertebrate prey capture by endangered Burrowing Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Marsh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Restrictions in technology have limited past habitat selection studies for many species to the home-range level, as a finer-scale understanding was often not possible. Consequently, these studies may not identify the true mechanism driving habitat selection patterns, which may influence how such results are applied in conservation. We used GPS dataloggers with digital video recorders to identify foraging modes and locations in which endangered Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia captured prey. We measured the coarse and fine-scale characteristics of vegetation at locations in which owls searched for, versus where they caught, vertebrate prey. Most prey items were caught using hover-hunting. Burrowing Owls searched for, and caught, vertebrate prey in all cover types, but were more likely to kill prey in areas with sparse and less dense vegetative cover. Management strategies designed to increase Burrowing Owl foraging success in the Canadian prairies should try to ensure a mosaic of vegetation heights across cover types.

  4. Survey for Owls of the Nulhegan Basin and West Mountain Wildlife Management Area 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines a study done to document the distribution and relative abundance of nocturnal owls on the 48,000 acres comprising the Nulhegan Basin Division of...

  5. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Burrowing Owl

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of burrowing owl, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  6. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Mexican Spotted Owl

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of Mexican Spotted Owl, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  7. Ontology integration based on OWL%基于OWL的本体集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠平; 赵海亮; 张志惠

    2008-01-01

    提出一种新的本体集成方法.分析了本体集成的原因,阐述了本体集成时应遵循的4条基本原则,并给出了集成的分类,提出了一种基于OWL DL图闭包的本体集成方法.该方法将OWL DL本体抽象为RDFS图模型,根据给定的OWL DL推理规则生成OWL DL本体的图闭包,在此基础上进行本体集成,同时提出了几种计算实体相似度的方法,将本方法与COMA++和FCA-merge进行实验对比,本方法在准确率和召回率上占优势.

  8. Effects of fire on spotted owl site occupancy in a late-successional forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan L.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Miles, A. Keith; Kelt, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is a late-successional forest dependent species that is sensitive to forest management practices throughout its range. An increase in the frequency and spatial extent of standreplacing fires in western North America has prompted concern for the persistence of spotted owls and other sensitive late-successional forest associated species. However, there is sparse information on the effects of fire on spotted owls to guide conservation policies. In 2004-2005, we surveyed for California spotted owls during the breeding season at 32 random sites (16 burned, 16 unburned) throughout late-successional montane forest in Yosemite National Park, California. Our burned areas burned at all severities, but predominately involved low to moderate fire severity. Based on an information theoretic approach, spotted owl detection and occupancy rates were similar between burned and unburned sites. Nest and roost site occupancy was best explained by a model that combined total tree basal area (positive effect) with cover by coarse woody debris (negative effect). The density estimates of California spotted owl pairs were similar in burned and unburned forests, and the overall mean density estimate for Yosemite was higher than previously reported for montane forests. Our results indicate that low to moderate severity fires, historically common within montane forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, maintain habitat characteristics essential for spotted owl site occupancy. These results suggest that managed fires that emulate the historic fire regime of these forests may maintain spotted owl habitat and protect this species from the effects of future catastrophic fires.

  9. Importance of agricultural landscapes to nesting burrowing owls in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restani, M.; Davies, J.M.; Newton, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are the principle factors causing declines of grassland birds. Declines in burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations have been extensive and have been linked to habitat loss, primarily the decline of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. Development of habitat use models is a research priority and will aid conservation of owls inhabiting human-altered landscapes. From 2001 to 2004 we located 160 burrowing owl nests on prairie dog colonies on the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota. We used multiple linear regression and Akaike's Information Criterion to estimate the relationship between cover type characteristics surrounding prairie dog colonies and (1) number of owl pairs per colony and (2) reproductive success. Models were developed for two spatial scales, within 600 m and 2,000 m radii of nests for cropland, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), grassland, and prairie dog colonies. We also included number of patches as a metric of landscape fragmentation. Annually, fewer than 30% of prairie dog colonies were occupied by owls. None of the models at the 600 m scale explained variation in number of owl pairs or reproductive success. However, models at the 2,000 m scale did explain number of owl pairs and reproductive success. Models included cropland, crested wheatgrass, and prairie dog colonies. Grasslands were not included in any of the models and had low importance values, although percentage grassland surrounding colonies was high. Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle managed in a bedded hoop-barn system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, M S; Busby, W D; Lonergan, S M; Johnson, A K; Maxwell, D L; Harmon, J D; Shouse, S C

    2010-08-01

    The use of bedded hoop barns in finishing systems for beef cattle has not been widely researched. In this management system, beef cattle are confined to hoop barns throughout finishing, and bedding is used to absorb animal waste, which results in minimal effluent. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers (n = 1,428) managed in a bedded hoop-barn management system vs. an open-feedlot system with shelter. Six feeding trials were conducted over a 3-yr period. Three trials were conducted during summer-fall and 3 trials were conducted during winter-spring. Crossbred steers were allotted to 3 pens in the hoop-barn system and to 3 pens in the open-lot system (approximately 40 steers per pen in both facility systems). Stocking densities for the steers were 4.65 m(2) per steer in the hoop-barn system and 14.7 m(2) per steer in the open-lot system. The steers were begun on trial weighing 410 and 411 kg (SD = 21), were fed for 102.3 and 103.0 d (SD = 3.8), and were weighed off test at 595 and 602 kg (SD = 21) for the hoop-barn and open-lot systems, respectively. Steer performance measures consisted of ADG, DMI, and G:F. Carcass characteristics were HCW, fat thickness, LM area, KPH percentage, marbling score, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. No year, season, or pen (management system) main effects, or season x management system and year x management system interactions were observed for any of the items measured related to cattle performance or carcass characteristics (P > 0.05). Final mud scores (a subjective evaluation of the amount of soil and manure adhering to the hair coat of the animals) were greater for the steers from the open-lot system compared with those from the hoop-barn system (P < 0.02), suggesting steers in the hoop-barn system carried less mud than steers from the open-lot system. Average daily cornstalk bedding use in the hoop-barn system was 2.3 kg/steer during summer-fall and 2

  11. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2008-07-01

    "Dyscoria was noted in a female owl monkey and 2 of her offspring. The third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two male monkeys paired with the female died, 1 of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all 3 animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring were positive for Herpesvirus simplex antibodies by ELISA. The clinical history, gross and microscopic lesions, and serology results suggests a herpesviral etiology, possibly H. simplex or H. saimiri 1. This report underscores the risks associated with introducing into breeding or research colonies animals that previously were kept as pets or those from unknown origin that could carry asymptomatic pathogenic Herpesvirus infections. In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is noted in nonhuman primates."

  12. Data Reduction Algorithm for Optical Wide Field Patrol (OWL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Park, Y.; Yim, H.; Jo, J.; Moon, H.; Bae, Y.; Lim, Y.; Choi, J.; Choi, Y.; Park, J.; Son, J.

    2014-09-01

    OWL (Optical Wide-field Patrol) has a detector system which has the chopper which consists of 4 blades in front of the CCD camera to acquire efficiently the position and time information of moving objects such as artificial satellites. Using this system, it is possible to get more position data by splitting the streaks of the moving object into many pieces with fast rotating blades during tracking. At the same time, the time data of the rotating chopper can be acquired by the time tagger connected to the photo diode. In order to derive the orbits of the targets, we need a sequential data reduction procedure including the calculation of WCS (World Coordinate System) solution to transform the positions into equatorial coordinate systems, and the combination of the time data from the time tagger and the position data. We present such a data reduction procedure and the preliminary results after applying this procedure to the observation images.

  13. Traffic noise reduces foraging efficiency in wild owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzaki, Masayuki; Yamaura, Yuichi; Francis, Clinton D.; Nakamura, Futoshi

    2016-08-01

    Anthropogenic noise has been increasing globally. Laboratory experiments suggest that noise disrupts foraging behavior across a range of species, but to reveal the full impacts of noise, we must examine the impacts of noise on foraging behavior among species in the wild. Owls are widespread nocturnal top predators and use prey rustling sounds for localizing prey when hunting. We conducted field experiments to examine the effect of traffic noise on owls’ ability to detect prey. Results suggest that foraging efficiency declines with increasing traffic noise levels due to acoustic masking and/or distraction and aversion to traffic noise. Moreover, we estimate that effects of traffic noise on owls’ ability to detect prey reach >120 m from a road, which is larger than the distance estimated from captive studies with bats. Our study provides the first evidence that noise reduces foraging efficiency in wild animals, and highlights the possible pervasive impacts of noise.

  14. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Montoya, Enrique J.; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-08-16

    Abstract Dyscoria was observed in a female owl monkey and her two offspring. A third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two males paired with the female died, one of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all three animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring were positive for Herpesvirus simplex antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The clinical history, gross and microscopic lesions, and serology results suggests a herpesviral etiology, possibly, H. simplex or H. saimiri-1. This report underscores the risks associated with introducing animals into breeding or research colonies that were previously kept as pets or those from unknown origin that could carry asymptomatic pathogenic Herpesvirus infections. In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is observed in nonhuman primates.

  15. Hearing in the crepuscular owl butterfly (Caligo eurilochus, Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kathleen M; Mongrain, Jennifer K; Windmill, James F C; Robert, Daniel; Yack, Jayne E

    2014-10-01

    Tympanal organs are widespread in Nymphalidae butterflies, with a great deal of variability in the morphology of these ears. How this variation reflects differences in hearing physiology is not currently understood. This study provides the first examination of hearing organs in the crepuscular owl butterfly, Caligo eurilochus. We examined the tuning and sensitivity of the C. eurilochus hearing organ, called Vogel's organ, using laser Doppler vibrometry and extracellular neurophysiology. We show that the C. eurilochus ear responds to sound and is most sensitive to frequencies between 1 and 4 kHz, as confirmed by both the vibration of the tympanal membrane and the physiological response of the associated nerve branches. In comparison to the hearing of its diurnally active relative, Morpho peleides, C. eurilochus has a narrower frequency range with higher auditory thresholds. Hypotheses explaining the function of hearing in this crepuscular butterfly are discussed.

  16. The Strategy to Increase Women Farmer's Participation in the Program of Village Food Barn in East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliatia, Yayuk; Iskaskar, Riyanti

    2016-01-01

    Food Barn Village Programme is one of the government's efforts in achieving household food security which includes four components. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy to increase women's participation in the Food Barn Village Programme. This research was conducted in three villages in the district of Malang, namely: Village…

  17. Alarm calls modulate the spatial structure of a breeding owl community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo, Deseada; Avilés, Jesús M; Rodríguez, Juan

    2012-06-07

    Animals should continuously assess the threat of predation. Alarm calls inform on predation risk and are often used as cues to shape behavioural responses in birds and mammals. Hitherto, however, the ecological consequences of alarm calls in terms of organization of animal communities have been neglected. Here, we show experimentally that calls of a resident nocturnal raptor, the little owl Athene noctua, triggered a response in terms of breeding habitat selection and investment in current reproduction in conspecifics and heterospecifics. Little owls preferred to settle in territories where calls of conspecifics, irrespective of their type (i.e. alarm versus contact calls), were broadcasted, indicating that either conspecific attraction exists or calls are interpreted as foreign calls, eliciting settlement as a mode of defence against competitors. Also, we found that little owls seemed to invest more in current reproduction in safe territories as revealed by conspecific calls. Innovatively, we reported that a second owl species, the migratory scops owl Otus scops, preferred to breed in safe territories as indicated by little owls' calls. These results evidence that the emission of alarm calls may have, apart from well-known behavioural effects, ecological consequences in natural communities by inducing species-specific biases in breeding habitat selection. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected informative role of avian alarm calls which may modulate the spatial structure of species within communities.

  18. OWL-based reasoning methods for validating archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2013-04-01

    Some modern Electronic Healthcare Record (EHR) architectures and standards are based on the dual model-based architecture, which defines two conceptual levels: reference model and archetype model. Such architectures represent EHR domain knowledge by means of archetypes, which are considered by many researchers to play a fundamental role for the achievement of semantic interoperability in healthcare. Consequently, formal methods for validating archetypes are necessary. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in exploring how semantic web technologies in general, and ontologies in particular, can facilitate the representation and management of archetypes, including binding to terminologies, but no solution based on such technologies has been provided to date to validate archetypes. Our approach represents archetypes by means of OWL ontologies. This permits to combine the two levels of the dual model-based architecture in one modeling framework which can also integrate terminologies available in OWL format. The validation method consists of reasoning on those ontologies to find modeling errors in archetypes: incorrect restrictions over the reference model, non-conformant archetype specializations and inconsistent terminological bindings. The archetypes available in the repositories supported by the openEHR Foundation and the NHS Connecting for Health Program, which are the two largest publicly available ones, have been analyzed with our validation method. For such purpose, we have implemented a software tool called Archeck. Our results show that around 1/5 of archetype specializations contain modeling errors, the most common mistakes being related to coded terms and terminological bindings. The analysis of each repository reveals that different patterns of errors are found in both repositories. This result reinforces the need for making serious efforts in improving archetype design processes.

  19. mtDNA diversity in Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) of the Argentinean Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Paul L; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Baiduc, Caitlin A; Gagneux, Pascal; Evans, Sian; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-10-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) inhabit much of South America yet represent an enigmatic evolutionary branch among primates. While morphological, cytogenetic, and immunological evidence suggest that owl monkey populations have undergone isolation and diversification since their emergence in the New World, problems with adjacent species ranges, and sample provenance have complicated efforts to characterize genetic variation within the genus. As a result, the phylogeographic history of owl monkey species and subspecies remains unclear, and the extent of genetic diversity at the population level is unknown. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) variation in a population of wild Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) living in the Gran Chaco region of Argentina. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome from one individual (16,585 base pairs (bp)) and analyzed 1,099 bp of the hypervariable control region (CR) and 696 bp of the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene in 117 others. In addition, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome (16,472 bp) of one Nancy Ma's owl monkey (A. nancymaae). Based on the whole mtDNA and COII data, we observed an ancient phylogeographic discontinuity among Aotus species living north, south, and west of the Amazon River that began more than eight million years ago. Our population analyses identified three major CR lineages and detected a high level of haplotypic diversity within A. a. azarai. These data point to a recent expansion of Azara's owl monkeys into the Argentinean Chaco. Overall, we provide a detailed view of owl monkey mtDNA variation at genus, species, and population levels.

  20. Mellem behovsorientering og regulering - diskurser om det omsorg for det lille barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Oline

    2013-01-01

    En artikel der på baggrund af feltarbejde i den danske sundhedsplejen søger at indfange, hvor diskursen om omsorg for det lille barn befinder sig i spændingsfeltet mellem at regulere barnet eller at følge dets signaler og behov....

  1. Non-planar Feynman diagrams and Mellin-Barnes representations with AMBRE 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovyk, Ievgen [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Gluza, Janusz [Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, Tord

    2016-04-15

    We introduce the Mellin-Barnes representation of general Feynman integrals and discuss their evaluation. The Mathematica package AMBRE has been recently extended in order to cover consistently non-planar Feynman integrals with two loops. Prospects for the near future are outlined. This write-up is an introduction to new results which have also been presented elsewhere.

  2. Developmental changes in serum androgen levels of Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Corinne P.; Hahn, D. Caldwell

    2010-01-01

    We studied androgen production during development in nestling Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) and hypothesized that gender and hatch order might influence serum levels of testosterone and androstenedione. Testosterone levels were highest immediately after hatching and declined significantly in the 4 weeks leading to fledging. The average level of testosterone for 1-7 day-old owls was 3.99 - 0.68 ng/ml. At 22-28 days of age, the average testosterone level for nestling owls was 0.83 - 0.18 ng/ml. Testosterone levels did not differ between males or females. The average testosterone level for male nestlings was 2.23 - 0.29 ng/ml and 2.39 - 0.56 ng/ml for female nestlings. The average level of androstenedione for nestling owls was 1.92 - 0.11 ng/ml and levels remained constant throughout development. Levels were significantly higher in males than females. The average androstenedione level was 1.77 - 0.16 ng/ml for male nestlings and 1.05 - 0.24 ng/ml for female nestlings. Hatching order did not affect levels of either androgen. Our results provide a foundation for future studies of androgen production by nestling owls.

  3. Roosting habitat use and selection by northern spotted owls during natal dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovern, Stan G.; Forsman, Eric D.; Dugger, Catherine M.; Taylor, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    We studied habitat selection by northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) during natal dispersal in Washington State, USA, at both the roost site and landscape scales. We used logistic regression to obtain parameters for an exponential resource selection function based on vegetation attributes in roost and random plots in 76 forest stands that were used for roosting. We used a similar analysis to evaluate selection of landscape habitat attributes based on 301 radio-telemetry relocations and random points within our study area. We found no evidence of within-stand selection for any of the variables examined, but 78% of roosts were in stands with at least some large (>50 cm dbh) trees. At the landscape scale, owls selected for stands with high canopy cover (>70%). Dispersing owls selected vegetation types that were more similar to habitat selected by adult owls than habitat that would result from following guidelines previously proposed to maintain dispersal habitat. Our analysis indicates that juvenile owls select stands for roosting that have greater canopy cover than is recommended in current agency guidelines.

  4. On Barnes Beta Distributions and Applications to the Maximum Distribution of the 2D Gaussian Free Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    A new family of Barnes beta distributions on (0, ∞) is introduced and its infinite divisibility, moment determinacy, scaling, and factorization properties are established. The Morris integral probability distribution is constructed from Barnes beta distributions of types (1, 0) and (2, 2), and its moment determinacy and involution invariance properties are established. For application, the maximum distributions of the 2D gaussian free field on the unit interval and circle with a non-random logarithmic potential are conjecturally related to the critical Selberg and Morris integral probability distributions, respectively, and expressed in terms of sums of Barnes beta distributions of types (1, 0) and (2, 2).

  5. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  6. Survey on birds of prey and owls Falconiformes and Strigiformes) on Java sea islands: correction and additions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.

    2005-01-01

    ): In Southeast Asia the short-eared owl Asio flammeus is a northern migrant and is normally not recorded south of Singapore and, rarely, northern Borneo. The occurrence of short-eared owl in the Kangean archipelago, Java Sea, has been noted in several publications, including a recent one in this jo

  7. Presumptive keratoglobus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Rachael K; Moresco, Anneke; Woods, Sarah J; Reilly, Christopher M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Murphy, Christopher J; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Hacker, Dennis; Freeman, Kate S

    2016-07-31

    A juvenile to young adult, male, great horned owl (Bubo virginianus,GHOW) was presented to the wildlife rehabilitation hospital at Lindsay Wildlife Museum (WRHLWM) due to trauma to the right patagium from barbed wire entanglement. On presentation, both corneas were irregular, dry, and no movement of the third eyelid was noted. A severe corneal enlargement/globoid appearance was the predominant ophthalmic feature. The fundus was normal in both eyes (OU). Over the course of several days, both corneas developed edema combined with further dessication at the ocular surface associated with diffuse dorsal fluorescein stain uptake. Repeated ophthalmic examinations found normal intraocular pressures and an inability to move the third eyelid over the enlarged corneas. The bird was deemed nonreleasable due to severe wing damage and poor prognosis associated with eye abnormalities and was humanely euthanized. Postmortem CT, enucleation, and histopathology were performed to evaluate the ocular anatomical abnormality and confirm the suspected diagnosis of keratoglobus. This GHOW represents the first reported case of presumptive keratoglobus in a raptor.

  8. Identification, classification and evolution of Owl Monkeys (Aotus, Illiger 1811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Albert N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owl monkeys, belonging to the genus Aotus, have been extensively used as animal models in biomedical research but few reports have focused on the taxonomy and phylogeography of this genus. Moreover, the morphological similarity of several Aotus species has led to frequent misidentifications, mainly at the boundaries of their distribution. In this study, sequence data from five mitochondrial regions and the nuclear, Y-linked, SRY gene were used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstructions using well characterized specimens of Aotus nancymaae, A. vociferans, A. lemurinus, A. griseimembra, A. trivirgatus, A. nigriceps, A. azarae boliviensis and A. infulatus. Results The complete MT-CO1, MT-TS1, MT-TD, MT-CO2, MT-CYB regions were sequenced in 18 Aotus specimens. ML and Bayesian topologies of concatenated data and separate regions allowed for the proposition of a tentative Aotus phylogeny, indicating that Aotus diverged some 4.62 Million years before present (MYBP. Similar analyses with included GenBank specimens were useful for assessing species identification of deposited data. Conclusions Alternative phylogenetic reconstructions, when compared with karyotypic and biogeographic data, led to the proposition of evolutionary scenarios questioning the conventional diversification of this genus in monophyletic groups with grey and red necks. Moreover, genetic distance estimates and haplotypic differences were useful for species validations.

  9. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes in southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Santoro

    Full Text Available We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain. A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops and little owls (Athene noctua and tawny owls (Strix aluco. It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  10. Linked-OWL: A new approach for dynamic linked data service workflow composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussien Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from Web of Document into Web of Data based on Linked Data principles defined by Tim Berners-Lee posed a big challenge to build and develop applications to work in Web of Data environment. There are several attempts to build service and application models for Linked Data Cloud. In this paper, we propose a new service model for linked data "Linked-OWL" which is based on RESTful services and OWL-S and copes with linked data principles. This new model shifts the service concept from functions into linked data things and opens the road for Linked Oriented Architecture (LOA and Web of Services as part and on top of Web of Data. This model also provides high level of dynamic service composition capabilities for more accurate dynamic composition and execution of complex business processes in Web of Data environment.

  11. Using AberOWL for fast and scalable reasoning over BioPortal ontologies

    KAUST Repository

    Slater, Luke

    2016-08-08

    Background: Reasoning over biomedical ontologies using their OWL semantics has traditionally been a challenging task due to the high theoretical complexity of OWL-based automated reasoning. As a consequence, ontology repositories, as well as most other tools utilizing ontologies, either provide access to ontologies without use of automated reasoning, or limit the number of ontologies for which automated reasoning-based access is provided. Methods: We apply the AberOWL infrastructure to provide automated reasoning-based access to all accessible and consistent ontologies in BioPortal (368 ontologies). We perform an extensive performance evaluation to determine query times, both for queries of different complexity and for queries that are performed in parallel over the ontologies. Results and conclusions: We demonstrate that, with the exception of a few ontologies, even complex and parallel queries can now be answered in milliseconds, therefore allowing automated reasoning to be used on a large scale, to run in parallel, and with rapid response times.

  12. Semi-annual monitoring report for Barnes, Kansas, for July-December 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-27

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the seventh quarterly monitoring event, conducted in September

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 141-C Large Animal Barn and Biology Laboratory (Hog Barn), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-027

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-24

    The 141-C waste site is a former large animal barn and biology laboratory within the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. Strontium-90, arsenic, and multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected within residual demolition debris at concentrations exceeding cleanup criteria. The site has been remediated by removing approximately 900 bank cubic meters of soil and debris within the former building footprint to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Roost habitat of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in the canyonlands of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David W.; Van Riper, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In large portions of their geographic range, Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) roost in forest-dominated environments, but in some areas the owls use relatively arid rocky canyonlands. We measured habitat characteristics at 133 male roosts (n = 20 males) during 1992-95, and 56 female roosts (n = 13 females) during 1994-95. Across all years and study areas, 44% of Mexican Spotted Owl roosts occurred in mixed-conifer forest patches, 30% in desert scrub habitat, 16% in pinyon-juniper woodlands, and 10% of roosts occurred in riparian vegetation. Two basic substrates were used as perches by owls, including rock ledges or various trees, where roost height averaged 9 m (0.54 SD), and average height of cliffs above perched owls was 50 m (58 SD). For both males and females, trees types used most frequently included various firs (51%), followed by pinyon pine (18%), Utah juniper (15%), and big-tooth maple or box elder combined (15%). Roost sites were located in canyons composed of cliff-forming geologic formations, primarily oriented north-west to south-east. The width of canyons measured at roosts averaged 68 m (105 SD), but ranged from 1-500 m. Canopy cover at roosts used by owls ranged from 44% to 71%, mean tree height of all trees present was 9.5 m and mean diameter of trees was 25.4 cm. Non-roost habitat was warmer, not as steep, and possessed fewer caves and ledges than roost habitat. Trees present in roost plots were taller, and thus showed greater average diameter than trees present in non-roost habitat.

  15. Haemosporidian infections in the Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) and potential insect vectors of their transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Petr; Popelková, Alena; Koubínová, Darina; Šťastný, Karel; Langrová, Iva; Votýpka, Jan; Munclinger, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary bird species are suitable model hosts for identifying potential vectors of avian blood parasites. We studied haemosporidian infections in the Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) in the Ore Mountains of the Czech Republic using molecular detection methods. Sex of owl nestlings was scored using molecular sexing based on fragment analysis of PCR-amplified CHD1 introns. Observed infection prevalences in nestlings and adult owls were 51 and 86 %, respectively. Five parasite lineages were detected. Most of the infections comprised the Leucocytozoon AEFUN02 and STOCC06 lineages that probably refer to distinct Leucocytozoon species. Other lineages were detected only sporadically. Mixed infections were found in 49 % of samples. The main factor affecting the probability of infection was host age. No effect of individual sex on infection probability was evidenced. The youngest infected nestling was 12 days old. High parasite prevalence in the Tengmalm's Owl nestlings suggests that insect vectors must enter nest boxes to transmit parasites before fledging. Hence, we placed sticky insect traps into modified nest boxes, collected potential insect vectors, and examined them for the presence of haemosporidian parasites using molecular detection. We trapped 201 insects which were determined as biting midges from the Culicoides genus and two black fly species, Simulium (Nevermannia) vernum and Simulium (Eusimulium) angustipes. Six haemosporidian lineages were detected in the potential insect vectors, among which the Leucocytozoon lineage BT2 was common to the Tengmalm's Owl and the trapped insects. However, we have not detected the most frequently encountered Tengmalm's Owl Leucocytozoon lineages AEFUN02 and STOCC06 in insects.

  16. Sex steroid hormones in barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations at a dioxin contaminated site in northeast Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compares the gonadal sex steroid hormone levels (i.e., estradiol, total estrogen, and testosterone) in Louisiana barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) that were...

  17. Att stärka delaktigheten hos barn med autism på daghem : En litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Rikberg, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Idag strävas det efter att barn med lindrigare former av autism så långt som möjligt skall integreras i daghem. På grund av de svårigheter som barnet med autism har löper det risk att bli utanför gemenskapen på daghemmet. Examensarbetet beskriver i form av en litteraturstudie beskriva hur de professionella kan stärka delaktigheten hos barn med autism på daghem och därmed främja möjligheterna till social inklusion. Frågeställningen är följande: Hur kan professionella forma verksamheten på dag...

  18. Multimodal signalling in the North American barn swallow: a phenotype network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Matthew R.; Shizuka, Daizaburo; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Hubbard, Joanna K.; Safran, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex signals, involving multiple components within and across modalities, are common in animal communication. However, decomposing complex signals into traits and their interactions remains a fundamental challenge for studies of phenotype evolution. We apply a novel phenotype network approach for studying complex signal evolution in the North American barn swallow (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). We integrate model testing with correlation-based phenotype networks to infer the contributions of female mate choice and male–male competition to the evolution of barn swallow communication. Overall, the best predictors of mate choice were distinct from those for competition, while moderate functional overlap suggests males and females use some of the same traits to assess potential mates and rivals. We interpret model results in the context of a network of traits, and suggest this approach allows researchers a more nuanced view of trait clustering patterns that informs new hypotheses about the evolution of communication systems. PMID:26423842

  19. Multimodal signalling in the North American barn swallow: a phenotype network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Matthew R; Shizuka, Daizaburo; Joseph, Maxwell B; Hubbard, Joanna K; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-10-01

    Complex signals, involving multiple components within and across modalities, are common in animal communication. However, decomposing complex signals into traits and their interactions remains a fundamental challenge for studies of phenotype evolution. We apply a novel phenotype network approach for studying complex signal evolution in the North American barn swallow (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). We integrate model testing with correlation-based phenotype networks to infer the contributions of female mate choice and male-male competition to the evolution of barn swallow communication. Overall, the best predictors of mate choice were distinct from those for competition, while moderate functional overlap suggests males and females use some of the same traits to assess potential mates and rivals. We interpret model results in the context of a network of traits, and suggest this approach allows researchers a more nuanced view of trait clustering patterns that informs new hypotheses about the evolution of communication systems.

  20. Geographic variation in sexual selection and implications for speciation in the Barn Swallow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth SC Scordato; Rebecca J Safran

    2015-01-01

    Barn Swal ows (Hirundo rustica), a group of passerine birds comprised of six closely related subspecies, are well known throughout their nearly worldwide distribution, in part because of their close association with human settlements. A tractable species for both individual-based and population-level studies, Barn Swallows are a prominent model system in evolutionary, ecological, and behavioral research. Here we review work on sexual selection and population divergence in this species complex, focusing on comparative studies among populations and subspecies. We summarize variation in the targets of mate choice and in the information conveyed by sexually selected traits, and conclude that the benefits advertised by different traits may vary geographical y. Finally, we consider the role of sexual selection as a driver of population divergence in this widespread and phenotypically variable species complex.

  1. Geographic variation in sexual selection and implications for speciation in the Barn Swallow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth; SC; Scordato; Rebecca; J; Safran

    2015-01-01

    Barn Swallows(Hirundo rustica), a group of passerine birds comprised of six closely related subspecies, are well known throughout their nearly worldwide distribution, in part because of their close association with human settlements.A tractable species for both individual-based and population-level studies, Barn Swallows are a prominent model system in evolutionary, ecological, and behavioral research. Here we review work on sexual selection and population divergence in this species complex, focusing on comparative studies among populations and subspecies.We summarize variation in the targets of mate choice and in the information conveyed by sexually selected traits, and conclude that the benefits advertised by different traits may vary geographically. Finally, we consider the role of sexual selection as a driver of population divergence in this widespread and phenotypically variable species complex.

  2. Mellin-Barnes representations of Feynman diagrams, linear systems of differential equations, and polynomial solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-05-15

    We argue that the Mellin-Barnes representations of Feynman diagrams can be used for obtaining linear systems of homogeneous differential equations for the original Feynman diagrams with arbitrary powers of propagators without recourse to the integration-by-parts technique. These systems of differential equation can be used (i) for the differential reductions to sets of basic functions and (ii) for counting the numbers of master-integrals.

  3. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  4. The double Mellin-Barnes type integrals and their applications to convolution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hai, Nguyen Thanh

    1992-01-01

    This book presents new results in the theory of the double Mellin-Barnes integrals popularly known as the general H-function of two variables.A general integral convolution is constructed by the authors and it contains Laplace convolution as a particular case and possesses a factorization property for one-dimensional H-transform. Many examples of convolutions for classical integral transforms are obtained and they can be applied for the evaluation of series and integrals.

  5. Archeological Testing at 32BA414, Lake Ashtabula, Barnes County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    and Block 1967:44). Thick glacial drift (as deep as 95 m) blankets Barnes County (Kelly and Block 1967:17). Glacial till is dense east of 32BA414 in the...many roots) North Wail Profile Sa1ndy LearN 10YR 312 SandY Loarn lOf 311 (fewrn oot*) Sandy Sit Lesrn lOY" 312 Toat Unit 6 Sand 16O1M 313 West Wall

  6. Practical Encoders and Decoders for Euclidean Codes from Barnes-Wall Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Harshan, J; Belfiore, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that dense lattice packings can be obtained via Construction $A$ from \\emph{binary} linear codes. In this paper, we propose an extension of Construction $A$ called Construction $A^\\prime$ to obtain Barnes-Wall lattices from linear codes over finite rings. To obtain the Barnes-Wall lattice $BW_{2^{m}}$ in $\\mathbb{C}^{2^{m}}$ for any $m \\geq 1$, we identify a linear code $\\mathcal{C}_{2^m}$ over a polynomial ring and then embed the linear code to a lattice constellation $\\mathcal{L}_{2^{m}}$ such that $BW_{2^{m}}$ can be obtained as $BW_{2^{m}} = (1+i)^{m}\\mathbb{Z}[i]^{2^{m}} \\oplus \\mathcal{L}_{2^{m}}$ where $i = \\sqrt{-1}$. We also show that $\\mathcal{L}_{2^{m}}$ has the cubic shaping property when $m$ is even. We highlight that Construction $A^\\prime$ provides a convenient technique for bit-labelling Barnes-Wall lattice constellations. We also employ the lattice constellation $\\mathcal{L}_{2^{m}}$ as a coded modulation scheme for AWGN channels. To encode the code, we use Construction $A^{\\...

  7. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Neher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 × 10 m2 grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California’s 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  8. Simulated Performance of the Orbiting Wide-angle Light Collectors (OWL) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizmanic, J. F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Orbiting Wide-angle Light collectors (OWL) experiment is in NASA's mid-term strategic plan and will stereoscopically image, from equatorial orbit, the air fluorescence signal generated by airshowers induced by the ultrahigh energy (E greater than few x 10(exp 19) eV) component of the cosmic radiation. The use of a space-based platform enables an extremely large event acceptance aperture and thus will allow a high statistics measurement of these rare events. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations are required to quantify the physics potential of the mission as well as optimize the instrumental parameters. This paper reports on the results of the GSFC Monte Carlo simulation for two different, OWL instrument baseline designs. These results indicate that, assuming a continuation of the cosmic ray spectrum (theta approximately E(exp -2.75), OWL could have an event rate of 4000 events/year with E greater than or equal to 10(exp 20) eV. Preliminary results, based upon these Monte Carlo simulations, indicate that events can be accurately reconstructed in the detector focal plane arrays for the OWL instrument baseline designs under consideration.

  9. Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS as a Sensor for Thin Film and Quantum Dot Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Tang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS is usually applied as a biosensor system to the sorption-desorption of proteins to waveguide surfaces. Here, we show that OWLS can be used to monitor the quality of oxide thin film materials and of coatings of pulsed laser deposition synthesized CdSe quantum dots (QDs intended for solar energy applications. In addition to changes in data treatment and experimental procedure, oxide- or QD-coated waveguide sensors must be synthesized. We synthesized zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4 coated (Si,TiO2 waveguide sensors, and used OWLS to monitor the relative mass of the film over time. Films lost mass over time, though at different rates due to variation in fluid flow and its physical effect on removal of film material. The Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD technique was used to deposit CdSe QD coatings on waveguides. Sensors exposed to pH 2 solution lost mass over time in an expected, roughly exponential manner. Sensors at pH 10, in contrast, were stable over time. Results were confirmed with atomic force microscopy imaging. Limiting factors in the use of OWLS in this manner include limitations on the annealing temperature that maybe used to synthesize the oxide film, and limitations on the thickness of the film to be studied. Nevertheless, the technique overcomes a number of difficulties in monitoring the quality of thin films in-situ in liquid environments.

  10. The Meta-Ontology Model of the Fishdisease Diagnostic Knowledge Based on Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongchang; Gao, Wen; Hu, Liang; Fu, Zetian

    For improving available and reusable of knowledge in fish disease diagnosis (FDD) domain and facilitating knowledge acquisition, an ontology model of FDD knowledge was developed based on owl according to FDD knowledge model. It includes terminology of terms in FDD knowledge and hierarchies of their class.

  11. The tissue microarray OWL schema: An open-source tool for sharing tissue microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok P Kang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue microarrays (TMAs are enormously useful tools for translational research, but incompatibilities in database systems between various researchers and institutions prevent the efficient sharing of data that could help realize their full potential. Resource Description Framework (RDF provides a flexible method to represent knowledge in triples, which take the form Subject- Predicate-Object. All data resources are described using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs, which are global in scope. We present an OWL (Web Ontology Language schema that expands upon the TMA data exchange specification to address this issue and assist in data sharing and integration. Methods: A minimal OWL schema was designed containing only concepts specific to TMA experiments. More general data elements were incorporated from predefined ontologies such as the NCI thesaurus. URIs were assigned using the Linked Data format. Results: We present examples of files utilizing the schema and conversion of XML data (similar to the TMA DES to OWL. Conclusion: By utilizing predefined ontologies and global unique identifiers, this OWL schema provides a solution to the limitations of XML, which represents concepts defined in a localized setting. This will help increase the utilization of tissue resources, facilitating collaborative translational research efforts.

  12. Requirements for UML and OWL Integration Tool for User Data Consistency Modeling and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Oleshchuk, V. A.

    2003-01-01

    . In this paper we analyze requirements for a tool that support integration of UML models and ontologies written in languages like the W3C Web Ontology Language (OWL). The tool can be used in the following way: after loading two legacy models into the tool, the tool user connects them by inserting modeling...

  13. The "Night Owl" Learning Style of Art Students: Creativity and Daily Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sy-Chyi; Chern, Jin-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the deep-rooted "night owl" image of art practitioners and calls for attention on a consideration of the time for learning in art. It has been recognised that the human body has its own internal timings and knowing the "time" pattern is important for better productivity in conducting creativity-related activities. This study…

  14. An Owl in the Woods. ArtsEdge Curricula, Lessons and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rose

    Introducing children to well written and beautifully illustrated books will help build basic skills while providing for the aesthetic need for beauty and pleasure. This lesson is designed as an integrated literature and visual arts lesson, revolving around the story book, "Owl Moon," written by Jane Yolen and illustrated by John…

  15. US EPA OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator (OWL): uses linear regression to fit a plane to the elevation of the water table in monitoring wells in each round of sampling. The slope of the plane fit to the water table is used to predict the direction and gradient of ground water flow. Along with ...

  16. Secinātāja pieslēgšana OWL redaktoram

    OpenAIRE

    Kols, Kristaps

    2010-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbs „Secinātāja pieslēgšana OWL redaktoram” tika izstrādāts ar mērķi izveidot moduli, kas semantisko secinātāju pieslēgtu OWL redaktoram. Šis uzdevums sastāv no vairākiem soļiem. Pirmkārt, OWL redaktorā izstrādātās ontoloģijas no grafiskās formas ir jāpārvērš uz tekstuālo formu. Otrkārt, iegūtais rezultāts kā parametrs ir jāpadod secinātājam. Treškārt, secinātāja atgrieztais rezultāts ir jāparāda redaktora lietotājam. Semantiskā secinātāja pieslēgšana OWL redaktoram dotu l...

  17. A legal case OWL ontology with an instantiation of Popov v. Hayashi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyner, A.; Hoekstra, R.

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides an OWL ontology for legal cases with an instantiation of the legal case Popov v. Hayashi. The ontology makes explicit the conceptual knowledge of the legal case domain, supports reasoning about the domain, and can be used to annotate the text of cases, which in turn can be used to

  18. Analysis of I Heard the Owl Call My Name from an Intercultural View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈潇晗; 张培丽

    2016-01-01

    Absence of intercultural concepts may lead to misunderstanding in daily life and even in literature analysis. Therefore, a thorough comprehension of intercultural analysis in I Heard the Owl Call My Name, a book representing cultural diversities between Indian society and American society, will be beneficial in its literature appreciation.

  19. Some Guides to Discovery About Elm Trees, Owls, Cockroaches, Earthworms, Cement and Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…

  20. An XPath-based OWL storage model for effective ontology management in Semantic Web environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhyung KIM; Dongwon JEONG; Doo-kwon BAIK

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Web, the volume of information on the Web is increasing exponentially. However,information on the current Web is only understandable to humans, and this makes precise information retrieval difficult. To solve this problem, the Semantic Web was proposed. We must use ontology languages that can assign data the semantics for realizing the Semantic Web. One of the representative ontology languages is the Web ontology language OWL, adopted as a recommendation by the World-Wide Web Consortium (W3C). OWL includes hierarchical structural information between classes or properties. Therefore, an efficient OWL storage model that considers a hierarchical structure for effective information retrieval on the Semantic Web is required. In this paper we suggest an XPath-based OWL storage (XPOS) model, which includes hierarchical information between classes or properties in XPath form, and enables intuitive and effective information retrieval. Also, we show the comparative evaluation results for the performance of the XPOS model, Sesame, and the XML file system-based storage (XFSS) model, in terms of query processing and ontology updating.

  1. Harnessing the Power of Language: First Graders' Literature Engagement with "Owl Moon."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    Offers guidelines for using literature in the primary classroom. Shares the experiences of first graders with the book "Owl Moon." Notes that it is important to retain the essence of the story--to demonstrate for young readers how readers connect with books. (MG)

  2. Who are the bosses? Group influence on the behavior of voles following owl attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Michal; Bodek, Sivan; Eilam, David

    2014-10-01

    Individual members of a group must conform to the group norms, as they may otherwise become isolated from the group or the group may split. On the other hand, social groups usually comprise various social ranks and display a differential division of labor and consequently different behaviors. The present study was aimed at examining how the above factors are manifested in social voles that had experienced owl attack. Here, we reconfirm the findings of past studies: that grouped voles converge to display similar behavior after owl attack. In addition, we found that high-mass voles were more active in the open sectors of the experimental set-ups both before and after the owl attack, whereas low-mass voles dichotomized to those that increased and those that decreased their activity in the open following owl attack. Taking body mass as a proxy for social rank, it is suggested that as a consequence of their larger size and of their experience and physical strength, high-mass voles both presented an exemplary model for the low-mass voles and, accordingly, assumed leadership and stabilized their group's behavior. We also suggest a hypothetical model for the propagation of behavior in hierarchical groups.

  3. Are red-tailed hawks and great horned owls diurnal-nocturnal dietary counterparts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, C.D.; Kochert, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Great Homed Owls (Bubo virginianus)are common in North America where they occupy a wide range of habitats, often sympatrically. The two species are similar in size and have been portrayed as ecological counterparts, eating the same prey by day and night. We tested the trophic similarity of the two species by comparing published dietary data from across the United States. Both species ate primarily mammals and birds, and mean proportions of those two prey types did not differ significantly between diets of the two raptors. Red-tailed Hawks ate significantly more reptiles, and Great Homed Owls significantly more invertebrates. Dietary diversity was not significantly different at the level of prey taxonomic class, and diet overlap between the two species averaged 91%. At the prey species level, dietary overlap averaged only 50%, and at that level Red-tailed Hawk dietary diversity was significantly greater than that of Great Horned Owls. Mean prey mass of Red-tailed Hawks was significantly greater than that of Great Homed Owls. Populations of the two species in the western United States differed trophically more than did eastern populations. We conclude that, although the two species are generalist predators, they take largely different prey species in the same localities resulting in distinctive trophic characteristics.

  4. A telemetry study of the social organization of a tawny owl (Strix aluco) population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Bølstad, Mikkel S.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial dispersion and social interactions were studied in 11 neighbouring pairs of radio-tagged tawny owls Strix aluco in a deciduous wood in Denmark from 1998-2001. The numbers and shapes of territories were stable throughout the survey and similar to a mapping made 40 years earlier. The home...... involving one owl only from each pair. The dispute rate between neighbouring pairs correlated positively with home-range overlap. The total annual mortality was 21% (95% CI: 6-33%). Dead owners were usually replaced within 1-2 months. Two out of four cases of radio-tagged owls disappearing from...

  5. Barn og fysisk aktivitet i barnehagen: Hvordan kan aktivitetsnivået dokumenteres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Stokke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We monitored the physical activity levels of 42 children during a regular day in kindergarten, using various instruments. This study will provide knowledge about children’s activity levels in kindergarten. It also discusses whether children’s activity levels can be adequately evaluated by the teachers or if there is a need for technical measurements. In addition, we compared the different instruments used to evaluate the children. The employees in the kindergarten were asked to answer a questionnaire about the children’s physical activity level during the day, and a student or a researcher observed and registered one child each. During the same day, activity levels were monitored using actigraphy (AC; Actigraf GT3X and continuous heart rate monitoring (HR; Team2 Polar ® in 14 children (six boys and eight girls, 38 and 47 months old, respectively. The researcher-observations defined the observed children as “moderately active”, and AC-data showed that all children had more than 60 minutes of moderate - or high - intensity activity. According to our comparisons, the use of HR to assess the activity in kindergartens is not recommended. On average, the questionnaires reported similar physical activity levels for the same child, although the evaluations varied between employees. When comparing one active and one inactive child, the different methods showed similar results. We conclude that professionals can see a child’s physical activity level when asked to reflect upon it.Sammendrag: Vi målte det fysiske aktivitetsnivået til 42 barn i løpet av en vanlig dag i barnehagen ved hjelp av ulike instrumenter. Denne studien vil gi kunnskap om barns fysiske aktivitet i barnehagen, og om barnas aktivitetsnivå kan bli tilstrekkelig evaluert av lærerne eller om det er behov for tekniske målinger. Videre har vi sammenlignet de ulike instrumentene brukt i observasjonen. De ansatte i barnehagen ble bedt om å svare på et sp

  6. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández-Duque

    Full Text Available Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans, nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to

  7. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus) need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; de la Iglesia, Horacio; Erkert, Hans G

    2010-09-03

    Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans), nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai) of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months) 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals) to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to moonlight. Furthermore

  8. Event review: 1st Annual Outdoors Without Limits (OWL knap-in, Comer, Georgia, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In June of 2014, Outdoors Without Limits (OWL, a national non-profit organization that promotes awareness and teamwork between disabled and non-disabled individuals, sponsored their first knap-in and primitive skills gathering.

  9. Possible mechanisms for sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in eastern screech-owls and American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Thiele, L.A.; Garland, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a single dietary exposure to fenthion and carbofuran on the survival, feeding behavior and brain ChE activity of eastern screech-owls, Otus asio and American kestrels, Falco sparverius, were evaluated. Birds were exposed to fenthion (23.6189.0 ppm) or carbofuran (31.7253.6 ppm) via meatballs. Carbofuran-exposed owls ate either = 80% of the meatball whereas all kestrels ate depression in determining the sensitivity of an animal may be species-specific.

  10. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Neher; K. Shawn Smallwood; Bell, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA) generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds second...

  11. First paleoparasitological record of acanthocephalan eggs from Northwestern Patagonia (Late Holocene, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, María Ornela; Fernández, Fernando Julián; Sardella, Norma Haydeé

    2015-06-01

    Eggs representative of an acanthocephalan were found in an ancient fragment of raptor pellet, probably belonged to the barn owl, Tyto alba, from the archeological site named "Epullán Chica cave." This site is a cave located at the southern of Neuquén Province, Patagonia, Argentina. The fragment of pellet was found in a layer with charcoals dated at 1980±80 years B.P. A total of 56 eggs were found. Eggs were brown colored and thick-shelled, and presented four membranes, the outer lightly sculpted. The embryos presented hooks in one extremity. Measurements ranged from 87.5 to 107.5μm long and 50 to 57.5μm wide. Eggs were very well-preserved, and were identified as belonged to Class Archiacanthocephala, Order Oligacanthorhynchida, Family Oligacanthorhynchidae, probably Macracanthorhynchus Travassos, 1917, or an unidentified species. This is the first report of small mammal acanthocephalans from ancient material worldwide.

  12. Effect of scraping frequency in a freestall barn on volatile nitrogen loss from dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, V R; Satter, L D

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of scraping frequency (2x vs. 6x daily) on N volatilization from manure on the floor of a dairy free-stall barn. Three trials (crossover design) were conducted in the summers of 2001 and 2002, and in the winter of 2003. Nitrogen volatilization was estimated from the change in the N:P ratio in excreta at the time of excretion to the time when manure was scraped from the barn. Total N loss was considered a maximum estimate of NH3-N loss, because small amounts of nonammonia N may be volatilized. Nitrogen was determined after manure subsamples were lyophilized; P content was measured by direct current emission spectroscopy of ashed subsamples of manure. Lactating dairy cows were fed high-protein (18.5 to 19.3% crude protein), alfalfa-based diets. Average milk yield was 31.9 (SD = 7.4) kg/d. Scraping frequency had no effect on N loss in summer 2001. An average of 41% of excreted N, or 238 +/- 19.0 g of N/d per cow, was volatilized. For the trial in summer 2002, nitrogen volatilization was reduced from 50% of the excreted N with 2x to 46.7% with 6x, equivalent to 265 and 248 g of N lost/d per cow, respectively. Scraping had no effect on N volatilization during the winter trial. An average of 17.7% of excreted N was volatilized during the winter, equivalent to 109 +/- 11.0 g of N lost/d per cow. Scraping frequency of manure had little or no effect on N loss from manure in a freestall barn. Nitrogen loss during the winter was less than half of the loss during the summer.

  13. Bird predation by tawny owls ( Strix aluco L.) and its effect on the reproductive performance of tits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasvári, Lajos; Hegyi, Zoltán

    1998-11-01

    The density of great tit Parus major L. and blue tit Parus caeruleus L. was artificially increased by placing nest-box colonies for these species in the vicinity of the nests of breeding tawny owls during 1993-1997. Bird prey composition in the owl nests, the proportion of parents disappearing from the breeding tit populations and the reproductive performance of the widowed parents were analysed. The frequency of predation on tits by tawny owls was greater in areas where tit density had been artificially increased. Owls preyed more on tits during the feeding period of owlets than during the incubation period and more in years when snow covered the ground during the incubation period than when it did not. Mortality due to predation was male biased and more females lost their mates in populations breeding near tawny owl nests. Reproductive performance of the widowed parents was lower and their body weights were lighter at the end of the nestling period than those found in birds rearing youngs with their mates. Predation by owls increased the between-year turnover in the breeding tit population: widowed parents did not return to the nesting site for the next breeding season.

  14. Problemer med å måle eksponering for passiv røyking blant barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Nafstad m.fl.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGVanligvis måles eksponering for passiv røyking blant barn ved spørreskjemaopplysninger omforeldres røykevaner. Etter hvert som det blir mer oppmerksomhet om helseeffekter av passivrøyking, vil det kunne påvirke hvordan foreldre røyker og dermed også barns eksponering. Medhenvisning til innsamlede data om røykeeksponering i en kohort av Oslo-barn og fra en studie avbarn ved to helsestasjoner, diskuteres noen av de metodeproblemene en står overfor når en skal måleeksponering for passiv røyking i epidemiologiske studier. I disse studiene er barns eksponering forpassiv røyking målt ved spørreskjemaopplysninger og ved måling av hårnikotin og kotinin i urin.Det konkluderes med at det er usikkerhet om nøyaktigheten av eksisterende metoder for måling avpassiv røyking. Dette og manglende kunnskap om faktisk eksponeringsnivå kan føre til feilaktigestimering av helseeffekter av passiv røyking i en barnebefolkning.Nafstad P, Botten G, Magnus P. Problems in measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposurein children. Nor J Epidemiol 1995; 5 (2: 141-144.ENGLISH SUMMARYUsually environmental tobacco smoke exposure among children is measuered by questionnaires,recording parental smoking. As the adverse health effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposureare getting more known among the public, this is likely to influence the parents' way of smoking andby that their children's actual exposure. With references to findings in a cohort study of Oslochildren and a study of children attending two of Oslo’s health centers, some methodologicalproblems when measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure in epidemiological studies arediscussed. The exposure in these studies is measured in questionnaires to the parents and aschildren's hair nicotine concentration and urine cotinine concentration. Furthermore, the paperdiscusses how the uncertainty in actual levels of exposure may lead to false estimates for the totalhealth impact of

  15. AMBRE - a mathematica package for the construction of Mellin-Barnes representations for Feynman integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluza, J.; Kajda, K. [Silesia Univ, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Field Theory and Particle Physics, Inst. of Phsyics; Riemann, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    The Mathematica toolkit AMBRE derives Mellin-Barnes (MB) representations for Feynman integrals in d=4-2{epsilon} dimensions. It may be applied for tadpoles as well as for multi-leg multi-loop scalar and tensor integrals. AMBRE uses a loop-by-loop approach and aims at lowest dimensions of the final MB representations. The present version of AMBRE works fine for planar Feynman diagrams. The output may be further processed by the package MB for the determination of its singularity structure in {epsilon}. The AMBRE package contains various sample applications for Feynman integrals with up to six external particles and up to four loops. (orig.)

  16. Kortisonskepsis : En studie om holdninger til kortisonkrem blant foreldre av barn med atopisk eksem

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsen, Hanne Engstrøm

    2010-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Kortisonkremer er en viktig del av behandlingen mot atopisk eksem. Mange foreldre er skeptiske til bruken av kortisonkremer, fordi de har lest eller hørt om bivirkninger. Pasienters og pårørendes holdninger til bruk av kortisonkrem kan påvirke gjennomføringen av behandlingen. Formål: Vi ønsket å undersøke holdninger til bruk av kortisonkrem blant foreldre og pårørende av barn med atopisk eksem. Vi ville også undersøke om det er en sammenheng mellom kunnskapsnivå om kortisonkreme...

  17. Infektioner hos barn i förskola- gör utevistelse skillnad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Margareta; Söderström, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    Under åren i förskolan har barn många infektioner, framförallt luftvägsinfektioner. Det finns indikationer på att allt fler föräldrar efterfrågar förskolor där barnen är utomhus hela dagen. Gör det barnen friskare? Den vetenskapliga litteraturen på området är sparsam. Resultaten är inte entydiga ...

  18. ”Vissa barn älskar faktiskt sånna dära TV-reklamer” : - En övergripande studie om hur barn upplever och tolkar TV-reklam -

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Lotta

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Titel: “Some kids really love those commercials” -A study of how children experience and construe commercials. (Vissa barn älskar faktiskt sånna dära TV-reklamer” – En övergripande studie om hur barn upplever och tolkar tv-reklam.) Number of pages: 40 Author: Lotta Norberg Tutor: Amelie Hössjer Course: Media and Communication Studies C Period: Autumn term 2007 University: Division of Media and Communication, Department of Information Science, Uppsala University Purpose/Aim: The aim o...

  19. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  20. An additional field method to sex adult Barn Swallows during the non-breeding season in Zambia: white spot length in the outer tail feather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Dijk, van J.G.B.; Kraus, R.H.S.; Kerlen-Matema, A.C.; Brink, van den B.; Hooft, van W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Adult Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica exhibit strong sexual size dimorphism in the length of the outermost tail feathers, which are longer in males compared with females. This trait is traditionally used to sex adult Barn Swallows in the field. However, due to the wear and breakage of the tips of the

  1. Growth and immunity conferred by a Plasmodium falciparum temperature sensitive mutant in Panamanian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inselburg, J; Rossan, R N; Escajadillo, A

    1989-05-01

    We have compared the growth of the wild type Plasmodium falciparum strain Honduras 1 and a previously isolated temperature sensitive mutant of it, AP1-16, in Panamanian owl monkeys. We examined serially infected splenectomized and normal animals that were initially infected with cultured parasites that had been grown in a mixture of owl monkey and human erythrocytes. Initial infections in splenectomized monkeys were marked by multiple recrudescences. The mutant grew less well than the wild type in the splenectomized monkeys, as determined by lower peak and total parasitemias. In the splenectomized monkeys tested by rechallenge with the wild type parasite, the mutant stimulated a comparable degree of protection. That protection was manifested in 2 ways. There was a marked reduction in the level of the primary parasitemia in the rechallenged monkeys and an absence of recrudescent parasitemias after the primary parasitemia. The potential value of generating and studying temperature sensitive P. falciparum strains that show attenuated growth is considered.

  2. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the Oriental scops owl (Otus scops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2009-05-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of an adult owl (Otus scops) was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the adult owl was about 1 cm long. Three parts were distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, the body and the root of the tongue. The conical region between the lingual apex and lingual root was very wide area. The conical papillae of the lingual body were inclined toward the posterior of the tongue. At low magnification of scanning electron microscopy, the desquamated cells were observed in the entire dorsal surface of the lingual apex. The connective tissue cores of the epithelium of the lingual apex showed the rod-shaped protrusions. The border between the lingual apex and body was clear and the small conical papillae were observed in the lingual body. The small and large conical papillae were observed on the lingual body. The many openings of the lingual glands existed in the lingual body and lingual root.

  3. "To Thine Own Self Be True": Existentialism in Hamlet and The Blind Owl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Farahmandfar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at exploring the key concepts of Existential thought in two masterpieces of the world literature, namely, William Shakespeare’s Hamlet and Sadeq Hedayat’s The Blind Owl (Buf-e Kur. Freedom, free will, authenticity, self-realization, self-becoming, and awareness of death are among the main concerns of both writers. Shakespeare depicts authenticity in the character of Hamlet, and it is in contrast to him that the reader finds many instances of inauthenticity. The Danish prince has no tolerance whatsoever for inauthentic or self-deceiving. The same thing is visible in The Blind Owl in which the narrator-protagonist feels himself above all the low, petty desires of mankind. All in all, both characters’ main challenge is to live authentically. Keywords: Existential philosophy, authenticity, angst, death, being, existence, self-realization

  4. Psychological interpretation of Blind Owl based on C.D.A stylistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    نادر جهانگیری

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available C.D.A stylistics is an approach in stylistics which goes beyond description and semantic interpretation and gives psychological interpretation and sociological explanation of a text. This article is intended to present a psychological interpretation of Blind Owl applying functional variables such as ideational, interpersonal(tense, mood, textual(cohesive ties. This articles is trying to reply to this question: what kind of surrealistic features functional variables can represent. The hypothesis is that through functional variables some surrealistic features such as subjectivism, automatic writing, soliloquy and stream of consciousness are represented. The theoretical frame work is C.D.A stylistics and The research method is statistical- analytical, the data analysis has been done by one-stage cluster sampling proportional to sample size as well. The results indicate that Blind Owl based on linguistic evidences is subjective, reality denying and surrealistic. Key word: Style, Discourse, Functional, Variable, Description, Interpretation, Explanation, Buf-e kur.

  5. Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl's Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl's wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl's wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift. PMID:28243053

  6. A Pilot Study on Modeling of Diagnostic Criteria Using OWL and SWRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Na; Jiang, Guoqian; Pathak, Jyotishiman; Chute, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe our efforts in a pilot study on modeling diagnostic criteria using a Semantic Web-based approach. We reused the basic framework of the ICD-11 content model and refined it into an operational model in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). The refinement is based on a bottom-up analysis method, in which we analyzed data elements (including value sets) in a collection (n=20) of randomly selected diagnostic criteria. We also performed a case study to formalize rule logic in the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome using the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL). The results demonstrated that it is feasible to use OWL and SWRL to formalize the diagnostic criteria knowledge, and to execute the rules through reasoning.

  7. A chronic disease dietary consultation system using OWL-based ontologies and semantic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Liang; Chen, Tsang-Yao; Tsai, Wan-Ting

    2015-02-01

    Chronic diseases patients often require constant dietary control that involves complicated interaction among factors such as the illness stage, the patient's physical condition, the patient's activity level, the amount of food intake, and key nutrient restrictions. This study aims to integrate multiple knowledge sources for problem solving modeling and knowledge-based system (KBS) development. A chronic kidney disease dietary consultation system is constructed by using Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) to demonstrate how a KBS approach can achieve sound problem solving modeling and effective knowledge inference. For system evaluation, information from 84 case patients is used to evaluate the performance of the system in recommending appropriate food serving amounts from different food groups for balanced key nutrient ingestion. The results show that, excluding interference factors, the OWL-based KBS can achieve accurate problem solving reasoning while maintaining knowledge base shareability and extensibility.

  8. On Directly Mapping Relational Databases to RDF and OWL (Extended Version)

    CERN Document Server

    Sequeda, Juan F; Miranker, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Mapping relational databases to RDF is a fundamental problem for the development of the Semantic Web. We present a solution, inspired by draft methods defined by the W3C where relational databases are directly mapped to RDF and OWL. Given a relational database schema and its integrity constraints, this direct mapping produces an OWL ontology, which, provides the basis for generating RDF instances. The semantics of this mapping is defined using Datalog. Two fundamental properties are information preservation and query preservation. We prove that our mapping satisfies both conditions, even for relational databases that contain null values. We also consider two desirable properties: monotonicity and semantics preservation. We prove that our mapping is monotone and also prove that no monotone mapping, including ours, is semantic preserving. We realize that monotonicity is an obstacle for semantic preservation and thus present a non-monotone direct mapping that is semantics preserving.

  9. Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl's Airfoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weijun; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jiyue; Li, Ming; Ma, Yi; Cong, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl's wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl's wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift.

  10. Chromosome mapping of the owl monkey CSF1R and IL5 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, N S; Lin, K C

    1992-08-01

    We mapped the owl monkey colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) locus to the proximal region of chromosome 3q of karyotype VI(K-VI) and karyotype V(K-V) and the interleukin 5 (IL5) locus to the mid-region of chromosome 3q(K-VI) and 19q(K-IV) using a combination of Southern hybridization of somatic cells and in situ chromosomal hybridization methodologies. The findings support the proposed evolution of owl monkey chromosome 3(K-VI) from a fusion of two smaller structures, the homologs of chromosomes 6 and 19 (K-IV). The data also indicate genomic conservation of the HSA 5q23-q35 segment in the higher primates.

  11. Post-fledging behaviour of juveniles in the Little Owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe; Thorup, Kasper; Sunde, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Before dispersal, social and spatial behaviour in owls has only been briefly studied. We used radio tracking to monitor age-influenced social and spatial behaviour in 10 juvenile Little Owls (Athene noctua) from nests in Northern Jutland, Denmark. On average, the post-fledging dependency period...... lasted 35 days (n = 6). Juveniles stayed on the natal territory 45 days (n = 5) from independence to dispersal.Half of the juveniles had dispersed by mid-September, and the other half remained on the natal territory until at leastmid-October. The home range size (minimum convex polygons) was 0.56 ± 0...... consistent with the notion that food provided by the parents decreased as juvenile foraging skills increased....

  12. The maintenance of phenotypic divergence through sexual selection: An experimental study in barn swallows Hirundo rustica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Rebecca J; Vortman, Yoni; Jenkins, Brittany R; Hubbard, Joanna K; Wilkins, Matthew R; Bradley, Rachel J; Lotem, Arnon

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that sexual signals can rapidly diverge among closely related species. However, we lack experimental studies to demonstrate that differences in trait-associated reproductive performance maintain sexual trait differences between closely related populations, in support for a role of sexual selection in speciation. Populations of Northern Hemisphere distributed barn swallows Hirundo rustica are closely related, yet differ in two plumage-based traits: ventral color and length of the outermost tail feathers (streamers). Here we provide experimental evidence that manipulations of these traits result in different reproductive consequences in two subspecies of barn swallow: (H. r. erythrogaster in North America and H. r. transitiva in the East Mediterranean). Experimental results in Colorado, USA, demonstrate that males with (1) darkened ventral coloration and (2) shortened streamers gained paternity between two successive reproductive bouts. In contrast, exaggeration of both traits improved reproductive performance within H. r. transitiva in Israel: males with a combination treatment of darkened ventral coloration and elongated streamers gained paternity between two successive reproductive bouts. Collectively, these experimental results fill an important gap in our understanding for how divergent sexual selection maintains phenotype differentiation in closely related populations, an important aspect of the speciation process.

  13. An automatic system for the detection of dairy cows lying behaviour in free-stall barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for the automatic detection of dairy cow lying behaviour in free-stall barns is proposed. A computer visionbased system (CVBS composed of a video-recording system and a cow lying behaviour detector based on the Viola Jones algorithm was developed. The CVBS performance was tested in a head-to-head free stall barn. Two classifiers were implemented in the software component of the CVBS to obtain the cow lying behaviour detector. The CVBS was validated by comparing its detection results with those generated from visual recognition. This comparison allowed the following accuracy indices to be calculated: the branching factor (BF, the miss factor (MF, the sensitivity, and the quality percentage (QP. The MF value of approximately 0.09 showed that the CVBS missed one cow every 11 well detected cows. Conversely, the BF value of approximately 0.08 indicated that one false positive was detected every 13 well detected cows. The high value of approximately 0.92 obtained for the sensitivity index and that obtained for QP of about 0.85 revealed the ability of the proposed system to detect cows lying in the stalls.

  14. Non-Perturbative Asymptotic Improvement of Perturbation Theory and Mellin-Barnes Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Friot

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a method mixing Mellin-Barnes representation and Borel resummation we show how to obtain hyperasymptotic expansions from the (divergent formal power series which follow from the perturbative evaluation of arbitrary ''N-point'' functions for the simple case of zero-dimensional φ4 field theory. This hyperasymptotic improvement appears from an iterative procedure, based on inverse factorial expansions, and gives birth to interwoven non-perturbative partial sums whose coefficients are related to the perturbative ones by an interesting resurgence phenomenon. It is a non-perturbative improvement in the sense that, for some optimal truncations of the partial sums, the remainder at a given hyperasymptotic level is exponentially suppressed compared to the remainder at the preceding hyperasymptotic level. The Mellin-Barnes representation allows our results to be automatically valid for a wide range of the phase of the complex coupling constant, including Stokes lines. A numerical analysis is performed to emphasize the improved accuracy that this method allows to reach compared to the usual perturbative approach, and the importance of hyperasymptotic optimal truncation schemes.

  15. The Jellyfish hunter--Jack Barnes: a pioneer medical toxinologist in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John; Fenner, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Dr Jack Handyside Barnes (1922-1985) was one of the small and elite group of Pacific marine toxinologists whose work was characterised by an uncompromising rugged persona, a focussed resolve to solve challenging problems of human clinical envenomation, and who conducted curiosity-driven research under conditions of scientific isolation. He was a pioneering advocate for the preservation of marine heritage, particularly that of the Great Barrier Reef. A former military commando who later became a general medical practitioner with extensive surgical and obstetric skills, in 1947 he was appointed the Medical Superintendent of Thursday Island in the Torres Strait. Later (from January 1953), he worked indefatigably as a general medical practitioner in Cairns, in tropical North Australia. For four decades (1945-1985), Jack Barnes undertook detailed laboratory, clinical and field research into invertebrate envenomation, particularly medusan toxinology. In 1960 he discovered the species responsible for the Irukandji syndrome, a small carybdeid named Carukia barnesi in his honour. He invented the research technique for the extraction of venom from the world's most venomous creature, the Pacific box Jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. By 1960, he had published taxonomic details of nematocyst structure and clinical envenomation details consequent upon stings by Physalia, Cyanea, Chironex, Chiropsalmus and Carukia. This paper is a précis of the chronology of his life, contributions and influence.

  16. Fitness loss and germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegren, Hans; Lindgren, Gabriella; Primmer, C.R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Animal Breeding and Genetics Dept., Uppsala (Sweden); Moeller, A.P. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. Lab. d`Ecologie, Paris, 75 (France)

    1997-10-09

    The severe nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1986 resulted in the worst reported accidental exposure of radioactive material to free-living organisms. Short-term effects on human populations inhabiting polluted areas include increased incidence of thyroid cancer, infant leukaemia, and congenital malformations in newborns. Two recent studies have reported, although with some controversy, that germline mutation rates were increased in humans and voles living close to Chernobyl, but little is known about the viability of the organisms affected. Here we report an increased frequency of partial albinism, a morphological aberration associated with a loss of fitness, among barn swallows, Hirundo rustica, breeding close to Chernobyl. Heretability estimates indicate that mutations causing albinism were at least partly of germline origin. Furthermore, evidence for an increased germline mutation rate was obtained from segregation analysis at two hypervariable microsatellite loci, indicating that mutation events in barn swallows from Chernobyl were two- to tenfold higher than in birds from control areas in Ukraine and Italy. (author).

  17. Testosterone, plumage colouration and extra-pair paternity in male North-American barn swallows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cas Eikenaar

    Full Text Available In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours important for social and extra-pair mate choice. However, little is known about the relationship between natural male testosterone concentration and sexual selection. To investigate this relationship we measured testosterone concentration and sexual signals (ventral plumage colour and tail length, and determined within and extra-pair fertilization success in male North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster. Dark rusty coloured males had higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. Extra-pair paternity was common (42% and 31% of young in 2009 and 2010, respectively, but neither within- nor extra-pair fertilization success was related to male testosterone concentration. Dark rusty males were less often cuckolded, but did not have higher extra-pair or total fertilization success than drab males. Tail length did not affect within- or extra-pair fertilization success. Our findings suggest that, in North American barn swallows, male testosterone concentration does not play a significant direct role in female mate choice and sexual selection. Possibly plumage colour co-varies with a male behavioural trait, such as aggressiveness, that reduces the chance of cuckoldry. This could also explain why dark males have higher testosterone concentrations than drab males.

  18. Better-surviving barn swallow mothers produce more and better-surviving sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Andrea; Costanzo, Alessandra; Caprioli, Manuela; Parolini, Marco; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts that parents are selected to bias their progeny sex ratio (SR) toward the sex that will benefit the most from parental quality. Because parental quality may differentially affect survival of sons and daughters, a pivotal test of the adaptive value of SR adjustment is whether parents overproduce offspring of the sex that accrues larger fitness advantages from high parental quality. However, this crucial test of the long-term fitness consequences of sex allocation decisions has seldom been performed. In this study of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we showed a positive correlation between the proportion of sons and maternal annual survival. We then experimentally demonstrated that this association did not depend on the differential costs of rearing offspring of either sex. Finally, we showed that maternal lifespan positively predicted lifespan of sons but not of daughters. Because in barn swallows lifespan is a strong determinant of lifetime reproductive success, the results suggest that mothers overproduce offspring of the sex that benefits the most from maternal quality. Hence, irrespective of mechanisms causing the SR bias and mother-son covariation in lifespan, we provide strong evidence that sex allocation decisions of mothers can highly impact on their lifetime fitness.

  19. Food Barn for The Village Community To Strengthen Community Empowerment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidyah Indira Hasmarini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the achievement level of community empowerment in realizing food security. The result was expected to reveal a model of community empowerment, particularly farmer community institution as an attempt to attain food security. Survey was employed as the research method that involved the farmers (farmer groups as the members of Food Barn for the Village Community (Lumbung Pangan Masyarakat Desa/LPMD. Technique of rapid rural appraisal was selected in the form of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Preliminary survey in study area was carried out to obtain the characteristic and status of food security; and to mapping the potential and role of Lumbung Pangan Masyarakat Desa in the process of community empowerment. Subsequently, study and analysis was done based on the survey. The results demonstrated the active role of stakeholders (A-B-G-C was significant in supporting the farmer institution (food barn. The economic and social aspects were also evidenced to have important role in enhancing the farmer community empowerment. This model is called social engine for rural community and local institution, particularly to attain the regional food security.

  20. Laboratory-scale investigation of UV treatment of ammonia for livestock and poultry barn exhaust applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockafellow, Erin M; Koziel, Jacek A; Jenks, William S

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using deep ultraviolet (UV) treatment for abatement of ammonia (NH(3)) in livestock and poultry barn exhaust air was examined in a series of laboratory-scale experiments. These experiments simulated moving exhaust air through an irradiation chamber with variables of UV wavelength and dose, NH(3) concentrations, humidity, and presence of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Ammonia, initially at relevant barn exhaust concentrations in air, was substantially or completely reduced by irradiation with 185 nm light. Reactions were monitored using chemiluminescence detection, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, of which the latter was found to be the most informative and flexible. Detected nitrogen-containing products included N(2)O, NH(4)NO(3), and HNO(3). It was presumed that atomic oxygen is the primary photochemical product that begins the oxidative cascade. The data show that removal of NH(3) is plausible, but they highlight concerns over pollution swapping due to formation of ozone and N(2)O.

  1. Antibody Prevalence and Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Raptors in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David; Kwok, Oliver C; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, Jitender P; Bellah, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ). Antibodies were not detected in 5 Barn Owls ( Tyto alba ), 3 American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 1 Mississippi Kite ( Ictinia mississippiensis ), and 1 Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus ). Viable T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of 1 antibody-positive Barred Owl and identified as a strain having type II alleles at all 10 loci tested, except one (ToxoDB polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotype 3). Type II strain is the most common strain in the US. Results of this study indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii in some raptor species and the first reported genotyping from a Barred Owl.

  2. Vestibular functions and sleep in space experiments. [using rhesus and owl monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perachio, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Physical indices of sleep were continuously monitored in an owl monkey living in a chamber continuously rotating at a constant angular velocity. The electrophysiological data obtained from chronically implanted electrodes was analyzed to determine the chronic effects of vestibular stimulation on sleep and wakefulness cycles. The interaction of linear and angular acceleration on the vestibulo-ocular reflex was investigated in three rhesus monkeys at various angular accelerations.

  3. Validation of the openEHR archetype library by using OWL reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2011-01-01

    Electronic Health Record architectures based on the dual model architecture use archetypes for representing clinical knowledge. Therefore, ensuring their correctness and consistency is a fundamental research goal. In this work, we explore how an approach based on OWL technologies can be used for such purpose. This method has been applied to the openEHR archetype repository, which is the largest available one nowadays. The results of this validation are also reported in this study.

  4. Record of the Buff-fronted Owl (Aegolius harrisii) in the Pampa Biome, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marluci Müller Rebelato; Guilherme Garcez Cunha; Renata Figueira Machado; Paulo Afonso Hartmann

    2011-01-01

    We present the second record of the Buff-fronted Owl (Aegolius harrisii) in the Pampa Biome, South Brazil. On 17 January 2010 an adult male was found dead at the roadside along the BR-290, São Gabriel municipality, center-east of Rio Grande do Sul state. The specimen probably collided with a car when using the area for foraging. The record reported here agrees with the suggestion that A. harrisii can use disturbed and open areas.

  5. Record of the Buff-fronted Owl (Aegolius harrisii in the Pampa Biome, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluci Müller Rebelato

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the second record of the Buff-fronted Owl (Aegolius harrisii in the Pampa Biome, South Brazil. On 17 January 2010 an adult male was found dead at the roadside along the BR-290, São Gabriel municipality, center-east of Rio Grande do Sul state. The specimen probably collided with a car when using the area for foraging. The record reported here agrees with the suggestion that A. harrisii can use disturbed and open areas.

  6. Local weather, regional climate, and annual survival of the northern spotted owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.M.; Anthony, R.G.; Forsman, E.D.; Olson, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    We used an information-theoretical approach and Cormack-Jolly-Seber models for open populations in program MARK to examine relationships between survival rates of Northern Spotted Owls and a variety of local weather variables and long-term climate variables. In four of the six populations examined, survival was positively associated with wetter than normal conditions during the growing season or high summer temperatures. At the three study areas located at the highest elevations, survival was positively associated with winter temperature but also had a negative or quadratic relation with the number of storms and winter precipitation. A metaanalysis of all six areas combined indicated that annual survival was most strongly associated with phase shifts in the Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which reflect large-scale temperature and precipitation patterns in this region. Climate accounted for a variable amount (1-41%) of the total process variation in annual survival but for more year-to-year variation (3-66%) than did spatial variation among owl territories (0-7%). Negative associations between survival and cold, wet winters and nesting seasons were similar to those found in other studies of the Spotted Owl. The relationships between survival and growing-season precipitation and regional climate patterns, however, had not been reported for this species previously. Climate-change models for the first half of the 21st century predict warmer, wetter winters and hotter, drier summers for the Pacific Northwest. Our results indicate that these conditions could decrease Spotted Owl survival in some areas. Copyright ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  7. Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) perform self- and social anointing in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Jay P; Tapanes, Elizabeth; Evans, Sian

    2014-01-01

    Several species of primates, including owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), anoint by rubbing their fur with odiferous substances. Previous research has shown that capuchin monkeys (Cebus and Sapajus) anoint socially by rubbing their bodies together in groups of two or more while anointing. Owl monkeys housed at the DuMond Conservancy have been observed to anoint over the last 10 years, and we report detailed new information on the anointing behavior of this population, including descriptions of social anointing which occurs frequently. We first investigated the occurrence of self-anointing in 35 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes. Detailed descriptions regarding body regions anointed were obtained for all anointers (n = 28). The median duration for a self-anointing bout was 3.6 min (range from approx. 2 s to 14.15 min). While the latency and length of anointing bouts showed considerable interindividual differences, no statistically significant differences were found between sexes, wild- or captive-born owl monkeys or across age groups. However, we found the lower back and tail were anointed at a rate significantly greater than other body parts, but there were no differences in these patterns across sex or wild- or captive-born owl monkeys. More recently, social anointing was investigated in 26 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes, of which half were observed to anoint socially. The average duration for all social anointing bouts was 72.88 s, with a median duration of 30 s (range 5-322 s). A detailed ethogram was also generated that included behaviors that were performed while anointing, including facial expressions and vocalizations. The intraindividual variability for 8 monkeys used in both investigations is discussed. These findings extend our knowledge of anointing and confirm the existence of social anointing in another genus with a unique biology (nocturnal and socially monogamous) distinct from capuchins.

  8. Pattern of maternal circulating CRH in laboratory-housed squirrel and owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M L; Williams, L E; Gibson, S V; Schulkin, J; Helfers, J; Zorrilla, E P

    2010-11-01

    The anthropoid primate placenta appears to be unique in producing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Placental CRH is involved in an endocrine circuit key to the production of estrogens during pregnancy. CRH induces cortisol production by the maternal and fetal adrenal glands, leading to further placental CRH production. CRH also stimulates the fetal adrenal glands to produce dehydroepiandrostendione sulfate (DHEAS), which the placenta converts into estrogens. There are at least two patterns of maternal circulating CRH across gestation among anthropoids. Monkeys examined to date (Papio and Callithrix) have an early-to-mid gestational peak of circulating CRH, followed by a steady decline to a plateau level, with a possible rise near parturition. In contrast, humans and great apes have an exponential rise in circulating CRH peaking at parturition. To further document and compare patterns of maternal circulating CRH in anthropoid primates, we collected monthly blood samples from 14 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) and ten owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) during pregnancy. CRH immunoreactivity was measured from extracted plasma by using solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Both squirrel and owl monkeys displayed a mid-gestational peak in circulating CRH: days 45-65 of the 152-day gestation for squirrel monkeys (mean±SEM CRH=2,694±276 pg/ml) and days 60-80 of the 133-day gestation for owl monkeys (9,871±974 pg/ml). In squirrel monkeys, circulating CRH declined to 36% of mean peak value by 2 weeks before parturition and then appeared to increase; the best model for circulating CRH over gestation in squirrel monkeys was a cubic function, similar to previous results for baboons and marmosets. In owl monkeys, circulating CRH appeared to reach plateau with no subsequent significant decline approaching parturition, although a cubic function was the best fit. This study provides additional evidence for a mid-gestational peak of maternal circulating CRH in ancestral

  9. Serological and parasitological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds from Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Felix, T A; Kwok, O C H

    2010-10-01

    Ground-feeding birds are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as indicators of soil contamination by oocysts, and birds of prey are indicators of T. gondii prevalence in rodents and other small mammals. Cats excrete environmentally resistant oocysts after consuming tissues of T. gondii -infected birds. In the present study, sera and tissues from 382 wild birds from Colorado were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 38 birds with the use of the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1∶25 titer). Tissues (brains, hearts) of 84 birds were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 1 barn owl (Tyto alba), 1 of 5 American kestrels (Falco sparverius), 1 of 7 ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis), 1 of 4 rough-legged hawks (Buteo lagopus), 2 of 13 Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni), and 1 of 25 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). This is the first time T. gondii has been isolated from the barn owl, ferruginous hawk, rough-legged hawk, and Swainson's hawk.

  10. Distribution of the Chuckwalla, Western Burrowing Owl, and Six Bat Species on the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Willis

    1997-05-01

    Field Surveys were conducted in 1996 to determine the current distribution of several animal species of concern on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). They included the chuckwall (Sauromalus obesus), western burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia), and six species of bats. Nineteen chuckwallas and 118 scat locations were found during the chuckwalla field study. Eighteen western burrowing owls were found at 12 sighting locations during the 1996 field study. Of the eleven bat species of concern which might occur on the NTS, five, and possibly six, were captured during this survey. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, takes certain management actions to protect and conserve the chuckwalla, western burrowing owl, and bats on the NTS. These actions are described and include: (1) conducting surveys at sites of proposed land-disturbing activities (2) altering projects whenever possible to avoid or minimize impacts to these species (3) maintaining a geospatial database of known habitat for species of concern (4) sharing sighting and trap location data gathered on the NTS with other local land and resource managers, and (5) conducting periodic field surveys to monitor these species distribution and relative abundance on the NTS.

  11. Factors Affecting Growth of Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) Nestlings: Prey Abundance, Sex and Hatching Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárybnická, Markéta; Riegert, Jan; Brejšková, Lucie; Šindelář, Jiří; Kouba, Marek; Hanel, Jan; Popelková, Alena; Menclová, Petra; Tomášek, Václav; Šťastný, Karel

    2015-01-01

    In altricial birds, energy supply during growth is a major predictor of the physical condition and survival prospects of fledglings. A number of experimental studies have shown that nestling body mass and wing length can vary with particular extrinsic factors, but between-year observational data on this topic are scarce. Based on a seven-year observational study in a central European Tengmalm's owl population we examine the effect of year, brood size, hatching order, and sex on nestling body mass and wing length, as well as the effect of prey abundance on parameters of growth curve. We found that nestling body mass varied among years, and parameters of growth curve, i.e. growth rate and inflection point in particular, increased with increasing abundance of the owl's main prey (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles), and pooled prey abundance (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles, and Sorex shrews). Furthermore, nestling body mass varied with hatching order and between sexes being larger for females and for the first-hatched brood mates. Brood size had no effect on nestling body mass. Simultaneously, we found no effect of year, brood size, hatching order, or sex on the wing length of nestlings. Our findings suggest that in this temperate owl population, nestling body mass is more sensitive to prey abundance than is wing length. The latter is probably more limited by the physiology of the species.

  12. Minimum Number of Observation Points for LEO Satellite Orbit Estimation by OWL Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Maru; Jo, Jung Hyun; Cho, Sungki; Choi, Jin; Kim, Chun-Hwey; Park, Jang-Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Bae, Young-Ho; Park, Sun-Youp; Kim, Ji-Hye; Roh, Dong-Goo; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Park, Young-Sik; Jeong, Min-Ji

    2015-12-01

    By using the Optical Wide-field Patrol (OWL) network developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) we generated the right ascension and declination angle data from optical observation of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. We performed an analysis to verify the optimum number of observations needed per arc for successful estimation of orbit. The currently functioning OWL observatories are located in Daejeon (South Korea), Songino (Mongolia), and Oukaïmeden (Morocco). The Daejeon Observatory is functioning as a test bed. In this study, the observed targets were Gravity Probe B, COSMOS 1455, COSMOS 1726, COSMOS 2428, SEASAT 1, ATV-5, and CryoSat-2 (all in LEO). These satellites were observed from the test bed and the Songino Observatory of the OWL network during 21 nights in 2014 and 2015. After we estimated the orbit from systematically selected sets of observation points (20, 50, 100, and 150) for each pass, we compared the difference between the orbit estimates for each case, and the Two Line Element set (TLE) from the Joint Space Operation Center (JSpOC). Then, we determined the average of the difference and selected the optimal observation points by comparing the average values.

  13. Nest site characteristics and nesting success of the Western Burrowing Owl in the eastern Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, Kathleen M.; Crowe, Dorothy E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated nest site selection at two spatial scales (microsite, territory) and reproductive success of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) at three spatial scales (microsite, territory, landscape) in the eastern Mojave Desert. We used binary logistic regression within an information-theoretic approach to assess factors influencing nest site choice and nesting success. Microsite-scale variables favored by owls included burrows excavated by desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), burrows with a large mound of excavated soil at the entrance, and a greater number of satellite burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. At the territory scale, owls preferred patches with greater cover of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) within 50 m of the nest burrow. An interaction between the presence or absence of a calcic soil horizon layer over the top of the burrow (microsite) and the number of burrows within 50 m (territory) influenced nest site choice. Nesting success was influenced by a greater number of burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. Total cool season precipitation was a predictor of nesting success at the landscape scale. Conservation strategies can rely on management of habitat for favored and productive nesting sites for this declining species.

  14. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrona-Rivera, Alicia E; Enríquez, Paula L; García-Feria, Luis M; Orellana, Sergio Alvarado; von Osten, Jaime Rendón

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were quantified in samples of feathers (n = 17) and blood (n = 15) of the ferruginous pygmy owl (Glaucidium brasilianum). The individuals were captured near the Protected Natural Area Cerro Sonsonate, Chiapas, Mexico, between February and June 2014. In both tissues, pesticides belonging to seven organochlorine chemical families were detected. However, the organochlorine pesticide concentrations differed between feathers and blood. The highest concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes were found in feathers (0.63 ± 0.89 μg/g), whereas the highest concentrations of ΣDrines were found in blood (0.31 ± 0.47 μg/mL). By using the summed concentrations for each of the seven families of pesticides found in feathers, we did not find any significant correlation between the pesticides and pectoral muscle or body weight (p > 0.15). The ΣDDT group was the only pesticide family that showed a positive correlation with owl body weight (r = 0.60, p = 0.05); the concentrations of these pesticides were also high in feather and blood tissues (r = 0.87, p = 0.02). Our results confirm that ferruginous pygmy owls in the study area are exposed to these pesticides.

  15. Population trends in northern spotted owls: Associations with climate in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.M.; Anthony, R.G.; Forsman, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    We used reverse time capture-mark-recapture models to describe associations between rate of population change (??) and climate for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) at six long-term study areas in Washington and Oregon, USA. Populations in three of six areas showed strong evidence of declining populations, while populations in two additional areas were likely declining as well. At four areas, ?? was positively associated with wetter-than-normal conditions during the growing season, which likely affects prey availability. Lambda was also negatively associated with cold, wet winters and nesting seasons, and the number of hot summer days. The amount of annual variation in ?? accounted for by climate varied across study areas (3-85%). Rate of population change was more sensitive to adult survival than to recruitment; however, there was considerable variation among years and across study areas for all demographic rates. While annual survival was more closely related to regional climate conditions, recruitment was often associated with local weather. In addition to climate, declines in recruitment at four of six areas were associated with increased presence of barred owls. Climate change models predict warmer, wetter winters and hotter, drier summers for the Pacific Northwest in the first half of the 21st century. Our results indicate that these conditions have the potential to negatively affect annual survival, recruitment, and consequently population growth rates for northern spotted owls. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. AMBRE—a Mathematica package for the construction of Mellin Barnes representations for Feynman integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluza, J.; Kajda, K.; Riemann, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Mathematica toolkit AMBRE derives Mellin-Barnes (MB) representations for Feynman integrals in d=4-2ɛ dimensions. It may be applied for tadpoles as well as for multi-leg multi-loop scalar and tensor integrals. The package uses a loop-by-loop approach and aims at lowest dimensions of the final MB representations. The present version works fine for planar Feynman diagrams. The output may be further processed by the package MB for the determination of its singularity structure in ɛ. The AMBRE package contains various sample applications for Feynman integrals with up to six external particles and up to four loops. Program summaryProgram title:AMBRE Catalogue identifier:ADZR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:21 387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:100 004 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:MATHEMATICA v.5.0 and later versions Computer:all Operating system:all RAM:sufficient for a typical installation of MATHEMATICA Classification:5; 11.1 External routines:The examples in the package use: MB.m [M. Czakon, Comput. Phys. Commun. 175 (2006) 559 (CPC Cat. Id. ADYG)], for expansions in ɛ; CUBA [T. Hahn, Comput. Phys. Commun. 168 (2005) 78 (CPC Cat. Id. ADVH)], for numerical evaluation of multidimensional integrals; CERNlib [CERN Program Library, http://cernlib.web.cern.ch/cernlib/], for the implementation of Γ and Ψ functions in Fortran. Nature of problem:Derivation of a representation for a Feynman diagram with L loops and N internal lines in d dimensions by Mellin-Barnes integrals; the subsequent evaluation, after an analytical continuation in ɛ=(4-d)/2, has to be done with other packages. Solution method:Introduction of N Feynman parameters x

  17. Home range and habitat use of little owl (Athene noctua in an agricultural landscape in coastal Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Framis, H.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades agricultural landscapes in Catalonia have undergone a profound transformation as in most of Europe. Reforestation and urban development have reduced farmland and therefore the availability of suitable habitat for some bird species such as the little owl (Athene noctua. The outskirts of the city of Mataró by the Mediterranean Sea exemplify this landscape change, but still support a population of little owl where agriculture is carried out. Three resident little owls were monitored with telemetry weekly from November 2007 until the beginning of August 2008 in this suburban agricultural landscape. Mean home range ± SD was 10.9 ± 5.5 ha for minimum convex polygon (MCP100 and 7.4 ± 3.8 ha for Kernel 95% probability function (K95. Home ranges of contiguous neighboring pairs overlapped 18.4% (MCP100 or 6% (K95. Home range varied among seasons reaching a maximum between March and early August but always included the nesting site. Small forested patches were associated with roosting and nesting areas where cavities in Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua were important. When foraging in crop fields, the owls typically fed where crops had recently been harvested and replanted. All three owls bred successfully.

  18. Representing Human Expertise by the OWL Web Ontology Language to Support Knowledge Engineering in Decision Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Asia; Wang, Hai; Buckingham, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) often base their knowledge and advice on human expertise. Knowledge representation needs to be in a format that can be easily understood by human users as well as supporting ongoing knowledge engineering, including evolution and consistency of knowledge. This paper reports on the development of an ontology specification for managing knowledge engineering in a CDSS for assessing and managing risks associated with mental-health problems. The Galatean Risk and Safety Tool, GRiST, represents mental-health expertise in the form of a psychological model of classification. The hierarchical structure was directly represented in the machine using an XML document. Functionality of the model and knowledge management were controlled using attributes in the XML nodes, with an accompanying paper manual for specifying how end-user tools should behave when interfacing with the XML. This paper explains the advantages of using the web-ontology language, OWL, as the specification, details some of the issues and problems encountered in translating the psychological model to OWL, and shows how OWL benefits knowledge engineering. The conclusions are that OWL can have an important role in managing complex knowledge domains for systems based on human expertise without impeding the end-users' understanding of the knowledge base. The generic classification model underpinning GRiST makes it applicable to many decision domains and the accompanying OWL specification facilitates its implementation.

  19. El museo y la enciclopedia: Lecturas cruzadas de Borges y Barnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Moneta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking in consideration the intertextual and biographical influence of the works of Jorge Luis Borges on the works of Julian Barnes, this article seeks to focus on certain borgian traces that speak of the status of literature in the present time. Starting with the image of the “museum and the encyclopedia” we can read Borges from a barnesian point of view and viceversa, while insisting in the relativity of any kind of order and classification. We shall start with the essential distrust that both authors show towards language. No one can deny that in the literary and critic landscape of our time Borges is a difficult character to overcome or ignore which we will use as a reading and writing mechanism.

  20. The GEMPAK Barnes interactive objective map analysis scheme. [General Meteorological Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, S. E.; Kocin, P. J.; Desjardins, M.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis scheme and meteorological applications of the GEMPAK data analysis and display software system developed by NASA are described. The program was devised to permit objective, versatile, and practical analysis of satellite meteorological data using a minicomputer and a display system with graphics capability. A data area can be selected within the data file for the globe, and data-sparse regions can be avoided. Distances between observations and the nearest observation points are calculated in order to avoid errors when determining synoptic weather conditions. The Barnes (1973) successive correction method is employed to restore the amplitude of small yet resolvable wavelengths suppressed in an initial filtering pass. The rms deviation is then calculated in relation to available measured data. Examples are provided of treatment of VISSR data from the GOES satellite and a study of the impact of incorrect cloud height data on synoptic weather field analysis.

  1. Cassia spectabilis (DC) Irwin et Barn: a promising traditional herb in health improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothy, Subramanion L; Torey, Angeline; Darah, Ibrahim; Choong, Yee Siew; Saravanan, Dharmaraj; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Deivanai, Subramanian; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-08-29

    The genus Cassia, comprising about 600 species widely distributed worldwide is well known for its diverse biological and pharmacological properties. Cassia spectabilis (sin Senna spectabilis) (DC) Irwin et Barn (Fabaceae) is widely grown as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical areas. C. spectabilis has been commonly used in traditional medicine for many years. Information in the biomedical literature has indicated the presence of a variety of medicinally-important chemical constituents in C. spectabilis. Pharmacological studies by various groups of investigators have shown that C. spectabilis possesses significant biological activity, such as antibacterial, antibiofilm, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Beside this, toxicity studies of this plant have revealed no toxic effect on mice. In view of the immense medicinal importance of C. spectabilis, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on C. spectabilis’s botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and mechanism of actions, toxicology and its ethnomedicinal uses.

  2. Fan cooling of the resting area in a free stalls dairy barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2014-08-01

    This summer study evaluated the effect of providing additional fans (cooling) in the resting area within a free-stall dairy barn that had fans and sprinklers in the feeding area and paddock availability. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups and kept in two pens: one had the resting area equipped with two fans (FAN) while no fans were added to the other resting area (CON). Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and milk pH traits were recorded. Time budgeting and the behaviour of the cows (time spent in the feeding area, standing and lying in other areas) were also recorded using digital video technology. Two slight-to-moderate heat waves were observed. During the hottest period the daily maximum temperature recorded was 33.5 °C and the daily maximum THI was 81.6. During this period, the BR and RT increased only slightly in both groups, with lower BR (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON. Milk yield was better maintained (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON during the hottest period. The FAN cows showed a greater (Pfree stalls (9.5 and 8.6 h/day in FAN and CON, respectively), whereas CON cows made greater (P<0.05) use of the paddock during evening and late evening hours. Consequently, the total daily lying time was 13.5 h/day in both groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that using fans in the resting area improves cow comfort, which increases use of the resting area. The lying time results also suggest that the benefits of providing ventilation in the resting area might be more evident in barns where there is no paddock.

  3. [Book review] The Eastern Screech Owl: Life History, Ecology and Behavior in the Suburbs and Countryside, by Frederick Gehlback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Review of: Eastern Screech Owl: Life History, Ecology, and Behavior in the Suburbs and Countryside. Frederick R. Gehlbach. Issue 16; Issue 2008 of W. L. Moody Jr. Natural History Series. Texas A&M University Press; 1st edition (November 1994). ISBN: 0890966095. For ornithologists and ecologists alike, Fred Gehlbach's book promises to hold both interest and information value as a comprehensive study of the eastern screech owl (Otus asio hasbroucki). Gehlbach was intrigued with screech owls as a boy and encouraged as an undergraduate by William Hamilton, who underscored that in-depth studies of familiar backyard species can be as fascinating as those in exotic sites. Correspondence with another owl-aficionado, the late H. N. Southern, inspired the author's long-term study of screech owls in a woodland landscape in central Texas and led him to provide nest boxes to enhance his access and sample size. This book is based on observations over a 25-year period-beginning in 1967, with intensive study during an 11-year period (1976-1987) in Texas south of Waco, where Gehlbach teaches at Baylor University. The study represents observations on 659 screech owls, covering several generations of birds and entire lives of many individuals. Gehlbach compares screech owl nesting behavior in a rural versus suburban setting and includes chapters on food supplies and predation tactics; egg-laying, incubation, and parental behavior; vocalizations; and population structure and flux. He discusses why screech owls are widespread across the eastern half of North America and why they succeed among people in suburban environments, where they adapt as easily to mailboxes and porch columns as to natural tree cavities. The book mixes two approaches: on the one hand the dense style of a technical book in which the professional biologist can find information on many aspects of screech owl behavior, life history, and population, including tables, figures, summary statistics, results of statistical

  4. Optimization of the Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle and Neutrino Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizmanic, John F.; Mitchell, John W.; Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    OWL [1] uses the Earth's atmosphere as a vast calorimeter to fully enable the emerging field of charged-particle astronomy with high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and a search for sources of UHE neutrinos and photons. Confirmation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression above approx. 4 x 10(exp 19) eV suggests that most UHECR originate in astrophysical objects. Higher energy particles must come from sources within about 100 Mpc and are deflected by approx. 1 degree by predicted intergalactic/galactic magnetic fields. The Pierre Auger Array, Telescope Array and the future JEM-EUSO ISS mission will open charged-particle astronomy, but much greater exposure will be required to fully identify and measure the spectra of individual sources. OWL uses two large telescopes with 3 m optical apertures and 45 degree FOV in near-equatorial orbits. Simulations of a five-year OWL mission indicate approx. 10(exp 6) sq km/ sr/ yr of exposure with full aperture at approx. 6 x 10(exp 19) eV. Observations at different altitudes and spacecraft separations optimize sensitivity to UHECRs and neutrinos. OWL's stereo event reconstruction is nearly independent of track inclination and very tolerant of atmospheric conditions. An optional monocular mode gives increased reliability and can increase the instantaneous aperture. OWL can fully reconstruct horizontal and upward-moving showers and so has high sensitivity to UHE neutrinos. New capabilities in inflatable structures optics and silicon photomultipliers can greatly increase photon sensitivity, reducing the energy threshold for n detection or increasing viewed area using a higher orbit. Design trades between the original and optimized OWL missions and the enhanced science capabilities are described.

  5. The Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John; Krizmanic, J. F.; Stecker, F. W.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The space-based OWL mission is designed to perform high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) using the Earth's atmosphere as a vast particle calorimeter, furthering the field of charged-particle astronomy. OWL has been developed in formal NASA instrument and mission studies and is comprised of two large telescopes separated by approx.600 km in 1000 km, near-equatorial orbits to stereoscopically image the near-UV air fluorescence emitted by UHECR-induced particle cascades. The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Collaboration, and subsequently the Pierre Auger Observatory, recently reported confirmation of the expected Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression of the UHECR flux above a few times 10(exp 19) eV. This observation is consistent with the majority of UHECR originating in astrophysical objects and reduces the need to invoke exotic physical processes. Particles observed above the GZK threshold energy must have come from sources within about 100 Mpc from the Earth. The small particle deflection angles expected at UHECR energies, with standard assumptions of extragalactic magnetic fields, are on the order of 1 degree. Thus by observing particles above the GZK threshold with sufficient exposure, there is the potential of identifying and characterizing individual UHECR sources. Auger has reported significant anisotropy in the arrival directions of UHECR at energies above about 6 10(exp 19) eV observed in the South, and a correlation to AGN in the 12th VCV catalog, suggesting that the sources of UHECR are traced by the distribution of luminous matter in the Universe. However, with similar statistics and the same event selection criteria, HiRes observations in the North are consistent with isotropy. Extended observations by Auger-South, by Telescope Array in the North, and possibly by the proposed Auger-North, will further these investigations. However, much greater exposures will be required to fully identify individual sources and

  6. Spatial and begging behaviours of juvenile Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) from fledging to independence under contrasting food conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Naundrup, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    during the last 5 days before juvenile independence. Hence, juvenile Tawny Owls old enough to survive on their own invested heavily in begging, with no noticeable signs of increased hunting or exploration of potential settling areas outside the natal range, until they were no longer fed by their parents......The post-fledging dependency period (PFDP: from fledging to cessation of parental care) is a critical yet poorly studied life history transition phase during which juveniles mature and develop skills for independence. We studied the spatial and vocal behaviour of radio-tagged juvenile Tawny Owls...

  7. Medical management of acute ocular hypertension in a western screech owl (Megascops kennicottii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayson, Stephanie; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Petritz, Olivia; Freeman, Kate; Maggs, David J

    2014-03-01

    A wild young adult western screech owl (Megascops kennicottii) of unknown sex was presented for evaluation of an abnormal left eye (OS). Ophthalmic examination OS revealed raised intraocular pressure (37 mm Hg; reference interval 7-16 mm Hg), mydriasis, conjunctival and episcleral hyperemia, shallow anterior chamber due to anterior displacement of the lens and iris, rubeosis iridis, and engorgement of the pecten. The intraocular pressure in the right eye (OD) was 11 mm Hg. Multifocal pale, variably translucent, curvilinear to vermiform opacities were observed in the medial and ventral peripheral regions of the retina OD, consistent with focal retinitis. Mannitol (0.46 g/kg IV) was administered over 10 minutes. Forty minutes later, the intraocular pressure was 27 mm Hg OS and 13 mm Hg OD. Dorzolamide (one drop OS q12h), diclofenac (one drop OU q8-12h), and meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg PO q24h) were administered for 3 days. The intraocular pressure OS was within normal limits 1 day (11 mm Hg), 7 days (13 mm Hg), and 4 weeks (14 mm Hg) after this treatment. Complications arising during hospitalization and rehabilitation included superficial corneal ulceration of both eyes presumed secondary to trauma on being caught and superficial damage to a talon. The owl was released after a period of rehabilitation. Characteristic presenting signs as well as response to therapy suggest aqueous misdirection was the cause of ocular hypertension in this owl. To our knowledge, this is the first report of suspected aqueous misdirection and its medical management in a raptor.

  8. A quantitative evaluation of the conservation umbrella of spotted owl management areas in the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Ryan D; Roberts, L Jay

    2015-01-01

    Whether by design or default, single species management often serves as an umbrella for species with similar habitat requirements. In recent decades the focus of National Forest management in the Sierra Nevada of California has shifted towards increasing closed canopy mature forest conditions through the protection of areas occupied by the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). To evaluate the implications of these habitat changes and the potential umbrella resulting from a system of owl reserves on the broader avian community, we estimated occupancy of birds inside and outside of Spotted Owl Home Range Core Areas in northeastern California. We used point count data in a multi-species hierarchical Bayesian model incorporating the detection history of 81 species over a two-year time period (2005-2006). A small set of vegetation cover and topography covariates were included in the model to account for broad differences in habitat conditions, as well as a term identifying whether or not a site was within a Core Area. Seventeen species had a negative Core Area effect, seven had a positive effect, and the rest were not significant. Estimated species richness was significantly different with 23.1 species per 100 m radius circle outside Core Areas and 21.7 inside Core Areas. The majority of the species negatively associated with Core Areas are tied to early successional and other disturbance-dependent habitats. Conservation and climate vulnerability rankings were mixed. On average we found higher scores (greater risk) for the species positively associated with Core Areas, but a larger number of species with the highest scores were negatively associated with Core Areas. We discuss the implications for managing the Sierra Nevada ecosystem and illustrate the role of monitoring broader suites of species in guiding management of large complex ecosystems.

  9. Long-term population dynamics of a managed burrowing owl colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John H.; Korfanta, Nicole M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the population dynamics of a burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) colony at Mineta San Jose International Airport in San Jose, California, USA from 1990-2007. This colony was managed by using artificial burrows to reduce the occurrence of nesting owls along runways and within major airport improvement projects during the study period. We estimated annual reproduction in natural and artificial burrows and age-specific survival rates with mark-recapture techniques, and we estimated the relative contribution of these vital rates to population dynamics using a life table response experiment. The breeding colony showed 2 distinct periods of change: high population growth from 7 nesting pairs in 1991 to 40 pairs in 2002 and population decline to 17 pairs in 2007. Reproduction was highly variable: annual nesting success (pairs that raised =1 young) averaged 79% and ranged from 36% to 100%, whereas fecundity averaged 3.36 juveniles/pair and ranged from 1.43 juveniles/pair to 4.54 juveniles/pair. We estimated annual adult survival at 0.710 during the period of colony increase from 1996 to 2001 and 0.465 during decline from 2002 to 2007, but there was no change in annual survival of juveniles between the 2 time periods. Long-term population growth rate (lambda) estimated from average vital rates was lambdaa=1.072 with lambdai=1.288 during colony increase and lambdad=0.921 (DELTA lambda=0.368) during decline. A life table response experiment showed that change in adult survival rate during increasing and declining phases explained more than twice the variation in growth rate than other vital rates. Our findings suggest that management and conservation of declining burrowing owl populations should address factors that influence adult survival.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of ultrathin dextran layers: Time dependent nanostructure in aqueous environments revealed by OWLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftics, Andras; Kurunczi, Sándor; Szekrényes, Zsolt; Kamarás, Katalin; Khánh, Nguyen Quoc; Sulyok, Attila; Bősze, Szilvia; Horvath, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Surface coatings of the polysaccharide dextran and its derivatives are key ingredients especially in label-free biosensors for the suppression of non-specific binding and for receptor immobilization. Nevertheless, the nanostructure of these ultrathin coatings and its tailoring by the variation of the preparation conditions have not been profoundly characterized and understood. In this work carboxymethylated dextran (CMD) was prepared and used for fabricating ultrathin surface coatings. A grafting method based on covalent coupling to aminosilane- and epoxysilane-functionalized surfaces was applied to obtain thin CMD layers. The carboxyl moiety of the CMD was coupled to the aminated surface by EDC-NHS reagents, while CMD coupling through epoxysilane molecules was performed without any additional reagents. The surface analysis following the grafting procedures consisted of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS). The XPS and AFM measurements showed that the grafting resulted in a very thin dextran layer of a few nanometers. The OWLS method allowed devising the structure of the interfacial dextran layers by the evaluation of the optogeometrical parameters. The alteration in the nanostructure of the CMD layer with the chemical composition of the silane coverage and the pH of the grafting solution was revealed by in situ OWLS, specifically, lain down chains were found to be prevalent on the surface under neutral and basic conditions on epoxysilylated surfaces. The developed methodologies allowed to design and fabricate nanometer scale CMD layers with well-controlled surface structure, which are very difficult to characterize in aqueous environments using present instrumentations and highly hydrated surface layers.

  11. Experimental West Nile virus infection in Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, N.M.; Hahn, D.C.; Gould, D.H.; Bowen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Eastern Screech Owls (EASOs) were experimentally infected with the pathogenic New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus (WNV) by subcutaneous injection or per os. Two of nine subcutaneously inoculated birds died or were euthanatized on 8 or 9 days postinfection (DPI) after myocardial and skeletal muscle necrosis and mild encephalitis and nephritis, whereas some of the clinically healthy birds that were sacrificed on 14 DPI had myocardial arteritis and renal phlebitis. WNV is a significant pathogen of EASOs, causing pathologic lesions with varying clinical outcomes.

  12. Starch gel and cellulose acetate electrophoretic analysis of allozyme frequencies in barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations at a dioxin contaminated site in northern Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compared the genetic variability of Louisiana barn swallows at a dioxin-contaminated wetland to two reference populations. Allozyme frequencies,...

  13. Avian mycobacteriosis in free-living raptors in Majorca Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Negre, Nieves; Castellanos, Elena; de Juan, Lucía; Mateos, Ana; Parpal, Lluis; Aranaz, Alicia

    2010-02-01

    Avian mycobacteriosis is a chronic, infectious disease caused by different species of mycobacteria, usually belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex. From 2004 to 2007, 589 raptors brought dead or sick to a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) were necropsied. The birds belonged to 12 different species, chiefly common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (n=297), scops owl (Otus scops) (n=109), barn owl (Tyto alba) (n=75), long-eared owl (Asio otus) (n=58), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) (n=27), and booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) (n=13). Gross lesions compatible with mycobacteriosis were observed in 14 birds (2.4%) found in several locations in Majorca. They were 12 kestrels (prevalence in this species, 4.0%), one long-eared owl (1.7%) and one scops owl (0.9%), all the birds presenting white-yellowish nodules from pinpoint size to 1 cm in diameter in diverse organs, mainly in the liver, spleen and intestine. Affected organs were subjected to bacteriology and molecular identification by polymerase chain reaction and, in all cases, infection with M. avium subspecies avium was confirmed. The observed prevalences are similar to those previously observed in Holland, although the actual prevalence detected in this study is likely to be higher than reported because only birds with gross lesions were subjected to culture. Further molecular characterization with a set of six mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat loci was used to sub-type the isolates in order to show the existence of possible epidemiological links. Six different genotypes were found, which points to infection from multiple foci. No temporal or geographical aggregation of the cases was observed to be associated with the presence of positive birds or with the different variable number tandem repeat allelic profiles. The most feasible origin might be water or food sources, although the reservoir of mycobacteria remains unknown.

  14. A Stiff Man-Child Walking: Derrida’s Economy of Secrecy and Faulkner’s “Barn Burning”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wainwright

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Working from Jacques Derrida’s contentions about secrecy and authorial responsibility, and paying brief but specific attention to Charles Baudelaire’s “La fausse monnaie” (1869, as suggested by Derridean concerns over capitalist economics, this article studies the manner in which the inviolable and conditional secrets of William Faulkner’s “Barn Burning” (1938 reveal the poststructural tendencies avant la lettre of this leading American modernist.  While Faulkner scholars have focused on the ambivalent language and metaphors deployed in this short story, they have not formerly traced the manner in which “Barn Burning” incites a sense of deconstructive criticism, and have thereby failed to acknowledge Faulkner’s attendant authorial irresponsibility.  This article redresses this critical imbalance.

  15. Effects of triticale-based diets on finishing pig performance and pork quality in deep-bedded hoop barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Zebblin M; Honeyman, Mark S; Gibson, Lance R; Prusa, Ken J

    2007-07-01

    Effects of triticale diets on pig performance and pork quality were evaluated in summer and winter. Diets were: corn-soy, 40% triticale, or 80% triticale. Pigs (72kg) were fed 49d. Loins were evaluated for meat and fat quality and sensory evaluation. Average daily gain decreased as triticale inclusion increased (Ptriticale had least gain:feed ratio (Ptriticale diet had smallest loin muscle area (PTriticale fed to pigs in hoop barns slightly decreased growth without compromising pork quality.

  16. Integrating reasoning and clinical archetypes using OWL ontologies and SWRL rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Rodríguez-Solano, Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Semantic interoperability is essential to facilitate the computerized support for alerts, workflow management and evidence-based healthcare across heterogeneous electronic health record (EHR) systems. Clinical archetypes, which are formal definitions of specific clinical concepts defined as specializations of a generic reference (information) model, provide a mechanism to express data structures in a shared and interoperable way. However, currently available archetype languages do not provide direct support for mapping to formal ontologies and then exploiting reasoning on clinical knowledge, which are key ingredients of full semantic interoperability, as stated in the SemanticHEALTH report [1]. This paper reports on an approach to translate definitions expressed in the openEHR Archetype Definition Language (ADL) to a formal representation expressed using the Ontology Web Language (OWL). The formal representations are then integrated with rules expressed with Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) expressions, providing an approach to apply the SWRL rules to concrete instances of clinical data. Sharing the knowledge expressed in the form of rules is consistent with the philosophy of open sharing, encouraged by archetypes. Our approach also allows the reuse of formal knowledge, expressed through ontologies, and extends reuse to propositions of declarative knowledge, such as those encoded in clinical guidelines. This paper describes the ADL-to-OWL translation approach, describes the techniques to map archetypes to formal ontologies, and demonstrates how rules can be applied to the resulting representation. We provide examples taken from a patient safety alerting system to illustrate our approach.

  17. A Numerical Study of Aerodynamic Performance and Noise of a Bionic Airfoil Based on Owl Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction and efficiency enhancement are the two important directions in the development of the multiblade centrifugal fan. In this study, we attempt to develop a bionic airfoil based on the owl wing and investigate its aerodynamic performance and noise-reduction mechanism at the relatively low Reynolds number. Firstly, according to the geometric characteristics of the owl wing, a bionic airfoil is constructed as the object of study at Reynolds number of 12,300. Secondly, the large eddy simulation (LES with the Smagorinsky model is adopted to numerically simulate the unsteady flow fields around the bionic airfoil and the standard NACA0006 airfoil. And then, the acoustic sources are extracted from the unsteady flow field data, and the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H equation based on Lighthill's acoustic theory is solved to predict the propagation of these acoustic sources. The numerical results show that the lift-to-drag ratio of bionic airfoil is higher than that of the traditional NACA 0006 airfoil because of its deeply concave lower surface geometry. Finally, the sound field of the bionic airfoil is analyzed in detail. The distribution of the A-weighted sound pressure levels, the scaled directivity of the sound, and the distribution of dP/dt on the airfoil surface are provided so that the characteristics of the acoustic sources could be revealed.

  18. Science cases for the OWL Earth-like planet imager and spectrograph (EPICS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzit, J.-L.; Gratton, R.; Kasper, M.; Desidera, S.; Kerber, F.; Rahoui, F.; Mouillet, D.; Rouan, D.; Turatto, M.; Feldt, M.; Schmid, H.-M.; Stam, D.; Selsis, F.; Hubin, N.; Vérinaud, C.

    The extreme contrast in mass and luminosity between the extra-solar planets and their host stars make detailed studies of these planets very challenging. In particular, direct observations of extra-solar planets is still beyond the capabilities of the currently available instrumentation, save for perhaps a few extreme cases of very young and massive planets at large distances from the central star. While progress in instrumentation might allow significant progress in detection capabilities either with the 8 and 10-m ground-based telescopes (Planet Finder instruments on the VLT and Gemini) or with the next generation space telescope (JWST), imaging of extra-solar planets over a wide range of parameters, and possibly down to terrestrial planets, will require extremely large ground-based telescopes like OWL or dedicated space instrumentation (TPF or Darwin for instance). We outline here the scientific objectives of EPICS, the OWL Earth-like Planet Imager and Spectrograph, summarize the corresponding high level requirements, present the foreseen observing modes and give a first estimate of its performance.

  19. Heptachlor seed treatment contaminates hawks, owls, and eagles of Columbia Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated organochlorine residues in 12 species of hawks. owls, and eagles from the Columbia Basin of Oregon between 1978 and 1981. Companion studies showed that heptachlor epoxide (HE) induced adult mortality and reduced productivity of the Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) and American Kestrel (Falco sparverius).ln this study, brain tissue from raptors found dead and sample eggs from 90 nests were analyzed for organochlorines. The primary concern was HE that entered raptor food chains through the ingestion of heptachlor-treated seed by their prey. HE residues were detected in eggs from 9 of 10 species and ranged as high as 4.75 ppm (wet wt), but no definite effects of HE on productivity were readily apparent from the limited series of nests. However, the hazard of heptachlor seed treatments to birds of prey was demonstrated by the occurrence of lethal residues of HE in brain tissue of 3 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) and 1 Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus). Other organochlorine pesticides were present in the eggs and significant relationships were found between DDE and eggshell thickness for the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) and Western Screech-Owl (Otus kennicotti), although shell thinning (9.6% and 7.4%) was below the generally accepted range where reproductive problems have been known to occur.

  20. Vortex Noise Reductions from a Flexible Fiber Model of Owl Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Justin; Peake, Nigel

    2013-11-01

    Many species of owl rely on specialized plumage to reduce their self-noise levels and enable hunting in acoustic stealth. In contrast to the leading-edge comb and compliant trailing-edge fringe attributes of owls, the aeroacoustic impact of the fluffy down material on the upper wing surface remains largely speculative as a means to eliminate aerodynamic noise across a broad range of frequencies. The down is presently idealized as a collection of independent and rigid fibers, which emerge perpendicularly from a rigid plane and are allowed to rotate under elastic restraint. Noise generation from an isolated fiber is effected by its interaction with a point vortex, whose motion is induced by the presence of the rigid half-plane and the elastically-restrained fiber. Numerical evaluations of the vortex path and acoustic signature furnish a comparison with known analytical results for stationary fibers, and results from this primitive model seek to address how aerodynamic noise could be mitigated by flexible fibers.

  1. Dynamic vortex interactions with flexible fibers and edges for prediction of owl noise suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korykora, Sarah; Jaworski, Justin

    2015-11-01

    The compliant trailing-edge fringe of owls and the soft downy material on their upper wing surfaces are thought to enable their silent flight by weakening the interaction of boundary layer turbulence with these flexible structures. Previous analysis of turbulence noise generation by wave-bearing elastic edges have shown that the far-field acoustic power scaling can be weakened by up to the square of the Mach number relative to a rigid edge. However, it is unclear whether or not the wave-bearing feature or simply the flexible nature of the edge scatterer produces this noise suppression. To assess this distinction, a dynamic vortex interaction model is developed whereby the motion of a line vortex round a rigid but elastically-restrained wall-mounted fiber or trailing edge is determined numerically. Special attention is paid to the dynamic interaction between the flexible structure and vortex, which is accomplished via a conformal mapping relationship determined in closed form. Results from this analysis seek to develop a vortex sound model to discern the effect of flexible versus wave-bearing scatterers on turbulence noise suppression and help explain the mechanisms of silent owl flight.

  2. Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D. Caldwell

    2011-01-01

    Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone.

  3. Pre-Migratory Movements by Juvenile Burrowing Owls in a Patchy Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Danielle. Todd

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dispersal is a fundamental aspect of population dynamics, and can have direct implications on processes such as the colonization of habitat patches. Pre-migratory movements, landscape fragmentation, and body condition have all been hypothesized as key factors influencing dispersal in birds, but little direct evidence exists to support these ideas. We used radio-telemetry and supplementary feeding to test if body condition or landscape pattern influenced pre-migratory movements of juvenile Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia in a fragmented landscape. We categorized grassland patches as either large (≥95 ha or small and isolated (≤58 ha and ≥1.5 km to next nearest grassland patch, and young owls were either provided supplemental food as nestlings or not. Owlets receiving supplemental food and residing in large grassland patches moved a greater maximum distance from their nest than similarly fed owlets residing in small patches (large = 1605 ± 443 m; small = 373 ± 148 m. In contrast, non-supplemented owlets from large and small patches did not differ in their maximum distance moved from the nest (large = 745 ± 307 m; small 555 ± 286 m. Only two of 32 individuals from small patches moved >800 m, whereas ten of 23 owlets from large patches moved >800 m. In addition, owlets from large patches continued to move farther and farther from their nest before migration, whereas owlets in small, isolated patches ultimately moved

  4. A Reusable and Interoperable Semantic Classification Tool which Integrates Owl Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Lgarch

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In e-Learning systems, tutor plays a very important role to support learners, and guarantee a learning of quality. A successful collaboration between learners and their tutor requires the use of communication tools. Thanks to their flexibility in terms of time, the asynchronous tools as discussion forum are the most used. However this type of tools generates a great mass of messages making tutoring an operation complex to manage, hence the need of a classification tool of messages. We proposed in a first step a semantics classification tool, which is based on the LSA and thesaurus. The possibility that ontology provides to overcome the limitations of the thesaurus encouraged us to use it to control our vocabulary. By the way of our proposed selection algorithm, the OWL ontology is queried to generate new terms which are used to build the LSA matrix. The integration of formal OWL ontology provides a highly relevant semantic classification of messages, and the reuse by other applications of ontological knowledge base is also guaranteed. The interoperability and the knowledge exchange between systems are also ensured by ontology integrated. In order to ensure its reuse and interoperability with systems which requesting for its service of classification, the implementation of our semantic classifier tool basing on the SOA is adopted and it will be explained and tested in this work.

  5. Evolutionary divergence in sexual signals: Insights from within and among barn swallow populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Matthew Reed

    A wealth of studies across diverse animal groups indicate the importance of sexual selection in shaping phenotypes within and across breeding populations. In recent decades, much research has focused on how divergent sexual selection pressures among populations may lead to speciation. For my first dissertation chapter, I performed a literature review on the causes and consequences of evolutionary divergence in acoustic signals and developed the acoustic window conceptual framework for understanding the contributions of selection, genetic drift, and evolutionary constraint to signal divergence. Further, I found that sexual selection explains acoustic differences between recently diverged populations of the best-studied taxa. However, the relative contributions of ecological selection, sexual selection, and drift to acoustic divergence have not typically been considered within the same study systems. The remainder of my dissertation used the Northern Hemisphere-distributed barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica) species complex as a model system to study sender-receiver dynamics, intra- and intersexual selection pressures, and visual and acoustic signal interactions at the local scale, and signal divergence across populations at the global scale. From song recordings taken across 19 sampling sites, spanning five of six described subspecies, I demonstrated considerable conservation in song structure. However, temporal traits were highly divergent across subspecies, and in particular, the speed of the terminal trill of songs. In a detailed study of the multimodal communication system of the barn swallow (including visual and acoustic traits), I demonstrated that males and females use different types of signals to mediate competition and mate choice. One of the only exceptions to this rule was trill rate, which was also implicated in song divergence across populations. In order to test the function of trill rate in communication, I performed a two-year playback study within the

  6. Characterization of bioaerosols from dairy barns: reconstructing the puzzle of occupational respiratory diseases by using molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais Lecours, Pascale; Veillette, Marc; Marsolais, David; Duchaine, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    To understand the etiology of exposure-related diseases and to establish standards for reducing the risks associated with working in contaminated environments, the exact nature of the bioaerosol components must be defined. Molecular biology tools were used to evaluate airborne bacterial and, for the first time, archaeal content of dairy barns. Three air samplers were tested in each of the 13 barns sampled. Up to 10(6) archaeal and 10(8) bacterial 16S rRNA genes per m(3) of air were detected. Archaeal methanogens, mainly Methanobrevibacter species, were represented. Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, the causative agent of farmer's lung, was quantified to up to 10(7) 16S rRNA genes per m(3) of air. In addition, a wide variety of bacterial agents were present in our air samples within the high airborne bioaerosol concentration range. Despite recommendations regarding hay preservation and baling conditions, farmers still develop an S. rectivirgula-specific humoral immune response, suggesting intense and continuous exposure. Our results demonstrate the complexity of bioaerosol components in dairy barns which could play a role in occupational respiratory diseases.

  7. U.S. EPA OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS (ROCKY GAP, MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator (OWL): uses linear regression to fit a plane to the elevation of the water table in monitoring wells in each round of sampling. The slope of the plane fit to the water table is used to predict the direction and gradient of ground water flow. Along with ...

  8. Distributional changes in the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in North America from 1967 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Duarte, Alberto; Conway, Courtney J.

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of shifts in bird distributions in response to climate change provides an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the processes that influence species persistence. We used data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to document changes in the distributional limits of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) from 1967 to 2008. We used logistic regression to model presence probability (p) as a function of longitude, latitude, and year. We modeled a linear trend in logit(p) through time with slope and intercept modeled as a double Fourier series of longitude and latitude. We found that the western Burrowing Owl has experienced an intriguing southward shift in the northern half of its breeding range, contrary to what is predicted by most species niche models and what has been observed for many other species in North America. The breeding range of the Burrowing Owl has been shrinking near its northern, western, and eastern edges. Our model detected the population declines that were observed in California and eastern Washington, in locations where maps based on route-specific estimating equations had predicted significant population increases. We suggest that the northern boundary of the breeding distribution of the western Burrowing Owl has contracted southward and the southern boundary of the species' breeding distribution has expanded southward into areas of northern Mexico that were formerly used only by wintering migrants.

  9. Dark-bellied brent geese Branta b. bernicla breeding near snowy owl Nyctea scandiaca nests lay more and larger eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, H.H. van; Willems, F.; Volkov, A.E.; Smeets, J.H.R.; Nowak, D.; Nowak, A.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that snowy owls Nyctea scandiaca defend an area around their nests against predators, hereby inadvertently creating safe havens for breeding dark-bellied brent geese Branta b. bernicla. However, studies investigating brent goose breeding ecology within the predator-

  10. The Scientific Basis for Modeling Northern Spotted Owl Habitat: A Response to Loehle, Irwin, Manly, and Merrill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently revised the recovery plan (USFWS 2011) and designated Critical Habitat (USFWS 2012a) for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). The Critical Habitat designation was based in part on a map of relative habitat suitability...

  11. A comparison of positive reinforcement training techniques in owl and squirrel monkeys: time required to train to reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Jessica; Sherenco, Katrina; Malling, Rachel; Thiele, Erica; Lambeth, Susan; Schapiro, Steve; Williams, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enhance the psychological well being of nonhuman primates by increasing the animal's control over his or her environment and desensitizing the animal to stressful stimuli. However, the literature on PRT in neotropical primates is limited. Here PRT data from owl monkeys and squirrel monkeys are presented, including the length of time to train subjects to target, present hand, and present foot, important responses that can be used to aid in health inspection and treatment. A high percentage of the squirrel and owl monkeys were successfully trained on target and present hand. Present foot, a less natural response, was harder to train and maintain. Although squirrel monkeys did learn to target significantly faster than owl monkeys, the 2 genera did not differ on time to train on subsequent behavior. These data demonstrate that although owl monkeys may require slightly more time to acclimate to a PRT program, it is still possible to establish a PRT program with neotropical primates, and once animals have been introduced to the program, they can learn new responses in a relatively few short sessions.

  12. A case of leucism in the burrowing owl Athene cunicularia (Aves: Strigiformes with confirmation of species identity using cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M Nogueira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leucism is an inherited disorder, characterized by the lack of pigments in part or all of the body, normal coloration of the eyes and, in birds, in naked parts such as the bill and legs. This kind of disorder is sometimes erroneously designated as albinism or partial albinism. In this study, we present a case of leucism in a wild owl. The studied individual presented completely white plumage, light-yellow coloration of legs and bill and normal coloration of eyes. According to morphological features, this owl is a specimen of burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782. To confirm the species identity, we used cytogenetic analyses for karyotypic determination, comparing it to the previously described one in the literature. We also studied a captive female of A. cunicularia to complement the species karyotype, which was described in the literature based only on a single male. The karyotype of the leucistic owl individual was compatible with the previously published one for A. cunicularia, confirming the bird was a male specimen. Cytogenetic analysis of the captive female showed that the W sex chromosome is metacentric and comparable to the seventh pair in size. This is the first description of a case of leucism in A. cunicularia for South America. Long-term studies are needed in the Neotropical region to evaluate survival and breeding success in leucistic birds.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of piperacillan after intramuscular injection in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, P K; Tell, L A; Needham, M L; Craigmill, A L

    2000-03-01

    This study characterized and compared the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin after single 100 mg/kg i.m. injections in nine red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) over 48 hr by a modified agar well diffusion microbial inhibition assay. The mean maximum plasma piperacillin concentrations were 204 microg/ml and 221 microg/ml for the hawks and owls, respectively, and times of maximum concentrations were 15 min and 30 min, respectively. The calculated mean terminal elimination half-lives were 77 min in the hawks and 118 min in the owls. Area-under-the-curve values were 218 +/- 52 microg x hr/ml in the hawks and 444 +/- 104 microg x hr/ml in the owls. On the basis of the most common minimal inhibitory concentration (90%) for various bacterial isolates from clinical samples of 8 microg/ml, analysis of the data suggests that the maximum dosing interval for piperacillin at 100 mg/kg in medium sized raptors should be 4-6 hr.

  14. Spatial behaviour of little owls (Athene noctua) in a declining low-density population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Thorup, Kasper; Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of a species' spatial behaviour is essential for understanding its behavioural ecology and a prerequisite to planning of conservation strategies. The little owl has shown a substantial decline in North-western Europe and is on the road of extinction in Denmark. To quantify relevant...

  15. Contaminant exposure in relation to spatio-temporal variation in diet composition: A case study of the little owl (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, A.M.; Wijnhoven, S.; Baveco, H.; van den Brink, N.W.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure of the little owl Athene noctua to trace metal contamination in a Dutch Rhine River floodplain area. Diet composition was calculated per month for three habitat types, based on the population densities of six prey types (earthworms, ground beetles and four small mammal s

  16. The Best of All Possible Worlds: Applying the Model Driven Architecture Approach to a JC3IEDM OWL Ontology Modeled in UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    1 19th ICCRTS  The Best of All Possible Worlds:  Applying the Model Driven Architecture  Approach to a JC3IEDM  OWL  Ontology  Modeled in UML  Topic...utilization of the Ontology Definition Metamodel (ODM), a UML profile for expressing OWL constructs in that language, one can combine the power of semantic...modeling done in OWL with the substantive advantages associated with the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) software design approach, namely, the

  17. Two-fold Mellin-Barnes transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor [Univ. del Bio Bio, Chillan (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A. [Univ. de La Serena (Chile). Dept. de Matematicas; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Univ. del Bio Bio, Chillan (Chile). Facultad de Educacion y Humanidades; Rojas-Medar, Marko [Univ. del Bio Bio, Chillan (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas

    2013-04-15

    In our previous paper (Nucl.Phys.B 870 (2013) 243) we showed that multi-fold Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of the Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms. The MB transforms were written there as polynomials of logarithms of ratios of squares of the external momenta with certain coefficients. We also showed that these coefficients have a combinatoric origin. In this paper we present an explicit formula for these coefficients. The procedure of recovering the coefficients is based on taking the double uni-form limit in certain series of smooth functions of two variables which is constructed according to a pre-determined iterative way. The result is obtained by using basic methods of mathematical analysis. We observe that the finiteness of the limit of this iterative chain of smooth functions should reflect itself in other mathematical constructions, too, since it is not related in any way to the explicit form of the MB transforms.

  18. Two-fold Mellin–Barnes transforms of Usyukina–Davydychev functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd A., E-mail: kniehl@desy.de [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kondrashuk, Igor [Grupo de Matemática Aplicada, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Casilla 447, Chillán (Chile); Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätsstraße 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A. [Departamento de Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Av. Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Carrera de Pedagogia en Matemática, Facultad de Educación y Humanidades, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Campus Castilla, Casilla 447, Chillán (Chile); Rojas-Medar, Marko [Grupo de Matemática Aplicada, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Casilla 447, Chillán (Chile)

    2013-11-01

    In our previous paper (Allendes et al., 2013 [10]), we showed that multi-fold Mellin–Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina–Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms. The MB transforms were written there as polynomials of logarithms of ratios of squares of the external momenta with certain coefficients. We also showed that these coefficients have a combinatoric origin. In this paper, we present an explicit formula for these coefficients. The procedure of recovering the coefficients is based on taking the double-uniform limit in certain series of smooth functions of two variables which is constructed according to a pre-determined iterative way. The result is obtained by using basic methods of mathematical analysis. We observe that the finiteness of the limit of this iterative chain of smooth functions should reflect itself in other mathematical constructions, too, since it is not related in any way to the explicit form of the MB transforms. This finite double-uniform limit is represented in terms of a differential operator with respect to an auxiliary parameter which acts on the integrand of a certain two-fold MB integral. To demonstrate that our result is compatible with original representations of UD functions, we reproduce the integrands of these original integral representations by applying this differential operator to the integrand of the simple integral representation of the scalar triangle four-dimensional integral J(1,1,1−ε)

  19. The differential hippocampal phosphoproteome of Apodemus sylvaticus paralleling spatial memory retrieval in the Barnes maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Csaszar, Edina; Szodorai, Edit; Patil, Sudarshan; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2014-05-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a well-known and well-documented mechanism in memory processes. Although a large series of protein kinases involved in memory processes have been reported, information on phosphoproteins is limited. It was therefore the aim of the study to determine a partial and differential phosphoproteome along with the corresponding network in hippocampus of a wild caught mouse strain with excellent performance in several paradigms of spatial memory. Apodemus sylvaticus mice were trained in the Barnes maze, a non-invasive test system for spatial memory and untrained mice served as controls. Animals were sacrificed 6h following memory retrieval, hippocampi were taken, proteins extracted and in-solution digestion was carried out with subsequent iTRAQ double labelling. Phosphopeptides were enriched by a TiO2-based method and semi-quantified using two fragmentation principles on the LTQ-orbitrap Velos. In hippocampi of trained animals phosphopeptide levels representing signalling, neuronal, synaptosomal, cytoskeletal and metabolism proteins were at least twofold reduced or increased. Furthermore, a network revealing a link to pathways of ubiquitination, the androgen receptor, small GTPase Rab5 and MAPK signaling as well as synucleins was constructed. This work is relevant for interpretation of previous work and the design of future studies on protein phosphorylation in spatial memory.

  20. Solution to Bethe-Salpeter equation via Mellin-Barnes transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendes, Pedro [Concepcion Univ. (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Kniehl, Bernd [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor; Rojas Medar, Marko [Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Notte Cuello, Eduardo A. [Univ. de La Serena (Chile). Facultad de Ciencias

    2012-06-15

    We consider Mellin-Barnes transform of triangle ladder-like scalar diagram in d=4 dimensions. It is shown how multi-fold MB transform of the momentum integral corresponding to any number of rungs is reduced to two-fold MB transform. For this purpose we use Belokurov-Usyukina reduction method for four-dimensional scalar integrals in the position space. The result is represented in terms of Euler {psi}-function and its derivatives. We derive new formulas for MB two-fold integration in the complex planes of two complex variables. We demonstrate that these formulas solve Bethe-Salpeter equation. We comment on further applications of solution to Bethe-Salpeter equation for vertices in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We show that the recursive property of MB transforms observed in the present work for that kind of diagrams has nothing to do with quantum field theory, theory of integral transforms, or with theory of polylogarithms in general, but has an origin in a simple recursive property for smooth functions which can be shown by using basic methods of mathematical analysis.

  1. Solution to Bethe-Salpeter equation via Mellin-Barnes transform

    CERN Document Server

    Allendes, Pedro; Kondrashuk, Igor; Cuello, Eduardo A Notte; Medar, Marko Rojas

    2012-01-01

    We consider Mellin-Barnes transform of triangle ladder-like scalar diagram in d=4 dimensions. It is shown how multi-fold MB transform of the momentum integral corresponding to any number of rungs is reduced to two-fold MB transform. For this purpose we use Belokurov-Usyukina reduction method for four-dimensional scalar integrals in the position space. The result is represented in terms of Euler psi-function and its derivatives. We derive new formulas for MB two-fold integration in the complex planes of two complex variables. We demonstrate that these formulas solve Bethe-Salpeter equation. We comment on further applications of solution to Bethe-Salpeter equation for vertices in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We show that the recursive property of MB transforms observed in the present work for that kind of diagrams has nothing to do with quantum field theory, theory of integral transforms, or with theory of polylogarithms in general, but has an origin in a simple recursive property for smooth functions ...

  2. A GPU accelerated Barnes-Hut tree code for FLASH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukat, Gunther; Banerjee, Robi

    2016-05-01

    We present a GPU accelerated CUDA-C implementation of the Barnes Hut (BH) tree code for calculating the gravitational potential on octree adaptive meshes. The tree code algorithm is implemented within the FLASH4 adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code framework and therefore fully MPI parallel. We describe the algorithm and present test results that demonstrate its accuracy and performance in comparison to the algorithms available in the current FLASH4 version. We use a MacLaurin spheroid to test the accuracy of our new implementation and use spherical, collapsing cloud cores with effective AMR to carry out performance tests also in comparison with previous gravity solvers. Depending on the setup and the GPU/CPU ratio, we find a speedup for the gravity unit of at least a factor of 3 and up to 60 in comparison to the gravity solvers implemented in the FLASH4 code. We find an overall speedup factor for full simulations of at least factor 1.6 up to a factor of 10.

  3. A GPU accelerated Barnes-Hut Tree Code for FLASH4

    CERN Document Server

    Lukat, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    We present a GPU accelerated CUDA-C implementation of the Barnes Hut (BH) tree code for calculating the gravita- tional potential on octree adaptive meshes. The tree code algorithm is implemented within the FLASH4 adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code framework and therefore fully MPI parallel. We describe the algorithm and present test results that demonstrate its accuracy and performance in comparison to the algorithms available in the current FLASH4 version. We use a MacLaurin spheroid to test the accuracy of our new implementation and use spherical, collapsing cloud cores with effective AMR to carry out performance tests also in comparison with previous gravity solvers. Depending on the setup and the GPU/CPU ratio, we find a speedup for the gravity unit of at least a factor of 3 and up to 60 in comparison to the gravity solvers implemented in the FLASH4 code. We find an overall speedup factor for full simulations of at least factor 1.6 up to a factor of 10

  4. Quantitative genetics of migration syndromes: a study of two barn swallow populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitsky, C; Mouawad, N G; Balbontin, J; De Lope, F; Møller, A P

    2011-09-01

    Migration is a complex trait although little is known about genetic correlations between traits involved in such migration syndromes. To assess the migratory responses to climate change, we need information on genetic constraints on evolutionary potential of arrival dates in migratory birds. Using two long-term data sets on barn swallows Hirundo rustica (from Spain and Denmark), we show for the first time in wild populations that spring arrival dates are phenotypically and genetically correlated with morphological and life history traits. In the Danish population, length of outermost tail feathers and wing length were negatively genetically correlated with arrival date. In the Spanish population, we found a negative genetic correlation between arrival date and time elapsed between arrival date and laying date, constraining response to selection that favours both early arrival and shorter delays. This results in a decreased rate of adaptation, not because of constraints on arrival date, but constraints on delay before breeding, that is, a trait that can be equally important in the context of climate change.

  5. “And all the windows, great and small”. Finestre in Nightwood di Djuna Barnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a recurring subject and powerful symbol, the window dominates the female literary and artistic imagery of the twentieth century. It has been developed into mirror, photograph or painting, according to the writer’s needs, yet the basic shape of the frame is always retraceable. Among late modernist and postmodernist women writers, Djuna Barnes explores in detail the structural resources of this literary device. Although she already understands the potential of the frame in her early career as a journalist, she mostly challenges its extents of versatility in Nightwood (1936. Its crucial moments – either flashing epiphanies or missed catharsis – involve the physical presence of a window, which embodies a powerful narrative agent; more than mere symbol, it is active at several levels. Thematically, doors and windows, pictures and mirrors, play an important cohesive role. At a deeper stage of analysis, the structure of the novel itself is shored up by doors and windows, since the setting is essentially organized into indoors and outdoors scenes; windows and doors allow the characters to move between these two dimensions. On the metaphorical level, windows and doors represent a communicative channel; a room-door opening suggests the access to one’s inner life, whereas a shut window denies any chance of dialogue. However, all the characters seem to be too absorbed by their obsessions to realize such communicative potential, and rather meander uselessly in their mental frames.

  6. Misting and fan cooling of the rest area in a dairy barn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2012-03-01

    This summer study aimed to evaluate the effect on dairy cows, kept in a free stall barn equipped with fans and sprinklers in the feeding area, of the delivery rate of misters in a cooling system in rest areas with different bedding materials. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups according to milk yield and kept in two pens: one had beds with sand (SAMM) while the other had straw (STLM). Each pen was equipped with 2 fans (Ø 70 cm, 0.50 kW) and 2 misters (delivery rate of 11.2 and 22.5 L/h in STLM and SAMM, respectively) in the rest area. Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and some milk traits were recorded. Behavioural routines of the cows (standing and lying) were also continuously recorded during the hotter days. During the trial, two mild-moderate heat waves were observed. During these hotter periods, the daily maximum temperature recorded in the rest areas was 28.9 in SAMM and 31.2 in STLM, and the daily maximum THI was 78.2 in SAMM and 81.5 in STLM. In these periods, the cows in SAMM compared with those in STLM showed lower BR ( P fans plus misters with mild wetting in rest areas with sand as bedding materials reduces heat stress and improves cow comfort.

  7. Efficient Implementation of the Barnes-Hut Octree Algorithm for Monte Carlo Simulations of Charged Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Zecheng

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulation with Monte Carlo is an important tool to investigate the function and equilibrium properties of many systems with biological and soft matter materials solvable in solvents. The appropriate treatment of long-range electrostatic interaction is essential for these charged systems, but remains a challenging problem for large-scale simulations. We have developed an efficient Barnes-Hut treecode algorithm for electrostatic evaluation in Monte Carlo simulations of Coulomb many-body systems. The algorithm is based on a divide-and-conquer strategy and fast update of the octree data structure in each trial move through a local adjustment procedure. We test the accuracy of the tree algorithm, and use it to computer simulations of electric double layer near a spherical interface. It has been shown that the computational cost of the Monte Carlo method with treecode acceleration scales as $\\log N$ in each move. For a typical system with ten thousand particles, by using the new algorithm, the speed has b...

  8. Social monogamy in wild owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) of Argentina: the potential influences of resource distribution and ranging patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Using published and new data from a population of monogamous owl monkeys in the Argentinean Chaco, I examine the hypothesis that social monogamy is a default social system imposed upon males because the spatial and/or temporal distribution of resources and females makes it difficult for a single male to defend access to more than one mate. First, I examine a set of predictions on ranging patterns, use of space, and population density. This first section is followed by a second one considering predictions related to the abundance and distribution of food. Finally, I conclude with a section attempting to link the ranging and ecological data to demographic and life-history parameters as proxies for reproductive success. In support of the hypothesis, owl monkey species do live at densities (7-64 ind/km(2) ) that are predicted for monogamous species, but groups occupy home ranges and core areas that vary substantially in size, with pronounced overlap of home ranges, but not of core areas. There are strong indications that the availability of food sources in the core areas during the dry season may be of substantial importance for regulating social monogamy in owl monkeys. Finally, none of the proxies for the success of groups were strongly related to the size of the home range or core area. The results I present do not support conclusively any single explanation for the evolution of social monogamy in owl monkeys, but they help us to better understand how it may function. Moreover, the absence of conclusive answers linking ranging, ecology, and reproductive success with the evolution of social monogamy in primates, offer renewed motivation for continuing to explore the evolution of monogamy in owl monkeys.

  9. Adult male replacement and subsequent infant care by male and siblings in socially monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Juárez, Cecilia Paola; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) are small, territorial, socially monogamous primates that show intense infant care by the adult male in the group. It has been hypothesized that male care may be adaptive because it increases offspring survival and/or reduces the metabolic costs to the female of raising the offspring. Alternatively, males may provide care even when they are not related to the infants to increase future reproductive opportunities. We describe changes in infant care patterns that took place after the eviction of the resident male by a solitary male in an owl monkey population in the Argentinean Chaco. The resident male and mother provided all infant care during the first month of life of the infant, until the male was evicted. During the three-day male replacement event, care of the infant was shared among the mother, a four-year-old sister, and a one-year-old brother. The new male began contributing to infant care soon after entering the group, carrying, and interacting socially with the infant in much the same way as any male regularly does. However, despite receiving biparental care from both the original and new resident males, the infant disappeared at the age of four months and was presumed dead. These are the first reports of care by sibling and by non-putative fathers in wild owl monkeys. Given the significant amount of time that new pairs of owl monkeys spend before reproducing, it is possible that male care in owl monkeys functions as mating effort as much as or more than parenting effort.

  10. Lineage-specific diversification of killer cell Ig-like receptors in the owl monkey, a New World primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, Luis F; Lun, Cheng-Man

    2009-01-01

    Killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) modulate the cytotoxic effects of natural killer cells. In primates, the KIRs are highly diverse as a consequence of variation in gene content, alternative domain composition, and loci polymorphism. We analyzed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone draft sequence spanning the owl monkey KIR cluster. The draft sequence had seven ordered yet unconnected contigs containing six full-length and two partial gene models, flanked by the LILRB and FcAR framework genes. Gene models were predicted to encode KIRs with inhibitory, activating, or dual functionality. Four gene models encoded three Ig domain receptors, while three others encoded molecules with four Ig domains. The additional domain resulted from an insertion in tandem of a 2,101 bp fragment containing the last 289 bp of intron 2, exon 3, and intron 3, resulting in molecules with two D0 domains. Re-screening of the owl monkey BAC library and sequencing of partial cDNAs from an owl monkey yielded five additional KIRs, four of which encoded receptors with short cytoplasmic domains with premature stop codons due to either a single nucleotide substitution or deletion or the absence of exon 8. Phylogenetic analysis by domains showed that owl monkey KIRs were monophyletic, clustering independently from other primate KIR lineages. Retroelements found in introns, however, were shared by KIRs from different primate lineages. This suggests that the owl monkey inherited a KIR cluster with a rich history of exon shuffling upon which positive selection for ligand binding operated to diversify the receptors in a lineage-specific fashion.

  11. A comparative study of the mechanics of the pectoralis muscle of the red-tailed hawk and the barred owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan E; Dobbins, Charles S

    2012-03-01

    A comparison of the isometric forces and levers of the pectoralis muscle in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and barred owls (Strix varia) was done to identify differences that may correlate with their different flight styles. The pectoralis consists of two heads, the anterior m. sternobrachialis (SB) and the posterior m. thoracobrachialis (TB). These are joined at an intramuscular tendon and are supplied by separate primary nerve branches. As in other birds, the two heads have distinct fiber orientations in red-tailed hawks and barred owls. SB's fiber orientation (posterolateral and mediolateral from origin to insertion) provides pronation and protraction of the humerus during adduction. Electromyographic studies in pigeons show that it is active in early downstroke and during level flight. TB is more active during take-off and landing in pigeons. The anterolateral orientation (from origin to insertion) of its fibers provides a retractive component to humeral adduction used to control the wing during landing. In our study, the maximum isometric force produced by the combined pectoralis heads did not differ significantly between the hawk and owl, however, the forces were distributed differently between the two muscle heads. In the owl, SB and TB were capable of producing equal amounts of force, but in the hawk, SB produced significantly less force than did TB. This may reflect the need for a large TB to control landing in both birds during prey-strike, with the owl maintaining both protractive (using SB) and retractive (using TB) abilities. Pronation and protraction may be less important in the flight behavior of the hawk, but its prey-strike behavior may require the maintenance of a substantial TB for braking and controlled stalling, as it initiates strike behavior.

  12. Population dynamics of the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis): a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, A.B.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Seamans, M.E.; White, Gary C.; Zimmerman, G.S.; Hines, J.E.; Munton, T.E.; LaHaye, W.S.; Blakesley, J.A.; Steger, G.N.; Noon, B.R.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; McDonald, T.L.; Britting, S.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a current assessment of the population characteristics of California Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) resident on four study areas in the Sierra Nevada and one study area in southern California. Our meta-analysis followed rigorous a priori analysis protocols, which we derived through extensive discussion during a week-long analysis workshop. Because there is great interest in the owl?s population status, we used state-of-the-art analytical methods to obtain results as precise as possible. Our meta-analysis included data from five California study areas located on the Lassen National Forest (1990-2000), Eldorado National Forest (1986-2000), Sierra National Forest (1990-2000), Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks (1990-2000), and San Bernardino National Forest (1987-1998). Four of the five study areas spanned the length of the Sierra Nevada, whereas the fifth study area encompassed the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California. Study areas ranged in size from 343 km2 (Sequoia and Kings Canyon) to 2,200 km (Lassen). All studies were designed to use capture-recapture methods and analysis. We used survival in a meta-analysis because field methods were very similar among studies. However, we did not use reproduction in a meta-analysis because it was not clear if variation among individual study-area protocols used to assess reproductive output of owls would confound results. Thus, we analyzed fecundity only by individual study area. We examined population trend using the reparameterized Jolly-Seber capture-recapture estimator (8t) We did not estimate juvenile survival rates because of estimation problems and potential bias because of juvenile emigration from study areas. We used mark-recapture estimators under an information theoretic framework to assess apparent survival rates of adult owls. The pooled estimate for adult apparent survival for the five study areas was 0.833, which was lower than pooled adult

  13. Depth of artificial Burrowing Owl burrows affects thermal suitability and occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.; Rathbun, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have installed artificial burrows to help bolster local Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) populations. However, occupancy probability and reproductive success in artificial burrows varies within and among burrow installations. We evaluated the possibility that depth below ground might explain differences in occupancy probability and reproductive success by affecting the temperature of artificial burrows. We measured burrow temperatures from March to July 2010 in 27 artificial burrows in southern California that were buried 15–76 cm below the surface (measured between the surface and the top of the burrow chamber). Burrow depth was one of several characteristics that affected burrow temperature. Burrow temperature decreased by 0.03°C per cm of soil on top of the burrow. The percentage of time that artificial burrows provided a thermal refuge from above-ground temperature decreased with burrow depth and ranged between 50% and 58% among burrows. The percentage of time that burrow temperature was optimal for incubating females also decreased with burrow depth and ranged between 27% and 100% among burrows. However, the percentage of time that burrow temperature was optimal for unattended eggs increased with burrow depth and ranged between 11% and 95% among burrows. We found no effect of burrow depth on reproductive success across 21 nesting attempts. However, occupancy probability had a non-linear relationship with burrow depth. The shallowest burrows (15 cm) had a moderate probability of being occupied (0.46), burrows between 28 and 40 cm had the highest probability of being occupied (>0.80), and burrows >53 cm had the lowest probability of being occupied (Owls may prefer burrows at moderate depths because these burrows provide a thermal refuge from above-ground temperatures, and are often cool enough to allow females to leave eggs unattended before the onset of full-time incubation, but not too cool for incubating females that spend most of

  14. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in eggs of little owls (Athene noctua) from Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, Veerle [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: adrian.covaci@ua.ac.be; Maervoet, Johan [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dauwe, Tom [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Voorspoels, Stefan [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Schepens, Paul [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Eens, Marcel [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2005-07-15

    Residues of brominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 40 eggs of little owls (Athene noctua), a terrestrial top predator from Belgium. The major organohalogens detected were PCBs (median 2,600 ng/g lipid, range 790-23000 ng/g lipid). PCB 153,138/163, 170, 180 and 187 were the predominant congeners and constituted 71% of total sum PCBs. PBDEs were measurable in all samples, but their concentrations were much lower than for PCBs, with a range from 29-572 ng/g lipid (median 108 ng/g lipid). The most prevalent PBDE congeners in little owl egg samples were BDE 47, 99 and 153. This profile differs from the profile in marine bird species, for which BDE 47 was the dominant congener, indicating that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than marine birds. The fully brominated BDE 209 could be detected in one egg sample (17 ng/g lipid), suggesting that higher brominated BDEs may accumulate in terrestrial food chains. Brominated biphenyl (BB) 153 was determined in all egg samples, with levels ranging from 0.6 to 5.6 ng/g lipid (median 1.3 ng/g lipid). Additionally, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) could be identified and quantified in only two eggs at levels of 20 and 50 ng/g lipid. OCPs were present at low concentrations, suggesting a rather low contamination of the sampled environment with OCPs (median concentrations of sum DDTs: 826 ng/g lipid, sum chlordanes: 1,016 ng/g lipid, sum HCHs: 273 ng/g lipid). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) were also found at low median levels of 134 and 3.4 ng/g lipid, respectively. Concentrations of most analytes were significantly higher in eggs collected from deserted nests in comparison to addled (unhatched) eggs, while eggshell thickness did not differ between deserted and addled eggs. No significant correlations were found between eggshell thickness and the analysed organohalogens. - PBDEs are measurable

  15. The impact of climate and cyclic food abundance on the timing of breeding and brood size in four boreal owl species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Ranta, Esa; Pietiäinen, Hannu; Byholm, Patrik; Saurola, Pertti; Valkama, Jari; Huitu, Otso; Henttonen, Heikki; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2011-02-01

    The ongoing climate change has improved our understanding of how climate affects the reproduction of animals. However, the interaction between food availability and climate on breeding has rarely been examined. While it has been shown that breeding of boreal birds of prey is first and foremost determined by prey abundance, little information exists on how climatic conditions influence this relationship. We studied the joint effects of main prey abundance and ambient weather on timing of breeding and reproductive success of two smaller (pygmy owl Glaucidium passerinum and Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus) and two larger (tawny owl Strix aluco and Ural owl Strix uralensis) avian predator species using long-term nation-wide datasets during 1973-2004. We found no temporal trend either in vole abundance or in hatching date and brood size of any studied owl species. In the larger species, increasing late winter or early spring temperature advanced breeding at least as much as did high autumn abundance of prey (voles). Furthermore, increasing snow depth delayed breeding of the largest species (Ural owl), presumably by reducing the availability of voles. Brood size was strongly determined by spring vole abundance in all four owl species. These results show that climate directly affects the breeding performance of vole-eating boreal avian predators much more than previously thought. According to earlier studies, small-sized species should advance their breeding more than larger species in response to increasing temperature. However, we found an opposite pattern, with larger species being more sensitive to temperature. We argue that this pattern is caused by a difference in the breeding tactics of larger mostly capital breeding and smaller mostly income breeding owl species.

  16. Toxicokinetics and coagulopathy threshold of the rodenticide diphacinone in eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, K.E.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Goldade, D.A.; Johnston, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, new regulations on second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides will likely be offset by expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. In the present study, eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) were fed 10 µg diphacinone/g wet weight food for 7 d, and recovery was monitored over a 21-d postexposure period. By day 3 of exposure, diphacinone (DPN) was detected in liver (1.63 µg/g wet wt) and kidney (5.83 µg/g) and coagulopathy was apparent. By day 7, prothrombin time (PT) and Russell's viper venom time (RVVT) were prolonged, and some individuals were anemic. Upon termination of exposure, coagulopathy and anemia were resolved within 4 d, and residues decreased to hemostasis occurs rapidly

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Brown wood owl Strix leptogrammica (Strigiformes: Strigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi; Gu, Changming

    2014-10-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Brown wood owl is a 16,308-bp circular molecule, which contains 37 typical mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs) and a 741-bp A+T-rich region. Its gene arrangement pattern is identical with typical bird species. All protein-coding genes start with an ATG codon. TAA is the most frequent stop codon, and TAG and T- are also occurred very common. The mtDNA sequence contains 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA of rRNA. Except for tRNA(Ser) ((AGY)) and tRNA(Leu) ((CUN)) without the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm, all tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures.

  18. Seasonal survival rates and causes of mortality of Little Owls in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    the causes of current survival rates, we estimated age- and season-specific survival rates and causes of mortality in Danish Little Owls on the basis of ringed birds 1920–2002, radio tagged adult and juveniles 2005–2008 and nest surveys 2006–2008. We estimate that 32 % of all eggs fledge and survive to 2...... strongly associated with anthropogenically modified landscapes, is declining fast and may soon face extinction. The population decline is ultimately associated with reduced survival of independent offspring, but reduced survival rates of adults may possibly contribute to the observed decline. To explore...... weeks post hatching (age of ringing) and 47 %of the nestlings from ringing to fledging. Fifty-five percentage of the radio-tracked fledged young survived to dispersal, i.e. a total survival rate from egg to dispersal of 8 %. Analyses of combined ringing and radio tracking data showed a lower survival...

  19. Flexible Generation of Pervasive Web Services using OSGi Declarative Services and OWL Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Zhang, Weishan; Fernandes, Joao

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing trend to deploy web services in pervasive computing environments. Implementing web services on networked, embedded devices leads to a set of challenges, including productivity of development, efficiency of web services, and handling of variability and dependencies of hardware...... and software platforms. To address these challenges, we developed a web service compiler called Limbo, in which Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontologies are used to make the Limbo compiler aware of its compilation context such as device hardware and software details, platform dependencies, and resource....../power consumption. The ontologies are used to configure Limbo for generating resource-efficient web service code. The architecture of Limbo follows the Blackboard architectural style and Limbo is implemented using the OSGi Declarative Services component model. The component model provides high flexibility...

  20. Semi-automatic Annotation System for OWL-based Semantic Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-H. Liu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Current keyword search by Google, Yahoo, and so on gives enormous unsuitable results. A solution to this perhaps is to annotate semantics to textual web data to enable semantic search, rather than keyword search. However, pure manual annotation is very time-consuming. Further, searching high level concept such as metaphor cannot be done if the annotation is done at a low abstraction level. We, thus, present a semi-automatic annotation system, i.e. an automatic annotator and a manual annotator. Against the web ontology language (OWL terms defined by Protégé, the former annotates the textual web data using the Knuth-Morris-Pratt (KMP algorithm, while the latter allows a user to use the terms to annotate metaphors with high abstraction. The resulting semantically-enhanced textual web document can be semantically processed by other web services such as the information retrieval system and the recommendation system shown in our example.

  1. DataStaR: Bridging XML and OWL in Science Metadata Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Brian

    DataStaR is a science data “staging repository” developed by Albert R. Mann Library at Cornell University that produces semantic metadata while enabling the publication of data sets and accompanying metadata to discipline-specific data centers or to Cornell’s institutional repository. DataStaR, which employs OWL and RDF in its metadata store, serves as a Web-based platform for production and management of metadata and aims to reduce redundant manual input by reusing named ontology individuals. A key requirement of DataStaR is the ability to produce metadata records conforming to existing XML schemas that have been adopted by scientific communities. To facilitate this, DataStaR integrates ontologies that directly reflect XML schemas, generates HTML editing forms, and “lowers” ontology axioms into XML documents compliant with existing schemas. This paper describes our approach and implementation, and discusses the challenges involved.

  2. Biobanken i Den norske mor og barn undersøkelsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti S. Rønningen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Biobanker for langtidslagring av biologisk materiale blir en viktigere og viktigere del av epidemiologiske studier. I planleggingen av en biobank er det en rekke avgjørelser som må tas for å sikre best mulig oppslutning både med hensyn til å få inn så mange prøver som mulig og å oppnå best mulig prøvekvalitet både på kort og lang sikt. Den norske mor og barn undersøkelsen (MoBa skal inkludere 100 000 svangerskap og følge mor, far og barn i lang tid fremover. Innsamlingen av data startet i ett fylke i 1999, og omfatter i dag hele landet. Siden det tas blodprøver to ganger fra hver kvinne, blodprøve fra far og navlesnorsblod frabarna, betydde dette at Biobanken for MoBa måtte planlegges for å kunne motta og langtidslagre over 380 000 prøvesett. Ved Biobanken ved Nasjonalt folkehelseinstitutt lagres fullblod, plasma, urin, DNA og spesialrør til senere RNA isolering. Rekruttering til MoBa foregår ved 52 av landets sykehus. Prøvene sendes per post til Biobanken ved Folkehelseinstituttet for prosessering. Per januar 2006 er over 200 000 prøvesett lagret ved Biobanken. Denne artikkelen gir en kortfattet oversikt over oppbyggingen av Biobanken og logistikken knyttet til innsamlingen av biologisk materiale, fra blodet tappes til det er sikkert lagret og klart til å tas ut på et senere tidspunkt, kanskje mange år inn i fremtiden.The biobank in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.Long term storage of biological material is becoming a critical component of many epidemiological studies. In designing specimen repositories, efforts need to be made to balance future needs for samples with logistical constraints necessary to process and store samples in a timely fashion. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was started in 1999 and aims at including 100,000 pregnancies, and will follow mother, father and child for many years to come. The Biobank was faced with the challenge to receive and store over 380,000 biological

  3. Use of Artificial Burrows by Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) at the HAMMER Facility on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Amanda K.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Duberstein, Corey A.

    2005-09-30

    In 2003 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed an Emergency Vehicle Operations Course (EVOC) at the Hazardous Material Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) in the southern portion of the Hanford Site. Preliminary surveys during 2001 identified an active burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) burrow and three burrowing owls within the proposed development area. Burrowing owls were classified as a federal species of concern, a Washington State ?candidate? species, a Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife priority species, and a Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan Level III resource. Therefore, the mitigation action plan for the project included the installation of twenty artificial burrows around EVOC in the spring of 2003. The mitigation plan established a success criterion of five percent annual use of the burrows by owls. In July 2005, a field survey of the EVOC burrow complex was conducted to determine use and demography at each site. Burrow locations were mapped and signs of activity (feces, owl tracks, castings, feathers) were recorded. Out of the twenty burrows, twelve were found to be active. Of the eight inactive burrows three appeared to have been active earlier in the 2005 breeding season. A total of nineteen owls were counted but demography could not be determined. It appears that the EVOC mitigation exceeded burrow use goals during 2005. Continued site monitoring and maintenance, according to mitigation plan guidelines should be conducted as prescribed.

  4. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  5. Anticoagulant rodenticides in red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis, and great horned owls, Bubo virginianus, from New Jersey, USA, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansley, William; Cummings, Margaret; Vudathala, Daljit; Murphy, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Liver samples from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were analyzed for anticoagulant rodenticides. Residues of one or more second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) were detected in 81 % of red-tailed hawks and 82 % of great horned owls. The most frequently detected SGAR was brodifacoum, which was detected in 76 % of red-tailed hawks and 73 % of great horned owls. Bromadiolone was detected in 20 % of red-tailed hawks and 27 % of great horned owls. Difenacoum was detected in one great horned owl. No other ARs were detected. There were no significant differences between species in the frequency of detection or concentration of brodifacoum or bromadiolone. There was a marginally significant difference (p = 0.0497) between total SGAR residues in red-tailed hawks (0.117 mg/kg) and great horned owls (0.070 mg/kg). There were no seasonal differences in the frequency of detection or concentration of brodifacoum in red-tailed hawks. The data suggest that SGARs pose a significant risk of poisoning to predatory birds in New Jersey.

  6. The On-line Waste Library (OWL): Usage and Inventory Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jang, Je-Hun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rogers, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weck, Philippe F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The Waste Form Disposal Options Evaluation Report (SNL 2014) evaluated disposal of both Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF) and DOE-managed HLW and Spent Nuclear Fuel (DHLW and DSNF) in the variety of disposal concepts being evaluated within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. That work covered a comprehensive inventory and a wide range of disposal concepts. The primary goal of this work is to evaluate the information needs for analyzing disposal solely of a subset of those wastes in a Defense Repository (DRep; i.e., those wastes that are either defense related, or managed by DOE but are not commercial in origin). A potential DRep also appears to be safe in the range of geologic mined repository concepts but may have different concepts and features because of the very different inventory of waste that would be included. The focus of this status report is to cover the progress made in FY16 toward: (1) developing a preliminary DRep included inventory for engineering/design analyses; (2) assessing the major differences of this included inventory relative to that in other analyzed repository systems and the potential impacts to disposal concepts; (3) designing and developing an on-line waste library (OWL) to manage the information of all those wastes and their waste forms (including CSNF if needed); and (4) constraining post-closure waste form degradation performance for safety assessments of a DRep. In addition, some continuing work is reported on identifying potential candidate waste types/forms to be added to the full list from SNL (2014 – see Table C-1) which also may be added to the OWL in the future. The status for each of these aspects is reported herein.

  7. Cooling systems of the resting area in free stall dairy barn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, F.; Calamari, L.; Frazzi, E.

    2016-04-01

    A study during the summer season evaluated the effect of different cooling systems on behavioral and productive responses of Italian Friesian dairy cows kept in an experimental-free stall barn located in the Po Valley in Italy. The study involved 30 lactating dairy cows subdivided into two groups kept in two pens with external hard court paddock in each free stall. The same cooling system was applied in the feeding area in both pens. A different cooling system in the resting area was applied to the two pens: in the pen SW, the resting area was equipped with fans and misters; in the other, there was simple ventilation (SV). Breathing rate, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk characteristics (fat, protein, and somatic cell count) were measured. Behavioral activities (standing and lying cows in the different areas, as well as the animals in the feed bunk) were recorded. Mild to moderate heat waves during the trial were observed. On average, the breathing rate was numerically greater in SV compared with SW cows (60.2 and 55.8 breath/min, respectively), and mean rectal temperature remained below 39 °C in both groups during the trial (on average 38.7 and 38.8 °C in SV and SW, respectively. During the hotter periods of the trial, the time spent lying indoor in the free stall was greater in SW (11.8 h/day) than SV (10.7 h/day). Conversely, the time spent standing indoor without feeding was greater in SV (4.3 h/day) than SW (3.8 h/day). Milk yield was slightly better maintained during hotter period in SW compared with SV and somatic cell count was also slightly greater in the former. In conclusion, the adoption of the cooling system by means of evaporative cooling also in the resting area reduces the alteration of time budget caused by heat stress.

  8. Sexual dimorphism in melanin pigmentation, feather coloration and its heritability in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Teplitsky, Celine; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin) in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica), its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown) and belly (white-to-brownish) feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu) differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations, potentially

  9. Klatring i trær og hyttebygging: - om barns lek og lekesteder ute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Lund Fasting

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article describes 10 year old children`s play in nature during school hours. However, my result does equally reflect on children in kindergarden as well. Observation and conversation was used as methods as well as pictures. The children’s play in the trees and building huts was conducted in groups, and their communication was nonverbal with each other and with the nature. However; the girls reveal that they enjoy their conversations while being in the tree. The children often play at the same place over and over. This is significant to the evolution of the play and the children’s communication with their places in nature.Sammendrag: Denne artikkelen omhandler 10 år gamle barns lek på natursteder i skoletida. Selv om studien omhandler 10 åringer så kan kunnskapen den frembringer også være viktig for å forstå barnehagebarns lek og tilknytning til sine lekesteder i barnehagen. Metodene som ble brukt for å undersøke barnas lek var observasjoner og samtaler med barna, i tillegg til fotografier. Barnas lek i trærne og i hyttebyggingen karakteriseres ved at de er flere sammen, og barna har en kroppslig dialog med hverandre og omgivelsene i leken. Barna snakker i liten grad sammen om leken og hvordan de skal leke; deres kommunikasjon er hovedsakelig nonverbal. Men når jentene sitter i treet forteller de meg at de liker å sitte og snakke. Barna leker på steder hvor de har vært mye før, og dette har en betydning for barnas lek og barnas kommunikasjon med deres steder.

  10. A trade-off between reproduction and feather growth in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Physiological trade-offs mediated by limiting energy, resources or time constrain the simultaneous expression of major functions and can lead to the evolution of temporal separation between demanding activities. In birds, plumage renewal is a demanding activity, which accomplishes fundamental functions, such as allowing thermal insulation, aerodynamics and socio-sexual signaling. Feather renewal is a very expensive and disabling process, and molt is often partitioned from breeding and migration. However, trade-offs between feather renewal and breeding have been only sparsely studied. In barn swallows (Hirundo rustica breeding in Italy and undergoing molt during wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, we studied this trade-off by removing a tail feather from a large sample of individuals and analyzing growth bar width, reflecting feather growth rate, and length of the growing replacement feather in relation to the stage in the breeding cycle at removal and clutch size. Growth bar width of females and length of the growing replacement feather of both sexes were smaller when the original feather had been removed after clutch initiation. Importantly, in females both growth bar width and replacement feather length were negatively predicted by clutch size, and more strongly so for large clutches and when feather removal occurred immediately after clutch completion. Hence, we found strong, coherent evidence for a trade-off between reproduction, and laying effort in particular, and the ability to generate new feathers. These results support the hypothesis that the derived condition of molting during wintering in long-distance migrants is maintained by the costs of overlapping breeding and molt.

  11. Cooling systems of the resting area in free stall dairy barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, F; Calamari, L; Frazzi, E

    2016-04-01

    A study during the summer season evaluated the effect of different cooling systems on behavioral and productive responses of Italian Friesian dairy cows kept in an experimental-free stall barn located in the Po Valley in Italy. The study involved 30 lactating dairy cows subdivided into two groups kept in two pens with external hard court paddock in each free stall. The same cooling system was applied in the feeding area in both pens. A different cooling system in the resting area was applied to the two pens: in the pen SW, the resting area was equipped with fans and misters; in the other, there was simple ventilation (SV). Breathing rate, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk characteristics (fat, protein, and somatic cell count) were measured. Behavioral activities (standing and lying cows in the different areas, as well as the animals in the feed bunk) were recorded. Mild to moderate heat waves during the trial were observed. On average, the breathing rate was numerically greater in SV compared with SW cows (60.2 and 55.8 breath/min, respectively), and mean rectal temperature remained below 39 °C in both groups during the trial (on average 38.7 and 38.8 °C in SV and SW, respectively. During the hotter periods of the trial, the time spent lying indoor in the free stall was greater in SW (11.8 h/day) than SV (10.7 h/day). Conversely, the time spent standing indoor without feeding was greater in SV (4.3 h/day) than SW (3.8 h/day). Milk yield was slightly better maintained during hotter period in SW compared with SV and somatic cell count was also slightly greater in the former. In conclusion, the adoption of the cooling system by means of evaporative cooling also in the resting area reduces the alteration of time budget caused by heat stress.

  12. Effect of summer grazing on welfare of dairy cows reared in mountain tie-stall barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Dovier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mountain farms have an important economic, social and environmental role. The Alps management system for dairy cows consists of animals kept indoors from autumn to spring, mostly in tie-stalls, and moved to mountain pasture in summer. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of mountain summer grazing on the welfare of dairy cows housed in tie-stall barns. Twenty-four farms were considered. In twelve of them, animals were reared in tie-stalls and moved to mountain pasture for three months in summer; they were visited three times: (i four weeks before grazing during the indoor period in the stall; (ii about three weeks after the start of grazing; and (iii in the stall, in autumn, at least three weeks after returning from grazing. The other twelve farms kept the animals in tie-stalls all year; they were visited once in autumn. Data were collected following a protocol that considers animal-based measures and structure information on the basis of Quality Welfare Consortium® indications. Data allowed the calculation of both the Animal Needs Index score (ANI 35L and an overall assessment of the cows’ welfare obtained from three general aspects: housing, animal’s physical condition, and animal’s behaviour. Summer grazing had a significant positive effect on injuries, lameness and animal’s rising duration but a negative effect on faeces consistency. Moreover, a reduction of tongue playing was observed. The ANI 35L and the overall assessment did not show significant differences linked to summer grazing, which tended to have a positive but temporary effect on animal behaviour.

  13. In vitro production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide is positively correlated with increased blood monocytes after exposure to a swine barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, P J; Khozani, T Talaei; Juurlink, B H J; Senthilselvan, A; Rennie, D C; Gerdts, V; Gawaziuk, J; Schneberger, D; Burch, Lauranell H; Dosman, J A

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been interest in the air quality in and around intensive livestock production facilities, such as modern swine production barns, where agricultural workers and surrounding residents may be exposed to elevated levels of organic dusts. The health effects of these exposures are not completely understood. The study that is reported here is a component of a larger investigation of the relationships among the acute effects of high-concentration endotoxin exposure (swine barn dust), polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene, and respiratory outcomes following exposure to swine confinement buildings. The relationships among a mediator of acute lung inflammation, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and clinical responses to acute swine barn exposure were characterized. Analysis of the results showed that in vitro stimulation of human monocytes with as little as 1 ng/ml of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced a significant increase in the monocytes that produced TNF-alpha. Although the proportion of TNF-alpha-positive monocytes after in vitro stimulation with 1 ng/ml of LPS was not associated with gender or TLR4 genotype, it was positively associated with the concentration of monocytes in blood after barn exposure. Thus, these two responses to different forms of LPS exposure are significantly correlated, and more responsive monocytes in vitro indicate a forthcoming relative monocytosis, post barn exposure, which may initiate a cascade of chronic inflammation.

  14. Description Schema Design of Web Service Quality Ontology Based on OWL-S%基于OWL-S的Web服务质量本体的描述模式的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏娟丽

    2006-01-01

    基于WSDL的Web服务描述没有涉及到Web服务语义信息的表示,仅仅从语法的角度解决了Web服务信息的描述.随着语义Web概念的提出,如何描述Web服务的语义信息成为学术界研究的热点.论述了OWL-S语言如何实现对Web服务的语义描述.同时针对OWL-S在描述服务质量方面的不足,提出了Web服务质量本体的描述模式,以方便根据Web服务的质量信息对服务类中的服务进行筛选.

  15. Clock gene variation is associated with breeding phenology and maybe under directional selection in the migratory barn swallow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Caprioli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In diverse taxa, photoperiodic responses that cause seasonal physiological and behavioural shifts are controlled by genes, including the vertebrate Clock orthologues, that encode for circadian oscillator mechanisms. While the genetic network behind circadian rhythms is well described, relatively few reports exist of the phenological consequences of and selection on Clock genes in the wild. Here, we investigated variation in breeding phenology in relation to Clock genetic diversity in a long-distance migratory bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a sample of 922 adult barn swallows from a single population breeding in Italy we found one very common (Q(7 and three rare (Q(5, Q(6, Q(8 length variants of a functionally significant polyglutamine repeat. Rare (2.9% Q(7/Q(8 heterozygous females, but not males, bred significantly later than common (91.5% Q(7/Q(7 females, consistent with the expectation that 'long' alleles cause late breeding, as observed in a resident population of another bird species. Because breeding date depends on arrival date from migration, present results suggest that the association between breeding date and Clock might be mediated by migration phenology. In addition, fecundity selection appears to be operating against Q(7/Q(8 because late migrating/breeding swallows have fewer clutches per season, and late breeding has additional negative selection effects via reduced offspring longevity. Genotype frequencies varied marginally non-significantly with age, as Q(7/Q(8 frequency showed a 4-fold reduction in old individuals. This result suggests negative viability selection against Q(7/Q(8, possibly mediated by costs of late breeding. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study of migratory birds showing an association between breeding phenology and Clock genotype and suggesting that negative selection occurs on a phenologically deviant genotype. Low polymorphism at Clock may

  16. Sexual Dimorphism and Population Differences in Structural Properties of Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica Wing and Tail Feathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter L Pap

    Full Text Available Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1 and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6 and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5 tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Furthermore, we compared structural properties of Ta6 of barn swallows from six European populations. Finally, we determined the relationship between feather growth bars width (GBW and the structural properties of tail feathers. The structure of P1 indicates strong resistance against aerodynamic forces, while the narrow rachis, low vane density and low bending stiffness of tail feathers suggest reduced resistance against airflow. The highly elongated Ta6 is characterized by structural modifications such as large rachis width and increased barbule density in relation to the less elongated Ta5, which can be explained by increased length and/or high aerodynamic forces acting at the leading tail edge. However, these changes in Ta6 structure do not allow for full compensation of elongation, as reflected by the reduced bending stiffness of Ta6. Ta6 elongation in males resulted in feathers with reduced resistance, as shown by the low barb density and reduced bending stiffness compared to females. The inconsistency in sexual dimorphism and in change in quality traits of Ta6 among six European populations shows that multiple factors may contribute to shaping population differences. In general, the difference in quality traits between tail feathers cannot be explained by the GBW of feathers. Our results show that the material and structural properties of wing and tail feathers of barn swallows change as a result of aerodynamic forces and sexual selection, although the

  17. Measurement of heat stress conditions at cow level and comparison to climate conditions at stationary locations inside a dairy barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Laura K; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine heat stress conditions at cow level and to investigate the relationship to the climate conditions at 5 different stationary locations inside a dairy barn. In addition, we compared the climate conditions at cow level between primiparous and multiparous cows for a period of 1 week after regrouping. The temperature-humidity index (THI) differed significantly between all stationary loggers. The lowest THI was measured at the window logger in the experimental stall and the highest THI was measured at the central logger in the experimental stall. The THI at the mobile cow loggers was 2·33 THI points higher than at the stationary loggers. Furthermore, the mean daily THI was higher at the mobile cow loggers than at the stationary loggers on all experimental days. The THI in the experimental pen was 0·44 THI points lower when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. The THI measured at the mobile cow loggers was 1·63 THI points higher when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. However, there was no significant difference for all climate variables between primiparous and multiparous cows. These results indicate, there is a wide range of climate conditions inside a dairy barn and especially areas with a great distance to a fresh air supply have an increased risk for the occurrence of heat stress conditions. Furthermore, the heat stress conditions are even higher at cow level and cows not only influence their climatic environment, but also generate microclimates within different locations inside the barn. Therefore climate conditions should be obtained at cow level to evaluate the heat stress conditions that dairy cows are actually exposed to.

  18. EVALUATION OF PERCEIVED QUALITY OF THE WEBSITE OF AN ONLINE BOOKSTORE: AN EMPIRICAL APPLICATION OF THE BARNES AND VIDGEN MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueliton da Costa Leonidio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s objective is to evaluate the perceived quality of the Website of an online bookstore using the Barnes and Vidgen Model. Implemented over the Internet, this empirical research collected data on the perceived quality of the Website, used to sell products and online services. The questionnaire used to gather the data was answered by a convenience sample of 213 respondents. The importance of quality attributes and the dimension of perceived quality were investigated. The results indicate that the three dimensions named Reliability, Usability and Information were the most noticeable.

  19. Orbit Determination with Angle-only Data from the First Korean Optical Satellite Tracking System, OWL-Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Jo, J.

    2016-09-01

    The optical satellite tracking data obtained by the first Korean optical satellite tracking system, Optical Wide-field patrol - Network (OWL-Net), had been examined for precision orbit determination. During the test observation at Israel site, we have successfully observed a satellite with Laser Retro Reflector (LRR) to calibrate the angle-only metric data. The OWL observation system is using a chopper equipment to get dense observation data in one-shot over 100 points for the low Earth orbit objects. After several corrections, orbit determination process was done with validated metric data. The TLE with the same epoch of the end of the first arc was used for the initial orbital parameter. Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) was used for an analysis of a performance of orbit estimation using the angle-only measurements. We have been developing batch style orbit estimator.

  20. "Owl" Technique for All-Arthroscopic Augmentation of a Massive or Large Rotator Cuff Tear With Extracellular Matrix Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvani, A Ali; Consigliere, Paolo; Polyzois, Ioannis; Sarkhel, Tanaya; Gupta, Rohit; Levy, Ofer

    2016-08-01

    Despite the vast improvement in techniques and technology for arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery, repairs of massive and large tears remain challenging because they are associated with significantly high failure rates. In recent years, patch augmentation has gained popularity as a technique to decrease these high failure rates. Arthroscopic patch augmentation of rotator cuff repair, however, is technically difficult. The purpose of this report is to describe a simple and reproducible technique for all-arthroscopic extracellular matrix graft augmentation. With this technique, which we refer to as the "owl" technique because the prepared extracellular augment resembles an owl, there are relatively few suture ends involved; therefore, augment introduction is straightforward with a reduced risk of suture ends becoming tangled. In addition, the way in which our augmentation is prepared helps to prevent it from becoming bunched up when being secured.

  1. Effects of food provisioning and habitat management on spatial behaviour of Little Owls during the breeding season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Chrenkova, Monika; Sunde, Peter

    2016-01-01

    the nests. In addition to increasing the reproductive output, feeding and habitat management may cause parents to work less hard improving their future reproductive value. We studied working efforts of five radio-tagged Little Owl pairs in years of absence and presence of food provisioning, and/or access......The population of Little Owls in Denmark is close to extinction. The main cause is food limitation during the breeding season. Efforts to improve breeding success include providing breeding pairs with supplementary food and attempts to improve foraging habitats by creating short grass areas near...... to short sward vegetation areas near to the nest. We quantified movement as the minimum flight distance hour–1 (MFD), using the mean distance from the nest (DN) as a supplementary index. Under unmanipulated conditions, males had higher MFD and DN than females. If provided with food and/or areas with short...

  2. The effects of apparatus design and test procedure on learning and memory performance of C57BL/6J mice on the Barnes maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P; Brown, Richard E

    2012-01-30

    The Barnes maze is a visuo-spatial learning and memory test originally designed for use with rats, and later adapted for use with mice. The Barnes maze design and test procedure vary across studies using mice, but the effects of variation in Barnes maze design and test procedure on learning and memory in mice have not yet been investigated. Therefore the present experiment investigates whether test procedures, such as the number of habituation trials and parameters of the probe trial (correct zone size and trial length) influence learning and memory performance on three Barnes maze designs that differed in size and the presence of a wall with intra-maze visual cues. Performance was compared across the three mazes to determine how apparatus design influences visuo-spatial cue use. The number of habituation trials and parameters of the probe trial had small effects on learning and memory performance. Apparatus design, had little effect on acquisition performance but had a significant effect on memory performance. Mice on a maze with a small diameter, external wall and intra-maze visual cues had very poor visuo-spatial memory relative to mice tested on small and large diameter mazes without a wall or intra-maze visual cues. Assessment of visuo-spatial cue use indicated that mice do not rely on visuo-spatial cues to locate the escape hole on the small-diameter maze with a wall and intra-maze visual cues, but show reliable visuo-spatial cue use on small or large diameter mazes with no wall. These results indicate that apparatus design influences search strategy use and memory performance on the Barnes maze, and that including a wall around the edge of the Barnes maze decreases visuo-spatial cue use.

  3. Effect of Applying Surplus Heat Sharing in Bulk Curing Barn%密集烤房余热共享应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽英; 谢帮金; 杨启冰; 刘勇; 李立新; 齐飞

    2014-01-01

    通过比较余热共享密集烤房与无余热共享密集烤房在烘烤过程中能耗和鲜干比值的变化,研究了余热共享密集烤房的应用效果。结果表明:余热共享密集烤房的耗煤量、耗电量和鲜干比值均优于无余热共享密集烤房,有效地降低了烘烤成本。密集烤房通过余热共享,可以降低顶层烟叶烘烤后的含青度,提高顶层烟叶烘烤质量。%The effect of applying surplus heat sharing in bulk curing barn was studied by comparing the variation of energy consumption and ratio of dry weight to fresh weight in flue-curing process between bulk curing barn with surplus heat sharing and normal bulk curing barn. The results showed that in comparison normal bulk curing barn, the coal consumption, the power consumption and the ratio of dry weight to fresh weight of bulk curing barn with surplus heat sharing were all relatively better, thus reducing the curing cost effectively. Through surplus heat sharing, the bulk curing barn can reduce the green degree of top layer tobacco leaves after curing, thus improving the curing quality of top layer tobacco leaves.

  4. Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole; Gould, Daniel; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of natural and/or experimental infections of West Nile virus (WNV) in five raptor species from July 2002 to March 2004, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owls (Tyto alba), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Birds were infected per mosquito bite, per os, or percutaneously by needle. Many experimentally infected birds developed mosquito-infectious levels of viremia (>10(5) WNV plaque forming units per ml serum) within 5 days postinoculation (DPI), and/ or shed virus per os or per cloaca. Infection of organs 15-27 days postinoculation was infrequently detected by virus isolation from spleen, kidney, skin, heart, brain, and eye in convalescent birds. Histopathologic findings varied among species and by method of infection. The most common histopathologic lesions were subacute myocarditis and encephalitis. Several birds had a more acute, severe disease condition represented by arteritis and associated with tissue degeneration and necrosis. This study demonstrates that raptor species vary in their response to WNV infection and that several modes of exposure (e.g., oral) may result in infection. Wildlife managers should recognize that, although many WNV infections are sublethal to raptors, subacute lesions could potentially reduce viability of populations. We recommend that raptor handlers consider raptors as a potential source of WNV contamination due to oral and cloacal shedding.

  5. Optimization of the Orbiting Wide-angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle and Neutrino Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Krizmanic, John F; Streitmatter, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    OWL uses the Earth's atmosphere as a vast calorimeter to fully enable the emerging field of charged-particle astronomy with high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and a search for sources of UHE neutrinos and photons. Confirmation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression above ~4 x 10^19 eV suggests that most UHECR originate in astrophysical objects. Higher energy particles must come from sources within about 100 Mpc and are deflected by ~1 degree by predicted intergalactic/galactic magnetic fields. The Pierre Auger Array, Telescope Array and the future JEM-EUSO ISS mission will open charged-particle astronomy, but much greater exposure will be required to fully identify and measure the spectra of individual sources. OWL uses two large telescopes with 3 m optical apertures and 45 degree FOV in near-equatorial orbits. Simulations of a five-year OWL mission indicate ~10^6 km^2 sr yr of exposure with full aperture at ~6 x 10^19 eV. Observations at different altitudes and sp...

  6. Final report : results of the 2006-2007 investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA facility in Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-08-28

    The 2006-2007 investigation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination at Barnes, Kansas, was conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory implemented the investigation on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The overall goal of the investigation was to establish criteria for monitoring leading to potential site reclassification. The investigation objectives were to (1) determine the hydraulic gradient near the former CCC/USDA facility, (2) delineate the downgradient carbon tetrachloride plume, and (3) design and implement an expanded monitoring network at Barnes (Argonne 2006a).

  7. Morphological features of the tongue and laryngeal entrance in two predatory birds with similar feeding preferences: common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and Hume's tawny owl (Strix butleri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumandour, Mohamed M A; El-Bakary, Neveen E R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this investigation was to describe the morphological characters of the tongue of two predatory birds with similar feeding preferences, i.e. the common kestrel and Hume's tawny owl. Descriptive information on the lingual morphology of these two birds, particularly Hume's tawny owl, is incomplete. We found that the lingual apex of the owl has an oval, concave, shovel-like form with a bifid lingual tip, while that of the kestrel has the shape of a horny tip-like spoon with a central process in addition to there being several filiform-like papillae on the dorsal surface of the apex and body. In the owl, the dorsal surface of the apex and body is subdivided into four U-shaped regions: lingual tip, two lateral regions and a median region. The two lateral regions are characterized by the presence of papillae and several openings of lingual glands, while the median region carries filiform-like papillae. In both birds, the papillary crest is located between the body and root. In the kestrel, there is an additional row of papillae rostral to crest, while in the owl there is a rostral lateral extension of papillae on the lateral lingual surface so the distribution pattern has a W-shape. In the kestrel, the posterior part of lingual body has several openings of glands, while the root lacks glands completely, although it has many taste buds. In the owl, the lingual root is folded and has a large number of gland openings. In the kestrel caudally to the glottis, there are two paramedian transverse rows of pharyngeal papillae with a pair of median huge papillae, while in the owl, there is only one transverse row of papillae. The dorsal and ventral lingual surfaces of both birds are lined with non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.

  8. Preliminary risk assessment of the Mexican Spotted Owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Pratt, L.E.

    1997-02-01

    The Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that the Department of Energy takes special precautions to protect the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida). In order to do so, risk to the owl presented by radiological and nonradiological contaminants must be estimated. A preliminary risk assessment on the Mexican Spotted Owl in two Ecological Exposure Units (EEUs) was performed using a modified Environmental Protection Agency Quotient method, the FORTRAN model ECORSK4, and a geographic information system. Estimated doses to the owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime were compared against toxicological reference doses generating hazard indices (HIs) and hazard quotients (HQs) for three risk source types. The average HI was 0.20 for EEU-21 and 0.0015 for EEU-40. Under the risk parameter assumptions made, hazard quotient results indicated no unacceptable risk to the owl, including a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes a linear additive toxicity type. An HI of 1.0 was used as the evaluative criteria for determining the acceptability of risk. This value was exceeded (1.06) in only one of 200 simulated potential nest sites. Cesium-137, Ni, {sup 239}Pu, Al and {sup 234}U we`re among the constituents with the highest partial HQs. Improving model realism by weighting simulated owl foraging based on distance from potential nest sites decreased the estimated risk by 72% (0.5 HI units) for EEU-21 and by 97.6% (6.3E-02 HI units) for EEU-40. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, owl habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at acceptably low levels.

  9. Foraging at the edge of the world: low-altitude, high-speed manoeuvering in barn swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Douglas R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Biewener, Andrew A; Crandell, Kristen E; Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-09-26

    While prior studies of swallow manoeuvering have focused on slow-speed flight and obstacle avoidance in still air, swallows survive by foraging at high speeds in windy environments. Recent advances in field-portable, high-speed video systems, coupled with precise anemometry, permit measures of high-speed aerial performance of birds in a natural state. We undertook the present study to test: (i) the manner in which barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) may exploit wind dynamics and ground effect while foraging and (ii) the relative importance of flapping versus gliding for accomplishing high-speed manoeuvers. Using multi-camera videography synchronized with wind-velocity measurements, we tracked coursing manoeuvers in pursuit of prey. Wind speed averaged 1.3-2.0 m s(-1) across the atmospheric boundary layer, exhibiting a shear gradient greater than expected, with instantaneous speeds of 0.02-6.1 m s(-1) While barn swallows tended to flap throughout turns, they exhibited reduced wingbeat frequency, relying on glides and partial bounds during maximal manoeuvers. Further, the birds capitalized on the near-earth wind speed gradient to gain kinetic and potential energy during both flapping and gliding turns; providing evidence that such behaviour is not limited to large, fixed-wing soaring seabirds and that exploitation of wind gradients by small aerial insectivores may be a significant aspect of their aeroecology.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  10. a Comparison of Laser Scanning and Structure from Motion as Applied to the Great Barn at Harmondsworth, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. P.; Bedford, J.; Bryan, P. G.

    2013-07-01

    The great barn at Harmondsworth near London Heathrow airport, United Kingdom (UK), was built in 1426-7 for the Bishop of Winchester. At 58 metres long and 11.4 metres wide, it is one of the largest ever known to have been built in the UK, and the largest intact medieval timber-framed barn in England. The barn is built almost entirely of oak, although the walls rest on a low masonry sill-wall. Internally the space is divided into a central "nave" with a lower aisle to each side, and is divided along its length into 12 bays. There are three doorways on the east side. For an entirely timber-framed barn, the fabric is exceptionally well preserved. Even the external weatherboarding may be partly original. Following years of neglect, however, there are a number of on-going structural and conservation problems, so in 2011 the barn was bought by English Heritage in order to allow these needs to be addressed. English Heritage is the government agency responsible for the historic sites and buildings in the care of the state of England and is also the UK government's lead advisor on the built heritage. As one of the first steps in the conservation process the English Heritage Geospatial Imaging and Imaging & Visualisation teams undertook a four-day campaign of survey data collection. This took the form of laser scanning of the interior and exterior of the barn plus the acquisition of photography of the exterior elevations to be used with structure from motion (SFM) software. A comparison of the results of these complimentary yet potentially competing technologies will be given, as well as an evaluation of when they can be successfully used together. This paper will describe the procedures and problems involved with collecting the survey data and its subsequent analysis. The laser scanning was undertaken using a FARO Focus 3D phase based instrument. Approximately 60 scans were acquired in order to provide as comprehensive as possible coverage given the site circumstances. A

  11. "Det är ett vanligt barn, även om det är lite speciellt" : Några förskollärares syn på begreppet barn i behov av särskilt stöd

    OpenAIRE

    Vuento, Noora; Waldenström, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur några förskollärare ser på begreppet barn i behov av särskilt stöd och vilka barn som omfattas av begreppet enligt dem. De forskningsfrågor vi ställde var hur förskollärare definierar begreppet barn i behov av särskilt stöd, hur förskollärare gör bedömningen av vilka barn som är i behov av särskilt stöd samt hur förskollärare tolkar förskolans uppdrag när det gäller barn i behov av särskilt stöd. För att undersöka dessa frågor använde vi oss av kv...

  12. Dairy barns and roll-over protection on farm tractors: work environment impacts on the adoption of roll-over protective structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, T W; Dennis, J W; Jenkins, P L

    1994-04-01

    A mailed survey of one group of dairy farmers supports the informal perception that roll-over protective structure (ROPS)-equipped tractors are considered unusable for in-barn tasks. This attitude must be addressed in order to achieve greater use of safety equipment.

  13. Study of $ \\bar{p} $ and $ \\bar{n} $ annihilations at LEAR with OBELIX, a large acceptance and high resolution detector based on the Open Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS201 Study of $\\bar{p}$ and $\\bar{n}$ annihilations at LEAR with OBELIX, a large acceptance and high resolution detector based on the Open Axial Field Spectrometer \\\\ \\\\OBELIX is designed to study exclusive final states of antiproton and antineutron annihilations at low energies with protons and nuclei. \\\\ \\\\The physics motivations of the experiment are:\\\\ \\\\\\begin{itemize} \\item (gg, ggg), hybrids ($ q \\bar{q} g $), multiquarks ($ q q \\bar{q} \\bar{q} $) and light mesons ($ q \\bar{q} $) produced in $ N \\bar{N} $ annihilations and study of their spectroscopy and decays. Also broad structures will be searched for by comparing identical decay modes in exclusive final states of the same type occuring from initial states with different angular momentum or isospin. \\item Study of the dynamics of $ N \\bar{N} $ interactions and of the dependence of the final and intermediate resonant states of annihilation upon the quantum numbers of the initial $ N \\bar{N} $ state (angular momentum: S and P-wave in $\\bar{p}p $ at...

  14. Tests of the Aversive Summation Hypothesis in Rats: Effects of Restraint Stress on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and Extinction in the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Cardenas-Poveda, D. Carolina; McLinden, Kristina A.; Glueck, Amanda C.; Gutierrez, German; Lamprea, Marisol R.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored the effects of restraint stress on two situations involving incentive downshift: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and extinction of escape behavior in the Barnes maze. First, Experiment 1 confirmed that the restraint stress procedure used in these experiments increased levels of circulating…

  15. Exploring variations in the fundamental constants with ELTs: The CODEX spectrograph on OWL

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, P; Levshakov, S; Molaro, Paolo; Murphy, Michael T.; Levshakov, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    Cosmological variations in the fine structure constant, alpha, can be probed through precise velocity measurements of metallic absorption lines from intervening gas clouds seen in spectra of distant quasars. Data from the Keck/HIRES instrument support a variation in alpha of 6 parts per million. Such a variation would have profound implications, possibly providing a window into the extra spatial dimensions required by unified theories such as string/M-theory. However, recent results from VLT/UVES suggest no variation in alpha. The COsmic Dynamics EXperiment (CODEX) spectrograph currently being designed for the ESO OWL telescope (Pasquini et al 2005) with a resolution high enough to properly resolve even the narrowest of metallic absorption lines, R>150,000, will achieve a 2-to-3 order-of-magnitude precision increase in Delta\\alpha/alpha. This will rival the precision available from the Oklo natural fission reactor and upcoming satellite-borne atomic clock experiments. Given the vital constraints on fundamenta...

  16. The Macroanatomy of the Sacral Plexus and Its Nerves in Eurasian Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Y; Demiraslan, Y; Aslan, K; Coban, A

    2016-10-01

    This study was carried out to reveal the formation of the sacral plexus in the Eurasian Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo) and the nerves originating from this plexus. Five EEOs, three of them were male and two were female, were provided from Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Kafkas University and used as materials. Following the euthanizing of the animals, abdominal cavity was opened. The nerves of plexus sacrales were dissected and photographed. It was detected that the sacral plexus was formed by the ventral ramus of five synsacral nerves. Moreover, it was determined that the roots of the sacral plexus formed three trunks: the truncus cranialis, the truncus medius and the truncus caudalis in fossa renalis. The availability of the n. ischiofemoralis and the availability of n. parafibularis were detected in the EEOs. Five branches were specified as having segregated from the sacral plexus: the n. cutaneus femoralis caudalis, the mutual root of n. fibularis with n. tibialis (n. ischiadicus), the rami musculares, the n. coxalis caudalis and the ramus muscularis. It was observed that the sacral plexus was linked to the lumbar plexus by the n. furcalis, to the pudendus plexus via the n. bigeminus. Consequently, the anatomic structure of the EEO's sacral plexus, the participating synsacral nerves to plexus and the innervation areas of these nerves were revealed.

  17. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in northern spotted owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Bunikis, J.; Barbour, A.G.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  18. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in a northern spotted owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy J; Bunikis, Jonas; Barbour, Alan G; Wolcott, Mark J

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  19. Intrinsic alignments of galaxies in the EAGLE and cosmo-OWLS simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Velliscig, Marco; Schaye, Joop; Hoekstra, Henk; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; van Daalen, Marcel P; Furlong, Michelle; McCarthy, I G; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We report results for the alignments of galaxies in the EAGLE and cosmo-OWLS simulations as a function of galaxy separation and halo mass. The combination of these hydro-cosmological simulations enables us to span four orders of magnitude in halo mass ($10.7

  20. Effect of winter conditions on wild ungulates mortality in the Owl Mountains (Poland

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    Warchałowski Marcin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Relations between climatic factors during the winter season (n days with frost 1 cm, >10 cm and >30 cm; maximum snow cover during season [cm] and mortality in free-living ungulates (red deer Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758, roe deer Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus, 1758 and mouflon Ovis aries musimon Linnaeus, 1758 in the Owl Mountains (Lower Silesia – Poland in years 1998–2010 were investigated. Significant effects of all analysed climatic factors on ungulates mortality were documented. Correlations (Pearson between such weather factors as the depth of snow cover and number of days with frost and recorded mortality in total animal populations analysed ranged from r = 0.33 to r = 0.77. The least adapted to local weather conditions was mouflon introduced to this area ca. 100 years ago from more southern parts of Europe. Roe deer species seems to be environmentally plastic, and are doing quite well in severe winters. Tolerance of red deer to the snow cover is much lower at low temperatures due to the fact that this species, during the period of snow cover, has limited access to the plants covered with snow and difficult access to food base.

  1. Exploring variations in the fundamental constants with ELTs: the CODEX spectrograph on OWL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaro, Paolo; Murphy, Michael T.; Levshakov, Sergei A.

    Cosmological variations in the fine structure constant, α, can be probed through precise velocity measurements of metallic absorption lines from intervening gas clouds seen in spectra of distant quasars. Data from the Keck/HIRES instrument support a variation in α of 6 parts per million. Such a variation would have profound implications, possibly providing a window into the extra spatial dimensions required by unified theories such as string/M-theory. However, recent results from VLT/UVES suggest no variation in α. The COsmic Dynamics EXperiment (CODEX) spectrograph currently being designed for the ESO OWL telescope (Pasquini et al. 2005) with a resolution high enough to properly resolve even the narrowest of metallic absorption lines, R > 150000, will achieve a 2-to-3 order-of-magnitude precision increase in Δα/α. This will rival the precision available from the Oklo natural fission reactor and upcoming satellite-borne atomic clock experiments. Given the vital constraints on fundamental physics possible, the ELT community must consider such a high-resolution optical spectrograph like CODEX.

  2. Correlates of genetic monogamy in socially monogamous mammals: insights from Azara's owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Maren; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Babb, Paul; Schurr, Theodore

    2014-05-07

    Understanding the evolution of mating systems, a central topic in evolutionary biology for more than 50 years, requires examining the genetic consequences of mating and the relationships between social systems and mating systems. Among pair-living mammals, where genetic monogamy is extremely rare, the extent of extra-group paternity rates has been associated with male participation in infant care, strength of the pair bond and length of the breeding season. This study evaluated the relationship between two of those factors and the genetic mating system of socially monogamous mammals, testing predictions that male care and strength of pair bond would be negatively correlated with rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). Autosomal microsatellite analyses provide evidence for genetic monogamy in a pair-living primate with bi-parental care, the Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarae). A phylogenetically corrected generalized least square analysis was used to relate male care and strength of the pair bond to their genetic mating system (i.e. proportions of EPP) in 15 socially monogamous mammalian species. The intensity of male care was correlated with EPP rates in mammals, while strength of pair bond failed to reach statistical significance. Our analyses show that, once social monogamy has evolved, paternal care, and potentially also close bonds, may facilitate the evolution of genetic monogamy.

  3. DNA reveals long-distance partial migratory behavior in a cryptic owl lineage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keren R.Sadanandan; David J.X.Tan; Kolbj?rn Schj?lberg; Philip D.Round; Frank E.Rheindt

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Brown Hawk Owl complex is said to consist of three species,the Brown Boobook(Ninox scutulata),the Chocolate Boobook(Ninox randi) and the Northern Boobook(Ninox japonica),which includes the nominate migratory lineage Ninox japonica japonica and a mitochondrially distinct lineage of taxonomically uncertain status that has been recorded year-round at least in Taiwan.Overlap in ranges during migration and morphological similarity have led to difficulties in distinguishing the Brown Boobook from the Northern Boobook.Methods: PCR of cytochrome-b and Sanger sequencing of Ninox samples from Singapore and Brunei were used to determine sample identity.Results: Two out of four Singaporean samples and the Brunei sample were identified as Northern Boobooks.This is the first official record of this species in Singapore and represents a considerable range extension for the species.Further,the samples belong to the mitochondrially distinct lineage previously characterized in resident Taiwanese populations rather than to the well-known nominate migratory lineage.Conclusions: Our data show that the mitochondrial signature previously documented in resident Taiwanese populations of the Northern Boobook extends to migratory populations.This cryptic lineage may be more widespread in its breeding quarters,extending to the Chinese and Russian mainland,in which case the name florensis would apply to it.Further genetic and bioacoustic investigation is required to resolve the taxonomic status of this lineage.

  4. Time Narrative Discourse in the Novel: The Blind Owl (Bofe Kor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Narratology is relatively a new science that took on the scientific aspects by the structuralist studies. There are different, similar and even contradictory, ideas rose in this regard. Gérard Genette’s view of time is considered as one of the most significant elements of the narrative discourse in the review on the narrative in literature. The modern novel-in failing to comply with chronological time-is dramatically receptive to this type of criticism. This analytical research paper examines the novel The Blind Owl (Bofe Kor by Sadeq Hedayat with the aim of helping to read and understand the novel approach according to narrative discourse. The results show that the time in this novel does not follow the chronographic rules; in other words, the time fluctuates under the influence of the retrospective and prospective time disorder and thus, the time disorders and other factors such as repetition, redundancy and etc. cause the slow acceleration in narrative that led to more prolong the narrative text than the story.

  5. Continuous measurement of reticuloruminal pH values in dairy cows during the transition period from barn to pasture feeding using an indwelling wireless data transmitting unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiner, J; Horn, M; Steinwidder, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the transition from barn feeding to pasture on the pattern of reticuloruminal pH values in 8 multiparous dairy cows. A indwelling wireless data transmitting system for pH measurement was given to 8 multiparous cows orally. Reticuloruminal pH values were measured every 600 s over a period of 42 days. After 7 days of barn feeding (period 1), all of the animals were pastured with increasing grazing times from 2 to 7 h/day over 7 days (period 2). From day 15 to day 21 (period 3), the cows spent 7 h/day on pasture. Beginning on day 22, the animals had 20 h/day access to pasture (day and night grazing). To study reticuloruminal adaptation to pasture feeding, the phase of day and night grazing was subdivided into another 3 weekly periods (periods 4-6). Despite a mild transition period from barn feeding to pasture, significant effects on reticuloruminal pH values were observed. During barn feeding, the mean reticuloruminal pH value for all of the cows was 6.44 ± 0.14, and the pH values decreased significantly (p pH values increased again (pH 6.25 ± 0.22; pH 6.31 ± 0.17; pH 6.37 ± 0.16). Our results showed that the animals had significantly lowered reticuloruminal pH during the periods of feed transition from barn to pasture feeding. Despite these significant changes, the decrease was not harmful, as indicated by data of feed intake and milk production.

  6. Sex-related effects of an immune challenge on growth and begging behavior of barn swallow nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Andrea; Rubolini, Diego; Caprioli, Manuela; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Ambrosini, Roberto; Saino, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Parent-offspring conflicts lead the offspring to evolve reliable signals of individual quality, including parasite burden, which may allow parents to adaptively modulate investment in the progeny. Sex-related variation in offspring reproductive value, however, may entail differential investment in sons and daughters. Here, we experimentally manipulated offspring condition in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by subjecting nestlings to an immune challenge (injection with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS) that simulates a bacterial infection, and assessed the effects on growth, feather quality, expression of morphological (gape coloration) and behavioral (posture) begging displays involved in parent-offspring communication, as well as on food allocation by parents. Compared to sham-injected controls, LPS-treated chicks suffered a depression of body mass and a reduction of palate color saturation. In addition, LPS treatment resulted in lower feather quality, with an increase in the occurrence of fault bars on wing feathers. The color of beak flanges, feather growth and the intensity of postural begging were affected by LPS treatment only in females, suggesting that chicks of either sex are differently susceptible to the immune challenge. However, irrespective of the effects of LPS, parents equally allocated food among control and challenged offspring both under normal food provisioning and after a short period of food deprivation of the chicks. These results indicate that bacterial infection and the associated immune response entail different costs to offspring of either sex, but a decrease in nestling conditions does not affect parental care allocation, possibly because the barn swallow adopts a brood-survival strategy. Finally, we showed that physiological stress induced by pathogens impairs plumage quality, a previously neglected major negative impact of bacterial infection which could severely affect fitness, particularly among long-distance migratory birds.

  7. Fatty acyl-CoA reductases of birds

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    Hellenbrand Janine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birds clean and lubricate their feathers with waxes that are produced in the uropygial gland, a holocrine gland located on their back above the tail. The type and the composition of the secreted wax esters are dependent on the bird species, for instance the wax ester secretion of goose contains branched-chain fatty acids and unbranched fatty alcohols, whereas that of barn owl contains fatty acids and alcohols both of which are branched. Alcohol-forming fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR catalyze the reduction of activated acyl groups to fatty alcohols that can be esterified with acyl-CoA thioesters forming wax esters. Results cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl-CoA reductases were cloned from the uropygial glands of barn owl (Tyto alba, domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus and domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that they encode membrane associated enzymes which catalyze a NADPH dependent reduction of acyl-CoA thioesters to fatty alcohols. By feeding studies of transgenic yeast cultures and in vitro enzyme assays with membrane fractions of transgenic yeast cells two groups of isozymes with different properties were identified, termed FAR1 and FAR2. The FAR1 group mainly synthesized 1-hexadecanol and accepted substrates in the range between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, whereas the FAR2 group preferred stearoyl-CoA and accepted substrates between 16 and 20 carbon atoms. Expression studies with tissues of domestic chicken indicated that FAR transcripts were not restricted to the uropygial gland. Conclusion The data of our study suggest that the identified and characterized avian FAR isozymes, FAR1 and FAR2, can be involved in wax ester biosynthesis and in other pathways like ether lipid synthesis.

  8. Oxytocin receptor gene sequences in owl monkeys and other primates show remarkable interspecific regulatory and protein coding variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Paul L; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Schurr, Theodore G

    2015-10-01

    The oxytocin (OT) hormone pathway is involved in numerous physiological processes, and one of its receptor genes (OXTR) has been implicated in pair bonding behavior in mammalian lineages. This observation is important for understanding social monogamy in primates, which occurs in only a small subset of taxa, including Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarae). To examine the potential relationship between social monogamy and OXTR variation, we sequenced its 5' regulatory (4936bp) and coding (1167bp) regions in 25 owl monkeys from the Argentinean Gran Chaco, and examined OXTR sequences from 1092 humans from the 1000 Genomes Project. We also assessed interspecific variation of OXTR in 25 primate and rodent species that represent a set of phylogenetically and behaviorally disparate taxa. Our analysis revealed substantial variation in the putative 5' regulatory region of OXTR, with marked structural differences across primate taxa, particularly for humans and chimpanzees, which exhibited unique patterns of large motifs of dinucleotide A+T repeats upstream of the OXTR 5' UTR. In addition, we observed a large number of amino acid substitutions in the OXTR CDS region among New World primate taxa that distinguish them from Old World primates. Furthermore, primate taxa traditionally defined as socially monogamous (e.g., gibbons, owl monkeys, titi monkeys, and saki monkeys) all exhibited different amino acid motifs for their respective OXTR protein coding sequences. These findings support the notion that monogamy has evolved independently in Old World and New World primates, and that it has done so through different molecular mechanisms, not exclusively through the oxytocin pathway.

  9. Parity modifies endocrine hormones in urine and problem-solving strategies of captive owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Massimo; Eckles, Meredith; Kirk, Emily; Landis, Timothy; Evans, Sian; Lambert, Kelly G

    2014-12-01

    Parental behavior modifies neural, physiologic, and behavioral characteristics of both maternal and paternal mammals. These parenting-induced modifications extend to brain regions not typically associated with parental responses themselves but that enhance ancillary responses, such as foraging efficiency and predator avoidance. Here we hypothesized that male and female owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) with reproductive experience (RE) would demonstrate more adaptive ancillary behavioral and neuroendocrine responses than those of their nonRE counterparts. To assess cognitive skills and coping flexibility, we introduced a foraging strategy task, including a set of novel objects (coin holders) marked with different symbols representing different food rewards, to the animals. To assess endocrine responses, urine samples were assayed for cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels and their ratios to determine physiologic measures of emotional regulation in RE and nonRE owl monkeys. Compared with nonRE monkeys, experienced parents had higher DHEA:cortisol ratios after exposure to habituation training and on the first day of testing in the foraging task. Both hormones play critical roles in the stress response and coping mechanisms, and a high DHEA:cortisol ratio usually indicates increased coping skills. In addition, RE monkeys exhibited more efficient foraging responses (by 4-fold) than did the nonRE mating pairs. We conclude that RE modifies relevant behavioral and hormonal responses of both maternal and paternal owl monkeys exposed to a challenging cognitive paradigm. Corroborating previous research demonstrating adaptive modifications in foraging efficiency and emotional responses in reproductively experienced rodents, the current results extend these findings to a monogamous primate species.

  10. Research and in situ conservation of owl monkeys enhances environmental law enforcement at the Colombian-Peruvian border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Angela M; Peck, Mika R

    2014-07-01

    This study reports on impacts of illegal trade in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae, A. vociferans) for the biomedical research market in the Colombian-Peruvian Amazonian border. Through freedom of information requests and interviews with hunters we found that 912 owl monkeys, including A. nancymaae captured in Peru, were trapped over a 3-month period in 2012 to supply a malaria research facility based in Leticia, Colombia, which had trapping permits for the use of only 800 A. vociferans annually yet experimentation took place using A. nancymaae. High levels of extraction in Peru have had population-level impacts with significantly lower densities of Aotus spp. (3-24 individuals/km(2)) compared to Colombian sites with low hunting pressure (26-44 individuals/km(2)). Post-experimental release of this species in Colombian territory has created a new distribution whose status and impacts on resident populations of A. vociferans remain unknown. The trapping method has also had environmental impact, with loss of over 65,000 trees (including sleeping sites), annually. As Aotus species are registered under the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II, international trade requires official permission and evidence that extraction does not impact wild populations. However, no official records exist and CITES legislation has failed, due principally to a lack of appropriate monitoring by national authorities responsible for compliance. Of further concern is that we had previously documented and reported the illegal trade to the appropriate governmental authorities yet still no action was taken-as demonstrated by the continuing trade in 2013. Enforcement eventually occurred when a non-governmental organization initiated legal action against organizations responsible. A successful second instance ruling by the Colombian State's Council in 2013 revoked trapping permits. Using the trade in owl monkeys as a case study we consider

  11. Newcastle disease virus in little owls (Athene noctua) and African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in an Israeli zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddas, R; Meir, R; Perk, S; Horowitz, I; Lapin, E; Rosenbluth, E; Lublin, A

    2014-12-01

    Newcastle disease is a contagious and often fatal disease, capable of affecting all species of birds. A velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) outbreak occurred in an Israeli zoo, in which Little owls (Athene noctua) and African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) were found positive for presence of NDV. Some of them have died. The diagnostic process included: post-mortem examination, histopathology, real-time RT-PCR assay, virus isolation, serology, intracerebral pathogenicity index and phylogenetic analysis. A vNDV was diagnosed and found to be closely related to isolates from vNDV outbreaks that occurred in commercial poultry flocks during 2011. All isolates were classified as lineage 5d.

  12. Active faulting on the Wallula fault within the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament (OWL), eastern Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Lasher, J. P.; Barnett, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Several studies over the last 40 years focused on a segment of the Wallula fault exposed in a quarry at Finley, Washington. The Wallula fault is important because it is part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), a ~500-km-long topographic and structural lineament extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Walla Walla, Washington that accommodates Basin and Range extension. The origin and nature of the OWL is of interest because it contains potentially active faults that are within 50 km of high-level nuclear waste facilities at the Hanford Site. Mapping in the 1970's and 1980's suggested the Wallula fault did not offset Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits and is therefore inactive. New exposures of the Finley quarry wall studied here suggest otherwise. We map three main packages of rocks and sediments in a ~10 m high quarry exposure. The oldest rocks are very fine grained basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (~13.5 Ma). The next youngest deposits include a thin layer of vesicular basalt, white volcaniclastic deposits, colluvium containing clasts of vesicular basalt, and indurated paleosols. A distinct angular unconformity separates these vesicular basalt-bearing units from overlying late Pleistocene flood deposits, two colluvium layers containing angular clasts of basalt, and Holocene tephra-bearing loess. A tephra within the loess likely correlates to nearby outcrops of Mazama ash. We recognize three styles of faults: 1) a near vertical master reverse or oblique fault juxtaposing very fine grained basalt against late Tertiary-Holocene deposits, and marked by a thick (~40 cm) vertical seam of carbonate cemented breccia; 2) subvertical faults that flatten upwards and displace late Tertiary(?) to Quaternary(?) soils, colluvium, and volcaniclastic deposits; and 3) flexural slip faults along bedding planes in folded deposits in the footwall. We infer at least two Holocene earthquakes from the quarry exposure. The first Holocene earthquake deformed

  13. Spatial, temporal, and density-dependent components of habitat quality for a desert owl.

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    Aaron D Flesch

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in resources is a fundamental driver of habitat quality but the realized value of resources at any point in space may depend on the effects of conspecifics and stochastic factors, such as weather, which vary through time. We evaluated the relative and combined effects of habitat resources, weather, and conspecifics on habitat quality for ferruginous pygmy-owls (Glaucidium brasilianum in the Sonoran Desert of northwest Mexico by monitoring reproductive output and conspecific abundance over 10 years in and around 107 territory patches. Variation in reproductive output was much greater across space than time, and although habitat resources explained a much greater proportion of that variation (0.70 than weather (0.17 or conspecifics (0.13, evidence for interactions among each of these components of the environment was strong. Relative to habitat that was persistently low in quality, high-quality habitat buffered the negative effects of conspecifics and amplified the benefits of favorable weather, but did not buffer the disadvantages of harsh weather. Moreover, the positive effects of favorable weather at low conspecific densities were offset by intraspecific competition at high densities. Although realized habitat quality declined with increasing conspecific density suggesting interference mechanisms associated with an Ideal Free Distribution, broad spatial heterogeneity in habitat quality persisted. Factors linked to food resources had positive effects on reproductive output but only where nest cavities were sufficiently abundant to mitigate the negative effects of heterospecific enemies. Annual precipitation and brooding-season temperature had strong multiplicative effects on reproductive output, which declined at increasing rates as drought and temperature increased, reflecting conditions predicted to become more frequent with climate change. Because the collective environment influences habitat quality in complex ways

  14. Cortical inputs to the middle temporal visual area in New World owl monkeys

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    Cerkevich CM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Cerkevich,1 Christine E Collins,2 Jon H Kaas2 1Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition and Systems Neuroscience Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: We made eight retrograde tracer injections into the middle temporal visual area (MT of three New World owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae. These injections were placed across the representation of the retina in MT to allow us to compare the locations of labeled cells in other areas in order to provide evidence for any retinotopic organization in those areas. Four regions projected to MT: 1 early visual areas, including V1, V2, V3, the dorsolateral visual area, and the dorsomedial visual area, provided topographically organized inputs to MT; 2 all areas in the MT complex (the middle temporal crescent, the middle superior temporal area, and the fundal areas of the superior temporal sulcus projected to MT. Somewhat variably across injections, neurons were labeled in other parts of the temporal lobe; 3 regions in the location of the medial visual area, the posterior parietal cortex, and the lateral sulcus provided other inputs to MT; 4 finally, projections from the frontal eye field, frontal visual field, and prefrontal cortex were also labeled by our injections. These results further establish the sources of input to MT, and provide direct evidence within and across cases for retinotopic patterns of projections from early visual areas to MT. Keywords: middle temporal area, visual cortex, parietal cortex

  15. Double effort: Parental behavior of wild Azara's owl monkeys in the face of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Maren; Van Lunenburg, Mari; Dávalos, Victor; Rotundo, Marcelo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2014-07-01

    In species of mammals that habitually bear single offspring, like most anthropoid primates, the occurrence of twins is expected to impose considerable energetic costs on the caretakers. The question then arises of how caregivers cope with the potentially increased costs of raising twins. These increased costs should lead to differing developmental rates in twins when compared to singletons, and/or to changes in the caregivers' behavior. Likewise, time budgets of parents of singletons are expected to differ from those of adults without offspring. Additionally, if twinning was an adaptive response to favorable ecological conditions, it should be more likely in years with high food abundance. Following the birth in 2011 of two sets of twins in a wild population of pair-living Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) in Northern Argentina, we used long-term demographic, behavioral, and phenological data to compare (a) the proportion of time that singleton and twin infants were carried by either parent; (b) adult time budgets and ranging behavior in groups with zero, one, or two infants; and (c) the availability of food in 2011 with food availability in other years. Twins, like singletons, were carried nearly exclusively by the male, and they were carried slightly more than singletons, suggesting a relatively inflexible pattern of infant care in the species. Time budgets showed that twin parents foraged more and moved less than singleton parents or groups without infants, despite the fact that phenological data indicate that fruit availability in 2011 was not substantially higher than in some of the other years. Overall, twinning thus presumably increased costs to breeders, especially males, but its effect on animals' long-term reproductive success remains unclear.

  16. Retinotopic organization of extrastriate cortex in the owl monkey--dorsal and lateral areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Martin I; McDonald, Colin T; Allman, John M

    2015-01-01

    Dense retinotopy data sets were obtained by microelectrode visual receptive field mapping in dorsal and lateral visual cortex of anesthetized owl monkeys. The cortex was then physically flatmounted and stained for myelin or cytochrome oxidase. Retinotopic mapping data were digitized, interpolated to a uniform grid, analyzed using the visual field sign technique-which locally distinguishes mirror image from nonmirror image visual field representations-and correlated with the myelin or cytochrome oxidase patterns. The region between V2 (nonmirror) and MT (nonmirror) contains three areas-DLp (mirror), DLi (nonmirror), and DLa/MTc (mirror). DM (mirror) was thin anteroposteriorly, and its reduced upper field bent somewhat anteriorly away from V2. DI (nonmirror) directly adjoined V2 (nonmirror) and contained only an upper field representation that also adjoined upper field DM (mirror). Retinotopy was used to define area VPP (nonmirror), which adjoins DM anteriorly, area FSTd (mirror), which adjoins MT ventrolaterally, and TP (mirror), which adjoins MT and DLa/MTc dorsoanteriorly. There was additional retinotopic and architectonic evidence for five more subdivisions of dorsal and lateral extrastriate cortex-TA (nonmirror), MSTd (mirror), MSTv (nonmirror), FSTv (nonmirror), and PP (mirror). Our data appear quite similar to data from marmosets, though our field sign-based areal subdivisions are slightly different. The region immediately anterior to the superiorly located central lower visual field V2 varied substantially between individuals, but always contained upper fields immediately touching lower visual field V2. This region appears to vary even more between species. Though we provide a summary diagram, given within- and between-species variation, it should be regarded as a guide to parsing complex retinotopy rather than a literal representation of any individual, or as the only way to agglomerate the complex mosaic of partial upper and lower field, mirror- and

  17. Molecular systematics of the new world screech-owls (Megascops: Aves, Strigidae): biogeographic and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Sidnei M; Weckstein, Jason D; Bates, John M; Krabbe, Niels K; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Robbins, Mark B; Valderrama, Eugenio; Aleixo, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Megascops screech-owls are endemic to the New World and range from southern Canada to the southern cone of South America. The 22 currently recognized Megascops species occupy a wide range of habitats and elevations, from desert to humid montane forest, and from sea level to the Andean tree line. Species and subspecies diagnoses of Megascops are notoriously difficult due to subtle plumage differences among taxa with frequent plumage polymorphism. Using three mitochondrial and three nuclear genes we estimated a phylogeny for all but one Megascops species. Phylogenies were estimated with Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, and a Bayesian chronogram was reconstructed to assess the spatio-temporal context of Megascops diversification. Megascops was paraphyletic in the recovered tree topologies if the Puerto Rican endemic M. nudipes is included in the genus. However, the remaining taxa are monophyletic and form three major clades: (1) M. choliba, M. koepckeae, M. albogularis, M. clarkii, and M. trichopsis; (2) M. petersoni, M. marshalli, M. hoyi, M. ingens, and M. colombianus; and (3) M. asio, M. kennicottii, M. cooperi, M. barbarus, M. sanctaecatarinae, M. roboratus, M. watsonii, M. atricapilla, M. guatemalae, and M. vermiculatus. Megascops watsonii is paraphyletic with some individuals more closely related to M. atricapilla than to other members in that polytypic species. Also, allopatric populations of some other Megascops species were highly divergent, with levels of genetic differentiation greater than between some recognized species-pairs. Diversification within the genus is hypothesized to have taken place during the last 8 million years, with a likely origin in Central America. The genus later expanded over much of the Americas and then diversified via multiple dispersal events from the Andes into the Neotropical lowlands.

  18. Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Daniel F; Klimecki, Walter T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Rex, Katharine M; Murray, Sarah S; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F; Poceta, J Steven; Jamil, Shazia M; Kline, Lawrence E; Kelsoe, John R

    2014-10-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression.

  19. Representing object role modeling models with Web ontology language description logic axioms%使用OWL DL形式化表达对象角色建模模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文林; 刘大昕

    2011-01-01

    对象角色建模(ORM)方法已应用于本体工程,因此需要将ORM模型转换为OWL DL公理,以便将ORM本体发布到语义Web上,同时还可使用支持DL的推理机来检查ORM本体的语义一致性和冗余问题.通过模型语义分析、模型等价转换、引入新的运算符和特性等方法,提出将ORM模型形式化表达为OWL DL公理的规则.除了外部唯一约束等四种约束外,其他形态的ORM模型都可以形式化表达为OWL DL公理.%Object Role Modeling (ORM) has been used in ontology engineering to model domain ontology, which needs to represent ORM models in OWL DL axioms to check semantic conflicts and redundancy with DL reasoners, and to publish ORM ontology on the semantic Web. By means of comparing the semantics of ORM model and OWL DL axioms, equivalently model-convening, and introducing new operators and properties, that mapping rules to represent ORM models in OWL DL axioms was proposed. Except a few constraints, most ORM model elements can be represented by OWL DL axioms.

  20. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.