WorldWideScience

Sample records for barley

  1. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...... conditions continue to be key to discovering the roles of individual protein forms and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation. Activity-based proteomics, particularly in combination with new gene editing technologies, has great potential to elucidate the network of enzymes in barley...

  2. Barley peroxidase isozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

  3. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  4. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  5. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  6. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  7. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    by the amylolytic enzymes while the amylose-only endosperm starch exhibits high resistance to degradation and hence less available for degradation. With the aim to investigate the hypothesis, starch molecular structures were modulated with the above mentioned modifications and were studied for the effects....... This was achieved by endosperm-specific overexpression of Solanum tuberosum GWD to generate hyper-phosphorylated (HP) starch and endosperm-specific RNAi suppression of all three starch branching enzyme (SBE) isoforms to generate amylose-only (AO) starch in barley (cv. Golden Promise). In first and second study......Starch represents the most important carbohydrate used for food and feed purposes. Increasingly, it is also used as a renewable raw material, as a source of biofuel, and for many different industrial applications. Progress in understanding starch biosynthesis, and investigations of the genes...

  8. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...... strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research....

  9. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  10. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  11. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  12. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring i...

  13. Biologically active secondary metabolites of barley. I. Developing techniques and assessing allelopathy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D L; Lovett, J V

    1993-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) were assessed using modified bioassays that reduced other environmental influences. In a Petri dish bioassay, germination of white mustard was delayed and the radicle lengths were significantly inhibited at a density of 0.5 barley seed/cm(2). In a 'siphoning' bioassay apparatus, when the two species were sown together, radicle elongation of white mustard was not inhibited one day after sowing but became increasingly inhibited as bioassay time increased. Barley allelochemicals were released from the roots in a hydroponic system for at least 70 days after commencement of barley germination. Solutions removed from the hydroponic system of growing barley delayed germination and inhibited growth of white mustard. The allelopathic activity of barley was further confirmed at a density of 0.3 barley seed/cm(2) in a modified stairstep apparatus. PMID:24248571

  14. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  15. Healthier cereal products: breadmaking with barley flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya Romero, Carolina; Novillo, Carmen; Rodríguez Badiola, Guillermo; Callejo González, Maria Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Promote consumption of barley breads, in order to improve intake of fibre and healthenhancing components: Instrumental evaluation of breads. Sensory consumer evaluation of breads. Bread-making performances of flours. Instrumental evaluation of barley substituted wheat Dough.

  16. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the pre

  17. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  18. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  19. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Rosset Ferreira; Jorge Fernando Pereira; Caroline Turchetto; Euclydes Minella; Luciano Consoli; Carla Andréa Delatorre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag1...

  1. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  2. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  3. Fast neutron mutagenesis in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to conduct a deletion mutant analysis of the barley genome, seeds of cultivar 'Steptoe' were irradiated in 1992 with two doses of fast neutrons, 3.5 Gy and 4.0 Gy at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf SNIF facility by Dr. H. Brunner. M1 seeds were grown at Pullman, Washington, USA in the field. Approximately 500 M2 spikes were picked from each treatment and the remainder harvested in bulk. Mutation rates were determined on 1000 bulk M2 seedlings (chlorophyll deficient) and 500 M2 head rows (chlorophyll deficient and morphological) per treatment. Chlorophyll-deficient mutations were observed at a frequency of 8.1% and 9.4% on M1 spike basis and 2.2% and 2.6% on M2 seedling basis for the 3.5 and 4.0 Gy treatments, respectively. Total mutations observed in the field were 19.0% and 20.8% on M1 spike basis for the two treatments. Approximately 2,500 M2 seedlings were assayed for nitrate reductasedeficient mutants and 12,000 M2 seeds screened for waxy mutants. Although several putative mutants were identified, none have been confirmed to date. The mutation frequencies observed are similar for both treatments and appear to be approximately the same as what we have previously observed with γ-radiation treatments. The absence of nitrate reductase-deficient and waxy mutants is most likely due to the small population size screened. The morphological mutants recovered include dwarfs, sterile, necrotic, glossy, elongated outer glume, winter type and some very interesting floral mutants such as multi-ovary and branched inflorescence. Mutants affecting functions of genes for which cloned DNA segments are available will be sought in order to identify specific molecular changes that have been induced by fast neutron radiation. (author)

  4. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... on the physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...

  5. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  6. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  7. Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, van E.

    1993-01-01

    Research ObjectivesBarley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation i

  8. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  9. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  10. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Horbach, Carolee

    2012-01-01

    Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Twenty-five informative primer pairs were applied to screen all samples and 359 alleles ...

  11. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Bi Fu; Carolee Horbach

    2012-01-01

    Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Twenty-five informative p...

  12. Dissection of Barley Landraces Originated From Twelve Different

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahi, Hülya; Yumurtacı, Ayşen

    2015-01-01

    Landraces, as an important source of genetic diversity, are important for improvement of crop species. Investigating of genetic diversity among landraces is necessary to conserve genetic resources and develop future strategies on barley breeding. In this study, genetic diversity in barley landraces originating from twelve countries was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Sixteen SSR markers belong to the seven barley linkage groups revealed high genetic diversity. A total of 9...

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  14. Changes of Limiting Dextrinase in Germinating Process of Malting Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiu-mei; LI Fen; WANG Hong-zhen; WANG Xing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five different species of barley, the foot layer analytic method was used to examine the activity and heat-resistance of the limiting dextrinase. The study was conducted on the dynamic changes of several types of the dextrinase in barley germinating process, the effect of temperature on the dextrinase and the divergence of dextrinase in different barley variety. The probability of the dextrinase that as reference index is used for screening and evaluating beer barley was discussed. The importance of dextrinase in brewing and its significant function was also discussed.

  15. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA re...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development.......The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...

  16. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    Plants produce an impressive variety of bioactive natural products involved in defense, insect attraction and signaling. These compounds enable the plant to defend itself, communicate with the surroundings and survive in an environment with constant challenges and attackers. This study has focused...... to regulate defense related genes in maize. Barley plants that are gene-silenced in the first step of hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis have been generated to further investigate these results. It appears that hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley have a dual role; up to a certain level Bgh profits from...... the hydroxynitrile glucosides as recognition factors and nutrition compounds. Above this threshold hydroxynitrile glucosides or their breakdown or turn-over products reach toxic levels which lead to a stunted Bgh phenotype and abortion of colonies. A putative ROS quenching role of hydroxynitrile glucosides...

  17. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  18. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... grain filling, maturation, germination and radicle elongation. Cultivar comparisons and genetic mapping of polymorphic protein spots in doubled haploid populations provide a means to link the genome to the proteome and identify proteins that can influence grain quality. Many proteins appear in multiple...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...

  19. Enhancement of methane production from barley waste

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Two different approaches were attempted to try and enhance methane production from an industrial waste composed of 100% barley, which results from production of instant coffee substitutes. In previous work, this waste was co-digested with an excess of activated sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant located in same industrial unit, resulting in a very poor methane yield (25LCH4(STP)/ kgVSinitial), and low reductions in total solids (31%) and in volatile solids (40%). Wh...

  20. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  1. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  2. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  3. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    to the cytosol and the nucleus of barley epidermal cells. Furthermore, CSEP0162 and CSEP0254 accumulated in the extrahaustorial matrix in Bgh-infected cells. This implies that their virulence targets may localize in the same cellular compartments. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, two barley small heat shock...... proteins (sHsps), Hsp16.9 and Hsp17.5, were identified as interactors for both CSEP0105 and CSEP0162. These interactions were confirmed in planta by BiFC and co-localization studies. Small heat shock proteins are highly conserved ATP-independent chaperones that protect the cell from stress-induced protein...... into the barley cell cytosol, nucleus and/or extrahaustorial matrix to interfere with the function of small heat shock protein machinery and other defence components to suppress plant immunity....

  4. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine;

    2007-01-01

    for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the...... length influenced stability but not efficiency of VIGS. Silencing was transient in most cases; however, the decrease in PDS mRNA levels measured by qRT-PCR began earlier and lasted longer than the photobleaching. Occasionally, silencing persisted and could be transmitted through seed as well as via......Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...

  5. Effect Of Barley Fibres And Barley Intake On The Ileal Endogenous Nitrogen Losses In Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Leterme, Pascal; Souffrant, Wb.; Thewis, André

    2000-01-01

    Ileal endogenous N losses (ENL) were measured, using the 15N isotope dilution technique, in piglets (17 kg) fed different barley genotypes (naked, spring, winter with low/high beta-glucan content) or diets containing 330, 530, 730 or 930 g of a blend of barleys/kg diet. The apparent protein and amino acid digestibilities of the naked variety and the winter variety with a high beta-glucan content were, on average, significantly higher than those for the other two varieties. The ENL were invers...

  6. Expression of Ethylene Biosynthesis Genes in Barley Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant hormone ethylene influences green plant regeneration rates from barley callus cultures. Our studies have focused on the effects of short treatments of an ethylene inhibitor or an ethylene precursor on green plant regeneration from two barley cultivars and the expression patterns of two eth...

  7. Cytological, genetic and agronomic characterization of a barley reciprocal translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré Martinez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations (RT) are one of the most common structural chromosomal rearrangements occurring in plant species. Spontaneous RT are extremely uncommon in cultivated barley. In fact, ‘Albacete’ is the only extensively cultivated barley variety known to carry a RT without any ma

  8. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  9. Genetic diversity analysis of Tibetan wild barley using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zong-Yun; Liu, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2006-10-01

    One hundred and six accessions of wild barley collected from Tibet, China, including 50 entries of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (HS), 29 entries of the six-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon (HA), and 27 entries of the six-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon var. lagunculiforme (HL), were analyzed using 30 SSR markers selected from the seven barley linkage groups for studying genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship of the three subspecies of Tibetan wild barley to cultivated barley in China. Over the 30 genetic loci that were studied, 229 alleles were identified among the 106 accessions, of which 70 were common alleles. H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum possesses about thrice more private alleles (2.83 alleles/locus) than HS (0.93 alleles/locus), whereas almost no private alleles were detected in HL. The genetic diversity among-subspecies is much higher than that within-subspecies. Generally, the genetic diversity among the three subspecies is of the order HS > HL > HA. Phylogenetic analysis of the 106 accessions showed that all the accessions of HS and HA was clustered in their own groups, whereas the 27 accessions of HL were separated into two groups (14 entries with group HS and the rest with group HA). This indicated that HL was an intermediate form between HS and HA. Based on this study and previous works, we suggested that Chinese cultivated barley might evolve from HS via HL to HA. PMID:17046592

  10. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four hom...

  11. The International Barley Sequencing Consortium — At the Threshold of Efficient Access to the Barley Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequencing the genome of barley, an agriculturally and industrially important cereal crop and a useful diploid model for bread wheat, has become a realistic undertaking. Important steps have been initiated to improve genomics tools, build and anchor a physical map, develop a high-density genetic ma...

  12. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    proteases which could be responsible for proteolysis of β-amylases in the infected barley. In Chapter 4, the in vitro secretome of F. graminearum on the 2-D gels in the presence of substrates of barley or wheat grain was studied. Totally 69 unique fungal proteins identified were mainly cell......Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control...... the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D gels, it is used as a tool for studying the barley- Fusarium graminearum interaction form three different...

  13. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The distances between nine loci on barley chromosome 5 have been studied in five two-point tests, three three-point tests, and one four-point test. Our previous chromosome 5 linkage map, which contained eleven loci mapped from literature data (Jensen and Jørgensen 1975), is extended with four loci......-position is fixed on the map by a locus (necl), which has a good marker gene located centrally in the linkage group. The positions of the other loci are their distances in centimorgans from the 0-position; loci in the direction of the short chromosome arm are assigned positive values and those...

  14. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide;

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  15. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the phys......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... spectrometry (Q-TOF) proved the identity of the HMW proteins and sequencing the digested peptides also revealed possible post translational modifications of the identified HMW hordeins. Our results strongly indicate that the variations in the relative proportions of the storage proteins of barley affect both...

  16. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  17. Barley mutant line with high protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding was initiated in 1969 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, aiming at developing high yielding barley lines having also high protein or lysine content. The final results were reported at the FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting at Nicosia in 1980. At that time some lines were superior to their mother line in grain yield, protein content or protein yield. However, high yield is essential for feed-barley as there is no premium price for protein content or quality. In the experiments reported earlier, the mean grain yield of mutant M-Att-73-337-1 was 3202 kg/ha, 9.9% higher than the mother variety 'Attiki'. The Kjeldahl protein content was 12.7% for the mutant line and 13.4% for the mother variety. The mutant line was further evaluated in field trials (11 m2 plots and 6 replications) during 1983-88, along with other promising material from the breeding programme. The mutant line outyielded its mother variety by 9.7% in grain yield and 16% in straw yield. These increases are apparently the result of increased 1000-grain weight and a higher number of culms per m2. Protein content of the mutant line was slightly lower, but its protein yield was 5.5% higher. The yield of the mutant line over 16 trials during 1983-88 was also 4% higher than the yield of the main commercially grown variety Athenais

  18. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762

  19. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K;

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat.......001) in faeces of barley compared to wheat-fed pigs. Ileal eubacteria, Clostridium cluster IV and Roseburia spp. linearly increased from period 1 to 8 for both cereals (P intestine, with barley increasing...... the Lactobacillus spp.:Enterobacteriaceae ratio, underlining its potential to beneficially manipulate the intestinal microbial ecosystem....

  20. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  1. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.;

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  2. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    OpenAIRE

    Ayed Sourour; Bouharb Ameni; Cherif Mejda

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel) through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours), on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours) and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours). Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germinat...

  3. Resistance against barley leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in West-European spring barley germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Niks, Rients; Walther, Ursula; Jaiser, Heidi; Martinez, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2000-01-01

    International audience The level and type of resistance against leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) was determined in modern spring barley germplasm. In field trials all over Europe most accessions were in some locations and years significantly less infected than the moderately resistant reference ,Grit'. Differentiating P. hordei isolates indicated that most accessions carried hypersensitivity (Rph) genes. A virulence survey indicated that among the known resistance genes, only Rph7 is still full...

  4. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  5. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus

  6. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were......Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...

  7. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  8. Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of barley

    OpenAIRE

    H. Samarah, Nezar

    2005-01-01

    International audience Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Mediterranean regions undergoes drought stress during the grain-filling period. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of drought stress on grain growth and yield of barley. Plants were exposed to three drought treatments at the beginning of grain filling: (1) well-watered at 100% field capacity, (2) mild drought stress at 60% field capacity, and (3) severe drought stress at 20% field capacity until grain maturity....

  9. Volatile organic compounds released by barley roots attract wireworms

    OpenAIRE

    Barsics, Fanny; Fiers, Marie; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles and are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed in order to develop integrated management strategies. Our work consists in elucidating the role of barley root-emitted volatile organic compounds on the orientation behaviour of Agriotes sordidus wireworms. Using a dual choice olfactometer we have evaluated the attractiveness of a variety of baits ranging from barley roots themselves to isolated root...

  10. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    OpenAIRE

    Muavviz Ayvaz; Mesut Koyuncu; Avni Guven; FAGERSTEDT, KURT V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98) were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm) ...

  11. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...... for estimating a linkage map; it involves (1) transformation by the Kosambi mapping function of the available recombination percentages to additive map distances, (2) calculations of a set of map distances from the transformed recombination percentages by a maximum likelihood method in which all the available...... data are utilized jointly, and (3) omission of inconsistent data and determination of the most likely order of the loci. This procedure was applied to the 42 recombination percentages available for the 13 “mapped” loci. Due to inconsistencies 14 of the recombination percentages and, therefore, two...

  12. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  13. Comparison of barley stripe mosaic virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Elsayed E; Abdel Aleem, Engy E; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2008-01-01

    BSMV (barley stripe mosaic virus) particles were obtained in a pure state from infected host plant tissues of Hordeum vulgare. The three genomic parities (alpha, beta and gamma) were amplified by PCR using specific primers for each particle; each was cloned. Partial sequence of the alpha, beta and gamma segments was determined for the Egyptian isolate of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV AE1). Alignment of nucleotide sequences with that of other known strains of the virus, BSMV type strains (CV17, ND18 and China), and the generation of phylogenetic trees was performed. A low level of homology was detected comparing 467 bp of the a and 643 bp of the segments to that of the other strains, and thus BSMV alpha and beta segments were in separate clusters. However, 1154 bp of the gamma segments of BSMV AE1 showed a high level of homology especially to strain BSMV ND18, as they both formed a distinct cluster. Northern blotting of pure BSMV AE1 virus and H. vulgare-infected tissue were compared using an alpha ND18 specific probe. Western blotting using antibodies specific for the coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block 1 (TGB1) protein, which are both encoded by the beta ND18 segment, still indicated a high level of similarity between proteins produced by BSMV ND18 and AE1. We suggest that the BSMV AE1 isolate is a distinct strain of BSMV which reflects the genetic evolutionary divergence among BSMV strains and members of the Hordeivirus group. PMID:18533473

  14. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Wanic; Magdalena Jastrzębska; Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale), when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley), when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full ...

  15. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  16. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  17. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    using N-15-labelled residues. Field pea fixed 75% of its N requirement and the N-2 fixation almost balanced the N removed with the seeds. The barley crop recovered 80% of the N-15-labelled fertilizer N supplied and the N in the barley grain corresponded to 80% of the fertilizer N taken up by the crop....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  18. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  19. Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley. PMID:21932866

  20. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bi Fu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Twenty-five informative primer pairs were applied to screen all samples and 359 alleles were detected over seven barley chromosomes. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.004 to 0.708 and averaged 0.072. More than 24% or 7% SSR variation resided among accessions of 16 countries or two regions, respectively. Accessions from Israel and Jordan were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Lebanon and Greece were most differentiated. Four and five optimal clusters of accessions were obtained using STRUCTURE and BAPS programs and partitioned 16.3% and 20.3% SSR variations, respectively. The five optimal clusters varied in size from 15 to 104 and two clusters had only country-specific accessions. A genetic separation was detected between the accessions east and west of the Zagros Mountains only at the country, not the individual, level. These SSR patterns enhance our understanding of the wild barley gene pool, and are significant for conserving wild barley germplasm and exploring new sources of useful genes for barley improvement.

  1. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  2. Genetic diversity analysis of barley landraces and cultivars in the Shanghai region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z-W; Lu, R-J; Zou, L; Du, Z-Z; Gao, R-H; He, T; Huang, J-H

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of 115 barley germplasms, including 112 landraces and three new barley cultivars grown in the Shanghai region, using a set of 11 SSR markers. Sixty-six alleles were observed at the 11 SSR loci, ranged from three to ten, with a mean of six alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.568 to 0.853, with a mean of 0.732, indicating considerable genetic variation in barley in the Shanghai area. Clustering analysis indicated that these barley accessions could be divided into two categories (A and B). Ninety-seven six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the A category; sixteen two-rowed and two six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the B category. This demonstrated genetic differences between two-rowed and six-rowed barley varieties. In addition, we found that the three new barley cultivars are closely related. PMID:22535400

  3. Addition of Manas barley chromosome arms to the hexaploid wheat genome

    OpenAIRE

    Türkösi, Edina; Cseh, András; Darkó, Éva; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultivated barley belongs to the tertiary genepool of hexaploid wheat. Genes of interest can be transferred from barley into wheat through wide hybridization. The application of wheat-barley introgression lines could provide an excellent tool for the transfer of earliness, favourable amino acid composition, biotic stress resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, or good tillering ability into wheat. Results A set of 10 wheat-barley ditelosomic addition lines (2HS, 2HL, 3HS, 3HL, 4HS, 4...

  4. Extraordinarily polymorphic microsatellite DNA in barley: species diversity, chromosomal locations, and population dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Saghai Maroof, M A; Biyashev, R M; Yang, G P; Zhang, Q.; Allard, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the extent of genetic variation in barley simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and to study the evolutionary dynamics of SSR alleles. SSR polymorphisms were resolved by the polymerase chain reaction with four pairs of primers. In total, 71 variants were observed in a sample of 207 accessions of wild and cultivated barley. Analyses of wheat-barley addition lines and barley doubled haploids identified these variants (alleles) with four loci, each located on a diffe...

  5. Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

  6. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  7. Transgressive segregation for very low and high levels of basal resistance to powdery mildew in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghnoum, R.; Niks, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Basal resistance of barley to powdery mildew is a quantitatively inherited trait that limits the growth and sporulation of barley powdery mildew pathogen by a non-hypersensitive mechanism of defense. Two experimental barley lines were developed with a very high (ErBgh) and low (EsBgh) level of basal

  8. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  9. The project of mutation breeding in barley (first report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley is a second main crop with the production of 7 million tons per year and 3,5 million hectare cultivation area in Turkey. Because of wateer deficiency, cereals cultivated in Central Anatolian region. Barley is well adapted to dry farming system besides it is basic food for animal husbandry and main raw material for brewery industry. the main problems in barley production are drought disease epidemic and increasing salinity gradually. Main purposes of our project is to increase resistance and tolerence to this stress factors. In order to reach to our aim we have been using mutation breeding techniques and conventional breeding methods. This Project has been started with irradiation of barley seeds with different gamma ray doses. After that resistant and tolerant mutant has been selected most of these mutanys have resistance and tolerance to different disease and stress conditions. During the selection procedure, hydroponics and tissue culture techniques have been applied to improve the selection efficiency. Up to now, promising barley mutant lines 71 that have earliness (30 days) than parents and because of that reason that escape from drought period. Disease tests of our mutant lines have been conducted under controlled conditions and tolerant lines have been determined under the high the high epidemic conditions. Salt tolerance studies have been applied under hydroponics conditions and salt tolerant mutant have been determined under 180-200mMolNaCl concentration. All mutant lines are carried out to preliminary yield trials for their evaluation

  10. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  11. Breeding of value added barley by mutation and protein engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has been bred for food, feed and beverages over the past 5000 years by selecting for spontaneous mutations and random hybrids. Crosses with defined parents (since the turn of the century) and induced mutations (since 1927) have provided variability in selecting for novel varieties. Genetic transformation of barley has been a routine procedure since 1994 and permits the introduction of tailored genes for adding quality values to the grain. It complements, but does not replace, existing efficient breeding methods. Radiation and chemically induced mutations, as well as genes introduced by transformation, have to be fitted into the genome, which may take 50 years of breeding effort and testing for agronomic and industrial performance. The mutation breeding strategy for proanthocyanidin free malt barley, which has led to the commercial varieties Caminant and NFC 8808, is presented. As an example of the breeding strategy to improve barley endosperm cell wall degradation, a description is given of the protein engineering of a (1-3, 1-4)-β-glucanase towards heat stability and the insertion of the gene encoding this enzyme by genetic transformation. It is expected that such barley varieties will extend the use of the grain for beverage and feed uses as well as for the production of renewable raw materials by malting and mashing processes. (author). 34 refs, 1 tab

  12. Simulation of in situ Root Decomposition of Two Barley Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jing-gang; Duan Xue-jiao; Nooralla Juma

    2014-01-01

    Root C and root-released C are closely related to soil organic matter content and mechanistic simulation modeling has proven to be useful for studying root and soil organic C dynamics in plant-soil ecosystems. A computer model was designed in this study to simulate the dynamics of root C and root released C decomposition in situ and the dynamics of different forms of C in soil under two barley cultivars (Abee and Samson). The results showed that on the 15th day, about 48%of the total 14C fixed in roots was respired for Abee and 42%for Samson. This indicated that the turnover rate of root 14C of Abee was higher than that of Samson. The percentage of water-soluble organic 14C, active microbial 14C and stable 14C over the total fixed 14C were not different between two barley cultivars. From the analysis of the model for two barley cultivars, the total 14C transformed into different soil pools (excluding CO2-C and root C pools) for the two barley cultivars was similar (26%for Abee and 25%for Samson), but the difference of 14C remaining in soil between the two barley cultivars was mainly because of the difference of 14C remaining in roots which have not been yet decomposed. Some of the information which could not be measured in the laboratory conditions was obtained in this study.

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-03-01

    Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  14. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Rosset Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC, with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  16. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  17. In vitro culture in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

  18. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  19. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    from barley coleoptiles. P9.3 and P7.3 had Reinheitszahl values of 3.31 and 2.85 and specific activities (with 2,2'-azino-di-[3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], pH 5.5, as the substrate) of 11 and 79 units/mg, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption....../ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry peptide analysis identified the P9.3 peroxidase activity as due to Prx7. Tissue and subcellular accumulation of Prx7 was studied using activity-stained isoelectric focusing gels and immunoblotting. The peroxidase activity due to Prx7 accumulated in barley leaves 24 h...... is responsible for the biosynthesis of antifungal compounds known as hordatines, which accumulate abundantly in barley coleoptiles....

  20. Improvement of quinoa and barley through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main cropping problems in the Bolivian highlands are the long growing period of barley, high degree of environmental influence on the performance of quinoa, and low soil moisture at sowing time, leading to low germination rate and poor stands, and frost or chilling damages. The program aimed to establish protocols for induction of mutations with X rays and chemical mutagens (NaN3, MNH, EMS) in quinoa, barley, native forage species and forest plants and to obtain mutant lines, especially in barley and quinoa; and to establish callus regeneration in quinoa and micropropagation of kenua (Polilepis). The project is still in its study stages, hence further evaluations are needed before firm conclusions are drawn. (author)

  1. THE VALUE OF PROTEIN IN FEED BARLEY FOR BEEF, DAIRY, AND SWINE FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    LaFrance, Jeffrey T.; Watts, Myles J.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of the protein content of feed barley on the costs of feeding beef, dairy cattle, and swine in Montana is evaluated. A model of least-cost feed rations is constructed to analyze the marginal value of additional protein content in feed barley. The results indicate that increasing the protein content of feed barley above 12% will not substantially increase the value of barley to feeders. This implies that the establishment and maintenance of a protein premium in the feed barley marke...

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  3. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by solubil......Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained...

  4. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba;

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  5. TOTAL IMPORTS AND IMPORT PATTERNS OF BARLEY INTO JAPAN: Implications of the 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Makus, Larry D.

    1990-01-01

    A two-stage budgeting procedure was employed to analyze (1) the Japanese import demand for barley and (2) allocation of Japanese barley imports between North America (Canada and the United States) and Australia. It was found that the import demand for barley was price inelastic and corn was a substitute for barley. Japanese barley imports were also influenced by size of the cattle herd and the number of cattle slaughtered. Price competition played a significant role in import allocation and b...

  6. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  7. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem around the world. During infection, trichothecene mycotoxins are produced and act as virulence factors, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. There are two types of tricho...

  8. Physiological tests for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological tests for characterizing drought tolerance in barley (H. vulgare L.) and durum wheat (T. durum L.) were evaluated. These tests involved: 1) germination in osmotic solution (-13 atm by d-mannitol); 2) thermal stress on seedlings (42 deg. C for 5 hours); 3) stability of the cellular membrane under osmotic stress (PEG 6000 at 43%). For both species genotypic variability which was associated with drought tolerance in the field was identified by the laboratory evaluation techniques. Based on these procedures, the two-row barley types were more drought tolerant than six-row types. In durum wheat, only some local populations and some varieties, bred in drought environments, showed high laboratory test values. Weak and not significant correlations were found between the physiological tests indicating that the genetic mechanisms which control these traits may be independent and process-specific. Yield trials, in barley, have been carried out in environments with drought conditions and the correlation between grain and physiological tests were significant. Of the three procedures evaluated in this study, the dry matter increase after a period of thermal stress and electrolyte leakage seemed to be most reliable and potentially useful for screening for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

  9. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore the obje...... modifications of the identified hordein which needs further investigation. Our results strongly indicate genetic variations in the relative proportions of the storage proteins affecting the amino acid compositions and baking quality.......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore...... the total AA composition and the hordein pattern indicated that there are genetic variations not only in the distributions of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins affecting the AA compositions. The free AA composition in the grain may also provide us...

  10. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisen Zhang

    Full Text Available Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling. Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%, intron retention (32%-34% and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21% were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  11. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  12. Reclamation of Sodic-Saline Soils. Barley Crop Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at assessing the salinity and sodicity effects of two soil types submitted to correction on barley crop. The two soils, contained in cylindrical pots (0.40 m in size and 0.60 m h supplied with a bottom valve for the collection of drainage water and located under shed to prevent the leaching action of rainfall, were clay-textured and saline and sodic-saline at barley seeding, as they had been cultivated for 4 consecutive years with different herbaceous species irrigated with 9 types of brackish water. In 2002-2003 the 2 salinized and sodium-affected soils (ECe and ESP ranging respectively from 5.84-20.27 dSm-1 to 2.83-11.19%, submitted to correction, were cultivated with barley cv Micuccio, and irrigated with fresh water (ECw = 0.5 dS m-1 and SAR = 0.45 whenever 30% of the maximum soil available moisture was lost by evapotranspiration. Barley was shown to be a salt-tolerant species and did not experience any salt stress when grown in soils with an initial ECe up to 11 dS m-1. When it was grown in more saline soils (initial ECe of about 20 dS m-1, despite the correction, it showed a reduction in shoot biomass and kernel yield by 26% and 36% respectively, as compared to less saline soils.

  13. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  14. Leaf senescence and nutrient remobilisation in barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, P L; Holm, P B; Krupinska, K

    2008-01-01

    Extensive studies have been undertaken on senescence processes in barley and wheat and their importance for the nitrogen use efficiency of these crop plants. During the senescence processes, proteins are degraded and nutrients are re-mobilised from senescing leaves to other organs, especially the...

  15. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...

  16. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing;

    2007-01-01

     Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed...

  17. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  18. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly...

  19. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    , the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in vitro...

  20. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementa...

  1. The plasma membrane proteome of germinating barley embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.;

    2009-01-01

    with amphiphilicity and low abundance of membrane proteins. A fraction enriched in plasma membranes was prepared from embryos dissected from 18 h germinated barley seeds using aqueous two-phase partitioning. Reversed-phase chromatography on C-4 resin performed in micro-spin columns with stepwise elution by 2-propanol...

  2. Dormant barley aleurone shows heterogeneity and a specific cytodifferentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurink, R.C.; Bakhuizen, R.; Libbenga, K.R.; Boulanger, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to gibberellic acid, aleurone layers isolated from dormant barley (Hordeum distichum L. cv. Triumph) kernels produced significantly less alpha-amylase than aleurones from non-dormant kernels. Light microscopical investigations using the dye acridine orange as well as electron microscopic

  3. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  4. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Songbo; Tan, Cong; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling). Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%), intron retention (32%-34%) and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21%) were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  5. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  6. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 400, subpart G. (b) Approved malting variety. A variety of barley specified as... and Drug Administration when determining concentrations of mycotoxins or other substances or... organization of the United States for substances or conditions, including mycotoxins, that are identified...

  7. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

  8. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  9. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  10. Accumulation of genes for susceptibility to rust fungi for which barley is nearly a nonhost results in two barley lines with extreme multiple susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza, G.A.; Jafary, H.; Niks, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    Nonhost resistance is the most common type of resistance in plants. Understanding the factors that make plants susceptible or resistant may help to achieve durably effective resistance in crop plants. Screening of 109 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions in the seedling stage indicated that barley

  11. Inheritance of microsatellite alleles in pedigrees of Latvian barley varieties and related European ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjakste, T G; Rashal, I; Röder, M S

    2003-02-01

    Genetic diversity and inheritance of 65 microsatellite (SSR) loci were studied in a set of 37 barley varieties involved in the pedigrees of seven Latvian barley varieties: Abava, Agra, Balga, Imula, Linga, Priekulu 1 and Stendes. Cluster analysis divided all the varieties into two large groups according to their geographic distribution. Moravian, Swedish and Danish varieties clustered separately from varieties from Norway and Finland. The pattern of subgroups of both European and Latvian varieties was in accordance with their pedigree information. Graphical genotypes of microsatellite alleles of all seven barley chromosomes were determined for all the 37 varieties studied. Parental inheritance and transmission of microsatellite alleles through the generations of the pedigrees were analysed. The results confirmed the importance and informative value of microsatellite markers for genetic studies in barley and their utility for barley breeding and other applications in fundamental and applied barley genetics. PMID:12589555

  12. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  13. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    A Ri Byun; Hyejin Chun; Jin Lee; Sang Wha Lee; Hong Soo Lee; Kyung Won Shim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided i...

  14. Compared cycling in a soil-plant system of pea and barley residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out on a temperate soil to determine the decline rate, the stabilization in soil organic matter and the plant uptake of N from N-15-labelled crop residues. The fate of N from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) residues was followed...... initial decomposition of residues was remineralized later in the barley than in the pea residue treatment. Balances were established for the amounts of barley and mature pea residue N remaining in the 0-10 cm soil layer and taken up in ryegrass after 2 years of decomposition. About 24% of the barley...

  15. Genotypic and Environmental Variations of Arabinoxylan Content and Endoxylanase Activity in Barley Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-qin; XUE Da-wei; WU Fei-bo; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) content in barley grains is an important quality determinant when barley is used as raw material of malt or beer production. The cultivar and environmental variations of total arabinoxylan (TAX), water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) and endoxylanase activity (EA) were investigated using eight barley cultivars growing at seven locations with diverse environmental conditions. The results showed that both barley cultivar and location significantly affected the TAX, WEAX and EA levels, but the variations of TAX content and EA were mainly attributed to cultivar, while the impact of location on WEAX content was greater than that of cultivar. Correlation analysis indicated that TAX was significantly correlated to WUAX.

  16. Assessment of the Seedling Reactions of Some Hulless Barley Genotypes to Drechslera teres f. maculata

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlegiz, Emine Tuba; KARAKAYA, Aziz; Celik Oguz, Arzu; MERT, Zafer; Sayim, İsmail; Ergun, Namuk; Aydogan, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The seedling reactions of three barley cultivars, one hulless barley cultivar, two candidate hulless barley lines and nine hulless barley genotypes were determined under greenhouse conditions to ten isolates of Drechslera teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of net blotch. Isolates were obtained from Ankara, Çankırı, Eskişehir, Kayseri, Konya and Şanlıurfa provinces. The reactions of the cultivars and hulless cultivar ranged between suscepible-resistant. The reactions of the hulle...

  17. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  18. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  19. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  20. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  1. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight....... fulvum-tomato and S. tritici-wheat in order to find modelsystems to enhance interpretation of results from R. collo-cygni-barley interaction. Results from the mapping showed that resistance to Ramularia leaf spot is controlled by a number of QTL’s, some of which co-locate with other physiological traits....... The populations further segregated for physiological leaf spots, a phenomenon related to the leaf damage imposed by Rubellin, although, resistance to physiological leafspots appeared to come from the Ramularia leaf spot susceptible parent. The toxin assay further supported this result as the genotypes susceptible...

  2. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 105 to ca. 6 x 103 by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of 62Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  3. Effect of ozone pretreatment on hydrogen production from barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangning; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Upreti, Simant

    2013-09-01

    Application of ozone technology to lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored with a barley straw. Ozone pretreatment effectively degraded the straw lignin and increased reducing sugar yield. A simultaneous enzyme hydrolysis and dark fermentation experiment was conducted using a mixed anaerobic consortium together with saccharification enzymes. Both untreated and ozonated samples produced hydrogen. Compared to the untreated group, hydrogen produced by the groups ozonated for 15, 30, 45 and 90 min increased 99%, 133%, 166% and 94%, respectively. Some inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed with the samples ozonated for 90 min, and the inhibition was on the fermentative microorganisms, not the saccharification enzymes. These results demonstrate that production of biohydrogen from barley straw, a lignocellulosic biomass, can be significantly enhanced by ozone pretreatment.

  4. Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

    2012-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (ΔGg) and excited (ΔGe) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley α-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

  5. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  6. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio......, and reached 38.4 wt% after three cycles. The HHVs of bio-crude oil from HTL with aqueous phase were 28.4–29.4 MJ/kg, slightly higher than those from HTL with fresh water. While no obvious differences in elemental distribution can be found after aqueous phase recirculation. In conclusion, this study gives...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  7. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel’s lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis...... is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised...... classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI95%: 29–35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI95%: 0–15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model...

  8. Microbes in the tailoring of barley malt properties

    OpenAIRE

    Laitila, Arja

    2007-01-01

    Microbes have a decisive role in the barley-malt-beer chain. A major goal of this thesis was to study the relationships between microbial communities and germinating grains during malting. Furthermore, the study provided a basis for tailoring of malt properties with natural, malt-derived microbes. The malting ecosystem is a dynamic process, exhibiting continous change. The first hours of steeping and kilning were the most important steps in the process with regard to microbiological qual...

  9. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

  10. SOMACLONAL VARIABILITY AND BARLEY BREEDING ON RESISTANCE TO ALUMINUM

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Shirokikh; S.Yu. Ogorodnikova; O.N. Shupletsova; I.N. Shchennikova

    2011-01-01

    In barley callus culture on acid selective media with aluminum the authors selected the resistant lines, from which the regenerated plants were obtained. During a growing on acid sod-podzol soil the seed progeny of regenerated lines was compared with initial varieties on biochemical parameters, on determinants of productivity and yield. It was revealed, that hereditable in regenerated progeny the determinants of somaclonal variability can be used for creation of high productive and resistant ...

  11. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  12. Alcohol Yield of Oat, Barley and Wheat Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    PIKL, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Major part of ethanol production for industrial use in Czech Republic is made from cereals. Effect of acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis after thermopressure preparation takes part in the paper. The most promising alternative is enzymatic hydrolysis. Especially efficiency of different hydrolytic enzymes towards different species of cereals takes the main part of the simulations. Local farm products, oats, barley and wheat were prepaired by steam explosion in different pressure. After hydro...

  13. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  14. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eBrod; Anne Falk Øgaard; Tore eKrogstad; Trond Knapp Haraldsen; Emmanuel eFrossard; Astrid eOberson

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared wit...

  15. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  16. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.; Noguera, O.R.;

    2004-01-01

    with extra nitrogen. Finally, the fate of transgene products in barley seeds was followed. Spots containing two green fluorescent protein constructs and the herbicide resistance marker phosphinothricin acetyltransferase were observed in 2D-gel patterns of transgenic seeds and identified by mass spectrometry....... Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase was observed in three spots differing in pI suggesting that post-translational modification of the transgene product had occurred....

  17. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Sparla; Giuseppe Falini; Ermelinda Botticella; Claudia Pirone; Valentina Talamè; Riccardo Bovina; Silvio Salvi; Roberto Tuberosa; Francesco Sestili; Paolo Trost

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant...

  18. The Barley Grain Thioredoxin System – an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eHägglund

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type thioredoxin facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. This review presents a summary of the research conducted during the last ten years to elucidate the structure and function of the barley seed thioredoxin system at the molecular level combined with proteomic approaches to identify target proteins.

  19. Molecular and structural characterization of barley vernalization genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zitzewitz, Jarislav; Szucs, Péter; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Yan, Liuling; Francia, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola; Casas, Ana; Chen, Tony H H; Hayes, Patrick M; Skinner, Jeffrey S

    2005-10-01

    Vernalization, the requirement of a period of low temperature to induce transition from the vegetative to reproductive state, is an evolutionarily and economically important trait in the Triticeae. The genetic basis of vernalization in cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) can be defined using the two-locus VRN-H1/VRN-H2 model. We analyzed the allelic characteristics of HvBM5A, the candidate gene for VRN-H1, from ten cultivated barley accessions and one wild progenitor accession (subsp. spontaneum), representing the three barley growth habits - winter, facultative, and spring. We present multiple lines of evidence, including sequence, linkage map location, and expression, that support HvBM5A being VRN-H1. While the predicted polypeptides from different growth habits are identical, spring accessions contain a deletion in the first intron of HvBM5A that may be important for regulation. While spring HvBM5A alleles are typified by the intron-localized deletion, in some cases, the promoter may also determine the allele type. The presence/absence of the tightly linked ZCCT-H gene family members on chromosome 4H perfectly correlates with growth habit and we conclude that one of the three ZCCT-H genes is VRN-H2. The VRN-H2 locus is present in winter genotypes and deleted from the facultative and spring genotypes analyzed in this study, suggesting the facultative growth habit (cold tolerant, vernalization unresponsive) is a result of deletion of the VRN-H2 locus and presence of a winter HvBM5A allele. All reported barley vernalization QTLs can be explained by the two-locus VRN-H1/VRN-H2 model based on the presence/absence of VRN-H2 and a winter vs. spring HvBM5A allele. PMID:16235110

  20. Pysicochemical properties of Tibetan hull-less barley starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Gong, Lingxiao; Zhang, Ying; Jane, Jay-lin

    2016-02-10

    Objectives of this study were to (1) determine the starch physicochemical properties of two commercial Tibetan hull-less barley varieties, Beiqing (BQ) and Kangqing (KQ); and (2) understand the relationship between unique properties of the starches, their structures, and impacts of growing conditions. The BQ barleys were grown at a location with lower temperature and less rainfall compared with the KQ barleys. The BQ starches showed significantly lower onset-gelatinization temperature (54.1-54.9 °C), larger gelatinization-temperature range (9.4-10.6 °C), and higher peak-viscosities (138.9-153.9RVU) than the KQ starches (55.1-56.1 °C, 7.4-8.8 °C, and 63.4-64.7RVU, respectively). After a treatment with 2% sodium-dodecyl-sulphate solution, the KQ starches showed substantially greater increases in peak viscosities than the BQ starches. Annealing of starch and enhanced amylose-lipid complex formation, resulting from higher growing temperature during the development of the KQ starches, likely contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties between the BQ and KQ starches.

  1. The effect of lanthanum applications on drought tolerance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Glasshouse investigations carried out by the authors on both perlite and soil, have repeatedly shown that several plant species, when treated with lanthanum, retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. Dry matter increases under water stress have been observed in some cases. Barley plants watered to 50% field capacity, and show-ing signs of water stress, yielded 18% more dry matter when treated with 5 kg/ha and 10 kg/ha of lanthanum than control plants (P<0.05). The results of these experiments suggest that increased dry matter production in crops under periods of water stress, is likely when previously treated with lanthanum. Consequently, it is conceivable that lanthanum may have potential as an agent that induces drought tolerance in grain crops, grown in low rainfall areas. Subsequent field trials using barley as a test crop at Walpeup, in the Mallee region of Victoria have shown that in a below average rainfall year, combined soil and foliar applications of lanthanum can significantly increase grain yield. This effect was not evident when barley grown on the same soil type was treated with lanthanum under above average rainfall conditions

  2. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  3. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  4. Nitrate Uptake into Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Glass, Anthony D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence is presented that chlorate is an extremely good analog for nitrate during nitrate uptake by intact barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Fergus) roots. The depletion of ClO3− or NO3− from uptake media over 2 to 6 hours by seedlings was found to be dependent on combined NO3− plus ClO3− concentrations, and total anion uptake was equivalent at different NO3−/ClO3− ratios. After loading barley seedlings with 36ClO3− for 6 hours, kinetic parameters were derived from the analysis of efflux of [36Cl] chlorate into unlabeled solution. On the basis of this analysis, the half times for exchange for the cytoplasmic and vacuolar phases were 17 minutes and 20 hours, respectively. Data pooled from a number of different experiments were used to calculate kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for 36ClO3− influx into barley roots at different external ClO3−/NO3− ratios, using short (10 minutes) influx times. There appeared to be no discrimination by the root cells between ClO3− and NO3−. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the interaction between nitrate and chlorate were characteristic of competitive inhibition at low nitrate concentrations (0-0.5 mm). At higher concentrations, in the range of >1 mm, similar interactions between these ions were evident. PMID:16662478

  5. Barley metallothioneins differ in ontogenetic pattern and response to metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Pedas, Pai;

    2014-01-01

    pollination. However, among the MT grain transcripts MT2c was the most abundant, whereas MT4 was the least abundant. Excess Cu up-regulated three out of the six MTs expressed in leaves of young barley plants. In contrast, most MTs were down-regulated by excess Zn or Cd. Zn starvation led to up-regulation of......, the root-specific gene MT1b1 was 1000-fold up-regulated. Immunolocalizations provided the first evidence for accumulation of MT1a and MT2a proteins in planta, with correlation to transcript levels. In developing grains, MT2a and MT4 expression increased 4- and 300-fold over a 28-day-period after...... MT1a, whereas Cu starvation up-regulated MT2a, which has two copper-responsive elements in the promoter. Arabidopsis lines constitutively overexpressing barley MT2a showed increased sensitivity to excess Cd and Zn but no Cu-induced response. We suggest that barley MTs are differentially involved in...

  6. The wheat Lr34 gene provides resistance against multiple fungal pathogens in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, Joanna M; Selter, Liselotte L; Chauhan, Harsh; Krattinger, Simon G; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz; Viccars, Libby A; Richardson, Terese M; Buesing, Gabriele; Troller, Anna; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

    2013-09-01

    The Lr34 gene encodes an ABC transporter and has provided wheat with durable, broad-spectrum resistance against multiple fungal pathogens for over 100 years. Because barley does not have an Lr34 ortholog, we expressed Lr34 in barley to investigate its potential as a broad-spectrum resistance resource in another grass species. We found that introduction of the genomic Lr34 sequence confers resistance against barley leaf rust and barley powdery mildew, two pathogens specific for barley but not virulent on wheat. In addition, the barley lines showed enhanced resistance against wheat stem rust. Transformation with the Lr34 cDNA or the genomic susceptible Lr34 allele did not result in increased resistance. Unlike wheat, where Lr34-conferred resistance is associated with adult plants, the genomic Lr34 transgenic barley lines exhibited multipathogen resistance in seedlings. These transgenic barley lines also developed leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in young seedlings, which correlated with an up-regulation of senescence marker genes and several pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. In wheat, transcriptional expression of Lr34 is highest in adult plants and correlates with increased resistance and LTN affecting the last emerging leaf. The severe phenotype of transgenic Lr34 barley resulted in reduced plant growth and total grain weight. These results demonstrate that Lr34 provides enhanced multipathogen resistance early in barley plant development and implies the conservation of the substrate and mechanism of the LR34 transporter and its molecular action between wheat and barley. With controlled gene expression, the use of Lr34 may be valuable for many cereal breeding programmes, particularly given its proven durability.

  7. Effect of Barleys Having Different Liter Weights on Performance, Economic Value, Ruminal Fermentation of Lambs, and Nutrient Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Talat; ŞAHİN, Kazım; ÇERÇİ, İ.Halil; ERTAS, O. Nihat

    1999-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing barleys having different liter weights (It wt) on average daily gain, feed efficiency, profit margins, ruminal fermentation, and carcass characteristics of lambs and diet digestibility. 16 Akkaraman lambs approximately 8 mo old (averaging 30 kg) were used in a randomized design. Treatment groups consisting of barley grains and barley grains were classified to liter weights as follows: 1. Barley has 643 g lt wt (Grou...

  8. A genome-wide association study of malting quality across eight U.S. barley breeding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study leverages the breeding data of 1,862 breeding lines evaluated in 97 field trials for genome-wide association study of malting quality traits in barley. The breeding lines were six-row and two-row barley advanced breeding lines from eight barley breeding populations established at six pub...

  9. Agronomic effects of a reciprocal translocation in a widely grown Spanish barley variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré, A.; Visioni, A.; Lacasa-Benito, I.; Cistué, L.; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    A large spontaneous reciprocal translocation is present in a widely grown Spanish barley cv. ‘Albacete’. It has been hypothesized that high popularity of ‘Albacete’ with farmers, particularly in semi-arid areas where barley is grown under rainfed conditions, may be due to the presence of this transl

  10. Comparison of Pretreatment Strategies for Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Barley Straw to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicellulose, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomeri...

  11. USE OF BARLEY OZONIZED GRAIN AND PROBIOTICS FOR INCREASING BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temiraev R. B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents experimental data indicating that for the optimization of biological and food processing meat value at risk of aflatoxicosis in feeding chicken-broilers with barley-wheat and sunflower type one should include hullless barley grain at exposure of ozone of 3.0 hour complex with Bifidumbacterinum probiotics

  12. A promising low beta-glucan barley mutation of m351 for better bioethanol production use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol is an important liquid fuel complement. Barley is an alternative raw material for ethanol production and its byproduct is a nutritious feed. The barley m351mutant line, which has a mutation for low beta-glucan content, was tested for its ethanol production efficiency and feed fraction qua...

  13. Influence of alkali catalyst on product yield and properties via hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Z.; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse;

    2015-01-01

    Barley straw was successfully converted to bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction at temperature of 280 e400 C using an alkali catalyst (K2CO3) in our previous work, and the maximum bio-crude yield was obtained at 300 C. This paper extends previous work on studying liquefaction behavior of barley...

  14. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  15. Molecular mapping of greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) resistance gene Rsg1 in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is an extremely damaging aphid pest of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x =14 L.) particularly in the southern Great Plains of the US. The simply inherited, dominant resistance gene Rsg1 is presented in all greenbug-resistant US barley cultivars, includi...

  16. Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D.; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic fungus primarily infecting small grain cereals, including barley and wheat. Secreted enzymes play important roles in the pathogenicity of many fungi. In order to access the secretome of F. graminearum, the fungus was grown in liquid culture with barley...... secreted proteins which may be involved in Fusarium head blight....

  17. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly...

  18. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B;

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  19. Complex Interspecific Hybridization in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the Possible Occurrence of Apomixis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Bengtsson, M.; Flink, J.;

    1988-01-01

    Several complex hybrids were produced from the combination [(Hordeum lechleri, 6 .times. .times. H. procerum, 6 .times.) .times. H. vulgare, 2 .times.]. Crosses with six diploid barley lines resulted in triple hybrids, most of which had a full complement of barley chromosomes (no. 1-7), but were...

  20. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...

  1. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  2. Dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production using Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the fermentability test to investigate the feasibility of applying various dilute acids in the pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production. At a fixed acid loading of 1% (w/w dry matter) 28-32% of barley straw was converted to soluble m

  3. Comparative analysis of genetic diversity between Qinghai-Tibetan wild and Chinese landrace barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue; Westcott, Sharon; Li, Chengdao; Yan, Guijun; Lance, Reg; Sun, Dongfa

    2009-10-01

    Fifty-two SSR markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 33 Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley accessions, 56 landraces collected primarily from other parts of China, and 1 Israeli wild barley accession. At the 52 SSR loci, 206 alleles were detected for the 90 accessions, among which 111 were common alleles. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9, with an average of 4.0. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.856 among all the markers, with an average of 0.547. The PIC value of Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley varied from 0 to 0.813 with an average of 0.543, while in landraces, the markers showed a range of 0 to 0.790 with an average of 0.490. The SSR markers could clearly differentiate the Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley from the landraces. Twenty-four unique alleles were observed in Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley, and the frequency of unique alleles in Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley was about 2.1 times higher than that in the landraces, on average. Five of the 7 chromosomes had more unique alleles in the Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley, but chromosome 2H had more unique alleles in the landraces. The presence of many unique alleles may reflect the adaptation of this barley germplasm to diverse environments and production systems. PMID:19935909

  4. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  5. Genetic characterization of a reciprocal translocation present in a widely grown barley variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré, A.; Cuadrado, A.; Lacasa-Benito, I.; Cistué, L.; Schubert, I.; Comadran, J.; Jansen, J.; Romagosa, I.

    2012-01-01

    Artificially induced translocation stocks have been used to physically map the barley genome; however, natural translocations are extremely uncommon in cultivated genotypes. Albacete is a barley variety widely grown in recent decades in Spain and carrying a reciprocal translocation which obviously d

  6. The discovery of resistant sources of spring barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and unique greenbug biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schiazphis graminum Ronani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for resistance to greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild...

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  8. Patterns of genetic and eco-geographical diversity in Spanish barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, S; Igartua, Ernesto; Moralejo, M; Ramsay, L; Molina-Cano, J L; Ciudad, F J; Lasa, J M; Gracia, M P; Casas, A M

    2008-01-01

    The pool of Western Mediterranean landraces has been under-utilised for barley breeding so far. The objectives of this study were to assess genetic diversity in a core collection of inbred lines derived from Spanish barley landraces to establish its relationship to barleys from other origins, and to correlate the distribution of diversity with geographical and climatic factors. To this end, 64 SSR were used to evaluate the polymorphism among 225 barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) genotypes, comprising two-row and six-row types. These included 159 landraces from the Spanish barley core collection (SBCC) plus 66 cultivars, mainly from European countries, as a reference set. Out of the 669 alleles generated, a large proportion of them were unique to the six-row Spanish barleys. An analysis of molecular variance revealed a clear genetic divergence between the six-row Spanish barleys and the reference cultivars, whereas this was not evident for the two-row barleys. A model-based clustering analysis identified an underlying population structure, consisting of four main populations for the whole genotype set, and suggested further possible subdivision within two of these populations. Most of the six-row Spanish landraces clustered into two groups that corresponded to geographic regions with contrasting environmental conditions. The existence of wide genetic diversity in Spanish germplasm, possibly related to adaptation to a broad range of environmental conditions, and its divergence from current European cultivars confirm its potential as a new resource for barley breeders, and make the SBCC a valuable tool for the study of adaptation in barley. PMID:18026712

  9. Improvement of barley for drought tolerance by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley (cultivar Ardhaoui) is a traditional cereal adapted to the agroclimatic and abiotic stresses of South Tunisia. It is used by local communities as the food plant and source of proteins for animals. It is a heterogeneous mixtures of land races and represent the adapted natural germplasm which needs to be improved in yield, quality and tolerance to stress (especially drought). Irradiation technique is used in this work for the selection of barley lines tolerant to drought. Building on the obtained results, the technique will be used to develop barley lines matching specific environments prevailing in the south of Tunisia. The obtained mutants are characterized by the increased of grain yield and water use efficiency through a greater tolerance to drought. On the level of the physiological behavior, the mutants are more efficient regarding the values of rate of photosynthesis A, the stomatic conductance gs, the rate of transpiration E, chlorophyl rate and the internal CO2 concentration Ci. The content of proline shows that this amino acid is strongly concentrated at the irradiated lines. The analysis of nutritional behavior shows that the content of (Ca+Mg) in irradiated lines decreases by increasing the stress. The phosphorus content was also assigned by the water stress. On the contrary, the potassium content increases with the intensity of stress. Under water deficit, the growth parameter, the grain production and the number of spike and tillers are significantly reduced for the control (the reduction reached 42 to 50%). This reduction does not exceed 25% for the irradiated lines. The availability of these improved mutant seeds can contribute to increase food security for the local population. (author)

  10. Elevated phosphorus impedes manganese acquisition by barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Skytte, Kristian; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of manganese (Mn) deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P) status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure and P-fertilizers. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Addition of a pulse of KH(2)PO(4) rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn-P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn(2+) had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu, and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels. PMID:22639592

  11. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with barley net blotch resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, T S; Rossnagel, B G; Pozniak, C J; Scoles, G J

    2008-02-01

    Net blotch of barley, caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechs., is an important foliar disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant cultivars is the most economic and eco-friendly control method. This report describes mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with net blotch resistance in a doubled-haploid (DH) barley population using diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. One hundred and fifty DH lines from the cross CDC Dolly (susceptible)/TR251 (resistant) were screened as seedlings in controlled environments with net-form net blotch (NFNB) isolates WRS858 and WRS1607 and spot-form net blotch (SFNB) isolate WRS857. The population was also screened at the adult-plant stage for NFNB resistance in the field in 2005 and 2006. A high-density genetic linkage map of 90 DH lines was constructed using 457 DArT and 11 SSR markers. A major NFNB seedling resistance QTL, designated QRpt6, was mapped to chromosome 6H for isolates WRS858 and WRS1607. QRpt6 was associated with adult-plant resistance in the 2005 and 2006 field trials. Additional QTL for NFNB seedling resistance to the more virulent isolate WRS858 were identified on chromosomes 2H, 4H, and 5H. A seedling resistance QTL (QRpts4) for the SFNB isolate WRS857 was detected on chromosome 4H as was a significant QTL (QRpt7) on chromosome 7H. Three QTL (QRpt6, QRpts4, QRpt7) were associated with resistance to both net blotch forms and lines with one or more of these demonstrated improved resistance. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers tightly linked to QRpt6 and QRpts4 were identified and validated in an unrelated barley population. The major 6H QTL, QRpt6, may provide adequate NFNB field resistance in western Canada and could be routinely selected for using molecular markers in a practical breeding program. PMID:18071668

  12. Transcriptional Responses to Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid in Barley Aleurone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kegui Chen; Yong-Qiang Charles An

    2006-01-01

    Cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to investigate giberrellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined the mRNA accumulation of over 22 000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than a threefold change in response to GA treatment, whereas 206 genes had a more than threefold change in response to ABA treatment. Interestingly, approximately 2.5-fold more genes were up-regulated than downregulated by ABA. Eighty-three genes were differentially regulated by both GA and ABA. Most of the genes were subject to antagonistic regulation by ABA and GA, particularly for genes related to seed maturation and germination, such as genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and storage mobilization enzymes. This supports the antagonistic roles of GA and ABA in seed maturation and seed germination.Interestingly, we observed that a significant percentage of the genes were coordinately regulated by both GA and ABA. Some GA-responsive genes encoded proteins involved in ethylene, jasmonate, brassinosteroid and auxin metabolic and signaling transduction pathways, suggesting their potential interaction with the GA response. We also identified a group of transcription factor genes, such as MYB and Homeobox genes, that were differentially regulated by GA. In addition, a number of GA- and/or ABA-responsive genes encoded components potentially involved in GA and ABA signal transduction pathway. Overall, the present study provides a comprehensive and global view of transcript expression accompanying the GA and ABA response in barley aleurone and identifies a group of genes with potential regulatory functions in GA- and ABA-signaling pathways for future functional validation.

  13. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptides...... were synthesised at 10 d after anthesis and hercafter an increase was observed for all polypeptides. A fivefold increase in total hordein was observed within the N range tested. Hordein-1 increased considerably more than hordein-2 with increased N nutrition, and hordein-1 synthesis exceeded...

  14. Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

  15. Peroxidase isoenzymes in germinating barley seeds and in seminal roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stroński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Roots and germinating seeds of summer barley of the cv. Alsa, Antałek, Cebeco 7161, Lubuski, Skrzeszowicki and Union were found to differ in the number of peroxidase isoenzymes. In the germinating seeds from 5 to 8 isoenzymes were found whereas in the two-week-old roots – from 10 to 14 isoenzymes. Four isoenzymes in germinating seeds and eight isoenzymes in seminal roots appeared in all the cultivars tested. The cultivars differed also in the relative activity of the isoenzymes in the tested organs.

  16. Further molecular evidence for the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    106 accessions of Tibetan wild barley, including 50 accessions of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum(HS), 27 accessions of the six-rowed bottle-shaped wild barley H. lagunculiforme(HL) and 29 accessions of the six-rowed wild barley H. agriocrithon(HA) that separately represent different agrigeographical regions of Tibet, were used to study the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation using SSR markers selected from seven barley linkage groups. 229 allelic variants were identified with an average of 7.6 alleles/locus. The average of total number of alleles per locus in HA(6.4) is much higher than that in HS(3.9) and HL(3.4). The genetic diversity and its standard deviation among the three subspecies were in the order of HS>HL>HA. Very significant genetic differentiation was observed among the three subspecies of wild barley. Comparisons of the results from this and previous studies showed a strong Oriental-Occidental differentiation of barley, and that Shannan region of Tibet might be the center of origin of the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley, thus supporting not only the hypothesis of a mono-phyletic origin of cultivated barley but also the proposition that the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley.

  17. 大麦雄性不育的遗传研究%Genetic Study on Barley Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 刘志萍; 包海柱

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research the genetic mechanism of barley male sterility, and provide the theoretical reference for breeding strong heterosis hybrid of barley. [Method] Fertility segregation phenomenon, morphological characteristics and main agronomic characters of male sterility character of 4 kinds of barley male sterility materials 2001-17, 2001-37, 2001-84 and 2001-116 and their derived lines were observed and researched. [Result] Barley male sterility existed genetic phenomenon of single dominant nuclear gene caused by environmental stimulation, its sterility controlled by MS, the sterile genotype was MSms. There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility which was controlled by cytoplasmic male sterile gene S and nuclear gene rr, and its genotype was S(rr), this male sterility belonged to CMS type sterility. Temperature had no effect on fertility. [Conclusion] There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility, this result played a positively promoting role in barley practical production.

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

    2010-10-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity coefficients was conducted and the 40 varieties were classified into two groups. Seven malting barley varieties from China fell into the same subgroup. It was found that the genetic diversity within the Chinese malting barley varieties was narrower than that in other barley germplasm sources, suggesting the importance and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from different origins for malting barley breeding in China. PMID:20872987

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity coefficients was conducted and the 40 varieties were classified into two groups. Seven malting barley varieties from China fell into the same subgroup. It was found that the genetic diversity within the Chinese malting barley varieties was narrower than that in other barley germplasm sources, suggesting the importance and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from different origins for malting barley breeding in China. PMID:20872987

  20. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  1. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed. PMID:26101533

  2. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ri Byun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L. contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n=51. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n=25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years and the other consumed placebo capsules (n=26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL- cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p=0.415 and p=0.351, resp. and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed.

  3. How barley growing conditions and its output change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Erdélyi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that climate change has started. It is very important to make effort in developing impact analyses and adaptation strategies. First we were investigated how theproduction risk of winter barley is changing with time using the E,V efficiency criterion. Based on the regional yearly production data of the crop, we can conclude that beside other non-climatic effects, the changing climate has considerable impact on crops yield; its variability is increasing with the variability of meteorological parameters. We have used production data from 1951 to nowadays. Next, using comparison analyses for climate scenarios, we predict what we can expect in the future. For detecting the reasons of risk increase in the past, and forecasting the potential main points of future risk we have analysed statistically whether the climate needs of winter barley will be satisfied ornot in its important periods of growing. Frequency calculations were made based on the daily meteorological data. The situation doesn’t show big change, but It is no doubt that the anomalies of the indicators have been becoming more and more frequent. The morefrequent the extreme weather events are, the more we can be convinced of uncertainty.

  4. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137Cs and 134Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  5. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  6. [Microsatellite markers and applications in the barley genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zong-yun; Zhang, Yi-zheng; Ling, Hong-qing

    2002-11-01

    Microsatellites, also called simple sequence repeats (SSR), are simple, tandemly repeated DNA sequences with a repeat length of a few base pairs,and are very ideally used as molecular markers because of their abundance, high level of polymorphism, co-dominance and ease of assay with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by selecting primers as the conserved DNA sequences flanking the SSRs,as well as better stability. The experiments showed that SSRs are randomly distributed throughout the barley genome,and there are 3-18 alleles at a single SSR locus,up to 37 alleles/locus. SSR markers have being widely applied in the construction of molecular genetic map, the study of genetic diversity,the identification of germplasm, gene mapping for important traits and molecular marker-assisted selection. Meanwhile,most of markers are strongly clustered around the centromeric regions of all seven linkage groups. As a result of the clustering,genome coverage with SSRs remains incomplete with an obvious lack of markers on the long arms of chromosomes 1H and 5H and short arm of chromosome 6H. Therefore,it is very potential and necessary to further develop SSR markers in barley. PMID:15979979

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in barley using autoSNPdb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Chris; Appleby, Nikki; Vardy, Megan; Imelfort, Michael; Edwards, David; Batley, Jacqueline

    2009-05-01

    Molecular markers are used to provide the link between genotype and phenotype, for the production of molecular genetic maps and to assess genetic diversity within and between related species. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant molecular genetic marker. SNPs can be identified in silico, but care must be taken to ensure that the identified SNPs reflect true genetic variation and are not a result of errors associated with DNA sequencing. The SNP detection method autoSNP has been developed to identify SNPs from sequence data for any species. Confidence in the predicted SNPs is based on sequence redundancy, and haplotype co-segregation scores are calculated for a further independent measure of confidence. We have extended the autoSNP method to produce autoSNPdb, which integrates SNP and gene annotation information with a graphical viewer. We have applied this software to public barley expressed sequences, and the resulting database is available over the Internet. SNPs can be viewed and searched by sequence, functional annotation or predicted synteny with a reference genome, in this case rice. The correlation between SNPs and barley cultivar, expressed tissue type and development stage has been collated for ease of exploration. An average of one SNP per 240 bp was identified, with SNPs more prevalent in the 5' regions and simple sequence repeat (SSR) flanking sequences. Overall, autoSNPdb can provide a wealth of genetic polymorphism information for any species for which sequence data are available. PMID:19386041

  8. DIFFERENTIATION OF BARLEY GENOTYPES BASED ON DNA POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tomka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for improving the quality of cultivated varieties in breeding programs. Information about the origin of varieties can help farmers in selecting appropriate varieties to specific growing conditions or end use of crops. A set of ten microsatellite markers was used to describe genetic diversity in a sample of 30 barley (Hordeum vulgare L. genotypes. A total of 55 different alleles were amplified using ten SSR markers localized on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H, 6H, 7H with an average number of 5.5 alleles per locus. On the basis of allele frequencies we have calculated diversity index, polymorphic information content and index of probability, which have mean values of 0.664; 0.643 and 0.126 respectively. These values indicate high differentiation ability of SSR markers. In the created dendrogram using hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm we were able to differentiate all 30 barley genotypes. The results show that DNA markers are suitable for the identification and differentiation of genotypes and indicated the effectiveness of microsatellite markers to describe genetic diversity.

  9. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muavviz Ayvaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98 were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm to plants that had grown from seeds for four weeks. Plants were harvested, stem-root length and stem-root dry-fresh weight content were determined. For further analysis, chlorophyll, total protein, endogenic IAA and ABA content analyses were carried out. Results: According to the data obtained, plant growth and development decreased with increasing boron concentrations. With increasing boron concentrations, soluble total protein increased in both cultivars. Boron application led to increased endogenic IAA content in both cultivars. 10 and 20 ppm boron application led to increased endogenic ABA content in Vamik Hoca cultivar whereas endogenic ABA content decreased in Efes 98. Absence of boron application led to increased endogenic IAA and ABA content in both cultivars. Conclusion: As a result, the response to boron is different in the two cultivars and Efes 98 may be more resistant to the toxicity than Vamik Hoca cultivar.

  10. Response of barley aleurone layers to abscisic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, D.T.H.; Varner, J.E.

    1976-02-01

    Cordycepin, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone cells, does not inhibit the gibberellic acid-enhanced ..cap alpha..-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1.) synthesis in barley aleurone layers if it is added 12 hours or more after the addition of the hormone. However, the accumulation of ..cap alpha..-amylase activity after 12 hours of gibberellic acid can be decreased by abscisic acid. The accumulation of ..cap alpha..-amylase activity is sustained or quickly restored when cordycepin is added simultaneously or some time after abscisic acid, indicating that the response of aleurone layers to abscisic acid depends on the continuous synthesis of a short lived RNA. By analysis of the newly synthesized proteins by gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecylsulfate, it was observed that the synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylase is decreased in the presence of abscisic acid while the synthesis of most of the other proteins remains unchanged. From the rate of resumption of ..cap alpha..-amylase production in the presence of cordycepin and abscisic acid, it appears that abscisic acid does not have a measurable effect on the stability of ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA.

  11. Analysis on Interaction between Genotype of Four Main Flavonoids of Barley Grain and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YANG; Chengli DUAN; Yawen ZENG; Juan DU; Shuming YANG; Xiaoying PU; Shengchao YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the interaction between genotype of flavonoids of barley grain and environment, to increase the flavonoid content of barley grain in cultivation and breeding. [Method] In this study, the content of cate- chin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol of barley grain planted in Kunming, Qujing and Baoshan were determined by HPLC, and the genotype, environment, genotype- environment interaction of the flavonoid content of barley grain were analyzed. [Result] According to the experimental results, the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction variance of catechin and kaempferol contents show the same trend: genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance, envi- ronmental variance and G × E interaction variance of quercetin and total flavonoid contents show the same trend: genetype variation 〉 G × E interaction variation 〉 environmental variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance and environmental variance of myricetin content both reach a extremely sig- nificant level, while the G × E interaction variance reaches a significant level, showing an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation; the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction vari- ance of total flavonoid content show an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation. Among different barley varieties, Ziguang- mangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai in Qujing, Kunming and Baoshan have relatively high content of quercetin, while other barley varieties barely contain any quercetin. The grains of Ziguangmangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai are purple, while the grains of other barley varieties are yellow. [Conclusion] Four main flavonoids and the total flavonoids of barley grain are mainly under genetic control and

  12. Competition and dry matter yield in intercrops of barley and legume for forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLLAH JAVANMARD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For increasing land use efficiency intercropping plays a pivotal role. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., vetch (Vicia villosa, and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75, based on seed numbers were used to investigated forage yield and competition indices such as land equivalent ratio (LER,competitive ratio (CR, relative crowding coefficient (RCC, aggressivity (A, actual yield loss (AYL, monetary advantage index (MAI and intercropping advantage (IA.The experimental was arranged asa randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications.The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grass pea75 (5.44 t ha-1 mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1. The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64 than intercropped legumes (K=1.20, indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

  13. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.;

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...... explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  14. Infection of barley protoplasts with rice hoja blanca tenuivirus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M; Kormelink, R; Goldbach, R; Haenni, A L

    1999-01-01

    A barley protoplast system has been established that supports replication of Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus (RHBV). Following polyethylene glycol-mediated RHBV inoculation of barley protoplasts, newly synthesized viral RNAs and proteins could be detected. Time course analyses revealed de novo synthesis of genome length viral RNA4, as well as subgenomic-sized RNA4 molecules of both polarities. Two proteins, N and NS4, encoded by viral complementary RNA3 and viral RNA4 respectively, were detected by Western immunoblot analysis. The barley protoplast system thus constitutes a promising tool for in vivo studies of the sequential steps involved in the multiplication cycle of RHBV. PMID:10603179

  15. Comparative Studies on Callose Formation in Powdery Mildew Compatible and Incompatible Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Lilholt, Ulla

    1984-01-01

    -o resistant barley was independent of the powdery mildew culture applied. This supports the hypothesis set forth as to why the ml-o mutants are resistant against all known cultures or races of barley powdery mildew, and why this resistance may be more durable than other powdery mildew resistances....... This is the 1st case where the effect of callose refers to the action of a specific gene. Six susceptible Japanese varieties formed large appositions but they were initiated as late as in other susceptible varieties, and their color was paler than in other barleys. Nine Hordeum spp. [H. capense, H. chilense, H...

  16. Heterologous expression and purification of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    The mobilization of protein during germination of barley seeds is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction...... of the active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. The barley key cysteine protease, endoprotease...

  17. Distinct developmental defense activations in barley embryos identified by transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, ME; Lok, F; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    analyses of > 22,000 genes, which together with measurements of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid during embryo development provide new information on the initiation in the developing barley embryo of at least two distinct types of developmental defense activation (DDA). Early DDA is characterized by the up......-regulation of several PR genes is notable. Throughout barley embryo development, there are no indications of an increased biosynthesis of either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Collectively, the results help explain how the proposed DDA enables protection of the developing barley embryo and grain for purposes...

  18. Screening for Barley Waterlogging Tolerance in Nordic Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L. Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence on Hydroponically-Grown Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Ove Bertholdsson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging can reduce crop yield by 20%–50% or more, and lack of efficient selection methods is an obstacle in plant breeding. The methods currently used are mainly indices based on germination ability in Petri dishes and leaf chlorosis in plants grown in waterlogged soils. Cultivation in oxygen-depleted nutrient solution is the ultimate waterlogging system. Therefore methods based on root growth inhibition and on fluorescence in plant material hydroponically grown in oxygen-depleted solution were evaluated against data on biomass accumulation in waterlogged soils. Both traits were correlated with waterlogging tolerance in soil, but since it was easier to measure fluorescence, this method was further evaluated. A selection of F2 plants with high and low fluorescence revealed a small but significant screening effect in F3 plants. A test of 175 Nordic cultivars showed large variations in chlorophyll fluorescence in leaves from oxygen-stressed seedlings, indicating that adaptation to waterlogging has gradually improved over the past 40–50 years with the introduction of new cultivars onto the market. However, precipitation also increased during the period and new cultivars may have inadvertently been adapted to this while breeding barley for grain yield. The results suggest that the hydroponic method can be used for screening barley populations, breeding lines or phenotyping of populations in developing markers for quantitative trait loci.

  19. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  20. Expression of a defence-related intercellular barley peroxidase in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Brandt, J.; Bojsen, K.;

    1997-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana benthamiana L.) have been transformed with a T-DNA vector construct carrying the cDNA pBH6-301, encoding the major pathogen induced leaf peroxidase (Prx8) of barley, under control of an enhanced CaMV 35S promoter. Progeny from three independent transformants were analyzed...... genetically, phenotypically and biochemically. The T-DNA was steadily inherited through three generations. The barley peroxidase is expressed and sorted to the intercellular space in the transgenic tobacco plants. The peroxidase can be extracted from the intercellular space in two molecular forms from both...... barley and transgenic tobacco. The tobacco expressed forms are indistinguishable from the barley expressed forms as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing (pI 8.5) and Western-blotting. Staining for N-glycosylation showed that one form only was glycosylated. The N-terminus of purified Prx8 from...

  1. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  2. Differentially Expressed Genes between Two Barley Cultivars Contrasting in Drought Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.G. Guo; M. Baum; R.H. Li; S. Grando; R.K. Varshney; J. Valkoun; S. Ceccarelli; A. Grane

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing and stabilizing barley productivity in dry areas. A number of genes have been described that respond to drought at the transcriptional level (Seki et al., 2002; Cheong et al.,2003).

  3. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    digestibility of barley from 40 to 60% (Pfeed phosphate supplementation and P excretion to environment. Studies are needed to evaluate the overall...... effect when reconstituted cereals are mixed with other feedstuffs in formulated diets....

  4. Observations of xenon gas-treated barley cells in solution by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, T; Sotome, I; Ohtani, T; Isobe, S; Oshita, S; Maekawa, T

    2000-01-01

    Barley cells cut from a sprout were exposed to either air or high-pressure xenon gas for 3 days and the surface of those cells was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to examine the effect of the gas treatment. This method enabled the direct observation of the fresh surface of the barley cells in solution at high resolution. The cuticle layer was preserved on the primary cell wall of 0.48 MPa xenon gas-treated barley cells, while air-treated barley cells lost the cuticle layer from the primary cell wall. These findings indicate that the high-pressure xenon gas treatment is effective to preserve the cuticle layer attached to the primary cell wall. AFM is a powerful tool for the observation of the surface structure of living plant cells in solution. PMID:11108038

  5. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids...

  6. Genotypes-Independent Optimization of Nitrogen Supply for Isolated Microspore Cultures in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ruiju; Chen, Zhiwei; Gao, Runhong; He, Ting; Wang, Yifei; Xu, Hongwei; Guo, Guimei; Li, Yingbo

    2016-01-01

    To establish a high-efficiency system of isolated microspore culture for different barley genotypes, we investigated the effects of nitrogen sources and concentrations on callus induction and plant regeneration in different barley genotypes. The results showed that the organic nitrogen sources greatly increased the callus induction, and the great reduction of total nitrogen sources would significantly decrease the callus induction. And the further optimization experiments revealed that the increasing of organic nitrogen sources was much important in callus induction while it seemed different in plant regeneration. Based on the great effects of organic nitrogen on callus induction, the medium of N6-ANO1/4-2000 might be the best choice for the microspore culture system. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were clear differences of genetic backgrounds among these barley genotypes, and it also suggested that this medium for microspore culture had widespread utilization in different barley genotypes. PMID:27525264

  7. BARLEY LEAF RUST (PUCCINIA HORDEI OTTH. PATHOGEN IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS: SPREAD AND RASE COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilova A. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spread of barley dwarf rust pathogen has been studied in five agro-climatic zones of North Caucasus in 2012-2013. The race composition of the North Caucasian pathogen population was identified

  8. Uzu mutation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reduces the leaf unrolling response to brassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Chono, Makiko; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-05-01

    A sensitive method to examine the brassinolide (BL) response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using dark-grown leaf segments was established based on the known method for wheat. BL responses of 53 dwarf isogenic lines of barley were examined, and two lines were found having a uzu gene that doesn't respond significantly. These results indicate that uzu dwarfism may be caused by the non-responding character to BL.

  9. Some cytogenetic effects induced in barley by the treatments with hydroalcoholic rosemary extract

    OpenAIRE

    Ionela Mierlici; Gogu Giorghita; Gabriela Capraru

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents some results regarding the cytogenetic effects induced in barley by the treatments with rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis). It was proved that the treatment with this extract upon the barley caryopses had as effect the stimulation of the mitotic division in the radicle apex of the species and did not lead to important cytogenetic changes (chromosome aberrations) in the ana-thelophase of the radicle mitoses.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.

    1986-01-01

    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...... penetration attempts. This number increased as the degree of resistance increased, i.e. the ESH frequency decreased. The penetration stage also invariably proved to be the limiting stage, where the largest proportion of fungal propagules was stopped....

  11. A fitful fungus from a hot, arid climate increases grain yield in cool-cultivated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Brian R.; Fiona M Doohan; HODKINSON, TREVOR R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The fungus Piriformospora indica was first isolated from plants growing in arid, hot desert conditions and has been shown to have significant potential as a biocontrol and biofertilising organism in barley under optimal growth conditions. However, it was not thought to be effective in plants grown in low temperatures and has consequently not been well tested in cold-stressed crops. This study sought to determine the effects of inoculating barley plants with this f...

  12. Digestion of Barley, Maize, and Wheat by Selected Species of Ruminal Bacteria †

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, Tim A.; Cheng, K.-J.; Rode, Lyle M.; Forsberg, Cecil W.

    1990-01-01

    Differences in the digestion of barley, maize, and wheat by three major ruminal starch-digesting bacterial species, Streptococcus bovis 26, Ruminobacter amylophilus 50, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38, were characterized. The rate of starch digestion in all cereal species was greater for S. bovis 26 than for R. amylophilus 50 or B. fibrisolvens A38. Starch digestion by S. bovis 26 was greater in wheat than in barley or maize, whereas starch digestion by R. amylophilus 50 was greater in barl...

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Aluminum Tolerance in Tibetan Wild and Cultivated Barleys

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Huaxin; Cao, Fangbin; Chen, Xianhong; Zhang, Mian; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Li, Chengdao; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major limiting factor for plant production in acid soils. Wild barley germplasm is rich in genetic diversity and may provide elite genes for crop Al tolerance improvement. The hydroponic-experiments were performed to compare proteomic and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes Al- resistant/tolerant XZ16 and Al-sensitive XZ61 as well as Al-resistant cv. Dayton. Results showed that XZ16 had less Al uptake and translocation t...

  14. A new allele of acid soil tolerance gene from a malting barley variety

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Miao; Jin, Xiaoli; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhou, Gaofeng; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping; Sun, Dongfa; Li, Chengdao

    2015-01-01

    Background Acid soil is a serious limitation to crop production all over the world. Toxic aluminium (Al) cations in acid soil inhibit root growth and reduce yield. Although a gene tolerant to acid soil has been identified, it has not been used in malting barley breeding, which is partly due to the acid soil tolerance gene being linked to unfavorable malting quality traits. Results A Brazilian malting barley variety Br2 was identified as tolerant to acid soil. A doubled haploid (DH) population...

  15. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  16. Influence of barley straw and submerged macrophytes on fishpond wastewater quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ghobrial, M.G.; Okbah, M.A.; Gharib, S.M.; A. M. Soliman

    2007-01-01

    Barley straw has received, recently, considerable attention as an algicide, which could be used to control algal growth in fishponds. It is regarded as cost-effective, user friendly and environmentally sounds. On the other hand, the submerged wetland macrophytes are crucial for the stabilization of clear water state in shallow lakes, by their active production of anti-algal compounds (allelochemicals) through allelopathy. Microcosm experiments using barley straw and the submerged macrophytes:...

  17. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz P. Kurowski; Marek Marks; Agnieszka Kurowska; Krzysztof Orzech

    2012-01-01

    The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment), no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff), and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil) on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley) in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation se...

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El-Mageed, Nehal M.

    2011-01-01

    Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal...

  19. Genetically engineered stem rust resistance in barley using the Rpg1 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Henriette; Rostoks, Nils; Brueggeman, Robert; Steffenson, Brian; von Wettstein, Diter; Kleinhofs, Andris

    2002-01-01

    The stem-rust-susceptible barley cv. Golden Promise was transformed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of immature zygotic embryos with the Rpg1 genomic clone of cv. Morex containing a 520-bp 5′ promoter region, 4,919-bp gene region, and 547-bp 3′ nontranscribed sequence. Representatives of 42 transgenic barley lines obtained were characterized for their seedling infection response to pathotype Pgt-MCC of the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Golden Promise was converte...

  20. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz Hensel; Doreen M Floss; Elsa Arcalis; Markus Sack; Stanislav Melnik; Friedrich Altmann; Twan Rutten; Jochen Kumlehn; Eva Stoger; Udo Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4) signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (SE)KDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up...

  1. Genetic differentiation and geographical Relationship of Asian barley landraces using SSRs

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan Naeem; Lynn Dahleen; Bushra Mirza

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity in 403 morphologically distinct landraces of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originating from seven geographical zones of Asia was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from regions of medium to high recombination in the barley genome. The seven polymorphic SSR markers representing each of the chromosomes chosen for the study revealed a high level of allelic diversity among the landraces. Genetic richness was highest in those from India, followed by P...

  2. Effects of Harvesting Time on Nutritional Value of Hydroponic Barley Production

    OpenAIRE

    AKBAĞ, Hande Işıl; TÜRKMEN, Onur Sinan; BAYTEKİN, Harun; Yurtman, İsmail Yaman

    2014-01-01

    In this study aimed that the effects of different harvesting times on the nutritional value of barley fodder producing in hydroponic system. Barley fodders were harvested on the 4th, 7th, 10th and 13th days following sowing date. Analysis performed for determining the chemical composition and organic matter digestibility (OMD) and ME content with in vitro gas production technique. It was determined that the DM content was decreased, the CP content was not changed significantly, cell wall cont...

  3. A Single Locus Is Responsible for Salinity Tolerance in a Chinese Landrace Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rugen Xu; Junmei Wang; Chengdao Li; Peter Johnson; Chao Lu; Meixue Zhou

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Salinity and waterlogging are two major abiotic stresses severely limiting barley production. The lack of a reliable screening method makes it very hard to improve the tolerance through breeding programs. METHODS: This work used 188 DH lines from a cross between a Chinese landrace variety, TX9425 (waterlogging and salinity tolerant), and a Japanese malting barley, Naso Nijo (waterlogging and salinity sensitive), to identify QTLs associated with the tolerance. RESULTS: Four QTLs ...

  4. Identification of thioredoxin target disulfides in proteins released from barley aleurone layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, J.; Yang, Fen;

    2010-01-01

    Thioredoxins are ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including DNA synthesis, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. In cereal seeds thioredoxins are proposed to facilitate the germination process by reducing disulfide bonds in storage proteins and oth...... targets in the starchy endosperm. Here we have applied a thiol-specific labeling approach to identify specific disulfide targets of barley thioredoxin in proteins released from barley aleurone layers incubated in buffer containing gibberellic acid....

  5. Cyclitols in maturing grains of wheat, triticale and barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the feeding of stem-flag leaf-ear explants of wheat, triticale and barley with d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol was used for modification of the composition of soluble carbohydrates in grains without genetic transformation of plants. Maturing grains indicated ability to uptake exogenously applied cyclitols, not occurring naturally in cereal plants, and synthesized their a-d-galactosides. The pattern of changes in soluble carbohydrates during grain maturation and germination was not disturbed by the uptake and accumulation of cyclitols. Both, d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol as well as their a-d-galactosides can be an additional pool of soluble carbohydrates accumulated by maturing grains, without decreasing seeds viability. This is the first report indicating the possibility of introduction of cyclitols with potentially human health benefits properties into cereal grains.

  6. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  7. Molecular Variability in Barley Structural Mutants Produced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to survey gamma ray induced genetic variation in a set of 13 originally produced structural barley (H. vulgare L.) mutants from cv. Freya; including 8 single translocation lines, 3 double translocation lines and 2 multiple reconstructed karyotypes. Both marker systems contributed to the evaluation of the radiation induced DNA alterations and revealed in general 0.49% polymorphisms in the studied genotypes. AFLPs were observed with 3 out of 10 PstI/MseI primer combinations. Transmissible microsatellite instability at loci with perfect (AT)n repeats located in the introns of the rubisco activase and waxy was documented in three mutant lines. The results emphasize that in addition to point mutations, small indels (2bp) form the major group of the gamma induced DNA alterations. (author)

  8. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS...... classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes....... Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results...

  9. Modelling phytate degradation kinetics in soaked wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, A B; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    the contact between phytate and plant phytases. The lack of effect of additions of Phytase 1 or Phytase 2 on the phytate degradation in the cereals was possible due to a poor access of the microbial phytases to phytate. Therefore, more knowledge is needed about processing technologies that increase the access...... or Phytase 2 had no effect on the degradation of phytate. The F0 was greater in the heat-treated barley compared with the heat-treated wheat (0.19 vs. 0.14; P=0.02; Phytase 1). Heat-treatment of the cereals increased the F0 from 0.05 to 0.15 (P=0.0007; Phytase 2). The K was lower in the non...

  10. Androgenic response to preculture stress in microspore cultures of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszczuk, S; Sowa, S; Zimny, J

    2006-08-01

    Various stresses such as starvation and cold or heat shocks have been identified as triggers in the induction of the microspore embryogenesis. This study attempts to quantify the effects of different pretreatment conditions for successful microspore culture of malting barley (cv. Scarlett). While the sporophytic microspore development could be induced from treated and nontreated microspores, abiotic stress was essential for embryo formation and plant regeneration. The type of stress treatment applied affected the numbers and the ratios of albino and green plants regenerated, as well as their fertility. The highest number of green plants was obtained after the treatment of anthers in 0.3 M mannitol at 32 degrees C for 24 h before microspore culture. PMID:16937060

  11. The role of alpha-glucosidase in germinating barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

    2011-02-01

    The importance of α-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an α-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, α-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the α-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process.

  12. The barley Frost resistance-H2 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquariello, Marianna; Barabaschi, Delfina; Himmelbach, Axel; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils; Gandolfi, Francesco; Tenedini, Elena; Bernardis, Isabella; Tagliafico, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola; Francia, Enrico

    2014-03-01

    Frost resistance-H2 (Fr-H2) is a major QTL affecting freezing tolerance in barley, yet its molecular basis is still not clearly understood. To gain a better insight into the structural characterization of the locus, a high-resolution linkage map developed from the Nure × Tremois cross was initially implemented to map 13 loci which divided the 0.602 cM total genetic distance into ten recombination segments. A PCR-based screening was then applied to identify positive bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from two genomic libraries of the reference genotype Morex. Twenty-six overlapping BACs from the integrated physical-genetic map were 454 sequenced. Reads assembled in contigs were subsequently ordered, aligned and manually curated in 42 scaffolds. In a total of 1.47 Mbp, 58 protein-coding sequences were identified, 33 of which classified according to similarity with sequences in public databases. As three complete barley C-repeat Binding Factors (HvCBF) genes were newly identified, the locus contained13 full-length HvCBFs, four Related to AP2 Triticeae (RAPT) genes, and at least five CBF pseudogenes. The final overall assembly of Fr-H2 includes more than 90 % of target region: all genes were identified along the locus, and a general survey of Repetitive Elements obtained. We believe that this gold-standard sequence for the Morex Fr-H2 will be a useful genomic tool for structural and evolutionary comparisons with Fr-H2 in winter-hardy cultivars along with Fr-2 of other Triticeae crops.

  13. The effect of irradiation treatment on Beta-Glucan and protein quality of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of barley (hordeum vulgare L) grains were tested for nutritional value after being irradiated at dose levels of 10, 20, and 30 KGy. The gross composition of raw and irradiated beans was similar. Soluble protein was reduced by 16.76%, 28.84% and 44.76% when barley grains were irradiated at 10, 20, and 30 KGy, respectively, The amount of water-soluble beta-glucan in raw barley was increased linearly from 1.76 to 2.40 g/100 g of sample as a function of dose. Meanwhile, the effect of irradiation treatment on total beta-glucan (3.90 g/100 g) was insignificant while the level of insoluble beta-glucan was decreased with increasing the dose levels of irradiation. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) of processed barley grains at the doses applied was increased by 6.38%, 12.77%, and 1135%, respectively as compared with the value for raw grains. The data showed that the radiation processing of raw barley grains increased the solubility of beta-glucan, the most anti nutritional factor in the grains and improved the PER in rats. Therefore it could be concluded thal the irradiation treatment (up tp 30 KGy) up-grade the biological value of barley through increase the solubility of Beta-glucan that affect the performance of animals

  14. Consolidated conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Taylor, Frank; Hicks, Kevin B

    2011-06-01

    A novel process using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic treatment for conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars was developed. The purpose of this process is to convert both lignocellulosic polysaccharides and starch in hulled barley grains into fermentable sugars simultaneously without a need for grinding and hull separation. In this study, hulled barley grains were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 wt.-% sulfuric acid at various temperatures ranging from 110 to 170 °C in a 63-ml flow-through packed-bed stainless steel reactor. After sulfuric acid pretreatment, simultaneous conversion of lignocellulose and starch in the barley grains into fermentable sugars was performed using an enzyme cocktail, which included α-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, and β-glucosidase. Both starch and non-starch polysaccharides in the pre-treated barley grains were readily converted to fermentable sugars. The treated hulled barley grains, including their hull, were completely hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars with recovery of almost 100% of the available glucose and xylose. The pretreatment conditions of this chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) process for achieving maximum yield of fermentable sugars were 1.0 wt.% sulfuric acid and 110 °C. In addition to starch, the acid pretreatment also retained most of the available proteins in solid form, which is essential for subsequent production of fuel ethanol and high protein distiller's dried grains with solubles co-product. PMID:21229334

  15. Diversity for seedling vigor in wild barley (hordeum vulgare L. subs. simpatina) germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seedling vigor is important for improving stand establishment of barley crops, particularly in arid regions and areas where the soil temperature is low at sowing time. Three hundred and fifteen wild barley accessions from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) were evaluated for nine seedling vigor traits in a poly house and growth chamber under hydroponic conditions. The accessions exhibited significant differences for all traits investigated. Traits showing greatest phenotypic variation were seedling visual score, plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and shoot length. Seed weight exhibited the least variation. Seed weight was significantly correlated with visual seedling score and shoot and seedling fresh and dry weight. Correlation analysis showed that the visual seedling score was a reliable method for estimating seedling vigor in wild barley. The first three principal components (PC) explained 82.3% of the variation present in the WBDC with PC1(54.0%) associated with shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling fresh weight, shoot length and seedling length. Accessions from the southwest portion of the Fertile Crescent, like WBDC020 (Turkey), WBDC238 (Jordan) and WBDC244 (Jordan) exhibited the highest positive values for most of the plant vigor traits investigated. These wild barley accessions likely carry alleles that will be useful for the improvement of plant vigor traits in cultivated barley. (author)

  16. Extraordinarily polymorphic microsatellite DNA in barley: species diversity, chromosomal locations, and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghai Maroof, M A; Biyashev, R M; Yang, G P; Zhang, Q; Allard, R W

    1994-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the extent of genetic variation in barley simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and to study the evolutionary dynamics of SSR alleles. SSR polymorphisms were resolved by the polymerase chain reaction with four pairs of primers. In total, 71 variants were observed in a sample of 207 accessions of wild and cultivated barley. Analyses of wheat-barley addition lines and barley doubled haploids identified these variants (alleles) with four loci, each located on a different chromosome. The numbers of alleles detected at a locus corresponded to the number of nucleotide repeats in the microsatellite sequences. The numbers of alleles at two loci were 28 and 37; to our knowledge these are the largest numbers of alleles for single Mendelian loci reported in plants. Three alleles were resolved by each of the other two loci. Allelic diversity was greater in wild than in cultivated barley and surveys of two generations (F8 and F53) of Composite Cross II, an experimental population of cultivated barley, showed that few of the alleles present in the 28 parents survived into generation F53, whereas some infrequent alleles reached high frequencies. Such changes in frequency indicate that the chromosomal segments marked by the SSR alleles are under the influence of natural selection. The SSR variants allow specific DNA sequences to be followed through generations. Thus, the great resolving power of SSR assays may provide clues regarding the precise targets of natural and man-directed selection. PMID:8202509

  17. Advances in the use of mutation induction for genetic improvement of barley and native grains in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds of two varieties were treated with several doses of gamma rays and sodium azide. Seeds of a quinoa (Chenopodium) variety were treated with three doses of gamma rays. Yield trials were conducted also for doubled haploid lines of barley derived from earlier mutagenic treatments. Some promising new barley mutant lines were identified in the yield trials. The results from the Chenopodium trials facilitate the determination of the optimum dose of gamma rays for the PRQ-22 variety. (author)

  18. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability. PMID:26396387

  19. The sexed shape of Helminthosporium gramineum Rabh. fungus involved in increasing disease damage of torn leaves in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel FLORIAN

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The onset of some sclerotic formations are reported on barley straws on which the following microscopic investigations and biometrical measurements peritecia, ascia and ascospores of Pyrenophora graminea (Rabh. Ito et Kurib. were detected, representing the sexed multiplication of fungus Helminthosporium gramineum, the pathogenic factor causing leaf tearing in barley, a condition rarely encountered in nature. Owing to the great number of peritecia on barley straw residues, we are of the opinion that the sexed multiplication of fungus represents a real danger in barley cultivation assigning the efficient control steps against this pest.

  20. Development and Characterization of Polymorphic EST-SSR and Genomic SSR Markers for Tibetan Annual Wild Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Zhang; Weihua Mao; Guoping Zhang; Feibo Wu

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan annual wild barley is rich in genetic variation. This study was aimed at the exploitation of new SSRs for the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of wild barley by data mining. We developed 49 novel EST-SSRs and confirmed 20 genomic SSRs for 80 Tibetan annual wild barley and 16 cultivated barley accessions. A total of 213 alleles were generated from 69 loci with an average of 3.14 alleles per locus. The trimeric repeats were the most abundant motifs (40.82%) among the EST-SSRs...

  1. Combining mechanical rhizome removal and cover crops for Elytrigia repens control in organic barley systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B; Nørremark, M; Kristensen, E F

    2013-01-01

    -vetch-mustard mixture) on Elytrigia repens rhizome removal, shoot growth and suppression of a subsequent barley crop was examined in two growing seasons. Four passes with a modified rotary cultivator, where each pass was followed by rhizome removal, reduced E. repens shoot growth in barley by 84% and 97%. In general......, the cover crop developed poorly and did not affect barley or E. repens. Barley yield was only affected by treatments in the first season, where yield was negatively correlated with E. repens shoot biomass. The concept has potential for the control of severe E. repens infestations, but future research...

  2. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-12-01

    In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and wheat straw of three different pretreatment procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose concentrations obtained after enzymatic hydrolyses were related to the potential glucose present in the pretreated residues, the highest yield, approximately 48% (g g-1), was obtained with hot water extraction pretreatment of barley straw; this pretreatment also produced highest yields for wheat straw, producing a glucose yield of approximately 39% (g g-1). Addition of extra enzyme (Celluclast 1.5 L+Novozyme 188) during enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the highest total glucose concentrations from barley straw, 32-39 g L-1, but the relative increases in glucose yields were higher on wheat straw than on barley straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid-impregnated samples.

  3. Effect of Enzyme Supplementation and Irradiation of Barley on Broiler Chicks Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments were conducted to study the influence of irradiation treatment at dose levels of 0.20 and 60 kGy on barley beta-glucan and the effect of enzyme supplementation and irradiation of barley on broiler chicks performance. The amount of total and water-soluble beta-glucan in raw barley was 36 kg-1, respectively. The effect of irradiation treatment on total beta-glucan was insignificant while the level of soluble beta-glucan was increased with increasing the dose levels of irradiation. The effect of irradiation treatment and enzyme supplementation of barley diets on growth and conversion performance of broiler chicks indicated that birds fed raw barley diet had lower body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion than those fed control diet throughout the experimental period. Irradiation of barley at dose of 20 kGy did not affect the chick performance (feed consumption, weight gain feed-gain ratio) that received the B 20 diet from 7 to 21 days of age, but when bird maintained on B 20 diet from 7 28 days of age, only feed-gain ratio was improved by 14.4%. The results indicate that there was a significant effect of irradiation of barley at 60 kGy (B 60) on feed -gain ratio of chicks when were fed B 60 diet from 7 to 21 days of age. The corresponding improvement in feed-gain ratio was 16.4%. When birds were fed B 60 diet from 7-28 days of age, the improvement in body weight and feed-gain ratio was 25.5 and 19.6%, respectively

  4. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-AtPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finni, Christine; Andersen, Claus H; Borch, Jonas;

    2002-01-01

    , or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H...

  5. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-ATPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, C.; Andersen, C.H.; Borch, J.;

    2002-01-01

    , or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H...

  6. Mapping genes in barley for resistance to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and to P. striiformis from brome, wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Alemu, Sisay K.; Marcel, T.C.; Heyzen, van Skye

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mapping populations have been developed that are useful to study the inheritance of quantitative resistance to adapted and unadapted rust fungi. In a recent host range study, we found that the parents of those mapping populations also differed in their resistance to th

  7. Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus VPg Is the Determinant Protein for Breaking eIF4E-Mediated Recessive Resistance in Barley Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huangai; Kondo, Hideki; Kühne, Thomas; Shirako, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV, genus Bymovirus) factor(s) responsible for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance genes (rym4/5/6) in barley. Genome mapping analysis using chimeric infectious cDNA clones between rym5-breaking (JT10) and rym5-non-breaking (JK05) isolates indicated that genome-linked viral protein (VPg) is the determinant protein for breaking the rym5 resistance. Likewise, VPg is also responsible for overcoming the resistances of rym4 and rym6 alleles. Mutational analysis identified that amino acids Ser-118, Thr-120, and His-142 in JT10 VPg are the most critical residues for overcoming rym5 resistance in protoplasts. Moreover, the rym5-non-breaking JK05 could accumulate in the rym5 protoplasts when eIF4E derived from a susceptible barley cultivar was expressed from the viral genome. Thus, the compatibility between VPg and host eIF4E determines the ability of BaYMV to infect barley plants. PMID:27746794

  8. Observed and predicted changes over eight years in frequency of barley powdery mildew avirulent to spring barley in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousset, L.; Hovmøller, M.S.; Caffier, V.;

    2002-01-01

    Aerial populations of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei were studied in two French and two Danish regions from 1991 to 1999, at a time of year when only winter barley was present. A high frequency of genotypes not able to grow on the spring-sown crop of the previous growing season (denoted 'spring-a...

  9. Effects of sulfur nutritional level on cadmium toxicity in barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yichang; Huerta, A.J. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States))

    1993-05-01

    The effects of S levels on Cd toxicity were studied in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.cv.UC 476). Barley was grown hydroponically in half-strength Hoagland's solution containing either 100% or 10% S in a growth chamber at constant 20 C, 290 umole M[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] light intensity, and a 16/18 hour light/dark period. Five days after the first true leaf appeared, 15 uM Cd was added to the nutrient solutions where appropriate. At 14 days after beginning of Cd treatment, plants were analyzed for photosynthetic characteristics. The photosynthetic characteristics measured were CO[sub 2] response curves (measured with a LICOR 6200 portable photosynthesis system), and fluorescence measurement system. At 21 days they were analyzed for morphological and biomass measurements. The CO[sub 2] response curves for leaves of plants treated with 10% S did not significantly differ from those of plants treated with 100% S. Treatment with Cd significantly reduced the CO[sup 2] saturated rates of photosynthesis and the reduction was more significant in the 10% S than in the 100% S plants. Photochemical efficiency of PSII (FV/FM) and fluorescence quenching capacity (FQ) were not affected by 10% S as compared to 100% S treatment. Interestingly, treatment with Cd significantly increased both FV/FM and FQ as compared to control., However, S level had no effect on the fluorescence parameters of Cd-treated plants. Leaf and root length, leaf area, root and shoot dry weight were only slightly affected (increased or decreased) by 10% S as compared to 100% S but very significantly reduced by treatment with Cd. Our results agree with the previous reports which show that S (an important component of glutathione and phytochelatins which are low molecular weight Cd binding proteins), is important in regulating Cd detoxification in plants. However, we are continuing to conduct experiments as even lower S concentrations and different Cd concentrations.

  10. Differentially expressed genes between drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive barley genotypes in response to drought stress during the reproductive stage

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, P; Baum, M.; Grando, S.; Ceccarelli, S.; Bai, G.; Li, R; Von Korff, M; Varshney, R.,; Graner, A.; Valkoun, V.

    2009-01-01

    Drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing and stabilizing barley productivity in dry areas worldwide. Identification of the genes responsible for drought tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) will facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance, and also facilitate the genetic improvement of barley through marker-assisted selection or gene transformation. To monitor the changes in gene expression at the transcriptional level in barley leaves during the repro...

  11. Comparing Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Mass Spectra for the Relative Quantification of Barley Gluten in Selectively Bred Barley Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Heidelberger, Sibylle; Lane, Catherine S; Tanner, Gregory J; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-09-20

    Celiac disease (CD) is a disease of the small intestine that occurs in genetically susceptible subjects triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins for which the only treatment is strict adherence to a life-long gluten-free diet. Barley contains four gluten protein families, and the existence of barley genotypes that do not accumulate the B-, C-, and D-hordeins paved the way for the development of an ultralow gluten phenotype. Using conventional breeding strategies, three null mutations behaving as recessive alleles were combined to create a hordein triple-null barley variety. Proteomics has become an invaluable tool for characterization and quantification of the protein complement of cereal grains. In this study multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, viewed as the gold standard for peptide quantification, was compared to the data-independent acquisition strategy known as SWATH-MS (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra). SWATH-MS was comparable (p gluten) in eight barley lines. The results of SWATH-MS analysis further confirmed the absence of the B-, C-, and D-hordeins in the triple-null barley line and showed significantly reduced levels ranging from <1% to 16% relative to wild-type (WT) cv Sloop for the minor γ-hordein class. SWATH-MS represents a valuable tool for quantitative proteomics based on its ability to generate reproducible data comparable with MRM-MS, but has the added benefits of allowing reinterrogation of data to improve analytical performance, ask new questions, and in this case perform quantification of trypsin-resistant proteins (C-hordeins) through analysis of their semi- or nontryptic fragments. PMID:27533879

  12. EFFECTS OF BARLEY PROCESSING ON THE BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES IN FATTENING WEANED LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VOIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our researches was to observe the nutritive and productive effect of the ratio, offered at discretion, composed of alfalfa hay and barley under the following presentation forms: whole grains, roughly ground (4mm with and without addition of yeast, strain Yea-Sacc1026, to lambs submitted for fattening. The experiment lasted 54 days, the biological material was represented by Turcana lambs, grouped in three lots (n=12. Growth performances were significant bigger (p< 0.04 for the final body weight, total weight gain and average daily gain, but the specific intake was decreased with 0.49 UNC in lambs that consumed ground barley prior to those that consumed whole barley grains. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain Yea-Sacc1026 in the ground barley at 4 mm has a more productive and evident effect (p<0.02 regarding final body weight, total weight and average daily weigh compared to the lambs fed with whole barley grains, with a specific intake lower with 0.89 UNC.

  13. Utilization of barley or wheat bran to bioconvert glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with the utilization of agro-industrial wastes created by barley and wheat bran in the production of a value-added product, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The simple and eco-friendly reaction requires no pretreatment or microbial fermentation steps but uses barley or wheat bran as an enzyme source, glutamate as a substrate, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The optimal reaction conditions were determined on the basis of the temperatures and times used for the decarboxylation reactions and the initial concentrations of barley or wheat bran, glutamate, and PLP. The optimal reactions produced 9.2 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 92% GABA conversion rate, when barley bran was used and 6.0 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 60% GABA conversion rate, when wheat bran was used. The results imply that barley bran is more efficient than wheat bran in the production of GABA.

  14. Induction of beta-1,3-glucanase in barley in response to infection by fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutidamrongphan, W; Andersen, J B; Mackinnon, G; Manners, J M; Simpson, R S; Scott, K J

    1991-05-01

    The sequence of a partial cDNA clone corresponding to an mRNA induced in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) by infection with fungal pathogens matched almost perfectly with that of a cDNA clone coding for beta-1,-3-glucanase isolated from the scutellum of barley. Western blot analysis of intercellular proteins from near-isogenic barley lines inoculated with the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) showed a strong induction of glucanase in all inoculated lines but was most pronounced in two resistant lines. These data were confirmed by beta-1,3-glucanase assays. The barley cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to detect mRNAs in barley, wheat (Triticum aestivum), rice (oryza sativus), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which are induced by infection with the necrotrophic pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. These results demonstrate that activation of beta-1,3-glucanase genes may be a general response of cereals to infection by fungal pathogens.

  15. Histochemical characterization of early response to Cochliobolus sativus infection in selected barley genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Decuadro, Susana; Silva, Paula; Bentancur, Oscar; Gamba, Fernanda; Pritsch, Clara

    2014-07-01

    Much effort is being made to breed barley with durable resistance to leaf spot blotch incited by Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus). We hypothesized that susceptibility and resistance traits in 11 diverse barley genotypes inoculated with a single C. sativus isolate might specify a range of distinct host cell responses. Quantitative descriptions of interaction microphenotypes exhibited by different barley genotype seedlings after infection with C. sativus are provided. Early oxidative responses occurring in epidermis and mesophyll leaf tissue were monitored by histochemical analysis of H2O2 accumulation at 8, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Cell wall apposition (CWA) in epidermal cells and hypersensitive reaction (HR) of epidermal or mesophyll tissue were early defenses in both resistant and susceptible genotypes. There were differences in level, duration, and frequency of occurrence for CWA and HR for the different barley genotypes. Occurrence of HR in epidermal cells at post-penetration stages was indicative of compatibility. Patterns of cell responses were microphenotypically diverse between different resistant and susceptible genotypes. This suggests that timing and level of response are key features of microphenotypic diversity that distinguish different functional mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility present in barley.

  16. [Hordein locus polymorphism of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

    2007-11-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis has been used to study the polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd F loci in 93 landrace specimens of barley assigned to 17 ancient provinces located in modem Turkey. Forty-five alleles of Hrd A with frequencies of 0.11-29.34%, 51 alleles of Hrd B with frequencies of 0.11-8.07%, and 5 alleles of Hrd F with frequencies of 0.75-41.29% have been detected. Cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies has demonstrated that barley populations from different old provinces of Turkey are similar to one another. Cluster structure of local barley populations has been found, most populations (82%) falling into three clusters. The first cluster comprises barley populations from six provinces (Thracia, Bithynia, Pontus, Lydia, Cappadocia, and Armenia); the second cluster, populations from five provinces (Paphlagonia, Galatia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, and Mesopotamia); and the third one, populations from three provinces (Phrygia, Karia, and Lycia). Barley populations from Mysia, Pamphlya, and Syria do not fall in any cluster. PMID:18186193

  17. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  18. Barley-derived beta-D-glucan induces immunostimulation via a dectin-1-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Rui; Ikeda, Futoshi; Aoki, Kosuke; Yoshikawa, Masashi; Kato, Yuya; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Tanioka, Asuka; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Tsubaki, Kazufumi; Ohno, Naohito

    2009-04-27

    Barley-derived beta-glucan, a linear mixed-linkage beta-glucan composed of 1,3- and 1,4-beta-D-glucopyranose polymers, binds to dectin-1. However, whether it can trigger signal transduction via dectin-1 remains unclear. In this study, we used a reporter gene assay to determine whether barley-derived beta-d-glucan can activate NF-kappaB via dectin-1-mediated signaling when dectin-1 is cotransfected with Syk, CARD9, and Bcl10 in 293T cells. We found that barley-derived beta-D-glucan can activate NF-kappaB leading to cytokine production when dectin-1, Syk, CARD9, and Bcl10 are coexpressed in the cells. We also found that barley-derived beta-D-glucan can induce the phosphorylation of Syk and production of IL-6 in thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages. These results indicated that the immunostimulatory effects of barley-derived beta-d-glucan might be exerted, at least in part, via dectin-1. PMID:19428562

  19. Cross-protection among strains of barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, F; Lister, R M; Fattouh, F A

    1991-04-01

    ELISA, cDNA dot blot hybridization and transmission by vector aphids were used to investigate the occurrence and degree of cross-protection produced in oat plants by virus isolates representing five strains or serotypes of barley yellow dwarf virus, namely PAV, MAV, SGV, RPV and RMV. Generally, the degree of cross-protection was positively correlated with the serological relatedness between the isolates. A high degree of cross-protection occurred between NY-MAV and MAV-PS1, two isolates of the MAV serotype; cross-protection was moderate between MAV-PS1 and either P-PAV (a Purdue isolate of the PAV serotype) or NY-SGV; cross-protection between P-PAV and NY-SGV was low. Cross-protection did not occur in other paired inoculations and did not persist in some plants, the challenge virus eventually becoming detectable. The persistence of cross-protection depended on the interval between inoculations with protecting and challenge viruses; longer inoculation intervals enhanced the persistence of cross-protection. Results obtained by ELISA and dot blot hybridization were usually consistent, indicating that cross-protection affected both viral capsid and RNA synthesis. PMID:2016594

  20. Numerical simulation static-bed drying of barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandas, N. [Universita di Cagliari (Italy). Dipartimento d' Ingegneria Meccanica; Habte, M. [Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia). Mechanical Engineering Department

    2002-07-01

    The last decade has seen enormous progress in mathematical modelling and numerical simulation in areas related with fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer. This is because of the increasingly widespread use of powerful, low-cost digital computers. Future efforts should be directed towards developing computer codes that can be implemented by users who may not be well versed in computational skills. Here a computer program has been developed, for simulating a non-equilibrium mathematical model for static-deep-bed drying of barley. The model consists of a set of four non-linear partial differential equations as a result of mass and energy balances and heat transfer equations, together with appropriate diffusion equation. The set of equations is solved by means of a finite-difference method, using a second-order iterative predictor-corrector process to solve the first two equations in the time domain, and a first-order iterative process for the second two, in the space domain. Published experimental results are used to validate the model. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data relative to heated-air drying system, and the prediction accuracy is enhanced with respect to equilibrium models. (author)

  1. Structural lability of Barley stripe mosaic virus virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V Makarov

    Full Text Available Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed.

  2. Mechanisms of Induced Resistance in Barley Against Drechslera teres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngs Jørgensen, H J; Lübeck, P S; Thordal-Christensen, H; de Neergaard, E; Smedegaard-Petersen, V

    1998-07-01

    ABSTRACT Quantitative and qualitative histopathological methods and molecular analyses were used to study the mechanisms by which preinoculation with either of the nonbarley pathogens, Bipolaris maydis and Septoria nodorum, inhibited growth of Drechslera teres. Collectively, our data suggest that induced resistance is the principal mechanism responsible for impeding the pathogen. The enhancement of resistance in the host was primarily manifested during penetration by D. teres, and after penetration, where growth of D. teres ceased soon after development of infection vesicles. Thus, 24 h after pretreatment with B. maydis or S. nodorum, the penetration frequency from D. teres appressoria was reduced from 42.7% in the controls to 9.5 and 14.8%, respectively. The reductions were associated with increased formation of fluorescent papillae in induced cells (early defense reaction). The postpenetrational inhibition of D. teres completely stopped fungal growth and was apparently linked to an enhancement of multicellular hypersensitive responses in inducer-treated leaves (late defense reaction). Papillae formation and multicellular hypersensitive reactions were also observed in fully susceptible, noninduced control leaves, but they were inadequate to stop fungal progress. Northern blots from leaves treated with either inducer alone support the conclusion that induced resistance is involved in suppression of D. teres by increased formation of papillae and hypersensitive reactions. Thus, the blots showed strong expression of several defense response genes that are involved in these reactions in barley attacked by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei.

  3. Inhibition of coagulation factors by recombinant barley serpin BSZx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren Weis; Rasmussen, S.K.; Petersen, L..C.;

    1996-01-01

    Barley serpin BSZx is a potent inhibitor of trypsin and chymotrypsin at overlapping reactive sites (Dahl, S.W., Rasmussen, S.K. and Hejgaard, J. (1996) J. Biol, Chem., in press), We have now investigated the interactions of BSZx with a range of serine proteinases from human plasma, pancreas...... as substrate, Complexes of these proteinase with BSZx resisted boiling in SDS, and amino acid sequencing showed that cleavage in the reactive center loop only occurred after P-1 Arg. Activated protein C and leukocyte elastase were slowly inhibited by BSZx (k(ass) = 1-2 x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)) whereas factor XIIa...... and leukocytes, a fungal trypsin and three subtilisins, Thrombin, plasma kallikrein, factor VIIa/tissue factor and factor Xa were inhibited by BSZx at heparin independent association rates (k(ass)) of 4.5 x 10(3)-1.3 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) at 22 degrees C. Only factor Xa turned a significant fraction of BSZx over...

  4. Management of diabetic dyslipidemia with subatmospheric dehydrated barley grass powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal Shonima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stable type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects. A total of 59 stable type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled in the study from pathology laboratories and divided into experimental (n=36 and control groups (n=23. BGP (1.2 g/day in the form of capsules (n=4 was given to the experimental group subjects for a period of 60 days. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profile levels were monitored at baseline and at 60 days. Paired t test was applied using Microsoft® Office Excel 2003. Supplementation with BGP resulted in a significant decrease in FBS, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Non-HDL-C and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that BGP holds promise to be used as a functional food to optimise the health of diabetic subjects.

  5. Accelerated rates of protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes might be legacy of domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Dimitrov, Ivan; Zhang, Yinling; Tax, Frans E; Yi, Jing; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia

    2015-10-01

    Traits related to grain and reproductive organs in grass crops have been under continuous directional selection during domestication. Barley is one of the oldest domesticated crops in human history. Thus genes associated with the grain and reproductive organs in barley may show evidence of dramatic evolutionary change. To understand how artificial selection contributes to protein evolution of biased genes in different barley organs, we used Digital Gene Expression analysis of six barley organs (grain, pistil, anther, leaf, stem and root) to identify genes with biased expression in specific organs. Pairwise comparisons of orthologs between barley and Brachypodium distachyon, as well as between highland and lowland barley cultivars mutually indicated that grain and pistil biased genes show relatively higher protein evolutionary rates compared with the median of all orthologs and other organ biased genes. Lineage-specific protein evolutionary rates estimation showed similar patterns with elevated protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes, yet protein sequences generally evolve much faster in the lowland barley cultivar. Further functional annotations revealed that some of these grain and pistil biased genes with rapid protein evolution are related to nutrient biosynthesis and cell cycle/division. Our analyses provide insights into how domestication differentially shaped the evolution of genes specific to different organs of a crop species, and implications for future functional studies of domestication genes.

  6. Sequencing of 15,622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework....

  7. Analysis of early events in the interaction between Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Scarlett

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Svensson, Birte;

    2010-01-01

    A proteomic analysis was conducted to map the events during the initial stages of the interaction between the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley cultivar Scarlett. Quantification of fungal DNA demonstrated a sharp increase in fungal biomass in barley spikelets at 3 da...

  8. Barley polyamine oxidase: Characterisation and analysis of the cofactor and the N-terminal amino acid sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radova, A.; Sebela, M.; Galuszka, P.;

    2001-01-01

    was further confirmed by measuring the fluorescence spectra, Barley PAO is an acidic protein (pI 5.4) containing 3% of neutral sugars: its molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE was 56 kDa, whilst gel permeation chromatography revealed the higher value of 76 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of barley...

  9. Genome-wide association mapping of barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance in spring oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is one of the most destructive diseases of cereal crops worldwide. Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-t...

  10. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    Barley and rape seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture with increasing concentrations of CrO3 (Cr(VI)) or CrCl3 (Cr(III)). The chitinase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spennidine and spermine were determined in the third leaf of barley seed-lings and in the second leaf of rape...

  11. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wanic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and weed density of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. Weed density increased linearly on all plots during the 15-year period. The average values confirm the increase in weed biomass in the case when spring barley was grown once or twice after this crop; however, those differences were influenced by the previous situation only during some seasons. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. A negative correlation between the yield of barley and weed biomass was shown.

  12. The untranslated leader sequence of the barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene confers embryo-specific expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouster, J.; Mechelen J. van; Cameron-Mills, V.

    1998-01-01

    The barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene encodes a protein expressed in embryos during grain development and germination and in leaves after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Transient gene expression assays in germinating barley embryos were used to identify cis-regulatory elements involved in the em

  13. Antioxidant-guided isolation and mass spectrometric identification of the major polyphenols in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel P; Gallagher, Eimear; Hossain, Mohammad B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the relative contribution of individual/classes of polyphenols in barley, to its antioxidant properties, was evaluated. Flash chromatography was used to fractionate the total polyphenol extract of Irish barley cultivar 'Irina', and fractions with highest antioxidant properties were identified using total phenolic content and three in vitro antioxidant assays: DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Flavanols (catechin, procyanidin B, prodelphinidin B, procyanidin C) and a novel substituted flavanol (catechin dihexoside, C27H33O16(-), m/z 613.17), were identified as constituents of the fraction with highest antioxidant capacity. Upon identification of phenolics in the other active fractions, the order of most potent contributors to observed antioxidant capacity of barley extract were, flavanols>flavonols (quercetin)>hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, caffeic, coumaric acids). The most abundant polyphenol in the overall extract was ferulic acid (277.7μg/gdw barley), followed by procyanidin B (73.7μg/gdw barley). PMID:27211640

  14. Evaluation of Different Levels of Barley and Replace it Instead of Corn on Performance of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hosein Eshrati Bahar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In isoenergetic - isonitrogenous diets, barley at levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % was substituted for corn and its effects on broiler chicken performance was studied. This study was carried out with 5 levels of barley (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 %, 3 replicates and 14 birds in each replicate in a completely randomized design. In this experiment 300 day old broiler chicks (Lohman were used for 42 days. The results showed that barley up to 25% substitution had no adverse effect on broiler performance. It is concluded that in diet supplementation with barley until 25% could done without any adverse effects on performance, although enzyme supplementation should be considered in the ration to decrease NSP in the barley

  15. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irradiation on barley susceptibility to net blotch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolates of Drechslera teres f. sp. teres that cause net blotch symptoms on barley were collected from fields in different regions of Syria. there virulence spectra were determined using 11 barley cultivars. Cultivars exhibited a continuos range of response from very susceptible to moderately resistant. Isolate Raqa 13 had the highest mean virulence, then Halap 2, whereas ICARDA 3 was the lowest virulent. The effect of three concentrations (1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) of nitrogen (Urea 45%) fertilizer, and two doses of gamma ray (10 and 20 Gy), on susceptibility to infection by Drechslera teres were studied. Two barley cultivars (Thibaut and Furia) were used in this study. Results showed that 1000 ppm (N) and 15 Gy dose treatment had a positive effect on decreasing the susceptibility. (author)

  16. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  17. Transformation of TrxS Gene into Barley by Particle Bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Li; YIN Jun; KONG Wei-wei; REN Jiang-ping; LI Lei; LIU Lei

    2005-01-01

    The production of malting barley in China can't meet the demand of beer industries because of poor quality and it becomes a bottleneck problem in beer manufacture industry. In this paper, TrxS gene cloned from Phalaris coerulescens was transferred into barley cultivar Yupi 1 (YP1)via biolistic bombardment. 1206 immature embryos were bombarded and seven transgenic plants carrying TrxS gene were confirmed by PCR and PCR-Southern blotting analysis. TrxS gene was expressed in transgenic plants by RT-PCR analysis. The activity of Trxh and αt-amylase of transgenic line were higher than that of non-transgenic line, which is helpful to improve malting quality of barley.

  18. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L (R) from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw...... generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose...... straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid...

  19. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    . A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling...... seed dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was......Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable...

  20. Engineering high-level aluminum tolerance in barley with the ALMT1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Ryan, Peter R; Hebb, Diane M; Yamamoto, Yoko; Sasaki, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2004-10-19

    Acidity is a serious limitation to plant production on many of the world's agricultural soils. Toxic aluminium (Al) cations solubilized by the acidity rapidly inhibit root growth and limit subsequent uptake of water and nutrients. Recent work has shown that the ALMT1 gene of wheat (Triticum aestivum) encodes a malate transporter that is associated with malate efflux and Al tolerance. We generated transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants expressing ALMT1 and assessed their ability to exude malate and withstand Al stress. ALMT1 expression in barley conferred an Al-activated efflux of malate with properties similar to those of Al-tolerant wheat. The transgenic barley showed a high level of Al tolerance when grown in both hydroponic culture and on acid soils. These findings provide additional evidence that ALMT1 is a major Al-tolerance gene and demonstrate its ability to confer effective tolerance to acid soils through a transgenic approach in an important crop species. PMID:15471989

  1. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  2. Transcriptional Activity of rRNA Genes in Barley Cells after Mutagenic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Jaskowiak, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the combination of the micronucleus test with analysis of the activity of the rRNA genes in mutagen-treated Hordeum vulgare (barley) by maleic hydrazide (MH) cells was performed. Simultaneously fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 25S rDNA as probes and an analysis of the transcriptional activity of 35S rRNA genes with silver staining were performed. The results showed that transcriptional activity is always maintained in the micronuclei although they are eliminated during the next cell cycle. The analysis of the transcriptional activity was extended to barley nuclei. MH influenced the fusion of the nucleoli in barley nuclei. The silver staining enabled detection of the nuclear bodies which arose after MH treatment. The results confirmed the usefulness of cytogenetic techniques in the characterization of micronuclei. Similar analyses can be now extended to other abiotic stresses to study the response of plant cells to the environment. PMID:27257817

  3. Cereal bioengineering: amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were engineered by transgenic methods. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch branching enzymes (SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI) by a chimeric hairpin...... for the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom where phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation by endogenous enzymes. Together this work shows two new strategies for in planta starch bioengineering of cereals....... It demonstrates that bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches, and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes....

  4. Screening for disease resistance in barley cultivars against Bipolaris sorokiniana using callus culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Ramesh; Sen, Devyani; Prasad, K D; Singh, A K; Bashyal, B M; Prasad, L C; Joshi, A K

    2008-04-01

    Screening for resistant barley genotypes in response to fungal toxin of Bipolaris sorokiniana was assessed on standing barley plants as well as in selected callus lines of the same. For the standing lines tested, those manifesting chlorosis in response to toxin infiltration showed a significantly slower disease progress as compared to the necrotic lines. Also, necrosis in the callus tissues of the susceptible cultivar in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of the crude toxin was significantly higher than in the callus tissues of the chlorotic lines studied. Similar host response to the toxin in in vitro and field situations open up the possibility of screening barley cultivars for resistance to spot blotch using callus culture as against classical methods of screening in order to increase accuracy and save time and space.

  5. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  6. Quality of rolled barley flakes as affected by batch of grain and processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, B; Abrahamsson, L; Aman, P

    1994-02-01

    Rolled barely flakes were prepared from three different batches of grain by pearling, steaming and rolling. Autoclaved and malted barleys from the three batches were also processed in the same way. Analysis of the nine products showed that both batch of barley and process had significant effects on chemical composition and viscosity. Puddings were prepared from the products and mechanical consistency, juiciness and grain consistency were graded on both newly prepared and heated puddings by a sensory taste panel. Batch of barley had no effect on mechanical consistency but significant effects on juiciness and grain consistency. Type of processing had significant effect on all three parameters for both newly prepared and heated puddings. PMID:8153065

  7. Effect of Soil Erosion on Spring Barley Growth in East Anglia,England:Preliminary Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUXI-XI; Y.BIOT

    1994-01-01

    The effect of soil erosion on spring barley growth was studied on a deep loamy soil in East Anglia,England,in 1992,Soil erosion was simulated by three levels of soil desurfacing,7.5,18and 30cm with three replicates.Significant differences in crop height,ground cover and crop yield were observed between the three levels of desurfacing.Soil desurfacing also has a singnificant effect on soil moisture at the 20cm depth.The interaction between soil removal and crop performance affected soil moisture at the depths of 50 and 100cm,No significant differences were found in runoff and sediment etween the three topsoil removals due to very dry growing season.Regression equations were developed between spring barley yield and soil desurfacing Spring barley grain yield declined by 97.6kg/ha per cm soil desurfacing.

  8. Programmed cell death: The life ambition of the barley aleurone layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto;

    We have developed a 24-well multiplate tissue culture system with electrochemical and optical detection techniques for cultivation of immobilised barley aleurone layers. We have applied the system for the purpose of studying the underlying mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. We...... have optimised an electrochemical, intracellular, whole-cell redox activity assay [1] that probes the NAD(P):NAD(P)H ratio via a double-mediator system. Experiments show that redox activity changes depend on phytohormone activation or inactivation of aleurone layer metabolism and subsequent PCD. We...... have successfully applied a fluorescent double-probe system [2] to detect PCD to ensure that our redox activity data match with known responses of barley aleurone layers to phytohormones. We have also used the system for transformation of barley aleurone cells with α-amylase-GFP constructs...

  9. Effect of crop density on competition by wheat and barley with Agrostemma githago and other weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, H.; Holm, U.; Søgaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Agrostemma githago L. and other naturally occurring weeds on biomass production and grain yield was studied in winter wheat and winter barley. Naturally occurring weeds had only a negligible effect on barley, but reduced wheat grain yield by 10% at a quarter of normal crop density....... The interaction between the cereals and A. githago was studied in additive series employing different crop densities. Growth of this weed species was strongly dependent on crop density, which was more important for controlling weed growth than it was for obtaining a normal grain yield. Wheat and especially barley...... had a better competitive ability than A. githago. Wheat and A. githago utilized resources for growth better when grown in mixture than when grown in pure stands as the relative yield totals were significantly larger than unity....

  10. Interactions between Barley a-Amylases, Substrates, Inhibitors and Regulatory Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachem, Maher Abou; Bozonnet, Sophie; Willemoës, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    Barley a-amylase binds sugars at two sites on the enzyme surface in addition to the active site. Crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis highlight the importance of aromatic residues at these surface sites as demonstrated by Kd values determined for ß-cyclodextrin by surface plasmon resonance...... by mutagenesis, crystallography and microcalorimetry. Further improvement of recombinant AMY2 production allows future direct mutational analysis in this isozyme. Specific proteinaceous inhibitors act on a-amylases of different origin. In the complex of barley a-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) with AMY2...... of the disulphide reductase thioredoxin h that attacks a specific disulphide bond in BASI and, remarkably, reduces two different disulphide bonds in the barley monomeric and dimeric amylase inhibitors that both belong to the CM-proteins and inhibit animal a-amylase....

  11. Density and relative frequency effects on competitive interactions and resource use in pea–barley intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Andersen, H.K.; Jørnsgaard, B.;

    2006-01-01

    Intercropping advantages may be influenced by both plant density and relative frequency of the intercrop components. In a field study barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) were sole cropped and intercropped at three densities and with two relative frequencies when intercropped....... Earlier seedling emergence gave barley an initial growth advantage, assessed using the relative efficiency index (REIc), whereas pea was in general more growth efficient once the initial growth phase had been passed. This reversal in relative growth efficiency along with the observation that early barley...... not increase its reliance on atmospheric nitrogen fixation compared to the pea sole crop. With respect to soil nitrogen uptake there were no effect of plant density but a strong effect of the relative frequency of pea in the intercrop, the greater the proportion the lower the uptake. Changes in the competitive...

  12. Development and characterization of polymorphic EST-SSR and genomic SSR markers for Tibetan annual wild barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mian; Mao, Weihua; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan annual wild barley is rich in genetic variation. This study was aimed at the exploitation of new SSRs for the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of wild barley by data mining. We developed 49 novel EST-SSRs and confirmed 20 genomic SSRs for 80 Tibetan annual wild barley and 16 cultivated barley accessions. A total of 213 alleles were generated from 69 loci with an average of 3.14 alleles per locus. The trimeric repeats were the most abundant motifs (40.82%) among the EST-SSRs, while the majority of the genomic SSRs were di-nuleotide repeats. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.08 to 0.75 with a mean of 0.46. Besides this, the expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.0854 to 0.7842 with an average of 0.5279. Overall, the polymorphism of genomic SSRs was higher than that of EST-SSRs. Furthermore, the number of alleles and the PIC of wild barley were both higher than that of cultivated barley, being 3.12 vs 2.59 and 0.44 vs 0.37. Indicating more polymorphism existed in the Tibetan wild barley than in cultivated barley. The 96 accessions were divided into eight subpopulations based on 69 SSR markers, and the cultivated genotypes can be clearly separated from wild barleys. A total of 47 SSR-containing EST unigenes showed significant similarities to the known genes. These EST-SSR markers have potential for application in germplasm appraisal, genetic diversity and population structure analysis, facilitating marker-assisted breeding and crop improvement in barley. PMID:24736399

  13. Development and characterization of polymorphic EST-SSR and genomic SSR markers for Tibetan annual wild barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhang

    Full Text Available Tibetan annual wild barley is rich in genetic variation. This study was aimed at the exploitation of new SSRs for the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of wild barley by data mining. We developed 49 novel EST-SSRs and confirmed 20 genomic SSRs for 80 Tibetan annual wild barley and 16 cultivated barley accessions. A total of 213 alleles were generated from 69 loci with an average of 3.14 alleles per locus. The trimeric repeats were the most abundant motifs (40.82% among the EST-SSRs, while the majority of the genomic SSRs were di-nuleotide repeats. The polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.08 to 0.75 with a mean of 0.46. Besides this, the expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.0854 to 0.7842 with an average of 0.5279. Overall, the polymorphism of genomic SSRs was higher than that of EST-SSRs. Furthermore, the number of alleles and the PIC of wild barley were both higher than that of cultivated barley, being 3.12 vs 2.59 and 0.44 vs 0.37. Indicating more polymorphism existed in the Tibetan wild barley than in cultivated barley. The 96 accessions were divided into eight subpopulations based on 69 SSR markers, and the cultivated genotypes can be clearly separated from wild barleys. A total of 47 SSR-containing EST unigenes showed significant similarities to the known genes. These EST-SSR markers have potential for application in germplasm appraisal, genetic diversity and population structure analysis, facilitating marker-assisted breeding and crop improvement in barley.

  14. phiC31 integrase-mediated site-specific recombination in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Kapusi

    Full Text Available The Streptomyces phage phiC31 integrase was tested for its feasibility in excising transgenes from the barley genome through site-specific recombination. We produced transgenic barley plants expressing an active phiC31 integrase and crossed them with transgenic barley plants carrying a target locus for recombination. The target sequence involves a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP, which is flanked by the attB and attP recognition sites for the phiC31 integrase. This sequence disruptively separates a gusA coding sequence from an upstream rice actin promoter. We succeeded in producing site-specific recombination events in the hybrid progeny of 11 independent barley plants carrying the above target sequence after crossing with plants carrying a phiC31 expression cassette. Some of the hybrids displayed fully executed recombination. Excision of the GFP gene fostered activation of the gusA gene, as visualized in tissue of hybrid plants by histochemical staining. The recombinant loci were detected in progeny of selfed F(1, even in individuals lacking the phiC31 transgene, which provides evidence of stability and generative transmission of the recombination events. In several plants that displayed incomplete recombination, extrachromosomal excision circles were identified. Besides the technical advance achieved in this study, the generated phiC31 integrase-expressing barley plants provide foundational stock material for use in future approaches to barley genetic improvement, such as the production of marker-free transgenic plants or switching transgene activity.

  15. Identification of a novel gene (Hsdr4) involved in water-stress tolerance in wild barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprunova, Tatiana; Krugman, Tamar; Distelfeld, Assaf; Fahima, Tzion; Nevo, Eviatar; Korol, Abraham

    2007-05-01

    Drought is one of the most severe stresses limiting plant growth and yield. Genes involved in water stress tolerance of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneoum), the progenitor of cultivated barley, were investigated using genotypes contrasting in their response to water stress. Gene expression profiles of water-stress tolerant vs. water-stress sensitive wild barley genotypes, under severe dehydration stress applied at the seedling stage, were compared using cDNA-AFLP analysis. Of the 1100 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) amplified about 70 displayed differential expression between control and stress conditions. Eleven of them showed clear difference (up- or down-regulation) between tolerant and susceptible genotypes. These TDFs were isolated, sequenced and tested by RT-PCR. The differential expression of seven TDFs was confirmed by RT-PCR, and TDF-4 was selected as a promising candidate gene for water-stress tolerance. The corresponding gene, designated Hsdr4 (Hordeum spontaneum dehydration-responsive), was sequenced and the transcribed and flanking regions were determined. The deduced amino acid sequence has similarity to the rice Rho-GTPase-activating protein-like with a Sec14 p-like lipid-binding domain. Analysis of Hsdr4 promoter region that was isolated by screening a barley BAC library, revealed a new putative miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE), and several potential stress-related binding sites for transcription factors (MYC, MYB, LTRE, and GT-1), suggesting a role of the Hsdr4 gene in plant tolerance to dehydration stress. Furthermore, the Hsdr4 gene was mapped using wild barley mapping population to the long arm of chromosome 3H between markers EBmac541 and EBmag705, within a region that previously was shown to affect osmotic adaptation in barley. PMID:17238046

  16. Uptake and utilization efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus in barley genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla KOSTADINOVA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was carried out in order to study the genotypic variation in nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and utilization by barley. The study included nine Bulgarian genotypes of two-rowed barley: three cultivars Krami, Krasen, Kristi and six perspectives breading lines. The genotypes were sown in a randomized, complete block design with four replications after maize as predecessor with the size of experimental plots of 7 m2. It was found that barley genotypes differed in the uptake efficiency of both elements - nitrogen and phosphorus. Genotypes were divided into two groups in regard to nitrogen. Cultivars Krami, Krasen, Kristi and lines 2390300, 24102400, 22506999 uptake 170-186 kg N*ha-1, and lines 704112296, 24201900, 689069970 demonstrated higher nitrogen uptake efficiency 213-241 kg N*ha-1. Most of the new lines had higher phosphorus uptake efficiency in a range 90-111 kg Р2О5 ha-1compared to the varieties. The ratio total N/total Р2О5 uptake was close to 2.0 for the most of genotypes. The obtained mean values of nitrogen utilization efficiency were 81.6 kg biomass and 34.0 kg grain per kg N, respectively. The mean values of phosphorus utilization efficiency were 171.3 kg biomass and 71.4 kg grain per kg P2O5, respectively. The barley genotypes utilized more efficient phosphorus then total uptake nitrogen for producing grain and straw. Line 24102400 demonstrated higher nitrogen utilization efficiency for biomass and grain from all studied genotypes, followed by variety Krami. These two genotypes could be recommended as perspective in future improves of nitrogen efficiency in barley. Uptake efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus positively correlated with the barley productivity and nutrients content in the grain and straw. In contrast, the relationship between total uptake of both elements at maturity and utilization efficiency of nitrogen or phosphorus for grain formation was negative.

  17. Transferability and polymorphism of barley EST-SSR markers used for phylogenetic analysis in Hordeum chilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorado Gabriel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hordeum chilense, a native South American diploid wild barley, is a potential source of useful genes for cereal breeding. The use of this wild species to increase genetic variation in cereals will be greatly facilitated by marker-assisted selection. Different economically feasible approaches have been undertaken for this wild species with limited direct agricultural use in a search for suitable and cost-effective markers. The availability of Expressed Sequence Tags (EST derived microsatellites or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers, commonly called as EST-SSRs, for barley (Hordeum vulgare represents a promising source to increase the number of genetic markers available for the H. chilense genome. Results All of the 82 barley EST-derived SSR primer pairs tested for transferability to H. chilense amplified products of correct size from this species. Of these 82 barley EST-SSRs, 21 (26% showed polymorphism among H. chilense lines. Identified polymorphic markers were used to test the transferability and polymorphism in other Poaceae family species with the aim of establishing H. chilense phylogenetic relationships. Triticum aestivum-H. chilense addition lines allowed us to determine the chromosomal localizations of EST-SSR markers and confirm conservation of the linkage group. Conclusion From the present study a set of 21 polymorphic EST-SSR markers have been identified to be useful for diversity analysis of H. chilense, related wild barleys like H. murinum, and for wheat marker-assisted introgression breeding. Across-genera transferability of the barley EST-SSR markers has allowed phylogenetic inference within the Triticeae complex.

  18. Influence of tannin on protein utilization in feedstuffs with special reference to barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of tannins on protein utilization, increasing amounts of tannin were added to diets fed to rats. Soybean meal was used as protein source. Tannin was found to exert a severe negative effect on protein digestibility. With tannin in the diet, availability of all amino acids decreased significantly, but to different degrees. Tannins are present in a number of plant materials at different levels, including barley. In feeding experiments using 29 barley samples varying in tannin content from 0.55 to 1.23%, tannin showed a significant negative correlation with protein digestibility. (author)

  19. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager;

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the major crops cultivated worldwide and constitutes an important basis for animal feed. However, the production is facing a number of challenges that will be accentuated in the years to come, in particular restrictions on the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In order to improve...... the N use efficiency in barley, we are developing a new generation of genetically modified plants based on the concept of cisgenesis. In this approach, plants are transformed only with their own genetic material. The genes encoding the cytosolic isoform of the glutamine synthetase (GS1...

  20. Comparison of functional and nutritional characteristics of barley and oat mixed linkage ß-glucans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Skau

    -glucans were compared in a human intervention study. The work first focussed on large-scale extraction and physico-chemical characterisation of barley and oat β-glucans. The second step was to investigate the in vitro health effects of barley and oat β-glucans in relation to their physico-chemical properties...... are of great importance for their functionality. β-Glucan solubility and polymer aggregation in solution is dependent on the block structural pattern and differently structured β-glucans may exert various functional and bioactive properties in our body. It is important to account for these diverse effects...

  1. Irradiation seed treatment reduces scald, common root rot and increases phosphorus absorption of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of low doses of gamma irradiation on severity of barley to scald and common root rot diseases, and phosphorus absorption was studied seeds were exposed to doses of 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy. A stimulatory effect was observed at irradiation doses of 30 and 40 Gy, which decreased the severity of barley to scald by 34% and 31% respectively. On the other hand, doses 20 and 30 Gy decreased the severity to CRR by 54% and 49% respectively, whereas, phosphorus absorption was significantly increased at doses of 15 and 20 Gy

  2. The Nutritive Value of Wastewater Grown Barley and its Utilization in Fish Feed

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Snow; Abdel E. Ghaly

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of using wastewater grown barley plants as a component of fish feed was evaluated. The barley plants were grown in a hydroponics system on wastewater from a recirculating aquaculture facility. The effects of wastewater application rate on plant growth and pollution potential reduction were investigated. At the end of the experiment, the average crop heights and yields were 31.0 and 36.0 cm and 59 and 83 t ha -1 at wastewater application rates of 690 and 1380 mL compartment -1 ...

  3. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    yielding cereal crops are generated. In cereals, the process of leaf senescence is of utmost relevance when discussing yield. It is during the senescence process that all nutrients are transported from the withering leaf to the developing grains. Furthermore, the timing of senescence determines...... parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  4. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.;

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the relationship between soil suppression of seedling blight of barley caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Sacc. and the soil cellulolytic activity of beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and endocellulase. Disease suppression was investigated in bioassays....... From the preliminary results obtained, it is proposed that the cellulolytic activity can be used as an enzymatic approach to study the microbial turnover of organic matter in soils and as indicator of seedling blight of barley caused by F. culmorum. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Spectrum of Resistance Conferred by ml-o Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1977-01-01

    /(4) in all tests. They were also resistant to field populations of the pathogen when scored in disease nurseries at more than 78 locations in 29 countries in Europe, the Near East, North and South America. New Zealand, and Japan. This indicates that the 11 genes confer the same, world-wide spectrum......Ten barley mutants and five Ethiopian barley lines representing 11 independently arisen powdery mildew resistance genes in the ml-o locus were tested at the seedling stage to cultures of the powdery mildew fungus from Europe, Israel, USA. Canada, and Japan. They were resistant with infection type 0...

  6. Exploring the Plant–Microbe Interface by Profiling the Surface-Associated Proteins of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte;

    2016-01-01

    xylanase inhibitors. To gain insight into the importance of the microbial consortia and their interaction with barley grains, we used a combined gel-based (2-DE coupled to MALDI-TOF-TOF MS) and gel-free (LC–MS/MS) proteomics approach complemented with enzyme activity assays to profile the surface......-associated proteins and xylanolytic activities of two barley cultivars. The surface-associated proteome was dominated by plant proteins with roles in defense and stress-responses, while the relatively less abundant microbial (bacterial and fungal) proteins were involved in cell-wall and polysaccharide degradation...

  7. Oligosaccharide and Substrate Binding in the Starch Debranching Enzyme Barley Limit Dextrinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie; Windahl, Michael Skovbo; Sim, Lyann;

    2015-01-01

    Complete hydrolytic degradation of starch requires hydrolysis of both the α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in amylopectin. Limit dextrinase (LD) is the only endogenous barley enzyme capable of hydrolyzing the α-1,6-glucosidic bond during seed germination, and impaired LD activity inevitably...... reduces the maltose and glucose yields from starch degradation. Crystal structures of barley LD and active-site mutants with natural substrates, products and substrate analogues were sought to better understand the facets of LD-substrate interactions that αconfine high activity of LD to branched...... starch synthesis....

  8. Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding the starch debranching enzyme limit dextrinase from germinating barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Lok, Finn; Planchot, Véronique;

    1999-01-01

    The gene encoding the starch debranching enzyme limit dextrinase, LD, from barley (Hordeum vulgare), was isolated from a genomic phage library using a barley cDNA clone as probe. The gene encodes a protein of 904 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 98.6 kDa. This is in agreement...... fragments coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry. The sequenced peptide fragments cover 70% of the entire protein sequence, which shows 62% and 77% identity to that of starch debranching enzymes from spinach and rice and 37% identity to Klebsiella pullulanase. Sequence alignment...

  9. Climate Change Effects to Plant Ecosystems - Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz

    collectively in the very near future. Crop yields have stagnated since the start of this century; a trend also revealed in the cultivation of barley and wheat in the Nordic countries Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland, why actions are needed to develop climate resilient cultivars and secure future primary...... accessions, which can be introduced into cultivars to achieve climate resilience. The results from the present dissertation have entered into manuscripts on the direct effect of climate change on barley productivity and quality as well as in life cycle assessment studies (LCA). Valuable genetic resources...

  10. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    in sole cropped barley. Calculation of the LER showed that plant growth resources were used from 17 to 31% more efficiently by the intercrop than by the sole crops. Pea increased the N derived from N-2 fixation from 70% when sole cropped to 99% of the total aboveground N accumulation when intercropped...... from the sole cropped pea and barley lysimeters. Soil N balances indicated depletion of N in the soil-plant system during the experimental period, independent of cropping system and residue management. N complementarity in the cropping system and the synchrony between residual N availability and crop N...

  11. Optimising root growth to improve uptake and utilization of water and nitrogen in wheat and barley

    OpenAIRE

    César de Carvalho, Pedro Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are the most widely grown crop species in the semi-arid to arid areas of the Mediterranean region. However, their average on-farm yields are relatively low, 1.95 and 2.60 t ha-1, respectively (FAO, 2007). Water is generally recognized as the most limiting factor for barley and durum wheat production in the Mediterranean, though it has been found, at least for some regions, that N fertilizer applications have b...

  12. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji;

    2004-01-01

    Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunitz...... Ca2+-modulated kinetics of the AMY2/BASl interaction and found that the complex formation involves minimal structural changes. The modulation of the interaction by calcium ions makes it unique among the currently known binding mechanisms of proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors....

  13. Gibberellic Acid enhancement of DNA turnover in barley aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiz, L; Starks, J E

    1977-08-01

    When imbibed, deembryonated halfseeds from barley (Hordeum vulgare L., var. Himalaya) are incubated in buffer, the DNA content of the aleurone layer increases 25 to 40% over a 24-hour period. In contrast, the DNA of isolated aleurone layers declines by 20% over the same time period. Gibberellic acid (GA) causes a reduction in DNA levels in both halfseed aleurone layers and isolated aleurone layers. GA also increases the specific radioactivity of [(3)H]thymidine-labeled halfseed aleurone layer DNA during the first 12 hours of treatment. Pulse-chase studies demonstrated that the newly synthesized DNA is metabolically labile.The buoyant density on CsCl density gradients of hormone-treated aleurone DNA is identical with that of DNA extracted from whole seedlings. After density-labeling halfseed DNA with 5-bromodeoxyuridine, a bimodal absorption profile is obtained in neutral CsCl. The light band (1.70 g/ml) corresponds to unsubstituted DNA, while the heavy band (1.725-1.74 g/ml) corresponds to a hybrid density-labeled species. GA increases the relative amount of the heavy (hybrid) peak in halfseed aleurone layer DNA, further suggesting that the hormone enhances semiconservative replication in halfseeds.DNA methylation was also demonstrated. Over 60% of the radioactivity from [(3)H-Me]methionine is incorporated into 5-methylcytosine. GA has no effect on the percentage distribution of label among the bases.It was concluded that GA enhances the rate of DNA degradation and DNA synthesis (turnover) in halfseeds, but primarily DNA degradation in isolated aleurone layers. Incorporation by isolated aleurone layers is due to DNA repair. Semiconservative replication apparently plays no physiological role in the hormone response, since both isolated aleurone layers and gamma-irradiated halfseeds respond normally. The hypothesis was advanced that endoreduplication and DNA degradation are means by which the seed stores and mobilizes deoxyribonucleotides for the embryo during

  14. Cell layer-specific distribution of transiently expressed barley ESCRT-III component HvVPS60 in developing barley endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, Julia; Kapusi, Eszter; Stoger, Eva; Ibl, Verena

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III in cereal endosperm has been shown by the identification of the recessive mutant supernumerary aleurone layer1 (SAL1) in maize. ESCRT-III is indispensable in the final membrane fission step during biogenesis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), responsible for protein sorting to vacuoles and to the cell surface. Here, we annotated barley ESCRT-III members in the (model) crop Hordeum vulgare and show that all identified members are expressed in developing barley endosperm. We used fluorescently tagged core ESCRT-III members HvSNF7a/CHMP4 and HvVPS24/CHMP3 and the associated ESCRT-III component HvVPS60a/CHMP5 for transient localization studies in barley endosperm. In vivo confocal microscopic analyses show that the localization of recombinantly expressed HvSNF7a, HvVPS24 and HvVPS60a differs within barley endosperm. Whereas HvSNF7a induces large agglomerations, HvVPS24 shows mainly cytosolic localization in aleurone and subaleurone. In contrast, HvVPS60a localizes strongly at the plasma membrane in aleurone. In subaleurone, HvVPS60a was found to a lesser extent at the plasma membrane and at vacuolar membranes. These results indicate that the steady-state association of ESCRT-III may be influenced by cell layer-specific protein deposition or trafficking and remodelling of the endomembrane system in endosperm. We show that sorting of an artificially mono-ubiquitinated Arabidopsis plasma membrane protein is inhibited by HvVPS60a in aleurone. The involvement of HvVPS60a in different cell layer-specific trafficking pathways, reflected by localization of HvVPS60a at the plasma membrane in aleurone and at the PSV membrane in subaleurone, is discussed.

  15. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  16. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms based on RNA sequencing data of diverse bio-geographical accessions in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahagi, Kotaro; Uehara-Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Mochida, Keiichi; Saisho, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Barley is one of the founder crops of Old world agriculture and has become the fourth most important cereal worldwide. Information on genome-scale DNA polymorphisms allows elucidating the evolutionary history behind domestication, as well as discovering and isolating useful genes for molecular breeding. Deep transcriptome sequencing enables the exploration of sequence variations in transcribed sequences; such analysis is particularly useful for species with large and complex genomes, such as barley. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of 20 barley accessions, comprising representatives of several biogeographic regions and a wild ancestor. We identified 38,729 to 79,949 SNPs in the 19 domesticated accessions and 55,403 SNPs in the wild barley and revealed their genome-wide distribution using a reference genome. Genome-scale comparisons among accessions showed a clear differentiation between oriental and occidental barley populations. The results based on population structure analyses provide genome-scale properties of sub-populations grouped to oriental, occidental and marginal groups in barley. Our findings suggest that the oriental population of domesticated barley has genomic variations distinct from those in occidental groups, which might have contributed to barley’s domestication. PMID:27616653

  17. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals.

  18. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals. PMID:26142428

  19. Yield and yield structure of spring barley (Hodeum vulgare L. grown in monoculture after different stubble crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2006- 2008 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The experimental factor was the type of stubble crop ploughed in each year after harvest of spring barley: white mustard, lacy phacelia, winter rape, and a mixture of narrow-leaf lupin with field pea. In the experiment, successive spring barley crops were grown one after the other (in continuous monoculture. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of stubble crops used on the size and structure of barley yield. The three-year study showed an increasing trend in grain yield of spring barley grown after the mixture of legumes, lacy phacelia, and white mustard compared to its size in the treatment with no cover crop. Straw yield was significantly higher when barley was grown after the mixture of narrowleaf lupin with field pea than in the other treatments of the experiment. The type of ploughed-in stubble crop did not modify significantly plant height, ear length, and grain weight per ear. Growing the mixture of leguminous plants as a cover crop resulted in a significant increase in the density of ears per unit area in barley by an average of 14.7% relative to the treatment with winter rape. The experiment also showed the beneficial effect of the winter rape cover crop on 1000-grain weight of spring barley compared to that obtained in the treatments with white mustard and the mixture of legumes. All the cover crops caused an increase in the number of grains per ear of barley relative to that found in the control treatment. However, this increase was statistically proven only for the barley crops grown after lacy phacelia and the mixture of legumes.

  20. Proteomic and activity profiles of ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in germinating barley embryo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Shahpiri, Azar; Finnie, Christine;

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes involved in redox control are important during seed germination and seedling growth. Ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in barley embryo extracts were monitored both by 2D-gel electrophoresis and activity measurements from 4 to 144 h post imbibition (PI). Strikingly different activity...

  1. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  2. Effect of pulsed electric field on the germination of barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Dejmek, Petr; Panarese, Valentina;

    2012-01-01

    to finish germination in saturated air. It is shown that exposure of germinating barley to PEF affects radicle emergence without significantly affecting the seeds’ gross metabolic activity, as quantified by isothermal calorimetry. An exploration of protein 2-DE profiles of both the embryo and the starchy...

  3. Performance of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties under organic and conventional conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokare, A.; Legzdina, L.; Beinarovica, I.; Niks, R.E.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture needs spring barley varieties that are adapted to organic growing conditions and have good and stable grain yield across years, even under less favourable growing conditions. The aim of this study was to compare how varieties differ in yield and yield stability under conventional

  4. Genetic differentiation and geographical Relationship of Asian barley landraces using SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Naeem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in 403 morphologically distinct landraces of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare originating from seven geographical zones of Asia was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from regions of medium to high recombination in the barley genome. The seven polymorphic SSR markers representing each of the chromosomes chosen for the study revealed a high level of allelic diversity among the landraces. Genetic richness was highest in those from India, followed by Pakistan while it was lowest for Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Out of the 50 alleles detected, 15 were unique to a geographic region. Genetic diversity was highest for landraces from Pakistan (0.70 ± 0.06 and lowest for those from Uzbekistan (0.18 ± 0.17. Likewise, polymorphic information content (PIC was highest for Pakistan (0.67 ± 0.06 and lowest for Uzbekistan (0.15 ± 0.17. Diversity among groups was 40% compared to 60% within groups. Principal component analysis clustered the barley landraces into three groups to predict their domestication patterns. In total 51.58% of the variation was explained by the first two principal components of the barley germplasm. Pakistan landraces were clustered separately from those of India, Iran, Nepal and Iraq, whereas those from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan were clustered together into a separate group.

  5. Saccharification and fermentation of whole barley ground in the Szego mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.R.; Parekh, R.S.; Trass, O.; Gandolfi, E.

    1988-11-01

    Barley, after steeping in water, was ground with ease and efficiency in the Szego mill, and its starch was liquefied, saccharified and fermented to very high yields of ethanol. The Szego mill consists of vertical rollers with helical grooves which rotate within a fixed cylinder, resulting in very fine grinding and a somewhat flaky product. The steeped barley was ground to a fine paste. This was readily liquefied and saccharified by amylolytic enzymes (dual enzyme process), and the resulting sugars were fermented in 24 h by ordinary bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in over 450 l ethanol/t of barley. Still shorter time, 12 h, and the same high yield were achieved when liquefied barley starch was simultaneously saccharified by glucoamylase and fermented. Fermentation to ethanol by a glucoamylase-producing yeast S. diastaticus strain 164A (from Labatt Brewing Company) enabled the amount of this enzyme required for saccharification to be reduced to about one-half the normal quantity, but at some cost in slower fermentation and slightly lower ethanol yield.

  6. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana;

    2016-01-01

    C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi sil...

  7. Use of recurrent irradiation in plant breeding of quantitative characters of barley and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work was applied recurrent irradiation by gamma radiation of cobalt 60 in different doses to barley and wheat seeds in order to generate genetic variation and facilitating the selection of quantitative characters. The first part of this work was realized without making any selection and the second one by means of selection toward the greatest number of tassel spikelets. The experimental evaluation of irradiated materials without selection indicated that in high doses it was obtained a best expression of the character and that this was greater increasing the generations of irradiation excepting the MI generation as in barley as wheat. According to the experimental evaluation, the selected lines of irradiated material of barley was greater yield that the original variety, but this did not occur with the wheat, because of the grain size of the selected lines was more little. The posterior selection for following increasing the spikelets number for tassel has been effective and in the barley the advances were greater than in the wheat. (Author). 4 refs, 5 figs

  8. Stimulation of bacteria and protists in rhizosphere of glyphosate-treated barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imparato, Valentina; Santos, Susana; Johansen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    treatments with no effect on total abundance. Also the abundance of culturable protists increased as an effect of glyphosate and the bacterial genetic diversity as revealed by 16S rDNA DGGE analysis was affected. Overall, the results indicate that when barley leaves are treated with glyphosate...

  9. Effects of Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Barley Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, S. M.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, H. J.; Joo, Y. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of bacterial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation indices of barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at 24% dry matter (DM) and wilted to 47.9% DM. The wilted barley forage was chopped to 3–5 cm length and applied with no inoculant (CON), L. plantarum (1×1010 cfu/g, LP) or Effective Microorganisms (0.5×109 cfu/g, EM). Then the forages were ensiled in four replications for each treatment in 20 L mini silos and stored for 100 days. The contents of crude protein and ether extract were higher in CON silage ensiled for 100-d, while the contents of DM and crude ash were higher in EM silage (p0.05). The pH, ammonia-N concentration and lactate to acetate ratio were higher (p<0.05) in CON silage, while lactate concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in CON and LP silage. Acetate concentration and lactic acid bacteria was increased (p<0.05) by both inoculants (LP and EM), but propionate concentration and yeast was increased (p<0.05) by EM and LP, respectively. These results indicated that the fermentation quality of barley silage was improved by the application of bacterial inoculants. PMID:25049981

  10. Penicillium verrucosum in wheat and barley indicates presence of ochratoxin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2003-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to isolate and identify ochratoxin A (OTA) producing fungi in cereals containing OTA and to determine the best selective and indicative medium for recovery of OTA producing fungi.Methods and Results: Seventy-six wheat, barley and rye samples from Europe containing...

  11. Genetic mapping of the barley lodging resistance locus Erectoides-k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Skov; Dockter, Christoph; Lundqvist, Udda;

    2016-01-01

    ’ is a semi-dwarf barley cultivar known for its culm stability and resistance to lodging. In total, eight allelic ert-k mutants are known that show different phenotypic strength concerning culm length and spike architecture. They represent alternatives to the widely used, but pleiotropic ‘Green Revolution...

  12. Automated Analysis of Barley Organs Using 3D Laser Scanning: An Approach for High Throughput Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Paulus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rise of laser scanning the 3D geometry of plant architecture is easy to acquire. Nevertheless, an automated interpretation and, finally, the segmentation into functional groups are still difficult to achieve. Two barley plants were scanned in a time course, and the organs were separated by applying a histogram-based classification algorithm. The leaf organs were represented by meshing algorithms, while the stem organs were parameterized by a least-squares cylinder approximation. We introduced surface feature histograms with an accuracy of 96% for the separation of the barley organs, leaf and stem. This enables growth monitoring in a time course for barley plants. Its reliability was demonstrated by a comparison with manually fitted parameters with a correlation R2 = 0:99 for the leaf area and R2 = 0:98 for the cumulated stem height. A proof of concept has been given for its applicability for the detection of water stress in barley, where the extension growth of an irrigated and a non-irrigated plant has been monitored.

  13. Induced Sterility as a Factor in the Competition between Barley Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, Jens

    1968-01-01

    In a mixture of two spring barley varieties, ‘Tystofte Prentice’ and ‘Svaløf Freja’, a sterility interaction was found. The percentage of sterile flowers in ‘Freja’ showed an approximately six-fold increase over that in pure stand, whereas in ‘T. Prentice’ the percentage of sterile flowers showed...

  14. Biochemistry, Structure and Function of Non-Wheat Proteins: Case Study of Barley ß-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of a protein is not always evident and may be due to its multifunctional nature. ß-Amylase in seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) constitutes approximately 2% of the total protein in mature seeds and is assumed to be important when storage proteins are mobilized to support protein s...

  15. Barley uptake of N deposited in the rhizosphere of associated field pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    N deposited in the rhizosphere of a legume may contribute to the N-nutrition of an intercropped non-legume. The process of deposition and subsequent uptake by a neighbouring plant is often termed N-transfer. The N-transfer from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) to associated spring barley (Hordeum...

  16. Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the availability of metals and their accumulation in maize and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Alonso-Azcarate, J. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Carlos III, s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Rodriguez, L., E-mail: Luis.Rromero@uclm.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. on metal availability in two mining soils was assessed by means of chemical extraction methods and a pot experiment using crop plants. Results from single and sequential extractions showed that L. terrestris had a slight effect on metal fractionation in the studied soils: only metals bound to the soil organic matter were significantly increased in some cases. However, we found that L. terrestris significantly increased root, shoot and total Pb and Zn concentrations in maize and barley for the soil with the highest concentrations of total and available metals. Specifically, shoot Pb concentration was increased by a factor of 7.5 and 3.9 for maize and barley, respectively, while shoot Zn concentration was increased by a factor of 3.7 and 1.7 for maize and barley, respectively. Our results demonstrated that earthworm activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. - Research highlights: > Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. > Earthworm activity can significantly increase total, shoot and root metal concentrations for crop plants. > Both bioassays and chemical extraction methods are necessary for assessing the bioavailability of metals in contaminated soils. - Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils and total, shoot and root metal concentrations for maize and barley.

  17. Improving the nutritional quality of the barley and wheat grain storage proteins by antisense technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Lange, Mette; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    gliadins) are also available from Germany and UK. We have grown them under different N regimes (high, medium and low N) in semi-field conditions. Previously five different antisense C-hordein lines of barley have been characterized in our laboratory. The analyses revealed that the lysine, threonine...

  18. Degradability Characteristics of Treated and Untreated Barley Grain Using In situ Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Taghizadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine of degradability characteristics of untreated barely grain (UBG and treated barley grain with autoclaving at 120°C, 5´ (TBG1 and 20' (TBG2, treated barley grain at 100°C, 5´ (TBG3 and 20' (TBG4, using in situ technique in Ghizel sheep’s. The sheep fed diet content 40% alfalfa: 60% concentrate containing 2.9 Mcal kg-1 DM and 14% CP. The incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36 and 48 h and rumen degradation of cp and DM was measured. The equation of p = a+b (1-e-ct was used for fitting of dry matter and crude protein disappearance data. The dry matter disappearance of TBG1 and TBG2 at 24 and 48 h were lower than the other treatments (p<0.05. The crude protein disappearance of 24 and 48 h of UBG was more than the other treatment (p<0.05. Treating of barley grain of 120°C (5' and 20' can be decreased ruminal crude protein degradability of barley grain resulting high escaped crude protein into lower digestive tract.

  19. Barley and wheat foods: influence on plasma cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, G H; Whyte, J; McArthur, R; Nestel, P J

    1991-05-01

    Twenty-one mildly hypercholesterolemic men aged 30-59 y were provided with comparable barley and wheat foods for each of 4 wk in a crossover-designed experiment. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of two sources of dietary fiber (nonstarch polysaccharides, NSP) on blood lipids and glucose concentrations. Barley contains beta-glucan as a source of soluble dietary fiber (DF) whereas wheat contains the largely insoluble cellulose and hemicellulose fiber. Total dietary fiber increased from a previous intake of 21-38 g/d during the period of study for the two groups. Consumption of barley relative to wheat foods was associated with a significant fall in both plasma total cholesterol (6%, P less than 0.05) and in low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (7%, P less than 0.02) whereas triglyceride and glucose concentrations did not change significantly. It is concluded that barley dietary fiber is more effective than wheat dietary fiber at lowering blood cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men. PMID:1850576

  20. Marine eutrophication impacts from present and future production of spring barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Niero, Monia

    2015-01-01

    Environmental emissions of nitrogen (N) from agriculture surplus may enrich coastal waters and trigger marine eutrophication impacts. We estimated these impacts for spring barley production in Denmark, under present and future climatic conditions with double carbon dioxide concentration and 5 °C...

  1. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... winter coverage endorsement. United States Department of Agriculture Federal Crop Insurance Corporation... crop covered under this endorsement must be insured. 10. The amount of any indemnity paid under the... multiple crop benefits in the same crop year. 11. Whenever any winter wheat or barley is damaged during...

  2. Automated analysis of barley organs using 3D laser scanning: an approach for high throughput phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Stefan; Dupuis, Jan; Riedel, Sebastian; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rise of laser scanning the 3D geometry of plant architecture is easy to acquire. Nevertheless, an automated interpretation and, finally, the segmentation into functional groups are still difficult to achieve. Two barley plants were scanned in a time course, and the organs were separated by applying a histogram-based classification algorithm. The leaf organs were represented by meshing algorithms, while the stem organs were parameterized by a least-squares cylinder approximation. We introduced surface feature histograms with an accuracy of 96% for the separation of the barley organs, leaf and stem. This enables growth monitoring in a time course for barley plants. Its reliability was demonstrated by a comparison with manually fitted parameters with a correlation R(2) = 0:99 for the leaf area and R(2) = 0:98 for the cumulated stem height. A proof of concept has been given for its applicability for the detection of water stress in barley, where the extension growth of an irrigated and a non-irrigated plant has been monitored. PMID:25029283

  3. Barley yellow dwarf disease as a target of breeding for resistance (short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Golnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to give a brief review of some points of wide knowledge of barley yellow dwarf (BYD disease and its breeding for resistance program.Yd2 gene has been shortly characterised. Current situation in Poland has been underlined.

  4. Selectivity of the surface binding site (SBS) on barley starch synthase I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Palcic, Monica;

    2014-01-01

    Starch synthase I (SSI) from various sources has been shown to preferentially elongate branch chains of degree of polymerisation (DP) from 6–7 to produce chains of DP 8–12. In the recently determined crystal structure of barley starch synthase I (HvSSI) a so-called surface binding site (SBS) was ...

  5. The Nutritive Value of Wastewater Grown Barley and its Utilization in Fish Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Snow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using wastewater grown barley plants as a component of fish feed was evaluated. The barley plants were grown in a hydroponics system on wastewater from a recirculating aquaculture facility. The effects of wastewater application rate on plant growth and pollution potential reduction were investigated. At the end of the experiment, the average crop heights and yields were 31.0 and 36.0 cm and 59 and 83 t ha -1 at wastewater application rates of 690 and 1380 mL compartment -1 day -1, respectively. The hydroponics system reduced the TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and PO4 -3-P of the aquaculture wastewater by 51.5-52.9, 72.3-72.3, 81.8-82.3, 97.9-98.2, 78.9-79.7 and 84.7-86.3%, respectively. The aquaculture wastewater grown barley met the energy, fat, Ca, Mg, P, Na, S and Mn dietary requirements of aquatic animals. It exceeded the carbohydrate, crude fiber, Cl, K, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn dietary requirements of fish and shellfish. It did not contain sufficient amounts of protein. The aquaculture wastewater grown barley could potential be used as a component in fish feed, but will require supplementation with a high protein source that contains low concentrations of carbohydrate, crude fiber, Cl, K, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn. Common protein sources that could be used for supplementation included fishmeal, bone meal and blood meal.

  6. Osmotic stress at the barley root affects expression of circadian clock genes in the shoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Ermias; Müller, Lukas M; Shtaya, Munqez; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2014-06-01

    The circadian clock is an important timing system that controls physiological responses to abiotic stresses in plants. However, there is little information on the effects of the clock on stress adaptation in important crops, like barley. In addition, we do not know how osmotic stress perceived at the roots affect the shoot circadian clock. Barley genotypes, carrying natural variation at the photoperiod response and clock genes Ppd-H1 and HvELF3, were grown under control and osmotic stress conditions to record changes in the diurnal expression of clock and stress-response genes and in physiological traits. Variation at HvELF3 affected the expression phase and shape of clock and stress-response genes, while variation at Ppd-H1 only affected the expression levels of stress genes. Osmotic stress up-regulated expression of clock and stress-response genes and advanced their expression peaks. Clock genes controlled the expression of stress-response genes, but had minor effects on gas exchange and leaf transpiration. This study demonstrated that osmotic stress at the barley root altered clock gene expression in the shoot and acted as a spatial input signal into the clock. Unlike in Arabidopsis, barley primary assimilation was less controlled by the clock and more responsive to environmental perturbations, such as osmotic stress. PMID:24895755

  7. Phytoremediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils around Isfahan Oil Refinery (Iran by Sorghum and Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Irajy Asiabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum compounds are one of the most frequently encountered pollutants in soils adjacent to oil refineries. Phytoremediation,where feasible, has become a cost-effective alternative to physicochemical methods of soil remediation. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and barley (Hordeum vulgare were selected for phytoremediationand the diminution in the concentration of oil-based contaminants was measured during a 90-day period. Contaminated and control treatments were compared in terms of root and shoot dry weight. Comparisons revealed reductions of about 22% and 30% in root dry matter and 51% and 42% in shoot dry matter of sorghum and barley in contaminated soil, respectively. The control and planted soils were significantly different in total and oil-degrading bacterial counts. Moreover, the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons decreased by 52%-64% in 90 days. Since planting the contaminated soil with sorghum and barley resulted in an improvement of 30% compared to unplanted contaminated soil, the two plants were highly efficient in removing petroleum from oil-contaminated soils. Therefore, despite the necessity of further studies to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation by assessing the appropriateness of various plant species, some genotypes like sorghum and barley were found suitable choices for phytoremediation of the investigated petroleum-contaminated soil.

  8. Stability of transgene expression, field performance and recombination breeding of transformed barley lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, H.; Jensen, L.G.; Wong, O.T.;

    2001-01-01

    Stable inheritance of the transgene, consistent expression and competitive agronomic properties of transgenic crops are important parameters for successful use of the latter. These properties have been analyzed with 18 homozygous transgenic barley lines of the cultivar Golden Promise. The lines o...

  9. INTENSIFICATION OF THE SORPTION PROCESS OIL BY WASTES OF BARLEY TREATMENT FROM WATER SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Kondalenko O.A.; Stepanova S.V.; Shayhiev I.G.

    2013-01-01

    In article the technology of application of a sorption material from seed covers of barley by processing by plasma of the high-frequency category for elimination of consequences of environmental pollution at technogenic accidents and accidents on objects of petrochemical industries is improved.

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of aluminum tolerance in tibetan wild and cultivated barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huaxin; Cao, Fangbin; Chen, Xianhong; Zhang, Mian; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Li, Chengdao; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major limiting factor for plant production in acid soils. Wild barley germplasm is rich in genetic diversity and may provide elite genes for crop Al tolerance improvement. The hydroponic-experiments were performed to compare proteomic and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes Al- resistant/tolerant XZ16 and Al-sensitive XZ61 as well as Al-resistant cv. Dayton. Results showed that XZ16 had less Al uptake and translocation than XZ61 and Dayton under Al stress. Thirty-five Al-tolerance/resistance-associated proteins were identified and categorized mainly in metabolism, energy, cell growth/division, protein biosynthesis, protein destination/storage, transporter, signal transduction, disease/defense, etc. Among them, 30 were mapped on barley genome, with 16 proteins being exclusively up-regulated by Al stress in XZ16, including 4 proteins (S-adenosylmethionine-synthase 3, ATP synthase beta subunit, triosephosphate isomerase, Bp2A) specifically expressed in XZ16 but not Dayton. The findings highlighted the significance of specific-proteins associated with Al tolerance, and verified Tibetan wild barley as a novel genetic resource for Al tolerance. PMID:23691047

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of aluminum tolerance in tibetan wild and cultivated barleys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxin Dai

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major limiting factor for plant production in acid soils. Wild barley germplasm is rich in genetic diversity and may provide elite genes for crop Al tolerance improvement. The hydroponic-experiments were performed to compare proteomic and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes Al- resistant/tolerant XZ16 and Al-sensitive XZ61 as well as Al-resistant cv. Dayton. Results showed that XZ16 had less Al uptake and translocation than XZ61 and Dayton under Al stress. Thirty-five Al-tolerance/resistance-associated proteins were identified and categorized mainly in metabolism, energy, cell growth/division, protein biosynthesis, protein destination/storage, transporter, signal transduction, disease/defense, etc. Among them, 30 were mapped on barley genome, with 16 proteins being exclusively up-regulated by Al stress in XZ16, including 4 proteins (S-adenosylmethionine-synthase 3, ATP synthase beta subunit, triosephosphate isomerase, Bp2A specifically expressed in XZ16 but not Dayton. The findings highlighted the significance of specific-proteins associated with Al tolerance, and verified Tibetan wild barley as a novel genetic resource for Al tolerance.

  12. Root border cell development is a temperature-insensitive and Al-sensitive process in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian-Wei; Ye, Dan; Wang, Li-Ling; Hua, Jing; Zhao, Gu-Feng; Pan, Wei-Huai; Han, Ning; Zhu, Mu-Yuan

    2004-06-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that border cell (BC) survival was dependent on root tip mucigel in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Hang 981). In aeroponic culture, BC development was an induced process in barley, whereas in hydroponic culture, it was a kinetic equilibrium process during which 300-400 BCs were released into water daily. The response of root elongation to temperatures (10-35 degrees C) was very sensitive but temperature changes had no great effect on barley BC development. At 35 degrees C, the root elongation ceased whereas BC production still continued, indicating that the two processes might be regulated independently under high temperature (35 degrees C) stress. Fifty microM Al could inhibit significantly BC development by inhibiting pectin methylesterase activity in the root cap of cv. 2000-2 (Al-sensitive) and cv. Humai 16 (Al-tolerant), but 20 microM Al could not block BC development in cv. Humai 16. BCs and their mucigel of barley had a limited role in the protection of Al-induced inhibition of root elongation, but played a significant role in the prevention of Al from diffusing into the meristems of the root tip and the root cap. Together, these results suggested that BC development was a temperature-insensitive but Al-sensitive process, and that BCs and their mucigel played an important role in the protection of root tip and root cap meristems from Al toxicity. PMID:15215510

  13. Registration of 'Stoneham' spring feed barley resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Stoneham' (REG. No.; PI 641940) a Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov)-resistant, spring, two-rowed, feed barley (Hordeum vulgare) tested as 97BX 27-132, was developed and released by the USDA-ARS, Stillwater, OK and Aberdeen, ID; Colorado State University; and the University of Neb...

  14. Fine mapping of the barley chromosome 6H net form net blotch susceptibility locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net form net blotch (NFNB) caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt) is a destructive foliar disease of barley with the potential to cause significant yield loss in major production regions throughout the world. Characterization of diverse genetic resistances to thi...

  15. Root border cell development is a temperature-insensitive and Al-sensitive process in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian-Wei; Ye, Dan; Wang, Li-Ling; Hua, Jing; Zhao, Gu-Feng; Pan, Wei-Huai; Han, Ning; Zhu, Mu-Yuan

    2004-06-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that border cell (BC) survival was dependent on root tip mucigel in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Hang 981). In aeroponic culture, BC development was an induced process in barley, whereas in hydroponic culture, it was a kinetic equilibrium process during which 300-400 BCs were released into water daily. The response of root elongation to temperatures (10-35 degrees C) was very sensitive but temperature changes had no great effect on barley BC development. At 35 degrees C, the root elongation ceased whereas BC production still continued, indicating that the two processes might be regulated independently under high temperature (35 degrees C) stress. Fifty microM Al could inhibit significantly BC development by inhibiting pectin methylesterase activity in the root cap of cv. 2000-2 (Al-sensitive) and cv. Humai 16 (Al-tolerant), but 20 microM Al could not block BC development in cv. Humai 16. BCs and their mucigel of barley had a limited role in the protection of Al-induced inhibition of root elongation, but played a significant role in the prevention of Al from diffusing into the meristems of the root tip and the root cap. Together, these results suggested that BC development was a temperature-insensitive but Al-sensitive process, and that BCs and their mucigel played an important role in the protection of root tip and root cap meristems from Al toxicity.

  16. Frequency of Aneuploids in Progenies of Autotriploid Barley, Hordeum Vulgare L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome counts of 863 progeny plants originating from 68 autotriploid barley plants revealed a considerable variation in chromosome numbers ranging from the diploid number (2n= 14) to 2n= 39. The most frequent groups were plants with 15 and 16 chromosomes each constituting about 27% of all pro...

  17. Hordein Variation in Wild (Hordeum Spontaneum) and Cultivated (H. Vulgare) Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Brown, A. H. D.

    1979-01-01

    The storage protein hordein contains two major groups of polypeptides which are highly polymorphic in barley, and in its evolutionary progenitor Hordeum spontaneum Koch. Crosses between the two species showed that the complex electrophoretic phenotypes within the two groups of polypeptides are go...

  18. Composition and Functional Lipid Profiles of Low-Phyate Barleys and Related Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, one of the earliest cultivated cereal grains in the world, is gaining renewed interest for use in food, feed and as a bioethanol feedstock. Like other grains, its high phytate content is undesirable since phytate affects mineral bioavailability and contributes to P pollution to environment....

  19. Effect of Initial Soluble Salt Composition of Saline Soil on Salinity Tolerance of Barley Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENQI-RONG; LIUZHAO-PU; 等

    1991-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out on a marine saline soil to study the effect of initial soluble Na/Ca ratio of saline soil on the salinity tolerance of barley plant.The results showed that (1) the Na/Ca ratio affected significantly the dry weight of the plant at an earlier stage of growth,the critical values of initial Na/Ca ratio at which the plant could grow normally on soils containing salts of 2.5,3.5 and 4.5g kg-1 were 30,20 and 15,respectively;(2)smaller Na/Ca ratio resulted in a considerable decrease in Na accumulation but a great increase in K accumulation in the barley plant;and (3) the plasmallema of barley leaf were badly injured when the Na/Ca ratio was more than 30 and the increase of Na content of plant caused an exudation of K from the leaf cells.Some critical indexes were suggested for the cultivation of barley plant on marine saline soils and could be used as reference in the biological reclamation of marine saline soils.

  20. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes. PMID:26527793

  1. Inactivation of barley limit dextrinase inhibitor by thioredoxin-catalysed disulfide reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johanne Mørch; Hägglund, Per; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager;

    2012-01-01

    Barley limit dextrinase (LD) that catalyses hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch-derived dextrins is inhibited by limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) found in mature seeds. LDI belongs to the chloroform/methanol soluble protein family (CM-protein family) and has four disulfide bridges a...

  2. An integrated resource for barley linkage map and malting quality QTL alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) is an economically important model plant for genetics research that is currently served by a comprehensive set of tools for genetic analysis. High density genetic linkage maps constructed from the inheritance of robust gene-based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism...

  3. [The radiation-increased synthesis of phytochelatins in roots of gamma-irradiated barley seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilin, I A; Dikarev, V G; Geras'kin, S A

    2004-01-01

    It was shown that gamma-irradiation and cadmium nitrate increased synthesis of phytochelatins in roots of barley seedlings. The stimulation of synthesis of phytochelatins in gamma-irradiated plants was shown for the first time. The results obtained indicate more important role of phytochelatins in intercellular metabolism than heavy-metal-binding.

  4. Phytochelatin-metal(loid) transport into vacuoles shows different substrate preferences in barley and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Yong; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Lee, Youngsook; Schroeder, Julian I; Ahn, Sang-Nag; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Wicker, Thomas; Martinoia, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) are toxic to all living organisms, including plants and humans. In plants, Cd and As are detoxified by phytochelatins (PCs) and metal(loid)-chelating peptides and by sequestering PC-metal(loid) complexes in vacuoles. Consistent differences have been observed between As and Cd detoxification. Whereas chelation of Cd by PCs is largely sufficient to detoxify Cd, As-PC complexes must be sequestered into vacuoles to be fully detoxified. It is not clear whether this difference in detoxification pathways is ubiquitous among plants or varies across species. Here, we have conducted a PC transport study using vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis and barley. Arabidopsis vacuoles accumulated low levels of PC2 -Cd, and vesicles from yeast cells expressing either AtABCC1 or AtABCC2 exhibited negligible PC2 -Cd transport activity compared with PC2 -As. In contrast, barley vacuoles readily accumulated comparable levels of PC2 -Cd and PC2 -As. PC transport in barley vacuoles was inhibited by vanadate, but not by ammonium, suggesting the involvement of ABC-type transporters. Interestingly, barley vacuoles exhibited enhanced PC2 transport activity when essential metal ions, such as Zn(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II), were added to the transport assay, suggesting that PCs might contribute to the homeostasis of essential metals and detoxification of non-essential toxic metal(loid)s.

  5. The effect of fungicide dose on the composition of laboratory populations of barley powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Nielsen, B.J.; Østergård, Hanne

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the use of different doses of the fungicide fenpropimorph on populations of barley powdery mildew Blumeria (Erysiphe) graminis f. sp. hordei was investigated in a laboratory selection experiment. A sample from the Danish aerial population of powdery mildew was split into populations...... to explain why this resistance has evolved at a slower rate than resistance towards other fungicides....

  6. Risk assessment by sowing date for barley (Hordeum vulgare) in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, A.A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Habtu, S.; Keesstra, S.D.; Berhe, M.; Hadgu Meles, K.

    2012-01-01

    Risks of dry and wet sowing methods of rainfed barley were evaluated in northern Ethiopia. The evaluation was based on yield simulation using a validated AquaCrop model. Risks of failure (false start) were assessed by taking biomass threshold levels (

  7. CLIMATE CHANGE IN CENTRAL MEXICO: IMPACT ON BARLEY PRODUCTION (Hordeum vulgare IN TLAXCALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel O. Calderón-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical production of barley for ten years (2003-2012 as well as under climate change scenarios for near future (2015-2039 and for near future (2075-2099 in Calpulalpan, Tlaxcala was evaluated. An assessment of suitable regions for production was performed as well as historical performance and barley considering future climate change scenarios through the model AquaCrop (FAO also was estimated. Finally, the average production costs in the region were estimated through surveys with barley producers. The results show that over 70% of the area of the municipality has some degree of aptitude for producing barley. Climate change scenarios indicate increases proficiency in 2% of the surface and reductions of up to 16%. The production model shows very close results with those obtained by farmers in the municipality yields (2.53 t/ha, thus estimated future changes show a decline in yields of about 5% up to 100% depending on the future horizon. Considering current production costs, the benefit-cost relationship could be reduced from 1.4 and to 0.0 in the future. This will certainly affect the economy of the producers in the region.

  8. INTESTINAL VISCOSITY AT BROILER CHICKENS FED WITH COMBINED FORAGES WITH DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA STEF

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP are composed from chemical compounds with different physical and chemical proprieties (cellulose, arabinoxylans, beta glucans and pectic polysaccharides with manans and gallactans. The antinutritional effects on monogastrics are different and in many cases extreme. Some cereals like barley, oat, wheat, contain significant quantities of NSP. The main negative effects of NSP are related to their viscous nature, to their physiological and morphological influence on the digestive tract and their interaction with the intestinal microflora. The purpose of this experiment is to establish the correlation coefficients between the values of intestinal viscosity and the levels of NSPt, NSPi and NSPs obtained by the inclusion of different percentage of barley in the structure of combined forages. The experiment was carried out on a period of 6 weeks on 120 broiler chickens divided in four experimental groups (CL, EL1, EL2 and EL3. The broiler chickens were fed with combined forages with the same nutritive characteristics but with different percentage of barley (0-40%. It has been showed that at the age of 3 and 6 weeks the intestinal viscosity rise with up to 64.67% along with the proportion of barley from the combined forages. Between the content of forages in NSP and intestinal viscosity exist a positive correlation, the highest correlation coefficient was registered in the case of NSPs, 0.92 at 3 weeks and respectively 0.99 at 6 weeks.

  9. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  10. Genetic differentiation and geographical Relationship of Asian barley landraces using SSRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Rehan; Dahleen, Lynn; Mirza, Bushra

    2011-04-01

    Genetic diversity in 403 morphologically distinct landraces of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originating from seven geographical zones of Asia was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from regions of medium to high recombination in the barley genome. The seven polymorphic SSR markers representing each of the chromosomes chosen for the study revealed a high level of allelic diversity among the landraces. Genetic richness was highest in those from India, followed by Pakistan while it was lowest for Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Out of the 50 alleles detected, 15 were unique to a geographic region. Genetic diversity was highest for landraces from Pakistan (0.70 ± 0.06) and lowest for those from Uzbekistan (0.18 ± 0.17). Likewise, polymorphic information content (PIC) was highest for Pakistan (0.67 ± 0.06) and lowest for Uzbekistan (0.15 ± 0.17). Diversity among groups was 40% compared to 60% within groups. Principal component analysis clustered the barley landraces into three groups to predict their domestication patterns. In total 51.58% of the variation was explained by the first two principal components of the barley germplasm. Pakistan landraces were clustered separately from those of India, Iran, Nepal and Iraq, whereas those from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan were clustered together into a separate group. PMID:21734828

  11. A high density barley microsatellite consensus map with 775 SSR loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varshney, R.K.; Marcel, T.C.; Ramsay, L.; Russell, J.; Roder, M.S.; Stein, N.; Waugh, R.; Langridge, P.; Niks, R.E.; Graner, A.

    2007-01-01

    A microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) consensus map of barley was constructed by joining six independent genetic maps based on the mapping populations 'Igri x Franka', 'Steptoe x Morex', 'OWBRec x OWBDom', 'Lina x Canada Park', 'L94 x Vada' and 'SusPtrit x Vada'. Segregation data for micr

  12. AFLP genetic polymorphism in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) populations in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turpeinen, T.; Vanhala, T.; Nevo, E.; Nissila, E.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic diversity produced by the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was studied in 94 genotypes of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell., originating from ten ecologically and geographically different locations in Israel. Eight primer pairs produced 204 discernible

  13. Molecular Marker Development and Linkage Analysis in Three Low Phytic Acid Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mutant Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytate is the primary form of phosphorus found in mature cereal grain. This form of phosphorus is not available to monogastric animals due to a lack of the enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several barley low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have been identified that contain substantial decreases...

  14. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain, is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States. New strategies to reduce the threat of DON need to be developed and implemented. Previous work has...

  15. Mechanistic and genetic overlap of barley host and non-host resistance to Blumeria graminis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo, M.; Troeger, M.; Niks, R.E.; Kogel, K.H.; Huckelhoven, R.

    2004-01-01

    Non-host resistance of barley to Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt), an inappropriate forma specialis of the grass powdery mildew fungus, is associated with formation of cell wall appositions (papillae) at sites of attempted fungal penetration and a hypersensitive cell death reaction (HR) of sing

  16. High diversity of genes for nonhost resistance of barley to heterologous rust fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafary, H.; Albertazzi, G.; Marcel, T.C.; Niks, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Inheritance studies on the nonhost resistance of plants would normally require interspecific crosses that suffer from sterility and abnormal segregation. Therefore, we developed the barley¿Puccinia rust model system to study, using forward genetics, the specificity, number, and diversity of genes in

  17. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture.

  18. A mutant homeobox gene created six-rowed spike in barley domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased seed production has been a common goal during the domestication of cereal crops. Early cultivators of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) selected a phenotype with a six-rowed spike that stably produced three times the usual grain number during domestication. We isolated the SIX-ROWED SPIKE 1 (Vrs1) from barley by chromosome walking. We discovered that Vrs1 encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper I-class protein (HD-ZIP I), a potential transcription factor. RNA in situ hybridization revealed that the Vrs1 is expressed only in lateral spikelet primordia. Sequencing alleles of 54 six-rowed mutant lines revealed a single amino acid substitution in 22 lines, creation of a new stop codon in 12 lines, a nucleotide substitution in the conserved splicing site in 3 lines, a frameshift mutation by a deletion in 5 lines, complete deletion of the gene region in 7 lines, and no DNA changes throughout the coding region with no gene expression detected in the remaining 5 lines. We found three haplotypes among six-rowed barley revealing loss-of-function mutation of the homeobox gene Vrs1. We found that two of them independently originated from two different type two-rowed barleys, but origin of the remaining one six-rowed allele remained unclear. (author)

  19. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu; Ahokas, Jukka [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Pahkala, Katri [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Crop Science and Technology, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input-output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (author)

  20. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbern, Christopher Alan; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne Hald;

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements...

  1. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... in a buffer without propan-2-ol but containing sodium dodecyl sulfate....

  2. Structure and function of the bacterial root microbiota in wild and domesticated barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Davide; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Münch, Philipp C; Weiman, Aaron; Dröge, Johannes; Pan, Yao; McHardy, Alice C; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-03-11

    The microbial communities inhabiting the root interior of healthy plants, as well as the rhizosphere, which consists of soil particles firmly attached to roots, engage in symbiotic associations with their host. To investigate the structural and functional diversification among these communities, we employed a combination of 16S rRNA gene profiling and shotgun metagenome analysis of the microbiota associated with wild and domesticated accessions of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Bacterial families Comamonadaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, and Rhizobiaceae dominate the barley root-enriched microbiota. Host genotype has a small, but significant, effect on the diversity of root-associated bacterial communities, possibly representing a footprint of barley domestication. Traits related to pathogenesis, secretion, phage interactions, and nutrient mobilization are enriched in the barley root-associated microbiota. Strikingly, protein families assigned to these same traits showed evidence of positive selection. Our results indicate that the combined action of microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions drives microbiota differentiation at the root-soil interface. PMID:25732064

  3. TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND INTERNATIONAL MERGER IN COURNOT INDUSTRIES: THE CASE OF BARLEY MALTING IN NORTH AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Buschena, David E.; Gray, Richard S.

    1998-01-01

    When free trade merges formally distinct non-competitive industries, welfare should increase. Additional incentives for mergers may reduce these gains from free trade. We show the importance of such arguments in an analysis of the malting barley industry in North America before and after the Canadian/U.S. free trade agreement.

  4. Phenotypic selection and regulation of reproduction in different environments in wild barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volis, S.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Mendlinger, S.; Ward, D.

    2004-01-01

    Plasticity of the phenotypic architecture of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, was studied in response to water and nutrient stress. Direct and indirect selection on several vegetative and reproductive traits was estimated and path analysis used to reveal how regulating pathways via maternal investme

  5. Spatial and temporal regulation of DNA fragmentation in the aleurone of germinating barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Oppedijk, B.J.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Lamers, G.E.M.; Boot, M.J.; Geerlings, D.N.G.; Bakhuizen, B.; Meijer, A.H.; Duijn, B. van

    1998-01-01

    During germination of barley grains, the appearance of DNA fragmentation started in aleurone cells near the embryo and extended to the distal end in a time-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation was demonstrated to occur only after the expression of α-amylase mRNA in the aleurone layer. In addition, ce

  6. Barley aleurone cell death is not apoptotic: characterization of nuclease activities and DNA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, A; Bethke, P C; Jones, R L

    1999-11-01

    Barley aleurone cells undergo programmed cell death (PCD) when exposed to gibberellic acid (GA), but incubation in abscisic acid (ABA) prevent PCD. We tested the hypothesis that PCD in aleurone cells occurs by apoptosis, and show that the hallmark of apoptosis, namely DNA cleavage into 180 bp fragments, plasma membrane blebbing, and the formation of apoptotic bodies do not occur when aleurone cells die. We show that endogenous barley aleurone nucleases and nucleases present in enzymes used for protoplast preparation degrade aleurone DNA and that DNA degradation by these nucleases is rapid and can result in the formation of 180 bp DNA ladders. Methods are described that prevent DNA degradation during isolation from aleurone layers or protoplasts. Barley aleurone cells contain three nucleases whose activities are regulated by GA and ABA. CA induction and ABA repression of nuclease activities correlate with PCD in aleurone cells. Cells incubated in ABA remain alive and do not degrade their DNA, but living aleurone cells treated with GA accumulate nucleases and hydrolyze their nuclear DNA. We propose that barley nucleases play a role in DNA cleavage during aleurone PCD.

  7. Loss-of-function of DELLA protein SLN1 activates GA signaling in barley aleurone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberellic acid (GA) is a key phytohormone regulating seed germination and seedling growth. In cereal species, GA is synthesized in embyros and then translocated to aleurone tissues where it induces production of hydrolytic enzymes for mobolization of seed storage reserve. De-embyronated barley a...

  8. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture. PMID:26038307

  9. Mildew-resistant mutants induced in North American two- and six-rowed malting barley cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Cano, J.L.; Simiand, J.P.; Sopena, A.;

    2003-01-01

    Mildew-resistant mutants were induced with sodium azide in three North American malting barley cultivars, two in the six-rowed Ursula (URS1 and URS2), one in the six-rowed Gertrud (GER1), and one in the two-rowed Prudentia (PRU1). Two of the mutants, URS1 and PRU1, showed complete resistance and...

  10. Regeneration of the Barley Zygote in In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    and regeneration frequencies. Fifty plants of each cultivar were randomly chosen and grown to maturity in the greenhouse and all developed to phenotypically normal and fertile plants. We have used the system to develop an Agrobacterium mediated transformation procedure for barley ovules, which is largely genotype...

  11. Comparatiave analysis of the grain proteome fraction in barley genotypes with contrasting salinity tolerance during germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witzel, K.; Weidner, A.; Surabhi, G.K.; Varshney, R.K.; Kunze, G.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Börner, A.; Mock, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, we based a search for candidates underlying different levels of salinity tolerance during germination in the Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population (DOM × REC) by proteomic profiling of the mature grain of lines showing differing levels of salinity tolerance. By contrasting the

  12. Effects of calcium ion concentration on starch hydrolysis of barley α-amylase isozymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuk, Jeong-Bin; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hee;

    2008-01-01

    Barley (x-amylase genes, amyl and amy2, were separately cloned into the expression vector of pPICZ alpha A and recombinant Pichia strains were established by homologous recombination. Both AMYs from Pichia shared almost identical hydrolysis patterns on short maltooligosaccharides to result...

  13. Evidences for growth-promoting and fungicidal effects of low doses of tricyclazole in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Chand, Ramesh; Shah, Kavita

    2016-06-01

    The effect of increasing concentrations (5-100 mg L(-1)) of tricyclazole (TCZ), an important fungicide commonly used for control of spot blotch disease, was investigated for changes in physiological and biochemical parameters in 10 and 20-days-old barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. RD-2508). A 10 mg L(-1) dose of TCZ supplemented with nutrient solution in barley plants reflected a lowered infection with a significant increase in plant growth, plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll level, altered reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and altered activity of key antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC: 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC: 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC: 1.11.1.1) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC: 1.11.1.7). To our knowledge this is the first report that provides evidence for TCZ to act both as a fungicide as well as to have plant growth-promoting activity. The study suggests that this dual property of tricyclazole has a potential for integration in disease management programs in barley. Application of low doses of TCZ can fit in well with environment friendly strategies for sustainable barley crop production, more yield and minimal soil contamination. PMID:26995312

  14. Plasticity of growth characteristics in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) in response to nutrient limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elberse, I.A.M.; Van Damme, J.M.M.; Van Tienderen, P.H.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity in relative growth rate (RGR) and its components was studied in Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley). Four accessions from each of nine natural populations from Israel and Iran were grown at four nutrient levels. Genetic variation in RGR and its components, dif

  15. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes under Salinity Stress during the Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runhong Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop productivity. Identification of the potential novel genes responsible for salt tolerance in barley will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of barley responses to salt stress. We compared changes in transcriptome between Hua 11 (a salt-tolerant genotype and Hua 30 (a salt sensitive genotype in response to salt stress at the seedling stage using barley cDNA microarrays. In total, 557 and 247 salt-responsive genes were expressed exclusively in the shoot and root tissue of the salt-tolerant genotype, respectively. Among these genes, a number of signal-related genes, transcription factors and compatible solutes were identified and some of these genes were carefully discussed. Notably, a LysM RLK was firstly found involved in salt stress response. Moreover, key enzymes in the pathways of jasmonic acid biosynthesis, lipid metabolism and indole-3-acetic acid homeostasis were specifically affected by salt stress in salt tolerance genotype. These salt-responsive genes and biochemical pathways identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of salt tolerance in barley.

  16. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić; Maja Benković; Ingrid Bauman

    2015-01-01

    Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle si...

  17. Effects of split nitrogen fertilization on post-anthesis photoassimilates, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai;

    2011-01-01

    photosynthesis after anthesis, dry matter accumulation and assimilates remobilization, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield to fraction of topdressed nitrogen treatments were investigated in malting barley. Net photosynthetic rate of the penultimate leaf, leaf area index and light extinction coefficient...... and agronomic nitrogen use efficiencies. The enhanced nitrogen use efficiency was corresponding to the improved photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in the leaves at fraction of topdressed nitrogen of 30%. In conclusion, appropriate fraction of topdressed nitrogen application on malting barley improved...... assimilation rate and nitrogen use efficiency resulting in higher grain yields and proper grain protein content in malting barley....

  18. Wild Barley,Hordeum spontaneum,a Genetic Resource for Crop Improvement in Cold and Arid Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eviatar; Nevo

    2008-01-01

    Food security in cold and arid regions in the world is threatened by stressful and unpredictable environments.The sus-tainable and economically viable solution for increasing stability of food productivity in cold and arid regions is genetic improvement of crops towards high resistance to abiotic stresses,mainly cold and drought resistance.It is often empha-sized that crop genetic improvement lies in exploiting the gene pools of the wild relatives of the crop plant.Wild barley,H.spontaneum,the progenitor of cultivated barley,is a selfing annual grass of predominantly Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian distribution that penetrates into desert environments where it maintains stable populations.Wild barley is also found in cold regions,such as in Tibet.The adaptation of wild barley to the arid region in Israel and Jordan,and the cold region in Tibet has accumulated rich genetic diversities for drought,salt,and cold resistances in wild barley,which is the genetic resource for barley and other crop improvement in arid and cold regions.These genetic diversities are revealed by allozymes,DNA-based molecular markers,and morphological and physiological traits of wild barley plants.Quantita-tive trait loci(QTLs) related to drought resistance were identified in wild barley via the QTL mapping approach.Drought resistance genes such as dehydrins,hsdr4,and eibi1 were identified in wild barley based on the candidate gene approach,gene differential expression approach,and molecular genetic approach,respectively.Genetics and genomics of wild bar-ley cold resistance have not been exploited yet,remaining a huge treasure for future crop improvement of cold resistance.Advanced backcross QTL analysis,the introgression libraries based on wild barley as donors,a QTL approach based on wide crosses using wild barley,and positional cloning of natural QTLs will play prevailing roles to help us understand the molecular control of cold and drought tolerance.Integration of QTL information into a

  19. Cloning and characterization of a novel barley gene,HvORG4,induced by Fusarium graminearum infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theo; Van-Der; Lee

    2007-01-01

    Barley Fusarium head blight(FHB),caused by species of the Fusarium fungus,is a devastating disease that is reemerging worldwide in recent years.In this study,a novel gene,HvORG4,was cloned from barley by using cDNA library and suppression subtractive hybridization(SSH) library strategies.The SSH library and cDNA library were constructed from the Chinese barley cultivar Jing02-461(resistance to FHB) infected by Fusarium graminearum isolate Huanggang-1.For the SSH analysis,more than 120 differentially express...

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-Ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based o...

  1. 功能型大麦——糯性裸大麦开发前景探讨%Development Prospects of Functional Barley, Waxy Huiless Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓静; 陈和; 陈健; 沈会权; 周汝琴; 陶红; 乔海龙; 臧慧

    2011-01-01

    Barley grain has very good health care function and medicinal value. By virtue of its special structure and chemical composition, waxy hulless barley has more advantages on nutritional value and food processing. In recent years, it attracts great attention both home and abroad, and turns out to be the focus of edible barley research. Referring to its nutritional value and food processing development, functional advantages of waxy hulless barley were introduced, and its exploiting value were confirmed. Processing technology of functional barley was put forward, which could help to increase food diversity, to add baley's economic benefit, as well as to speed up the agricultural industrial structure adjustment and to increase farmers' income.%大麦籽粒具有很好的保健与药用价值,糯性裸大麦基于其特殊的结构与化学成分,近年来受到了国内外科学家的关注,日渐成为食用大麦的研究重点。从营养价值和食品加工2个方面分析了糯性裸大麦的功能优势,介绍了国内外科学家在糯性裸大麦的利用及加工工艺方面的研究进展,对糯性裸大麦作为功能型大麦的开发利用价值与前景作出了肯定。提出进一步开展功能型大麦利用潜力和相关加工技术研究,对增加食品的多样性、提高大麦的附加值及经济效益、加快农业产业结构调整升级、增加农民收入都具有长远和非常重要的意义。

  2. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Carsten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease. Results Here we characterise a superfamily predicted to be the full complement of Candidates for Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs in the fungal barley powdery mildew parasite B. graminis f.sp. hordei. The 491 genes encoding these proteins constitute over 7% of this pathogen’s annotated genes and most were grouped into 72 families of up to 59 members. They were predominantly expressed in the intracellular feeding structures called haustoria, and proteins specifically associated with the haustoria were identified by large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomics. There are two major types of effector families: one comprises shorter proteins (100–150 amino acids, with a high relative expression level in the haustoria and evidence of extensive diversifying selection between paralogs; the second type consists of longer proteins (300–400 amino acids, with lower levels of differential expression and evidence of purifying selection between paralogs. An analysis of the predicted protein structures underscores their overall similarity to known fungal effectors, but also highlights unexpected structural affinities to ribonucleases throughout the entire effector super-family. Candidate effector genes belonging to the same family are loosely clustered in the genome and are associated with repetitive DNA derived from retro-transposons. Conclusions We employed the full complement of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as well as structural prediction methods to identify and characterize the members of the CSEPs superfamily in B. graminis f

  3. The Genetic Basis of Composite Spike Form in Barley and 'Miracle-Wheat'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursarebani, Naser; Seidensticker, Tina; Koppolu, Ravi; Trautewig, Corinna; Gawroński, Piotr; Bini, Federica; Govind, Geetha; Rutten, Twan; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Youssef, Helmy M; Battal, Abdulhamit; Ciannamea, Stefano; Fusca, Tiziana; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Pozzi, Carlo; Börner, Andreas; Lundqvist, Udda; Komatsuda, Takao; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Uauy, Cristobal; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Rossini, Laura; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Inflorescences of the tribe Triticeae, which includes wheat (Triticum sp. L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are characterized by sessile spikelets directly borne on the main axis, thus forming a branchless spike. 'Compositum-Barley' and tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat' (T. turgidum convar. compositum (L.f.) Filat.) display noncanonical spike-branching in which spikelets are replaced by lateral branch-like structures resembling small-sized secondary spikes. As a result of this branch formation 'Miracle-Wheat' produces significantly more grains per spike, leading to higher spike yield. In this study, we first isolated the gene underlying spike-branching in 'Compositum-Barley,' i.e., compositum 2 (com2). Moreover, we found that COM2 is orthologous to the branched head(t) (bh(t)) locus regulating spike branching in tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat.' Both genes possess orthologs with similar functions in maize BRANCHED SILKLESS 1 (BD1) and rice FRIZZY PANICLE/BRANCHED FLORETLESS 1 (FZP/BFL1) encoding AP2/ERF transcription factors. Sequence analysis of the bh(t) locus in a collection of mutant and wild-type tetraploid wheat accessions revealed that a single amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain gave rise to the domestication of 'Miracle-Wheat.' mRNA in situ hybridization, microarray experiments, and independent qRT-PCR validation analyses revealed that the branch repression pathway in barley is governed through the spike architecture gene Six-rowed spike 4 regulating COM2 expression, while HvIDS1 (barley ortholog of maize INDETERMINATE SPIKELET 1) is a putative downstream target of COM2. These findings presented here provide new insights into the genetic basis of spike architecture in Triticeae, and have disclosed new targets for genetic manipulations aiming at boosting wheat's yield potential. PMID:26156223

  4. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dörsch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM. Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilized cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha−1 throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010 all plots were ploughed (with and without GM and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (110 kg N ha−1 before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilized cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009 had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha−1. Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain.

  5. Assessment and introduction of quantitative resistance to Fusarium head blight in elite spring barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkmeyer, A; Götz, M; Hu, L; Asam, S; Rychlik, M; Hausladen, H; Hess, M; Hückelhoven, R

    2013-12-01

    Breeding for resistance is a key task to control Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of small cereals leading to economic losses and grain contamination with mycotoxins harmful for humans and animals. In the present work, FHB resistance of the six-rowed spring barley 'Chevron' to FHB in Germany was compared with those of adapted German spring barley cultivars. Both under natural infection conditions and after spray inoculation with conidia of Fusarium culmorum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. avenaceum under field conditions, Chevron showed a high level of quantitative resistance to the infection and contamination of grain with diverse mycotoxins. This indicates that Chevron is not only a little susceptible to deoxynivalenol-producing Fusarium spp. but also to Fusarium spp. producing type A trichothecenes and enniatins. Monitoring the initial infection course of F. culmorum on barley lemma tissue by confocal laser-scanning microscopy provided evidence that FHB resistance of Chevron is partially mediated by a preformed penetration resistance, because direct penetration of floral tissue by F. culmorum was observed rarely on Chevron but was common on susceptible genotypes. Alternatively, F. culmorum penetrated Chevron lemma tissue via stomata, which was unusual for susceptible genotypes. We generated double-haploid barley populations segregating for the major FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Qrgz-2H-8 of Chevron. Subsequently, we characterized these populations by spray inoculation with conidia of F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides. This suggested that Qrgz-2H-8 was functional in the genetic background of European elite barley cultivars. However, the degree of achieved resistance was very low when compared with quantitative resistance of the QTL donor Chevron, and the introgression of Qrgz-2H-8 was not sufficient to mediate the cellular resistance phenotype of Chevron in the European backgrounds.

  6. Viability and Biological Properties of Barley Seeds Expose to Outside of International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Novikova, Nataliya; Grigoriev, Anatoly

    Plants play an important role in supplying nutrients and oxygen to human under material recycle system in space as well as on earth, therefore, seed storage in space should be necessary to self-supply foods when number of astronauts would stay and investigate for a long-term habitation of orbit and the bases of the Moon and Mars. In order to understand the effect of real space environment on the preservation of seeds, the seeds of malting barley, Haruna Nijo, were exposed to outside of the Pier docking station of International Space Station in the framework of the Biorisk-MSN program. After exposure to outside of International Space Station for 13 months, the seeds (SP) were transported to Earth, soaked in water, and germinated on the filter paper filled with water. The germination ratio of SP was 82%, while that of the ground control was 96%, showing that the barley seeds survived cosmic radiation, vacuum, and temperature excursion in space. The germinated seeds of SP and ground control were transplanted to the Wagner pots filled with soil and grown for 5 months in the greenhouse. The agronomic character, such as number of main stem leaf and ear, straw weight, culm length, ear length, thousand kernel weight, and percentage of ripening, were not different significantly between SP and ground control. The germination ratio of the harvested SP was 96% as same as that of the harvested ground control. Genomic DNA and protein were extracted from leaves of the barleys and analyzed by AFLP and 2-DE, respectively. The results demonstrated no significant difference in genetic polymorphism and protein production in these barleys. From our results, barley seeds could survive real space environment for the long-term habitation without phenotypic and genotypic damages.

  7. From field barley to malt: detection and specification of microbial activity for quality aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noots, I; Delcour, J A; Michiels, C W

    1999-01-01

    Barley grain carries a numerous, variable, and complex microbial population that mainly consists of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi and that can partly be detected and quantified using plating methods and microscopic and molecular techniques. The extent and the activity of this microflora are determined by the altering state of the grain and the environmental conditions in the malt production chain. Three ecological systems can be distinguished: the growing cereal in the field, the dry barley grain under storage, and the germinating barley kernel during actual malting. Microorganisms interact with the malting process both by their presence and by their metabolic activity. In this respect, interference with the oxygen uptake by the barley grain and secretion of enzymes, hormones, toxins, and acids that may affect the plant physiological processes have been studied. As a result of the interaction, microorganisms can cause important losses and influence malt quality as measured by brewhouse performance and beer quality. Of particular concern is the occurrence of mycotoxins that may affect the safety of malt. The development of the microflora during malt production can to a certain extent be controlled by the selection of appropriate process conditions. Physical and chemical treatments to inactivate the microbial population on the barley grain are suggested. Recent developments, however, aim to control the microbial activity during malt production by promoting the growth of desirable microbial cultures, selected either as biocontrol agents inhibiting mycotoxin-producing molds or as starter cultures actively contributing to malt modification. Such techniques may offer natural opportunities to improve the quality and safety of malt. PMID:10405796

  8. 454 sequencing of pooled BAC clones on chromosome 3H of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaji Nami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing of barley has been delayed due to its large genome size (ca. 5,000Mbp. Among the fast sequencing systems, 454 liquid phase pyrosequencing provides the longest reads and is the most promising method for BAC clones. Here we report the results of pooled sequencing of BAC clones selected with ESTs genetically mapped to chromosome 3H. Results We sequenced pooled barley BAC clones using a 454 parallel genome sequencer. A PCR screening system based on primer sets derived from genetically mapped ESTs on chromosome 3H was used for clone selection in a BAC library developed from cultivar "Haruna Nijo". The DNA samples of 10 or 20 BAC clones were pooled and used for shotgun library development. The homology between contig sequences generated in each pooled library and mapped EST sequences was studied. The number of contigs assigned on chromosome 3H was 372. Their lengths ranged from 1,230 bp to 58,322 bp with an average 14,891 bp. Of these contigs, 240 showed homology and colinearity with the genome sequence of rice chromosome 1. A contig annotation browser supplemented with query search by unique sequence or genetic map position was developed. The identified contigs can be annotated with barley cDNAs and reference sequences on the browser. Homology analysis of these contigs with rice genes indicated that 1,239 rice genes can be assigned to barley contigs by the simple comparison of sequence lengths in both species. Of these genes, 492 are assigned to rice chromosome 1. Conclusions We demonstrate the efficiency of sequencing gene rich regions from barley chromosome 3H, with special reference to syntenic relationships with rice chromosome 1.

  9. Evolutionary history of barley cultivation in Europe revealed by genetic analysis of extant landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Huw

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolution of cultivated barley is important for two reasons. First, the evolutionary relationships between different landraces might provide information on the spread and subsequent development of barley cultivation, including the adaptation of the crop to new environments and its response to human selection. Second, evolutionary information would enable landraces with similar traits but different genetic backgrounds to be identified, providing alternative strategies for the introduction of these traits into modern germplasm. Results The evolutionary relationships between 651 barley landraces were inferred from the genotypes for 24 microsatellites. The landraces could be divided into nine populations, each with a different geographical distribution. Comparisons with ear row number, caryopsis structure, seasonal growth habit and flowering time revealed a degree of association between population structure and phenotype, and analysis of climate variables indicated that the landraces are adapted, at least to some extent, to their environment. Human selection and/or environmental adaptation may therefore have played a role in the origin and/or maintenance of one or more of the barley landrace populations. There was also evidence that at least some of the population structure derived from geographical partitioning set up during the initial spread of barley cultivation into Europe, or reflected the later introduction of novel varieties. In particular, three closely-related populations were made up almost entirely of plants with the daylength nonresponsive version of the photoperiod response gene PPD-H1, conferring adaptation to the long annual growth season of northern Europe. These three populations probably originated in the eastern Fertile Crescent and entered Europe after the initial spread of agriculture. Conclusions The discovery of population structure, combined with knowledge of associated phenotypes and

  10. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dörsch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM. Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha−1 throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha−1 before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009 had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha−1. Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain.

  11. Interactive effects of inorganic phosphate nutrition and carbon dioxide enrichment on assimilate partitioning in barley roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicher, R.C. [Crops Systems and Global Change Lab., USDA, Agricultural Res. Service, beltsville, MD (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The combined effects of inorganic phosphate (Pi) insufficiency and CO{sub 2} enrichment on metabolite levels and carbon partitioning were studied using roots of 9-, 13- and 17-day-old barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Brant). Plants were grown from seed in controlled environment chambers providing 36 {+-} 1 Pa (ambient) or 100 {+-} 2 Pa (elevated) CO{sub 2} and either 1.0 mM (Pi sufficient) or 0.05 mM (Pi insufficient) Pi. When values were combined for both Pi treatments, plants grown under enhanced CO{sub 2} showed increased root dry matter, adenylates (ATP + ADP), glutamine and non- structural carbohydrates other than starch. In contrast with shoots, enhanced CO{sub 2} partially reversed the inhibition of root dry matter formation imposed by Pi insufficiency. The Pi-insufficient treatment also increased sucrose, glucose and fructose levels in barley roots. The Pi and CO{sub 2} treatments were additive, so that the highest soluble carbohydrate levels were observed in roots of Pi-insufficient plants from the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. Pi limitation decreased dry matter formation, acid-extractable Pi, nitrate, hexose-phosphates, glutamate, glutamine and acid invertase activity of barley roots in plants grown in both ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}. Adenylate levels in roots were unaffected by the moderate Pi insufficiency described here. Thus, the reduced hexose-phosphate levels of Pi-insufficient roots were not likely to be the result of low adenylate concentrations. The above results suggest that the capacity of barley roots to utilize carbohydrates from the shoot is inadequate under both Pi-insufficient and CO{sub 2}-enriched treatments. In addition, the Pi and CO{sub 2} treatments used here alter the nitrogen metabolism of barley roots. These findings further emphasize the importance of avoiding nutrient stress during CO{sub 2} enrichment experiments. (au)

  12. High moisture airtight storage of barley and triticale: Effect of moisture level and grain processing on nitrogen and phosphorus solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Labouriau, Rodrigo;

    2015-01-01

    moisture levels (20, 23, 26 and 29% moisture) and to compare HMA storage of cereals with dry storage for 49 days. Dry stored barley and triticale (10 and 13% moisture, respectively) were kept in 10 L plastic buckets for 0 and 49 days. HMA stored cereals were kept in airtight bags (400 g per bag) at 15 °C...... for 0, 14, 29 and 49 days. The cereals were dry stored or HMA stored in rolled or whole form without or with an enzyme combination. Samples in triplicate were measured for dry matter (DM), pH, N and P solubility, phytate P and total P. HMA storage of rolled barley and rolled triticale at 26 and 29......) in HMA storage at 29% moisture to a greater extent compared with dry storage (P levels increased P solubility (rolled barley, whole and rolled triticale) and N solubility (whole and rolled triticale) linearly and decreased Phytate P:Total P (rolled barley) linearly...

  13. Study on processing of barley healthcare sausage%大麦保健香肠工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱萍; 张丽萍

    2014-01-01

    以香肠为研究对象,在香肠原配料中添加两种不同处理方式的大麦籽实,经过单因素试验与感官评价确定大麦保健香肠中大麦添加的最佳量,结果表明,大麦保健香肠的最佳配方为精肉80 g,肥膘20 g,大麦20 g,复合其他调配料。%Sausage was taken as the research object. Two different processing modes of barley seeds were added in sausage, through single factor experiment and sensory evaluation, the optimal addition of barley was determined. The result showed that the optimal formula of barley healthcare sausage was that lean meat 80g, fat 20g, barley 20g and composite of other ingredients.

  14. GA Enhanced a-Amylase Synthesis in Halved Grains of Barley (Hordeum vulgare): A Simple Laboratory Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration is suggested for the formation of a-amylase enzyme in halved grains of barley. Data presented in the article provide some information of the pattern of a- and b-amylase activity during germination. (PS)

  15. Analysis of molecular diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide survey of cultivated barley germplasm (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganal Martin W

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our study was a systematic survey of the molecular diversity in barley genetic resources. To this end 953 cultivated barley accessions originating from all inhabited continents except Australia were genotyped with 48 SSR markers. Molecular diversity was evaluated with routine statistics (allelic richness, gene diversity, allele frequency, heterozygosity and unique alleles, Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA, and analysis of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium. Results A genotyping database for 953 cultivated barley accessions profiled with 48 SSR markers was established. The PCoA revealed structuring of the barley population with regard to (i geographical regions and (ii agronomic traits. Geographic origin contributed most to the observed molecular diversity. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD was estimated as squared correlation of allele frequencies (r2. The values of LD for barley were comparable to other plant species (conifers, poplar, maize. The pattern of intrachromosomal LD with distances between the genomic loci ranging from 1 to 150 cM revealed that in barley LD extended up to distances as long as 50 cM with r2 > 0.05, or up to 10 cM with r2 > 0.2. Few loci mapping to different chromosomes showed significant LD with r2 > 0.05. The number of loci in significant LD as well as the pattern of LD were clearly dependent on the population structure. The LD in the homogenous group of 207 European 2-rowed spring barleys compared to the highly structured worldwide barley population was increased in the number of loci pairs with r2 > 0.05 and had higher values of r2, although the percentage of intrachromosomal loci pairs in significant LD based on P 0.80 provided higher LD values as compared to 19 low polymorphic loci (PIC Conclusion A global population of cultivated barley accessions was highly structured. Clustering highlighted the accessions with the same geographic origin, as well as accessions possessing

  16. Genetic Variation of Functional Components in Grains of Improved Barley Lines from Four Continents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen ZENG; Xiaoying PU; Jing ZHANG; Juan DU; Ganggang GUO; Tao YANG; ChunyanZHAO; Shuming YANG; Dawei ZHAO; Junjie TANG; Ping JIA

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to analyze functional components in improved barley grains. [Method] Genetic variations of functional components in grains among 629 barley improved lines from four continents were determined with DU640-type ul- traviolet spectrophotometry (BECKMAN). [Result] The contents (mg/100 g) of total flavones and GABA in grains of Asian barley lines (123.09_+29.56, 9.49_+4.34) were significantly higher than that of American barley lines (103.85_22.33, 7.38_+3.59), while no significant difference was observed between Asia/Americas and Europe (115.47_+11.41, 9.66-+3.98) and Australia (104.20-+4.76, 8.83-+3.41); furthermore, there was no significant difference of resistant starch content (%) in barley grains among four continents [Asia (1.63_+1.44), America (1.54_+1.13), Europe (1.20+0.85) and Aus- tralia (0.27_+0.26)]. The contents (%) of resistant starch in grains of two-rowed barley (ssp. Hordeurn distichon Koern., 1.45_+1.20) was significantly lower than that of poly- rowed barley (ssp. Hordeum vulgare Orlov., 1.95_+1.24). On the contrary, the content of total flavones in two-rowed lines (111.43_+27.79 mg/100 g) wa, s significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (102.15_+14.95 mg/100 g), and the content of GABA in two-rowed lines (8.55+_3.73 mg/100 g) was also significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (5.96_+3.95 mg/100 g). There was the most significant correlation between GABA content and resistant starch (-0.21)/total flavones content (0.12 , P〈0.01, n=-629). There were great genotype differences among the functional compo- nents in barley grains. The coefficient of variation (78.60%) and range (0-9.29%) of resistant starch (1.56_+1.22%) were relatively large, including 11 high-resistant starch lines above 5%; the coefficient of variation (49.00%) and range (0-30.67 mg/100g) of GABA (8.00-

  17. Synthesis of Salt Soluble Proteins in Barley. Pulse-Labeling Study of Grain Filling in Liquid-Cultured Detached Spikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation of salt-soluble proteins in the endosperm of developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains was examined. Detached spikes of barley were cultured at different levels of nitrogen nutrition and pulse-labeled with [14C] sucrose at specific times after anthesis. Proteins were extracted...... to increased nitrogen nutrition. Two major components, β-amylase and protein Z in particular, had a synthesis profile almost identical to that of the endosperm storage protein, hordein....

  18. Estimation of Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L. Crop Water Requirements Using Cropwat Software in Ksar-Chellala Region, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Laouisset

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the reference Evapotranspiration (ET0 and Water requirements of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in Ksar-Chellala region, Algeria, for one dry year by using CROPWAT software. Determination of Evapotranspiration ( ET is important in application such as irrigation design, irrigation scheduling, water resource management, hydrology and cropping systems modeling. Estimation of crop water requirements of barley ( CWR b respected the methodology adopted by the service of development and management service of FAO, based on the use of software CROPWAT 8.0. The total water requirements for barley depend on a variety of target yields and crops management. The period of climatic data used is 23 years (1990-2012, the average rain in this period is 254 mm. The total rain of the dry year is 190 mm. The results of this study show, during the vegetative cycle of barley which is 6 months, the calculation of ET 0 is 453 mm, the potential water which was used by the crop barley is estimated at 281.4 mm, the efficiency of rainfall is 69 mm and a total water requirements of barley ( CWR b equals to 211 mm, this amount distributed on three months coincided with important stages of development in barley. The supplementary irrigation in these conditions with optimal contents equals water requirements estimated by CROPWAT software that increases significantly grain yield of barely. Consequently, the gross irrigation water requirements ( GIWR of 1250000 ha which project to grow barley in the Algerian steppes regions are estimated at 3.77 billion and this for a dry year and a irrigation efficiency of 70%.

  19. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780.......Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780....

  20. DETERMINATION OF THE SEEDLING REACTIONS OF TWENTY BARLEY CULTIVARS TO SIX ISOLATES OF DRECHSLERA TERES F. MACULATA

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar USTA; KARAKAYA, Aziz; OĞUZ, Arzu ÇELİK; MERT, Zafer; AKAN, Kadir; ÇETİN, Lütfi

    2014-01-01

    Seedling reactions of 20 barley cultivars grown in Turkey were determined under greenhouse conditions to six isolates of Drechslera teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of barley net blotch disease. Isolates were obtained from different provinces of Turkey. Differences among the reactions of the cultivars to the isolates of the fungus were observed. Isolate differences in pathogenicity for each cultivar were also present. The reactions of cultivars to the isolates ranged betwee...

  1. Analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in wild barley from the Fertile Crescent: associations with ecology, geography and flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivandic, Victor; Hackett, Christine A; Nevo, Eviatar; Keith, Richard; Thomas, William T B; Forster, Brian P

    2002-01-01

    Wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch, is the progenitor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare. The centre of diversity is in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, where wild barley grows in a wide range of conditions (temperature, water availability, day length, etc.). The genetic diversity of 39 wild barley genotypes collected from Israel, Turkey and Iran was studied with 33 SSRs of known map location. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was performed to partition the genetic variation present within from the variation between the three countries of origin. Using classification tree analysis, two (or three) specific SSRs were identified which could correctly classify most of the wild barley genotypes according to country of origin. Associations of SSR variation with flowering time and adaptation to site-of-origin ecology and geography were investigated by two contrasting statistical approaches, linear regression based on SSR length variation and linear regression based on SSR allele class differences. A number of SSRs were significantly associated with flowering time under four different growing regimes (short days, long days, unvernalised and vernalised). Most of the associations observed could be accounted for by close linkage of the SSR loci to earliness per se genes. No associations were found with photoperiodic and vernalisation response genes known to control flowering in cultivated barley suggesting that different genetic factors may be active in wild barley. Novel genomic regions controlling flowering time in wild barley were detected on chromosomes 1HS, 2HL, 3HS and 4HS. Associations of SSRs with site-of-origin ecological and geographic data were found primarily in genomic regions determining plant development. This study shows that the analyses of SSR variation by allele class and repeat length are complementary, and that some SSRs are not necessarily selectively neutral. PMID:11999832

  2. Study of Barley Grain Molecular Structure for Ruminants Using DRIFT, FTIR-ATR and Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy (SR-IMS): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-05-01

    Barley inherent structures are highly associated with nutrient utilization and availability in both humans and animals. Barley has different degradation kinetics compared with other cereal grains. It has a relatively higher degradation rate and extent, which often cause digestive disorder in the rumen. Therefore understanding barley inherent structure at cellular and molecular levels and processing-induced structure changes is important, because we can manipulate barley inherent structures and digestive behaviors. Several molecular spectroscopy techniques can be used to detect barley inherent structures at cellular and molecular levels. This article reviews several applications of the IR molecular spectral bioanalytical techniques - DRIFT, FT/IR-ATR and SR-IMS for barley chemistry, molecular structure and molecular nutrition research

  3. Molecular analysis of cultivated naked barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China using SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifen PAN; Guangbing DENG; Xuguang ZHAI; Hai LONG; Yawei TANG; Xiaolin QIANG; Maoqun YU

    2008-01-01

    Naked barley is widely planted in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China and is essential for the daily life of Tibetans in those regions. In this study, the genetic diversity of 64 cultivated naked barley accessions from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China was analyzed using 30 mapped SSRs linked with the important traits of barley improvement. A total of 132 alleles were identified at 22 polymorphic SSR loci, with the number of each locus ranging from 2 to 15, the polymorphism information con-tent (PIC) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.91, and with an average of 0.65. Of the selected SSRs, 13 SSR markers with high PIC value were highly efficient for the genetic analysis of Chinese barley. The accessions were divided into five main groups by cluster analysis and could be differentiated from each other. The genetic diversity in the Tibet accessions was slightly higher than in the Sichuan accessions. It is found that there were specific genes linked with the collecting sites. These results indi-cate the cultivated naked barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China are highly polymorphic and could be considered as an important resource bank for cultivated naked barley breeding in the future.

  4. Rapid assignment of malting barley varieties by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedo, Ondrej; Kořán, Michal; Jakešová, Michaela; Mikulíková, Renata; Boháč, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2016-09-01

    A method for discriminating malting barley varieties based on direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) fingerprinting of proteins was developed. Signals corresponding to hordeins were obtained by simple mixing of powdered barley grain with a MALDI matrix solution containing 12.5mgmL(-1) of ferulic acid in an acetonitrile:water:formic acid 50:33:17 v/v/v mixture. Compared to previous attempts at MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of barley proteins, the extraction and fractionation steps were practically omitted, resulting in a significant reduction in analytical time and costs. The discriminatory power was examined on twenty malting barley varieties and the practicability of the method was tested on sixty barley samples acquired from Pilsner Urquell Brewery. The method is proposed as a rapid tool for variety assignment and purity determination of malting barley that may replace gel electrophoresis currently used for this purpose. PMID:27041307

  5. Influence of inoculum and climatic factors on the severity of Fusarium head blight in German spring and winter barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkmeyer, Andrea; Hofer, Katharina; Rychlik, Michael; Herz, Markus; Hausladen, Hans; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small cereals is a disease of global importance with regard to economic losses and mycotoxin contamination harmful to human and animal health. In Germany, FHB is predominantly associated with wheat and F. graminearum is recognised as the major causal agent of the disease, but little is known about FHB of barley. Monitoring of the natural occurrence of FHB on Bavarian barley revealed differences for individual Fusarium spp. in incidence and severity of grain infection between years and between spring and winter barley. Parallel measurement of fungal DNA content in grain and mycotoxin content suggested the importance of F. graminearum in winter barley and of F. langsethiae in spring barley for FHB. The infection success of these two species was associated with certain weather conditions and barley flowering time. Inoculation experiments in the field revealed different effects of five Fusarium spp. on symptom formation, grain yield and mycotoxin production. A significant association between fungal infection of grain and mycotoxin content was observed following natural or artificial infection with the type B trichothecene producer F. culmorum, but not with the type A trichothecene-producing species F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides. Trichothecene type A toxin contamination also occurred in the absence of significant damage to grain and did not necessarily promote fungal colonisation. PMID:26679010

  6. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  7. Mixed cropping of annual feed legumes with barley improves feed quantity and crude protein content under dry-land conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine a suitable mixture of annual feed legumes and barley as a winter crop under dry-land conditions. Seeds of Hungarian vetch (cv. 2670, smooth vetch (cv. Maragheh, and local varieties of grass pea and field pea were mixed with barley (cv. Abidar in a 1:1 ratio and were tested, along with related monoculture. All legumes in the mixture survived winter while legumes alone, except Hungarian vetch, did not survive in the cold areas. The maximum fresh and dry forage yields (56 and 15 ton ha-1 respectively were obtained from a mixture of smooth vetch and barley in provinces with mild winter and more than 400 mm of rainfall. The mixture of barley and smooth vetch resulted in the highest mean crude protein content (17%. Autumn seeding of smooth vetch and barley in a 1:1 ratio produced more than 2 ton ha-1 of dry biomass with good quality in all studied areas and thus could serve as an alternative cropping system after wheat/barley in cold and semi-cold dry land.

  8. Molecular analysis of point mutations in a barley genome exposed to MNU and gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurowska, Marzena, E-mail: mkurowsk@us.edu.pl [Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia, Jagiellonska 28, 40-032 Katowice (Poland); Labocha-Pawlowska, Anna; Gnizda, Dominika; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona [Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia, Jagiellonska 28, 40-032 Katowice (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    We present studies aimed at determining the types and frequencies of mutations induced in the barley genome after treatment with chemical (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, MNU) and physical (gamma rays) mutagens. We created M{sub 2} populations of a doubled haploid line and used them for the analysis of mutations in targeted DNA sequences and over an entire barley genome using TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique, respectively. Based on the TILLING analysis of the total DNA sequence of 4,537,117 bp in the MNU population, the average mutation density was estimated as 1/504 kb. Only one nucleotide change was found after an analysis of 3,207,444 bp derived from the highest dose of gamma rays applied. MNU was clearly a more efficient mutagen than gamma rays in inducing point mutations in barley. The majority (63.6%) of the MNU-induced nucleotide changes were transitions, with a similar number of G > A and C > T substitutions. The similar share of G > A and C > T transitions indicates a lack of bias in the repair of O{sup 6}-methylguanine lesions between DNA strands. There was, however, a strong specificity of the nucleotide surrounding the O{sup 6}-meG at the -1 position. Purines formed 81% of nucleotides observed at the -1 site. Scanning the barley genome with AFLP markers revealed ca. a three times higher level of AFLP polymorphism in MNU-treated as compared to the gamma-irradiated population. In order to check whether AFLP markers can really scan the whole barley genome for mutagen-induced polymorphism, 114 different AFLP products, were cloned and sequenced. 94% of bands were heterogenic, with some bands containing up to 8 different amplicons. The polymorphic AFLP products were characterised in terms of their similarity to the records deposited in a GenBank database. The types of sequences present in the polymorphic bands reflected the organisation of the barley genome.

  9. Development and implementation of high-throughput SNP genotyping in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Kazuhiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High density genetic maps of plants have, nearly without exception, made use of marker datasets containing missing or questionable genotype calls derived from a variety of genic and non-genic or anonymous markers, and been presented as a single linear order of genetic loci for each linkage group. The consequences of missing or erroneous data include falsely separated markers, expansion of cM distances and incorrect marker order. These imperfections are amplified in consensus maps and problematic when fine resolution is critical including comparative genome analyses and map-based cloning. Here we provide a new paradigm, a high-density consensus genetic map of barley based only on complete and error-free datasets and genic markers, represented accurately by graphs and approximately by a best-fit linear order, and supported by a readily available SNP genotyping resource. Results Approximately 22,000 SNPs were identified from barley ESTs and sequenced amplicons; 4,596 of them were tested for performance in three pilot phase Illumina GoldenGate assays. Data from three barley doubled haploid mapping populations supported the production of an initial consensus map. Over 200 germplasm selections, principally European and US breeding material, were used to estimate minor allele frequency (MAF for each SNP. We selected 3,072 of these tested SNPs based on technical performance, map location, MAF and biological interest to fill two 1536-SNP "production" assays (BOPA1 and BOPA2, which were made available to the barley genetics community. Data were added using BOPA1 from a fourth mapping population to yield a consensus map containing 2,943 SNP loci in 975 marker bins covering a genetic distance of 1099 cM. Conclusion The unprecedented density of genic markers and marker bins enabled a high resolution comparison of the genomes of barley and rice. Low recombination in pericentric regions is evident from bins containing many more than the

  10. Barley grain maturation and germination: Metabolic pathway and regulatory network commonalities and differences highlighted by new MapMan/PageMan profiling tools

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, N.; Usadel, B.; Winter, A.; Radchuk, V.; Scholz, U.; Stein, N.; Weschke, W.; Strickert, M.; Close, T; Stitt, M.; Graner, A; Wobus, U

    2008-01-01

    Plant seeds prepare for germination already during seed maturation. We performed a detailed transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain maturation, desiccation, and germination in two tissue fractions (starchy endosperm / aleurone and embryo / scutellum) using the Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChip. To aid data evaluation, Arabidopsis thaliana MapMan and PageMan tools were adapted to barley. The analyses allow a number of conclusions: (1) Cluster analysis revealed a smooth transition in...

  11. The Effect of Natural Variation at Ppd-H1 and HvELF3 on Responses to Osmotic Stress in Barley (Hordeum Vulgare)

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Ermias Habte

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock is an important timing system that, in part, controls stress adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the model crop barley, the clock orthologs Ppd-H1 and HvELF3 are important regulators of photoperiod response and flowering. However, little is known about additional effects of the clock on plant performance and stress adaptation in barley. Therefore, the objectives of this study were i) to analyse the effects of natural variation at the barley photoperiod response and cloc...

  12. Mutational analysis of the β-trefoil fold protein barley α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor probes hot spots for the interaction with barley α-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Nielsen, P. K.; Abou Hachem, Maher;

    2005-01-01

    The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) with subnanomolar affinity. The contribution of selected side chains of BASI to this high affinity is discerned in this study, and binding to other targets is investigated. Seven BASI residues along the AMY2-BASI...... interface and four residues in the putative protease-binding loop on the opposite side of the inhibitor were mutated. A total of 15 variants were compared with the wild type by monitoring the alpha-amylase and protease inhibitory activities using Blue Starch and azoalbumin, respectively, and the kinetics...

  13. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS...... with a granular component. Particles with the same structure were present in the protein body preparation from the mutant, where, however, the granular component was the most prominent. Amino-acid composition and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins from the protein body preparation revealed......-polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis. Sections through pellets of isolated protein bodies from both the mutant and the wild type revealed protein body structures corresponding with those observed in sections through the intact starchy endosperms. The majority of the wild-type protein bodies was homogeneous spheres accompanied...

  14. PAMP-triggered immune responses in barley and susceptibility to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hückelhoven, Ralph; Seidl, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) builds one of the first layers of plant disease resistance. In susceptible plants, PTI is overcome by adapted pathogens. This can be achieved by suppression of PTI with the help of pathogen virulence effectors. However, effectors may also contribute to modification of host metabolism or cell architecture to ensure successful pathogenesis. Barley responds to treatment with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns flg22 or chitin with phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and an oxidative burst. RAC/ROP GTPases can act as positive or negative modulators of these plant immune responses. The RAC/ROP GTPase RACB is a powdery mildew susceptibility factor of barley. However, RACB apparently does not negatively control early PTI responses but functions in polar cell development during invasion of the pathogen into living host epidermal cells. Here, we further discuss the incomplete picture of PTI in Triticeae. PMID:27348336

  15. Single-cell transcript profiling of barley attacked by the powdery mildew fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjetting, Torben; Hagedorn, Peter; Schweizer, Patrick;

    2007-01-01

    attacked at the same time may resist fungal penetration. To date, the mixed cellular responses seen even in susceptible host leaves have made it difficult to relate induced changes in gene expression to resistance or susceptibility in bulk leaf samples. By microextraction of cell-specific m......RNA and subsequent cDNA array analysis, we have successfully obtained separate gene expression profiles for specific mildew-resistant and -infected barley cells. Thus, for the first time, it is possible to identify genes that are specifically regulated in infected cells and, presumably, involved in fungal...... establishment. Further, although much is understood about the genetic basis of effective papilla resistance associated with mutant mlo barley, we provide here the first evidence for gene regulation associated with effective papilla-based nonspecific resistance expressed in nominally "susceptible" wild...

  16. Genetic and epigenetic effects of salinity on in vitro growth of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Demirkiran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, physiological and molecular changes were investigated in in vitro salt-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak. Mature embryos were cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0 (control, 50 and 100 mM NaCl for 20 days. Both concentrations inhibited shoot growth, decreased fresh weight and protein content, and increased SOD (EC 1.15.1.1 activity in a dose-dependent manner. The lower concentration increased root growth. Salinity caused nucleotide variations in roots, but did not affect shoot DNAs. The higher concentration caused methylation changes, mainly hypermethylation in shoots. This is the first study on genetic and epigenetic effects of salinity in barley.

  17. Analysis of phenolic acids in barley by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Vasanthan, T; Temelli, F

    2001-09-01

    Phenolic acids from 30 barley varieties (combination of hulled/hulless/two-row/six-row/regular/waxy) were investigated by HPLC following four different sample treatments: (a) simple hot water extraction, (b) extraction after acid hydrolysis, (c) acid plus alpha-amylase hydrolysis, and (d) acid plus alpha-amylase plus cellulase hydrolysis treatments. The benzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids) and cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, and chlorogenic acids) were identified, and some of the phenolic acids were quantified after each above-mentioned treatment. The data indicated that a combination of sequential acid, alpha-amylase, and cellulase hydrolysis treatments might be applicable for release of more phenolic acids from barley. PMID:11559137

  18. Investigation of additives for preventing ash fouling and sintering during barley straw combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of potassium chloride reduces ash sintering temperature and causes fouling deposits in biomass combustion applications. In the present work, the capacity of two mineral additives zeolite 24A and kaolin to capture KCl were investigated. A series of thermogravimetric experiments were carried out to measure fractions of KCl retained in the two additives as function of reaction temperature and heating time. The residues from additive-KCl mixtures after heating treatment were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). When heated at 900 °C for 1 h, the overall KCl capturing efficiencies of the two additives were 60% and 45% for zeolite 24A and kaolin respectively, which slightly decreased to 50% and 43% as the heating time increased to 12 h. At 1000 °C, the fractions of KCl captured by zeolite 24A and kaolin significantly decreased from 50% and 40% to 26% and 17%, as the KCl-additive mixtures were heated for 1 and 12 h, respectively. The decrease in of the overall KCl capturing efficiencies is mainly attributed to reduction of surface areas and chemically active compounds of the two additives with increasing temperature and heating time. The XRD analysis results showed that both zeolite 24A and kaolin can react with KCl to form different potassium aluminium silicates. It indicates that chemical reactions play an important role in the overall capturing process. The effects of zeolite 24A and kaolin on sintering behaviors of the barley straw ash were also investigated. The residues from sintering tests were analyzed by a combination of X-Ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (SEM-EDX). The barley straw ash melted intensively at elevated temperatures. Together with XRD analysis, the SEM-EDX analysis results revealed that severe melting of the barley straw ash was due to formation and fusion of low temperature melting potassium silicates. Addition of kaolin and zeolite 24A significantly

  19. Mapping of the Hor-3 locus encoding D hordein in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T K; Ullrich, S E; Nilan, R A

    1982-12-01

    The hordein storage proteins of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are of intense interest due to their genetic diversity and prominence and impact on the industrial and agricultural uses of the seed. Two major hordein loci have been previously mapped on chromosome 5 (Hor-1 and Hor-2 encoding the C and B hordeins, respectively). A third major locus, Hor-3, which codes for D hordein, has been located in the centromeric region of chromosome 5, probably on the long arm. Two allelic variants with apparent molecular weights of 83,000 and 91,000 and similar isoelectric points of 8.0 comprise the products of this locus in the barley varieties 'Advance' and 'Triple Awned Lemma'. The D hordein examined is similar in molecular weight and isoelectric point to the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin proteins encoded by the 1B chromosome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  20. Environmental impacts of barley cultivation under current and future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Saxe, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of spring barley cultivation in Denmark under current (year 2010) and future (year 2050) climatic conditions. Therefore, a Life Cycle Assessment was carried out for the production of 1 kg of spring barley in Denmark, at farm gate......-products, the resulting environmental impacts were allocated between the main product and their respective by-products using economic allocation. Impact assessment was done using the ReCiPe (H) methodology, except for toxicity impacts, which were assessed using USEtox. The results show that the impacts for all impact...... for the increased impacts. This finding was confirmed by the sensitivity analysis. Because this study focused solely on the impacts of climate change, technological improvements and political measures to reduce impacts in the 2050 scenario are not taken into account. Options to mitigate the environmental impacts...

  1. Mineral balance evaluation of irradiated barley seeds grown on saline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two barley (C. V. Pakistani 30163) were irradiated with 0, 15, and 20 Gy of gamma rays, and cultured on nutrient media, containing 0, 10, 50 and 100 meql-1 of NaCl. Zero and 20 Gy and 10 meql-1 NaCl, increased Ca++ and K+ contents of all plants. Fifty meql-1 NaCl decreased Mg++ content. Ten and 50 meql-1 NaCl increased the % of total N and P contents of all barley plants. Na+ and Cl- contents increased with NaCl concentrations in the media. Fifty meql-1 NaCl increased the cationic sum. The ratio of Na+/Cl- differed from one. (authors)

  2. The effect of irradiating barley seeds (Hordeum Vulgare) on plantlet growth and net blotch resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds of two cultivars (Smash and Thibaut) and one line (74-F-6) with water contents adjusted between 12.8 and 13.3%, were irradiated with various doses (1-sup 1 sup 6 sup 0 Gy) of sup 6 sup 0 Co γ rays. Doses of 1-sup 4 sup 0 Gy favored an increases length of the first leaf. In general, doses of 15 and sup 2 sup 0 Gy decreased barley susceptibility to Drechrlera teres f. maculata by 25 and 21%, respectively. This reduction was a function of the line or cultivar used. The best response was obtained with cv. Smash. Seedling growth stimulation and host susceptibility to D. teres were significantly correlated (r= -0.68). The stimulatory effect of γ rays on growth could be used at low levels, to provide adequate field resistance to net blotch caused by D. teres f. maculata. (author). 28 refs., 3 tabs

  3. A Simple Method for Assessing Severity of Common Root Rot on Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common root rot caused by Cochliobolus sativus is a serious disease of barley. A simple and reliable method for assessing this disease would enhance our capacity in identifying resistance sources and developing resistant barley cultivars. In searching for such a method, a conidial suspension of C. sativus was dropped onto sterilized elongated subcrown internodes and incubated in sandwich filter paper using polyethylene transparent envelopes. Initial disease symptoms were easily detected after 48h of inoculation. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found in each experiment (A, B and C between sandwich filter paper and seedling assays, indicating that this testing procedure was reliable. The method presented facilitates a rapid pre-selection under uniform conditions which is of importance from a breeder’s point of view.

  4. Cloning and overexpression of antifungal barley chitinase gene in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, S Isaac; Sakthivel, N

    2007-03-01

    Plant chitinases are pathogenesis-related proteins, which are believed to be involved in plant defense responses to pathogen infection. In this study, chitinase gene from barley was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Chitinase (35 kDa) was isolated and purified. Since the protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies, the protein was solubilized and refolded. Purified chitinase exerted broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea (blight of tobacco), Pestalotia theae (leaf spot of tea), Bipolaris oryzae (brown spot of rice), Alternaria sp. (grain discoloration of rice), Curvularia lunata (leaf spot of clover) and Rhizoctonia solani (sheath blight of rice). Due to the potential of broad-spectrum antifungal activity barley chitinase gene can be used to enhance fungal-resistance in crop plants such as rice, tobacco, tea and clover. PMID:17029984

  5. Genetic diversity in some tunisian barley land races based on raped markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic diversity analysis of 15 barley land races was carried out using RAPD markers.These land races were collected from various bio climatic Tunisian zones. The amplification products varied from 4 to 11 bands ranging between 250 pb and 3000 pb. On 698 fragments counted, 578 are polymorphic showing a high level of polymorphism (82.8%). The relationship between the studied land races was evaluated according to (UPGMA) method that classified barley land races in 4 homogeneous groups. Among which, the group D included the majority of the land races with the introduced variety 'Martin'. The genetic distance between these land races is reduced, may be because of the presence of a common ancestor which led to a narrow genetic diversity. (author)

  6. DNA microarray revealed and RNAi plants confirmed key genes conferring low Cd accumulation in barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Fei;

    2015-01-01

    accumulation and tolerance between the two contrasting barley genotypes: W6nk2 (a low-grain-Cd-accumulating and Cd-sensitive genotype) and Zhenong8 (a high-grain-Cd-accumulating and tolerant genotype). A DNA microarray analysis detected large-scale changes of gene expression in response to Cd stress...... with a substantial difference between the two genotypes. Cd stress led to higher expression of genes involved in transport, carbohydrate metabolism and signal transduction in the low-grain-Cd-accumulating genotype. Novel transporter genes such as zinc transporter genes were identified as being associated with low Cd......-grain-Cd-accumulation. Conclusion Novel transporter genes such as HvZIP3 and HvZIP8 were identified as being associated with low-grain-Cd-accumulation. In addition to advancing academic knowledge, our findings may also result in potential economic benefits for molecular breeding of low Cd accumulating barley and other crops....

  7. Genetic diversity among wild and cultivated barley as revealed by RFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Østergård, H.; Giese, H.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic variability of cultivated and wild barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare and spontaneum, respectively, was assessed by RFLP analysis. The material consisted of 13 European varietes, single-plant offspring lines of eight land races from Ethiopia and Nepal, and five accessions of ssp....... spontaneum from Israel, Iran and Turkey. Seventeen out of twenty-one studied cDNA and gDNA probes distributed across all seven barley chromosomes revealed polymorphism when DNA was digested with one of four restriction enzymes. A tree based on genetic distances using frequencies of RFLP banding patterns...... an intermediate level. The proportion of gene diversity residing among,geographical groups (F-ST) varied from 0.19 to 0.94 (average 0.54) per RFLP pattern, indicating large diversification between geographical groups....

  8. Dataset for transcriptional response of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to drought and subsequent re-watering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokáš, Filip; Vojta, Petr; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important species, which can be cultivated in environmentally adverse conditions due to its higher tolerance in contrast to other cereal crops. The draft of H. vulgare genome is available already for couple of years; however its functional annotation is still incomplete. All available databases were searched to expand current annotation. The improved annotation was used to describe processes and genes regulated in transgenic lines showing higher tolerance to drought in our associated article, doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2016.01.010 (Vojta et al., 2016) [1]. Here we present whole transcriptome response, using extended annotation, to severe drought stress and subsequent re-watering in wild-type barley plants in stem elongation phase of growth. Up- and down-regulated genes fall into distinct GO categories and these enriched by stress and revitalization are highlighted. Transcriptomic data were evaluated separately for root and aerial tissues. PMID:27331111

  9. Rhizodeposition of N by pea and barley and its effect on soil N dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Rhizodeposition of N during plant growth influences the microbial activity in the rhizosphere and constitutes a source of labile organic N, but has not been quantified to the same degree as the rhizodeposition of C. The rhizodeposition of N, defined as root-derived N present in the soil after...... removal of visible roots and root fragments, was determined during field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth in a sandy soil at a low concentration of mineral N using a continuous split-root N-15-labelling technique. The N rhizodeposition constituted 15 and 48......% of the below-ground N in pea when determined 7 and 14 (maturity) wk after planting (WAP), respectively. In barley 32 and 71% of the below-ground N were present in rhizodeposits at the two samplings. At maturity the rhizodeposition of N amounted to 19 mg N plant(-1) (7% of total plant N) for pea and 17 mg N...

  10. Utilization of two sewage sludges on cropland: yield, nitrogen, and metal uptake in winter barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two municipal sludges, one from a highly industrialized city, Chicago, and another from a lesser industrialized, highly agricultural area, Tucson, are compared for barley production of Pima c 1 (Typic torrifluvent). Both sludges were responsible for highly significant additions of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and P to the soil each year at the rates of 100mt/ha single and 20mt/ha for 2 years. Nitrogen responses for barley straw and grain were observed from both sludges. Tucson sludge appears to be attractive as a potential fertilizer, not only as an NPK source, but also for its minimal amounts of heavy metals. The Chicago sludge with high levels of heavy metals, particularly Cd, appears unsuited as a fertilizer because of the plant's tendency to take up toxic levels of heavy metals

  11. Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph Cochliobolus Sativus: Causer of barley leaf lesions and root rot in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karov Ilija K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseased barley plants (Hordeum vulgare, were noticed in the area of Kumanovo, Bitola, Probistip, Skopje and Kocani, at the beginning of March, 2006. Our investigations were carried out in the period from 2006 to 2009. The plants were highly diseased, probably in the stage of germination, dwarfed with necrotic leaves and with poorly developed root. A rotten root collar was noticed notice in some plants, which could be easily pulled out from the soil. Plants infected in a later developing stage became yellow from the top of the leaf, and many brown-olive, oval shape lesions were noticed. Conidia of Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc. Shoen., were isolated from symptomatic lesions. Pseudothecia with asci and ascospores from teleomorph Cochliobolus sativus, were found on the barley straw in the same field the previous year.

  12. Solid acid-catalyzed depolymerization of barley straw driven by ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Laura; Haverinen, Jasmiina; Jaakkola, Mari; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-04-01

    This study describes a time and energy saving, solvent-free procedure for the conversion of lignocellulosic barley straw into reducing sugars by mechanocatalytical pretreatment. The catalytic conversion efficiency of several solid acids was tested which revealed oxalic acid dihydrate as a potential catalyst with high conversion rate. Samples were mechanically treated by ball milling and subsequently hydrolyzed at different temperatures. The parameters of the mechanical treatment were optimized in order to obtain sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS) which was determined following the DNS assay. Additionally, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) were carried out. Under optimal conditions TRS 42% was released using oxalic acid dihydrate as a catalyst. This study revealed that the acid strength plays an important role in the depolymerization of barley straw and in addition, showed, that the oxalic acid-catalyzed reaction generates low level of the degradation product 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). PMID:26859328

  13. Fungicides, seed dresser adjuvants and storage time in the control of Drechslera teres in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In experiments conducted in laboratory, the effect of fungicides, seed dresser adjuvants and storage time in the control of Drechslera teres in seeds of barley cultivar BRS Elis, with 58% incidence, was quantified. Fungicides indicated by barley research (carboxin + thiram, difenoconazole and triadimenol compared with the mixture carbendazim + iprodione were tested. As seed dresser adjuvants, water (500m mL/100 Kg and a polymer (150 mL/100 Kg were used. Treated seeds were stored in paper bags and kept in the refrigerator at 5ºC. At 30-day intervals during six months, seeds were plated on semi-selective Reis's medium (1983. The best control was obtained by the mixtures carboxin + thiram and carbendazim + iprodione and the polymer as seed dresser. The control efficiency was improved by the storage time without negatively affecting seed germination. Due to the transmission efficiency, the fungus eradication in seeds should be pursued.

  14. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...... present in the embryo of the seed. These will, however, not appear in plants under normal development.There are, according to the present analysis, 6 spikes for which 1 or 2 functional initial cells for their sporogenous tissue are already established in the embryo, i.e. at the time of mutagenic treatment...... mutants were analyzed in spikes classified according to their ontogenetic relationship. The frequency with which two spikes segregated identical mutants was determined by pairwise comparisons of all spikes in each plant. In this way the frequency of mutant cluster sharing between spikes and spike groups...

  15. Variation in activity of root extracellular phytase between genotypes of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Mohammad Farouq

    1997-01-01

    Barley genotypes grown in nutrient solution under P nutrient stress and sterile conditions were compared in activity of root-associated and root-released extracellular phytase. The activity of root-associated phytase of all genotypes was about 10 times higher than that of root-released phytase...... and the genotypes performed differently with regard to the activity of the enzymes. The winter barley genotype, Marinka had the highest activity of root-associated extracellular phytase which differed significantly from Alexis and Senate, but not from Regatta. Alexis showed the lowest activity of root......-released extracellular phytase which differed significantly from those of Marinka and Regatta, but not from Senate. Generally, there was a significant correlation between the activity of root-associated and released extracellular phytase....

  16. Interactions of barley alpha-amylase isozymes with Ca2+, substrates and proteinaceous inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou Hachem, Maher; Bozonnet, Sophie; Willemoes, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    alpha-Amylases are endo-acting retaining enzymes of glycoside hydrolase family 13 with a catalytic (beta/alpha)(8)-domain containing an inserted loop referred to as domain B and a C-terminal anti-parallel beta-sheet termed domain C. New insights integrate the roles of Ca2+, different substrates......, and proteinaceous inhibitors for alpha-amylases. Isozyme specific effects of Ca2+ on the 80% sequence identical barley alpha-amylases AMY1 and AMY2 are not obvious from the two crystal structures, containing three superimposable Ca2+ with identical ligands. A fully hydrated fourth Ca2+ at the interface of the AMY2....../barley a-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) complex interacts with catalytic groups in AMY2, and Ca2+ occupies an identical position in AMY1 with thiomaltotetraose bound at two surface sites. EDTA-treatment, DSC, and activity assays indicate that AMY1 has the highest affinity for Ca2+. Subsite mapping...

  17. Adaptation of aphid stylectomy for analyses of proteins and mRNAs in barley phloem sap

    OpenAIRE

    Gaupels, Frank; Buhtz, Anja; Knauer, Torsten; Deshmukh, Sachin; Waller, Frank; van Bel, Aart J. E.; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Kehr, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Sieve tubes are transport conduits not only for photoassimilates but also for macromolecules and other compounds that are involved in sieve tube maintenance and systemic signalling. In order to gain sufficient amounts of pure phloem exudates from barley plants for analyses of the protein and mRNA composition, a previously described stylectomy set-up was optimized. Aphids were placed in sealed cages, which, immediately after microcauterization of the stylets, were flooded with water-saturated ...

  18. In vitro interactions of the aphid endosymbiotic SymL chaperonin with barley yellow dwarf virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Filichkin, S A; Brumfield, S; Filichkin, T P; Young, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-vector relationships suggest that there are specific interactions between BYDV virions and the aphid's cellular components. However, little is known about vector factors that mediate virion recognition, cellular trafficking, and accumulation within the aphid. Symbionins are molecular chaperonins produced by intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria and are the most abundant proteins found in aphids. To elucidate the potential role of symbionins in BYDV transmission...

  19. Distribution of soil moisture in spring barley field at Lipki agrometeorological station in 1997 and 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study following factors are presented: 24 hours of soil moisture at the depths of: 5, 20, 30, 50 and 70 cm, radiation, air temperature, precipitation, indicatory evaporation and wind speed. All these data were gathered from 15th May until 31st July in 1997 and 98. Using regression method, the influence of meteorological factors on the soil moisture dynamic in spring barley field are described. From analysed factors, the precipitation exerted the greatest influence on the soil moisture

  20. Dissection and cytological mapping of barley chromosome 2H in the genetic background of common wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Giri Prasad; Nasuda, Shuhei; Endo, Takashi R.

    2011-01-01

    We used gametocidal (Gc) chromosomes 2C and 3C[SAT] to dissect barley 2H added to common wheat. The Gc chromosome induces chromosomal breakage resulting in chromosomal aberrations in the progeny of the 2H addition line of common wheat carrying the monosomic Gc chromosome. We conducted in situ hybridization to select plants carrying structurally rearranged aberrant 2H chromosomes and characterized them by sequential C-banding and in situ hybridization. We established 66 dissection lines of com...

  1. Genome-wide association mapping to candidate polymorphism resolution in the unsequenced barley genome

    OpenAIRE

    Cockram, James; White, Jon; Zuluaga, Diana L.; Smith, David; Comadran, Jordi; Macaulay, Malcolm; Luo, Zewei; Kearsey, Mike J.; Werner, Peter; Harrap, David; Tapsell, Chris; LIU, HUI; Hedley, Peter E; Stein, Nils; Schulte, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Although commonplace in human disease genetics, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have only relatively recently been applied to plants. Using 32 phenotypes in the inbreeding crop barley, we report GWA mapping of 15 morphological traits across ∼500 cultivars genotyped with 1,536 SNPs. In contrast to the majority of human GWA studies, we observe high levels of linkage disequilibrium within and between chromosomes. Despite this, GWA analysis readily detected common alleles of high penetrance...

  2. Starch and Prolamin Level in Single and Double High-Lysine Barley Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, M.; Doll, Hans

    1980-01-01

    At maturity the high-lysine barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ris0 mutants 1508, 527 and 29 kernels contained about 20% less starch and twice as much free sugars as the parent varieties Bomi and Carlsberg II. An enhanched effect on starch reduction and free sugar accumulation was observed during kernel...... on the additive effect of the individual high-lysine genes in the double mutants, it is concluded that the influences of these genes on prolamin and starch synthesis are independent....

  3. Transcriptional Modulation of Squalene Synthase Genes in Barley Treated with PGPR

    OpenAIRE

    Anam eYousaf; Abdul eQadir; Tehmina eAnjum; Aqeel eAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Phytosterol contents and food quality of plant produce is directly associated with transcription of gene Squalene Synthase (SS). In current study, barley plants were treated with different rhizobacterial strains under semi controlled (27±3°C) greenhouse conditions in order to modulate expression of SS gene. Plant samples were analysed through semi-quantitative PCR to evaluate effect of rhizobacterial application on transcriptional status of squalene synthase. Results revealed that among four ...

  4. Transcriptional modulation of squalene synthase genes in barley treated with PGPR

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf, Anam; Qadir, Abdul; Anjum, Tehmina; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    Phytosterol contents and food quality of plant produce is directly associated with transcription of gene squalene synthase (SS). In current study, barley plants were treated with different rhizobacterial strains under semi controlled (27 ± 3°C) greenhouse conditions in order to modulate expression of SS gene. Plant samples were analyzed through semi-quantitative PCR to evaluate effect of rhizobacterial application on transcriptional status of SS. Results revealed that among four SS genes (i.e...

  5. Structure and Function of the Bacterial Root Microbiota in Wild and Domesticated Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Bulgarelli, D.; Garrido Oter, R.; Muench, P.; Weiman, A.; Droege, J.; Pan, Y.; McHardy, A; Schulze-Lefert, P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The microbial communities inhabiting the root interior of healthy plants, as well as the rhizosphere, which consists of soil particles firmly attached to roots, engage in symbiotic associations with their host. To investigate the structural and functional diversification among these communities, we employed a combination of 16S rRNA gene profiling and shotgun metagenome analysis of the microbiota associated with wild and domesticated accessions of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Bacterial f...

  6. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. I: Banding Pattern Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Twenty barley (Hordeum vulgare) lines studied had a common basic chromosome banding pattern. Most bands ranged from medium to very small in size. The most conspicuous banding occurred at or near the centromeres, in the proximal, intercalary parts of most chromosome arms and beside the secondary c...... 7. Seventeen differently banded karyotypes were found. Some banding pattern polymorphisms can be used in cytological and cytogenetic studies....

  7. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie; Møller Kudahl, Cevilie; Davidsson, Åsa

    2013-01-01

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared germination responses from two test parameters, root elongation and seed germination (sprouts elongation) of the barley (Hordeum vulgare). 2nd objective was to evaluate sewage sludge pre-treatments...

  8. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle: a consequence of prolonged feeding barley malt sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, O; Karahan, S; Basalan, M; Kabakci, N

    2006-04-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) in ruminants has been recognized as a consequence of excess sulphur intake. The present study describes clinical, gross and histopathological findings of PEM following an abrupt change of diet in two ranches housing 2750 dairy and 2300 beef cattle. As a result of severe PEM, 256 cattle died or were slaughtered. Clinical findings included circling, hypersensitivity, excessive salivation, hypermetria, incoordination, blindness and death. The first clinical signs occurred in beef calves (6-8 months old) at a holding facility. Clinical signs of the disorder continued intermittently during the 5-month period in both ranches and were more evident in calves and lactating dairy cows. The affected cattle did not respond to thiamine injections. Clinical signs disappeared gradually following removal of barley malt sprouts from the diet. Although macroscopic lesions were not apparent in the brain tissues of some animals, histopathology typical of PEM was found in most cases: spongiosis in the neuropil and neuronal necrosis, haemorrhage, capillary hyperplasia, fibrinoid degeneration in arterioles, multifocal liquefaction necroses in the grey matter and abundance of gitter cells with vacuolar large cytoplasm. Sulphide in rumen fluid of a clinically affected animal was measured as 1.55 mg/dl, which is considerably higher than that collected from two control cows (mean 0.21 mg/dl). The total sulphur content of the diet containing barley malt sprouts was estimated to be 0.45%, which is also higher than the National Research Council (NRC) maximum tolerable levels. In conclusion, PEM can result from excess barley malt sprout intake because of its higher sulphur content. Clinical signs may occur shortly after the intake of barley malt sprout as outbreaks with a higher number of deaths or as an ongoing periodic condition. PMID:16533327

  9. Climate Change Effects on Plant Ecosystems – Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Climate Change Effects on Plant Ecosystems – Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding. A growing population and a considerable increase in living standards worldwide are increasing the demand on the primary production. At the same time, climate change is projected to lower the primary production due to increases in the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and ozone ([O3]), rising temperatures and extreme climate events such as floods, storms and heatwaves. These prediction...

  10. Multielemental fingerprinting as a tool for authentication of organic wheat, barley, faba bean, and potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind;

    2011-01-01

    The multielemental composition of organic and conventional winter wheat, spring barley, faba bean, and potato was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma−optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and −mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crops were cultivated in two years at three geographically differ...... by analysis of up to 25 elements derived from semiquantitative ICP-MS. It is concluded that multielemental fingerprinting with semiquantitative ICP-MS and chemometrics has the potential to enable authentication of organic crops....

  11. Fermentation profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis as starter cultures on barley malt medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloue-Boraud, Wazé Aimée Mireille; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Djeni, N'Dédé Théodore; Hiligsmann, Serge; Djè, Koffi Marcellin; Delvigne, Franck

    2015-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae C8-5 and Candida tropicalis F0-5 isolated from traditional sorghum beer were tested for kinetic parameters on barley malt extract, YPD (863 medium) and for alcohol production. The results showed that C. tropicalis has the highest maximum growth rate and the lowest doubling time. Values were 0.22 and 0.32 h(-1) for maximum growth rate, 3 h 09 min and 2 h 09 min for doubling time respectively on barley malt extract and YPD. On contrary, glucose consumption was the fastest with S. cerevisiae (-0.36 and -0.722 g/l/h respectively on barley malt extract and YPD). When these two yeasts were used as starters in pure culture and co-culture at proportion of 1:1 and 2:1 (cell/cell) for barley malt extract fermentation, we noticed that maltose content increased first from 12.12 g/l to 13.62-16.46 g/l and then decreased. The highest increase was obtained with starter C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. On contrary, glucose content decreased throughout all the fermentation process. For all the starters used, the major part of the ethanol was produced at 16 h of fermentation. Values obtained in the final beers were 11.4, 11.6, 10.4 and 10.9 g/l for fermentation conducted with S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 1:1 and C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. Cell viability measurement during the fermentation by using flow cytometry revealed that the lowest mean channel fluorescence for FL3 (yeast rate of death) was obtained with C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1 after 48 h of fermentation. PMID:26243947

  12. Approaches for field assessment of resistance to leaf pathogens in spring barley varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, H.O.; Hovmøller, M. S.; Østergård, H

    2006-01-01

    The resistance of spring barley varieties to powdery mildew, leaf rust, leaf scald and net blotch was characterized by using results from inoculated small-plot nurseries and larger survey plots subject to natural infection. The experiments were conducted in different environments. Both trial types often yielded complementary results with respect to the ranking of varieties suggesting that a recommended variety characterization should include both naturally infected survey-type trials and nurs...

  13. Quantitative analysis of proteome extracted from barley crowns grown under different drought conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan O.; Škodáček, Zbynek; Kosová, Klára; Pitelková, Iva; Vítámvás, Jan; Renaut, Jenny; Prášil, Ilja T.

    2015-01-01

    Barley cultivar Amulet was used to study the quantitative proteome changes through different drought conditions utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Plants were cultivated for 10 days under different drought conditions. To obtain control and differentially drought-treated plants, the soil water content was kept at 65, 35, and 30% of soil water capacity (SWC), respectively. Osmotic potential, water saturation deficit, 13C discrimination, and dehydrin accumulation...

  14. Transferability and polymorphism of barley EST-SSR markers used for phylogenetic analysis in Hordeum chilense

    OpenAIRE

    Dorado Gabriel; Varshney Rajeev K; Budak Hikmet; Castillo Almudena; Graner Andreas; Hernandez Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Hordeum chilense, a native South American diploid wild barley, is a potential source of useful genes for cereal breeding. The use of this wild species to increase genetic variation in cereals will be greatly facilitated by marker-assisted selection. Different economically feasible approaches have been undertaken for this wild species with limited direct agricultural use in a search for suitable and cost-effective markers. The availability of Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) d...

  15. Cell membrane stability in two barley genotypes under water stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Bandurska; Halina Gniazdowska-Skoczek

    2014-01-01

    The effect of water stress induced in vitro by polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) and under drought stress on cell membrane stability was examined in two barley genotypes, the cultivar Aramir and line R567. The injury of cell membranes was markely influenced by leaf age, leaf position on the stem, and the degree of drought stress. The differences in percentage of injury to cell membrane between these genotypes were also found. The cv. Aramir exhibited a lower percentage injury value as compared t...

  16. The sensitivity of barley, field beans and sugar beet to soil compaction

    OpenAIRE

    Brereton, Jeremy Charles

    1986-01-01

    The sensitivity of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare, cv. Carnival), field beans (Vicia faba, ev. Maris Bead) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris,cv. Monoire) to topsoil compaction induced by tractor wheelings, post sowing, on a coarse gravelly loam of the Arrow series was investigated in 1983 and 1984. The study revealed that in both years topsoil compaction increased the dry bulk density, vane shear strength and cone resistance of the soil. Although compaction reduced only the plant population o...

  17. Engineering high-level aluminum tolerance in barley with the ALMT1 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Ryan, Peter R.; Hebb, Diane M.; Yamamoto, Yoko; Sasaki, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2004-01-01

    Acidity is a serious limitation to plant production on many of the world's agricultural soils. Toxic aluminium (Al) cations solubilized by the acidity rapidly inhibit root growth and limit subsequent uptake of water and nutrients. Recent work has shown that the ALMT1 gene of wheat (Triticum aestivum) encodes a malate transporter that is associated with malate efflux and Al tolerance. We generated transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants expressing ALMT1 and assessed their ability to exude m...

  18. Detection of nitrogen deficiency QTL in juvenile wild barley introgression lines growing in a hydroponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann Astrid; Maurer Andreas; Pillen Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In this report we studied the genetic regulation of juvenile development of wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) under two contrasting hydroponic nitrogen (N) supplies. Ten shoot and root related traits were examined among 42 S42ILs and the recurrent parent ‘Scarlett’. The traits included tiller number, leaf number, plant height, leaf and root length, leaf to root length ratio, shoots and root dry weight, shoot to root weight ratio, and chlorophyll content. Our aims we...

  19. Cadmium Stress Induced Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes, Lipid Peroxidation and Hydrogen Peroxide Contents in Barley Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Amel Alayat; Lynda Souiki; Mohammed Reda Djebar; Zine Eddine Boumedris; Ouissem Moumeni; Houria Berrebbah

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium pollution is a problem of increasing significance for ecological, nutritional and environmental reasons. Different plant species and varieties show a wide range of plasticity in Cadmium tolerance, from a high degree of sensitivity to the hyper-accumulating phenotype of some tolerant plants. To avoid Cadmium toxicity, plants adopt various defense strategies. The present study was undertaken to assess and investigate the antioxidant responses of barley (Hordeum vulgare) L.) to cadmium t...

  20. Use of Barley for the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater in a Hydroponics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley was examined for its ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater. The effects of seed sterilization using ethanol and bleach and seed density on germination and plant growth were investigated. Surface sterilization of barley seeds had a negative impact on germination. Increasing the ethanol concentration and/or the bleach concentration reduced the germination percentage. Barley seeds were first germinated in water in the hydroponics system. The seedlings then received wastewater from an aquaculture system stocked with Arctic charr. During the experiment, the crops grew rapidly and fairly uniformly and showed no signs of mineral deficiency or disease. The average crop height at harvest was 25.5 cm and the yield varied from 25 to 59 t haˉ1, depending on the seed density. The hydroponically grown barley was able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N, and PO43--P reductions ranged from 52.7 to 60.5%, from 72.9 to 83.1%, from 76.0 to 76.0%, from 97.6 to 99.2%, from 76.9 to 81.6% and from 87.1 to 95.1%, respectively. However, the effluent produced from the hydroponics system had slightly higher levels of TS (420-485 mg Lˉ1 than the 480 mg Lˉ1 recommended for aquatic animals. A sedimentation/filtration unit should be added to the hydroponics system.