WorldWideScience

Sample records for barley-soybean meal diets

  1. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  2. Nutrient utilization and manure P excretion in growing pigs fed corn-barley-soybean based diets supplemented with microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiola, Adewale; Akinremi, Oluwole; Slominski, Bogdan; Nyachoti, C Martin

    2009-02-01

    The effect of high levels of microbial phytase supplementation in diets for growing pigs was studied in a 2-week performance and nutrient digestibility trial involving 28 growing pigs weighing 16.4 +/- 1.06 (mean +/- SD) kg. Seven corn-barley-soybean meal-based diets consisting of a positive control (PC) formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements; a negative control (NC) with non-phytate P reduced by 0.1% unit from NRC requirement and fed without or with 500 or 1000 U/kg; a doubled negative control (DNC) with no added inorganic P and fed without or with 2000 or 4000 U/kg. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker and all diets were fed as mash. Pigs fed the PC diet had a higher P digestibility compared with those fed the NC (P DNC (P DNC diet resulted in linear (P DNC diets. Apparent total tract digestibility of N, OM and DM were higher (P DNC diet, but not the NC diet (P DNC diet resulted in a linear increase (P DNC diets linearly decreased fecal P (P DNC diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that complete removal of inorganic P from growing pig diets coupled with phytase supplementation improves digestibility and retention of P and N, thus reducing manure P excretion without any negative effect on pig performance.

  3. Maggot meal as a substitute for fish meal in laying chicken diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day experiment was conducted to determine thereplacement value of maggot meal for fish meal in diet of laying chicken. Fish meal was included at 30 g kg-1 of the control diet. Maggot meal incrementally replaced fish meal at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 on crude protein basis. The five diets were fed to a total of ...

  4. Cost of New Nordic Diet school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgard; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to conduct economic evaluation of a school meal programme based on principles of a New Nordic Diet (NND) by assessing the costs of the NND lunch, compared with packed lunch from home, and investigating potential effects of adjusting the NND principles...

  5. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas-Duran, Catalina; Chacon-Villalobos, Alejandro; Zamora-Sanchez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The effect of shrimp meal (SM) was measure in commercial laying hen diets. Pleuroncodes planipes was used in Costa Rica, from April to September 2013, to obtain a meal (SM) with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40,67%), ether extract (11,05%), crude fiber (7,12%), ash (27,48%), calcium (9,03%), phosphorus (2,66%), amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84%) and acidity (8,34). Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05). The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets. (author) [es

  6. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Salas-Durán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to meassure the effect of shrimp meal (SM in commercial laying hen diets. From April to September 2013, in Costa Rica, Pleuroncodes planipes was used to obtain a meal (SM with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40.67%, ether extract (11.05%, crude fiber (7.12%, ash (27.48%, calcium (9.03%, phosphorus (2.66%, amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84% and acidity (8.34. Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05. The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets.

  7. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT IN PIGLETS FED A SESAME MEAL OR SOYBEAN MEAL DIET

    OpenAIRE

    Araceli Aguilera Barreyro; Tércia Reis de Souza; Gerardo Mariscal-Landín; Guerrero Carrillo María de Jesús; Konisgmar Escobar García; Guadalupe Bernal Santos; Teresa García Gasca

    2014-01-01

    An important indicator to recommend a protein source for piglet nutrition is the absence of intestinal damage. The effects of sesame or soybean meal based diets on Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) morphophysiology, diarrhea incidence and severity in piglets were studied during the first two weeks post-weaning. Thirty-six piglets weaned at 21 days of age were fed one of three diets: A control casein diet (C), a Sesame Meal diet (SM), or a Soybean Meal Diet (SBM). Diarrhea incidence and fecal score...

  8. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  9. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein......The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...

  10. Effect of meal environment on diet quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2009-01-01

    Family meals have been associated with improved dietary quality in children and adolescents, and yet very little is known about family meals beyond their frequency. Specific aspects of the breakfast, lunch, and dinner meal environments were described and compared, and the associations with overall diet quality were investigated. Data on food intake and meal environments were obtained in northern Ontario, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia grades six, seven, and eight classrooms over the 2005 to 2006 school year. Specific aspects of the meal environments described were where the meal was consumed, with whom participants consumed each meal, who prepared the meal, and where the food was originally purchased. Diet quality was assessed using the Canadian version of the Healthy Eating Index. Cluster K-means procedures were used to classify into groups observations about the four meal environment variables. Three, eight, and six clusters of meal environments were identified for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Diet quality was negatively associated with consuming/ purchasing meals outside the home, and with skipping breakfast, lunch, and/or dinner. Results have immediate relevance for family-based and/or school programs and policies aimed at educating and feeding children and adolescents.

  11. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  12. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  13. Fortification of cassava peel meals in balanced diets for rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-week feeding trial was conducted with twenty-four individually caged growing rabbits weighing initially 300 - 380g. Six experimental diets were formulated such that diet 1 was a maize-soyabean based control while in diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, cassava peel meal totally replaced maize. There was also a stepwise ...

  14. Effect of supplementation of cassava peel meal based diet with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility and economic indices of broiler finishers fed soaked and sun-dried cassava peel meal (CPM) based diet. CPM was included in the diets replacing maize at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% ...

  15. Partial replacement of fish meal with Azolla meal in diets for Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement of fishmeal (FM) with Azolla meal (AM) in diets on growth and fatty acid in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (initial mean weight: 16.4 g) was studied. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ.g-1) diets containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% AM respectively, ...

  16. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  17. Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing castor seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicory, Isis Miranda Carvalho; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libanio; Costa-Lopes, Lívia Santos; Souza, Fábio Nicory Costa; de Oliveira Nascimento, Camila

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P  0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P ingestive behavior.

  18. Utilization Of Diets Containing Cashew-Nut Reject Meal By Weaner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to assess the performance and digestibility of weaner pigs fed diets containing cashew nut reject meal (CNM). A control diet was formulated without cashew nut reject meal while two other diets were also formulated to contain either 50g or 100g/kg diet. The CNM replaced soybean meal in the control ...

  19. Use of Sunflower Meal with Enzyme Mixture Substituted for Soybean Meal in Broiler Diets

    OpenAIRE

    KIRKPINAR, Figen; BASMACIOĞLU, Hatice

    2001-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effects of sunflower meal with an enzyme mixture containing a-amylase, ß-glucanase, cellulase, lipase and protease substituted for soybean meal in broiler diets on performance, intestinal weight, viscosity and pH, as well as the frequency of sticky droppings and abdominal fat. In the trial, a total of 960 one-day-old Avian broiler chicks were used. The trial lasted 6 weeks. A total of 12 experimental diets were supplied ad libitum. Dietary treatme...

  20. The family meal panacea: exploring how different aspects of family meal occurrence, meal habits and meal enjoyment relate to young children's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-07-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict the quality of children's diets after controlling for indicators of maternal capital that influence both meal rituals and taste preferences. Eating the same food as parents is the aspect of family meals most strongly linked to better diets in children, highlighting the detrimental effect in the rise of 'children's food'. Although theoretical and empirical work pointed to the important health advantage in children eating together with parents, the results suggested that eating together was a far less important aspect of family meals. In evaluating the importance of the family meal, this article redirects attention away from issues of form and function towards issues of food choice. Policy implications and the importance for public health to recognise the way eating habits are defined by and reproduce social and cultural capital are discussed. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Feed preference of weaned pigs fed diets containing soybean meal, Brassica napus canola meal, or Brassica juncea canola meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landero, Jose L; Wang, Li Fang; Beltranena, Eduardo; Bench, Clover J; Zijlstra, Ruurd T

    2018-03-06

    Brassica napus and Brassica juncea canola meal (CM) may replace soybean meal (SBM) in pig diets, but differ in fiber, glucosinolates content and profile. Preference of weaned pigs provided double-choice selections to diets containing 20% SBM, B. napus CM, or B. juncea CM was evaluated in two studies. In experiment 1, 216 pigs (9.4 ± 1.6 kg initial BW) were housed in 27 pens of 8 pigs (four gilts and four barrows). In experiment 2, 144 pigs (8.9 ± 1.1 kg) were housed in 36 pens of 4 pigs (two gilts and two barrows). Pigs were offered three dietary choices: B. napus CM with SBM as reference (B. napus CM [SBM]), B. juncea CM with SBM as reference (B. juncea CM [SBM]), and B. juncea CM with B. napus CM as reference (B. juncea CM [B. napus CM]) in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square. Diets were formulated to provide 2.4 Mcal NE/kg and 4.5 g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal NE and were balanced using canola oil and crystalline AA. Each pair of diets was offered in two self-feeders per pen as mash (experiment 1) or pellets (experiment 2) during three test-periods of 4-d, followed by a 3-d non-test period when a common diet was offered in both feeders. Feeders with different diets were rotated daily among pens during preference periods for both experiments, and feeder positions (right or left) were switched daily in experiment 2. Prior to the study and between periods, pigs were fed non-test diets containing SBM (experiment 1) or without test feedstuffs (experiment 2). Overall in both experiments, pigs preferred (P 0.05) growth performance in both experiments, except for greater G:F (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the B. juncea CM [B. napus CM] diets than pigs fed the B. napus CM [SBM] or B. juncea CM [SBM] diets in experiment 1. In conclusion, weaned pigs preferred SBM over CM diets when given a choice, and preferred B. napus over the B. juncea diet that contained more total glucosinolates especially gluconapin. Weaned pigs fed the B. juncea CM [B. napus CM] diets in the

  2. A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  3. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  4. Bacterial protein meal in diets for growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Kjos, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    % of the digestible nitrogen (N), respectively. Once during each balance period, 22-h respiration experiments were performed using indirect calorimetry. Daily weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate were the same for all diets. The apparent digestibility of N was lower on diet BP10 than on BP0 (P = 0...... blocks according to age. One pig from each litter was fed one of the four experimental diets. Soya-bean meal was replaced with BPM on the basis of digestible protein, and the BPM contents in the four diets were 0% (BP0), 5% (BP5), 10% (BP10) and 15% (BP15), corresponding to 0%, 17%, 35% and 52.......002), whereas the apparent digestibility of energy was similar on all diets. The retention of nitrogen did not differ between diets and was 1.50, 1.53, 1.33 and 1.46 g N per kg0.75 per day on BP0, BP5, BP10 and BP15, respectively. Neither metabolisable energy intake nor heat production were affected...

  5. Understanding meal patterns: definitions, methodology and impact on nutrient intake and diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; Worsley, Anthony; Timperio, Anna; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, nutrition research has focused on individual nutrients, and more recently dietary patterns. However, there has been relatively little focus on dietary intake at the level of a 'meal'. The purpose of the present paper was to review the literature on adults' meal patterns, including how meal patterns have previously been defined and their associations with nutrient intakes and diet quality. For this narrative literature review, a comprehensive search of electronic databases was undertaken to identify studies in adults aged ≥ 19 years that have investigated meal patterns and their association with nutrient intakes and/or diet quality. To date, different approaches have been used to define meals with little investigation of how these definitions influence the characterisation of meal patterns. This review identified thirty-four and fourteen studies that have examined associations between adults' meals patterns, nutrient intakes and diet quality, respectively. Most studies defined meals using a participant-identified approach, but varied in the additional criteria used to determine individual meals, snacks and/or eating occasions. Studies also varied in the types of meal patterns, nutrients and diet quality indicators examined. The most consistent finding was an inverse association between skipping breakfast and diet quality. No consistent association was found for other meal patterns, and little research has examined how meal timing is associated with diet quality. In conclusion, an understanding of the influence of different meal definitions on the characterisation of meal patterns will facilitate the interpretation of the existing literature, and may provide guidance on the most appropriate definitions to use.

  6. Evaluation and utilization of blood meal diets by weaner pigs reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects on growth and cost benefits of substituting soybean meal (SBM) with blood meal (BM) in diets of weaner pigs. Possible pathogenic bacteria contamination and nutritional contents of the BM were determined prior to feed formulation. Four weaner diets (A, B, C, and D) were formulated such ...

  7. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  8. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Karin E; Caan, Matthan W A; Nederveen, Aart J; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2014-08-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to consuming large meals, is detrimental in the accumulation of intrahepatic and abdominal fat. To test this hypothesis, we randomized 36 lean, healthy men to a 40% hypercaloric diet for 6 weeks or a eucaloric control diet and measured intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), abdominal fat using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and insulin sensitivity using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with a glucose isotope tracer before and after the diet intervention. The caloric surplus consisted of fat and sugar (high-fat-high-sugar; HFHS) or sugar only (high-sugar; HS) and was consumed together with, or between, the three main meals, thereby increasing meal size or meal frequency. All hypercaloric diets similarly increased body mass index (BMI). Increasing meal frequency significantly increased IHTG (HFHS mean relative increase of 45%; P = 0.016 and HS mean relative increase of 110%; P = 0.047), whereas increasing meal size did not (2-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] size versus frequency P = 0.03). Abdominal fat increased in the HFHS-frequency group (+63.3 ± 42.8 mL; P = 0.004) and tended to increase in the HS-frequency group (+46.5 ± 50.7 mL; P = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease in the HFHS-frequency group while peripheral insulin sensitivity was not affected. A hypercaloric diet with high meal frequency increased IHTG and abdominal fat independent of caloric content and body weight gain, whereas increasing meal size did not. This study suggests that snacking, a common feature in the Western diet, independently contributes to hepatic steatosis and obesity. ( www

  9. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs...

  10. Effects of fish-meal, cow blood-meal, and sorghum diets on food utilization and growth of cage cultured Sarotherodon niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Ufodike, E.B.C.; Ugwuzor, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    The growth responses and feed utilization of Sarotherodon niloticus held in metal cages in a pond and fed diets containing fish-meal, cow blood-meal or sorghum was studied. Results indicate that the best growth, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio were obtained with the diet containing 60% fish-meal. The growth performance of fish on 40% fish-meal, and 40% and 60% blood meal were not significantly different, and were quite close to the performance with 60% fish-meal. The growth and f...

  11. THE EFFECT OF EXPIRED BREAD MEAL AS CORN SUBSTITUTION IN DIET ON BROILER PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the expired bread meal used as corn substitution in thebroiler diets to optimally the product performance. One hundred day old chick (DOC male broilerswere given the same diet until 2 weeks old, and then given the treatment diet until 7 weeks of age. ACompletely Randomized Design was used in this study. Data were analyzed by variance of analysis, andfollowed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test The treatments were : T0 = control feed (without expiredbread meal, T1 = corn substituted with 10% expired bread meal, T2 = corn substituted with 20%expired bread meal, T3 = corn substituted with 30% expired bread meal and T4 = corn substituted with40% expired bread meal. The result indicated that corn substituted with expired bread meal up to 40%has not significantly affected on carcass weight, carcass percentage and feed conversion, but decreasedsignificantly on feed consumption and body weight gain. It can be concluded that the use of expiredbread meal 30% of the proportion of corn produced the most optimal broiler performance. Thesubstitution corn with expired bread meal 40% was decreased body weight gain.

  12. Replacement value of poultry visceral offal meal in the diet of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the replacement value of poultry visceral offal meal (PVOM) substituting for fish meal (FM) on an equal protein basis in the diets or unsexed Ross-strain broiler chickens from day-old to 8 weeks of age. One hundred and fifty birds were allotted in groups of 10 into 15 equidimeosional ...

  13. Replacement of fish meal with maggots in broiler diets: Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replacement of fish meal with maggots in broiler diets: Effects on performance and nutrient retention. JO Atteh, FD Ologbenla. Abstract. The effects of replacing O, 33.3, 66.7 or 100% of dietary fish meal (9%) with housefly maggots (Musca domestica. Linn) was investigated using broilers from day old to 5 weeks of age.

  14. Fermented soybean meal exhibits probiotic properties when included in Japanese quail diet in replacement of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazi, V; Ashayerizadeh, A; Toghyani, M; Shabani, A; Tellez, G; Toghyani, M

    2018-03-15

    This study was conducted to investigate and compare the effect of dietary probiotic mixture (PM) and organic acid (OA) mixture with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on performance, crop, and ceca microbiota, small intestine morphology, and serum lipid profile in Japanese quails. A total of 800 day-old Japanese quails was randomly allotted to 5 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 20 birds each, for 35 days. The experimental diets consisted of a control corn-soybean meal diet and 4 test diets: 1) control diet + 0.1% PM; 2) control diet + 0.2% OA mixture; 3) control diet + the combination of both PM and OA; and 4) an additives-free diet in which the soybean meal in the control diet was replaced with FSBM. The results indicated that in starter and the entire rearing periods, FSBM, PM, and PM+OA diets had significantly lower FCR compared to control or OA diets (P < 0.05). Birds in the FSBM group gained higher weight than control and OA birds (P < 0.05; 1 to 35 d). At d 21 and 35, birds fed the control diet showed significantly lower numbers of lactic acid bacteria in the crop, while coliforms were higher in the cecal content compared to the other diets (P < 0.05). At d 21, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed PM, PM+OA, and FSBM diets were greater than in other treatments (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of birds fed PM, PM+OA, and FSBM diets were significantly lower than birds in control and AO groups (P < 0.05). The results obtained herein suggest that FSBM exhibits probiotic properties and, when used in substitution of SBM in Japanese quail diet, can improve growth performance, balance of desirable gastrointestinal microbiota in crop and ceca, small intestinal morphology, and serum lipid profile-likewise, a probiotic supplement.

  15. Use of soybean cake replacing soybean meal in diets of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth dos Santos Moura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation parameters in sheep fed diets containing levels of substitution of soybean meal for soybean cake. The diets consisted of five levels of protein soybean meal (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % by soybean cake. Diets were formulated with 12.5% CP, respecting the forage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60.Tifton-85 hay was used as forage and the concentrate was formulated with corn, soybean meal, soybean cake and vitamin mineral supplement. Five crossbred lambs castrated, with average weight of 33.7 ± 5.8 kg were used and distributed in a Latin Square 5 × 5. No differences in intake and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrate, non-fiber carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients. Increased linearly in ether extract intake by replacing protein from soybean meal by soybean cake in the diet but with no changes in the digestibility of this component. The nitrogen balance, nitrogen content fecal and urinary retained were not influenced by levels of substitution of soybean meal by soybeans cake in diets. For the index pH and concentration of ammonia nitrogen in rumen fluid did not differ between diets. It was concluded that the soybean cake can be used as an alternative food to replace soybean meal up to 100% unless there are changes in the rumen parameters, balance of nitrogen, intake and nutrient digestibility.

  16. The potential of snail (Pila leopoldvillensis meal as protein supplement in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelo, PM.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical analysis revealed that raw golden snail meal (R. GSM had 53.22 %, 6.01 % and 0.49 % crudeprotein, calcium and phosphorus respectively. The cooked golden snail meal (C. GSM had 52.25 % CP, 6.51 % Ca and 0.41 % P. Birds fed with fish meal (control had significantly the highest feed conversion ratio followed by the birds fed the (C. GSM (P 0.05. The gain in weight of the birds fed the (C. GSM had comparable gain in weight with the birds fed the control diet. There were no significant differences observed in a second experiment because the somme feed ingredients had compensated for the deficiency of the nutrients to meet the requirements of the birds. Results reveal that the ingredients of golden snail meal in broiler diets is just as good as incorporating the imported fish meal.

  17. Evaluation of raw rock phosphate as substitute for bone meal in diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiment was conducted to determine the optimal replacement level of Raw Rock Phosphate (RRP) for bone meal in layers diet. A total of 144, 55 week-old shavers X Hubbard cross-strain laying hens were used for the study. Triplicate groups of 12 hens per replicate were placed on four test diets containing 0, 1, 1.5 and ...

  18. Substitution of Cottonseed Cake with Palm Kernel Meal in Diets for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight gain and feed utilization declined significantly as dietary level of palm kernel meal were increased to 24% or higher, probably due to reductions in diet palatability and presence of increased levels of dietary fibre. The result of this study suggest that tilapia diet can comprise 20% cottonseed cake and 16% palm kernel ...

  19. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  20. The Effect of Replacing Fish Meal in the Diet with Enzyme-Treated Soybean Meal (HP310) on Growth and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghbayan, Samira; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2015-11-26

    The potential of enzyme-treated soybean meal powder (HP310) as fish meal alternative in diets for rainbow trout weighing 1.17 ± 0.3 g was evaluated for 60 days. Fish meal was replaced with HP310 at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of experimental diets. A control group was also considered. The results showed that diets containing 75% and 100% HP310 had significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower feed intake, weight gain and specific growth rate compared to fish feed diets containing higher levels of fish protein ingredients (p replacement levels of diet (p > 0.05). However increasing in level of HP310 in the diet caused a significant increase of the white blood cells (p replaced by HP310 showed the highest values of ash and moisture content among the diets and showed significantly different levels when compared with the control and other feeding treatments (p < 0.05).

  1. Utilization of fish offal meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate effect of replacing fish meal (FM) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% with fish offal meal (FOM) in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. At the start of experiment, ten glass aquaria of size 70 cm x 45 cm x 40 cm/each, filled with well water up to 70 L of its volume were stocked with 100 ...

  2. Slimming starters. Intake of a diet-congruent food reduces meal intake in active dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Nicola J; Finlayson, Graham; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-12-01

    Dietary restraint is known to break down in the face of tempting foods. Previous research suggests exposure to cues associated with slimming such as images or odours act as prompts to restrict intake of a tempting snack in dieters. The effects of consuming diet-congruent foods on subsequent intake of a meal have not yet been investigated. Thus, using a repeated measures design 26 female participants (dieters or non-dieters) consumed a diet-congruent (100 kcal salad), hedonic (100 kcal garlic bread) or neutral (0 kcal water) preload. A lexical decision task measured the salience of diet and hedonic thoughts and participants were then offered pizza as a main meal. Appetite sensations were measured throughout the study. Compared to the hedonic and neutral preload, a diet-congruent preload reduced dieters' entire meal intake by 21%. In contrast, non-dieters consumed 9% more in the hedonic preload condition compared to the neutral preload, yet showed no differences between the diet-congruent and other conditions. Salad lowered participants desire to eat and increased fullness compared to garlic bread and water preloads. Dieters were also less hungry after the salad compared to the garlic bread and water preloads. Consuming a diet-congruent first course may prompt lower intake at a meal, in part due to facilitating resolve to refrain from overeating a tempting second course. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Dietary effects of introducing school meals based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Christensen, Tue

    2014-01-01

    The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during the...... to the higher fish intake. In conclusion, the present study showed that the overall dietary intake at the food and nutrient levels was improved among children aged 8-11 years when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the principles of the NND.......The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during...... the school day in a cluster-randomised cross-over design. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years from forty-six school classes at nine schools received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The whole diet of the children was recorded...

  4. Diet supplement effect based on cottonseed meal and Vitellaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of supplementing lactating cows with cottonseed meal and Vitellaria paradoxa leaves in the rainy season on milk yield and content, cows daily weight gain and profitability. The experimental design was 3 × 3 Latin square with 5 repetitions. Fifteen Borgou cows were ...

  5. Feather and blood meal in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out (pre-starter and starter phases to evaluate the effect of feather and blood meal on performance, organ development and digestibility and retention of nutrients in broilers. In the first experiment, it was used 280 birds and in experiment 2, it was used 240 birds. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of feather and blood meal (0%, 2%, 4% and 6% all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed on the 4th and 7th days of age in experiment 1 and on the 14th and 17th days of age in experiment 2. In these periods, one bird per experimental unit was sacrificed for determination of morphometry of the digestive organs. In experiment 1, in which it was evaluated the pre-starter phase, there was a negative linear effect of the levels of feather and blood meal on weight gain and intake in 1-21 day of age period. By using feather and blood meal in the diet, it was observed a linear effect on digestibility coefficient of dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract; there was a quadratic effect on retention of dry matter and nitrogen and linear effect on the retention of ether extract. However, performance of birds in the starter phase (experiment 2 was not affected by levels of feather and blood meal used in the diet. Coefficient of digestibility of dry matter and ether extract and retention of ether extract were affected. In both phases, mortality and morphometric data of digestive organs were not influenced by the levels of meal in the diet. Formulation of diets with up to 6% feather and blood meal for chickens in the pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days is not a good alternative because it worsens performance of birds. However, from the initial phase (from 8 to 21 days, the use of feather and blood meal in the diet is viable. Feather and blood meal can be used at levels 3.0 or 4.0% for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phase.

  6. The traceability of animal meals in layer diets as detected by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Denadai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to trace the inclusion of animal meals in layer diets by analyzing eggs and their fractions (yolk and albumen using the technique of carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Two-hundred and eighty-eight (288 73-week-old Shaver White layers, never fed animal ingredients, were randomly distributed in six treatments with six replicates each. The treatments were: control - corn and soybean meal based diet and five other experimental diets including bovine meat and bone meal (MBM; poultry offal meal (POM; feather meal (FM; feather meal and poultry offal meal (OFM, and poultry offal meal, feather meal, and meat and bone meal (MBOFM. The isotopic results were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance. Ellipses were determined through an error matrix (95% confidence to identify differences between treatments and the control group. In the albumen and yolk of all experimental treatments were significantly different from the control diet (p < 0.05. In summary, the stable isotope technique is able to trace the animal meals included in layer feeds in the final product under these experimental conditions.

  7. Performance and economic analysis of broilers fed diets containing acerola meal in replacement of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Henrique Zanetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed with this research to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing increasing levels of acerola meal in replacement of corn and analyze the economic viability of that production system. A total of 980 day-old male Cobb chicks were used, allotted in a completely randomized design, with four treatments - inclusion levels (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of acerola meal in replacement of corn – and seven replications with 35 birds per experimental unit. The birds were weighed at 21 and 42 days of age to measure the performance data. In the period between 1 and 21 days of age, differences were observed in the feed intake and feed:gain only, in which the inclusion of acerola meal linearly decreased feed intake and improved feed:gain up to a level of 10.25%. For the total rearing period, the control treatment showed higher body weight. The feed:gain showed linear effect, worsening the results with increasing amounts of acerola meal in the diets. In the same period, there was no significant difference in feed intake and productive efficiency index. With regard to the economic analysis, it was found that the lowest final cost per broiler was observed in diets with 10% of acerola meal inclusion in replacement of corn.

  8. Evaluation of cassava leaf meal protein in fish and soybean meal-based diets for young pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The unavailability and high cost of traditional ingredients calls for more research into alternative sources for pig feeding in the South Pacific region. The effect of replacing feed protein with cassava leaf meal (CLM protein in weaner and growing pigs’ diets was investigated in two experiments. In experiment 1, three diets in which CLM protein replaced 0, 15 and 30% of feed protein were fed each to five replicate pens of weaner pigs. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved and feed cost of gain reduced (P<0.05 on 30% while dressing percentage was maximized (P<0.05 on 15% protein replacement diets. In experiment 2, three diets containing 0, 30 and 45% CLM protein as replacement for feed protein were fed as in experiment 1 to grower pigs. FI and BWG were reduced while FCR and feed cost of gain were increased (P<0.05 above 30% protein replacement. Dressing percentage assumed the highest value (P<0.05 on 30% replacement. It was concluded that replacing 30% of feed protein with sun-dried CLM protein will maintain growth and reduce cost of pork production. Efficient use of CLM in the diet will be an alternative way of value addition to this by-product.

  9. Associations between adult perception of body weight, diet, preparing meals and dietary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Guzek, Dominika

    The links between dietary patterns, the perception of one’s body weight and diet as well preparing meals are poorly recognised in the literature. In order to develop effective nutritional education and focused interventions, more of such information is thereby required to improve the nation’s health To identify dietary patterns based on declared food consumption rates and subject responses on whether dieting, perception of body weight and diet and preparing meals are linked to such dietary patterns The survey was conducted in 2016 on 344 consumers chosen for age (20-65 years) and their consent for study participation. Rates of eating the foods selected were measured using a 7-point scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns of behaviour: ‘potentially beneficial to health’, ‘potentially unfavourable for health; deficient’ and ‘potentially unfavourable for health; excessive’. The analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 There were significantly more subjects showing ‘potentially beneficial for health’ behaviour, normal body weight, those dieting (whether now or in the past) and those who evaluated their diet as being very good or good compared to other groups. They were also more involved in preparing their meals at home. Differences were found between the ‘unfavourable for health’ dietary patterns concerning subject’s involvement in meal preparation. The dietary pattern for ‘deficient’ behaviour found lower rates of those preparing their meals at home The pattern of potentially beneficial dietary habits was linked to weight control through a slimming diet and greater involvement in the preparation of food for consumption. The results show the need to develop food choice skills rather than just transferring knowledge in the nutrition education process

  10. Substitution of fishmeal with soybean meal in humpback Grouper, Cromileptes altivelis juvenile diets supplemented with phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Syah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean meal in diet on growth of humpback grouper. Fifteen cages of 1 x 1 x 1.2 m3 each stocked with 16 humpback grouper juveniles (61.3 ± 0.4 g/pc were set up randomly in seawater. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily for 112 days. The control diet contained 61.9% fishmeal (63.34% crude protein. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (4.7 kcal/g feed diets supplemented with commercial phytase “Rhonozyme-P” at 0.075% were formulated to contain different levels (8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% soybean meal (43.65% crude protein as a partial replacement for fishmeal. These diets contained total phosphorus levels between 3.6—4.5 (±0.4 % and 0.7—1.5 (±0.04 % available phosphorus. Replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal (8 to 32% replacement was not significantly different (P>0.05 to the control diet on daily growth rate (DGR, food conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, and daily food consumption (DFC. However, the dietary levels of soybean meal significantly affected (P<0.05 whole body protein and phosphorus retention (Table 1. These data suggest that addition of phytase in diets could improve protein and phosphorus availability and reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loading in the environment. Phytase can therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly feed for humpback grouper. Based on P loading, supplementation of phytase enable up to 24% fishmeal replacement with soybean meal.

  11. FERMENTED BLOOD MEAL USE FOR TIGER GROUPER, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus GROW-OUT DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Usman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to evaluate the optimal level of fermented blood meal used in grow-out diets for tiger grouper, as an alternative protein source to fish meal. Juvenile tiger grouper, initial weight 31.1 ± 2.1 g, were stocked into 1 m x 1 m x 2 m floating net cages at 20 fish cage-1. The treatment applied was isoprotein and isocaloric diets formulated to contain fermented blood meal (FBM of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% replacement of fish meal protein. The diets were fed to the fish twice a day to satiation for 20 weeks. Based on the Tukey test, the fish fed 0%–15.0% FBM demonstrated similar performance (P>0.05 to those fed the control diet (FBM0 in terms of specific growth rate, weight gain, and feed and protein efficiency. Specific growth rate, weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency of the fish fed 22.5%–30.5% FBM were significantly lower (P<0.05 than those of the fish fed control diet (FBM0. However, there was a significant culvilinier decliner in overall fish performance with increasing inclusion of FPM and most notable for weight gain, feed efficiency and feed consumption. Based on regression analysis, the asymptote where fish growth deteriorates as a function of FBM inclusion was determined to be 8.9%. Tiger grouper diets incorporating up to 9% FBM as fish meal replacement had no adverse affects on fish growth and survival.

  12. Nutrient digestibility in Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus fed diets containing animal meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gugołek

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Three digestibility experiments on Arctic foxes were carried out. Control groups were fed standard diets (C1 and C2 composed of fresh or frozen animal by-products and steamed ground grain. Dry experimental diets (E1 and E2 contained animal meals, extracted meals and fat, were mixed with water prior to administration. In a preliminary experiment, the digestibility of dry diet E1 moistened with water for 15min and 24h was compared to determine the optimum moistening time during the experimental period proper. The preliminary experiment showed that moistening time had no significant effect on digestibility. In the main experiment, two independent digestibility trials were performed to compare the digestibility of diets fed to foxes during growth (C1 vs. E1 and fur development (C2 vs. E2. Better nutrient digestibility was noted for control diets, compared to experimental. The greatest differences were reported for total protein digestibility. Protein contained in meals undergoes denaturation during heat treatment, which reduces digestibility. It was found that the retention of nitrogen in relation to nitrogen digestion was higher in foxes fed experimental diets (E1 and E2.

  13. A PUFA-rich diet improves fat oxidation following saturated fat-rich meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jada L; Miller, Mary K; Skillman, Hannah E; Paton, Chad M; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-08-01

    To determine substrate oxidation responses to saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich meals before and after a 7-day polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet versus control diet. Twenty-six, normal-weight, adults were randomly assigned to either PUFA or control diet. Following a 3-day lead-in diet, participants completed the pre-diet visit where anthropometrics and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured, and two SFA-rich HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat oxidation (Fox) and energy expenditure (EE) for 4 h after each meal. Participants then consumed a PUFA-rich diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 21 % of total energy was PUFA) or control diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 7 % of total energy was PUFA) for the next 7 days. Following the 7-day diet, participants completed the post-diet visit. From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was no change in RMR (16.3 ± 0.8 vs. 16.4 ± 0.8 kcal/20 min) or in incremental area under the curve for EE (118.9 ± 20.6-126.9 ± 14.1 kcal/8h, ns). Fasting respiratory exchange ratio increased from pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet only (0.83 ± 0.1-0.86 ± 0.1, p diet (0.03 ± 0.1-0.23 ± 0.1 g/15 min for cumulative Fox; p diet initiates greater fat oxidation after eating occasional high SFA meals compared to a control diet, an effect achieved in 7 days.

  14. Evaluation of Kola-Pod Husk Meal in Broiler Finisher Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is the world's largest producer of kola nut. The pod husk, which constitutes over 50% of the kola fruit, has been a farm waste to date. Its crude protein content which is similar to that of maize suggests that it is possible to partially replace maize with pod husk meal (KPHM) in broiler finisher diets. In this study, KPHM ...

  15. Substitution of Earthworm Meal with a Portion of Fishmeal in the Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of mean weight 2.15±0.01g were fed on earthworm meal as a substitute for a portion of fishmeal for 10 weeks to determine the effect on growth and nutrient utilization. The fish were fed isonitrogenous Diets (40% crude protein) containing 10%, 15%, 25%, 30%, 40%, and 0% ...

  16. Optimal levels of fish meal and lysine in maize based diets for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for growing pigs, before threonine and/or tryptophan, are non- essential amino acids which is probably also the case for the low protein diets used in the present trial. Conclusions. For both sexes, live mass gain and feed utilization improved with an increase in dietary fish meal level from 4 to 8 0J0 while an increase in lysine ...

  17. Mixtures of oilseed meals as dietary protein sources in diets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CSM) and groundnut cake (GNC) as ingredients to replace fish meal in the diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.), was evaluated over a 56-day growth period. Nine isonitrogenous (320g.kg-1), isolipidic (100 g.kg-1) and isoenergetic (18 ...

  18. The Use of Sweet Almond Meal as a Protein Source in Japanese Quails Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjomandi MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment, the chemical composition, apparent metabolizable energy (AME, AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME, TME corrected for nitrogen (TMEn values of the sweet almond meal were determined in adult Leghorn cockerels. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet almond meal at 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg on Japanese quail's growth performance, some blood metabolites, relative weight of different organs, meat quality and egg yolk cholesterol in a completely randomized design with 288 Japanese quails including 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 18 birds per replicate. The metabolizable energy values of sweet almond meal were following: AME = 3734, AMEn = 3648, TME = 3908, TMEn = 3746 kcal/kg as fed basis. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and live weight gain and relative weight of different organs in the birds fed diets with different levels of the sweet almond meal were not statistically different from control. A sweet almond meal at 300 g/kg level showed the lower serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05 compared to control and 100 g/kg sweet almond meal. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on the total cholesterol content of quail's eggs. Malondialdehyde concentration in breast meat samples after 40 days freezing decreased, whereas the level of sweet almond meal increased (P < 0.01. In general, a sweet almond meal without any adverse effect on growth performance is a good source of energy and protein and can be used up to 300 g/kg of the Japanese quail diets.

  19. Replacement of fish meal by poultry by-product meal, food grade, in diets for juvenile spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisantema Hernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of replacing fish meal protein at different levels with poultry by product meal food grade (PBM-FG was assessed in diets for spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus. Four diets were formulated, the control diet fish meal was used as the main protein source (FM; the other three diets had increasing levels of PBM-FG replacing 25, 50 or 75% of the fish meal protein respectively. The diets were fed close to apparent satiation, three times a day to quadruplicate groups of juvenile snapper (average body weight 11.0 ± 0.04 g. The fish were randomly distributed into groups of 15 fish in a 120 L seawater tank. The response of snapper to diets containing graded levels of fish meal was evaluated by measuring weight gain, feed efficiency, body composition, hematological parameters and apparent nutrient digestibility during a 12-week period. The replacing of the 25% of fish meal protein by PBM-FG did show a similar trend for feed efficiency and growth performance than control diet. Feed efficiency and growth performance was reduced at 75% level of fish meal protein replacement by PBM-FG, due to deficiencies of lysine and methionine. The final whole-body proximate composition did not differ among treatments. The hematological characteristics were similar among the treatments control, 25 and 50%, but the fish fed PBM-FG 75% showed the lowest levels for total protein and glucose parameters. The dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs decreased with increasing dietary PBM-FG. High values for lipid ADCs were observed in all diets.

  20. Apparent digestibility coefficients of the extruded pellet diets containing various fish meals for olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mostafizur Rahman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs of dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid, energy, essential amino acids, and fatty acids in extruded pellets containing various fish meals were determined for olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight extruded pellet diets were prepared to contain different fish meals (herring fish meal, anchovy fish meal, mackerel fish meal, sardine fish meal-A, sardine fish meal-B, tuna fish meal, pollock fish meal-A, and pollock fish meal-B designated as HM, AM, MM, SM-A, SM-B, TM, PM-A, and PM-B, respectively. Chromic oxide (Cr2O3 was used as an inert indicator at a concentration of 0.5 % in the diet. Feces were collected from triplicate groups of fish (151 ± 4.0 g using a fecal collection column attached to the fish rearing tank for 4 weeks. Dry matter ADCs of the MM, SM-A, SM-B, and PM-A diets were higher than those of all the other dietary groups, and the lowest digestibility of dry matter was observed in the PM-B diet. Fish fed the MM, SM-A, and PM-A diets showed significantly higher ADC of protein than those fed the AM, SM-B, TM, and PM-B diets. Lipid ADC of PM-B was significantly lower than that of the other diets. Energy ADCs of fish fed the MM, SM-A, and PM-A diets were significantly higher than those of the other diets. The availability of essential amino acids in the MM, SM-A, and PM-A diets were generally higher than that of the other fish meal diets, while TM showed the lowest values among all the experimental diets. ADCs of fatty acids in the AM, MM, SM-A, and PM-A diets were generally higher than those of fatty acids in the other diets, and the lowest values were recorded for the PM-B diet. These results provide information on the bioavailability of nutrients and energy in various fish meals which can be used to properly formulate practical extruded feeds for olive flounder.

  1. Meal pattern of male rats maintained on amino acid supplemented diets: the effect of tryptophan, lysine, arginine, proline and threonine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaso, Raghad; Ghattas, Hala; Abiad, Mohamad; Obeid, Omar

    2014-07-01

    The macronutrient composition of the diet has been shown to affect food intake, with proteins having distinct effects. The present study investigated the effect of diet supplementation with individual amino acids (tryptophan, lysine, arginine, proline and threonine) on meal pattern among male rats. Meal pattern and body weight were monitored for two weeks. Proline and threonine had minimal effects on meal pattern, while the most pronounced changes were observed in the tryptophan group. Both tryptophan and lysine decreased overall food intake, which was translated into a reduction in body weight. The reduced food intake of the tryptophan group was associated with an increase in meal size, intermeal intervals (IMI) and meal time and a decrease in meal number. The decrease in the food intake of the lysine group was associated with a reduction in both IMI and meal number, and this was accompanied by an increase in meal time. Arginine increased meal number, while decreasing IMI. Proline and threonine had a minimal effect on meal pattern. Lysine seems to increase satiety, and arginine seems to decrease it, while tryptophan seems to increase satiety and decrease satiation. Accordingly, changes in meal patterns are associated with the type of amino acid added to the diet.

  2. Meal Pattern of Male Rats Maintained on Amino Acid Supplemented Diets: The Effect of Tryptophan, Lysine, Arginine, Proline and Threonine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghad Ayaso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The macronutrient composition of the diet has been shown to affect food intake, with proteins having distinct effects. The present study investigated the effect of diet supplementation with individual amino acids (tryptophan, lysine, arginine, proline and threonine on meal pattern among male rats. Meal pattern and body weight were monitored for two weeks. Proline and threonine had minimal effects on meal pattern, while the most pronounced changes were observed in the tryptophan group. Both tryptophan and lysine decreased overall food intake, which was translated into a reduction in body weight. The reduced food intake of the tryptophan group was associated with an increase in meal size, intermeal intervals (IMI and meal time and a decrease in meal number. The decrease in the food intake of the lysine group was associated with a reduction in both IMI and meal number, and this was accompanied by an increase in meal time. Arginine increased meal number, while decreasing IMI. Proline and threonine had a minimal effect on meal pattern. Lysine seems to increase satiety, and arginine seems to decrease it, while tryptophan seems to increase satiety and decrease satiation. Accordingly, changes in meal patterns are associated with the type of amino acid added to the diet.

  3. Intake, digestibility and performance of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Alana Batista; Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; de Oliveira Silva, Herymá Giovane; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; de Jesus Pereira, Taiala Cristina; Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; das Graças Conceição Parada Costa Silva, Maria; Sousa, Larisse Borges; Sousa, Leandro Borges; de Oliveira Alencar, Daiane

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and plasma glucose concentration of ram lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal substituting maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85 % dry matter (DM)). Thirty Santa Inês rams with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. The substitution of the maize for the peach palm meal affected (P < 0.05) the intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), total carbohydrates (TC), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and metabolizable energy (ME), which decreased linearly (P < 0.05); the intake of ether extract (EE), however, fit an increasing linear equation (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, NDFap, and TC decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the level of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The total weight gain and the average daily gain decreased by 0.09 and 0.001 kg with each level of substitution of the maize for peach palm meal, respectively. It is recommended to substitute 40 % of the maize for peach palm meal.

  4. Fish by-product meal in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ferreira Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the increasing levels (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4% of fish by-product meal in diets for laying hens on performance, egg quality and economic analysis. A total of 160 Dekalb White hens with 52-wk old were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. The experiment lasted 84 days divided into four periods of 21 days. Estimates of fish by-product meal levels were determined by polynomial regression. Differences (p < 0.05 were detected for all variables of performance, in egg weight, yolk and albumen percentage, yolk and albumen height, feed cost and production cost, in which the inclusion of fish by-product meal in the diets showed better results. It can be concluded that fish by-product meal can be used in diets for hens as alternative feed, with better results in egg production, feed conversion, egg weight, yolk-albumen ratio and a reduction in feed cost and production cost.

  5. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  6. The use of mustard meal as a protein source in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piched Sangsrijun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustard meal (MM from an essential oil extraction plant was dried under the sun or in a gas-heated pan. Its crude protein, ether extract and fiber contents on dry matter (DM basis were 30-32, 19-22 and 12- 13%, respectively. The metabolizable energy values of the sun dried and the gas dried meals were 2.89 and 2.44 kcal/g DM, respectively. The meal obtained from either the sun or the gas drying process was incorporated into broiler diets at 0, 10, 20 or 30% through the whole 6 weeks of experimental period. It was found that body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency decreased with the increasing levels of MM. The overall performance indicated that MM could be incorporated in broiler diet at 10% during 2-7 weeks of age without any adverse effects. Since older chicks can tolerate higher level of fiber and toxic substances from MM, the incorporation of MM to the diet fed only during week 7 can be up to 20%, which is corresponding to the substitution of 62% soybean meal. No significant differences among groups on carcass quality (i.e. dressing percentage and the weight of liver, pancreas and abdominal fat were observed. However, the thyroid gland was found to enlarge with the increasing levels of MM.

  7. The nutritive value of poultry diets containing sunflower meal supplemented by enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sredanović Slavica A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international limitations imposed on the utilization of meat and bone meals in animal diets, together with the increasing demand for soybean meal, create a necessity to search for other protein sources to economically balance compound feeds. In this regard it is important to note that sunflower is the best adapted high-protein crop available in some European regions and that is useful to use it in poultry farming as the replacement of other protein sources. Protein and many other nutrients are “imprisoned” to variable degrees, inside sunflower meal fibrous structures, and remain less available for digestion by the poultry’s own proteases and other endogenous enzymes. Added exogenous enzymes (phytase, hemicellulase, cellulase, carbohydrase, protease, etc. offer a number of creative possibilities for breakdown and “liberation” of these nutrients, their easier digestion and absorption, and thus development of new nutritional standards and new diets formulation. Supplementation of poultry diets containing sunflower meal by different enzymes increasingly contribute to sustainable poultry farming by enhancing production efficiency, increasing the effectiveness of nutrient utilization and upgrading in environmental protection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46012

  8. Poultry viscera and bone meal in broiler pre-starter and starter diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of viscera and bone meal in poultry pre-starter and starter diets and its effects on performance, digestive organ development and digestibility and nutrient retention were evaluated. In the first assay, 280-day-old Avian Cobb® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 14 birds each, in the pre-starter phase; in the second assay, 280 eight-day-old Avian Cobb 48® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental diet consisted of increasing levels of viscera and bone meal: 0% (control diet, 3%, 6% and 9% in pre-starter (Assay 1 and starter (Assay 2 diets, to meet nutritional requirements and feed composition proposed by the Brazilian Tables, all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed and the total excreta collection was performed from the 4th to the 7th days in Assay 1 and from the 14th to the 17th days in Assay 2. On these days, one chick per experimental unit, representing the mean body weight of the parcel, was euthanized to perform digestive organ morphometry. Mean body weight was 45.4±0.4 on the 1st day in Assay 1 and 179.5±0.8 at 8 days of age in Assay 2. In Assay 1, a negative linear effect was observed for weight gain. Levels of viscera and bone meal influenced quadratically nitrogen digestibility index (Y = 66.0101 + 0.482425X - 0.0481086X² and linearly the digestibility of dry matter (Y = 71.7775 - 0.615792X and ether extract (Y = 78.3678 - 0.309136X. Morphometric measures of digestive organs were not influenced by viscera and bone meal levels. For Assay 2, negative and linear effect was observed for viscera and bone meal levels on weight gain (Y = 551.667 - 5.08341X and feed intake (Y = 955.961 - 7.48435X. Quadratic effect was observed for ether extract digestibility (Y = 82.557 + 1.12021X - 0.150117X² and maximum point was obtained at 3.7% viscera and bone meal inclusion for ether extract retention

  9. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background:Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high......-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread...... (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h...

  10. Partial Replacement of soybean cake with amaranthus spinosus leaf meal in the diet of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniji, C.A.; Fakoya, K.A.; Omamohwo, V.R.

    2007-01-01

    The study, designed to assess the potentials of oven dried Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal as partial replacement for soybean cake in the diet of Nile Tilapia, revealed no significant difference (P>0.05) in feed and protein intake. Fish fed on Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal diets had significant (P<0.05) higher survival percentage, while that on soybean cake meal (control diet) recorded significant (P<0.05) better weight gain, average daily rate of growth, efficient feed and protein utilization as well as average final weight. (author)

  11. Detoxified castor meal in substitution of soybean meal in sheep diet: growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Roberto Germano; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Medeiros, Geovergue Rodrigues; Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Nascimento, Thiago Vinicius Costa; de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Filho, José Morais Pereira; Busato, Karina Costa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed different levels of replacement (0, 15, 30, and 45 % based on dry matter, DM) of soybean meal (SM) by detoxified castor meal (DCM). Twenty-four and 32 intact hair lambs of nondescript breed (21.7 ± 2.6 kg of initial average body weight and approximately 10 months old) were used, respectively, in the intake and digestibility and performance experiments. The diets were composed of buffel grass hay, ground corn grain, and different levels of SM, DCM, and urea, in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. There was no effect of treatments on DM intake. However, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher at 30 and 45 % than at 0 and 15 % of DCM, which in turn showed higher intake of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) (P replacement of SM by DCM up to 45 % in the feed of lambs did not negatively affect the intake, digestibility, performance, and main carcass features.

  12. Meals and snacking, diet quality and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France

    2014-07-01

    The present obesity "epidemic" has been attributed to a growing trend for snacking. Snacking may contribute to excess energy intake and weight gain through different ways, for example: context/environment of eating, frequency of consumption and quality of food choices. The present article reviews data and hypotheses about the role of snacks in diet quality and body weight control. One obvious difficulty in this field is the diversity of definitions and approaches used in cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies. A brief paragraph reviews the prevalence of snacking in various countries and its recent evolution. The literature addressing the contribution of snacks to daily energy and nutrient intake presents two contrasting pictures. In many reports, snacking appears to facilitate the adjustment of energy intake to needs, and to contribute carbohydrates, rather than fats, to the diet, in addition to valuable micronutrients. Such results are usually reported in healthy, normal-weight children and adults. By contrast, snacking often appears to contribute much energy but little nutrition in the diet of other consumers, particularly obese children and adults. In addition to selecting energy-dense foods, eating in the absence of hunger in response to external non-physiological cues, in an irregular fashion, in contexts (e.g. while watching television) that do not favor attention to the act of eating, might be crucial factors determining the nutritional effects of snacking. While efforts should be continued to harmonize definitions and minimize the influence of under-reporting, interventions aimed at decreasing detrimental snacking should address both food-related aspects and behavioral components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing or Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Safwat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM or Moringa oleifera (MOLM leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05 in feed, dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001, meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  14. Nitrogen utilization from diets with refined and blended poultry by-products as partial fish meal replacements in diets for low-salinity cultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three trials were performed to evaluate partial fish meal (FM) replacement with poultry by-products in a practical-type diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus reared in low-salinity. Two refined and blended meals (BP67, BP70), two chicken concentrates (CC66, CC70) and one standard pet-food ...

  15. The effects of oil palm leaf meal-based diets on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oil palm leaf meal-based diets on the growth performance and haematological indices of red Sokoto goats. ... Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in the Red Blood Cell (RBC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Haemoglobin (Hb) counts, ranging between 3.12 - 4.20x106ml; 23.00 -30.50% and 7.70 ...

  16. Age Maturity of Female Japanese Quails Fed Diets Containing Katuk Leave Meal (Sauropus androgynus L.Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Wiradimadja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effects of katuk leave meal on sexual maturity in Japanese quail. Three hundred female Japanese quails, with 4 weeks age, were assigned into a completely randomized design with 4 treatments i.e., R1 (diet with neither katuk leave meal nor cholesterin, R2 (diet without katuk leave meal + 0.10% cholesterin, R3 (diet with 15% katuk leave meal without cholesterin, and R4 (diet with 15% katuk leave meal + 0.10% cholesterin. The parameters measured were estradiol hormone in plasma, and age maturity (five percent henday production. Estradiol hormone was measured with Radioimmunoassay. The data were collected and analyzed by using completely randomized design. The results showed that the addition of 15% katuk leave meal in the diet significantly decreased the estrogen concentration (P<0.05, so that slow down on the age maturity of female Japanese quail. (Animal Production 9(2: 67-72 (2007Key Words : Katuk leave meal, estradiol hormone, age maturity, quail

  17. Sunflower Meal and Supplementation of an Enzyme Complex in Layer Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAG Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of 64- to 79-wk-old laying hens fed diets supplemented with an enzyme complex (EC and containing increasing sunflower meal (SFM levels. A total of 384 Hy-Line Brown layers were distributed according to a randomized block design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (four levels of SFM, and inclusion or not of EC, with eight replicates of six birds each unit. The levels of SFM inclusion were 0, 8, 16 and 24%, utilized in two distinct diets. Diets were calculated to meet all the nutritional requirements of birds, except for the nutrients that would be made available by the nutritional matrix of the enzyme complex, with or without utilization of EC. The parameters analyzed were feed intake (g/bird/day, egg production (%/bird/day, egg weight, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion ratio per egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs, body weight gain, egg components (yolk, albumen and eggshell and the economic efficiency index (EEI. There was no interaction between EC addition and the SFM levels in the diet. The addition of EC in the diets of laying hens did not affect egg productive or components parameters. The increase in the SFM levels in the diet presented quadratic effect on egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs, with calculated optimal sunflower meal inclusion levels of 6.72% and 5.83%, respectively, for each parameter. The best economic efficiency per dozen eggs was obtained with the diet with 16.0% SFM and EC inclusion, whereas per egg mass with the diet with of 24.0% SFM and no EC addition.

  18. Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal with Lupin Seed-based Meal in Chicken Diet on Performance, Carcass Value and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this experimental study was to determine how diets containing lupin meal affect the performance indicators, carcass value, and chemical composition of breast and thigh muscles in broiler chickens. The diets tested in experimental groups E1 and E2 differed as follows: in group E1, one third of nitrogen-containing substances (NSs from extracted soybean meal was replaced with NSs from lupin meal; in group E2, two thirds were replaced compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal in experimental diets failed to produce any significant effect on the average live weight of chickens on Day 42 of the fattening period compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal resulted in decreased average weight of carcass and breast muscles and in decreased yield of breast muscles. Differences between the control group (C and group E2 were significant (P ⪬ 0.01. Chickens in group E2 also showed a significant increase (P ⪬ 0.01 in the yield of the heart and stomach compared to the control group. The differences in weight and yield of thigh muscles between the control group and the experimental groups (E1 and E2 were not significantly affected. As far as chemical composition is concerned, chickens receiving the lupin-containing feed showed a significant (P ⪬ 0.01 increase in the ash content in breast muscles. On the contrary, in thigh muscles in group E2, the ash content decreased significantly (P ⪬ 0.01. The content of calcium showed an increasing trend in both breast and thigh muscles in both experimental groups. In contrast, the content of magnesium in chicken muscles in both experimental groups decreased. These differences were significant (P ⪬ 0.01 only in thigh muscles. Our results show that lupin seed is a suitable substitute for NSs contained in soybean extracted meal. It is considered optimal to replace up to one third of NSs contained in

  19. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A study on the meat and bone meal or poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fishmeal in concentrated diets for Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Hu, Yangjiang; Yu, Yu

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fishmeal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). The experimental diets included 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% MBM or PBM replacement of total fishmeal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric. The results showed that there are no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among the treatments fed with 0% 60% MBM replacement of fishmeal, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decrease when fishmeal is replaced by 80% MBM. The result showed also that there are no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all treatments fed with the diets with 0% 80% replacements of fishmeal with PBM.

  1. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Isaksson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day and a nibbling (seven meals per day meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  2. Design of the OPUS School Meal Study: A randomised controlled trial assessing the impact of serving school meals based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Danish children consume too much sugar and not enough whole grain, fish, fruit, and vegetables. The Nordic region is rich in such foods with a strong health-promoting potential. We lack randomised controlled trials that investigate the developmental and health impact of serving school...... meals based on Nordic foods. Aim: This paper describes the rationale, design, study population, and potential implications of the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. Methods: In a cluster-randomised cross-over design......, 1021 children from 3rd and 4th grades (8–11 years old) at nine Danish municipal schools were invited to participate. Classes were assigned to two 3-month periods with free school meals based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) or their usual packed lunch (control). Dietary intake, nutrient status, physical...

  3. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P meal in the diets of layer chicks showed a similar body weight gain/bird/day with the control. Undecorticated sunflower seed meal used in this study is a good source of crude protein, ether extract, and amino acids and had the potential to serve as feeding stuffs as replacement for soybeans. The nutritive value of undecorticated sunflower seed meal was improved for layer chicks with exogenous enzyme supplementation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Inclusion of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler diets: a meta-analysis of effects on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Umar Faruk, M; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Bastianelli, D

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding.

  5. Healthy Eating Index-C is compromised among adolescents with body weight concerns, weight loss dieting, and meal skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M; Lambraki, Irene; Storey, Kate E; McCargar, Linda

    2008-12-01

    The objective was to describe weight concerns, dieting, and meal skipping of adolescents and to determine associations with the Healthy Eating Index-C (HEI-C). Data, that were collected using the Food Behaviour Questionnaire, revealed that participants (male=810, female=1016) in grades 9/10 reported weight concerns (n=518), dieting (n=364), and skipping breakfast (n=498), lunch (n=252), and/or dinner (n=129). Of those dieting or weight concerned (n=602), 61% were healthy weight and of those not dieting or weight concerned (n=1224), 13% were overweight/obese. The ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that HEI-C was likely to be rated lower among those weight concerned and dieting (pbreakfast meal (p<.001). The current study identified inappropriate weight concerns and dieting that compromised diet quality and has implications for future intervention and policy development.

  6. Mediterranean diet adherence in the Mediterranean healthy eating, aging and lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marventano, Stefano; Godos, Justyna; Platania, Alessio; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    A decline in adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern has been observed over the last years. The aim of this study was to assess the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and possible determinants in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort. Demographic and dietary data of 1937 individuals were collected in 2014-2015 from the general population of Catania, Sicily (Italy). Food frequency questionnaires and the MEDI-LITE score were used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The score well characterised consumption of major food groups, micro- and macro-nutrients. The cohort had a general good adherence, but only a minority was highly adherent. High adherence was directly associated with education, non-smoking and physical activity and inversely with high occupational status. In conclusions, Mediterranean diet is still followed in Sicily; however, nutrition education campaigns should promote healthy traditional dietary patterns in certain groups of individuals.

  7. Evaluation of soybean meal replacement with sesame seed meal using activated charcoal as an additive in the diet of African catfish juveniles, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyideen Owonire Lawal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of 0.25% activated charcoal added to sesame seed meal (SSM in partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM of juvenile Clarias gariepinus diet on growth and haematological parameters for 70 day experimental period. Six experimental diets were formulated as: control diet 1 (100% SSM without activated charcoal, control diet 2 (100% SSM plus 0.25% activated charcoal, diet 3 (50% SMB+50% SSM, diet 4 (50% SBM+50% SSM+0.25% AC, diet 5 (30% SBM+70% SSM and diet 6 (30% SBM+70% SSM+0.25AC. The inclusion of activated charcoal recorded significant improvement in mean weight gain, mean feed intake, specific growth rate (SGR, protein intake (PI and protein efficiency ratio (PER. The control diet 2 recorded the highest values for growth and nutrient utilization parameters while diet 5 recorded the least values for these parameters. The best values for mean weight gain (65.33±5.57 g, specific growth rate (2.56±0.12% / day and feed conversion ratio (0.71±0.05 were recorded in fish fed control diet 2 while the worst values (41.30±3.82 g, 1.92±0.11% / day, and 1.07±0.07, respectively for these parameters were observed with diet 5. However, haematological parameters did not differ significantly across the diets. Thus, from this study 0.25% activated charcoal could favorably be added to the feed of C. gariepinusfor optimum performance without any adverse effect on the health status of the fish.

  8. Dietary nucleotide supplementation enhances immune responses and survival to Streptococcus iniae in hybrid tilapia fed diet containing low fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yen Shiau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of nucleotide (NT supplementation in diet on immune responses and disease resistance of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus. Nucleotide was added at 0, 120, 240, 360, 480 and 600 mg NT/kg to low fish meal (6% and high soybean meal (56% basal diet for a total of 6 experimental diets. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of tilapia (initial body weight 0.15 ± 0.005 g in a recirculated freshwater rearing system for 10 weeks. Head kidney leukocyte superoxide anion production ratio was higher (P 80% were observed in fish fed diets supplemented with NT than fish fed the NT unsupplemented control diet (56.7%. These results suggest that nucleotides supplemented at 120–240 mg NT/kg in diet enhances immune responses and survival of tilapia fed low fish meal and high soybean meal diet.

  9. Effect of Cucurbita mixta (L.) seed meal enrichment diet on growth, immune response and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Mohamed Saiyad; Jawahar Ali, Abdul Rahman; Arun Kumar, Meenatchi Sundaram; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2017-09-01

    The impact of Cucurbita mixta (L.) seed meal enriched diet on growth performance, innate immune response, and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. O. mossambicus was fed with 2 g kg -1 , 4 g kg -1 , and 6 g kg -1  C. mixta seed meal diets for a period of 4 weeks. The results indicated that C. mixta seed meal diets at 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 significantly (P < 0.05) enhances the survival rate, weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed efficiency (FE) from weeks 1-4 when compared to control. C. mixta seed meals administered as feed supplements significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the complement activity, phagocytic activity, respiratory burst activity, and lysosome activity in infected fish fed with 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 of C. mixta seed meal enriched diet from weeks 2-4. The cumulative mortality was lower in the fish fed with 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 of C. mixta seed meal enriched diets (15% and 18%) than with 2 g kg -1 diet (26%). The present investigation suggested that C. mixta seed meal enriched diet at 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 enhance the better growth performance, innate immunity, and disease resistance against A. hydrophilla in O. mossambicus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Replacement of soybean meal with maize steep liquor in the diets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ferreira

    2015-12-14

    Dec 14, 2015 ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v45i5.9. Replacement of soybean meal with maize steep liquor in the diets of feedlot lambs. A.P.D. de Freitas, M.deA. Ferreira, J.P.F. de Oliveira, Á.E.M. da Silva, L.F.P. Soares,. J.deL. Silva#, L.E. Salla & A.R.D.L. Souza. Department of Animal Science, Federal Rural University ...

  11. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Utilisation of cassava products-copra meal based diets supplemented with or without Allzyme SSF by growing pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarra, S. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of cassava root-leaf meal (CRLM and copra meal with or without enzyme by growing pullets was investigated. A total of 180 six week-old Shaver 579 pullets (549.79 ? 0.39 g/bird were allotted to 12 floor pens containing 15 birds each. A commercial grower diet (control and 2 diets based on CRLM and copra meal with or without added Allzyme? SSF (test diets were fed each to 4 replicate pens in a completely randomized design. Growth performance, age at first egg, feed cost of rearing and the count of floor primary feathers formed the major response criteria. Birds fed the control commercial diet consumed more feed and gained more weight (P0.05 between the control and enzyme supplemented CRLM groups. There was no dietary effect (P>0.05 on the weight of the first egg among the 3 groups. Feed cost of rearing was reduced (P0.05 between the two test diets as well as between the enzyme supplemented and the control diets. It was concluded that CRLM and copra meal can be used as major energy and protein sources respectively in growing pullets? diets. Enzyme supplementation may however, be needed to maintain performance of the birds.

  13. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  15. Meal Frequency but Not Snack Frequency Is Associated with Micronutrient Intakes and Overall Diet Quality in Australian Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; Livingstone, Katherine M; Worsley, Anthony; Timperio, Anna; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-10-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with poorer diet quality among adults, but evidence of associations for other eating patterns [e.g., eating occasion (EO), meal, or snack frequency] is equivocal. An understanding of how eating patterns are associated with diet quality is needed to inform population-level dietary recommendations. We aimed in this cross-sectional study to determine the relation between frequency of meals, snacks, and all EOs with nutrient intakes and diet quality in a representative sample of Australian adults. Dietary data for 5242 adults aged ≥19 y collected via two 24-h recalls during the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed. EO, meal, and snack frequency was calculated. Adherence to recommendations for healthy eating was assessed with the use of the 2013 Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI) and its subcomponents. Linear regression, adjusted for covariates and energy misreporting, was used to examine associations between eating patterns, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, and the DGI-2013. The frequency of meals, but not of snacks, was positively associated with micronutrient intakes, overall diet quality [men: β = 5.6 (95% CI: 3.9, 7.3); women: β = 4.1 (95% CI: 2.2, 5.9); P frequency of all EOs, meals, and snacks was positively associated with DGI-2013 scores for food variety, fruits, and dairy foods (P frequency was associated with a lower compliance with guidelines for discretionary foods and added sugars among men (P meal frequency is an important determinant of nutrient intakes and diet quality in Australian adults. Inconsistent associations for snack frequency suggest that the quality of snack choices is variable. More research examining the dietary profiles of eating patterns and their relations with diet quality is needed to inform the development of meal-based guidelines and messages that encourage healthy eating. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Carcass and cut yields of broiler chickens fed diet containing purslane meal rich in omega-3 fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, LR; Hertanto, B. S.; Nuhriawangsa, A. MP

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of diets containing Portulaca oleraceae (purslane) as a source of omega-3 fats on carcass and cut yields of broiler chickens. One-day old unsexed Lohmann broiler chickens (n = 180) were used and randomly allocated into 30 pens (each pen contained 6 birds). The pens were randomly assigned to five experimental diets with 6 replicates (36 birds per treatment). The diets were formulated by supplementing a basal diet with purslane meal at a level of 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0%. For a period of 42 days, water and diets were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and body weight gain were collected weekly to determine feed conversion ratio. The collected data were analysed using analysis of variance. If there were significant differences between treatment means, the analysis was continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Findings showed that diets enriched with omega-3 fats, alpha-linolenic acid did not change body weight and carcass percentage of broilers. In terms of cuts yield, there was no significant different on the percentage of breast, back and wings by feeding diets supplemented with purslane meal. However, the inclusion levels of dietary purslane meal significantly affected the percentage of thighs (P<0.05) with the highest weight achieved for diets supplemented with 3% purslane meal. Drumsticks tended to increase (P = 0.056) by feeding the experimental diets. It was concluded that the inclusion level of 6% purslane meal didn’t have negative effect on carcass and cut yields of broiler chickens.

  17. Hazelnut meal in diets for seawater farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss: effects on growth performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Bilen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-day feeding trial was designed in order to assess the effect of partial or total replacement of soybean meal by hazelnut meal (HNM on feed intake, growth performance, nutrient utilization and body composition of rainbow trout (initial mean body weight: 80.0±3.5 g in seawater conditions. A control and three experimental diets were formulated in which soybean meal level (25.5% in the control diet was replaced by hazelnut meal at 39.2 (HN 39, 78.4 (HN 78 and 100% (HN 100 to provide 44% crude protein and 20% crude lipid diets. Diets were fed to 125 rainbow trout to apparent satiation by hand twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours under natural photoperiod conditions. At the end of the feeding trial, fish of all groups almost tripled their body weight and no significant difference (P>0.05 was revealed in final weight or specific growth rate between treatments. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR of the HN100 group was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.05. There was a slightly decreasing trend in protein efficiency ratio (PER and net protein utilization (NPU with increasing level of dietary hazelnut meal, but it was only significant in groups of fish fed HN100. All groups of fish displayed similar carcass and muscle compositions. According to the results of the present study, it can be stated that hazelnut meal can replace soybean meal at up to 200 g kg-1 in grow-out diets of rainbow trout without any detrimental effects on growth performance.

  18. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Karin E.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2014-01-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to

  19. The microbes we eat: abundance and taxonomy of microbes consumed in a day's worth of meals for three diet types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jenna M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Zivkovic, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Far more attention has been paid to the microbes in our feces than the microbes in our food. Research efforts dedicated to the microbes that we eat have historically been focused on a fairly narrow range of species, namely those which cause disease and those which are thought to confer some "probiotic" health benefit. Little is known about the effects of ingested microbial communities that are present in typical American diets, and even the basic questions of which microbes, how many of them, and how much they vary from diet to diet and meal to meal, have not been answered. We characterized the microbiota of three different dietary patterns in order to estimate: the average total amount of daily microbes ingested via food and beverages, and their composition in three daily meal plans representing three different dietary patterns. The three dietary patterns analyzed were: (1) the Average American (AMERICAN): focused on convenience foods, (2) USDA recommended (USDA): emphasizing fruits and vegetables, lean meat, dairy, and whole grains, and (3) Vegan (VEGAN): excluding all animal products. Meals were prepared in a home kitchen or purchased at restaurants and blended, followed by microbial analysis including aerobic, anaerobic, yeast and mold plate counts as well as 16S rRNA PCR survey analysis. Based on plate counts, the USDA meal plan had the highest total amount of microbes at 1.3 × 10(9) CFU per day, followed by the VEGAN meal plan and the AMERICAN meal plan at 6 × 10(6) and 1.4 × 10(6) CFU per day respectively. There was no significant difference in diversity among the three dietary patterns. Individual meals clustered based on taxonomic composition independent of dietary pattern. For example, meals that were abundant in Lactic Acid Bacteria were from all three dietary patterns. Some taxonomic groups were correlated with the nutritional content of the meals. Predictive metagenome analysis using PICRUSt indicated differences in some functional KEGG categories

  20. Sensory quality of mayonnaise formulated with eggs produced by laying hens fed diet enriched with purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the sensory quality of mayonnaise formulated by egg yolks produced by hens fed purslane meal as a source of omega-3 (n-3) fats, alpha-linolenic acid. Eggs used were produced by Hy-Line Brown hens (38 weeks old) fed five diets suplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. A total of 40 eggs of day 29 (n = 8 eggs for each treatment) were collected to formulate mayonnaise. The ingredient composition of mayonnaise was 14% egg yolks, 9% vinegar, 74% corn oil, 1% salt, 1% sugar, and 1% mustard. The parameters included colour, emulsion stability, texture, homogeneity, aroma, taste and flavour of mayonnaise. The findings of sensory evaluation by quantitative descriptive analysis showed that the use of egg yolk from hens fed dietary purslane meal up to 8% resulted in a significant effect on the yellow color of mayonnaise, but did not significantly affect emulsion stability, texture, homogeneity, aroma, taste, and flavour. Based on consumer preference, consumers did not detect any differences in the sensory characteristics between mayonnaise prepared from control eggs and those formulated with eggs produced from dietary treatment. Apparently, there was an increase in colour liking by inclusion of purslane meal. In conclusion, eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with purslane meal improved the colour intensity of mayonnaise. Mayonnaise formulation using eggs from diets added with Portulaca oleraceae meal up to a level of 8% can be applied without influencing mayonnaise sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance.

  1. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  2. Shared meals among young adults are associated with better diet quality and predicted by family meal patterns during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Fulkerson, Jayne; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-05-01

    To describe shared meal patterns and examine associations with dietary intake among young adults. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study (Project EAT: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Participants completed surveys and FFQ in high-school classrooms in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, USA in 1998-1999 (mean age = 15·0 years, 'adolescence') and follow-up measures online or by mail in 2008-2009 (mean age = 25·3 years, 'young adulthood'). There were 2052 participants who responded to the 10-year follow-up survey and reported on frequency of having shared meals. Among young adults, the frequency of shared meals during the past week was as follows: never (9·9 %), one or two times (24·7 %), three to six times (39·1 %) and seven or more times (26·3 %). Having more frequent family meals during adolescence predicted a higher frequency of shared meals in young adulthood above and beyond other relevant sociodemographic factors such as household composition and parental status. Compared with young adults who never had family meals during adolescence, those young adults who reported seven or more family meals per week during adolescence had an average of one additional shared meal per week. Having more frequent shared meals in young adulthood was associated with greater intake of fruit among males and females, and with higher intakes of vegetables, milk products and some key nutrients among females. Nutrition professionals should encourage families of adolescents to share meals often and establish the tradition of eating together, and work with young adults to ensure that healthy food and beverage choices are offered at mealtimes.

  3. Nutritional quality of the diets of US public school children and the role of the school meal programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa A; Fox, Mary Kay

    2009-02-01

    Good nutrition is essential to healthy childhood. Because the school meal programs--the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program--are so widely available, they are in a unique position to influence the nutritional quality of children's diets. This article assesses the nutritional quality of the diets of US public school children and explores the relationship between children's participation in the school meal programs and the nutritional quality of their diets. Data were collected as part of the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA-III), a nationally representative study fielded during school year 2004-2005. Data on children's dietary intakes were collected through in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Nutritional quality of children's diets was assessed by estimating the prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes of energy and nutrients. The analysis is based on a nationally representative sample of 2,314 children in grades 1 through 12 from 287 public schools. Nutrient adequacy and excess were assessed by comparing usual nutrient intake distributions to Dietary Reference Intakes and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Propensity score matching was used to examine the relationship between school meal program participation and the prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes. The majority of public school children in the United States had nutritionally adequate diets, but 80% had excessive intakes of saturated fat and 92% had excessive intakes of sodium. School meal program participation was associated with reduced prevalence of nutrient inadequacy but with increased prevalence of excessive sodium intakes. School meal programs play an important role in the nutritional adequacy of children's diets. However, the association between program participation and excessive sodium intakes, along with the high prevalence of excessive saturated fat intakes among all students, suggest areas for improvement in the meals these

  4. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  5. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Adu Obirikorang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal resulted in a significantly higher feed bulk density relative to the fishmeal control diet. The inclusions of copra and palm kernel meals, however, resulted in lower feed bulk densities. Sinking rates, water stabilities and nutrient retention efficiencies of feed pellets were directly related to feed bulk densities. The soybean meal diet had the fastest sinking velocities, greatest water stability and highest nutrient retention rates. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal, however, significantly impaired feed intake compared to the other three diets. Mean daily feed intakes of the control, palm kernel meal and copra meal diets corresponded to 28.88, 27.01 and 28.31 g during the experimental period and varied significantly from the mean daily intake of the soybean meal diet which corresponded to 20.01 g. Faecal matter production (g dry mass kg−1 ingested feed was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion.

  6. Eating meals before wheel-running exercise attenuate high fat diet-driven obesity in mice under two meals per day schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Yuta; Ikeda, Yuko; Kamagata, Mayo; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-06-01

    Mice that exercise after meals gain less body weight and visceral fat compared to those that exercised before meals under a one meal/exercise time per day schedule. Humans generally eat two or three meals per day, and rarely have only one meal. To extend our previous observations, we examined here whether a "two meals, two exercise sessions per day" schedule was optimal in terms of maintaining a healthy body weight. In this experiment, "morning" refers to the beginning of the active phase (the "morning" for nocturnal animals). We found that 2-h feeding before 2-h exercise in the morning and evening (F-Ex/F-Ex) resulted in greater attenuation of high fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain compared to other combinations of feeding and exercise under two daily meals and two daily exercise periods. There were no significant differences in total food intake and total wheel counts, but feeding before exercise in the morning groups (F-Ex/F-Ex and F-Ex/Ex-F) increased the morning wheel counts. These results suggest that habitual exercise after feeding in the morning and evening is more effective for preventing HFD-induced weight gain. We also determined whether there were any correlations between food intake, wheel rotation, visceral fat volume and skeletal muscle volumes. We found positive associations between gastrocnemius muscle volumes and morning wheel counts, as well as negative associations between morning food intake volumes/body weight and morning wheel counts. These results suggest that morning exercise-induced increase of muscle volume may refer to anti-obesity. Evening exercise is negatively associated with fat volume increases, suggesting that this practice may counteract fat deposition. Our multifactorial analysis revealed that morning food intake helps to increase exercise, and that evening exercise reduced fat volumes. Thus, exercise in the morning or evening is important for preventing the onset of obesity.

  7. The Effect of Addition Pineapple Peel Meal (Ananas comosus (L) Merr) in Diet on Total Egg and Egg Duck Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Muharlien Muharlien; Vitra Vitra; Muhammad Halim Natsir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of addition pinneapple peel meal in diet on total egg and egg quality duck. Materials of the research were 60 mojosari ducks at seven months old. The treatment of pineapple peel meal addition in diet were treatment on level of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Variable were numbers of egg, egg shell thickness, fat and cholesterol egg yolk. The datas were analyzed using ANOVA from Randomized Block Design (RBD), if the result had significant effect, would be co...

  8. Replacement of fish meal protein by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nutrient requirement of Trichogaster trichopterus, a fish meal-based basal diet with 350 g/kg diet crude protein and 16.7 MJ/kg energy was formulated, in which the fish meal protein was replaced by surimi by-product protein at 0.0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum to T. trichopterus fingerlings (4.80 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups for 45 days in a closed water system. Eighteen fibre-reinforced plastic tanks with 200 l of water were used for rearing the fish. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed/gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility (protein and energy) of fish were not affected (p > 0.05) up to 50% fish meal protein replacement level by surimi by-product protein. While whole-body protein content of fish was marginally decreased, the lipid content was increased with increase in surumi by-product incorporation level in the diet. The study results suggest that the fish meal protein, which is scarce and costly nowadays, could be replaced up to 50% by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami without hampering the growth and nutrient utilization of fish. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Hunger and satiety responses to high-fat meals after a high-polyunsaturated fat diet: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jada L; Paton, Chad M; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) elicit a greater response in satiety after a single-meal challenge compared with other types of fats. The long-term effects of PUFAs on satiety, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine subjective and physiological hunger and satiety responses to high-fat (HF) meals before and after a 7-d PUFA-rich diet. Twenty-six, healthy weight (body mass index 18-24.9 kg/m 2 ), sedentary adults were randomly assigned to either a 7-d PUFA-rich diet (n = 8 men and n = 8 women) or a 7-d control diet (n = 5 men and n = 5 women). After a 3-d lead-in diet, participants reported for the baseline visit where anthropometrics, fasting visual analog scale (VAS) measurements, and a fasting blood sample were collected. Then, two HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Postprandial blood draws and VAS measures were collected approximately every 30 min for 4 h after each meal, for a total of 8 h. From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was a decrease in fasting ghrelin (P hunger and satiety; yet, did not alter subjective ratings of hunger or fullness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sunflower meal in commercial layer diets formulated on total and digestible amino acids basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EM Casartelli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conduced to evaluate the inclusion of sunflower meal (SBM in commercial layer diets formulated on total or digestible amino acids basis. One hundred forty-four 41-week-old Lohmann LSL layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement with three replications of six birds each. Treatments consisted of a combination of four SBM inclusion levels SBM(0%, 4%, 8%, and 12% and feed formulation according two amino acid recommendations (total or digestible. The experimental period was divided into five periods of fourteen days. Performance parameters (egg production, feed intake, feed conversion, egg mass were evaluated for each period. In the last two days of each period, three eggs per replication were collected to evaluate egg quality (Haugh units, specific gravity, egg weight, eggshell thickness, and eggshell percentage. Hens fed on total amino acid recommendation presented the highest values for egg weight. Diets formulated on digestible amino acids basis showed an improvement in eggshell percentage and egg specific gravity. SBM addition in commercial layer diets did not influence performance; however, increasing SBM dietary levels SBM improved eggshell quality.

  11. Meal planning is associated with food variety, diet quality and body weight status in a large sample of French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Aroumougame, Vani; Ibanez, Gladys; Allès, Benjamin; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2017-02-02

    Meal planning could be a potential tool to offset time scarcity and therefore encourage home meal preparation, which has been linked with an improved diet quality. However, to date, meal planning has received little attention in the scientific literature. The aim of our cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between meal planning and diet quality, including adherence to nutritional guidelines and food variety, as well as weight status. Meal planning, i.e. planning ahead the foods that will be eaten for the next few days, was assessed in 40,554 participants of the web-based observational NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary measurements included intakes of energy, nutrients, food groups, and adherence to the French nutritional guidelines (mPNNS-GS) estimated through repeated 24-h dietary records. A food variety score was also calculated using Food Frequency Questionnaire. Weight and height were self-reported. Association between meal planning and dietary intakes were assessed using ANCOVAs, while associations with quartiles of mPNNS-GS scores, quartiles of food variety score and weight status categories (overweight, obesity) were evaluated using logistic regression models. A total of 57% of the participants declared to plan meals at least occasionally. Meal planners were more likely to have a higher mPNNS-GS (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.13, 95% CI: [1.07-1.20]), higher overall food variety (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.25, 95% CI: [1.18-1.32]). In women, meal planning was associated with lower odds of being overweight (OR = 0.92 [0.87-0.98]) and obese (OR = 0.79 [0.73-0.86]). In men, the association was significant for obesity only (OR = 0.81 [0.69-0.94]). Meal planning was associated with a healthier diet and less obesity. Although no causality can be inferred from the reported associations, these data suggest that meal planning could potentially be relevant for obesity prevention.

  12. Effects of school meals based on the New Nordic Diet on intake of signature foods: a randomised controlled trial. The OPUS School Meal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ege, Majken; Christensen, Tue; Ygil, Karin H; Thorsen, Anne V; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-09-14

    A New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in the context of the Danish OPUS Study (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet). Health, gastronomic potential, sustainability and Nordic identity were crucial principles of the NND. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of serving NND school meals compared with the usual packed lunches on the dietary intake of NND signature foods. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The entire diet was recorded over 7 consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes during the entire week (% increase) of root vegetables (116 (95 % CI 1·93, 2·42)), cabbage (26 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·47)), legumes (22 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·40)), herbs (175 (95 % CI 2·36, 3·20)), fresh berries (48 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·94)), nuts and seeds (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·38)), lean fish and fish products (47 (95 % CI 1·31, 1·66)), fat fish and fish products (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·37)) and potatoes (129 (95 % CI 2·05, 2·56)). Furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by NND school meals. In conclusion, this study showed that the children increased their intake of NND signature foods, and, furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes of NND signature foods when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the NND principles.

  13. Total diet, individual meals, and their association with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehranghiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify the association of total diet and individual meals with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Methods: This age- and sex-matched case-control study was carried out among 217 subjects (106 cases and 111 controls. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a GERD checklist and a 3-day food record. Results: Cases consumed more fat (median: 26.3 [3.2-71.5] g vs. 21.8 [4.3-58.1] g; P=0.04and more energy percent form carbohydrates (median: 72.5 [0-100] vs. 69.0 [0-100]; P=0.02at lunch, and less energy (median: 129.5 kcal [0-617.6] vs. 170.5 kcal [0-615.7]; P=0.01 and protein (2.4 [0-19.4] g vs. 3.1 [0-21.8] g; P=0.01 at evening snack, compared to controls.The volume of food was significantly different between the two group only at lunch (median:516 [161-1292] g vs. 468 [198-1060] g; P=0.02. The percentage of energy from total dietary protein showed a significant association with GERD after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio[OR]=0.89; 95% CI: 0.81-0.98. Regarding the individual meals, amount of fat consumed at lunch (OR=1.02; 95% CI: 1.00-1.05, and amount of protein intake at evening snack (OR=0.92;95% CI: 0.85-1.00 were significantly associated with GERD. Meanwhile, caloric density and meal frequency did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion: Amount of fat consumed at lunch is positively associated with GERD, whereas the percentage of energy from total protein and amount of protein intake at evening snack are more likely to be inversely associated with GERD.

  14. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  15. A school meal study: comparing platewaste and likings of packed lunch and school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Christensen, Lene M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The majority of Danish children do not eat in accordance with the national dietary guidelines. The OPUS School Meal Study is a school-based intervention study testing the health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND). The aim of this sub-study was to compare edible plate...... waste and self-reported likings between packed lunch from home and the served NND meal. Methods: The OPUS School Meal study is a cluster-randomized controlled 2-period cross-over study consisting of two three-month periods: an intervention period (NND) and a control period. 187 children (8-11y) at two...... schools were assigned to the food waste sub-study. Edible plate waste was measured by weighing individually the meal for 5 consecutive days before and after lunch at the end of each dietary period. Self-reported smiley ratings from a web-based dietary assessment software for children were compared...

  16. Mesquite pod meal in sheep diet: intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus do Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight Santa Ines sheep were assigned to two 4 x 4 Latin squares, to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant grass silage with different levels of mesquite pod meal (MDM (15, 30 and 45% DM on intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC and the nitrogen balance. There was a linear increase (p < 0.05 in the intake of DM, OM, CP, ADF, NDF, NFC and TC according to the addition of MPM to the diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP increased (p < 0.05 with the addition of MDM. We observed a positive linear effect (p < 0.05 for the nitrogen intake. The addition of mesquite pod meal up to 45% increased the intake of DM, NDF, ADF, CP, OM, NFC and TC but reduced the digestibility of EE and NDF. MPM at 30 and 45% propitiated a positive nitrogen balance.

  17. The Effect of Addition Pineapple Peel Meal (Ananas comosus (L Merr in Diet on Total Egg and Egg Duck Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharlien Muharlien

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of addition pinneapple peel meal in diet on total egg and egg quality duck. Materials of the research were 60 mojosari ducks at seven months old. The treatment of pineapple peel meal addition in diet were treatment on level of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Variable were numbers of egg, egg shell thickness, fat and cholesterol egg yolk. The datas were analyzed using ANOVA from Randomized Block Design (RBD, if the result had significant effect, would be continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result showed that an addition pineapple peel meal in  duck diet had no effect (P>0,05 on numbers of egg and thick of egg shell, however, it had  highly significant effect (P<0,01 on fat  and  cholesterol  egg  yolk . The concluded showed that the addition of pineaple peel meal  in ducks diet can be decreasing fat and cholesterol egg yolk and can not decreasing numbers of egg and egg shell tick. Keywords: Mojosari ducks, total egg, egg shell thick, egg yolk fat, and egg yolk cholesterol

  18. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  19. Evaluation of Imbrasia belina meal as a fishmeal substitute in Oreochromis mossambicus diets: Growth performance, histological analysis and enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmaditshaba M. Rapatsa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate mopane worm (Imbrasia belina as a protein source in the diet of Oreochromis mossambicus. One thousand five hundred O. mossambicus fingerlings (40 ± 2.5 g were fed five isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isoenergetic diets formulated to contain 30% crude protein and 20 MJ/kggross energy (dry matter basis for 51 days. Fifteen indoor rectangular concrete tanks (1.5 m3 connected to a recirculating system were used. Water temperature ranged between 27 and 29 °C. The diets were prepared by replacing fishmeal with mopane worm meal at 10%, 20%, 40% and 60%. The diets were coded D2, D3, D4 and D5 respectively. A control diet with no mopane worm meal was coded D1. The diets were fed to triplicate groups of O. mossambicus twice a day. Specific growth rate (SGR, Thermal-unit growth coefficient (TGC, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC increased with higher inclusion levels of mopane worm meal. Feed conversion ratio (FCR also improved with higher inclusion levels. However, the highest growth performance (SGR: 3.49%; FCR: 1.29 was recorded in fish fed the fishmeal based control diet. Protease, amylase and lipase activities were determined in the intestines. Both protease and amylase activity were significantly higher (P < 0.05 at high mopane worm inclusion levels. It is suggested that the high protein levels of the mopane worm diet elicited high protease activity. The health status of the fish was evaluated by examining the liver and intestine histology. There were no evident histological alterations of either liver or intestine as mopane worm meal inclusion levels increased. This showed that mopane worm meal may be a good candidate for the replacement of fishmeal in O. mossambicus diets. The highest profit index (1.67 was recorded in the 60% mopane worm inclusion level. The lowest profit index was in the control. More studies on mopane worm meal as a substitute

  20. Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor, L.) as a possible alternative to soybean meal in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Piccolo, G; Gasco, L; Marono, S; Loponte, R; Vassalotti, G; Mastellone, V; Lombardi, P; Attia, Y A; Nizza, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with Tenebrio molitor larvae (TML) meal in broiler diets. A total of 80 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were divided into two groups fed on two isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for protein source (SBM vs. TML). Up to 62 d of age, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and European efficiency factor (EEF) were calculated. At 62 d, blood samples were collected from 16 birds/group for evaluation of blood profiles. Feed intake was not different between groups considering the entire period of the trial. The FCR was more favourable in the TML than SBM group from 46 d of age and in the entire period of the trial (4.13 vs. 3.62). The PER was higher in the SBM than in the TML group (1.92 vs. 1.37) while the EEF was higher in broilers fed on the TML diet (132.6 vs. 156.2). Albumin-to-globulin ratio was higher in broilers fed on SBM than in the other group (0.44 vs. 0.30). aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in TML than SBM (195.1 vs. 178.6 U/l and 82.07 vs. 46.71 U/l, respectively). Uric acid was higher in broilers fed on SBM than TML (5.40 vs. 4.16 mg/dl). TML did not affect feed intake and growth rate of broilers from 30 to 62 d of age when compared to an isoproteic and isoenergetic SBM diet, but FCR of the TML group was more favourable than that of the SBM group. The lowest albumin-to-globulin ratio in broilers fed on TML suggests a higher immune response, probably due to the prebiotic effects of chitin.

  1. Dietary effects of introducing school meals based on the New Nordic Diet - a randomised controlled trial in Danish children. The OPUS School Meal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Christensen, Tue; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ege, Majken; Thorsen, Anne V; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2014-06-14

    The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during the school day in a cluster-randomised cross-over design. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years from forty-six school classes at nine schools received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The whole diet of the children was recorded over seven consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes of potatoes (130 %, 95 % CI 2·07, 2·58), fish (48 %, 95 % CI 1·33, 1·65), cheese (25 %, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·36), vegetables (16 %, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·21), eggs (10 %, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·19) and beverages (6 %, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·09), and lower intakes of bread (13 %, 95 % CI 0·84, 0·89) and fats (6 %, 95 % CI 0·90, 0·98) were found among the children during the NND period than in the control period (all, Pmeals following the principles of the NND.

  2. In take, performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing dried cassava peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.

  3. Impact of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources on the growth performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thobaiti, A; Al-Ghanim, K; Ahmed, Z; Suliman, E M; Mahboob, S

    2017-10-23

    The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight with feeding treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The growth performance of the fish in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were found to be significantly (P replacement of fishmeal in diet B. The worst growth performance was observed in fish fed with commercial diet, designated as diet D. It was concluded that the fish meal can be replaced up to 20 percent with other plant protein sources without any negative impact on fish health. The replacement of fish meal with local plant sources (corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal and bagasse kenna mix) will not only be beneficial to achieve better growth performance in O. niloticus, it will be a value addition as well.

  4. Growth of fresh-water prawn Macrobrachium tenellum (Smith, 1871 juveniles fed isoproteic diets substituting fish meal by soya bean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Ulloa Gomez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth parameters (standard length, weight, specific growth rate and daily weight gain of prawn Macrobrachium tenellum juveniles fed 40% crude protein isoproteic diets substituting fish meal with soya bean meal at various levels (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% were evaluated for 45 days under laboratory conditions. Experimental diets were compared with a 100% fish meal based diet. Total survival was recorded for all the treatments at the end of the experiment. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 for all the growth parameters among the dietary treatments. The initial mean weight (0.36 ± 0.10 g increased almost three times (1.00 ± 0.13 g after 45 days. The final specific growth fluctuated from 1.82% BW/d for the 60% soya bean meal inclusion diet, to 2.62% for the 100% fish meal diet. The mean final survival was 91.66%. Growth performance of M. tenellum juveniles was not affected by the dietary soya bean meal levels tested.Os parâmetros do crescimento (comprimento padrão, peso, taxa de crescimento específica e ganho diário do peso de juveniles do Macrobrachium tenellum alimentaram a 40% a proteína crua as dietas isoproteic que substituem a refeição de peixes com feijão de soya a refeição nos vários níveis (20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% foi avaliada por 45 dias sob condições do laboratório. As dietas experimentais foram comparadas com uma dieta baseada da refeição de peixes de 100%. A sobrevivência total foi gravada para todos os tratamentos no fim da experiência. Não havia nenhuma diferença significativa (p > 0.05 para todos os parâmetros do crescimento entre os tratamentos dietéticos. O peso médio inicial (0.36 ± 0.10 g aumentado quase três vezes (1.00 ± 0.13 g após 45 dias da cultura. O crescimento específico final flutuou de 1.82% BW/d para a dieta do inclusion da refeição do feijão de soya de 60%, a 2.62% obtidos para a dieta da refeição de peixes de 100%. A sobrevivência final média foi de 91.66%. O

  5. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  6. Impact of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources on the growth performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets

    OpenAIRE

    A. Al-Thobaiti; K. Al-Ghanim; Z. Ahmed; E. M. Suliman; S. Mahboob

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight w...

  7. Inorganic, organic, and encapsulated minerals in vegetable meal based diets for Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Domínguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Substituting fishmeal (FM with vegetable meal (VM can markedly affect the mineral composition of feeds, and may require additional mineral supplementation. Their bioavailability and optimal supplementation levels depend also on the form of delivery of minerals. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different delivery forms of three major trace elements (Zn, Mn and Se in a marine teleost. Gilthead sea bream juveniles of 22.5 g were fed a VM-based diet for 12 weeks that was either not supplemented with these minerals or supplemented with inorganic, organic, or encapsulated inorganic forms of minerals in triplicate and compared to a FM-based diet. Our results showed that mineral delivery form significantly affected the biochemical composition and morphology of posterior vertebrae. Supplementation of VM-based diets with inorganic forms of the target minerals significantly promoted growth, increased the vertebral weight and content of ash and Zn, enhanced bone mineralization and affected the vertebral shape. Conversely, encapsulation of inorganic minerals reduced fish growth and vertebral mineral content, whereas supplementation of organic minerals, enhanced bone osteogenesis by upregulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp2 gene and produced vertebrae with a larger length in relation to height. Furthermore, organic mineral forms of delivery downregulated the expression of oxidative stress related genes, such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn sod and glutathione peroxidase 1 (gpx-1, suggesting thus that dietary minerals supplemented in the organic form could be reasonably considered more effective than the inorganic and encapsulated forms of supply.

  8. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carla J; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E; Johnson, Zachary

    2013-03-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of Bio-omega-3 eggs through the supplementation of extruded flaxseed meal in hen diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nazir; Khan, Muhammad Kamran; Mushtaq, Zarina; Hussain, Shahzad

    2015-10-09

    The full-fat flaxseed meal has obtained relatively new flourished concept as staple chicken feedstuff for the production of designer eggs. However, unprocessed flaxseed also encloses well documented anti-nutritional factors which are associated with growth depression of laying hens. The present research work was carried out to evaluate the impact of full-fat extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diets on productivity performance of hens and production of modified ω-3 fatty acids-enriched eggs. The full-fat flaxseed meal was extruded at barrel exit temperature (140 °C), screw speed (160 rpm) and feed rate (25 kg/h) for reduction of anti-nutritional compounds. One hundred and sixty, Babcock hens (age 24 weeks old) were selected at random from a large flock and ten hens were placed in each of 16 wire-mesh pens. The experimental diets prepared by supplementation of extruded flaxseed at 10%, 20% and 30% level were fed to hens along with control. The extruded flaxseed contained 86% and 76% less hydrocyanic compounds and tannin, respectively than the initial material. The hens fed with control diet consumed more feed, possessed heavy body weight and showed higher egg production as compared to hens fed on extruded flaxseed supplemented diets. The loss in body weight and egg production was recorded less for hens fed on 10% extruded flaxseed supplemented diets as compared to those fed on 30% extruded flaxseed supplemented diets. None of the experimental diets resulted in significant increase or decrease the total lipids and cholesterol content in egg yolk of hens. The extruded flaxseed supplemented diets resulted in a significant improvement of α-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk with a concomitant reduction in arachidonic acid. The sensory scores were assigned higher to control eggs. Increasing level of extruded flaxseed in experimental diets decreased the scores for all sensory attributes of eggs. The present study suggested that extruded flaxseed meal up to

  11. Testicular histology and blood testosterone levels of male rabbit after given concentrated diets containing calliandra leaf meal and pineapple peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, I.; Ermayanti, N. G. A. M.; Suarni, N. M. R.; Narayani, I.; Suaskara, I. B. M.

    2018-03-01

    Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn is one of a highly protein source of forage, however, it is not widely used for non ruminant feed because it contains antinutritional substances in the form of condensed tannin. Tannin can bind proteins, this tannin-protein complexes are difficult to be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, then will be defecated outside the body. To optimize the utilization of calliandra in the diet, pineapple peels were added as a source of protease (bromelain). Beside of waste utilization, it is expected that bromelain can degrade the tannin-protein complexes thereby reducing the negative effects of tannins. This research is a feeding experiment on male rabbit (Lepus sp), five weeks old. The diet formulation is prepared according to the standardized diet of the local rabbit. This experiment used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments i.e. control group which were only given commercial feed (R0), commercial feed contained 15% of Calliandra leaf meal and 30% of pineapple peel (R1), commercial feed contained 30% of Calliandra leaf meal and 30% of pineapple peel (R2), and commercial feed contained 45% of Calliandra and 30% of pineapple peel (R3). The treatment was done for three months. The results of this study on the reproduction of male rabbits showed that the increase of calliandra leaf meal level in a diet containing 30% of pineapple peels affected the testicular histology, and also decreased the diameter of seminiferous tubule and blood testosterone levels of male rabbits.

  12. Safety and efficacy of a multiphase dietetic protocol with meal replacements including a step with very low calorie diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basciani, Sabrina; Costantini, Daniela; Contini, Savina; Persichetti, Agnese; Watanabe, Mikiko; Mariani, Stefania; Lubrano, Carla; Spera, Giovanni; Lenzi, Andrea; Gnessi, Lucio

    2015-04-01

    To investigate safety, compliance, and efficacy, on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors of a multiphasic dietary intervention based on meal replacements, including a period of very low calorie diet (VLCD) in a population of obese patients. Anthropometric parameters, blood tests (including insulin), dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and questionnaires for the assessment of safety and compliance before and after (phase I) a 30-day VLCD, 700 kcal/day, normoproteic, 50 g/day carbohydrate, four meal replacements; (phase II) a 30-day low calorie diet (LCD), 820 kcal/day, three meal replacements plus a protein plate; (phase III) 60-day LCD, 1,100 kcal/day, two meal replacements plus two protein plates and reintroduction of small amounts of carbohydrates; (phase IV) 60-day hypocaloric balanced diet (HBD), 1,200 kcal/day, one meal replacement, two protein plates and the reintroduction of carbohydrates. 24 patients (17 females, 7 males, mean BMI 33.8±3.2 kg/m2, mean age 35.1±10.2 years) completed the study. The average weight loss was 15.4±6.7%, with a significant reduction of fat mass (from 32.8±4.7 to 26.1±6.3% p<0.05) and a relative increase of lean mass (from 61.9±4.8 to 67.1±5.9% p<0.05). An improvement of metabolic parameters and no variations of the liver and kidney functions were found. A high safety profile and an excellent dietary compliance were seen. The VLCD dietary program and the replacement dietary system described here is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment for weight control.

  13. Enhancing Linkages Between Healthy Diets, Local Agriculture, and Sustainable Food Systems: The School Meals Planner Package in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi; Galloway, Rae; Gelli, Aulo; Mumuni, Daniel; Hamdani, Salha; Kiamba, Josephine; Quarshie, Kate; Bhatia, Rita; Aurino, Elisabetta; Peel, Francis; Drake, Lesley

    2016-12-01

    Interventions that enhance linkages between healthy diets and local agriculture can promote sustainable food systems. Home-grown school feeding programs present a promising entry point for such interventions, through the delivery of nutritious menus and meals. To describe the adaptation of the School Meals Planner Package to the programmatic and environmental reality in Ghana during the 2014 to 2015 school year. Guided by a conceptual framework highlighting key considerations and trade-offs in menu design, an open-source software was developed that could be easily understood by program implementers. Readily available containers from markets were calibrated into "handy measures" to support the provision of adequate quantities of food indicated by menus. Schools and communities were sensitized to the benefits of locally sourced, nutrient-rich diets. A behavior change communication campaign including posters and songs promoting healthy diets was designed and disseminated in schools and communities. The School Meals Planner Package was introduced in 42 districts in Ghana, reaching more than 320 000 children. Monitoring reports and feedback on its use were positive, demonstrating how the tool can be used by planners and implementers alike to deliver nutritious, locally-sourced meals to schoolchildren. The value of the tool has been recognized at the highest levels by Ghana's government who have adopted it as official policy. The School Meals Planner Package supported the design of nutritious, locally sourced menus for the school feeding program in Ghana. The tool can be similarly adapted for other countries to meet context-specific needs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P canola meal type. Diets containing 25% canola meal had lower (P canola meal type compared with the 20% canola meal diets. There was an interaction (P canola meal type and inclusion level on ATTD of DM in which ATTD of DM decreased with increasing

  15. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  16. Replacing Soybean Meal with Alternative Protein Sources in Diets for Pond-raised hybrid catfish, ¿ Ictalurus punctatus × ¿ Ictalurus furcatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the replacement of soybean meal with combinations of two or three alternative protein sources in diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, ' Ictalurus punctatus × ' Ictalurus furcatus. Alternative protein sources evaluated included cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains ...

  17. Nutritional and Health-Related Effects of a Diet Containing Apple Seed Meal in Rats: The Case of Amygdalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina M. Opyd

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace includes seeds that are rich in protein, fiber, and oil, which can be extracted from them. However, they can also contain a significant amount of toxigenic amygdalin. We hypothesized that amygdalin is a compound that significantly reduces the nutritional and health quality of defatted apple seeds. An experiment was conducted on rats that were distributed into three groups and fed with high-fructose diets. In the control (C and amygdalin (AMG groups, cellulose and casein were the source of dietary fiber and protein, respectively; in the apple seed meal (ASM group, dietary fiber and protein originated from the endosperm of apple seeds, which were previously defatted and ground. A diet fed to the ASM group also contained 0.24% of amygdalin from the meal, whereas the AMG diet was supplemented with the same amount of synthetic amygdalin. After 14 days of experimental feeding, the body weight of rats was decreased in the ASM group. When compared to the C group, apparent protein digestibility and nitrogen retention were increased in the AMG group, while both were decreased in the ASM group. In the small intestine, mucosal maltase activity was decreased in the AMG and ASM groups, whereas lactase activity was only decreased by dietary amygdalin. The caecal SCFA pool and butyrate concentration were significantly increased in the ASM group compared to the other groups. Moreover, the ASM diet increased plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and plasma antioxidant capacity of water-soluble substances (ACW. It also decreased the liver content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. In contrast, dietary amygdalin did not affect these indices. Dietary supplementation with apple seed meal can exert beneficial effects on the intestinal tract, blood lipid profile and antioxidant status of rats. In most cases, these effects are not limited by the presence of amygdalin. However, the nutritional value of protein from

  18. Intake and ingestive behavior of rams fed with increasing inclusions of babassu endocarp meal I in their diet (Orbignya spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sá,Hemilly Cristina Menezes de; Borges,Iran; Macedo Junior,Gilberto de Lima; Neiva,José Neuman Miranda; Silva,Veridiana Basoni; Sousa,Jhone Tallison Lira de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the ingestive behavior of sheep fed with different inclusions of babassu endocarp meal I. The animals receive isofibrous, isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing the by-product in increasing levels of inclusion (zero; 7,5%; 15%; 22,5%). Twenty rams were used in this study and distributed in four treatments with five repetitions each. The ingestive behavior was conducted over a period of 24 hours, with visual observations at 5 minutes inte...

  19. Effect of enzyme supplementation on nutritive values of fermented palm kernel cake used to substitute soybean meal in broiler diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold P. Sinurat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments was designed to improve nutritional values of palm kernel cake (PKC by biofermentation process, followed by enzyme supplementation to substitute soybean meal (SBM in broilers diet. A factorial of 2 x 2 design was applied in the first experiment, i.e. fermentation process (non fermented PKC and fermented PKC and enzyme supplementation (no enzyme and +BS4 enzyme. Dry matter (DM digestibility, AME and amino acids ileal digestibility (IAAD of the treatment ingredients were measured in broiler chickens. Seven replications were applied for the DM and AME assays and 3 replications for IAAD assay. Second experiment was designed to study the effect of SBM substitution with enzyme supplemented FPKC (EFPKC. Four diets were formulated, i.e., control diet without EFPKC, 10%, 20 and 40% SBM substituted with EFPKC. All diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of broilers. Each diet was fed to broilers from 1 to 35 d. Body weight, feed consumption, FCR and mortalities were measured. Carcass yield, abdominal fat and weight of liver and gizzard were measured at the end of experiment. Results showed that fermentation of PKC increased the DM digestibility, the AME was also increased but not significant. Enzyme supplementation did not affect the DM digestibility and AME of PKC. Fermentation process significantly (P<0.05 decreased IAAD of some indispensable amino acids. However, supplementation of enzyme did not affect the IAAD of indispensable amino acids. Substitution of soybean meal with EFPKC reduced the feed intake and growth rate of broilers.

  20. Sheep response to fish meal supplements for diets based on industrial by-products or native pastures of the Peruvian High Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera, V.

    1987-01-01

    Rumen degradabilities were determined for various proteins by incubation for 48 h in nylon bags. Values obtained were 37.3% for corn grain and feather meal, 59.6% for alfalfa meal, 63.4% for cottonseed meal, 66.8% for soybean meal and 68.0% for rice polishings. Fish meal protein degradability was less than 45%. Sheep given either cottonseed meal or fish meal as sources of 'bypass' protein did not show differences in daily gain or intake. Fish meal diets gave better feed/gain ratios. Fish meal or urea supplementation of a basal diet containing 4.6% crude protein increased feed intake, daily gain, the feed/gain ratio and wool staple length. Castrated sheep grazing native pastures of the Peruvian Andes (altitude approximately 3800 m) during either the rainy or dry season did not show significant improvement in growth rate with fish meal supplementation. Supplementation of ewes at first mating produced higher weights at the end of gestation, as well as an increase in the number and weight of lambs born, in the weaning rate and in wool weight from the ewes. (author)

  1. Meal and snack frequency in relation to diet quality in US children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine the associations of meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with diet quality. Dietary intake was assessed using two 24 h dietary recalls. All eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 % or meals, higher MF was associated with higher HEI-2010 in both children and adolescents. One additional meal per day increased HEI-2010 by 1·45-3·59 points (all Pmeals and snacks when assessing the impact of dietary patterns on health.

  2. Digestibility Study and Nutrient Re-evaluation in Clarias gariepinus Fed Blood Meal-Rumen Digesta Blend Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bola M. LAWAL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient utilization and digestibility of blood meal-bovine rumen digesta blend diet (BMBRD fed to Clarias gariepinus burchell (1822 was assessed using 60 C. gariepinus juveniles with a view to confirming the digestibility and suitability of the BMBRD blend inclusion level in the diet of C. gariepinus for sustainable clariid production. Two set of three iso-nitrogenous experimental diets containing 35% crude protein were formulated with 0%, 25% and 50% BMBRD inclusion level to substitute the fishmeal component which was the primary protein source. The first set of experimental diet was designed to monitor the growth performance and feed utilization was fed fortnightly in duplicate to C. gariepinus juveniles, stocked in glass aquaria (60 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm at 4% of the body weight in two instalments daily for 10 weeks, while the second experimental diet with 0.5% chromic oxide (Cr2O3 inclusion (as a digestibility marker was prepared and fed to the fish for 7 days to determine to digestibility of the different BMBRD included diets. The obtained results showed that the fish fed 25% BMBRD included diet had significantly higher (p < 0.05 growth performance and feed utilization indices than the other experimental diets. Similar to observation in the growth performance and feed utilization indices, the fish fed BMBRD included diets had significantly higher (p < 0.05 protein and energy digestibilities than the fish fed 0% BMBRD (control diet and the study confirmed that fishmeal can be partially replaced up to 25% BMBRD blend in C. gariepinus diet for optimum growth performance and feed utilization.

  3. Effects of replacing extracted soybean meal with rapeseed cake in corn grass silage-based diet for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Jarosława; Białek, Małgorzata; Bagnicka, Emilia; Jarczak, Justyna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Strzałkowska, Nina; Jóźwik, Artur; Krzyżewski, Józef; Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Ewa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal with a protein-equivalent amount of rapeseed cake in the diet on milking parameters and fatty acid (FA) composition of milk in dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein-Friesian cows, 8 each, consisting of randomised blocks were studied: a control group (C) was given a traditional high-protein supplement (extracted soybean meal) and the experimental group (E), had part of extracted soybean meal replaced with rapeseed cake. Dry matter intake and milk yield in both groups were not affected by the diet but milk fat percentage and yield were decreased in both groups. Rapeseed cake had no effect on milk acidity or on protein (including casein) and lactose contents. A lower concentration of urea in milk in E group indicated a proper ratio of protein to energy in the fodder. Health condition of mammary gland and indicators of metabolic profile were not affected by rapeseed cake supplementation. In E group, the share of atherogenic saturated fatty acids (FA) was reduced after 11 weeks: palmitic, by 26% and myristic, by 22%; moreover, as compared with control cows, the content of monounsaturated FA in milk increased by 44% after 3 weeks and by 68% after 11 weeks, t-18:1 and c-9 t-11 isomer of CLA increased about 2.5-fold after 11 weeks. In E group, the atherogenic index (AI) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than in C (by 54% on average) and the decrease with time was considerable (by 29%, P < 0.001). Contents of odd- and branched- chain FA in milk were not significantly affected thus reflecting proper rumen function. Partial replacement of soybean meal with rapeseed cake in the diet of cows may improve both milking indices and FA profile of milk.

  4. Assessment of low amounts of meat and bone meal in the diet of laying hens by using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Madeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess whether the inclusion of low amounts of ingredients such as wheat bran, corn gluten and yeast in the diet of laying hens can interfere with the traceability of meat and bone meal (MBM in eggs and its fractions (albumen and yolk. We used 256 laying hens distributed across eight treatment groups, which consisted of a diet based on corn-soybean-wheat (CSW bran meal and other diets that had additions comprising gluten and/or (MBM and/or yeast. To analyse the isotopic ratios (13C:12C and 15N:14N, on the 28th and 56th days, 16 eggs were randomly taken for each treatment (four for each repetition, where eight eggs (two for each repetition were used to harvest yolk and albumen samples and the remaining eight (two for each repetition were used to analyse the whole egg. We concluded that detection of 2.0% MBM in the egg and its fractions is possible; however, the results for treatments containing gluten and yeast were not different from those containing MBM. Therefore, the inclusion of 3.0% gluten and/or yeast does not result in different ?13C and ?15N isotopic values in the egg and its fractions compared to the values obtained with the addition of 2.0% MBM in the diet.

  5. Amino acid fortified diets for weanling pigs replacing fish meal and whey protein concentrate: Effects on growth, immune status, and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Weaver, Alexandra C; Fellner, Vivek; Payne, Robert L; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    Limited availability of fish meal and whey protein concentrate increases overall feed costs. Availability of increased number of supplemental amino acids including Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Val, and Ile allows replacing expensive protein supplements to reduce feed costs. This study was to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate in nursery diets with 6 supplemental amino acids on growth performance and gut health of post-weaning pigs. Treatments were 1) FM-WPC: diet with fish meal (FM) and whey protein concentrate (WPC); 2) FM-AA: diet with FM and crystalline amino acids (L-Lys, L-Thr, L-Trp, DL-Met, L-Val, and L-Ile); 3) WPC-AA: diet with WPC and crystalline amino acid; and 4) AA: diet with crystalline amino acid. Pigs in FM-AA, WPC-AA, and AA had greater (P replace fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate without adverse effects on growth performance, immune status, and gut health of pigs at d 21 to 49 of age. Positive response with the use of 6 supplemental amino acids in growth during the first week of post-weaning may due to increased plasma insulin potentially improving uptake of nutrients for protein synthesis and energy utilization. The replacement of fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate with 6 supplemental amino acids could decrease the crude protein level in nursery diets, and potentially lead to substantial cost savings in expensive nursery diets.

  6. Sesame meal as the first protein source in piglet starter diets and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean meal (SBM) is the protein source that is used most in feeding piglets, but its high price has prompted a search for alternatives. One option is sesame meal (SM), a by-product of sesame oil. This study evaluated the effects of SM and phytase on the intestinal morphology, total trypsin activity (TTA) and specific trypsin ...

  7. Cassava Peel – Blood Meal Mixtures in Rabbit Buck Diets: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding ash-treated (ATD), parboiled (PAB), and sun-dried (SUD) cassava peel meal combined with blood meal (mixture) in the ratio of 3: 2 on the performance of sixty cross – bred (New Zealand white X Chinchilla) male weaner rabbits. There were ten dietary treatment ...

  8. Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on selected enzymes of some tissues of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, N O; Oloyede, O B

    2010-05-01

    Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamate transferase (gamma-GT) in the crop, small intestine, gizzard, heart, liver and serum of broiler chicks were investigated. Milled T. catappa seed was inoculated with spores of A.niger (2.21 x 10(4) spores per ml) for 3 weeks. Forty-five day-old broiler chicks weighing between 27.62 and 36.21 g, were divided into three groups. The first group was fed soybean-based (control) diet; the second on raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet; and the third on A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal-based diet for 7 weeks. The results revealed a significantly increased (pcatappa seed meal-based diet while there were significant increase (pcatappa seed meal reduced the toxic effects of the raw seed meal on the tissues of broiler chicks. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Requirement of Digestible Sulfur Amino Acids in Laying Hens Fed Sorghum- and Soybean Meal-Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Gomez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were done to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of dietary digestible methionine (Met and Met:cysteine (Met:Cys ratio on the productivity of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets. In Exp. 1, 160 hens from 68 to 75 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary levels of digestible Met (0.20 0.24, 0.28 and 0.32%. The digestible total sulfur amino acids:Lysine (TSAA:Lys ratios were: 62, 68, 76 and 84%. In Exp. 2, 192 hens from 76-83 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios (160, 116.7, 85.7 and 62.5%. The digestible TSAA:Lys ratio was kept constant across diets (80%. Results were subjected to ANOVA and linear regression analyses. In Exp. 1, optimal egg production, egg mass, and feed efficiency responses were observed at 0.30 and 0.50% of dietary digestible Met and TSAA, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. Live performance was maximized with digestible Met and TSAA in takes of 288 and 478 mg/hen/d, respectively. In Exp. 2, optimal egg production and feed efficiency responses were observed at 151 and 150% of dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. The digestible Met, Cys and TSAA intake to maximize egg production and feed efficiency were 313, 207 and 510 mg/hen/d, respectively. The requirements for sulfur AA in Hy-Line W-36 hens from 68 to 83 weeks of age fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets fell inside the range of the requirements previously estimated in hens fed corn-soybean meal based diets.

  10. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Haider, Muhammad Faizan; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Sohaib, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid

    2013-02-08

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  11. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Faqir Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15% and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  12. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: Anin vitrorumen fermentation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Novandri, Briliannanda; Yantina, Nover; Ridla, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1) and 2 weeks (BSF2) were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis): T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF2; T5, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF1; and T6, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF2. The samples were determined for their chemical composition and were incubated in vitro using buffered rumen fluid for 48 h at 39°C. In vitro incubation was carried out in three runs and represented by two incubation bottles per run. Supplementation of BSF, both BSF1 and BSF2, increased ether extract, neutral- and acid-detergent insoluble crude protein contents of T3-T6 diets. The T3 or T4 diet resulted in lower ruminal ammonia concentration, in vitro DM digestibility, and in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility as compared to those in T2 (p<0.05). Diet supplemented with BSF produced lower methane emission in comparison to that of supplemented with SBM (p<0.05). Diet containing BSF2 produced lower methane and methane per digestible OM than that containing BSF1 (p<0.05). Substitution of SBM by BSF in ruminant diet results in a lower nutritional value in vitro but with an advantage of lowering ruminal methane emission.

  13. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  14. Soya bean meal increases litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis in maize and wheat based diets for turkeys but maize and non-soya diets lower body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, P M; Vinco, L J; Veldkamp, T

    2018-04-01

    1. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to compare the effects of wheat or maize based diets differing in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age in heavy-medium turkeys. A second objective was to investigate the effects on foot pad dermatitis of the interaction between dietary composition and artificially increasing litter moisture by adding water to the litter. 2. High DEB diets contained soya as the main protein source whereas low DEB diets did not contain soya bean meal. Diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous in each of 3 successive 4-week phases following recommended dietary compositions. DEB concentrations were 330, 290 and 250 mEq/kg in high DEB diets and 230, 200 and 180 mEq/kg in low DEB diets. 3. Litter moisture and mean FPD score were higher in turkeys fed on high DEB diets compared with low DEB diets whereas there was no difference between maize and wheat. 4. Food intake was similar and body weight was lower after litter moisture was artificially raised in the wet compared with the dry litter treatment and there was no interaction with dietary composition. 5. Mean body weight and feed intake were higher in turkeys fed on wheat compared with maize and in high DEB compared with low DEB diets at 12 weeks of age. 6. Lowering dietary DEB for turkeys may improve litter moisture and lower the prevalence of FPD in commercial turkey flocks.

  15. Studies on substitutional protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder; Hirame shiryo ni okeru miriyo shigen no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Effectiveness of livestock industry wastes and vegetable protein added to fish meal in fish farming is tested by feeding the Japanese flounder. In the experiment, a part or the whole of the fish meal protein is replaced by the meat meal (MM), meat and bone meal (MBM), corngluten meal (CGM), or dried silkworm pupa meal (SPM), and fries of the Japanese flounder are fed on the new diets for eight weeks. On a diet containing 60% or less of MM, no change is detected in the fish in terms of increase in weight, protein efficiency ratio, and blood components, indicating that 60% at the highest of fish meal may be replaced by MM. In the case of MBM, it can occupy approximately 20%. As for CGM, the proper substitution rate is approximately 40%. Essential amino acids that the new diets may lack are added for an approximately 10% improvement on the result. The SPM substitution works up to 40%, when, however, the blood components are degraded. The proper substitution rate is therefore placed at approximately 20%. 38 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Partial Meal Replacement Plan and Quality of the Diet at 1 Year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Anderson, Andrea M; Miller, Gary D; Reeves, Rebecca; Delahanty, Linda M; Vitolins, Mara Z; Harper, Patricia; Mobley, Connie; Konersman, Kati; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a partial meal replacement plan in the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention. To compare dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in Intensive Lifestyle Intervention and Diabetes Support and Education groups at 12 months. A randomized controlled trial comparing Intensive Lifestyle Intervention with Diabetes Support and Education at 0 and 12 months. From 16 US sites, the first 50% of participants (aged 45 to 76 years, overweight or obese, with type 2 diabetes) were invited to complete dietary assessments. Complete 0- and 12-month dietary assessments (collected between 2001 and 2004) were available for 2,397 participants (46.6% of total participants), with 1,186 randomized to Diabetes Support and Education group and 1,211 randomized to Intensive Lifestyle Intervention group. A food frequency questionnaire assessed intake: energy; percent energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and saturated fats; trans-fatty acids; cholesterol; fiber; weekly meal replacements; and daily servings from food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance, using Proc MIXED with a repeated statement, with age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income controlled. Unadjusted χ² tests compared percent meeting fat-related and food group recommendations at 12 months. At 12 months, Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than Diabetes Support and Education participants. Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants consumed more servings per day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt, and cheese; and fewer servings per day of fats, oils, and sweets than Diabetes Support and Education participants. A greater

  17. Feeding behavior of crossbred steers fed diets containing babassu mesocarp meal and corn in kernels or ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the use of babassu mesocarp meal (BMM and corn in different physical forms on the feeding behavior of crossbred young bulls of a dairy breed. Twenty-four crossbred (Nellore vs. Holstein steers (307.35 kg were fed four experimental diets containing two levels of inclusion of the babassu mesocarp meal (0 and 412.4 g/kg and corn in two physical forms (kernels or ground for 98 days. Data was collected on three days during the finishing phase, with observations every five minutes, for 24 hours. When the activities performed by the animals were evaluated as a function of the period of the day, the physical form of the corn showed interaction with the BMM inclusion level on the time spent feeding and on other activities. When the activities were evaluated over the day, the defecation frequency was affected and decreased as BMM was included. The feeding time was longer at the moments that followed feed supply, whereas the time used for other activities increased during the morning period, regardless of the diet utilized. Rumination and idle times were affected by the period of the day and remained high during the night and morning periods. There was increase in feeding time and dry matter rumination efficiencies and neutral detergent fiber as BMM was added to the diet. The number of rumination chews per bolus, however, decreased as BMB was included. Inclusion of babassu mesocarp meal increases the animal feeding time but the physical form of corn does not change its feeding behavior.

  18. Productive performance and efficiency of utilization of the diet components in dairy cows fed castor meal treated with calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Variz Cobianchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing of 0; 0.33; 0.67 and 1.0 (kg/kg of soybean meal (SBM by undecorticated castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide (CMT - 60 g/kg was evaluated on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein and crossbred cows were distributed in four 4 × 4 latin squares. Animals received concentrated feed at a ratio of 1 kg for 3 kg of milk produced, in the natural matter. The diets had the same amount of nitrogen (150.4 g crude protein/kg DM, containing 325.6 g of concentrated feed/kg DM. There was no effect on the serum concentration of transaminase and the animals showed no clinical symptoms of intoxication by ricin. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. The intake of neutral detergent fibers corrected for ash and protein (NDFap increased from 0.33 replacement of SBM with CMT. Although the digestibility of dietary components decreased from 0.33 replacement, the intake of digestible components only reduced from 0.67 replacement. Because of the reduction of digestible energy, the synthesis of microbial CP and the utilization efficiency of rumen-degradable protein for the synthesis of microbial CP reduced with full replacement of SBM by CMT. Milk yield, milk composition, daily variation of body weight and the efficiency of utilization of the nutrients for the synthesis of N in milk reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. Castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide can replace up to 0.33 of SBM (50 g/kg DM diet DM in the diet of dairy cows with an average milk production of 20 kg/day.

  19. Clinical trial: oral feeding with a soft diet compared with clear liquid diet as initial meal in mild acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiaraj, E; Murthy, S; Mansard, M J; Rao, G V; Mahukar, S; Reddy, D N

    2008-09-15

    In mild acute pancreatitis, traditional treatment has been initial fasting and oral refeeding with clear liquids to prevent adverse gastrointestinal events such as pain. The diet is gradually progressed to soft solids and hospital discharge is planned based on patients' tolerance to a solid diet. To determine the length of hospitalization and tolerance to oral refeeding when initiated on a soft diet as compared to a clear liquid diet. One hundred and one patients with mild acute pancreatitis were randomized to receive either a clear liquid diet or soft diet when oral feeding was initiated. Frequency of pain, total and postrefeeding length of hospitalization, and dietary intake were monitored. Hospital discharge was decided by the medical team without input from the study coordinators. A statistically significant decrease in the length of hospitalization (total and postrefeeding) of a median of 2 days was seen in patients receiving a soft diet (P < 0.001). No significant difference in the need for cessation of diet because of pain was observed between the two groups. Patients initiated on a soft diet consumed significantly more calories and fats on study day 1 (P < 0.001). Oral refeeding with a soft diet in patients with mild acute pancreatitis can be considered safe and can result in shorter length of hospitalization.

  20. Effect of replacement of fish meal by potato protein concentrate in the diet for rainbow trout on feeding rate, digestibility and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Shougi; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    . The control diet contained all Danish L T-fish meal as protein sources. The other experimental diets contained 2.2, 5.6, 8.9 and 11.1% PPC respectively. Diet 6 contained 5.6% PPC and 1.7% methionine. A 4-week trial was conducted at about 12degreeC. The results showed that feeding rate decreased with increased...

  1. Tenebrio molitor meal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss diets: effects on animal performance, nutrient digestibility and chemical composition of fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Belforti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of diets containing Tenebrio molitor (TM larvae meal on growth performances, somatic indexes, nutrient digestibility, dorsal muscle proximate and fatty acid (FA compositions of rainbow trout. Three hundred sixty fish were randomly divided into three groups with four replicates each. The groups were fed diets differing in TM inclusion: 0% (TM0, 25% (TM25 and 50% (TM50 as fed weight basis. Weight gain was not affected by treatment. Feeding rate was significantly higher in TM0 than TM50. Feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in TM0 than TM25 and TM50, while an opposite trend was observed for protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate. The survival rate was significantly lower in TM0 than TM25 and TM50. The apparent digestibility of protein was significantly lower in the TM50 group than the other groups, while the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and lipids was unaffected by treatment. If compared to control, the protein and lipid contents of fillets were respectively increased and decreased following TM inclusion in the diet. The Σn3/Σn6 FA ratio of fish dorsal muscle was linearly (TM0>TM25>TM50 reduced by TM inclusion in the diet. Results suggested that TM could be used during the growing phase in trout farming; however, additional studies on specific feeding strategies and diet formulations are needed to limit its negative effects on the lipid fraction of fillets.

  2. Effects of shrimp head meal in the diets on growth, feed efficiency and pigmentation of sex-reversed red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimolrat, P.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp head meal (SHM was used to replace fish meal as a protein source in practical diets for sexreversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of fish meal protein or 0, 6.92, 13.84, 20.76 and 27.68% by weight of diet respectively. Catfish feed that contained protein content 37.22±0.10% was included as a reference diet. The experimental diets were fed to the fish with mean initial weight of 3.13±0.05 g for 8 weeks in 70 l aquaria. The results showed that weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed 50% of fishmeal protein replacement or diet 3 was not significant by different from those of fish on control diet (p>0.05. The data of feed intake, feed conversion ratio and productive protein value of fish fed diet 3 were equal to those fed control diet (p>0.05. The lowest growth rate and feed efficiency showed on fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement. The production cost of fish fed diet 3 was equal to those fed the control diet and the reference diet (p>0.05. Total carotenoid content in fish skin was significantly highest (p<0.05 in fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement diet. The result indicates that the use of SHM at the level of 50% replacement or 13.84% by weight of diet is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diet.

  3. Frequency and socio-demographic correlates of eating meals out and take-away meals at home: cross-sectional analysis of the UK national diet and nutrition survey, waves 1-4 (2008-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Goffe, Louis; Brown, Tamara; Lake, Amelia A; Summerbell, Carolyn; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Adamson, Ashley J

    2015-04-16

    Food prepared out-of-home tends to be less healthful than food prepared at home, with a positive association between frequency of consumption and both fat intake and body fatness. There is little current data on who eats out-of-home food. We explored frequency and socio-demographic correlates of eating meals out and take-away meals at home, using data from a large, UK, population representative study. Data were from waves 1-4 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12). Socio-demographic variables of interest were gender, age group, and socio-economic position. Self-reported frequency of consuming meals out and take-away meals at home was categorised as: less than once per week and once per week or more. Analyses were performed separately for adults (aged 18 years or older) and children. Data from 2001 adults and 1963 children were included. More than one quarter (27.1%) of adults and one fifth (19.0%) of children ate meals out once per week or more. One fifth of adults (21.1%) and children (21.0%) ate take-away meals at home once per week or more. There were no gender differences in consumption of meals out, but more boys than girls ate take-away meals at home at least weekly. The proportion of participants eating both meals out and take-away meals at home at least weekly peaked in young adults aged 19-29 years. Adults living in more affluent households were more likely to eat meals out at least once per week, but children living in less affluent households were more likely to eat take-away meals at home at least once per week. There was no relationship between socio-economic position and consumption of take-away meals at home in adults. One-fifth to one-quarter of individuals eat meals prepared out-of-home weekly. Interventions seeking to improve dietary intake by reducing consumption of out-of-home food may be more effective if tailored to and targeted at adults aged less than 30 years. It may also be important to develop interventions to help

  4. Effect of rapeseed meal supplementation to gestation diet on reproductive performance, blood profiles and milk composition of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H B; Hong, J S; Jin, S S; Jung, S W; Jang, J C; Jeong, J H; Kim, Y Y

    2018-03-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation levels of rapeseed meal (RSM) in gestation diets on reproductive performance, blood profiles, milk composition of sows, and growth of their progeny. A total of 55 mixed-parity sows (Yorkshire×Landrace; average parity = 3.82) with an initial body weight (BW) of 193.0 kg were used in this experiment. Sows were allotted to one of 5 treatments at breeding based on BW and backfat thickness in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of dietary RSM supplementation levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, and 12%) in gestation diets. During lactation all sows were fed a common lactation diet with no RSM supplementation. Body weight, backfat thickness, litter size, lactation feed intake, and milk composition of sows, and growth of their progeny were not different among dietary treatments. In blood profiles, a quadratic increase (Quadratic, p<0.05) in serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentration and a linear increase (Linear, p<0.01) in serum thyroxine (T4) concentration were observed at d 110 of gestation as dietary RSM supplementation levels increased. However, serum T3 and T4 concentrations in lactating sows and their piglets were not affected by RSM supplementation of gestation diets. Concentrations of serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in sows were not influenced by dietary treatments, whereas serum glucose level in sows decreased linearly at d 110 of gestation (Linear, p<0.05) by increasing dietary RSM supplementation in gestation diets. The RSM could be supplemented to gestation diets up to 12% with no detrimental effects on reproductive performance and growth of their progeny. However, increasing supplementation levels of RSM in gestation diets may increase serum T3 and T4 concentrations and decrease serum glucose concentration of sows in late gestation.

  5. The microbes we eat: abundance and taxonomy of microbes consumed in a day’s worth of meals for three diet types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M. Lang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Far more attention has been paid to the microbes in our feces than the microbes in our food. Research efforts dedicated to the microbes that we eat have historically been focused on a fairly narrow range of species, namely those which cause disease and those which are thought to confer some “probiotic” health benefit. Little is known about the effects of ingested microbial communities that are present in typical American diets, and even the basic questions of which microbes, how many of them, and how much they vary from diet to diet and meal to meal, have not been answered.We characterized the microbiota of three different dietary patterns in order to estimate: the average total amount of daily microbes ingested via food and beverages, and their composition in three daily meal plans representing three different dietary patterns. The three dietary patterns analyzed were: (1 the Average American (AMERICAN: focused on convenience foods, (2 USDA recommended (USDA: emphasizing fruits and vegetables, lean meat, dairy, and whole grains, and (3 Vegan (VEGAN: excluding all animal products. Meals were prepared in a home kitchen or purchased at restaurants and blended, followed by microbial analysis including aerobic, anaerobic, yeast and mold plate counts as well as 16S rRNA PCR survey analysis.Based on plate counts, the USDA meal plan had the highest total amount of microbes at 1.3 × 109 CFU per day, followed by the VEGAN meal plan and the AMERICAN meal plan at 6 × 106 and 1.4 × 106 CFU per day respectively. There was no significant difference in diversity among the three dietary patterns. Individual meals clustered based on taxonomic composition independent of dietary pattern. For example, meals that were abundant in Lactic Acid Bacteria were from all three dietary patterns. Some taxonomic groups were correlated with the nutritional content of the meals. Predictive metagenome analysis using PICRUSt indicated differences in some functional KEGG

  6. Nutritional value of raw Canavalia ensiformis and its utilization as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola G; Okomoda, Victor T; Oguche, Obekpa

    2018-01-01

    The nutritional value of raw Jack bean meal ( Canavalia ensiformis ) as a partial substitute for soybeans meal was investigated in this study. Preliminary investigation on nutrient composition revealed that lysine, histidine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in C .  ensiformis seed meal compared to soybean meal. However, crude protein and other essential amino acids were significantly lower. Feeding trial was then conducted to investigate the effect of replacing about 40% soybeans meal (at 58.8% inclusion) with C .  ensiformis in the diet of Clarias gariepinus . The result obtained after 56 days revealed that fingerlings could tolerate up to 20% replacement without significant effect on growth and nutrient utilization. Beyond this, growth was significantly reduced. Survivals of the fish also follow a similar trend as stated above. It was concluded that dietary inclusion of raw C .  ensiform meal should not be beyond 11% (or 20% replacement for soybeans meal included at 58.8%) in the diet of C .  gariepinus .

  7. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  8. Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high-quality senior dog diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, K E; Hernot, D C; Fastinger, N D; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Bechtel, P J; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2009-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibilities and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets contained 20% milt meal (MM), pink salmon hydrolysate (PSH) and white fish meal (WFM) added at the expense of poultry by-product meal. Concentrations of lymphocytes positive for CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD21 cell-surface markers and immunoglobulin concentrations were measured. Gene expression of cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Major compositional differences were noted among fish substrates but apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients and immune indices were not affected by treatment. Fish protein substrates were found to be effective substitutes for poultry by-product meal, providing diets of high nutritive value for senior dogs.

  9. Digestibility and physico-chemical characteristics of acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarina de Souza Batalha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste in diets for commercial laying hens on apparent digestibility and energy metabolism. Seventy-two Hisex White hens with 71 weeks of age were assigned to a completely randomized with two treatments (control diet and diet with 3% pirarucu waste acid silage with six replicates of six birds each. The ensiled biomass was light brown in color, showing acidified aroma; creamy consistency; 4.38±0.11 pH; 84.16% dry matter; 40.06% crude protein; 26.82% ether extract; 9.31% mineral matter, 65.16 g kg-1 calcium and 22.90 g kg-1 phosphorus. Differences (p > 0.05 were detected in digestibility of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates (soluble carbohydrates, etherextract, mineral matter, metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy coefficient. Our results indicate that the acid silage mealmade of pirarucu waste can be included up to 3% in diets for laying hens, showing satisfactory nutrient digestibility and potential to be used as an energy source.

  10. Effects of inclusion Aspergillus niger fermented shrimp waste meal in broiler diets on live performance and digestive organ weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan H. Djunaidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels of shrimp waste meal fermented with Aspergillus niger (LUF in diets on growth performance and digestive organ weight of broilers. A total of 75 d-old chicks were randomly allocated to 5 (five treatments in 3 replication pens of 5 birds each. Treatments consisted of LUF inclusion of 0 (control, and 5, 7.5, 10 and 12,5% (P0, P1, P2, P3 and P4 in the diets. Birds were raised under standard condition and provided with feed and water ad-libitum. Feed and birds were weighed weekly up to 35 days to determine body weight, feed intake and feed conversion. At the end of experimental period, the birds were slaughatered and dressed up to determine carcass percentage and digestive organ weight. There was a significant negative linear response in body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion with increase of LUF more than 7.5% in the diets until 35 days of age, but % carcass was almost the same for all treatment. There was no significant response in digestive organ weight with increasing levels of LUF. The present result indicated that LUF could be considered as a potential feed ingredient as protein source of broiler but its inclusion should be limited until 7.5% of the diet to maintain growth performance and digestive organ weight.

  11. Effects of dietary fat source and supplemental lysophosphatidylcholine on performance, immune responses, and ileal nutrient digestibility in broilers fed corn/soybean meal- or corn/wheat/soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyari-Bake, S; Jahanian, R

    2017-05-01

    Two separate experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of different fat sources and a supplemental exogenous emulsifier (lysophosphatidylcholine, LPC) on growth performance, antibody production titers, and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chicks fed with different basal diets. A total of 288 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks were used for each trial (6 dietary treatments based on 3 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments in both trials) with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of 3 different fat sources (soy oil, SO; soy free fatty acids, SFFA; and palm fat powder, PFP) and 2 LPC levels (0 and 0.1% of diet), which were evaluated with 2 different basal diets (corn/soybean meal-based diets in Exp. 1, or corn/wheat/soybean meal-based diets in Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased (P Gumboro antibody titer, and the lowest antibody response was allotted to the birds fed PFP diets. The greatest (P < 0.05) EE digestibility was assigned to the birds fed SO and SFFA diets. The present findings showed that birds fed SFFA-containing diets had similar performance as SO birds, and supplemental LPC improved overall performance especially in SFFA-fed birds. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Relationship between mean daily energy intake and frequency of consumption of out-of-home meals in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffe, Louis; Rushton, Stephen; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley; Adams, Jean

    2017-09-22

    Out-of-home meals have been characterised as delivering excessively large portions that can lead to high energy intake. Regular consumption is linked to weight gain and diet related diseases. Consumption of out-of-home meals is associated with socio-demographic and anthropometric factors, but the relationship between habitual consumption of such meals and mean daily energy intake has not been studied in both adults and children in the UK. We analysed adult and child data from waves 1-4 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey using generalized linear modelling. We investigated whether individuals who report a higher habitual consumption of meals out in a restaurant or café, or takeaway meals at home had a higher mean daily energy intake, as estimated by a four-day food diary, whilst adjusting for key socio-demographic and anthropometric variables. Adults who ate meals out at least weekly had a higher mean daily energy intake consuming 75-104 kcal more per day than those who ate these meals rarely. The equivalent figures for takeaway meals at home were 63-87 kcal. There was no association between energy intake and frequency of consumption of meals out in children. Children who ate takeaway meals at home at least weekly consumed 55-168 kcal more per day than those who ate these meals rarely. Additionally, in children, there was an interaction with socio-economic position, where greater frequency of consumption of takeaway meals was associated with higher mean daily energy intake in those from less affluent households than those from more affluent households. Higher habitual consumption of out-of-home meals is associated with greater mean daily energy intake in the UK. More frequent takeaway meal consumption in adults and children is associated with greater daily energy intake and this effect is greater in children from less affluent households. Interventions seeking to reduce energy content through reformulation or reduction of portion sizes in restaurants

  13. Sesame meal as the first protein source in piglet starter diets and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gerardo Mariscal

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... whey milk, and crystalline AAs); and the quality of the meals, because SBM and SM have similar digestibility. (Aguilera et al., 2015). This characteristic highlights the potential importance of SM as a protein source for piglets at weaning. Weaning is characterized by low feed intake, which causes loss of ...

  14. Nutritive value of the meat and bone meals from cattle or pigs in broiler diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakas, P.; Versteegh, H.A.J.; Honing, van der Y.; Kogut, J.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    The nutritive value of meat and bone meals (MBM) was assessed for broilers. The MBM was produced according to the revised (pressure) processing system ordered by the European Union (EC 96/449). Three batches of MBM from cattle (MBMcattle) and three from pigs (MBMpig) with different ash contents

  15. The effect of feeding maize-cob meal diets on carcass and organ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary inclusions of maize-cob-meal on the carcass and organ characteristics of grower pigs were investigated with using 24 landrace x large white grower pigs weighting 16.±.06 kg on the average at 56 days of age. The pigs were divided into four treatment groups, each consisting of six pigs and further ...

  16. Frequency of eating home cooked meals and potential benefits for diet and health: cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susanna; Brown, Heather; Wrieden, Wendy; White, Martin; Adams, Jean

    2017-08-17

    Reported associations between preparing and eating home cooked food, and both diet and health, are inconsistent. Most previous research has focused on preparing, rather than eating, home cooked food; used small, non-population based samples; and studied markers of nutrient intake, rather than overall diet quality or health. We aimed to assess whether frequency of consuming home cooked meals was cross-sectionally associated with diet quality and cardio-metabolic health. We used baseline data from a United Kingdom population-based cohort study of adults aged 29 to 64 years (n = 11,396). Participants self-reported frequency of consuming home cooked main meals. Diet quality was assessed using the Mediterranean Diet Score, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, fruit and vegetable intake calculated from a 130-item food frequency questionnaire, and plasma vitamin C. Markers of cardio-metabolic health were researcher-measured body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), cholesterol and hypertension. Differences across the three exposure categories were assessed using linear regression (diet variables) and logistic regression (health variables). Eating home cooked meals more frequently was associated with greater adherence to DASH and Mediterranean diets, greater fruit and vegetable intakes and higher plasma vitamin C, in adjusted models. Those eating home cooked meals more than five times, compared with less than three times per week, consumed 62.3 g more fruit (99% CI 43.2 to 81.5) and 97.8 g more vegetables (99% CI 84.4 to 111.2) daily. More frequent consumption of home cooked meals was associated with greater likelihood of having normal range BMI and normal percentage body fat. Associations with HbA 1c , cholesterol and hypertension were not significant in adjusted models. Those consuming home cooked meals more than five times, compared with less than three times per week, were 28% less likely to have overweight BMI (99

  17. Meal frequency patterns and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery: Results from a large prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund-Ögge, Linda; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Sengpiel, Verena; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margareta; Myhre, Ronny; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jacobsson, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Dietary habits are linked to high maternal glucose levels, associated with preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between meal frequency and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery. This prospective cohort study included 66,000 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Meal frequency and food intake data were obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy. Principal component factor analysis was used with a data-driven approach, and three meal frequency patterns were identified: "snack meal", "main meal", and "evening meal". Pattern scores were ranked in quartiles. Glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated from table values. Intakes of carbohydrates, added sugar, and fiber were reported in grams per day and divided into quartiles. Gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Preterm delivery was defined as birth at meal" pattern was associated with a reduced risk of preterm delivery, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.98) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.028. This was mainly attributed to the group of women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, with HRs of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.98) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.010. There was no association between glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, added sugar, fiber, or the remaining meal frequency patterns and preterm delivery. Regular consumption of main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) was associated with a lower risk of preterm delivery. Diet should be further studied as potential contributing factors for preterm delivery.

  18. Assessing "chaotic eating" using self-report and the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey: No association between BMI and variability in meal or snack timings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Annie R; Johnson, Laura; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2018-03-24

    Although regular meal timings are recommended for weight loss, no study has characterised irregularity in the timing of eating occasions or investigated associations with body-mass index (BMI). Here, we characterise "chaotic eating" as the tendency to eat at variable times of day. In two studies, we used a novel measure to explore the relationship between BMI and chaotic eating. In Study 1 (N = 98) we measured BMI and used a self-report measure to assess the usual range of times that meals and snacks are consumed over a seven-day period, as well as meal and snack frequency. A separate meal and snack 'chaotic eating index' was derived from the number of possible thirty-minute snack- or meal-slots, divided by the frequency of these eating events. After adjusting for age, gender, and dietary habits (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) we found no relationship between BMI and chaotic eating of meals (β = -0.07, p = 0.73) or snacks (β = -0.10, p = 0.75). In Study 2, we calculated the same chaotic eating index (meals and snacks) using data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey of adults 2000-2001 (seven-day diet diaries; N = 1175). Again, we found little evidence that BMI is associated with chaotic eating of meals (β = 0.16, p = 0.27) or snacks (β = 0.15, p = 0.12). Together, these results suggest that irregular eating timings do not promote weight gain and they challenge guidelines that recommend regularity in meal timings for weight loss. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchisen Tammy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation

  20. The effect of increased levels of dried coconut meal supplemented with an enzyme cocktail® on diet utilization in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prawit Rodjan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of increased levels of dried coconut meal supplemented with an enzyme cocktail® on diet utilization in growing pigs. A 4x4 latin square design was used in this study. Four crossbred (Duroc x Landrace x Large White barrows averaging 17.88±0.96 kg in body weight were allotted 4 diets, diet 1 (the control diet, diet 2, diet 3 and diet 4 (5, 10 and 15% dried coconut meal in each diet with an enzyme cocktail® , 1 kg of the enzyme cocktail containing the activities of phytase 1,000,000 units, amylase 5,000,000 units, xylanase 3,500,000 units, beta-glucanase 2,000,000 units, cellulase 1,500,000 units, pectinase 1,000,000 units and mannanase 800,000 units; 500 g/t of feed, at a level 0.05% in the diets, respectively. Pigs were raised in individual metabolism cages. Faeces and urine samples were collected 4 times a day for 5 days for data collection. The results showed that the nutrient digestibility percentage of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash, nitrogen-free extract, blood urea nitrogen, digestible energy (kcal/kg and metabolizable energy (kcal/ kg were not significantly different (P>0.05 in pigs fed with different diets. However, pigs fed with 5, 10 and 15% dried coconut meal in the diet with an enzyme cocktail® at a level 0.05% had significantly (P0.05 from the other groups. Apparent biological values contrarily reduced (linear and quadratic, P<0.05 with increasing level of dried coconut meal in pig diets. In conclusion, our data indicate that pigs fed with 5% dried coconut meal in a diet with addition of an enzyme cocktail at a level of 0.05% can show obviously increasing the highest digestibility of crude fiber (79.25% without impairing nutrient digestibility.

  1. Comparing the effects of feeding a grain- or a fish meal-based diet on water quality, waste production, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within low exchange water recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding a fish meal-free grain-based diet (GB) was compared to feeding a fish meal-based diet (FM) relative to water quality criteria, waste production, water treatment process performance, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within six replicated water recirculating aquaculture system...

  2. Fish condensate as effective replacer of fish meal protein in diet for striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanakul, Wattana; Wattanakul, Uraiwan; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Muenpo, Chutchawan

    2017-02-01

    The optimal protein replacement of fish meal (FM) by fish condensate (FC) was investigated in striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch) (1.78 ± 0.02 g initial weight). The FM-based diet (0FC) was replaced by substituting protein from FC for 100 (100FC), 200 (200FC), 300 (300FC), 400 (400FC), 500 (500FC) or 600 (600FC) g kg -1 of the FM, and a commercial diet (CD) for carnivorous fish was included for comparison. The experiment was conducted indoors under completely randomized design (8 treatments × 3 replications × 60 fish per pond) over a 6-month trial. There were no significant differences in water quality during the experiment. The fish fed with 500FC had superior growth performance and feed utilization. This dietary treatment gave similar levels to all observed specific activities of digestive enzymes as did baseline 0FC. Survival, carcass composition, hematological parameters and liver histopathology were not negatively impacted by this protein replacement level. Economic analysis also supports the use of this by-product as a potent protein replacer in striped snakehead diet. Findings from the current study indicate that a 500 g kg -1 protein replacement of FM by FC is near optimal for striped snakehead, and similar use of it in the aquafeed of other species appears worth further studies.

  3. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The die......The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus......) was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion....

  4. Flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation modulates growth performance, blood lipids, intestinal fermentation, bile acids, and neutral sterols in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndou, S P; Kiarie, E; Thandapilly, S J; Walsh, M C; Ames, N; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fat, serum lipids, and concentrations of VFA, bile acids (BA), and neutral sterols (NS) in digesta and feces in growing pigs. Forty-eight Genesus [(Duroc boar × Yorkshire-Landrace sows] barrows (25.0 ± 0.32 kg initial BW) were housed in pairs. Pigs were assigned to 1 of the 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets-a basal corn-soybean meal-containing diet (control), a flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM), or an oat hulls-containing diet (OH)-in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and to contain similar standardized ileal digestible AA contents and meet other nutrient requirements for growing pigs. The experiment lasted for 28 d. Average daily feed intake; ADG; G:F; ATTD of fat, serum lipids, and digesta; and fecal VFA, BA, and NS concentrations were determined. Pigs fed the control or OH had greater final BW ( < 0.001), ADFI ( = 0.005), and ADG ( < 0.001) than FM-fed pigs. The ATTD of fat in the FM was lowest at 70.1% followed by 79.2% in OH and was greatest at 92.4% in the control ( = 0.020). Total serum cholesterol content was 2.25 and 1.99 mmol/L and lower ( < 0.001) in pigs fed FM and OH, respectively, than the 2.36 mmol/L in pigs fed the control. Pigs fed the FM and OH had greater ileal and cecal total VFA ( < 0.001), ileal deoxycholic acid ( < 0.01), and cecal ( < 0.001) and fecal cholesterol ( = 0.002) concentrations than those fed the control. Pigs fed the FM excreted more fecal lithocholic acid ( = 0.002) and ursodeoxycholic acid ( = 0.001) compared with those that consumed the control and OH. The concentrations of coprostanol in cecal digesta ( < 0.001) and feces ( = 0.011) were higher in pigs fed the FM and OH than in pigs fed the control. In conclusion, feeding flaxseed meal and oat hulls induced intestinal fermentation; however, the former depressed

  5. Associations between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-07-01

    The associations between eating frequency and diet quality are inconclusive, which might be a result of different effects of meal frequency and snack frequency. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of eating frequency, meal frequency, and snack frequency with diet quality, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Dietary intake was assessed in 19,427 US adults aged 20 years or older, using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All eating occasions providing ≥50 kcal were divided into either meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to daily energy intake (≥15% or frequency, meal frequency, and snack frequency (independent variables) with dietary intake variables (dependent variables). Higher eating frequency was modestly and positively associated with higher HEI-2010 in both men and women; one additional eating occasion per day increased HEI-2010 by 1.77 points in men and 2.22 points in women (both Pmeal frequency and snack frequency were also modestly and positively associated with HEI-2010 in both sexes, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. However, the associations were stronger for meal frequency than for snack frequency; one additional meal per day increased HEI-2010 by 2.14 to 5.35 points, and one additional snack per day increased HEI-2010 by 1.25 to 1.97 points (all Pmeal frequency and snack frequency were modestly associated with better diet quality. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl-ethers and polybrominated dioxins in fish, total diet study food groups, and Japanese meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashizuka, Y.; Nakagawa, R.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Iida, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Since they were found in mother's milk and blood in several studies, the polybrominated diphenyl-ethers (PBDEs) and other polybrominated flame-retardants (BFRs) that are used in plastics, electrical appliances, and textiles have been recognized as ubiquitous pollutants. BFRs are precursors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Recently, 2,3,7,8-TBDD/Fs and PBDEs have been detected in adipose tissue and blood in Japanese people. Food is naturally suspected. However, there is very few information on food contamination with those brominated compounds in Japan. Therefore, we measured the levels of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in various fish samples, meal samples, and total diet study (TDS) food groups and estimated Japanese people's dietary intake of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs.

  7. Replacing cassava meal by forage cactus meal in sheep diets Substituição da raspa de mandioca por farelo de palma forrageira na dieta de ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Sá

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate the nutrient intake, performance and carcass characteristics of crossbred sheep receiving diets with replacement of cassava meal by the forage cactus in the northeast of semi-arid were the objective of this study. Twenty sheep, male, with an average age of 10 months and average body weight of 20.0 ± 4.0 kg were used. The animals were assigned to randomized block experimental design with four replicates and five treatments, remaining confined for 78 days. Zero, 25; 50; 75 and 100% were the replacement levels. The roughage: concentrate relation was 50:50, and amonied buffelgrass was the used roughage. The dry matter intake (DMI, neutral detergent fiber (NDFI, acid detergent fiber (ADFI and not fibrous carbohydrates (NFCI expressed as % of BW showed no statistical difference between the treatments and obtained averages of 4.1 ; 2.2; 1.5, and 3.2 % respectively. The DMI expressed in kg / day showed linear behavior, and each 25 % of inclusion of forage cactus meal was an increase of 91.5 g of DM. The CPI, NDFI, ADFI and NFCI expressed in kg / day also showed linear behavior. There was no difference between treatments for the performance and carcass characteristics. The average gain, feed conversion, hot and cold yield were respectively: 100.0 g / day, 12.9, 41.9% and 39.4. The diets tested provide average body weight gain of 100 g / animal / day, but not promoted differences in performance and carcass characteristics of animals.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo de nutrientes, desempenho e características de carcaça de ovinos mestiços recebendo dietas com substituição da raspa de mandioca por farelo de palma forrageira no semi-árido nordestino. Foram utilizados 20 ovinos, machos, com idade média de 10 meses e média de peso de 20,0 ± 4,0 kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos, permanecendo confinados por 78 dias. Os níveis de

  8. Oxidised LDL levels decreases after the consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, I; Abete, I; Navas-Carretero, S; Massis-Zaid, A; Martinez, J A; Zulet, M A

    2014-04-01

    Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m(2)] were recruited to participate in a 4 week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. After following 3 days on a low-polyphenol diet, 25 volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (645.3 mg of polyphenols) and the other 25 participants received control meals, within a 15% energy restriction diet. On the 4th week of intervention individuals in both dietary groups improved (p eat meals and within a hypocaloric diet improved oxidative status (oxLDL) in middle-aged subjects, being most remarkable in males. Registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01596309). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth performance, feed utilization and sensory characteristics of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with high inclusion levels of copra meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Background: The low cost and wide-availability of copra meal in many tropical countries where aquaculture is practiced have generated much interest in its potential inclusion in fish diet formulations. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of very high inclusions of autoclaved ...

  10. Soybean level and probiotics in first feeding fry diets alter the ability of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to utilize high levels of soybean meal during grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inclusion rates of soybean meal in salmonid diets are currently kept low to minimize detrimental effects on growth, enteritis and immune responses. Probiotics have been used to treat both infectious and noninfectious enteritis in humans and other terrestrial animals and may represent a feasible met...

  11. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisook, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulated to contain defatted SBM to replace fish meal at 0, 10 and 20% of fish meal protein. Each diet wasgiven to the fish at either 4% of body weight (BW or to satiation. At each feeding level, the fish were fed at two feeding frequencies, once and twice daily. Fish with an average initial weight of 2.04±0.06 g/fish werereared for twelve weeks in the flow through system. Growth of fish reduced with an increasing amount of defatted SBM incorporated in diets as observed in other carnivorous species. Within groups of fish fed thesame diet, different growth performance and feed efficiency differed due to both feeding level and frequency. Weight gain of fish that were fed diet with defatted SBM replacing 10% of fish meal protein (diet 2until satiation was not significantly different from fish fed fish meal based diet at 4% BW. Furthermore, feeding fish the former diet twice daily resulted in an improvement of FCR, PER and PPV of fish to those ofthe fish fed fish meal based diet at satiation twice daily. Nitrogen and phosphorus loss was affected by diet, feeding level and frequency. Fish fed diet 2 until satiation twice daily lost nitrogen and phosphorus in theamount similar to that of fish fed fish meal based diet until satiation.

  12. Associations between meal and snack frequency and diet quality and adiposity measures in British adults: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine how different definitions of meals and snacks can affect the associations of meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with dietary intake and adiposity measures. Based on 7 d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 % or meals and sex.

  13. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  14. Dietary lysine requirement for 7-16 kg pigs fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahindi, R K; Htoo, J K; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the lysine requirement of weaned pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] with an average initial BW of 7 kg and fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets. The experiments were conducted for 21 days during which piglets had free access to diets and water. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined on day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 14 to determine plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration. In experiment 1, 96 weaned pigs were housed four per pen and allocated to four dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. The diets contained 0.99%, 1.23%, 1.51% and 1.81% standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine, respectively, corrected analysed values. The rest of the AA were provided to meet the ideal AA ratio for protein accretion. Increasing dietary lysine content linearly increased (p requirement was determined to be 1.29% and 1.34% respectively. On average, optimal dietary SID lysine content for optimal growth of 7-16 kg weaned piglets fed wheat-corn-SBM-based diets was estimated to be 1.32%; at this level, the ADG and ADFI were 444 and 560 g, respectively, thus representing an SID lysine requirement, expressed on daily intake basis as, 7.4 g/day or 16.76 mg/g gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Replacing groundnut cake with gluten meals of rice and maize in diets for growing Sahiwal cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tariq A; Thakur, S S; Mahesh, M S; Yogi, R K

    2017-10-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of isonitrogenous replacement of groundnut cake (GNC) by rice gluten meal (RGM) and maize gluten meal (MGM) at 75% level on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, growth performance and related blood constituents in growing Sahiwal cattle. Eighteen Sahiwal calves were divided into three groups, based on average body weight (87.24 kg) and age (6 to 12 mo), and treatments were assigned to the different groups randomly. The first group (GP-I) was kept as control and received GNC-based concentrate mixture. In second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, 750 g/kg nitrogen (N) of GNC was substituted by RGM and MGM respectively, with similar forage:concentrate ratio (56:44). The 90 days of experimental feeding revealed that intake of dry matter, crude protein and digestibility coefficients for all nutrients did not differ among groups. Furthermore, although N balance was greater (p≤0.05) for GP-III than GP-I and GP-II, average daily gain was similar between GP-I and GP-II but greater (p≤0.05) for GP-III. In addition, feed efficiency and related haematological variables did not differ due to treatments. Nutritional worth of GNC and RGM was highly comparable in terms of intake, digestibility and growth in growing calves. However, MGM was found to be more efficacious in improving growth rate than RGM at 75% replacement level of GNC protein.

  16. Replacing groundnut cake with gluten meals of rice and maize in diets for growing Sahiwal cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq A. Malik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment investigated the effect of isonitrogenous replacement of groundnut cake (GNC by rice gluten meal (RGM and maize gluten meal (MGM at 75% level on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, growth performance and related blood constituents in growing Sahiwal cattle. Methods Eighteen Sahiwal calves were divided into three groups, based on average body weight (87.24 kg and age (6 to 12 mo, and treatments were assigned to the different groups randomly. The first group (GP-I was kept as control and received GNC-based concentrate mixture. In second (GP-II and third (GP-III groups, 750 g/kg nitrogen (N of GNC was substituted by RGM and MGM respectively, with similar forage:concentrate ratio (56:44. Results The 90 days of experimental feeding revealed that intake of dry matter, crude protein and digestibility coefficients for all nutrients did not differ among groups. Furthermore, although N balance was greater (p≤0.05 for GP-III than GP-I and GP-II, average daily gain was similar between GP-I and GP-II but greater (p≤0.05 for GP-III. In addition, feed efficiency and related haematological variables did not differ due to treatments. Conclusion Nutritional worth of GNC and RGM was highly comparable in terms of intake, digestibility and growth in growing calves. However, MGM was found to be more efficacious in improving growth rate than RGM at 75% replacement level of GNC protein.

  17. Meal replacements and fibre supplement as a strategy for weight loss. Proprietary PGX® meal replacement and PGX® fibre supplement in addition to a calorie-restricted diet to achieve weight loss in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Ronald G; Reimer, Raylene A; Kacinik, Veronica; Pal, Sebely; Gahler, Roland J; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Meal replacements and viscous soluble fibre represent safe and sustainable aids for weight loss. Our purpose was to determine if PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre complex in combination with a calorie-restricted diet would aid in weight loss in a clinical setting. Fifty-two overweight and obese participants (49 women, 3 men; average age 47.1 years) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.8 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) consumed 57 g of proprietary PGX® meal replacement product at breakfast and another 57 g at lunch for 12 weeks. In addition to the meal replacements, they were also asked to consume 5 g/day of PGX® fibre in the form of granules, powder or capsules together with 250 mlwater. A registered dietician recommended low-fat, low-glycaemic-index foods for snacks and the dinner menus such that each volunteer was consuming a total of 1200 kcal/day. All participants (n = 52) lost a significant amount of weight from baseline (-4.69 ± 3.73 kg), which was further reflected in the reductions in their waist (-7.11 ± 6.35 cm) and hip circumference (-5.59 ± 3.58 cm) over the 12-week study (p meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre along with a controlled dietary caloric intake is of benefit for short-term weight loss.

  18. Use of larvae meal as protein source in broiler diet: Effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Loponte, R; Marono, S; Piccolo, G; Parisi, G; Iaconisi, V; Gasco, L; Nizza, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of insect meal from larvae ( larvae meal [TML]) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits of broilers. A total of eighty 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were homogenously divided into 2 groups (each consisting of 8 replicates of 5 birds). Up to 62 d of age, the groups were fed 2 isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for the ingredient used as the main protein source: the control group was fed a corn-SBM-based diet, whereas in the TML group, the SBM was completely replaced by TML. Broiler growth performance was measured during the trial. At 62 d of age, 2 broilers per replicate (16 per group) were slaughtered and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients and carcass and meat traits were determined. The use of TML as the main protein source in the broiler diet had no significant effect on most growth performance and carcass traits and chemical and physical properties of meat, the latter being important for marketing purposes. The feed conversion ratio in the entire experimental period (from 30 to 62 d) was improved in the TML group compared with the SBM group ( digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and CP in broilers fed the SBM diet were greater ( digestive system in broilers fed SBM had a lower ( protein source for growing broilers and also when used as principal protein contributor to the diet.

  19. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bagliacca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; Pvs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; Pvs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  20. UTILIZATION OF MEXICAN SUNFLOWER LEAF MEAL-BASED DIETS BY PRE WEANED WEST AFRICAN DWARF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Henry Ekeocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted using 16 West African Dwarf (WAD lambs selected from 16 ewes brought to heat (Oestrus by synchronization and served by 2 rams. The experimental animals were placed at 6 weeks of age and were fed with Panicum maximum plus concentrate diet mixture of Mexican Sunflower Leaves (MSL and Wheat Bran (WB such that 0, 15, 30 and 45% of wheat bran was replaced by weight with MSL gravimetrically in diets A, B, C and D respectively. The experiment lasted for seven weeks. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and routine vaccination and medication were administered. Parameters measured were weight gain, dry matter intake, weaning weight and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR. The Dry Matter Intake - DMI (g/day was highest for lambs on diet C (156.94 followed by B (156.53, A (154.29 and D (152.04 g/day respectively. This increase was numerically higher than observed values for animals on treatments A and B but statistically significant (P0.05. Results from this study showed that 30% MSLM-based diet was acceptable to the pre-weaned lambs as it supported dry matter intake, optimum weight gain, weaning weight and feed conversion ratio before diminishing return sets in.

  1. The feeding value of mango seed kernal meal in broiler diets | Faniyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % levels (w/w) in broiler starter and finisher diets in an eight week feeding trial. 120 day - old broiler chicks were used for the experiment. 30 chicks were randomly assigned to each of the four treatments in a completely randomised design.

  2. Effect of Palm Oil Supplementation in Yam Peel Meal Diets Fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YPM) in broiler diets. A total of 225 day-old broiler birds with an average initial weight of 43g were used. The birds were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments, with three replicates of 15 birds each in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) ...

  3. Replacement of soybean meal with maize steep liquor in the diets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-two Santa Inês intact male lambs, with an average initial weight of 21.0 ± 2.3 kg, were assigned to a completely randomized block design with four treatments and eight replicates. Intake of DM, organic matter, ether extract, neutral detergent fibre and total digestible nutrients were not affected by the diets. However, the ...

  4. Growth performance, haematology, serum biochemistry and meat quality characteristics of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica fed canola meal-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caven M. Mnisi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of partial replacement of soybean meal (Glycine max with canola meal (CM (Brassica napus on the growth performance, haematology, serum biochemistry and meat quality characteristics of female Japanese quails in a 35-day feeding trial. One hundred and forty 6-week-old quails 158.28 ± 11.919 g were randomly allocated to 5 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets: control diet (CM0; with no CM inclusion; CM0 with 2.5% (CM25, 5.0% (CM50, 12.5% (CM125 and 17.5% (CM175 soybean meal replaced with CM. Average weekly gain (AWG and feed conversion efficiency (FCE were determined. Haematology, serum biochemistry, carcass traits and meat quality parameters were determined at slaughter. Quails fed CM175 had the lowest (P  0.05 on cooking losses and peak positive force of quail meat. It was concluded that CM can replace soybean in quail diets up to 12.5% without compromising growth performance, health and quality of meat. Inclusion levels beyond 12.5% promoted poor voluntary feed intake and thus may require feed additives to enhance utilization. Keywords: Japanese quail, Haematology, Meat, Feed intake, Canola meal

  5. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11–13 year old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Breiting, Søren; Perez-Cuetoa, Federico J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to pro- vide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils’ attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food...... and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which...... selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention...

  6. Effects of school meals based on the New Nordic Diet on intake of signature foods: a randomised controlled trial. The OPUS School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2015-01-01

    , there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by NND school meals. In conclusion, this study showed that the children increased their intake of NND signature foods, and, furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes...... of NND signature foods when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the NND principles....... of the present study was to investigate the effects of serving NND school meals compared with the usual packed lunches on the dietary intake of NND signature foods. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control...

  7. The feasibility of achieving low-sodium intake in diets that are also nutritious, low-cost, and have familiar meal components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Given the importance of high sodium diets as a risk factor for disease burden (ranked 11(th in importance in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, we aimed to determine the feasibility of low-sodium diets that were also low-cost, nutritious and (for some scenarios included familiar meals. METHODS: The mathematical technique of "linear programming" was used to model eight optimized daily diets (some with uncertainty, including some diets that contained "familiar meals" for New Zealanders or were Mediterranean-, Asian- and Pacific-style diets. Data inputs included nutrients in foods, food prices and food wastage. FINDINGS: Using nutrient recommendations for men and a cost constraint of diets were all well below the 2300 mg/d (5.8 g salt/d recommended maximum. The only diet to not consistently fall below the recommended "target" upper limit of 1600 mg/d included an evening meal with sausages (median= 1640 mg/d, 95% simulation interval: 1551-1735 mg/d. Many additional nutritional aspects of these optimized low-sodium diets suggest that they would reduce cardiovascular disease risk in other ways (e.g., improved polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio and also reduce risk of cancer and other chronic diseases (e.g., via higher intakes of vegetables, fruits and dietary fiber. Even healthier diets (e.g., with higher intakes of fruit occurred when the cost constraint was relaxed to $NZ15/d (US$11.40. Similar results were obtained when the modeling considered diets for women. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide some reassurance for the feasibility of substantially reducing population sodium intake given currently available low-cost foods and while maintaining some level of familiar meals. Policy makers could consider ways to promote such optimized diets and foods, including regulations on maximum salt levels in processed foods, and taxes on alternative foods that are high

  8. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: An in vitro rumen fermentation study

    OpenAIRE

    Anuraga Jayanegara; Briliannanda Novandri; Nover Yantina; Muhammad Ridla

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Materials and Methods: Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1) and 2 weeks (BSF2) were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis): T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 4...

  9. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: An in vitro rumen fermentation study

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Novandri, Briliannanda; Yantina, Nover; Ridla, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Materials and Methods: Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1) and 2 weeks (BSF2) were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis): T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 40% B...

  10. Evaluation of raw rock phosphate as substitute for bone meal in diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds on 1% RRP diet produced egg shell with lower percent calcium (29.24%) than other group. RRP levels in all the groups did not affect phosphorus contents in egg shell. Hens feed on 2% dietary RRP produced eggs containing up to 0.398 mg/kg F and 0.382 mg/kg F in yolk and albumen respectively compared with ...

  11. Associations between children's diet quality and watching television during meal or snack consumption: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Avery, Amanda; Anderson, Catherine; McCullough, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Studies have identified an association between watching television (TV) and childhood obesity. This review adds context to existing research by examining the associations between TV viewing, whilst eating, and children's diet quality. Web of Science and PubMed databases were searched from January 2000 to June 2014. Cross-sectional trials of case control or cohort studies, which included baseline data, measuring the associations between eating whilst watching TV and children's food and drink i...

  12. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P meal caused the greatest change in cod lipid composition and utilization.

  13. Impact of second line limiting amino acids' deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C Basavanta; Gloridoss, R G; Singh, K Chandrapal; Prabhu, T M; Siddaramanna; Suresh, B N; Manegar, G A

    2015-03-01

    To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a 'moderate SLAA deficit' diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a 'high SLAA deficit' diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME), crude protein (CP) and AA were studied. The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (pdeficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  14. Effects of Diets with Graded Levels of Canola Meal on the Growth Performance, Meat Qualities, Relative Organ Weights, and Blood Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BK An

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of canola meal (CM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and Infectious bronchitis virus, and blood profiles of broiler chickens. In total 600 day-old feather-sexed Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatments with six replicates of 20 birds each for 35 days. Treatments consisted of five experimental diets containing 0 (control, 3, 5, 10, or 15% canola meal (CM. Final body weight (BW was not affected by the dietary treatments. Daily BW gain (DWG and feed intake linearly decreased as dietary CM inclusion increased during the starter phase (p<0.0001, but not during the grower and total rearing periods. Chicks fed the diet with 15% CM presented the lowest DWG during the starter phase. Breast meat yield of CM-fed chicks linearly decreased as CM inclusion level increased (p=0.0014. Dietary CM supplementation did not influence organ relative weights, except for the spleen, meat quality, or blood profile. The results suggest that the CM may replace soybean meal (SBM with no detrimental effects on overall growth performance or physiological responses of broiler chickens. However, it is recommended that supplementing excess amount of CM into broilers' diet should be taken into account in practical diet formulation as it could impair growth performance at early age and lower breast meat yields.

  15. Intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance of rations containing different levels of murumuru meal in sheep diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Peres de Menezes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the potential use of increasing levels of murumuru cake Astrocaryum murumuru var. murumuru, M art. (MC in sheep diets as a replacement for Mombasa grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. Metabolic tests were performed with 20 castrated male sheep at Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém, Pará, during 26 days. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with five diets and four replications. MC0: 100% grass; MC10: 10% MC and 90% grass; MC20: 20% MC and 80% grass; MC40: 40% MC and 60% grass; and MC60: 60% MC and 40% grass. The intake and the coefficient of apparent digestibility of dry matter (DMI and CDDM, organic matter (OMI and CDOM, crude protein (CPI and CDCP, neutral detergent fiber (NDFI and CDNDF, acid detergent fiber (ADFI and CDADF, ether extract (EEI and CDEE, cellulose (CELI and CDCEL, hemicellulose (HEMI and CDHEM, and nitrogen balance (NB of experimental diets were determined. The intake of mineral material (MMI and lignin (LIGI were also determined. The DMI, OMI, MMI, CPI, NDFI, and ADFI displayed a decreasing linear effect with the replacement of Mombasa grass by MC in the diet. The EEI and the LIGI presented quadratic effects according to the replacement levels of MC in the diet. The CDDM, CDOM, and CDHEM displayed increasing linear effects, between MC0 and MC60. The CDEE, CDNDF, CDADF, and CDCEL displayed a quadratic effect, with optimum replacement levels of 56.65%, 41%, 31.33%, and 27.46%, respectively. The nitrogen balance presented a negative linear effect in the range of 0% to 60% of murumuru cake. One can conclude that murumuru cake is an alternative to the dietary supplementation of ruminants in replacing the Mombasa grass because it provides an increase in the digestibility of nutrients for sheep. However, a limited replacement level must be implemented, considering that from 27.46%, 31.33%, 41%, and 56.65% replacement, a decline occurs in the CDCEL, CDADF, CDNDF, and CDEE, respectively

  16. The Possibility of Using Irradiated Khishni (Liza abu) Fish Meal Instead of the Imported Protein Sources in The Diet of Common Carp (Cprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL shammaa, A.A; Abu Tabigh, S.M; Al Fadily, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were done,the first for ten week,in which fish meal (FM) were used instead of animal protein (AP). A total of (12) group of young common carps Cyprinus carpio L.(25.98±0.27 gm.) were fed on four experimental diets. The first three diets were with 4%, 8% and 12% of (FM) (total replacement),specific growth rate, final fish weight and protein efficiency ratio. Whereas, in the second experiment, a total of (15) groups of C.carpio (36,44±0.23 gm)were fed on five experimental diets in which (FM) were used by 12% and 15% instead of (AP) as well as by 10% and 15% instead of Soyabean meal . The fifth diets was with 0% (F M). Statistical analysis (CRD and Dun cans test ) showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between the experimental diet according to food conversion ratio. According to these results dried irradiated Khishni can be used as a (FM). and to be a good replacer for all (AP) and 50% of Soyabean (c.p. 44%) in the diet of common carp.) (author)

  17. Rastreabilidade de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas com levedura e trigo para frangos Traceability of animal byproducts in diets containing yeast and wheat meal for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gottmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi rastrear a inclussão de farinhas de origem animal em rações para frango de corte com ou sem levedura de cana-de-açúcar e farelo de trigo, por meio da análise do músculo peitoral das aves pelas técnicas dos isótopos estáveis de carbono e nitrogênio. Foram utilizados 210 pintos machos (Cobb, com um dia de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em sete tratamentos de 30 aves cada, tendo sido um tratamento controle (dieta vegetal e seis com inclusão de farinha de carne e ossos bovina ou farinha de vísceras de aves na dieta, com ou sem levedura de cana-de-açúcar e farelo de trigo. Aos 42 dias de idade, foram abatidas quatro aves, por tratamento, escolhidas ao acaso, cujo músculo peitoral foi retirado para análise da razão isotópica. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise multivariada. Os tratamentos experimentais diferiram do tratamento controle, e foi identificada a inclusão de farinha de origem animal, pelas técnicas dos isótopos estáveis, mesmo com inclusão de levedura ou farelo de trigo na dieta.The aim of this paper was to trace the presence of meals from animal origin, in diets for broilers with or without yeast and wheat meal, through the analysis of breast muscle, by using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope techniques. Two hundred ten male chicks (Cobb one-day old were randomly distributed to seven treatments (30 birds each, with a control diet (exclusively vegetal, and six diets containing meat and bone meal or poultry offal meal, with or without yeast and wheat meal in their compositions. At 42 days of age, four broilers randomly chosen, by treatment were slaughtered, and their breast muscles were collected for isotopic ratio analysis. The isotopic results were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis of variance. The treatments differed from the control and the inclusion of meals of animal origin was identified by stable isotope techniques, even when there was yeast or

  18. Meal frequency patterns and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery: Results from a large prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Englund-Ögge

    Full Text Available Dietary habits are linked to high maternal glucose levels, associated with preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between meal frequency and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery.This prospective cohort study included 66,000 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Meal frequency and food intake data were obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy. Principal component factor analysis was used with a data-driven approach, and three meal frequency patterns were identified: "snack meal", "main meal", and "evening meal". Pattern scores were ranked in quartiles. Glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated from table values. Intakes of carbohydrates, added sugar, and fiber were reported in grams per day and divided into quartiles. Gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Preterm delivery was defined as birth at <37 gestational weeks. A Cox regression model was used to assess associations with preterm delivery.After adjustments, the "main meal" pattern was associated with a reduced risk of preterm delivery, with hazard ratios (HRs of 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.80, 0.98 and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99 for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.028. This was mainly attributed to the group of women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, with HRs of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.96 and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.98 for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.010. There was no association between glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, added sugar, fiber, or the remaining meal frequency patterns and preterm delivery.Regular consumption of main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner was associated with a lower risk of preterm delivery. Diet should be further studied as potential contributing factors for preterm delivery.

  19. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p corn, soya bean meal and DLRM.

  20. Supplementation of broiler diets with high levels of microbial protease and phytase enables partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdaw, M M; Perez-Maldonado, R A; Iji, P A

    2018-02-22

    A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial, involving three levels of protease (0, 15,000 or 30,000 PROT/kg) and three levels of phytase (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg), was used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial soybean meal (SBM) with raw, full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 75 g/kg of diet for broilers. A control diet was used for comparison. Each treatment was replicated six times, with nine birds per replicate. The concentration of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the test diets was approximately 10,193.4 TIU/kg. Regardless of enzyme supplementation, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) of birds in the control group were superior to those on the test diets. Birds that received the protease-free test diets had reduced FI and BWG, but when supplemented with protease, were similar to the control diet in BWG, FI (except 0-35 days) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). When the test diet was supplemented with elevated levels (extradose) of protease and phytase, the BWG was improved during 0-10 days (p = .05) and 0-24 days (p replace SBM in broiler diets, provided the diets are supplemented with elevated levels of protease and phytase. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Short communication: Partial replacement of ground corn with algae meal in a dairy cow diet: Milk yield and composition, nutrient digestibility, and metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G G; Ferreira de Jesus, E; Takiya, C S; Del Valle, T A; da Silva, T H; Vendramini, T H A; Yu, Esther J; Rennó, F P

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dietary ground corn with a microalgae meal from Prototheca moriformis (composed of deoiled microalgae and soyhulls) on milk yield and composition, nutrient intake, total-tract apparent digestibility, and blood profile of lactating dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (57.7±49.4d in milk, 25.3±5.3 of milk yield, and 590±71kg of live weight at the start of experiment, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a cross-over design experiment, with 21-d periods. Diets were no microalgae meal (CON) or 91.8g/kg of microalgae meal partially replacing dietary ground corn (ALG). Cows showed similar milk yield and composition. The 3.5% fat-corrected milk production was 30.2±1.34kg/d for CON and 31.1±1.42kg/d for ALG. Despite cows having similar dry matter intake, ALG increased neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake. In addition, cows fed ALG exhibited higher ether extract digestibility. No differences were detected in glucose, urea, amino-aspartate transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase blood concentrations. Feeding ALG increased the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein in blood compared with CON. The microalgae meal may partially replace ground corn in diets of lactating cows without impairing the animal's performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens fed diet containing pineapple waste meal fermented by “ragi tape”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandey, J. S.; Tulung, B.; Leke, J. R.; Sondakh, B. F. J.

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of pineapple waste meal fermented by “ragi tape” (FPW) in diets on the performance and carcass quality of broilers. The “ragi tape” was a traditional commercial product of yeast. Five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels of FPW with four replicates were fed to 250 broiler chickens for 42 days in a completely randomized design. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The variables were performance parameters and carcass quality. Results showed that the performance in finisher, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage were significantly affected by dietary treatments. Carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage were significantly decrease in the proportion of 20% of FPW. However, the carcass percentage in treatments R0 - R4 were still in a good category. The higher the levels of FPW the lower the abdominal fat percentage signed that FPW treatments up to 20% resulted good category of broiler carcass. Income over feed cost and broiler cost analysis in 20% FPW treatment obtained the highest income and the lowest was 0% FPW treatment. It can be concluded that FPW can be fed to broiler chickens at up to 20% level.

  3. [Dietary exposure assessment of substances in foods : The BfR MEAL study - the first German total diet study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvan, Irmela; Bürgelt, Michaela; Lindtner, Oliver; Greiner, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    The dietary exposure of a population to chemical substances is estimated based on representative consumption data and data on the occurrence of substances in foods. Consumption data in Germany for different age groups are provided by the National Nutrition Survey ll, VELS, EsKiMo and the ongoing KiESEL study. The data for the levels of substances in foods is currently obtained from the German food monitoring programme (Lebensmittel-Monitoring) and the German Food Composition Table (Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel) and is not sufficient for a comprehensive evaluation of dietary exposure in Germany. More data is needed and, in particular, the range of analysed substances should be broadened to reduce the uncertainties of the exposure assessment. A representative data basis for concentrations of substances in foods will be established with the first German total diet study, called the BfR MEAL study. The study will markedly reduce major uncertainties in the dietary exposure assessment through its wide coverage of substances in food groups, the inclusion of prepared foods, the orientation on low measurement limits as well as the analysis of substances without a reliable data basis.

  4. Associations between nutritional quality of meals and snacks assessed by the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system and overall diet quality and adiposity measures in British children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro

    2018-05-01

    This cross-sectional study examined how the nutritional quality of meals and snacks was associated with overall diet quality and adiposity measures. Based on 7-d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 06:00-09:00 h, 12:00-14:00 h, and 17:00-20:00 h; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (meals: ≥15%; snacks: quality of meals and snacks was assessed as the arithmetical energy intake-weighted means of the Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system score of each food and beverage consumed, based on the contents of energy, saturated fatty acid, total sugar, sodium, fruits/vegetables/nuts, dietary fiber, and protein. Regardless of the definition of meals and snacks, higher FSA score (lower nutritional quality) of meals was inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the Mediterranean diet score in both children and adolescents (P quality of meals, but not snacks, assessed by the FSA score was associated with lower overall diet quality, whereas no consistent associations were observed with regard to adiposity measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of feeding diets based on transgenic soybean meal and soybean hulls to dairy cows on production measures and sensory quality of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W P; Simons, C T; Ekmay, R D

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether feeding meal and hulls derived from genetically modified soybeans to dairy cows affected production measures and sensory qualities of milk. The soybeans were genetically modified (Event DAS-444Ø6-6) to be resistant to multiple herbicides. Twenty-six Holstein cows (13/treatment) were fed a diet that contained meal and hulls derived from transgenic soybeans or a diet that contained meal and hulls from a nontransgenic near-isoline variety. Soybean products comprised approximately 21% of the diet dry matter, and diets were formulated to be nearly identical in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, energy, and minerals and vitamins. The experimental design was a replicated 2×2 Latin square with a 28-d feeding period. Dry matter intake (21.3 vs. 21.4kg/d), milk yield (29.3 vs. 29.4kg/d), milk fat (3.70 vs. 3.68%), and milk protein (3.10 vs. 3.12%) did not differ between cows fed control or transgenic soybean products, respectively. Milk fatty acid profile was virtually identical between treatments. Somatic cell count was significantly lower for cows fed transgenic soybean products, but the difference was biologically trivial. Milk was collected from all cows in period 1 on d 0 (before treatment), 14, and 28 for sensory evaluation. On samples from all days (including d 0) judges could discriminate between treatments for perceived appearance of the milk. The presence of this difference at d 0 indicated that it was likely not a treatment effect but rather an initial bias in the cow population. No treatment differences were found for preference or acceptance of the milk. Overall, feeding soybean meal and hulls derived from this genetically modified soybean had essentially no effects on production or milk acceptance when fed to dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of substituting soyabean meal for breadfruit (Tricuria africana) meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings on diet acceptability, growth responses and cost benefit of fed catfishes were studied. The acceptability of breadfruit based diets by Heterobranchus ...

  7. Influence of a meal-replacement diet on quality of life in women with obesity and knee osteoarthritis before orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Juan José; Izaola-Jáuregui, Olatz; Torres-Torres, Beatriz; Gómez-Hoyos, Emilia; Castro Lozano, María Ángeles; Ortolá-Buigues, Ana; Martín Ferrero, Miguel Ángel; De Luis-Román, Daniel Antonio

    2018-01-16

    Knee osteoarthritis is a disease with a high prevalence in our environment, especially in women. Weight loss can improve the quality of life of these patients before surgery. To evaluate the effect of a meal-replacement diet on weight loss, body composition, and the improvement of the quality of life in obese women with knee osteoarthritis pending surgery. One branch intervention study was performed over three months on 81 women with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2 with knee osteoarthritis before surgery. Patients received a hyperproteic meal-replacement diet with two bottles of an oral nutrition supplement in lunch and dinner (1,035 kcal). Anthropometric parameters, and body composition were measured. The quality of life was assessed by WOMAC and SF-36 test. The mean age of the patients was 62.23 (8.50) years. The percentage of weight loss was 8.23% (4.04). An improvement in the SF-36 total score was observed (basal: 49.35 [20.41], three months: 58.71 [17.07], p meal-replacement diet, there is a significant decrease in weight and fat mass with a relative increase of the latter. There is an improvement in the quality of life according to SF-36 and WOMAC. There is an independent relationship between weight loss and SF-36 improvement.

  8. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    OpenAIRE

    Srisook, S.; Mahankich, S.; Tantikitti, C.; Onkong, S.

    2007-01-01

    Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM) replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulat...

  9. Effects of milk thistle meal on performance, ileal bacterial enumeration, jejunal morphology and blood lipid peroxidation in laying hens fed diets with different levels of metabolizable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Jabali, N S; Mahdavi, A H; Ansari Mahyari, S; Sedghi, M; Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of milk thistle meal on performance, blood biochemical indices, ileal bacterial counts and intestinal histology in laying hens fed diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy. A total number of 200 Leghorn laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) were randomly assigned to eight experimental treatments with five cage replicates of five birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of four levels of milk thistle meal (0%, 15%, 30% and 60%) and two levels of AME n (11.09 and 12.34 MJ/kg) fed over a period of 80 days. In vitro studies revealed that the total phenolic component of milk thistle meal was 470.64 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of the sample, and its antioxidant activity for inhibiting the 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrichydrazyl free radical and reducing ferric ions was about 21% higher than that of butylated hydroxyltoluene (p < .05). Diets containing high level of AME n led to improved egg production (p < .05), egg weight (p < .05), egg mass (p < .01) and feed conversion ratio (p < .01). In addition, offering diets containing high energy significantly enhanced (p < .01) serum triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as jejunal villus height. Dietary supplementation of 3% milk thistle meal resulted in the best feed conversion ratio (p < .05), reduction of ileal Escherichia coli enumeration (p < .01) and an enhancement in the villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (p < .05). Furthermore, feeding incremental levels of this meal led to remarkable decrease in serum cholesterol, triglyceride and MDA (p < .01) concentrations while significant increase in blood high-density lipoprotein content and goblet cell numbers (p < .05). The present findings indicate that milk thistle meal with high antioxidant and antibacterial properties in laying hen diets may improve health indices and productive performance. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Toward new forms of meal sharing? Collective habits and personal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Estelle; Bubendorff, Sandrine; Fraïssé, Christèle

    2018-04-01

    This article sheds light on the fact that the commensality remains a fundamental aspect of eating in French culture. However, at the same time, the expansion of the individualisation and medicalisation of the act of eating during the latest decades impacted the social representations of food. We will first place dietary practices into a general context in which the relationship to food tends to be individualised and in which health-related issues remain an important aspect of the discourse about food on internet. Secondly, we will examine how these practices are (in)compatible with the defining dimensions of the French food model, in particular those relating to commensality (the practice of eating together) and food sharing. It seems that although a personalised diet restricts the objective possibilities of food sharing, it is still central in representations of food and, in some cases, leads to the emergence of associated practices to introduce new forms of social eating behaviours, such as those made possible by the spread of the Internet. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Associations between children's diet quality and watching television during meal or snack consumption: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Amanda; Anderson, Catherine; McCullough, Fiona

    2017-10-01

    Studies have identified an association between watching television (TV) and childhood obesity. This review adds context to existing research by examining the associations between TV viewing, whilst eating, and children's diet quality. Web of Science and PubMed databases were searched from January 2000 to June 2014. Cross-sectional trials of case control or cohort studies, which included baseline data, measuring the associations between eating whilst watching TV and children's food and drink intake. Quality of selected papers was assessed. Thirteen studies, representing 61,674 children aged 1-18 yrs, met inclusion criteria. Of six studies reporting overall food habits, all found a positive association between TV viewing and consumption of pizza, fried foods, sweets, and snacks. Of eight studies looking at fruit and vegetable consumption, seven identified a negative association with eating whilst watching TV (p consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat, high-sugar foods and fewer fruits and vegetables. Although these differences in consumption are small, the cumulative effect may contribute to the positive association between eating whilst watching TV and childhood obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of diets containing potato protein or soya bean meal on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis and the physiological response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, P S; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M; Silva, S S P

    2011-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to compare and explain the incidence of spontaneously occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that were fed on two practical broiler diets that differed in the major protein concentrates (soya bean meal or potato protein concentrates) and examine the relationships between the severity of the disease and the growth performance and physiological responses of the chickens. 2. A total of 840, 20-d-old birds were randomly allocated to 12 pens. Two maize-based nutritionally complete diets that either contained some potato protein or soya bean meal as the major protein supplement were fed for 16 d. Twelve birds were randomly sampled from each pen at the end of the feeding period and their blood sampled and intestinal tracts and livers dissected. 3. The birds fed on the potato protein diet had a significantly 7·7% lower feed intake and a significantly 7·8% lower growth rate compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet. There were no significant differences in feed conversion efficiency or mortality. There were no differences in the determined apparent metabolisable energy concentrations, however, the apparent dry matter digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly higher than that of the soya based diet and the apparent crude protein digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly lower. 4. A significantly higher alpha toxin antibody titre was found in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with those fed on the soya protein diet. There was a significantly increased incidence of hepatic lesions in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with the birds fed on the soya diet. The mean incidence of intestinal necroses tended to be greater in the birds fed on the potato protein diet (23·6%) compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet (15·3%). 5. There was a significant linear relationship between ileal digesta sialic acid concentration and serum alpha toxin

  13. Effect of Phytase Superdoses and Citric Acid on Growth Performance, Plasma Phosphorus and Tibia Ash in Broilers Fed Canola Meal-Based Diets Severely Limited in Available Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri HR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase superdoses alone or in combination with citric acid (CA in canola meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (Pa on growth performance, plasma phosphorus (P, and tibia ash (TA in broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. Two hundreds and eighty 21-d-old male broilers were used in 28 pens of 10 birds per each. The experimental diets consisted of a positive control (PC diet and six negative control (NC diets which consisted of two levels of CA (0 and 20 g/Kg and three levels of phytase (0, 1000 and 4000 U/Kg in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. The PC diet contained 4.3 g/Kg Pa, but all NC diets contained 1.5 g/Kg Pa. Results indicated that the birds fed the PC diet had a significantly higher average daily gain (ADG, plasma P and TA, but a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR than those fed the NC diet. The ADG, FCR and plasma P values in birds fed NC diets supplemented with 4000 U/Kg phytase enzyme (with or without CA significantly reached those of birds fed the PC diet. But, addition of phytase enzyme at 1000 U/Kg only plus CA to the NC diet could significantly improve FCR and plasma P. A significant interaction was observed between phytase and CA for FCR and plasma P. Although TA values in NC + 1000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA were similar to the PC treatment, TA values of NC + 4000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA was greater than that of the PC treatment. Results of this study showed that, in severely limited Pa corn-canola meal-based diets, supplementing 4000 U/Kg phytase or also 1000 U/Kg phytase plus CA will be sufficient to obtain the comparable feed efficiency in broilers to those fed the adequate Pa diet.

  14. Effect of elevated dietary amino acid levels in high canola meal diets on productive traits and cecal microbiota population of broiler chickens in a pair-feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghyani, M; Girish, C K; Wu, S B; Iji, P A; Swick, R A

    2017-05-01

    A pair-feeding study was conducted to determine if reduced feed intake (FI) in broiler chickens fed high canola meal (CM) diets per se accounts for reduced growth performance and whether this lower growth rate can be mitigated by increasing dietary amino acid (AA) levels. Five experimental wheat-based diets were formulated as follows: soybean meal (SBM) diet, high CM diet with normal AA concentration, and high CM diets with 3, 6, or 9% additional AA concentration (Lys, Met+Cys, Thr, Ile, Arg, and Val). Another group of birds was pair-fed with SBM diet to the consumption levels of birds fed CM diet with normal AA. There were 6 replicates of 17 male 10-day-old Ross 308 chicks per treatment over grower and finisher periods. Birds fed the CM diets had reduced FI and BWG, but improved FCR (P < 0.01) compared to SBM ad libitum fed birds. The SBM pair-fed birds gained the same weight and exhibited similar FCR compared to CM fed birds. Additional 9% AA improved FCR (P < 0.01) compared to SBM and CM diets with normal AA. No significant differences were observed in ileal digestibility of DM, energy, crude protein, and AA between CM with normal AA and SBM diets. The additional 6 and 9% AA in CM diets increased digestibility of crude protein and some AA (P < 0.05). SBM ad libitum and CM + 6 and 9% AA fed birds had the highest and lowest relative weight of abdominal fat, respectively (P < 0.05). Addition of 6 and 9% AA in CM diets increased relative carcass and breast yields (P < 0.01). Serum triglyceride level was higher in SBM ad libitum fed birds (P < 0.05). The composition of microbiota in the ceca was not affected by treatments. This study showed that reduced growth of birds fed high CM diets is primarily mediated through reduced FI. This growth depression could partially be ameliorated by increasing dietary AA levels. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Study on the Efficiency of Grape Seed Meals Used as Antioxidants in Layer Diets Enriched with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Compared with Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Olteanu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The 4-week study was conducted with 180 Lohmann Brown layers (52 weeks of age. The layers were assigned to three groups (C, E1 and E2. The basal diet (group C consisted mainly of corn, soybean meal and corn gluten, and contained 19% crude protein and 11.58 MJ/kg metabolizable energy. The diets for groups E1 and E2 differed from group C by the inclusion of 5% flax meal and of dietary antioxidants. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in the fat of E1 and E2 diets was almost 10 times higher than in group C. E1 diet was supplemented with vitamin E (100 mg/kg feed, DM, while E2 diet was supplemented with 2% grape seed meal (polyphenols: 630.890 µg gallic acid equivalents/g sample; flavonoids: 5.065 µg rutin equivalents/g sample; antioxidant capacity: 28.468 mM trolox equivalents/g sample. The antioxidant capacity of E2 was higher than in C, but lower than in E1. Haugh units of the eggs (18 eggs/group harvested during the last experimental week were not significantly different among groups. The ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs ratio in the fat from the eggs was 4.46 ± 0.11 (E1 and 4.52 ± 0.21 (E2, three times lower (p<0.05 than the control group (14.70 ± 0.43. In group E1 in particular, but also in group E2, the concentration of total polyphenols in the egg yolk was higher (p<0.05 than in group C.

  16. Nutritional quality of meals and snacks assessed by the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system in relation to overall diet quality, body mass index, and waist circumference in British adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro

    2017-09-13

    Studies examining meal and snack eating behaviors in relation to overall diet and health markers are limited, at least partly because there is no definitive consensus about what constitutes a snack, a meal, or an eating occasion. This cross-sectional study examined how nutritional quality of meals and snacks is associated with overall diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. Based on 7-d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 0600-1000, 1200-1500, and 1800-2100 h; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15%; snacks: meals and snacks was assessed as the arithmetic EI-weighted means of the British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system score of each food and beverage consumed, based on the contents of energy, saturated fatty acid, total sugar, sodium, fruits/vegetables/nuts, dietary fiber, and protein per 100 g. Irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks, higher FSA scores (lower nutritional quality) of both meals and snacks were associated with unfavorable profiles of individual components of overall diet, including lower intakes of fruits/vegetables/nuts and higher intakes of biscuits/cakes/pastries, total fat, and saturated fatty acid. The FSA scores of meals and snacks were also inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the healthy diet indicator (regression coefficient (β) = -0.22 to -0.17 and -0.06 to -0.03, respectively) and Mediterranean diet score (β = -0.25 to -0.19 and -0.08 to -0.05, respectively) in both sexes (P ≤ 0.005). However, the associations were stronger for meals, mainly due to their larger contribution to total EI (64% to 84%). After adjustment for potential confounders, only the FSA score of snacks based on EI contribution was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference in women (P ≤ 0.005). Although lower nutritional quality of both meals and snacks assessed by the

  17. Farelo de algodão como sucedâneo do farelo de soja em rações para tilápia do Nilo Cottonseed meal as a substitute for soybean meal in Nile tilapia diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Padovani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste experimento avaliar a substituição parcial do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão e dois métodos de processamento, peletização e extrusão, em rações para a tilápia do Nilo. As rações foram formuladas para conter 30% de proteína digestível e 3200kcal/kg de energia digestível e a suplementação de aminoácidos foi baseada no conceito de proteína ideal. A proteína do farelo de soja foi gradualmente substituída pela proteína do farelo de algodão (0; 12,5; 25 e 50%, o que correspondeu a 0, 8, 16 e 32% de inclusão de farelo de algodão nas rações, respectivamente. O farelo de algodão não apresentou gossipol livre e 0,0987% de gossipol total. Foram distribuídos em 32 tanques-rede cilíndricos (200L em sistema de recirculação de água, 192 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo com peso médio inicial de 4,600,23g, alimentados até a saciedade aparente quatro vezes ao dia, durante 95 dias. A experimentação foi conduzida em esquema fatorial (4x2, no delineamento inteiramente casualizado balanceado com quatro repetições. Após 95 dias, não foram observadas diferenças nos parâmetros de desempenho produtivo e respostas fisiológicas dos peixes alimentados com as rações contendo farelo de algodão, em comparação aos peixes alimentados com as rações à base de farelo de soja. O farelo de algodão (0% de gossipol livre pode compor 32,0% da ração para tilápia do Nilo, em substituição a 50,0% da proteína do farelo de soja, quando suplementado com lisina, sem afetar o desempenho, hematologia e morfologia intestinal dos animais em crescimentoThis feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal and the effects of two feed processing methods, pelleting and extrusion, in Nile tilapia feeds. The cottonseed meal was solvent-processed and contained no amount of free gossypol and 0.0987% of total gossypol. The diets were formulated to contain 30

  18. Associations between motives for dish choice during home-meal preparation and diet quality in French adults: findings from the NutriNet-Santé study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Fassier, Philippine; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2017-03-01

    A number of motives such as constraints or pleasure have been suggested to influence dish choices during home-meal preparation. However, no study has evaluated how the importance conferred to these motives potentially influence diet quality. The present study aims at investigating the difference in diet quality according to the importance attached by individuals to various dish choice motives. The importance of twenty-seven criteria related to dish choices on weekdays was evaluated among 48 010 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé study. ANCOVA and logistic regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, were used to evaluate the association between the importance attached to dish choice motives (yes v. no) and energy and food group intakes, as well as adherence to French nutritional guidelines (modified Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS)). A higher adherence to nutritional guidelines was observed in individuals attaching importance to a healthy diet (mPNNS-GS score 7·87 (sd 0·09) v. 7·39 (sd 0·09)) and specific diets (mPNNS-GS score 7·73 (sd 0·09) v. 7·53 (sd 0·09)), compared with those who attached little/no importance (all Pcheese, sugary products and convenience foods compared with their respective counterparts (all Phome-meal preparation might be effective levers to promote healthy eating.

  19. Effect of Quantum phytase on nutrient digestibility and bone ash in White Leghorn laying hens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A L; Dahiya, J P; Wyatt, C L; Classen, H L

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of an Escherichia coli 6-phytase supplementation (Quantum) on nutrient digestibility-retention and bone ash in laying hens fed corn-soybean meal (CSM) diets was investigated. White Leghorn hens (Shaver and Bovan strains) were fed CSM diets containing 0.35% (positive control, PC), 0.25% (negative control 1, NC1), or 0.15% (negative control 2, NC2) nonphytate P from 21 to 61 wk of age. Six more diets were manufactured by supplementing the negative control diets with 200, 400, and 600 units per kilogram of exogenous phytase resulting in a total of 9 treatments. Each dietary treatment x strain subclass was replicated twice with 6 hens per replication. Fecal and ileal digesta samples were collected at 42 wk of age to determine apparent nutrient digestibility or retention. Left tibiae were collected at 42 and 61 wk of age to determine bone ash. The coefficients for ileal digestibility and fecal retention for protein were higher (P ash percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in 61-wk-old hens fed 200 or 400 units per kilogram of phytase-supplemented NC2 diets. Significantly higher diet AME and fecal protein retention were demonstrated for Shaver hens in comparison to the Bovan hens. Overall, the Quantum phytase was not efficacious at improving nutrient digestibility-retention in laying hens fed CSM diets deficient in nonphytate P.

  20. Are Family Meal Patterns Associated with Overall Diet Quality during the Transition from Early to Middle Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Champoux, Teri L.; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal associations of participation in regular family meals (greater than or equal to 5 meals/week) with eating habits and dietary intake during adolescence. Design: Population-based, longitudinal study (Project EAT: Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed in Minnesota classrooms at Time 1 (1998-1999) and by mail…

  1. Significant Effect of a Pre-Exercise High-Fat Meal after a 3-Day High-Carbohydrate Diet on Endurance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Murakami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of macronutrient composition of pre-exercise meals on endurance performance. Subjects consumed a high-carbohydrate diet at each meal for 3 days, followed by a high-fat meal (HFM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 30% CHO, 55% F and 15% P or high-carbohydrate meal (HCM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 71% CHO, 20% F and 9% P 4 h before exercise. Furthermore, just prior to the test, subjects in the HFM group ingested either maltodextrin jelly (M or a placebo jelly (P, while subjects in the HCM ingested a placebo jelly. Endurance performance was measured as running time until exhaustion at a speed between lactate threshold and the onset of blood lactate accumulation. All subjects participated in each trial, randomly assigned at weekly intervals. We observed that the time until exhaustion was significantly longer in the HFM + M (p < 0.05 than in HFM + P and HCM + P conditions. Furthermore, the total amount of fat oxidation during exercise was significantly higher in HFM + M and HFM + P than in HCM + P (p < 0.05. These results suggest that ingestion of a HFM prior to exercise is more favorable for endurance performance than HCM. In addition, HFM and maltodextrin ingestion following 3 days of carbohydrate loading enhances endurance running performance.

  2. Digestibility of the cottonseed meal with or without addition of protease and phytase enzymes in swine diet - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.12360

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Mouhaupt Marques Ludke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the digestibility of cottonseed meal with or without addition of enzymes (phytase and protease for growing pigs. It was used 18 barrows, housed in metabolism cages, distributed in a completely randomized design, standardizing body weight (bw with average of 25.8 ± 3.6 kg, with three treatments and six repetitions. The treatments consisted of a reference diet based on corn and soybean meal, the second treatment with replacement of 30% of the reference diet by cottonseed meal without enzymes, and the third with 30% of the reference diet replaced by cottonseed meal with added enzymes. Was determined the digestible protein, digestible energy, digestibility of dry matter, energy and protein. It was also registered the balance of nitrogen and phosphorus. The use of cottonseed meal with the addition of enzymes in diets for growing pigs has no effect on the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy and crude protein, but improved the absorption of phosphorus, consequently reducing its excretion in the feces. There was no improvement in nitrogen balance in the diets containing cottonseed meal with enzymes.

  3. Production parameters, carcass development and blood parameters of the broiler chick fed diets which include rapeseed, flax, grape and buckthorn meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Alexandru Vlaicu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was performed on 75, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 3 groups (C, E1 and E2 to test new feeding solutions for broilers using oil industry by-products. In the starter phase (0-10 days, all chicks received a conventional compound feed. In the other two stages (growing, finishing, compared to the conventional diet given to the C group, the diet formulations of the experimental groups included different proportions, depending on the phase of development, rapeseeds meal and grape pomace (E1 and flaxseeds meal and buckthorn meal (E2. The compound feed for group E2 had significantly (P≤0.05 higher ω-3 PUFA concentrations than groups C and E1. Six blood samples/group were collected in the end of the feeding trial, used for biochemical and haematological determinations. Six chicks/group were slaughtered on day 42, to measure carcass and internal organs development. The feed intake and gains were monitored throughout the experimental period (10-42 days. At 42 days, E2 broiler chicks had significantly (P≤0.05 lower body weight than C broiler chicks. Serum glycaemia, cholesterol and trygliceride concentrations were significantly (P≤0.05 lower in E2 chicks than in C chicks, by 17.94 %, 25.70 % and 42.05%, respectively.

  4. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: An in vitro rumen fermentation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM by black soldier fly (BSF larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Materials and Methods: Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1 and 2 weeks (BSF2 were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis: T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF2; T5, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF1; and T6, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF2. The samples were determined for their chemical composition and were incubated in vitro using buffered rumen fluid for 48 h at 39°C. In vitro incubation was carried out in three runs and represented by two incubation bottles per run. Results: Supplementation of BSF, both BSF1 and BSF2, increased ether extract, neutral- and acid-detergent insoluble crude protein contents of T3-T6 diets. The T3 or T4 diet resulted in lower ruminal ammonia concentration, in vitro DM digestibility, and in vitro organic matter (OM digestibility as compared to those in T2 (p<0.05. Diet supplemented with BSF produced lower methane emission in comparison to that of supplemented with SBM (p<0.05. Diet containing BSF2 produced lower methane and methane per digestible OM than that containing BSF1 (p<0.05. Conclusion: Substitution of SBM by BSF in ruminant diet results in a lower nutritional value in vitro but with an advantage of lowering ruminal methane emission.

  5. Mesquite pod meal in diets for Santa Inês sheep: ingestive behavior - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of sheep fed increasing levels of mesquite pod meal (0, 15, 30 and 45% in total dry matter diet, replacing grass silage elephant. Eight non-castrated Santa Inês sheep with average weight of 32 kg were divided into two 4 x 4 Latin squares, each lasting 15 days. The sheep were submitted to visual observation every ten minutes, for 24 hours, in the 13th day of each experimental period. There was no significant regression (p > 0.05 relative to the time spent on feeding, rumination and resting, depending on the levels of substitution of mesquite pod meal. The average time spent on feeding, rumination and resting was 5.64, 10.88 and 8.8h day-1, respectively. There was a positive linear effect (p

  6. Effect van varkensvleesmeel in vleeskuikenvoer op technische resultaten, slachtrendementen, strooiselkwaliteit, voetzoollaesies en darmgezondheid = Effect of pork meat meal in broiler diets on performance, slaughter yields, litter quality, foot pad dermatitis and gut health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harn, van J.; Molenaar, R.J.; Veldkamp, T.

    2010-01-01

    Wageningen UR Livestock Research has conducted an experiment to determine the effect of inclusion of graded levels of pork meat meal (PMM) in broiler diets on performance, processing yields, litter quality, foot pad lesions and gut health. Inclusion of PMM in broiler diets corresponding to 10% of

  7. Feeding and metabolic consequences of scheduled consumption of large, binge-type meals of high fat diet in the Sprague–Dawley rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bake, T.; Morgan, D.G.A.; Mercer, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Providing rats and mice with access to palatable high fat diets for a short period each day induces the consumption of substantial binge-like meals. Temporal food intake structure (assessed using the TSE PhenoMaster/LabMaster system) and metabolic outcomes (oral glucose tolerance tests [oGTTs], and dark phase glucose and insulin profiles) were examined in Sprague–Dawley rats given access to 60% high fat diet on one of 3 different feeding regimes: ad libitum access (HF), daily 2 h-scheduled access from 6 to 8 h into the dark phase (2 h-HF), and twice daily 1 h-scheduled access from both 1–2 h and 10–11 h into the dark phase (2 × 1 h-HF). Control diet remained available during the scheduled access period. HF rats had the highest caloric intake, body weight gain, body fat mass and plasma insulin. Both schedule-fed groups rapidly adapted their feeding behaviour to scheduled access, showing large meal/bingeing behaviour with 44% or 53% of daily calories consumed from high fat diet during the 2 h or 2 × 1 h scheduled feed(s), respectively. Both schedule-fed groups had an intermediate caloric intake and body fat mass compared to HF and control (CON) groups. Temporal analysis of food intake indicated that schedule-fed rats consumed large binge-type high fat meals without a habitual decrease in preceding intake on control diet, suggesting that a relative hypocaloric state was not responsible or required for driving the binge episode, and substantiating previous indications that binge eating may not be driven by hypothalamic energy balance neuropeptides. In an oGTT, both schedule-fed groups had impaired glucose tolerance with higher glucose and insulin area under the curve, similar to the response in ad libitum HF fed rats, suggesting that palatable feeding schedules represent a potential metabolic threat. Scheduled feeding on high fat diet produces similar metabolic phenotypes to mandatory (no choice) high fat feeding and may be a more realistic

  8. Coconut husk meal in diets for tambaqui (“Colossoma macropomum” Farelo de coco em dietas para o tambaqui ("Colossoma macropomum"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igo Gomes Guimarães

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate growth performance and economic viability of tambaqui fed different levels of coconut husk meal (0;25;50 and 100. Thus, a 60-day feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary graded levels of coconut husk meal on growth performance of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and economic viability. One hundred and twenty tambaqui fingerlings with 7.71±0.17g were randomly assigned to 24 150L-aquaria in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and six replication. Diets were formulated to contain the same content of protein (26% CP, digestible energy (3200kcal DE/kg diet and crude fiber (8.51% differing only on the coconut husk meal replacement levels which were 0% (control diet, 25, 50 and 100%. Although no effect of coconut husk meal inclusion were observed for daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and fillet yield, a negative and positive linear regression was significant for hepatossomatic and fat visceral indexes, respectively. The use of coconut husk meal in diets for tambaqui did not affect growth performance and carcass quality parameters. However, it is recommended the replacement of soybean meal to coconut husk meal up to 25% based on the economic evaluation of the diets.Avaliou-se com este trabalho o desempenho produtivo e econômico do tambaqui alimentado com rações que continham 0, 25, 50 e 100% de farelo de coco em substituição ao farelo de soja. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições, para avaliar o efeito de dietas com níveis crescentes de farelo de coco sobre o desempenho do tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, características de carcaça e na viabilidade econômica. Foram utilizados 120 alevinos com peso médio inicial de 7,71±0,17g distribuídos aleatoriamente em 24 aquários de 150L. As dietas formuladas foram isoprot

  9. A comparison of methionine sources for broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal diets under simulated commercial grow-out conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, R G; Hester, P Y

    1983-10-01

    Two experiments, involving 5,760 birds each, were conducted under simulated commercial grow-out conditions to determine the relative response of broiler chicks to two supplemental levels each of DL-methionine (DL-MET), L-methionine (L-MET), and methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA-FA) fed on an equimolar basis in corn-soybean meal diets. MHA-FA was shown to support 49-day weight gains comparable to those of chicks fed DL-MET, and both sources were superior to L-MET in this regard. However, there were no significant differences due to MET sources in the efficiency of feed utilization. When compared to basal-fed chicks, birds fed supplemental L-MET, DL-MET, or MHA-FA had elevated plasma free MET levels, whereas cyst(e)ine and taurine concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. There were no effects of diet on either mortality or the incidence of leg abnormalities. The results of these studies suggest that MHA-FA is an acceptable source of MET for broiler chicks fed corn-soybean meal diets from day-old to market weight.

  10. Quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium intakes and their retention and excretion in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Elsbernd, A J; Hansen, S L; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Patience, J F

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible P (STTD P) and total Ca intakes with their retention and excretion by growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Forty-eight crossbred barrows (BW = 22.7 ± 2.9 kg) were allotted to 1 of 8 diets, housed individually in pens for 3 wk, and then moved to metabolism crates and allowed 4 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and fecal samples. Eight corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for similar NE, fat, and AA concentrations but to increase the STTD P from 0.16 to 0.62% using monocalcium phosphate. Dietary treatments were formulated for a constant Ca:STTD P ratio (2.2:1). The STTD P intake increased (P urine decreased (P urine was observed but excretion increased linearly at STTD P intake levels above the requirement for maximum growth of growing pigs. The FMC increased with STTD P intake, but a plateau was reached at a STTD P intake level above the requirement. Dietary STTD P was used for growth and accumulated in bones until a plateau was reached and excess was excreted in urine. The predictability of P and Ca excretion in urine from the dietary STTD P and Ca intakes was moderate.

  11. Gastric Bypass Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink liquids. Take at least 30 minutes to eat your meals and 30 to 60 minutes to drink 1 ... meals small. During the diet progression, you should eat several small meals a day and sip liquids slowly throughout the ...

  12. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  13. Losing weight without dieting. Use of commercial foods as meal replacements for lunch produces an extended energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly

    2011-10-01

    High-protein liquid meal replacements have proven to be effective in reducing caloric intake and body weight. Recently, substituting high fiber breakfast cereals for the more expensive high-protein drinks has been found to be equally effective to reduce weight. The following study tested the hypothesis that the mechanism responsible for the reduced intake was not the dietary composition of the meal replacement, but the controlled portion sized meals. Seventeen volunteers ate all of their meals and snacks from foods provided by the research unit from Monday to Friday for five consecutive weeks. For the first week, all participants selected their food from a buffet where each food was weighed before and after eating. For the next two weeks, half of the group selected their lunch by choosing one food from a selection of six commercially available portion controlled foods. They could eat as much as they wished at other meals or snacks. For final weeks four and five, the conditions were reversed for the two groups. Consuming the portion controlled lunches resulted in about a 250 kcal reduction in energy intake. More importantly, no sign of caloric compensation was evident across the 10 days of testing, an observation substantiated by a significant loss of body weight. The results suggest that the mere substitution of one smaller portioned meal each day is sufficient to cause reduction in daily energy intake and a significant amount of weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidized LDL levels decreases after the consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ibero-Baraibar, I. (Idoia); Abete, I. (Itziar); Navas-Carretero, S. (Santiago); Massis-Zaid, A. (A.); Martinez, J.A. (José Alfredo); Zulet, M.A. (María Ángeles)

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Methods and results Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m2] were recruited to participate in a 4 week rando...

  15. Self-reported adherence to diet and preferences towards type of meal plan in patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzo, V; Rosato, R; Tarsia, E; Goitre, I; De Michieli, F; Fadda, M; Monge, T; Pezzana, A; Broglio, F; Bo, S

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have evaluated the attitudes of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) towards the given dietary plans. In this study, we aimed to evaluate: i) the self-reported adherence of T2DM patients to the prescribed diets; ii) the use of other types of diet schemes; iii) the patients' preferences towards the type of meal plans. A 16 multiple-choice items questionnaire was administered to 500 T2DM patients; 71.2% (356/500) of them had the perception of having received a dietary plan; only 163/356 declared to be fully adherent. The latter had lower BMI (25.8 ± 4.5 vs 29.1 ± 4.5 kg/m 2 , p diet, 61.8% was eating in accordance to a self-made diet and 20.9% did not follow any diet. Only a few patients (2.4%) had tried a popular diet/commercial program. Most patients preferred either a "sufficiently free" (201/500) or a "free" (218/500) scheme. The use of supplements attracted younger, obese individuals, with higher education, and most managers. In a multinomial regression model, age and diabetes duration were inversely associated with the choice of a "rigid" scheme, diabetes duration and glycated hemoglobin levels were inversely correlated with a "free" diet choice, obesity was associated with a "strategic" scheme choice, while lower education (inversely) and obesity (directly) correlated with the preference for "supplement use". Socio-cultural/individual factors could affect attitudes and preferences of T2DM patients towards diet. These factors should be considered in order to draw an individually tailored dietary plan. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of blood meal, chicken offal meal and fish meal as sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects were studied of using combinations or plant protein sources, GNC, Palm Kernel cake, and cotton and seed cake diets, supplementeil with 4 sources of methionine (M) and Lysine (L), synthetic M + L, blood meal + M, fish meal, or chicken offal meal (COM) in 8-Week 3 x 4 factorial experiment with sta11er cockerels ...

  17. Comportamento ingestivo de ovinos Santa Inês alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de cacau Ingestive behavior of Santa Inês sheep fed diets with cocoa meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de cacau. Foram utilizados 16 ovinos Santa Inês fêmeas, não-gestantes e não-lactantes, com peso corporal médio de 25 kg e aproximadamente 12 meses de idade, mantidos em baias individuais. O farelo de cacau foi fornecido no concentrado nos níveis de 0, 10, 20 e 30% e, como volumoso, utilizou-se feno de mandioca. As dietas foram fornecidas em mistura completa, na proporção 50:50 volumoso:concentrado. Os tempos de alimentação, ruminação e ócio obtidos em 24 horas de observação foram semelhantes. Contudo, os animais que consumiram dietas com maiores níveis de farelo de cacau, acima de 14,8% de substituição no concentrado, reduziram o número de bolos ruminados por dia, que foi compensado pelo aumento do tempo de mastigações por bolo. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e a eficiência de alimentação (g MS e FDN/hora não foram influenciados pelos níveis de farelo de cacau na dieta, entretanto, esse alimento provocou alterações na eficiência de ruminação (g MS e FDN/bolo. O número de mastigações merícicas por bolo ruminado aumentou linearmente, enquanto o número de mastigações por dia apresentou comportamento quadrático, com valor máximo de 42.818,4 mastigações diárias para o nível de 16,9% de farelo de cacau. Embora não se tenha verificado diferença nos consumos de MS e FDN (kg/dia, a inclusão de farelo de cacau em dietas para ovinos Santa Inês afetou alguns parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the ingestive behavior of sheep fed diets containing cocoa meal. Sixteen Santa Inês female sheep, no-pregnant, no-lactating, averaging 25 kg of body weight and 12 months of age, maintained in individual barns were used. The cocoa meal was fed in the concentrate at the levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%, and as forage was cassava

  18. The dietary effect of serving school meals based on the new Nordic diet – A randomised controlled trial in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Christensen, Tue

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The OPUS study is a school-based intervention study testing selected health effects of New Nordic Diet (NND). Children are served lunch and snacks based on NND. The hypothesis is that Danish school children eat a healthier diet when receiving NND school meals as compared....... Results: 834 children from 9 schools were included and 96%, 89% and 80% filled out the first, second and third dietary assessment sufficiently (4-7 days), respectively. The preliminary results showed that the effect of serving NND resulted in a reduction in fat E% (P... and household education. Conclusions: Danish school children’s dietary intake of total and saturated fat decreased, fat E% decreased and protein E% increased when eating NND lunch and snacks compared to packed lunch brought from home. The OPUS project (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...

  19. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF VARYING LEVELS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF MEAL AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR VITAMIN + MINERAL PREMIX IN FINISHER BROILER DIET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty (120 4 weeks old unsexed broiler chicken were used in a twenty eight days feeding trial to evaluate the use of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a replacement for vitamin + mineral premix in finisher broilers. The birds were assigned to four treatment group with three replicates per group .The treatment groups includes T1, T2, T3, and T4 representing 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inclusion levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a replacement for vitamin + mineral premix. The result of the study showed that average final weight gain, average feed intake and feed conversion ratio differed significantly (P and lt;0.05 in favour of T4 and T3 .The dressing percentage as well as organ (gizzard, liver and heart weights also differed significantly(p and lt;0.05. The study thus indicate that the inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal at 5% and 7.5% can successfully be used to replace vitamin + mineral premix in finisher diet.

  20. Ingestive and metabolic behavior of beef cattle fed diets with different levels of turnip forage (Rhaphanus sativus cake in replacement to soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecir de Souza Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of five substitution levels of soybean meal by turnip forage cake in the concentrate, on dry matter intake (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, pH and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 in the rumen liquid and plasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN in beef steer. The diets were isoprotein (6.5 % CP and isoenergetic (50.0% TDN, using in natura sugarcane silage as the only forage (85,5 %DM. Five castrated males were used, 1/2 Simental x Nelore cross, with average weight of 610 kg and 36 months old, all fistulated in the rumen. The different levels of replacement were: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%, based on CP responsible of soybean meal of ration. Each experimental period lasted 19 days. The experiment was carried out in a 5x5 latin square experimental design, with five animals and five periods. The potential of dry matter intake (%BW and g/kg BW0,75 of turnip forage cake forage was obtained with 27% of replacement in the protean basis in relation to soybean meal, promoting, a maximum intake of 0,217 kg/animal/day, not proportionating alterations in the ruminal dynamic and in the blood.

  1. Replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in the diet of lactating dairy cows: Feed intake, milk production and cow condition responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Ruairi P; Staines, Martin vH

    2017-08-01

    This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage. The second treatment diet (COMP) was identical except the 6 kg of crushed wheat was replaced by 6 kg of a more complex concentrate mix (27% crushed wheat, 34% maize grain and 37% canola meal). Lucerne haylage was provided independently in the paddock to all cows, and no pasture was available throughout the experiment. The COMP group had a greater mean overall daily intake (22·5 vs 20·4 kg DM/cow) and a higher energy corrected milk (ECM) yield (29·2 vs 27·1 kg/cow; P = 0·047) than the CON cows. The difference in overall intake was caused by a higher daily intake of lucerne haylage in COMP cows (4·5 vs 2·3 kg DM/cow). The CON group had a higher concentration of milk fat (42·1 vs 39·3 g/kg; P = 0·029) than COMP cows. Milk protein yield was greater in COMP cows (P < 0·021); however, milk fat yield was unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that partially replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in a grass silage-based diet increases voluntary DMI of conserved forage and consequently yields of ECM and milk protein.

  2. Performance of broilers fed with snail (Pomacea caniculata meal as substitute to fish meal or meat and bone meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.

  3. Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligh, H Frances J; Godsland, Ian F; Frost, Gary; Hunter, Karl J; Murray, Peter; MacAulay, Katrina; Hyliands, Della; Talbot, Duncan C S; Casey, John; Mulder, Theo P J; Berry, Mark J

    2015-02-28

    There is evidence for health benefits from 'Palaeolithic' diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and Pbased on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity.

  4. Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lorena Olea López

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19-64 y participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all energy consumed in a 60 min period. A food-based classification separated intake occasions into meals, snacks, or drinks from seven-day weighed food diaries. Average daily frequency and size (kcal of overall intake, meal, snack and drink occasions were calculated and associations with restrained eating were modelled using multiple linear regression including under-reporting of energy intake, age, gender, BMI, emotional eating, external eating and physical activity as covariates. Restrained eating was very weakly positively correlated with overall intake (r = 0.08, p<0.05 and meal frequency (r = 0.10, p<0.05 but not snack or drink frequency (r = 0.02 and -0.02 respectively. Adjusted regressions showed a one-point change in restrained eating was associated with 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11 more meal occasions/day and 0.13 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25 extra overall intake occasions/day. Overall intake occasion size was weakly negatively correlated with restrained eating regardless of type (r = -0.16 to -0.20, all p<0.0001. Adjusted regressions showed each one-point increase in restrained eating was associated with lower-energy meals (-15 kcal 95% CI -5.9, -24.2 and drinks (-4 kcal 95%CI -0.1, -8, but not snacks or overall intake occasions. Among a national sample of UK adults, greater restrained eating was associated with smaller and slightly more frequent eating, suggesting that restrained eaters restrict their energy intake by reducing meal/drink size rather than skipping snacks.

  5. Effects of replacing soybean meal with chickpea seeds in the diet on mechanical and thermal properties of tendon tissue in broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszynski, S; Kwiecien, M; Swietlicki, M; Dobrowolski, P; Tatarczak, J; Gladyszewska, B

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency of the musculoskeletal system of broiler chickens, in particular during locomotion and in ensuring its supportive function, depends directly on the adequate function and mechanical endurance of soft tissues, including tendons. However, little is known whether the properties of musculoskeletal soft tissues can be influenced by changes of dietary protein. We substituted soybean meal with raw chickpea seeds as the primary protein source in the diet and studied the effects it had on the mechanical and thermal properties of drumstick tendons in broiler Ross 308 chickens. In the experiment, 160 chicks were divided into 2 groups, receiving in their diet either soybean meal (n = 80) or chickpea seeds (n = 80). The experiment lasted 42 days. The physical condition of the drumstick tendons was analyzed on the basis of a tensile test and the results of thermal denaturation as measured by a differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical evaluation of tendon tensile strength of the broilers fed with chickpea seeds demonstrated an increase in the ultimate strain (for over 22%, P Thermal analysis demonstrated alterations in tendon collagen cross-linking as transition onset temperature decreased (from 63.8 to 61.8°C, P properties of tendons and showed that thermal analysis can be a useful tool for studying the effect of nutrition on the development and structural changes in tendons of broiler chickens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea López, Ana Lorena; Johnson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19-64 y) participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all energy consumed in a 60 min period. A food-based classification separated intake occasions into meals, snacks, or drinks from seven-day weighed food diaries. Average daily frequency and size (kcal) of overall intake, meal, snack and drink occasions were calculated and associations with restrained eating were modelled using multiple linear regression including under-reporting of energy intake, age, gender, BMI, emotional eating, external eating and physical activity as covariates. Restrained eating was very weakly positively correlated with overall intake (r = 0.08, pmeal frequency (r = 0.10, pfrequency (r = 0.02 and -0.02 respectively). Adjusted regressions showed a one-point change in restrained eating was associated with 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11) more meal occasions/day and 0.13 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) extra overall intake occasions/day. Overall intake occasion size was weakly negatively correlated with restrained eating regardless of type (r = -0.16 to -0.20, all pmeals (-15 kcal 95% CI -5.9, -24.2) and drinks (-4 kcal 95%CI -0.1, -8), but not snacks or overall intake occasions. Among a national sample of UK adults, greater restrained eating was associated with smaller and slightly more frequent eating, suggesting that restrained eaters restrict their energy intake by reducing meal/drink size rather than skipping snacks.

  7. Phenylalanine flux and gastric emptying are not affected by replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet of adult cats consuming frequent small meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycholis, Tanya J; Cant, John P; Osborne, Vern R; Shoveller, Anna K

    2014-08-12

    Decreasing the rate of protein emptying from the stomach may improve efficiency of utilization of dietary amino acids for protein deposition. Some studies in rats and humans have shown casein to be more slowly released from the stomach than whey protein. To test if casein induces a slower rate of gastric emptying in cats than whey protein, L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine (Phe) was dosed orally into 9 adult cats to estimate gastric emptying and whole-body Phe flux. Concentrations of indispensable amino acids in plasma were not significantly affected by dietary protein source. First-pass splanchnic extraction of Phe was not different between diets and averaged 50% (SEM = 3.8%). The half-time for gastric emptying averaged 9.9 min with casein and 10.3 min with whey protein, and was not significantly different between diets (SEM = 1.7 min). Phenylalanine fluxes were 45.3 and 46.5 μmol/(min · kg) for casein- and whey-based diets, respectively (SEM = 4.7 μmol/(min · kg)). In adult cats fed frequent small meals, the replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet does not affect supply or utilization of amino acids. These two milk proteins appear to be equally capable of meeting the dietary amino acid needs of cats.

  8. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  9. The effect of soybean meal replacement with raw full-fat soybean in diets for broiler chickens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rada, V.; Lichovníková, M.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2016), s. 112-117 ISSN 0971-2119 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Raw full-fat soybean * soybean meal * broiler * growth * digestibility Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.426, year: 2016

  10. Application of soybean meal, soy protein concentrate and isolate differing in α-galactosides content to low- and high-fibre diets in growing turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduńczyk, Z; Jankowski, J; Juśkiewicz, J; Lecewicz, A; Slominski, B

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the physiological and growth response of young turkeys (up to 8 weeks of age) to dietary replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by soy protein concentrate (PC) or protein isolate (PI). This replacement resulted in a differentiated dietary concentration of α-galactosides of over 2.5% in the SBM diet, approximately 2% with a mixture SBM and PC, 1% with a PC diet and 0.1% with a PI diet. Each treatment was applied in two ways: with lower (3.5%) or higher (5.3%) dietary crude fibre content, made by supplementation with soybean hulls. The highest and lowest body weight of turkeys was recorded both after the first and second 4-week half of the study in the PC and PI-type diets respectively. A gradual withdrawal of α-galactosides from a diet was accompanied by a decline in ileal tissue mass, ileal viscosity and activity of endogenous maltase (the latter was found to be significant at 4 weeks of age). At the same time, two-way anova revealed that an elevated level of crude fibre (HF treatment) caused an increase in ileal tissue mass (p diet, in contrast to dietary crude fibre level, significantly affected the caecal metabolism. The rate of bacterial production of short-chain fatty acids in the caeca was distinctly diminished by dietary withdrawal of α-galactosides. In conclusion, the soy protein concentrate, in contrast to the protein isolate preparation, exerted positive effects on the turkeys' growth and gastrointestinal tract physiology and should be considered as an effective SBM substitute. © 2009 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of an Ad Libitum Consumed Low-Fat Plant-Based Diet Supplemented with Plant-Based Meal Replacements on Body Composition Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Jakše

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To document the effect of a diet free from animal-sourced nutrients on body composition indices. Methods. This was a nonrandomized interventional (n=241-control (n=84 trial with a 10-week, low-fat, plant-based diet supplemented with two daily meal replacements. The meals were allowed to be eaten to full satiety without prespecified calorie restrictions. Control subjects received weekly lectures on the rationale and expected benefits of plant-based nutrition. Body composition indices were measured with bioimpedance analysis. Results. Relative to controls, in cases, postintervention body fat percentage was reduced by 4.3 (95% CI 4.1–4.6% points (a relative decrement of −13.4%, visceral fat by 1.6 (95% CI 1.5–1.7 fat cross-sectional surface units, and weight by 5.6 kg (95% CI 5.2–6, while muscle mass was reduced by 0.3 kg (95% CI 0.06–0.5 with a relative increase of muscle mass percentage of 4.2 (3.9–4.4% points. Analysis of covariance showed significantly larger adjusted fat reductions in cases compared to controls. Late follow-up revealed further weight loss in 60% of cases and no significant change in controls. Conclusions. Low-fat, plant-based diet in free-living nonresidential conditions eaten ad libitum enables significant and meaningful body fat reductions with relative preservation of muscle mass. This trial is registered with NCT02906072, ClinicalTrials.gov.

  12. A high protein moderate carbohydrate diet fed at discrete meals reduces early progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singletary Keith W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in American women. Dietary factors are thought to have a strong influence on breast cancer incidence. This study utilized a meal-feeding protocol with female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate effects of two ratios of carbohydrate:protein on promotion and early progression of breast tissue carcinomas. Mammary tumors were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU at 52 d of age. Post-induction, animals were assigned to consume either a low protein high carbohydrate diet (LPHC; 15% and 60% of energy, respectively or a high protein moderate carbohydrate diet (HPMC; 35% and 40% of energy, respectively for 10 wk. Animals were fed 3 meals/day to mimic human absorption and metabolism patterns. The rate of palpable tumor incidence was reduced in HPMC relative to LPHC (12.9 ± 1.4%/wk vs. 18.2 ± 1.3%/wk. At 3 wk, post-prandial serum insulin was larger in the LPHC relative to HPMC (+136.4 ± 33.1 pmol/L vs. +38.1 ± 23.4 pmol/L, while at 10 wk there was a trend for post-prandial IGF-I to be increased in HPMC (P = 0.055. There were no differences in tumor latency, tumor surface area, or cumulative tumor mass between diet groups. The present study provides evidence that reducing the dietary carbohydrate:protein ratio attenuates the development of mammary tumors. These findings are consistent with reduced post-prandial insulin release potentially diminishing the proliferative environment required for breast cancer tumors to progress.

  13. Comparative Study on the Cellular and Systemic Nutrient Sensing and Intermediary Metabolism after Partial Replacement of Fishmeal by Meat and Bone Meal in the Diet of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Xu, Dandan; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; He, Gen

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the cellular and systemic nutrient sensing mechanisms as well as the intermediary metabolism responses in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) fed with fishmeal diet (FM diet), 45% of FM replaced by meat and bone meal diet (MBM diet) or MBM diet supplemented with essential amino acids to match the amino acid profile of FM diet (MBM+AA diet). During the one month feeding trial, feed intake was not affected by the different diets. However, MBM diet caused significant reduction of specific growth rate and nutrient retentions. Compared with the FM diet, MBM diet down-regulated target of rapamycin (TOR) and insulin-like growth factor (IGFs) signaling pathways, whereas up-regulated the amino acid response (AAR) signaling pathway. Moreover, MBM diet significantly decreased glucose and lipid anabolism, while increased muscle protein degradation and lipid catabolism in liver. MBM+AA diet had no effects on improvement of MBM diet deficiencies. Compared with fasted, re-feeding markedly activated the TOR signaling pathway, IGF signaling pathway and glucose, lipid metabolism, while significantly depressed the protein degradation signaling pathway. These results thus provided a comprehensive display of molecular responses and a better explanation of deficiencies generated after fishmeal replacement by other protein sources.

  14. Significant effect of NSP-ase enzyme supplementation in sunflower meal-based diet on the growth and nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M; Mirza, M A; Kaleem, M; Saeed, M; Reyad-Ul-Ferdous, Md; Abd El-Hack, M E

    2017-04-01

    The response of broiler chickens to 3 levels of sunflower meal and 2 levels of NSP-ase enzyme combination (with and without) was investigated in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement under complete randomized design (CRD). A total of 240 Hubbard broiler chicks were fed on practical mash diets having 2950 kcal of ME and 21% CP from 1 to 42 days of age. The BW gain was not significantly reduced when 25% SFM was added in the diets during 1 to 42 days of age. Supplementation of NSP-ase in broiler diets (day 1-42 overall) demonstrated non-significant differences (p Replacement of SBM with SFM or inclusion of SFM at higher level (25%) increased/deteriorated FCR. The addition of exogenous NSP-ase showed a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in feed:gain. The improvement was clearly demonstrated when SFM was added to the experimental diet at 15% or even 20%. Supplementation of NSP-ase at the 25% inclusion level could not, however, sustain the beneficial effect, which was possibly due to excessively high dietary CF. No difference was noted across the treatments regarding carcass response. Relative gizzard weight and intestinal weight were observed to be improved in birds consuming higher levels of SFM (p = 0.00). The digestibility of CF was observed to improve when SFM was used at 20% and 25% in the diets. No improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation, which meant other factors were clearly involved. Supplementation of NSP-ase improved FCR up to 20% SFM. At 25% SFM, no improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Efficacy of low-calorie, partial meal replacement diet plans on weight and abdominal fat in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial of two diet plans - one high in protein and one nutritionally balanced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Lee, J; Bae, W K; Choi, J K; Kim, H J; Cho, B

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the relative efficacy of high-protein vs. conventional diet plans that include partial meal replacements on body fat loss in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two low-calorie diets with partial meal replacement plans-a high-protein plan (HP) and a nutritionally balanced conventional (C) plan-on reducing obesity in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a 12-week, double-blind study, we randomised 75 participants to either the HP- or the C-plan group. We recorded key metrics at 0 and 12 weeks. The overall mean weight loss was 5 kg in the HP-plan group and 4.9 kg in the C-plan group (p = 0.72). Truncal fat mass decreased 1.6 kg in the HP-plan group (p or = 70% dietary compliance, however, truncal and whole body fat mass decreased more in the HP-plan group (Delta 2.2 kg and Delta 3.5 kg respectively) than in the C-plan group (Delta 1.3 kg and Delta 2.3 [corrected] kg respectively) (p < 0.05). The HP- and C-plans had a similar effect on weight and abdominal fat reduction, but the HP-plan was more effective in reducing body fat among compliant subjects.

  16. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Potential of defatted microalgae from the biofuel industry as an ingredient to replace corn and soybean meal in swine and poultry diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatrell, S; Lum, K; Kim, J; Lei, X G

    2014-04-01

    While feeding food-producing animals with microalgae was investigated several decades ago, this research has been reactivated by the recent exploration of microalgae as the third generation of feedstocks for biofuel production. Because the resultant defatted biomass contains high levels of protein and other nutrients, it may replace a portion of corn and soybean meal in animal diets. Our laboratory has acquired 4 types of full-fat and defatted microalgal biomass from biofuel production research (Cellana, Kailua-Kona, HI) that contain 13.9 to 38.2% crude protein and 1.5 to 9.3% crude fat. This review summarizes the safety and efficacy of supplementing 2 types of the biomass at 7.5 to 15% in the diets of weanling pigs, broiler chicks, and laying hens. Based on their responses of growth performance, egg production and quality, plasma and tissue biochemical indicators, and/or fecal chemical composition, all 3 types of animals were able to tolerate the microalgal biomass incorporation into their diets at 7.5% (on as-fed basis). Holistic analysis is also provided to explore the global potential of using the defatted microalgal biomass as a new feed ingredient in offsetting the biofuel production cost, reducing the dependence on staple crops such as corn and soybeans, decreasing greenhouse gas production of animal agriculture, and developing health value-added animal products.

  17. Effects of phytase supplementation on growth performance, jejunum morphology, liver health, and serum metabolites of Japanese quails fed sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal-based diets containing graded levels of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeipour, Vahid; Barsalani, Alireza; Abdullahpour, Rohullah

    2016-08-01

    A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of two levels of dietary crude protein (200 or 240 g kg(-1)) and two inclusion rates of phytase enzyme supplementation (with or without) on performance, jejunum morphology, and some hematological parameters of Japanese quails fed diets based on three graded levels of sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal (0, 120, and 240 g kg(-1) of the diet). A total of 480 Japanese quail chicks were randomly allocated to 12 treatments with 4 replicates of 10 Japanese quails. The results showed that feed intake was decreased in quails fed diets containing 240 g kg(-1) of sesame meal (P morphology showed that diets containing 120 and 240 g kg(-1) sesame meal increased villus height and the ratio of VH to CD and decreased crypt depth (P liver weight was greater in Japanese quails fed diets containing 200 g kg(-1) crude protein and 120 g kg(-1) sesame meal (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of uric acid was increased in birds that received 240 g kg(-1) protein (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the use of sesame meal improved growth performance (FCR) of Japanese quails. Moreover, serum concentration of calcium and phosphorous was greater in quails with phytase supplementation included in their diet.

  18. Comparing the effects of meal replacements with an isocaloric reduced-fat diet on nutrient intake and lower urinary tract symptoms in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, J; Ling, P-S; Chen, R Y-T; Ng, K-K; Tay, T-L; Tan, E; Cho, L-W; Cheong, M

    2014-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men are associated with obesity, particularly central obesity as measured by waist circumference (WC), and may improve with weight loss. We aimed to compare effects of a meal-replacement based diet with isocaloric reduced-fat plan on LUTS and nutrient intake in obese Asian men. Obese Asian [mean (range) body mass index of 32.9 (30.5-42.3) kg m(-2) ] men [mean (range) age 40.2 (30-61) years] were randomised to a reduced-fat (meal-replacement-based plan [meal replacement (MR) group; n = 23], to reduce daily intake by 2000 kJ for 12 weeks. CD and MR groups had statistically significant and similar reductions in weight (-2.6 ± 1.9 kg versus -4.2 ± 3.8 kg), overall LUTS severity measured with International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS) scores (-1.71 ± 1.93 points versus -2.42 ± 2.12 points) and insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) calculated from plasma glucose and insulin]. The MR group had significantly greater decreases in WC (-4.8 ± 3.3 cm versus -2.5 ± 2.3 cm), fat mass (-2.47 ± 3.63 kg versus -1.59 ± 2.32 kg), fat intake, plasma C-reactive protein, and in storage LUTS score (-1.59 ± 1.33 points versus -1.00 ± 0.87 points), which was associated with a decreased fat intake (r = 0.48, P = 0.03). A decrease in overall IPSS score was associated with reductions in weight, WC and HOMA. Weight loss as a result of CD or MR had similar efficacy in relieving LUTS. MR produced greater reductions in fat intake, adiposity and storage LUTS. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Common ways Americans are incorporating fruits and vegetables into their diet: intake patterns by meal, source and form, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Latetia V; Hamner, Heather C; Kim, Sonia A; Dalenius, Karen

    2016-10-01

    We explored how Americans aged ≥2 years who consumed the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables on a given day incorporated fruits and vegetables into their diet compared with those who did not consume recommended amounts. We used 1 d of dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 to examine cross-sectional differences in mean intakes of fruits and vegetables in cup-equivalents by meal, source and form between the two groups. USA. NHANES 2007-2010 participants aged ≥2 years (n 17 571) with 1 d of reliable 24 h recall data. On a given day, the proportions of fruits and vegetables consumed at different meals were similar between those who consumed recommended amounts and those who did not. Among adults, 59-64 % of their intake of fruits was consumed at breakfast or as a snack and almost 90 % came from retail outlets regardless of whether they consumed the recommended amount or not. Adults who consumed the recommended amount of fruits ate more fruits in raw form and with no additions than those who did not. Among children and adults, 52-57 % of vegetables were consumed at dinner by both groups. Retail outlets were the main source of vegetables consumed (60-68 %). Our findings indicate that habits of when, where and how consumers eat fruits and vegetables might not need to change but increasing the amount consumed would help those not currently meeting the recommendation.

  20. Weight maintenance over 12 months after weight loss resulting from participation in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing all meal provision to self-directed diet in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, C; Mellor, D D; Goodwin, S; Reid, M; Atkin, S L

    2014-08-01

    The results of weight maintenance after initial weight loss are reported infrequently, although, when they have been reported, the outcomes are generally poor and weight regain is common. After an initial 12-week randomised intervention comparing all meal provision against a self-directed energy restriction, participants re-consented to participate in a follow-on study. Participants were given the option to choose to continue with the same dietary intervention (either all meal provision (provided free of charge) or self-directed diet) or change to the other diet for a further 12 weeks. Participants were followed up at 4-weekly intervals during both intervention periods (a total of 24 weeks), with a final follow up at 12 months. Eighty-five out of 86 individuals who completed the original 12-week randomised phase chose to continue on to the follow-up study. No significant differences in further weight loss between groups (P = 0.138) [mean (SEM): -3.4% (1.1%) for all meal provision only; -3.4% (0.6%) self-directed then all meal provision; -1.1% (1.2%) all meal provision then self-directed] were seen after a further 12 weeks. Meal provision for a total of 24 weeks resulted in 67% of individuals losing at least 10% body weight. The groups switching from self-directed dieting to meal provision (or vice versa) were the only groups to have a lower mean weight at 12 months than at the start of the follow-on study. Structured support for 24 weeks followed by 28 weeks of self-care can result in weight maintenance, with initial weight loss maintained at 12 months from enrolling on a 12-week weight loss intervention, with a 12-week follow-on period. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Elements of kitchen toxicology to exploit the value of traditional (African recipes: The case of Egusi Okra meal in the diet of HIV+/AIDS subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Frazzoli

    Full Text Available The Egusi Okra soup is a traditional African meal that is considered of high nutritional value and protective against weight loss. We introduce the concept of “kitchen toxicology” to analyse the recipe of the Egusi Okra soup and highlight possible mitigation measures for toxic and/or antinutritional effects in the wide spectrum of health and nutritional needs of HIV+/AIDS subjects. In particular, we focus on toxicants (environmental contaminants, process contaminants, substances leaching from food contact materials dysregulating the immune status, as well as on interactions between nutrients, contaminants, and/or antinutrients which may lead to secondary/conditioned nutritional deficiencies or imbalances; in their turn, these can modulate the ability to cope with toxicants, and increase nutritional requirements. Recommendations are given for practices preserving the Egusi Okra soup from such risk factors, identifying points of particular attention during meal preparation, from purchase of raw ingredients through to food handling, cooking, storage, and consumption. The Egusi Okra soup is discussed in the context of a diet that is asked to mitigate complications (weight loss, opportunistic infections and support antiretroviral therapy in African countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. The paper discusses how nutritional interventions benefit of the integration of kitchen toxicology practices in everyday life. Toxicological risk assessment is crucial to understand the history and status of the person exposed to or affected by infectious diseases. Keywords: Traditional diet, Malnutrition, Food safety, Weight loss, Immune system, Dysmetabolic diseases, Clinical toxicology, Nutrition security

  2. Effect of ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Cenci, Lorenzo; Grimaldi, Keith A

    2011-10-12

    There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components. The study group consisted of 106 Rome council employees with a body mass index of ≥ 25, age between 18 and 65 years (19 male and 87 female; mean age 48.49 ± 10.3). We investigated the effects of a modified ketogenic diet based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrate but which mimic their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts (KEMEPHY ketogenic Mediterranean with phytoextracts). Calories in the diet were unlimited. Measurements were taken before and after 6 weeks of diet. There were no significant changes in BUN, ALT, AST, GGT and blood creatinine. We detected a significant (p good compliance.

  3. Rats prone to obesity under a high-carbohydrate diet have increased post-meal CCK mRNA expression and characteristics of rats fed a high-glycemic index diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eChaumontet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that rats prone to obesity exhibit an exaggerated increase in glucose oxidation and an exaggerated decline in lipid oxidation under a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LF/HC diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in these metabolic dysregulations. After a one week adaptation to laboratory conditions, 48 male Wistar rats were fed a LF/HC diet for 3 weeks. During weeks 2 and 3, glucose tolerance tests (GTT, insulin tolerance tests (ITT and meal tolerance tests (MTT were performed to evaluate blood glucose, plasma and insulin. Glucose and lipid oxidation were also assayed during the GTT. At the end of the study, body composition was measured in all the rats, and they were classified as carbohydrate resistant (CR or carbohydrate sensitive (CS according to their adiposity. Before sacrifice, 24 of the 48 rats received a calibrated LF/HC meal. Liver, muscle and intestine tissue samples were taken to measure mRNA expression of key genes involved in glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. ITT, GTT and MTT showed that CS rats were neither insulin resistant nor glucose intolerant, but mRNA expression of CCK in the duodenum was higher and that of CPT1, PPARα and PGC1α in liver were lower than in CR rats. From these results, we make the hypothesis that in CS rats, CCK increased pancreatic secretion which may favor a quicker absorption of carbohydrates and consequently induces an enhanced inhibition of lipid oxidation in the liver leading to a progressive accumulation of fat preferentially in visceral deposits. Such a mechanism may explain why CS rats share many characteristics observed in rats fed a high glycemic index diet.

  4. EFFECT OF DIETARY RAW CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.) SEEDS REPLACEMENT GROUNDNUT MEAL, SESAME MEAL ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD CONSTITUENTS

    OpenAIRE

    T.A. Algam; Kh.A. Abdel Atti; B.M. Dousa; S.M. Elawad; B.A. Atta Elmanan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chickpea seeds on performance and blood constituents of broilers. One hundred and twenty eight unsexed one day old (Ross) broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four approximately isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets labeled as follows: Diet (F0) containing 0% chickpea (control diet), diet (F1) 10% chickpea substitute same levels of sesame meal and groundnuts meal, diet (F2) 10% chickpea substitute from groundnuts meal only and diet (F3) ...

  5. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) with subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal in diets of Najdi goats: effect on digestion activity of rumen microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Jolazadeh, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing alfalfa hay by subabul leaf meal (SLM) on digestion, fermentation parameters and rumen bacteria and fungi activity of Najdi goats. Six Najdi goats (150 ± 15 days of age and initial body weight of 35 ± 1.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments in a balanced completely randomized design (three goats per treatment) for 56 days. Experimental treatments included alfalfa hay as control group and diet containing SLM (SLM replacing alfalfa hay at 50% level). Bacterial and fungi activity and rumen fermentation parameters of animals fed experimental diets were determined. Dry matter disappearance (DMD) was unaffected by replacing SLM with alfalfa hay for both rumen bacteria and fungi in different incubation times, except for 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria, which decreased for SLM group (P > 0.05). NDF disappearance (NDFD) and ADF disappearance (ADFD) after 24 and 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria was not affected by experimental diets (P > 0.05). However, 72 h after incubation, NDFD in SLM treatment decreased (P > 0.05). Gas production parameters of rumen bacteria were similar for both experimental diets, but partitioning factor (PF), efficiency microbial biomass production (EMBP), microbial protein production (MP), and organic matter truly digested (OMTD) decreased (p replacement of alfalfa hay by SLM had no major effect on rumen microorganisms' activity of Najdi goats, so it may be used as an alternative for alfalfa (at 50% level) in susceptible areas.

  6. Increased meal frequency attenuates fat-free mass losses and some markers of health status with a portion-controlled weight loss diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Michelle K; Beam, Jason R; McCormick, James J; White, Ailish C; Salgado, Roy M; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M; Gibson, Ann L; Conn, Carole A; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Ferraro, Robert T; Kerksick, Chad M

    2015-05-01

    Increased meal frequency (MF) may be associated with improvements in blood markers of health and body composition during weight loss; however, this claim has not been validated. The purpose of the study was to determine if either a 2-meal (2 MF) or 6-meal frequency (6 MF) regimen can improve body composition and blood-based markers of health while consuming a portion-controlled equihypocaloric diet. Eleven (N=11) obese women (52 ± 7 years, 101.7 ± 22.6 kg, 39.1 ± 7.6 kg/m(2)) were randomized into treatment condition (2 MF or 6 MF) for 2 weeks, completed a 2-week washout, and alternated treatment conditions. In pre/post fashion, changes in body composition, glucose, insulin, and lipid components were measured in response to a test meal. Body mass was successfully lost (P ≤ .05) under both feeding regimens (2 MF: -2.8 ± 1.5 vs 6 MF: -1.9 ± 1.5 kg). Altering MF did not impact glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P>.05). On average, fat-free mass (FFM) decreased by -3.3% ± 2.6% following the 2 MF condition and, on average, increased by 1.2% ± 1.7% following the 6 MF condition (P ≤ .05). Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) percentage increased during the 2 MF condition; this was significantly greater than that in the 6 MF condition (1.3% ± 12.2% vs 0.12% ± 10.3%) (P ≤ .05). Overall, reductions in MF (2 MF) were associated with improved HDL-C levels; but the clinical significance is not clear. Alternatively, increased MF (6 MF) did appear to favorably preserve FFM during weight loss. In conclusion, caloric restriction was effective in reducing body mass and attenuating FFM changes in body composition; however, glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism had no significant differences between MF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Shrimp meal in diets for Nile tilapia ("Oreochromis niloticus" Farinha de camarão em dietas para tilápia do Nilo ("Oreochromis niloticus"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Pessoa Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of conventional ingredients used in fish diets by non-conventional products has been an economic alternative to reduce the cost of feeding. Therefore, 90-day trial was performed to study the effect of shrimp meal (SM inclusion on diets of Nile tilapia fries. Weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, apparent feed intake (AFI, fillet yield (FY, fillet income (FI values and protein effiency ratio (PER were evaluated. Each experimental unit was an aquaria with five tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus, mean body weight of 7,9g, total of 120 animals. Treatments were four diets with 0, 25, 50 and 100% of SM replacing the soybean meal, which protein (28.0% and energy (3100 kcal/DE/kg content in diet were similar. Animals were fed three times daily. The offered food was adjusted according to fish live weight. The substitution of soybean by SM reduced WG, FC, AFI, FY and PER. SM inclusion did not affect the FI. Shrimp meal inclusion in diets for Nile tilapia affects negatively the growth performance.O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a inclusão da farinha de camarão (FC em dietas para a tilápia do Nilo. O desempenho dos animais foi avaliado através do ganho de peso (GP, conversão alimentar aparente (CAA, consumo de ração aparente (CRA, peso de filé (PF, rendimento de filé (RF e taxa de eficiência protéica (TEP. O delineamento utilizado no experimento foi em blocos casulaizados distribuídos em 24 caixas de polietileno com capacidade de 150 L supridas por sistema de recirculação fechada de água (0,2L/min. durante 90 dias. Cada unidade experimental era composta por um aquário com cinco tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus com peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 7,9g perfazendo um total de 120 animais. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de quatro rações contendo 0, 25, 50 e 100% de FC em substituição ao farelo de soja, sendo estas isoprotéicas (28,0%PB e isoenergéticas (3100 kcal de EB/kg. Os animais foram alimentados três vezes ao dia

  8. Nutritional evaluation of soybean meal after fermentation with two fish gut bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus LRF5 and Staphylococcus caprae CCF2 in for-mulated diets for Labeo rohita fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Kumar Dan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Twelve isonitrogenous (35 % crude protein and isocaloric (18.0 kJ/g diets were formulated incorporating raw and fermented soybean meal (SBM at 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% levels by weight. Two phytase-producing bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus LRF5 and Staphylococcus caprae CCF2 isolated from the gut of adult Labeo rohita and Catla catla, respectively were used for fermentation of SBM. Fermentation of SBM was effective in reducing the anti-nutritional factors, trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid and enhancing protein, lipid and mineral concentration. The response of L. rohita, fingerlings (initial weight 3.33±0.07 g fed the experimental diets for 100 days was compared with fish fed a fish meal based diet. In terms of growth, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, diet S7 containing 45% SBM fermented with B. cereus LRF5 resulted in a significantly (P<0.05 better performance of fish. The overall performance of L. rohita fed fermented SBM incorporated diets was better in comparison to those fed raw SBM incorporated diets. The apparent digestibility of nutrients and minerals was significantly (P<0.05 higher in fish fed diet S7. The maximum deposition of protein in the carcass was recorded in fish fed diet S7. Diets containing fermented SBM reduced fecal P levels. The use of this fermented feed will definitely increase the production in fish farm. Furthermore, it will also reduce the production cost, as fish meal protein is costly in the market.

  9. Replacement of soybean meal by linseed meal in diets for piava (Leporinus obtusidensSubstituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de linhaça em dietas para a piava (Leporinus obtusidens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirleise Pianesso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the replacement of soybean meal by linseed meal on growth of piava juveniles. The experiment was carried on fish farming laboratory of UFSM/CESNORS, on March to April, 2011. They were used 360 fish, (initial weight = 9.0 ± 2.5 g, which placed in a water re-use system composed by 15 tanks (250L, with mean temperature in the morning = 20.3 ± 1.62ºC and in the afternoon = 21.4 ± 1.42ºC, during 30 days. It were testes five diets with volumetric levels of soybean meal replace (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. The use of the linseed meal provided same performance to the fish. The weight, total length, standard length, relative weight gain, condition factor and specific growth rate of the piavas were not affected by treatments (P > 0.05. Similarly, the plasmatic glucose, body protein deposition and chymotrypsin enzyme no showed differences. The body lipid deposition was best expressed by the cubic polynomial regression model (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a substituição do farelo de soja pelo de linhaça no crescimento de juvenis de piava. O experimento foi realizado no laboratório de piscicultura da UFSM/CESNORS, no período de março a abril de 2011. Foram utilizados 360 peixes (peso inicial = 9,0 ± 2,5 g, sendo estes acondicionados em um sistema de recirculação de água composto por 15 tanques (250L, com temperatura média da manhã = 20,3 ± 1,62ºC e da tarde = 21,4 ± 1,42ºC, durante 30 dias. Foram testadas cinco dietas, com níveis volumétricos de substituição do farelo de soja (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. A utilização de farelo de linhaça como fonte proteica proporcionou aos peixes o mesmo desempenho. O peso, comprimento total, comprimento padrão, ganho em peso relativo, fator de condição e taxa de crescimento específico das piavas não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos (P > 0,05. Da mesma forma, a glicose plasmática, deposição de proteína corporal e a enzima quimiotripsina n

  10. Níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira em dietas para ovinos Levels of forage watermelon meal in diets for sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Luiz Nunes Vaz da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a inclusão de 20, 35, 50, 65 ou 80% de farelo de melancia forrageira (Citrullus lanatus cv. citroides (FMF em dietas à base de feno de guandu (Cajanus cajan, foi realizado um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se 20 cordeiros com 6 meses de idade e peso vivo de 11,2 ± 1,2 kg. O experimento constou de 20 dias de adaptação e 5 de coleta total de sobras e de fezes. O farelo de melancia forrageira e o feno de guandu apresentaram 95,3 e 95,75% de matéria seca (MS, 18,7 e 16,8% de proteína bruta (PB e 38,8 e 64,3% de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. Os níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira determinaram aumento quadrático nos consumos de MS, MO, PB, FDN, FDA, hemicelulose e carboidratos totais. O consumo de extrato etéreo não foi alterado, mas o consumo de CNF teve aumento linear conforme aumentaram os níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS (58%, PB (69%, FDN (41% e EE (85% não foram influenciados pelo nível de farelo de melancia forrageira. As digestibilidades de MO (54 a 62%, FDA (36 a 49% e carboidratos totais (47 a 58% variaram linear e positivamente, enquanto a digestibilidade da hemicelulose teve comportamento inverso. As dietas proporcionaram consumo de matéria seca que atendeu a exigência dos animais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade observados foram satisfatórios. O farelo de melancia forrageira pode ser indicado para compor dietas à base de feno de guandu em níveis de 35 a 66% da matéria seca.In order to study the inclusion of forage watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides meal (FWM in pigeon pea hay based diets (Cajanus cajan (PPH, a digestibility trial in sheep was carried out for testing five levels of FWM (20, 35, 50, 65 and 80%. Twenty lambs with an average age of six months and live weight of 11.2 kg (± 1.2 were used. The experimental period was twenty days for adaptation and five days for total refuses and feces collection. The chemical

  11. The role of food-related shopping, preparation and meal practices in diet quality and association with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Toft, Madeleine Broman; Stancu, Catalin Mihai

    , and thereby lower depressive feelings. The study also explores whether the effect on depressive symptoms goes beyond the effects of diet quality. Method: An online survey with a random sample of Danish (N=1522) and Spanish (N=1512) participants was recruited in 2014 through Qualtrics panel. Depressive...

  12. Effect of ketogenic mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldi Keith A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components. Methods The study group consisted of 106 Rome council employees with a body mass index of ≥ 25, age between 18 and 65 years (19 male and 87 female; mean age 48.49 ± 10.3. We investigated the effects of a modified ketogenic diet based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrate but which mimic their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts (KEMEPHY ketogenic Mediterranean with phytoextracts. Calories in the diet were unlimited. Measurements were taken before and after 6 weeks of diet. Results There were no significant changes in BUN, ALT, AST, GGT and blood creatinine. We detected a significant (p 2 to 29.01 Kg/m2, body weight (86.15 kg to 79.43 Kg, percentage of fat mass (41.24% to 34.99%, waist circumference (106.56 cm to 97.10 cm, total cholesterol (204 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl, LDLc (150 mg/dl to 136 mg/dl, triglycerides (119 mg/dl to 93 mg/dl and blood glucose (96 mg/dl to 91 mg/dl. There was a significant (p Conclusions The KEMEPHY diet lead to weight reduction, improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, reduction in waist circumference and showed good compliance.

  13. The effect of a diet education with six iso-caloric meals on the body weight and blood glucose of diabetes type 2 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Salehi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Diabetes should not only be sought through drug administration; diet is also a part of its treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a diet with six meals having equal calories on the body weight and blood glucose on diabetes type 2 patients. This research is an Experimental study conducted in 2009 on 181 patients with diabetes. The patients visited the IDSF (Iranian Diabetes Society of Fars weekly and the patients to be studied were randomly divided into two groups of 85 and 96 patients, respectively. The participants were repeatedly requested to consume their calculated calorie in six equal parts. The average age in the Experimental and Control groups were 51.2 ± 13.3 and 53.1 ± 9.4, respectively. The mean body weight and fasting blood glucose at the beginning of the study in Experimental and Control groups were 66.3 ± 9.4 and 69.1 ± 11.1 kg, 198.9 ± 35.1, and 199.8 ± 39.1 mg.dL-1, respectively. At the end of the study, however, the values were 63.5 ± 7.5 and 66.98 ± 9 kg, 139.5 ± 34.6 and 164.2 ± 22.1 mg.dL-1, respectively. Only the mean fasting blood glucose at the end of the study revealed a significant difference (p-value = 0.001. The results show that educating those afflicted with Diabetes Type 2 aiming at changing their diet can greatly help them manage their blood glucose.

  14. Screening of leaf meals as feed supplements in the culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein content (26.3%) followed by Gliricidia leaf meal (22.9%) and Stylosanthes leaf meal (19.5%). All the four diets (A – D) were formulated with maize flour, soybean, fish meal, blood meal and the respective leaf meals and crude protein content ranged from 30.57 – 36.42 %. The diets were distributed randomly to twelve ...

  15. Evaluation of poultry visceral offal meal as a substitute for fish meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of replacing fish meal (FM) with graded levels of poultry visceral offal meal (PVOM) in five grower pullets diets were investigated in a 4 week study using 200 Isa Brown pullets from 14 to 18 weeks of age. There were four replicates per test diet, with 10 birds per replicate. Diets A (control) contained 4% FM as the ...

  16. Farelo de tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. na alimentação de poedeiras comerciais = Tomato meal (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. in the diet of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riviana Roberta de Souza Loureiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis do farelo de tomate (FT sobre o desempenho zootécnico e características dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram alojadas em gaiolas 200 aves da linhagem Dekalb White, com 30 semanas de idade, durante três períodos de 21 dias cada um. O delineamento experimental foi ointeiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições de oito aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta referência e inclusões de 5, 10, 15 e 20% do (FT. Para o consumo de ração, houve aumento à medida que se aumentou o nível de inclusão do farelo. Para a conversão alimentar por dúzia de ovos, conversão alimentar por massa de ovos, percentagem de postura e massa de ovos produzida, 5% foi o nível de inclusão que proporcionou os melhores resultados. O FT provocou diminuição linear no peso e percentagem de gema, no entanto, até 15% de inclusão, obtiveram-se gemas mais pesadas quando comparadas com as da ração-referência. O farelo de tomate pode ser utilizado como ingrediente alternativo nas rações para poedeiras comerciais. O nível recomendado seria de até 5% de inclusão, para melhores resultados de desempenho zootécnico. Utilizando-se até15%, não houve interferência no rendimento das partes dos ovos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of tomato meal (TM on performance and egg quality. Two hundred Dekalb White birds, 30 weeks old, were allocated in cages during three periods of 21 days each. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and five repetitions of eight birds each. The treatments were: a control diet, and four diets with different inclusion levels of TM (5, 10, 15 and 20%. The birds’ feed consumption increased as the inclusion level of tomato meal in the diet was raised. For egg production, egg mass, feed conversion per mass and dozen of eggs, the level of 5% was the best. TM

  17. Nutritional value of raw Canavalia ensiformis and its utilization as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Shola G.; Okomoda, Victor T.; Oguche, Obekpa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The nutritional value of raw Jack bean meal (Canavalia ensiformis) as a partial substitute for soybeans meal was investigated in this study. Preliminary investigation on nutrient composition revealed that lysine, histidine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in C. ensiformis seed meal compared to soybean meal. However, crude protein and other essential amino acids were significantly lower. Feeding trial was then conducted to investigate the effect of replacing about 40% soyb...

  18. Differential roles of breakfast only (one meal per day and a bigger breakfast with a small dinner (two meals per day in mice fed a high-fat diet with regard to induced obesity and lipid metabolism

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    Fuse Yuta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies on humans and rodents have suggested that the timing of food intake plays an important role in circadian regulation and metabolic health. Consumption of high-fat foods during the inactive period or at the end of the awake period results in weight gain and metabolic syndrome in rodents. However, the distinct effects of breakfast size and the breakfast/dinner size ratio on metabolic health have not yet been fully examined in mice. Methods We examined whether the parameters of metabolic syndrome were differentially affected in mice that consumed a large meal at the beginning of the awake period (breakfast; one meal group and a relatively smaller meal at end of the awake period (dinner; two meals group. The mice of each group were provided equal food volume per day. Results Mice on one meal exhibited an increase in body weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and a decrease of gene expression associated with β-oxidation in adipose tissue and liver compared with those on two meals. The circadian expression pattern of the Clock gene in mice on one meal was disturbed compared with those on two meals. Conclusions In conclusion, a bigger breakfast with a smaller dinner (two meals per day but not breakfast only (one meal per day helps control body weight and fat accumulation in mice on a high-fat meals schedule. The findings of this study suggest that dietary recommendations for weight reduction and/or maintenance should include information on the timing and quantity of dietary intake.

  19. Testing of Two Varieties of Lupin Seeds as Substitutes for Soya Extracted Meal in Vegetable Diets Designed for Young Broilers

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    P. Suchý

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this experiment was to verify the suitability of two Polish varieties of dehulled lupin seed (the low-protein SONET variety and the high-protein JUNO variety as protein components to replace 50% of soya extract meal in feeding mixtures designed for the feeding of young broilers. The results of this experiment demonstrate that suitable treatment of lupin seed (dehulling may significantly increase its nutritional value. Dehulling provides a product (core in which the level of nitrogen-containing substances is by 27% higher than that in the original seed, providing an important protein component to be added in feeding mixtures for chickens. The experiment has also shown that production performance depends on the particular Lupinus variety used. Chickens fed on the JUNO variety seed (Group E1 reached a live weight of 2.332 kg on Day 40, which is comparable with the control group of chickens (2.337 kg; Group C. However, chickens in Group E2 fed on the SONET variety seed had a conclusively lower average weight (2.280 kg (P Lupinus genus is a major source of the amino acid arginine, which is often deficient in the feeding mixtures.

  20. Impact of Diets Containing Plant Raw Materials as Fish Meal and Fish Oil Replacement on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata, and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Freshness

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    Grigorakis Kriton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate whether the total or high substitution of fish meal (FM and fish oil (FO by sustainable plant raw materials (plant meal and oils in long-term feeding for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp can result in spoilage alterations during ice storage. These three species were fed throughout their whole rearing cycle with plant-based diets and compared to counterparts that received FM/FO-based diets or commercial-like diets. Sensory QIM schemes adopted for these species and ATP breakdown products (K-value and components were used to evaluate the freshness. Sensory acceptability of 14, 15, and 12 days was found for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. This corresponded to K-values of approximately 80%, 35%, and 65% for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. No major effect of dietary history on postmortem shelf life was shown for gilthead sea bream and common carp; neither sensory-perceived nor chemical freshness showed diet-related differences. Rainbow trout fed with the plant-based diet exhibited slightly worse sensory freshness than fish fed with FM/FO-based diets, at the end of shelf life. These findings imply that FM and FO can be successfully substituted without major impacts on shelf life of fish.

  1. Farinha de vísceras de aves na alimentação de alevinos de lambari Poultry by-product meal in lambari fingerlings diet

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    Arcangelo Augusto Signor

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O lambari, Astyanax altiparanae, é uma espécie muito comum em rios nacionais, com grande potencial para a piscicultura nacional. Ele apresenta crescimento rápido e carne de excelente sabor, sendo muito apreciado com petisco e como isca viva para a pesca esportiva. A farinha de vísceras de aves é uma importante fonte protéica de origem animal. O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a inclusão de farinha de vísceras de aves (FV em rações para alevinos de lambari. Foram utilizados 125 alevinos, apresentando peso e comprimento inicial médio de 0,080±0,002g e 1,86±0,20cm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários. As rações foram formuladas de forma a conter 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% de FV na dieta. O arraçoamento foi realizado quatro vezes ao dia, na forma farelada e à vontade. O valores médios de peso final (1,47, 1,92, 2,02, 2,11 e 2,15g e comprimento final (4,40, 4,78, 4,92, 4,92 e 5,08cm dos alevinos de lambari apresentaram aumento linear (PThe lambari Astyanax altiparanae, is a very common species in the national rivers, with great potential for the national psyculture. It presents a fast growth and meat of eccellent flavor, being very appreciate like a delicacy and like an alive bait to sportive fishing. The poultry by-product meal is an important proteinic source from animal origin. The research was carried out with the objective to evaluate the poultry by-product meal inclusion (FV in rations for lambari fingerlings. 125 fingerlings presenting average weight and initial length of 0.080±0.002g and 1.86±0.20cm respectively were used, they were distributed in 25 aquariums. The rations were formulated in form to contain 0, 5, 10 15 and 20% of FV in the diet. The ration giving was carried through four times a day, in a braning form and at the will. The avarage values of final weight (1.47, 19.2, 2.02, 2.11 and 2.15 and final length of (4.40, 4.78, 4.92 and 5.08cm of the lambari fingerlings had presented linear

  2. Effects of dietary true digestible calcium to phosphorus ratio on growth performance and efficiency of calcium and phosphorus use in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine effects of dietary true fecal digestible Ca to true digestible P ratio on growth performance and efficiency of Ca and P use in growing pigs fed corn (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based diets. Experiment 1 was carried out to measure true fecal digestibility of Ca and P as well as the fecal endogenous outputs of these nutrients associated with a corn and SBM-based diet in 12 Yorkshire growing pigs with an average initial BW of 23.2 ± 0.6 kg by the substitution method. True fecal digestibility values (%; n = 6) of Ca (53.6 ± 12.7) and P (43.8 ± 16.7) as well as the fecal endogenous outputs (g/kg DMI; n = 12) of Ca (0.91 ± 0.20) and P (1.31 ± 0.15) associated with the diets were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted with 36 Yorkshire barrows of an average initial BW of 24.2 ± 0.6 kg and the pigs were fed 6 diets according to a completely randomized block design. The 6 diets were corn and SBM based with diet 1 containing 0.2% true digestible Ca and 0.3% true digestible P and were formulated to contain 6 total Ca to total P ratios based on analyzed dietary Ca and P contents (diet 1, 0.6:1; diet 2, 0.7:1; diet 3, 0.8:1; diet 4, 1.3:1; diet 5, 1.0:1; and diet 6, 1.3:1) by supplementing gradient levels of limestone with a constant dietary P content for meeting the recommended requirement. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG. No differences (P > 0.05) in ADFI were observed between the other diets except the lower ADFI (P < 0.05) in diet 3 compared with diet 2. However, G:F was higher (P < 0.05) in diet 2 compared with diets 5 and 6. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had consistent effects on true fecal P digestibility and retention with much lower values (P < 0.05) observed in diet 5 in comparison with the other diets. In summary, true fecal digestible Ca to P ratios of 0.9:1 to 1.0:1 were associated with optimal responses in both G:F as well as true fecal P

  3. Effects of rapeseed meal fiber content on phosphorus and calcium digestibility in growing pigs fed diets without or with microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournazel, M; Lessire, M; Duclos, M J; Magnin, M; Même, N; Peyronnet, C; Recoules, E; Quinsac, A; Labussière, E; Narcy, A

    2018-01-01

    The optimization of dietary phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) supply requires a better understanding of the effect of dietary fiber content of co-products on the digestive utilization of minerals. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary fiber content from 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on P and Ca digestibility throughout the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs fed diets without or with microbial phytase. In total, 48 castrated male pigs (initial BW=36.1±0.4 kg) were housed in metabolic crates for 29 days. After an 8-day adaptation period, pigs were allocated to one of the eight treatments. The impact of dietary fiber was modulated by adding whole RSM (wRSM), dehulled RSM (dRSM) or dRSM supplemented with 4.5% or 9.0% rapeseed hulls (dRSMh1 and dRSMh2). Diets contained 0 or 500 phytase unit of microbial phytase per kg. From day 14 to day 23, feces and urine were collected separately to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent retention (AR) of P and Ca. At the end of the experiment, femurs and digestive contents were sampled. No effect of variables of interest was observed on growth performance. Microbial phytase increased ATTD and AR of P (P<0.001) but the P equivalency with the wRSM diet was lower than expected. Moreover, stomach inorganic P (iP) solubility was improved by microbial phytase (P<0.001). The ATTD of Ca was not affected by microbial phytase which increased AR of Ca and femur characteristics (P<0.05). Ileal recovery of P was not affected by microbial phytase but cecal recovery was considerably reduced by microbial phytase (P<0.001). The decrease in digesta pH between the distal ileum and cecum (7.6 v. 5.9) enhanced the solubility of iP and may have improved its absorption, as supported by the negative relationship between soluble iP and pH (R 2=0.40, P<0.001 without microbial phytase and R 2=0.24, P=0.026 with microbial phytase). The inclusion of hulls improved the solubility of iP (P<0.05). In conclusion, dehulling

  4. Substituição da farinha de carne suína por fontes vegetais em dietas para carpa-húngara Replacement of pork meal by plant protein sources in Hungarian carp diets

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    Giovani Taffarel Bergamin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e a qualidade de carcaça de carpa-húngara alimentada com dietas em que houve substituição da farinha de carne suína por farelos de soja e canola, bem como determinar parâmetros bioquímicos do metabolismo dos peixes e a qualidade sensorial do filé. Cada um dos farelos contribuiu com 50% da proteína na mistura. Cinco dietas foram avaliadas, com níveis de substituição (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% da proteína da farinha de carne suína pela mistura das fontes vegetais. A inclusão de fontes proteicas vegetais nas dietas reduziu o crescimento, a deposição de gordura corporal e no filé, e o colesterol total dos peixes. A cor e o sabor dos filés não foram afetados pela inclusão das fontes proteicas vegetais. A dieta à base de farinha de carne suína é mais eficiente para o crescimento da carpa-húngara, e proporciona maior deposição de proteína no peixe inteiro e no filé.The objective of this work was to evaluate growth and carcass composition of Hungarian carp fed with diets in which pork meat meal was replaced by a combination of canola and soybean meals, as well as to determine fish metabolism biochemical parameters and the sensorial quality of the fillet. Each plant meal contributed with 50% of the dietary protein of the mixture. Five diets were tested, with replacement levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of pork meal by plant protein sources. The inclusion of the plant-protein meal in the diet results in lower overall growth, lower body and fillet lipid deposition and lower total cholesterol of the fish. Color and flavor of the fillets were not affected by inclusion of plant protein sources. A pork meat meal based diet is more efficient for Hungarian carp growth, and provides higher whole fish and fillet protein deposition.

  5. Digestibilidade de dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante amonizado e farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê em ovinos Digestibility of nutrients in diets containing ammoniated elephantgrass and cocoa meal or palm kernel cake fed to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a digestibilidade dos nutrientes de dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante amonizado e farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê em substituição parcial ao concentrado (à base de milho e farelo de soja na alimentação de ovinos. Foram utilizados 18 machos Santa Inês não-castados (peso corporal 22,6 kg distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3, com três repetições. O período experimental consistiu de 77 dias (14 dias de adaptação e três períodos de 21 dias para coleta dos dados e as dietas foram compostas de 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado. Como volumoso, utilizou-se silagem de capim-elefante com ou sem uréia e três concentrados: um à base de milho e farelo de soja, outro contendo milho, farelo de soja e farelo de cacau e o outro contendo milho, farelo de soja e torta de dendê. A amonização e a substituição de 40% do concentrado à base de milho e farelo de soja por farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê não afetaram a digestibilidade das dietas. O farelo de cacau e a torta de dendê podem ser utilizados como alternativas ao concentrado na dieta de ovinos, visto que substituição parcial do concentrado por esses subprodutos não afetou a digestibilidade dos nutrientes da dieta.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients on sheep fed diets containing ammoniated elephantgrass silage plus cocoa meal or palm kernel cake, which partially replaced corn and soybean meal in the concentrate. Eighteen non-castrated Santa Inês sheep averaging 22.6 kg of body weight were assigned to a completely randomized design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experiment lasted 77 days with 14 days for diet adaptation and three 21 days periods for data and sample collection. Diets were composed by 60% of forage and 40% of concentrate. Treatments containing treated (urea or untreated elephant grass silage plus one the following

  6. Intake and digestibility of diets containing castor bean meal detoxified to finish of sheep Consumo e digestibilidade de dietas contendo farelo de mamona destoxificado para ovinos em terminação

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    Marcônio Martins Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including detoxified castor bean meal to substitute soy bean meal was evaluated to sheep finishing diets on intake, digestibility and energy value of the diets. A positive linear effect was verified for ether extract intake and acid detergent fiber with an intake raise of 0.015 g/BW0.75 in ether extract and 0.090 g/BW0.75 in acid detergent fiber per each unit percentage of detoxified castor bean meal added to the diet. There was maximun value in hemicellulose intake when included 39.55% of detoxified castor bean meal to the diet. Negative linear effect was verified for dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, total carbohydrates digestibility, respectively, with 0.0536, 0.0507, 0.0705 and 0.0572% decreases per unit percentage of detoxified castor bean meal added. Positive quadratic effect was verified for neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose digestibility with 54.93 and 64.53% maximum in levels of the 38.6 and 31.4, respectively. Detoxified castor bean meal inclusion does not influence dry matter and nutrients intake, attending these animal class nutritional requirements. Including detoxified castor bean meal decreases dry mater, organic matter, crude protein, total carbohydrates digestibility, being in this situation recommended the inclusion of to 33% in the diet by allowing high neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose digestibility. Despite these effects, the energy value of the diets is not influenced by the inclusion of detoxified castor bean meal.Avaliou-se a substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de mamona destoxificado em dietas para ovinos em terminação. O consumo de extrato etéreo e fibra em detergente ácido foi linear positivo, com aumento de 0,015 e 0,090g/UTM por unidade percentual de inclusão de farelo de mamona destoxificado, respectivamente. O consumo máximo de hemicelulose ocorreu para dietas que continham 39,55% de farelo de mamona destoxificado. A digestibilidade da matéria seca, mat

  7. Inclusão da farinha de varredura de mandioca em rações de frangos de corte = Inclusion of cassava waste meal inclusion in broiler diets

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    Emanuela Nataly Ribeiro Barbosa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho, a viabilidade econômica e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo níveis de inclusão (0,0; 7,5; 15,0; 22,5 e 30,0% de farinha de varredura de mandioca (FVM. Foram utilizados 360 pintainhos de um dia, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocoscasualizados com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições contendo 12 aves por parcela. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, custo da alimentação, renda bruta, margem bruta e rentabilidade. Aos 42 dias, foram abatidos doisfrangos por parcela para avaliação do peso: da carcaça, dos cortes, das vísceras e da gordura total, para determinar o rendimento de carcaça e calcular as porcentagens de cortes, gordura total e vísceras em relação ao peso vivo e carcaça. O peito e as coxas + sobrecoxas foram desossados para calcular os rendimentos de carne. A pigmentação das canelas das aves foi avaliada. Nos parâmetros de desempenho e avaliação econômica, não houve diferença entreos tratamentos. No peso e porcentagem da moela e pigmentação das canelas, houve efeito linear e, no rendimento da carne da coxa + sobrecoxa, houve efeito quadrático. A FVM pode ser incorporada às rações em níveis de 30%.The objective of this work was to evaluate performance, economic viability and carcass traits of broilers fed with diets containing five inclusion levels (0.0; 7.5; 15.0; 22.5 and 30.0% ofcassava waste meal (FVM. Three hundred sixty one-day-old pullets were used, distributed in a randomized block design experiment with five treatments and six replications, containing twelve birds per box. The parameters evaluated were feed intake, weight gain,feed-to-gain ratio, feeding costs, gross income, gross margin and profitability. Two broilers per replication were slaughtered at 42 days in order to evaluate the weights of carcass, main cuts, offal and total fat for carcass

  8. Effect of including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) meal in finishing pig diets on growth performance, carcass traits and pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosemoli, Silvana; Moron-Fuenmayor, Oneida Elizabeth; Paez, Angel; Villamide, Maria Jesús

    2016-10-01

    The partial replacement of a commercial concentrate at 10-20% and 15-30% (the first percentage of each dietary treatment corresponded to weeks 1-3 and the second to weeks 4-7 of the experiment, respectively) by sweet potato meal (SPM; 70% foliage: 30% roots) was evaluated for growth performance, carcass yield, instrumental and sensory pork quality using 36 commercial crossbred pigs (56.8 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight). Three dietary treatments were compared in a randomized complete block design. Most growth, carcass traits and pork quality variables were not affected by the SPM inclusion. Growth performance averaged 868 g/day and feed efficiency 0.24 kg/kg. However, feed intake increased 2.2% (P = 0.04) in pigs fed the 10-20% SPM diets, in a similar order of magnitude as the decrease in dietary energy. Despite an increase in gastrointestinal tract as a percent of hot carcass weight (+14.7%) (P = 0.03) with SPM inclusion, carcass yield averaged 69.4%. Conversely, decreases in loin yield (-4.2%) (P = 0.05), backfat thickness (-6.0%) (P < 0.01) and pork tenderness (-13%) (P = 0.02) were observed with 15-30% SPM inclusion. Results suggest that up to 20% SPM inclusion is a viable feed strategy for finishing pigs, easily replicable in small farm settings. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. THE EFFECTIVITY TEST OF SHEEP RUMEN LIQUOR ENZYME ADDED TO PALM KERNEL MEAL ON ITS DECREASE OF CRUDE FIBER AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENT FOR CATFISH Pangasius hypophthalmus DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the hydrolysis of fiber content in palm kernel meal (PKM by sheep rumen liquor enzyme and to know the apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed PKM for catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus. The first trial examined effectivity of sheep rumen liquor enzyme to decrease crude fiber content of PKM. The added volume of sheep rumen liquor enzyme was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mL/kg PKM and then it was incubated for 0, 12, and 24 hours. A factorial completely randomized experimental design consisted of 2 variables and triplicates were selected. The second trial was conducted to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of hydrolized PKM for catfish. Apparent digestibility coefficients were determined using chromic oxide indicator added to both reference and test diets. The feed ingredients used in the trial were hydrolyzed PKM (PKMe and unhydrolyzed PKM (PKM. Ten fishes with weighing around 20 g were used in the trial and held in 80 l tanks. Feces were collected from three replicate groups of fish using a fecal collection column attached to fish rearing tank. PKM hydrolyzed with 100 mL/kg and incubated for 24 hour showed the lowest crude fiber content (6.99% among the treatments (P<0.05. Apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed PKM was 57.57% compared with unhydrolyzed PKM 15.31%. Based on the evaluation in those parameters it was concluded that sheep rumen liquor enzyme added to PKM was effective to decrease crude fiber content of PKM and improve apparent digestibility coefficient of PKM for catfish.

  10. Preschool and School Meal Policies: An Overview of What We Know about Regulation, Implementation, and Impact on Diet in the UK, Sweden, and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Patricia Jane; Patterson, Emma; Sacks, Gary; Billich, Natassja; Evans, Charlotte Elizabeth Louise

    2017-07-11

    School meals make significant contributions to healthy dietary behaviour, at a time when eating habits and food preferences are being formed. We provide an overview of the approaches to the provision, regulation, and improvement of preschool and primary school meals in the UK, Sweden, and Australia, three countries which vary in their degree of centralisation and regulation of school meals. Sweden has a centralised approach; all children receive free meals, and a pedagogical approach to meals is encouraged. Legislation demands that meals are nutritious. The UK system is varied and decentralised. Meals in most primary schools are regulated by food-based standards, but preschool-specific meal standards only exist in Scotland. The UK uses food groups (starchy foods, fruit and vegetables, proteins and dairy) in a healthy plate approach. Australian States and Territories all employ guidelines for school canteen food, predominantly using a "traffic light" approach outlining recommended and discouraged foods; however, most children bring food from home and are not covered by this guidance. The preschool standards state that food provided should be nutritious. We find that action is often lacking in the preschool years, and suggest that consistent policies, strong incentives for compliance, systematic monitoring, and an acknowledgement of the broader school eating environment (including home provided food) would be beneficial.

  11. Preschool and School Meal Policies: An Overview of What We Know about Regulation, Implementation, and Impact on Diet in the UK, Sweden, and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Jane Lucas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available School meals make significant contributions to healthy dietary behaviour, at a time when eating habits and food preferences are being formed. We provide an overview of the approaches to the provision, regulation, and improvement of preschool and primary school meals in the UK, Sweden, and Australia, three countries which vary in their degree of centralisation and regulation of school meals. Sweden has a centralised approach; all children receive free meals, and a pedagogical approach to meals is encouraged. Legislation demands that meals are nutritious. The UK system is varied and decentralised. Meals in most primary schools are regulated by food-based standards, but preschool-specific meal standards only exist in Scotland. The UK uses food groups (starchy foods, fruit and vegetables, proteins and dairy in a healthy plate approach. Australian States and Territories all employ guidelines for school canteen food, predominantly using a “traffic light” approach outlining recommended and discouraged foods; however, most children bring food from home and are not covered by this guidance. The preschool standards state that food provided should be nutritious. We find that action is often lacking in the preschool years, and suggest that consistent policies, strong incentives for compliance, systematic monitoring, and an acknowledgement of the broader school eating environment (including home provided food would be beneficial.

  12. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke A.; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted an explorat......Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted...

  13. Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women’s Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. Methods In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food record (4DFR) and 24 hr. dietary recall (24HR). Using regression calibration we estimated bias of self-reported dietary instruments including psychosocial factors from the Stunkard-Sorenson Body Silhouettes for body image perception, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (R-18) for cognitive restraint for eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. We included a diet behavior factor on number of meals eaten at home using the 4DFR. Results Three categories were defined for each of the six psychosocial and diet behavior variables (low, medium, high). Participants with high social desirability scores were more likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = -0.174, SE = 0.054, p meals at home were less likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = 0.181, SE = 0.053, p meals at home. In the calibration equations combining FFQ, 4DFR, 24HR with age, body mass index, race, and the psychosocial and diet behavior variables, the six psychosocial and diet variables explained 1.98%, 2.24%, and 2.15% of biomarker variation for energy, protein, and protein density respectively. The variations explained are significantly different between the calibration equations with or without the six psychosocial and diet variables for protein density (p = 0.02), but not for energy (p = 0.119) or protein intake (p = 0.077). Conclusions The addition of psychosocial and diet behavior factors to calibration

  14. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas contendo farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê em cabras lactantes Apparent digestibility of diets containing cocoa meal and palm kernel cake in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dietas, contendo farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. ou torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq., em substituição parcial ao concentrado à base de milho e farelo de soja, na alimentação de cabras lactantes. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras da raça Saanen, aos 60 dias de lactação, em experimento delineado em quadrado latino 5x5, com duração de 14 dias, dos quais 10 dias de adaptação e quatro para coleta dos dados. As dietas, formuladas para possibilitar produção de 2 kg de leite por dia, constituíram-se de 36% de volumoso e 64% de concentrado. Utilizou-se, como volumoso, a silagem de milho e concentrado padrão, com substituição de 0%, 15% e 30% pelo farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê. Houve redução na digestibilidade real da proteína bruta, com a inclusão do farelo de cacau, a 15% e 30%. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente, do extrato etéreo das dietas com 30% de torta de dendê, foi maior que o de 15% de farelo de cacau. Os subprodutos, em razão da digestibilidade aparente, apresentam viabilidade de uso, como alternativa na dieta de cabras em lactação.The objective of this work was to evaluate nutrients apparent digestibility of diets containing cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. meal or palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. cake, which partially replaced corn and soybean meal concentrate in lactating goats feeding. Five Saanen goats, in 60 days of lactation, were used in a 5x5 latin square experimental design, during 14 days, comprehending an adaptation period of 10 days and four days for data collection. Diets formulated to allow milk production of 2 kg day-1 consisted of 36% roughage and 64% concentrate. The roughage used was corn silage and 0%, 15% and 30% of cocoa meal or palm kernel cake substituted the standard concentrate. There was reduction of crude protein real digestibility with inclusion of cocoa meal (15% and 30%. The ether extract

  15. A Historical Review of Changes in Nutrition Standards of USDA Child Meal Programs Relative to Research Findings on the Nutritional Adequacy of Program Meals and the Diet and Nutritional Health of Participants: Implications for Future Research and the Summer Food Service Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura C; Gunther, Carolyn

    2015-12-04

    The USDA child meal programs (CMPs) (National School Lunch Program (NSLP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) were established in 1946 (NSLP) and 1975 (SBP and SFSP) to improve the diet and nutritional health of US children. There is concern that participation in these programs may in fact be a contributor to the current childhood obesity epidemic. The purpose of this study was to determine if the CMPs are meeting their intended goal by reviewing the historical changes to nutrition standards of the CMPs in correspondence with the literature that examines the nutritional adequacy of meals served as part of these programs, as well as the dietary intakes and nutritional status of participants. Public Law and the Federal Register were reviewed and websites and online databases were systematically searched. NSLP and SBP first underwent updates to the nutrition standards in 1994 and subsequently 2010, whereas SFSP last underwent modifications in 2000. The majority of data, all collected prior to 2010, demonstrate that meals served as part of the NSLP and SBP are not meeting nutrition standards. In addition, the dietary intakes of NSLP and SBP participants are high in calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and low in fiber. Studies examining the weight status and other nutrition-related health outcomes of NSLP and SBP participants have produced mixed results. In contrast, no studies published in the peer-reviewed literature have been conducted examining the nutritional adequacy of SFSP meals or the dietary intakes or nutritional health of SFSP participants. There are public reports available on the nutritionally adequacy of SFSP meals, however, they are severely outdated (1988 and 2003). Due to this dearth of information, a case study on a sample SFSP menu from summer 2015 was conducted; results showed that the meals are high in carbohydrate and protein content and insufficient in vegetable servings. There is critical need for policy

  16. A Historical Review of Changes in Nutrition Standards of USDA Child Meal Programs Relative to Research Findings on the Nutritional Adequacy of Program Meals and the Diet and Nutritional Health of Participants: Implications for Future Research and the Summer Food Service Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Hopkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The USDA child meal programs (CMPs (National School Lunch Program (NSLP, School Breakfast Program (SBP, and Summer Food Service Program (SFSP were established in 1946 (NSLP and 1975 (SBP and SFSP to improve the diet and nutritional health of US children. There is concern that participation in these programs may in fact be a contributor to the current childhood obesity epidemic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if the CMPs are meeting their intended goal by reviewing the historical changes to nutrition standards of the CMPs in correspondence with the literature that examines the nutritional adequacy of meals served as part of these programs, as well as the dietary intakes and nutritional status of participants. Methods: Public Law and the Federal Register were reviewed and websites and online databases were systematically searched. Results: NSLP and SBP first underwent updates to the nutrition standards in 1994 and subsequently 2010, whereas SFSP last underwent modifications in 2000. The majority of data, all collected prior to 2010, demonstrate that meals served as part of the NSLP and SBP are not meeting nutrition standards. In addition, the dietary intakes of NSLP and SBP participants are high in calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and low in fiber. Studies examining the weight status and other nutrition-related health outcomes of NSLP and SBP participants have produced mixed results. In contrast, no studies published in the peer-reviewed literature have been conducted examining the nutritional adequacy of SFSP meals or the dietary intakes or nutritional health of SFSP participants. There are public reports available on the nutritionally adequacy of SFSP meals, however, they are severely outdated (1988 and 2003. Due to this dearth of information, a case study on a sample SFSP menu from summer 2015 was conducted; results showed that the meals are high in carbohydrate and protein content and insufficient in

  17. Are school meals a viable and sustainable tool to improve the healthiness and sustainability of children´s diet and food consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Wang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    and health implications of school meal programs is reviewed in a cross-national comparative framework, and arguments explored that speak for the need of a new developmental phase of school meals as an integrative learning platform for healthy and sustainable food behavior. Nutritional, social, practical......There is little agreement among governments, institutions, scientists and food activists as to how to best tackle the challenging issues of health and sustainability in the food sector. This essay discusses the potential of school meals as a platform to promote healthy and sustainable food behavior......, educational, economical, political, and cultural perspectives and challenges linked to the implementation of healthy and sustainable school meals are discussed. Finally, the need for long-term interventions and evaluations is highlighted and new research directions are proposed....

  18. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Narasin effects on energy, nutrient, and fiber digestibility in corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with soluble diets fed to 16-, 92-, and 141-kg pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three experiments were conducted determine the effect of narasin on growth performance, and on GE and nutrient digestibility in nursery, grower, and finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with...

  20. Hermetia illucens meal as fish meal replacement for rainbow trout on farm

    OpenAIRE

    Stadtlander, Timo; Stamer, Andreas; Buser, Andrea; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Leiber, Florian; Sandrock, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In a 7-week on-farm feeding trial rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were provided with a diet containing 28% mechanically de-fatted insect meal prepared from larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (HIM) and compared to a control that received a certified organic and fishmeal based diet. In the test diet insect meal replaced almost 50% of the fishmeal. The whole experiment was conducted under practical conditions on an organically certified rainbow trout farm in Switzerland. Fish...

  1. Copper hydroxychloride improves growth performance and reduces diarrhea frequency of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet but does not change apparent total tract digestibility of energy and acid hydrolyzed ether extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, C D; Fry, R S; Usry, J L; Stein, H H

    2017-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine effects of Cu hydroxychloride on DE and ME, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE), and growth performance of pigs fed a diet based on corn and soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, 80 weanling pigs (6.80 ± 1.69 kg) were allotted to 2 treatments with 4 pigs per pen and 10 pen replicates per diet. Pigs were fed a corn-SBM control diet that had Cu added to meet the requirement. A second diet was formulated by adding 150 mg Cu/kg from Cu hydroxychloride to the control diet. Both diets were fed for 4 wk. Results indicated that ADG, G:F, and final BW were greater ( ≤ 0.05) and fecal scores were reduced ( ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the diet containing150 mg Cu/kg as hydroxychloride compared with pigs fed the control diet. In Exp. 2, 36 barrows (9.89 ± 1.21 kg) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments and placed in metabolism crates. The control diet was based on corn and SBM and contained 20 mg Cu/kg. Two additional diets were formulated by adding 100 or 200 mg Cu/kg from Cu hydroxychloride to the control diet. Diets were fed for 28 d, with feces and urine being collected from d 9 to 14, d 16 to 21, and d 23 to 28. The DE and ME of diets and the ATTD of GE and AEE were not affected by dietary Cu concentrations, but increased ( < 0.01) by collection period. In Exp. 3, 150 pigs (10.22 ± 1.25 kg) were fed the same 3 diets as used in Exp. 2. Diets were provided on an ad libitum basis for 4 wk. Fecal scores were recorded, and on the last day of the experiment, blood samples were collected and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IgA, blood urea N, total protein, and albumin were measured. Phase 1 ADG and G:F and final BW on d 28 were greater ( ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing 100 or 200 mg Cu/kg supplemented by Cu hydroxychloride compared with pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed the diets supplemented with Cu hydroxychloride also had reduced ( ≤ 0.05) overall fecal scores

  2. Farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado na dieta de poedeiras comerciais de 28 a 44 semanas de idade Defatted corn germ meal in diets for laying hens from 28 to 44 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Brunelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado na dieta de galinhas de 28 a 44 semanas de idade. Foram utilizadas 240 poedeiras Hy-Line W36 distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis níveis de farelo de germen de milho desengordurado (0, 6, 12, 18, 24 e 30%,cada um com cinco repetições de oito aves. No período experimental, que durou quatro ciclos de 28 dias, foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho das aves (consumo de ração, produção de ovos, peso médio do ovo, massa de ovo e conversão alimentar e de qualidade dos ovos (gravidade específica, índice de pigmentação da gema, porcentagem de gema e albúmen, porcentagem e espessura da casca e unidade haugh. Os níveis de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado tiveram efeito linear negativo sobre o consumo de ração e o índice de pigmentação da gema e efeito quadrático sobre a conversão alimentar. A inclusão de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado na dieta não influenciou as outras variáveis estudadas. O farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado pode ser incluído em níveis de até 21,2% em rações para galinhas poedeiras.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of including defatted corn germ meal in diets for laying hens. It was assigned two hundred and forty laying hens to a randomized design, with six diets and five replicates of eight hens per diet. Experimental diets were formulated by inclusion of defatted corn germ meal at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30% level. The period experiment was carried out for four 28-day cycles and performance (feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion and the egg quality (egg specific gravity, yolk color, yolk and albumen percentages, shell percentages, shell thickness and Haugh unity were the evaluated parameters. Negative linear effect was observed for feed intake and yolk pigmentation by increasingly

  3. Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu, H; Baysal, S; Misirlioğlu, Z; Polat, M; Yilmaz, H; Turan, N

    2010-02-01

    1. The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of enzyme and oregano essential oil at two levels, alone or together, on performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal based diets. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from d 0 to 21. Diet 1 (control, CONT): a commercial diet containing no enzyme or oregano essential oil, diet 2 (ENZY): supplemented with enzyme, diet 3 (EO250): supplemented with essential oil at 250 mg/kg feed, diet 4 (EO500): supplemented with essential oil at 500 mg/kg feed, diet 5 (ENZY + EO250): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 250 mg/kg, and diet 6 (ENZY + EO500): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 500 mg/kg. 3. Birds fed on diets containing ENZY, EO250 and ENZY + EO250 had significantly higher weight gain than those given CONT diet from d 0 to 7. No significant effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, organ weights except for jejunum weight and intestinal lengths was found with either enzyme or essential oil, alone or in combination, over the 21-d growth period. The supplementation of essential oil together with enzyme decreased jejunum weight compared with essential oil alone. 4. Supplementation with enzyme significantly decreased viscosity and increased dry matter of digesta, but did not alter pH of digesta. There was no effect of essential oil alone at either concentration on viscosity, dry matter or pH of digesta. A significant decrease in viscosity of digesta appeared when essential oil was used with together enzyme. 5. The supplementation of essential oil at both levels with or without enzyme significantly increased chymotrypsin activity in the digestive system, and improved crude protein digestibility. 6. The higher concentration of essential oil with and without enzyme significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentrations. No significant effect on immune response

  4. Desempenho e digestibilidade de nutrientes em ovinos alimentados com rações contendo farelo de babaçu Performance and nutrient digestibility on lambs fed diets containing different levels of babassu meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Robson Bezerra Xenofonte

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho, o consumo voluntário e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, foram utilizados 24 ovinos sem raça definida (SRD, machos não-castrados, com peso inicial de 20 ± 3,25 kg e 4,6 ± 0,8 meses de idade. Os animais foram mantidos em confinamento e alimentados com dietas com farelo de babaçu (0, 10, 20 e 30% em substituição ao feno de capim-colonião. As dietas, isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas, foram fornecidas em forma de ração completa. Utilizou-se um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O consumo de matéria seca foi influenciado pela inclusão do farelo de babaçu na dieta e apresentou redução de 302 g/dia a cada 10% de participação de farelo de babaçu. A ingestão dos nutrientes e o desempenho foram restringidos pela diminuição do consumo de matéria seca. A inclusão do farelo de babaçu reduziu linearmente o ganho de peso dos animais. A digestibilidade dos nutrientes foi influenciada pelos níveis de farelo de babaçu, mas esse aumento está associado às reduções na ingestão de matéria seca. O farelo de babaçu, ao ser utilizado como alternativa de alimento para cordeiros em crescimento, compromete o consumo de alimentos e o ganho de peso dos animais.With the objective to evaluate the performance, voluntary intake and nutrient digestibilities, 24 NDB (no defined breed, non castrated male lambs with 20 ± 3.25 BW initial and 4.6 ± 0.8 months old were used. Animals were kept in feedlot and fed diets with babassu meal (0, 10, 20 and 30% in substitution to Panicum maximum Jack hay. The diets, isoprotein and isonitrogenous, were fed in a complete mix ration. A completely blocks randomized design, with four treatments and six replicates was used. The dry matter intake was influenced by the inclusion of babassu meal in the diet and presented a reduction of 302 g/day for each 10% of babassu meal inclusion. Nutrient intake and performance were limited by

  5. Requested meals versus scheduled meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciampolini M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mario CiampoliniPreventive Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, ItalyBackground: Scheduled meals are considered to be equivalent to those requested by the infant (null hypothesis. In adults, we have found high blood glucose before scheduled meals and low blood glucose after recognition of validated initial hunger. Low preprandial blood glucose is associated with a decrease in energy intake and body weight both in adults who are overtly overweight and in those who are of normal weight with insulin resistance (hidden overweight. In this study, we investigated the validity of the null hypothesis between scheduled and requested meals in 2-year-old infants with chronic nonspecific diarrhea.Methods: We trained a "recognizing request" meal pattern in 70 mother-infant pairs. The trained meal pattern consisted of administering food after a first request that we validated by blood glucose measurement in the hospital laboratory. Using a 7-day food diary, mothers reported preprandial blood glucose measurements for their infants three times a day. We assessed mean preprandial blood glucose, daily energy intake, days with diarrhea, blood parameters, and anthropometry before training and 4 months after training, and compared the results with measurements in 73 randomly selected untrained controls.Results: In the trained group, there was a decrease in mean blood glucose from 86.9 ± 9.4 mg/dL to 76.4 ± 6.7 mg/dL (P < 0.0001, as well as a decrease in energy intake and days with diarrhea in comparison with control infants who maintained scheduled meals. Only two of 21 infants who had a mean blood glucose lower than 81.2 mg/dL at recruitment showed a statistically significant decrease in mean blood glucose, whereas 36 of 49 infants above this cutoff level showed a statistically significant decrease after training (Chi-square test, P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Requested meals are associated with low preprandial blood

  6. Effects of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofleh S. Awawdeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal (soypass meal; SPM on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs. In Experiment 1, lasting for eight weeks, 39 Awassi ewes and their lambs were randomly assigned to three diets. Diets were formulated by replacing soybean meal from the basal diet (CON-SBM; n=13 with 50% (50% SPM; n=13 and 100% (100% SPM; n=13 SPM. Initial and final weights of the ewes were not different (P>0.55 among diets. Total gain and average daily gain (ADG of lambs were similar (P=0.44 among diets. Ewes fed the CON-SBM diet tended (P0.38 in milk component percentages among diets were observed. In Experiment 2, lasting for 63 days, twenty weaned lambs were used to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal with SPM on growth performance. Diets were either soybean meal (SBM; n=10 or SPM (SPM; n=10. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not different between diets. However, rumen undegradable protein intake was greater (P0.05 between the diets. Results suggest that replacement of soybean meal with soypass meal is not likely to produce any production benefits in nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs except for the slight improvement of milk yield.

  7. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of a 6-phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of minerals and amino acids in ileorectal anastomosed pigs fed on a corn-soybean meal-barley diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Simoes Nunes, C; Fru, F

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus of plant-based feedstuffs for monogastric animals is mainly in the form of phytic P, which has a very low bioavailability. The nondigested phytic P may contribute to P pollution. Furthermore, phytic acid may reduce digestibility of other minerals and protein. This study evaluated effects of the microbial 6-phytase RONOZYME HiPhos on apparent ileal digestibility of P, phytic acid, Ca, CP, energy, and AA in six 60-d-old ileorectal anastomosed pigs. In a duplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, pigs had free access to alternatively a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-barley (Hordeum vulgare)-based diet or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME HiPhos at either 500 units/kg (RH500) or 1000 units/kg (RH1000). Pigs fed diets supplemented with RH500 or RH1000 increased (P digestibility of P, Ca, and Lys. Pigs fed diet RH1000 increased (P digestibility of CP, total AA, indispensable AA, Glu + Gln, His, Gly, Ala, Tyr, Leu, Phe, and Met. Similar to growth trials with increased total tract digestibility of P and Ca, phytase increased apparent ileal digestibility of these indispensable minerals and phytate. The phytase increased digestibility of CP and indispensable AA indicating a better availability of plant-based proteins.

  9. Effects of xylanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, fecal microbiota, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruixia; Li, Tianshui; Kim, Inho

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood parameters, fecal microflora shedding, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 150 weaning pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.85 ± 0.93 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments based on BW and sex (10 replicate pens with five pigs, two gilts and three barrows) were used in this 42-day trial. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) X1, basal diet +0.005% xylanase; (2) X2, basal diet +0.01% xylanase. The xylanase supplementation linearly increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG), and gain : feed ratio (G:F) from days 29 to 42 and the in overall period, dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility, and fecal Lactobacilli counts, and linearly decreased (P < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, fecal NH 3 and H 2 S emission. Additionally, at weeks 5 and 6, there was a linear decrease in fecal score with xylanase supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of xylanase improved growth performance, nutrient digestibility, shifted microbiota by increasing fecal Lactobacillus counts, decreased BUN concentration, fecal score, and fecal NH 3 and H 2 S emission in weaning pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals Pattern on Blood Lipid Profile, Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, Insulin and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Moosa Salehi; Asma Kazemi; Jafar Hasan Zadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present clinical trial study aims at investigating the effect of daily energy intake in 6 isocaloric meals in comparison with the current meal pattern (3 meals and 2 small snacks per day) on type 2 diabetes risk markers in diabetes during 3-month period. Methods: Eighty four type 2 diabetes patients were randomly divided into 6 isocaloric meal diet or a balanced diet (3 meals and 2 snacks previous meal pattern). The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identi...

  11. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Poultry Offal Meal As A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile of Clarias gariepinus (average initial weight 32.89g ± 0.36) were stocked at a density of 56/m2 in concrete tank and fed diets containing varying levels of poultry offal meal as partial/total replacement for fish meal. The poultry offal meal was included at (0%, 10%, 20% and 40% levels of inclusion representing, 0%, ...

  12. Evaluation of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal as feed ingredient in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The material was milled using a hammer mill to produce the leaf meal. Microdesmis puberula leaf meal contain 17.32% crude protein, 6.52% ether extract, 12.25% total ash, 24.84% crude fibre, 24.06% NFE and an appreciable percent of minerals. Three broiler starter diets were formulated to contain the meal at dietary ...

  13. Assessment of cotton-seed ( Gossypium species) meal as ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feeding graded levels of cotton GossypiumSpp. seed meal as an inclusion in the diet of Clariasgariepinus juveniles for growth performance was analysed in comparison with the conventional commercial fish feed. Six experimental rations formulated were cotton-seed Gossypium spp. meal replaced fish meal at ...

  14. Comparison of meal patterns across five European countries using standardized 24-h recall (GloboDiet) data from the EFCOVAL project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Min Kyung; Freisling, Heinz; Huseinovic, Ena; Winkvist, Anna; Huybrechts, Inge; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; Vries, de Jeanne H.M.; Geelen, Anouk; Niekerk, Maryse; Rossum, van Caroline; Slimani, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To examine meal patterns in terms of frequency and circadian timing of eating in five European countries participating in the EFCOVAL project. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 559 men and women, aged 44–65 years, were recruited in Belgium, the Czech Republic, France (Southern part),

  15. Genome-wide association study of triglyceride response to a high-fat meal among participants of the NHLBI Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The triglyceride (TG) response to a high-fat meal (postprandial lipemia, PPL) affects cardiovascular disease risk and is influenced by genes and environment. Genes involved in lipid metabolism have dominated genetic studies of PPL TG response. We sought to elucidate common genetic variants through a...

  16. Comparison of meal patterns across five European countries using standardized 24-h recall (GloboDiet) data from the EFCOVAL project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Min Kyung; Freisling, Heinz; Huseinovic, Ena; Winkvist, Anna; Huybrechts, Inge; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; Vries, de Jeanne H.M.; Geelen, Anouk; Niekerk, Maryse; Rossum, van Caroline; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine meal patterns in terms of frequency and circadian timing of eating in five European countries participating in the EFCOVAL project. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 559 men and women, aged 44–65 years, were recruited in Belgium, the Czech Republic, France (Southern part),

  17. Substituição da farinha de peixe por farelo de soja em dietas práticas para o camarão-rosa (Farfantepenaeus paulensis Fishmeal replacement by soybean meal in practical diets for shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Abe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a substituição da farinha de peixe (FP por farelo de soja (FS em dietas práticas na sobrevivência e crescimento do camarão-rosa Farfantepenaeus paulensis. Seis dietas isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas, contendo diferentes proporções de FP e FS, foram fornecidas aos camarões durante 28 dias. Os níveis de substituição da FP por FS foram 0 (controle, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 60%. Pós-larvas com peso inicial de 1,22mg (± 0,44 foram distribuídas ao acaso em tanques com 40L de água. A sobrevivência variou entre 70 e 80%, não apresentando diferenças (P>0,05. O peso final variou (PA feeding trial evaluated the replacement of fishmeal by soybean meal in practical diets on the survival and growth of the shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis. Six iso-energetic and iso-proteic diets were fed to shrimp for 28 days. Replacement levels of fishmeal were 0 (control, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60%. Post-larvae with mean initial weight of 1.22mg (±0.44 were stocked at random in 40-L tanks. Survival ranged between 70 and 80% and were not different (P>0.05 between treatments. Feeding the diet with 60% of fishmeal replacement resulted in the highest weight gain (P<0.05, while the control diet (no replacement had the lowest weight gain among all treatments. Similarly, specific growth rate (SGR was also higher for the 60% diet and lower for the control. Mean final weight ranged from 20.84 to 27.37mg, while SGR varied between 9.1 and 10.7% day-1. The replacement of 60% of fishmeal by soybean meal is recommended in practical diets for F. paulensis as it results in higher weight gain and growth rates, with no effect on survival.

  18. Desempenho bioeconômico de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com rações contendo farelo de coco Bioeconomic performance of growing - finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evânio da Costa Siebra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com rações contendo farelo de coco. Foram utilizados 20 suínos machos castrados mestiços Landrace × Large White com 19,7 ± 2,9 kg de peso vivo inicial e 89,2 ± 5,8 kg de peso vivo final distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos (0, 10, 20 ou 30% de farelo de coco e cinco repetições. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, o ganho de peso médio diário, o consumo de ração médio diário e a conversão alimentar nas fases de crescimento (65 a 107 dias de idade e crescimento-terminação (65 a 149 dias de idade. Os parâmetros econômicos avaliados foram a receita bruta média, o custo médio da alimentação, a margem bruta média e a rentabilidade média. Os melhores resultados de ganho de peso médio diário e receita bruta média na fase de crescimento foram obtidos com o nível de 22,5% de farelo de coco na ração. Na fase de crescimento-terminação, a receita bruta média no período total indica que é possível incluir 22,4% de farelo de coco em dietas para suínos formuladas com farelo residual de milho e farelo de soja.The objective was to evaluate the performance of growing- finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal. Twenty crossbred Large White × Landrace barrows with initial 19.7 ± 2.9 kg BW and final 89.2 ± 5.8 kg BW were allotted to complete a randomized blocks design with four levels (0, 10, 20 or 30% of coconut meal and five replications. Performance traits, as average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio in grower phase (65 to 107 days old and grower-finisher phase (65 to 149 days old were evaluated. Economic parameters evaluated were: average gross income, average feed cost, gross margin and average return. The best results of average weight daily gain and average gross income in the grower phase were obtained with the level of 22.5% of coconut meal in the diet. In grower

  19. Consumo e digestibilidade total e parcial de dietas utilizando farelo de girassol e três fontes de energia em novilhos confinados Intake, total and partial digestibility of diets with sunflower meal and three energy sources in confined steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosália Mendes

    2005-04-01

    with sunflower meal as protein source and ground corn as energy source (MI. The ground corn was partially substituted by soybean hulls (CS or by corn germ meal (FGM. Lignin and indigestible ADF (iADF, NDF (iNDF and lignin (i-lignin determined by 144 h of in vitro digestion were used as markers to estimate the total and partial diet digestibility of diets. The fiber intake was higher on CS diet, however no effect on dry matter intake was observed. Lignin underestimated significantly the digestibility. Indigestible ADF, iNDF and i-lignin was able to estimate total digestibility, however iADF and i-lignina did not estimate adequately the partial digestibility. Ruminal ADF digestibility was influenced by diets with higher values for CS and similar values for FGM, in relation to MI. Total ADF digestibility was higher in diet CS, but the other nutrients digestibility were not affected by different energy sources. Energy digestibility and NDT values did not differ among diets, with average of 61.5%. Soybean hulls and corn germ meal, on partial substitution of ground corn, were satisfactory alternative sources for inclusion on steer diets.

  20. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    probabilities are subjected to multiple correspondence analysis and mapped into low-dimensional space. In a third step, the principal coordinates representing meal centres and side components in the correspondence analysis solution are subjected to cluster analysis to identify distinct groups of compatible...

  1. Effects of diet modification on meal quality and quality of life in korean diabetic patients: data from Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong; Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2014-07-01

    It is generally accepted that diet modification provides beneficial effects on the management of diabetes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of diet modification on nutrient intake and quality of life in a large sample of diabetic patients. This study was conducted using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). A total of 2,484 of diabetic patients were included in the analysis. Then, we compared the overall quality of dietary intake between diabetic patients with diet modification and those without dietary modification. The result showed that subjects on diabetic diet (DDG) showed lower levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and AST before and after the adjustment for covariates (all p diet group (NDG) (p diet modification in diabetic patients seemed to be effective to improve blood lipid profile and the adequacy of nutrient intake without sacrificing the quality of life.

  2. Farelo de soja na alimentação de tilápias-do-nilo durante o período de reversão sexual Soybean meal in Nile tilapia diets during the sexual reversion period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Meurer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 800 larvas com 2 dias de idade com o objetivo de testar o uso de farelo de soja em rações para tilápias-do-nilo durante o período de reversão sexual (30 dias. O experimento foi conduzido segundo delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, no qual um tanque-rede com 50 larvas correspondeu a uma unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas (38,6% de proteína digestível e 3.800 kcal/kg de energia digestível com 0, 16, 34 ou 42% de farelo de soja. O aumento no nível de farelo de soja teve efeito linear positivo sobre os valores de peso e comprimento finais médios, mas não afetou a condição corporal e os índices de sobrevivência. Recomenda-se incluir o farelo de soja em níveis de até 42% na ração de tilápias-do-nilo na fase de reversão.Eight hundred Nile tilapia larvae with two days old were used to evaluate the inclusion of soybean meal in diets fed Nile tilapia during the sex reversion period (30 days. The experiment was analyzed as a completely randomized blocks, with four treatments and four replications. A net tank with 50 larvae was considered an experimental unit. The treatments were formulated to be isoprotein and isonitrogenous (38.6% of digestible protein and 3,800 kcal/kg of digestible energy, with increasing levels of soybean meal inclusion 0, 16, 34 and 42%. Average final weight and length linearly increased as the dietary soybean meal levels increased. No treatment effect on survival and body condition was observed. It is recommend to include up to 42% of soybean meal in Nile tilapia diets in the sexual reversion phase.

  3. Associations of family meal frequency with family meal habits and meal preparation characteristics among families of youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornides, M L; Nansel, T R; Quick, V; Haynie, D L; Lipsky, L M; Laffel, L M B; Mehta, S N

    2014-05-01

    While benefits of family mealtimes, such as improved dietary quality and increased family communication, have been well-documented in the general population, less is known about family meal habits that contribute to more frequent family meals in youth with type 1 diabetes. This cross-sectional study surveyed 282 youth ages 8-18 years with type 1 diabetes and their parents on measures regarding diabetes-related and dietary behaviours. T-tests determined significant differences in youth's diet quality, adherence to diabetes management and glycaemic control between those with and without regular family meals (defined as ≥ 5 meals per week). Logistic regression analyses determined unadjusted and adjusted associations of age, socio-demographics, family meal habits, and family meal preparation characteristics with regular family meals. 57% of parents reported having regular family meals. Families with regular family meals had significantly better diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index (P family meals were each associated with regular family meals (P family meals, while convenience and fast foods were negatively associated (P Families in which at least one parent worked part-time or stayed at home were significantly more likely to have regular family meals than families in which both parents worked full-time (P family mealtimes (P family meals; adjusting for parent work status and other family meal habits. Strategies for promoting families meals should not only highlight the benefits of family meals, but also facilitate parents' skills for and barriers to home-prepared meals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and sixty day old unsexed broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment (iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous) diets as T1 (0% Moringa oleifera leaf meal), T2 (0.5% Moringa oleifera leaf meal), T3 (0.75% Moringa oleifera leaf meal) and T4 (1.0% Moringa oleifera leaf meal) in a Completely Randomized ...

  5. The snacking rat as model of human obesity: effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet on meal patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S. E.; Luijendijk, M. C. M.; van der Zwaal, E. M.; Brans, M. A. D.; Adan, R. A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Rats subjected to a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet persistently overeat, exhibit increased food-motivated behavior and become overtly obese. Conversely, several studies using a non-choice (nc) high-energy diet showed only an initial increase in food intake with unaltered or reduced

  6. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Mejicanos, G.; Sanjayan, N.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances i...

  7. Economics of production of broiler chickens fed maggot meal as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economics of production of broiler chickens considered for 0-35 days, 35-56 days, and 0-56 days was compared for fishmeal (FM) and maggot meal (MM) diets. The maggot meal diet had a replacement of the fish meal at 75%> on protein basis. Replacing FM at 75% with MM resulted in reduced cost of feed as well as ...

  8. Effect of dietary energy density and meal size on growth performance, eating pattern, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein steers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, S; Pérez, M; Aris, A; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2014-08-01

    A total of 121 steers (162 ± 3.0 kg BW and 148 ± 2.7 d old) were used to study the effect of dietary energy density and meal size (limiting the amount of concentrate delivered at each feeder visit) on performance, hormones associated with the regulation of intake, and carcass and meat quality. Steers were allocated by BW to 6 pens. Each pen had the same BW mean and CV, and pens were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (2 pens/treatment): a concentrate of moderate energy density (3.23 Mcal ME/kg, 6.2% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (CTR), a concentrate of high-energy density (3.43 Mcal ME/kg, 8.3% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (HE), and the same high-energy concentrate offered for ad libitum intake but with meal size limited to a maximum concentrate delivery of 0.6 kg DM/visit (HELM). Body weight was recorded every 14 d; concentrate consumption and eating pattern were recorded daily. On d 163, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, and insulin. After slaughter (on d 166 to 170), the 9-10-11 rib section was removed to estimate separable bone, lean, and fat. Meat quality of LM was analyzed. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model with repeated measures. Steers in the HELM treatment had a lower (P hormones related to intake compared with CTR and HE, but no effect on rib fat distribution and meat quality was observed.

  9. Increased meal frequency does not promote greater weight loss in subjects who were prescribed an 8-week equi-energetic energy-restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jameason D; Cyr, Marie-Josée; Doucet, Eric

    2010-04-01

    There have been reports of an inverse relationship between meal frequency (MF) and adiposity. It has been postulated that this may be explained by favourable effects of increased MF on appetite control and possibly on gut peptides as well. The main goal of the present study was to investigate whether using a high MF could lead to a greater weight loss than that obtained with a low MF under conditions of similar energy restriction. Subjects were randomised into two treatment arms (high MF = 3 meals+3 snacks/d or low MF = 3 meals/d) and subjected to the same dietary energy restriction of - 2931 kJ/d for 8 weeks. Sixteen obese adults (n 8 women and 8 men; age 34.6 (sd 9.5); BMI 37.1 (sd 4.5) kg/m2) completed the study. Overall, there was a 4.7 % decrease in body weight (P weight loss under the conditions described in the present study.

  10. Evaluating the safety and efficacy of sodium-restricted/Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet after acute decompensated heart failure hospitalization: design and rationale for the Geriatric OUt of hospital Randomized MEal Trial in Heart Failure (GOURMET-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Jeffrey D; Maurer, Mathew S; Hummel, Scott L

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem affecting predominantly older adults. Nonadherence to diet remains a significant contributor to acute decompensated HF (ADHF). The sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH/SRD) eating plan reduces cardiovascular dysfunction that can lead to ADHF and is consistent with current HF guidelines. We propose that an intervention that promotes adherence to the DASH/SRD by home-delivering meals will be safe and improve health-related quality of life (QOL) in older adults after hospitalization for ADHF. This is a 3-center, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial of 12-week duration designed to determine the safety and efficacy of home-delivered DASH/SRD-compliant meals in older adults after discharge from ADHF hospitalization. Sixty-six subjects will be randomized in a 1:1 stratified fashion by gender and left ventricular ejection fraction (DASH/SRD-compliant meals or usual dietary advice for 4weeks after hospital discharge. Investigators will be blinded to group assignment, food diaries, and urinary electrolyte measurements until study completion. The primary efficacy end point is the change in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire summary scores for health-related QOL from study enrollment to 4weeks postdischarge. Safety evaluation will focus on hypotension, renal insufficiency, and hyperkalemia. Exploratory end points include echocardiography, noninvasive vascular testing, markers of oxidative stress, and salt taste sensitivity. This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of 4weeks of DASH/SRD after ADHF hospitalization. By testing a novel dietary intervention supported by multiple levels of evidence including preliminary data in outpatients with stable HF, we will address a critical evidence gap in the care of older patients with ADHF. If effective and safe, this intervention could be scaled to assess effects on readmission and healthcare costs in

  11. Capim-elefante amonizado e farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê em dietas para ovinos em crescimento Amnonizated elephant grass and cocoa meal or palm kernel cake in growing sheep diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da amonização do capim-elefante e da substituição parcial do concentrado padrão, à base de milho e farelo de soja, por concentrados contendo farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê sobre o desempenho de ovinos. Utilizaram-se 18 ovinos machos não-castrados da raça Santa Inês, com peso corporal médio de 22,6 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 × 3 com três repetições. O período experimental teve duração de 77 dias: 14 dias de adaptação e três períodos de 21 dias para coleta dos dados. As dietas foram compostas de 60% de volumoso (silagem de capim-elefante não tratado ou tratado com uréia e 40% de concentrado. Utilizaram-se três concentrados, um à base de milho e farelo de soja, outro contendo milho, farelo de soja e farelo de cacau e outro contendo milho, farelo de soja e torta de dendê. Os consumos de matéria seca em %PC foram menores entre os animais alimentados com concentrado contendo torta de dendê, entretanto, não houve diferença entre o concentrado padrão e aquele com farelo de cacau nem entre os volumosos. Também não houve interação volumoso × concentrado. O ganho de peso foi maior nos animais alimentados com o capim-elefante amonizado. A lucratividade parcial por kg de ganho de peso elevou com a amonização do capim-elefante e reduziu com a inclusão dos subprodutos no concentrado.The effect of ammonization of elephant grass and the partial substitution of the standard concentrate based on corn and soybean meal by concentrates containing cocoa meal or palm cake on sheep performance was evaluated. A total of 18 Santa Inês male sheep, with average 22.6 kg BW, was allotted to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangment with three replications. The experimental period consisted of 77 days, with 14 days for adaptation and three periods of 21 days for data collection. The diets constituted of 60% forage (elephant grass no

  12. Upgrading the nutritive value of full-fat soyabeans meal for broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted using Anak Red broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of grading the nutritive value of full fat soyabean meal diet based with either fishmeal or Blaick soldier fly larvae meal for broiler production. The average live weight gains of broilers fed an all vegetable protein, fishmeal and larvae meal diets ...

  13. Farelo de coco na ração de poedeiras comerciais: digestibilidade dos nutrientes, desempenho e qualidade dos ovos Coconut meal in laying hens diets: nutrients digestibility, performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Castro Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da inclusão de farelo de coco (FC sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes da ração, o desempenho e as características dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Cento e cinqüenta poedeiras com 76 semanas de idade foram pesadas e distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos, cada um com cinco repetições de seis aves por unidade experimental. Foram avaliadas cinco rações, uma testemunha, sem FC, e as demais com 5, 10, 15 e 20% de farelo de coco. As rações foram calculadas para serem isoprotéicas e isocalóricas. A inclusão do FC nas rações aumentou a quantidade de EE, FB e EB da ração. Os níveis de inclusão de FC tiveram efeito quadrático sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS, N e EB e nos valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida para N (EMAn, que atingiram o máximo no nível de 15% de inclusão. As rações contendo 10, 15 e 20% de farelo de coco apresentaram valores de EMA e EMAn superiores aos obtidos com a ração sem FC. Os níveis de FC utilizados não afetaram a porcentagem de postura, o peso do ovo e a massa de ovo. O consumo de ração diminuiu e a conversão alimentar melhorou com a inclusão de 15 e 20% de FC. Considerando os resultados de digestibilidade da energia das rações, recomenda-se que a inclusão de farelo de coco em rações para poedeiras não deve ultrapassar o nível de 15%.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of coconut meal (CM in diets on nutrients digestibility, performance and egg characteristics of commercial laying hens. A total of 150 laying hens, with 76 weeks of age was weighed and allotted to a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates of six birds in each experimental unit. Five diets were evaluated, one control, without CM and the others with 5, 10, 15, and 20% of CM. Diets were formulated to be isoprotein

  14. Twin- or single-screw extrusion of raw soybeans and preconditioned soybean meal and corn as individual ingredients or as corn-soybean product blends in diets for weanling swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Serrano, X; Hsieh, F H

    2017-03-01

    Two 28-d experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of extrusion of ground yellow corn, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM), and cracked whole soybeans (CWS) individually or as corn-soybean product blends on growth performance of weanling pigs. For Exp. 1, ground corn, SBM, and the corn-SBM blend were extruded at 137.5°C, 131.5°C, and 135.0°C, respectively, in a twin-screw extruder. Transit time was 60 s. Water was injected at 125 gmin during extrusion. The 5 treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with extruded (EX) corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, and the EX-blend of corn-SBM. Ninety crossbred pigs with an initial average BW of 5.98 kg were allotted to 9 treatment replications with a barrow and gilt per pen. For Exp. 2, ground corn was preconditioned with water (10.0% of corn weight), and SBM was preconditioned with water and soybean oil (each at 20.0% of SBM weight) before extrusion. Raw CWS were not preconditioned. The corn, SBM, CWS, corn-SBM blend, and corn-CWS blend were extruded at 113.0°C, 132.0°C, 132.0°C, 88.0°C, and 102°C, respectively, with a single-screw extruder. Transit time was 30 s. The 8 isocaloric treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with EX-corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, the EX-blend of corn-SBM, EX-CWS + corn, EX-CWS + EX-corn, and the EX-blend of corn-CWS. A total of 296 crossbred pigs with an initial average BW of 6.56 kg were allotted to 10 treatment replications. Sex and pigs per pen (3 or 4) were equalized within replication. Results for both experiments indicate that single- or twin-screw extrusion of ground corn or SBM as individual ingredients or as corn-SBM blends in diets for weanling pigs did not improve 28-d growth performance. However, for Exp. 2 weanling pigs fed the diets with EX-CWS + corn and EX-CWS + EX-corn had greater ( < 0.01) ADG and G:F, respectively, than pigs fed the corn-SBM control diet. The extrusion temperature of 102°C for the corn

  15. Valor nutritivo do farelo de coco para a tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Nutritional value of coconut meal in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Celso Pezzato

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização do farelo de coco em rações para a tilápia-do-nilo através do ganho de peso e de sua digestibilidade aparente. Esse subproduto foi avaliado em um experimento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. As rações foram formuladas de forma a apresentarem-se isoprotéicas (28% PB e isoenergéticas (3060 kcal/ED/kg de ração, com a inclusão de 0, 10, 20 e 30% de farelo de coco. Foram utilizados sessenta e quatro alevinos com peso inicial de 0,75 gramas, os quais foram distribuídos em 16 aquários com capacidade de 80 litros cada, confeccionados em fibra de vidro, com sistema de renovação de água (0,2 litros/min, aeração e aquecimento (26,0ºC. A análise estatística revelou diferença estatística (p Employment of coconut meal in rations for Nile tilapia through weight gain and apparent digestibility was evaluated. Experimental design was completely randomized and consisted of four treatments and four replications. Four isonitrogenous (28%CP and isoenergetic (3060 kcal/ED/kg experimental rations were prepared with 0, 10, 20 and 30% of coconut meal. Sixty-four fingerlings, average initial weight of 0.75g, were distributed in 16 fiberglass-built aquariums, with a capacity of 80 L each, provided with water renovation (0.2 L/min, aeration and heater (26.0ºC. Whereas statistical analysis revealed significant difference among treatments (p < 0.01, coconut meal may be included in rations for Nile tilapia fingerlings up to 30.0%. The apparent digestibility coefficient for coconut meal was 60.53% for dry matter, 86.78% for crude protein, 94.64% for fat extract and 82.47% for mineral matter. Digestible energy amounted to 3525 kcal ED/kg and 19.97% for available phosphorus.

  16. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    -ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored......This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open...

  17. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  18. Effects of a multi-strain Bacillus species-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, and gut health in nursery pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Indrakumar, S; Kiarie, E; Kim, I H

    2015-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a spp.-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), blood profile, intestinal histomorphology, and fecal gas emission in piglets fed corn and soybean meal-based diets. The DFM product was based on 1 strain of and 2 strains of and formulated to supply 1.5 × 10 cfu/g of feed. A total of 128 piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc; 6.8 ± 0.6 kg BW; weaning age: 24 d) were housed in groups (4 pigs/pen, 2 barrows and 2 gilts) and fed diets ( = 16) without or with DFM in a 2-phase feeding program: d 0 to 14 (phase I) and 15 to 42 (phase II). Feed intake and BW were measured weekly. At the end of each phase, samples for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood creatinine, ATTD, and fecal noxious gas emission were taken. At termination, 12 piglets per treatment were killed to access intestinal tissues for histomorphology. Overall, pigs fed DFM had a greater ( < 0.05) G:F than pigs fed the control diet. In phase I, pigs fed DFM showed a greater ( < 0.05) ADG and lower ( < 0.05) concentration of BUN and fecal ammonia emission than the control group. In phase II, a greater ( < 0.05) ATTD of nitrogen and longer ( < 0.05) duodenum and jejunum villi were observed in pigs fed the DFM diet compared with the control group. In conclusion, inclusion of DFM improved growth performance and villi length of the duodenum and jejunum in nursery pigs. Furthermore, DFM enhanced protein utilization as demonstrated by increased nitrogen digestibility, lower BUN, and lower fecal ammonia release.

  19. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2013-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the concentration of DE and ME in corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 84 barrows (initial BW: 13.7±2.3 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 14 diets with 6 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. Seven diets were formulated to contain corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, DDGS, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or corn germ meal as the sole source of P. Seven additional diets were similar to the initial 7 diets with the exception that 600 units of microbial phytase was included in each diet. The STTD of P was greater (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal, and the STTD of P was also greater (Pbakery meal than in corn and hominy feed. Addition of phytase increased (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal but not in corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or DDGS. In Exp. 2, 56 barrows (initial BW: 14.6±2.2 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 7 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A corn-based diet consisting of 97.5% corn and vitamins and minerals was formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by mixing corn and DDGS, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, or corn germ meal, and 2 diets were based on hominy feed or bakery meal. The concentration of ME was 3,891, 3,675, 3,655, 3,694, 4,400, 3,169, and 3,150 kcal/kg DM in corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, DDGS, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, respectively. The ME (DM basis) in corn was greater (Pbakery meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, but less (Pbakery meal, and DDGS was greater (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal, but phytase can be included in diets containing corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, and corn germ meal to improve P digestibility. The ME in corn gluten meal is greater than

  20. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11-13 year old children. A mixed methods study in four Danish public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Breiting, Soren; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils' attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods, organic foods and healthy eating habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of preparing methods and enzyme supplementation on the utilization of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium meal in the diet of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Harthi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brown marine algae (BMA; Sargassum dentifebium were collected from Jeddah on the shores of the Red Sea and sun dried at an average daily temperature of 40°C until constant weight was obtained. Part of the sun dried brown marine algae was subsequently processed by boiling (BBMA;boiled brown marine algae in water and by autoclaving (ABMA; autoclaved brown marine algae. The SBMA, BBMA and ABMA were included in laying hen diet during weeks 23-42 of age at concentrations of 0.0%, 3.0% and 6.0%. The diets were given with or without enzyme supplementation. This resulted in 3 (preparation methods × 2 (concentrations of supplemented BMA, i.e. 3 and 6 % × 2 (with and without enzyme supplementation diet programs plus two control groups (with and without enzyme supplementation for a total of 14 treatments. Each treatment was represented by six replicates of five hens each. Sun dried or autocalved brown marine algae at 3% without enzyme supplementation in the laying hen diet could be fed to laying hens without any adverse effect on laying performance. However, enzyme supplementation to a diet containing 6% autocalved brown marine algae improved productive performance and eggshell quality.

  2. Effect of replacing deitary fish meal with maggots on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laying hens (53 weeks old) were fed a basal diet with 9% fi sh meal and diets in which housefly maggots (Musca domestica, Linn) replaced 33.3, 66.7 and 100% of the fish meal in the basal diet during a 6-week trial period. Average daily fee(, intake were 125.1, 115.1, 109.1 and 105.7g respectively (P<0.05).

  3. Effects of Diet Modification on Meal Quality and Quality of Life in Korean Diabetic Patients: Data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong; Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that diet modification provides beneficial effects on the management of diabetes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of diet modification on nutrient intake and quality of life in a large sample of diabetic patients. This study was conducted using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). A total of 2,484 of diabetic patients were included in the analysis. Then, we compared the overall quality of dietary int...

  4. Farelo de amêndoa da castanha de caju na alimentação de codornas japonesas na fase de postura Cashew nut meal in laying diets for Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borges Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de farelo de amêndoa da castanha de caju (FACC sobre a utilização dos nutrientes da dieta, o desempenho e as características dos ovos de codornas japonesas. Duzentos e setenta codornas com 17 semanas de idade foram pesadas e distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis dietas e nove repetições de cinco aves. Foram testadas uma dieta controle (sem FACC e cinco dietas com 4, 8, 12, 16 e 20% de FACC. A digestibilidade da MS e do nitrogênio reduziu linearmente, entretanto, apenas com o nível de 20% de FACC estes resultados foram menores que os obtidos com a dieta controle. A digestibilidade da gordura e da energia bruta e os valores de EM das dietas não foram influenciados pelos níveis de FACC na dieta. O consumo de ração não foi afetado pelos níveis desse alimento na dieta, mas a produção de ovos, o peso e a massa de ovo e a conversão alimentar decresceram linearmente com a inclusão de FACC na dieta. As porcentagens de albúmen e gema, assim como a coloração da gema, sofreram efeito quadrático dos níveis de FACC na dieta. A porcentagem de albúmen e a coloração da gema aumentaram e a porcentagem de gema reduziu com a inclusão de FACC em níveis superiores a 9%. Em comparação à dieta controle, apenas a dieta com 20% de FACC prejudicou a produção de ovos, o peso e a massa de ovo, a coloração da gema e a conversão alimentar. O farelo de amêndoa da castanha de caju pode ser incluído em níveis de até 16% em dietas para codornas japonesas em postura.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of cashew nut meal (CNM in diets on nutrient digestibility, bird performance and egg characteristics of Japanese quails. A total of 270 japanese quails with 17 weeks of age were weighed and distributed into a completely randomized design with six diets and nine replicates of five birds in each experimental unit. Treatments consisted of one diet without

  5. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging

  6. Pursuing a Low Meat Diet to Improve Both Health and Sustainability : How Can We Use the Frames that Shape Our Meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Joop; Aiking, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper adds to the food, health and sustainability literature by examining the content, merits, and limitations of a frame-based approach to assist consumers on the path to a healthy and sustainable diet, focusing on reducing conventional meat consumption. The paper combined literature on frames

  7. Effects of different levels of vitamin premix in finisher diets on performance, immuno - competence and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn - soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseein Moravej

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VPreduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days on performance,immuno-competence,and characteristicsof leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed oncorn-soybeanmeal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocatedtofivetreatment groups(0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP, withninereplicates per treatmentgroup. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheepredblood cells (SRBC. The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin(PHA and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCBat 34 and 42 days of ages.At 33, 38 and 43days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughteredand boneparameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactivesubstances (TBARS on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at-80 ̊C. The resultsshowed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisherperiod did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones.Results of TBARS showed thatlipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP wassignificantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally,the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisherbroilers’ diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing.

  8. Replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal in diets based on spineless cactus for lactating cows Substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão em dietas à base de palma forrageira para vacas em lactação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal in the diet of dairy cows fed diets based on spineless cactus. Five Girolando lactating cows were used, with average live weight of 490 kg and average production of 11.5 kg of milk/day, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design (5 animals, 5 treatments and 5 experimental periods. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, 10 days being for the adaptation of the animals to the diet and 5 days for data collection. The experimental diet consisted of spineless cactus (53%, sorghum silage (32% and concentrate (15%. The cottonseed meal replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of soybean meal in the concentrate. The intake, milk yield and composition were evaluated. The nutrients intake and digestibility were not affected by the treatments, with an average of 15.55 and 56.05; 13.8 and 59.31, 0.37 and 49.40, 5.32 and 30.95, 1.79 and 48.14; 9.94 and 54.31, 4.43 kg/day and 80.99%, for the dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, total carbohydrates and non-fibrous carbohydrates, respectively. The total digestible nutrients were not affected (average of 8.30 kg/day. Similarly, the milk yield and composition, fat corrected milk yield (4%, lactose, total solids, fat and protein were not affected by replacement (11.56, 11.41 kg milk/day and 4.45, 12.75, 3.95 and 3.42%, respectively. Recommended the replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal for low production dairy cows.Objetivou-se avaliar a substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão em dietas à base de palma forrageira para vacas em lactação. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Girolando (peso vivo médio de 490 kg e produção média de 11,5 kg de leite/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 × 5, composto de cinco animais, cinco níveis de farelo de algodão (0; 25; 50; 75 e 100% em substituição ao farelo de soja e cinco períodos experimentais, cada

  9. Substituição parcial e total da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína dos farelos de canola e algodão em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 Partial and total replacement of soybean meal protein by canola or cottonseed meal protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC e farelo de algodão (FA, em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae, realizou-se um experimento com duração de 60 dias, utilizando-se 300 alevinos, com peso inicial médio de 0,10 g distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. As dietas isoprotéicas foram formuladas de forma a terem o FS, FC, FA, FS+FC, FS+FA e FC+FA como fonte protéica. Os alevinos, alimentados com dietas contendo FS e FS+FA, apresentaram valores de peso final e taxa de eficiência protéica superiores (p 0,05 pelo uso das diferentes dietas. Observou-se redução linear dos valores de peso final, da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear (p The effects of soybean meal (SB protein replacement by canola meal (CN or cottonseed meal (CT protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae fingerlings are provided. Assay was carried out during 60 days. Three hundred fingerlings with mean initial weight of 1.00g were distributed in a block randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. Isoprotein diets contained SB, CN, CT, SB+CN, SB+CT and CN+CT as protein source. Fingerlings fed on diets with SB, SB+CN, SB+CT showed better final mean weight and protein efficiency rate values (p 0.05 by different diets linear reduction (p macrocephalus fingerlings, replacing 50.00% of SB protein.

  10. Substituição da Proteína do Farelo de Soja pela Proteína do Farelo de Canola em Rações para Alevinos de Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus V. Replacement of Soybean Meal Protein by Canola Meal Protein in "Curimbatá" (Prochilodus lineatus V. Fingerling Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência da substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC, em rações para alevinos de curimbatá, foram utilizados 120 animais com peso médio de 1,88 ± 0,82 g e comprimento total médio de 5,40 ± 0,99 cm, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições em aquários de vidro (50 L, com cinco alevinos por unidade experimental. As rações foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas (26,00%, isocálcicas (0,90% e isofosfóricas (0,70%, com níveis crescentes de substituição da proteína do FS pela do FC (0,00; 20,00; 40,00; 60,00; 80,00 e 100,00%, o que correspondeu a 0,00; 8,03; 16,10; 24,10; 32,15 e 43,12% de inclusão do FC nas rações e fornecidas por um período de 30 dias. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram medidos a cada sete dias. Observou-se redução linear do ganho de peso e da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear da taxa de conversão alimentar, com aumento da inclusão do FC nas rações. A taxa de sobrevivência e o custo de ração/kg ganho não foram afetados com o uso do FC nas rações. Os valores da temperatura da água, do pH e da condutividade elétrica permaneceram dentro dos níveis adequados. Concluiu-se que o aumento dos níveis de inclusão da proteína do farelo de canola nas rações para alevinos de curimbatá acarretou redução no desempenho dos mesmos.The influence of the substitution of soybean meal protein (SM by canola meal protein (CM in Prochilodus lineatus fingerling diets was verified. One hundred and twenty specimens, averaging weight 1.88±0.82g and total length 5.40±0.99cm, was assigned to a completely randomized randomized design, with six treatments and four replicates, in a 50 L glass aquarium, with five fingerlings in each experimental unit. Isoprotein (26.00%, isocalcium (0.90% and isophosphorus (0.70% diets were formulated with increasing replacement

  11. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Digestibilidade de nutrientes em dietas de bovinos contendo uréia ou amiréia em substituição ao farelo de soja Nutrient digestibility in cattle diet with urea or starea replacing soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cunha de Oliveira Junior

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar efeitos da substituição do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia na digestibilidade de nutrientes e alguns parâmetros ruminais em bovinos. Seis novilhos da raça Nelore, com massa média inicial de 420 kg, foram utilizados em um delineamento de quadrado latino 3x3 duplicado. O farelo de soja foi utilizado em uma dieta deficiente em proteína degradável no rúmen, e a uréia e amiréia, em uma dieta adequada em proteína degradável no rúmen. O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura foi a única fonte de volumoso (20% da matéria seca. O farelo de soja promoveu menor (P0,05 entre os tratamentos. A digestibilidade da fibra em detergente ácido e fibra em detergente neutro foi superior (P0,05 nos valores de pH, ácidos graxos voláteis total, acetato, propionato, butirato e relação acetato:propionato do fluido ruminal. Observou-se maior (P0,05 entre os tratamentos com uréia e amiréia. A substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia, ajustando a proteína degradável no rúmen na dieta de bovinos de corte, é viável.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea on nutrient digestibility and ruminal parameters in bulls. Six Nellore bulls, with 420 kg of initial body mass, were used to evaluate the effects of replacing a true protein source (soybean meal, in a ruminal degradability protein deficient diet, by urea or starea, both in a ruminal degradability protein adjusted diets, on nutrient digestibility and ruminal parameters in beef cattle. In natura sugarcane bagasse was the only source of forage (20% of dry matter. Soybean meal treatment reduced (P0.05 in dry matter, organic matter, non-fiber carbohydrates, ether extract and crude protein apparent digestibility (% among treatments. Acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities (% were higher (P0.05 for pH values, total rumen volatile fatty acid molar

  13. The effect of replacing maize with cassava peel meal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimal replacement level(s) of dried cassava peel meal (DCPM) for maize in diets for weaner rabbits. Four experimentnl diets were formulated such that dried cassava peel meal replaced maize at 0, 50%, 75% and 100% levels, respectively. Each diet was fed to five ...

  14. Increasing intake of soybean protein or casein, but not cod meal, reduces nephrocalcinosis in female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Beynen, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Female weanling rats were fed diets with soybean protein, casein or cod meal at 171, 342 or 513 mmol nitrogen/100 g for 3 wk. The diets were isonitrogenous and balanced for fat, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Cod meal feeding at 171 and 342 mmol nitrogen/100 g diet produced lower

  15. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  16. Substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991 Replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeisson Emerson Casimiro Ferrari

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 5 tratamentos 0%; 25%; 50%; 75% e 100% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, com 4 repetições. Os níveis adotados corresponderam a 11,75%; 23%; 35,78% e 47,28% de inclusão de glúten de milho nas rações, as quais foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas em proteína digestível (PD, isocalóricas em energia digestível (ED e com a mesma quantidade de fibra bruta, lisina e metionina. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos com peso médio de 7,47±1,61g, distribuídos em 20 aquários (250L, em sistema de recirculação de água dotado de controle de temperatura. Foi observado efeito quadrático para o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo os respectivos valores ótimos estimados em 30,69%; 48% e 46,25% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, para o consumo de ração, foi verificado efeito linear. Em função da média referente aos valores estimados para os diferentes parâmetros avaliados, pôde-se concluir que a proteína do glúten de milho pode substituir até 42% (19,82% de inclusão na ração da proteína do farelo de soja em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The research was carried out aiming to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae diets. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of replacement of soybean protein by corn gluten meal protein and 4 replicates. The used levels corresponded to 11.75%, 23%, 35.78% and 42.28% of corn gluten meal inclusion in diets, formulated to be

  17. FARELO DE SOJA EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO À UREIA EM DIETAS PARA BOVINOS DE CORTE EM CRESCIMENTO SOYBEAN MEAL AS A REPLACEMENT FOR UREA ON GROWING BEEF STEERS DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano José de Resende Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar se novilhos machos não castrados destinados à engorda em regime de confinamento durante a fase de crescimento responderiam ao incremento de proteína metabolizável calculado pelo NCR (1996, Nível I, por meio da adição de farelo de soja à dieta, em substituição parcial ou total à ureia. Utilizaram-se vinte e quatro novilhos da raça Nelore e doze da raça Canchim, com peso vivo inicial médio de 230 kg e idade inicial média de quinze meses. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso. Formularam-se as dietas de modo a se obter um balanço de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR positivo e energia metabolizável suficiente para ganho de peso diário de 1,3 kg/animal/dia em todos os tratamentos, sendo: ureia (U, farelo de soja + ureia (FSU e farelo de soja (FS. Não se detectou diferença no consumo de matéria seca (MS entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. O ganho de peso médio diário (GPD no tratamento U (1,14 kg/animal/dia foi menor (P<0,05 que os observados para nos tratamentos FSU (1,26 kg/animal/dia e FS (1,28 kg/animal/dia. Apesar da diferença entre os valores preditos pelo NRC (1996, Nível I e os efetivamente observados em relação ao GPD, concluiu-se que há necessidade da inclusão de fonte suplementar de proteína verdadeira na dieta de bovinos machos não castrados em fase crescimento.

    PALAVRAS- CHAVES: Canchim, desempenho animal, Nelore, novilhos, proteína. The aim of this trial was to evaluate if non-castrated growing beef steers in feedlot systems would respond to increasing levels of metabolizable protein in the diet estimated by NRC (1996, Level I, through the addition of soybean meal in substitution of urea. Thirty-six steers (24 Nelore and 12 Canchim with liveweight of 230 kg and 15 months of age were assigned in a completely randomized block design. Diets were formulated according to NRC (1996, Level I in order to obtain a positive rumen degradable protein

  18. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  19. Chemical composition and fatty acid profile in meat from grazing lamb diets supplemented with ryegrass hay, fishmeal and soya bean meal as PUFA sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Romero-Bernal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study examined the characteristics of the fatty acids profile in the meat of lambs fed grazing and supplemented with different PUFA sources. Thirty Suffolk lambs were used (37.2±5.4kg BW, grazing on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne (12h d-1 and supplemented (30g kg-1 BW0.75 with ryegrass hay (RGH, or supplements formulated with fishmeal (FHM or soybean meal (SBM. Lambs were used in a completely randomized design. Results showed an effect on total SFA, with SBM higher than RGH (P=0.033, and SBM and FHM showing higher MUFA content compared with RGH (P=0.001. Total PUFA content was higher for RGH, followed by FHM and with the lowest content for SBM (P=0.001. Concluding that there is a variation in fatty acid content depending on the lipid-protein source used in supplementation in grazing sheep, the content of PUFA was higher for grazing lambs supplemented with RGH compared with those supplemented with FHM or SBM.

  20. Aspectos dietéticos das refeições oferecidas por empresas participantes do Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador na Cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Nutritional information of meals supplied by companies participating in the Workers’ Meal Program in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gines Geraldo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os aspectos dietéticos das refeições oferecidas por empresas inscritas no Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador (PAT na Cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, em relação às recomendações nutricionais do Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira do Ministério da Saúde. MÉTODOS:Foram investigadas 72 empresas, caracterizadas conforme setor (indústria, serviços ou comércio, porte (micro, pequenas, médias ou grandes, modalidade do PAT (autogestão, gestão terceirizada do tipo refeição transportada ou gestão terceirizada do tipo preparo e distribuição de refeição na empresa e supervisão de nutricionista (sim ou não. A quantidade per capita dos alimentos foi determinada nos cardápios de 3 dias de almoço, jantar e ceia. O valor nutricional das refeições foi definido com base nas variáveis energia, carboidrato, proteína, gorduras totais, gordura poliinsaturada, gordura saturada, gordura trans, açúcares livres, colesterol e frutas e hortaliças. RESULTADOS:A maioria dos cardápios teve baixa oferta de frutas e hortaliças (63,9% e gordura poliinsaturada (83,3% e excesso de gorduras totais (47,2% e colesterol (62,5%. O agrupamento 2, composto principalmente por empresas de médio e grande porte do setor industrial e de serviços, com gestão terceirizada e supervisão de nutricionista, teve, em média, refeições com maior valor energético (P OBJECTIVE:To compare the nutritional value of meals provided by companies participating in the Workers’ Meal Program in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, to the nutritional recommendations and guidelines established by the Ministry of Health for the Brazilian population. METHODS:The 72 companies studied were grouped according to economic sector (industrial, services, or commerce, size (micro, small, medium, or large, meal preparation modality (prepared on-site by the company itself, on-site by a hired caterer, or off-site by a hired caterer, and supervision by a

  1. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on haematological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) was included in broiler chickens' diets at graded levels of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to make 5 treatments to assess haematology, serum biochemistry and haemagglutination potential in broiler chickens fed the experimental diets. The diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and isonitrogenous.

  2. Bt-maize (MON810) and Non-GM Soybean Meal in Diets for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Juveniles – Impact on Survival, Growth Performance, Development, Digestive Function, and Transcriptional Expression of Intestinal Immune and Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jinni; Bakke, Anne Marie; Valen, Elin C.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-01-01

    Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles (fry) fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize). One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted) soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level), with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM) were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile salmon, but

  3. Palatable meal anticipation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia T Hsu

    Full Text Available The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to "stuff and starve" feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or "Fruit Crunchies" avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific.

  4. Palatable Meal Anticipation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cynthia T.; Patton, Danica F.; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Steele, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to “stuff and starve” feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or “Fruit Crunchies” avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific. PMID:20941366

  5. Utilização do farelo de castanha de caju na terminação de ovinos em confinamento Levels of cashew nuts meal in diets for feedlot sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Magalhães Rodrigues

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização de concentrados contendo farelo de castanha de caju (FCC na alimentação de ovinos mantidos em confinamento. Foram testados quatro tipos de concentrados isoprotéicos contendo 0, 12, 24 e 36% de FCC, tendo o concentrado participado com 30% da matéria seca (MS da dieta total. Foram utilizados 32 ovinos sem raça definida (SRD, machos e fêmeas, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro níveis de inclusão de FCC e dois sexos e quatro repetições. Foram avaliados ganho de peso e conversão alimentar, bem como os consumos de matéria seca (CMS, proteína bruta (CPB, extrato etéreo (CEE e fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN. Estas variáveis foram analisadas conforme o consumo em g/animal/dia, % do peso vivo (PV e g/UTM (PV0,75, tendo sido feita a análise de variância com teste de médias e estudo de regressão. Foram observadas diferenças no CMS, CPB e CEE de animais alimentados com dietas com 0 e 36% de FCC, com tendência de diminuição dos consumos de MS, PB e FDN, à medida que se aumentou o FCC na dieta. O consumo de EE elevou-se com a adição FCC às dietas. O ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar foram semelhantes para as quatro dietas fornecidas. Portanto, o FCC deve ser utilizado com um nível de inclusão de 24% do concentrado, não ultrapassando 6% de lipídios na dieta total.A study was conducted to evaluate the use of cashew nuts meal (CNM in diets for sheep, raised in feedlot. Thirty two crossbred animals received concentrates with the same amount of crude protein, but four different levels of CNM (0, 12, 24 and 36%. A factorial 4 x 2 was used, with four levels of CNM and 2 sexes, with four repetitions. Daily weight gain and feed conversion as well as intake of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber(NDF and ashes were determined by analysis of variance, Duncan statistical test and regression analysis. Intake was estimated as g

  6. Farelo da vagem de algaroba em dietas para cabras lactantes: parâmetros ruminais e síntese de proteína microbiana Mesquite pod meal in diets of lactating goats: ruminal parameters and microbial efficiency synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizziane da Silva Argôlo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da adição de farelo da vagem de algaroba (0; 33,3; 66,7 e 100% em substituição ao fubá de milho sobre a excreção de derivados de purina, estimada com coleta total de urina, e sobre os parâmetros ruminais (pH, amônia e ácidos graxos voláteis de cabras em lactação. Utilizaram-se oito cabras adultas lactantes distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4 e alimentadas com dietas isoproteicas, compostas de 40% de silagem de capim-elefante e 60% de concentrado. Não houve efeito significativo da adição de farelo da vagem de algaroba sobre os parâmetros ruminais. O pH manteve-se em faixa adequada, entre 6,85 e 7,03, e a concentração média de nitrogênio amoniacal ruminal foi de 6,97 mg de N/100 mL de fluido ruminal. As concentrações de acetato e propionato variaram de 9,47 a 10,54 e de 4,79 a 6,58 mM, respectivamente. As excreções (mmol/dia de alantoína, ácido úrico, xantinahipoxantina, a quantidade (mmol/dia de purinas absorvidas, o fluxo intestinal (g/dia de nitrogênio microbiano e a eficiência de síntese microbiana (PM/kg NDT apresentaram resposta linear negativa à substituição do fubá de milho pelo farelo da vagem de algaroba. A estimativa da síntese de proteína microbiana em cabras deve ser calculada pela excreção de derivados de purinas a partir de equações obtidas com caprinos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding mesquite pod meal (0, 33.3, 66.7 and 100% to substitute corn meal on purin derivative the excretion, estimated by total urine collection, and on the ruminal parameters (pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids. Eight lactating goats were used and distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square and fed iso-protein diets consisting of 40% elephant grass silage and 60% concentrate. There was no significant effect from adding mesquite pod meal on the ruminal parameters. The pH ranged from 6.85 to 7.03 and the ruminal ammonia concentration averaged 6.97 mg

  7. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance......' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95 % CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P......Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month...

  8. Replacement Value of Feather Meal for Fishmeal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replacement Value of Feather Meal for Fishmeal on the Performance of Starter Cockerels. ... ratio and feed cost/kg weights gain. Considering the results of final live weight and daily weight gain, it appeared that the 7.5% level of FEM could be the optimal inclusion level feather meal in the diets of growing cockerels.

  9. Determination of processed soybean meal degradability by Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of processed soybean meal degradability by Pinus eldarica methanol extract. ... Protected soybean meal is an important part of high producing dairy cow diet and many methods are used for its safe and economic processing. Pinus eldarica contains xylose and resins and results show that these components ...

  10. Effect of Replacement of Maize with Cassava Root Meal Fortified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM) fortified with palm oil on performance of starter broilers were determined in a 28-day feeding trial. Diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 were formulated such that they contained cassava root meal, fortified with 20% palm oil, in the proportions 10, 20, 30 and 40%, ...

  11. Adolescents' unhealthy eating habits are associated with meal skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2017-10-01

    Meal consumption and diet quality are important for healthy development during adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the association between meal habits and diet quality in Brazilian adolescents. A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with a probabilistic sample of adolescents ages 14 to 19 y (N = 1139) from high schools in central-western Brazil. Consumption of breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner was assessed to evaluate adolescents' meal profile. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was calculated to evaluate diet quality. The association between meal profile and BHEI-R (global estimates and components) was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Diet was characterized by unhealthy eating: a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy, and a high consumption of fats and sodium. An unsatisfactory meal profile was observed in 14% of adolescents, whereas daily consumption of breakfast, lunch, and dinner was reported by 47%, 78%, and 52% of adolescents, respectively. Meal profile was positively associated with diet quality. Daily consumption of breakfast was associated with higher BHEI-R scores, lower sodium intake, and greater consumption of fruits and milk/dairy. Daily consumption of lunch was associated with greater consumption of vegetables and "meats, eggs, and legumes," whereas consumption of dinner was associated with an increased consumption of "whole fruits." This study showed a parallelism between daily consumption of meals with healthier eating and greater adherence to traditional Brazilian food habits. Skipping meals was associated with a low-quality diet, especially concerning to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high intake of sodium and calories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, the adoption of regular meal habits may help adolescents improve their diet quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  12. A comparative evaluation of leaf meals of pawpaw ( C. papaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative evaluation of leaf meals of pawpaw ( C. papaya ), swordbean ( C. gladiate ), jackbean ( C. ensiformis ) and pigeonpea ( C. cajan ) as feed ingredients and yolk colouring agents in layers' diets.

  13. The Association between Family Meals, TV Viewing during Meals, and Fruit, Vegetables, Soda, and Chips Intake among Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaya, Abegail A.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Alcaraz, John E.; Lindsay, Suzanne P.; Elder, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the relationship of family meals to children's consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as soda and chips. Additionally, to assess the relationship between viewing TV during family meals and children's diet. Design: Cross-sectional study that used a questionnaire completed by parents. Setting: Thirteen schools in San Diego,…

  14. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on the total tract digestibility of innate and supplemental organic and inorganic microminerals in a corn-soybean meal based diet of grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, J S; Mahan, D C

    2013-06-01

    The effects of Ca and P (CaP) levels and micromineral sources on mineral digestibility were evaluated in growing pigs. Treatments consisted of 2 levels of CaP and 3 trace mineral (TM) treatments arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicates. The CaP levels evaluated were: 1) 0.65% Ca and 0.55% P [standard CaP (Std CaP)], and 2) 1.00% Ca and 0.85% P (High CaP). The TM treatments were: 1) Basal, without supplemental TM, 2) Basal supplemented with organic TM, and 3) Basal supplemented with inorganic TM. Both organic and inorganic TM premixes added 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn/kg diet. Diets were formulated using corn soybean meal with a Ca to P ratio of 1.18 in both CaP treatments. Barrows with an initial BW of 45 kg were acclimated to stainless steel metabolism crates where diets were fed for 14 d before a 10-d collection period. Pigs within replicates were fed equivalent amounts of feed at 0800 and 1600 h each day with water provided free choice. Total feces, urine, and feed orts were collected daily. Essential macro- and microminerals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma analysis. Increasing dietary CaP decreased the digestibility of Ca and Zn. Phosphorus digestibility did not change when the P inclusion level increased from 0.55 to 0.85% Ptotal. The High CaP level resulted in a lower urinary excretion of most minerals, particularly Cu (P < 0.05) and Mn (P < 0.05), as dietary CaP level increased but the others were not statistically significant. A summary of the ATTD for each of the experimental variables was statistically analyzed and averaged for the experiment. Although there were few statistical differences with individual minerals, they generally demonstrated a decline in digestibility when the High CaP was fed, averaging a 3% lower digestibility consistently than when the Std CaP level was fed. Organic TM averaged an approximately 5% greater digestibility than the average inorganic

  15. Meta-analysis of phosphorus utilisation by broilers receiving corn-soyabean meal diets: influence of dietary calcium and microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Lescoat, P; Bernier, J F; Magnin, M; Pomar, C; Nys, Y; Sauvant, D; Jondreville, C

    2010-11-01

    Pollution relative to phosphorus excretion in poultry manure as well as the soaring prices of phosphate, a non-renewable resource, remain of major importance. Thus, a good understanding of bird response regarding dietary phosphorus (P) is a prerequisite to optimise the utilisation of this essential element in broiler diets. A database built from 15 experiments with 203 treatments was used to predict the response of 21-day-old broilers to dietary non-phytate P (NPP), taking into account the main factors of variation, calcium (Ca) and microbial phytase derived from Aspergillus niger, in terms of average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), gain to feed (G:F) and tibia ash concentration. All criteria evolve linearly (P < 0.001) and quadratically (P < 0.001) with dietary NPP concentration. Dietary Ca affected the intercept and linear component for ADG (P < 0.01), G:F (P < 0.05) and tibia ash concentration (P < 0.001), whereas for ADFI, it affected only the intercept (P < 0.01). Microbial phytase addition impacted on the intercept, the linear and the quadratic coefficient for ADFI (P < 0.01), ADG (P < 0.001) and G:F (P < 0.05), and on the intercept and the linear component (P < 0.001) for tibia ash concentration. An evaluation of these models was then performed on a database built from 28 experiments and 255 treatments that were not used to perform the models. Results showed that ADFI, ADG and Tibia ash concentration were predicted fairly well (slope and intercept did not deviate from 0 to 1, respectively), whereas this was not the case for G:F. The increase in dietary Ca concentration aggravated P deficiency for all criteria while phytase addition had a positive effect. The more P deficiency was marked, the more the bird response to ADFI, ADG, G:F and tibia ash concentration was exacerbated. It must also be considered that even if the decrease in dietary Ca may improve P utilisation, it could in turn become limiting for bone mineralisation. In conclusion

  16. Lipid profiles of blood serum and fatty acid composition of meat of hybrid duck fed diet supplemented with Noni (Morinda citrifolia fruit meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kurniawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Noni fruit is a medicinal plant with biological activity like antioxidant that could potentially be used as a feed additive in poultry. This research investigated the effect of noni fruit powder as feed additive on lipid profiles of blood and meat fatty acid compositions of meat of hybrid duck. One hundred twenty 2-week-old hybrid ducks crossing between Peking and Khaki Campbell duck were subjected. They were randomly allotted to 24 experimental units. Each experimental unit was 70x80x40 cm in size and it was used for 5 ducks up to they reached 56 days of age. Each unit was equipped with waterer and feeder. The ducks were raised on litter-type floor. The basal experimental diet was formulated according to the standards of National Research Council (1994. The method used for this study was experimental with 4 different treatments in 6 replications. The treatments were as follow: P0: basal feed without supplementation of noni fruit powder as control; P1: basal feed + 1 % noni fruit powder; P2: basal feed + 2 % noni fruit powder; P3: basal feed + 3 % noni fruit powder. Data were analyzed by one-way of Completely Randomized Design ANOVA and if there was significant effect followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Result showed that using noni fruit powder as feed additive had no significant effect (P>0.05 on lipid profiles of blood and fatty acid composition of meat.

  17. Apparent and true amino acid digestibility of artemia meal in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent and true amino acid digestibility of artemia meal in broiler chicks (Short communication) ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... to determine the amino acid digestibility of artemia meal, five-week old male broiler chicks were given a semi-purified diet in which artemia meal was the sole source of protein.

  18. Partial replacement of fish and soyabean meal protein in mirror carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 80-day feeding trial was conducted as two experiments to evaluate the effects of replacement of fish meal (FM) and soyabean meal (SBM) protein with hazelnut meal (HM) protein in the diets of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Growth parameters and body composition were measured in fingerlings cultured ...

  19. Histologi Tubulus Seminiferus dan Kadar Testosteron Tikus yang Diberi Pakan Imbuhan Tepung Daun Kaliandra dan Kulit Nanas (HISTOLOGY OF SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES AND TESTOSTERONE LEVEL OF RAT GIVEN CALLIANDRA LEAF MEAL AND PINEAPPLE PEELS IN THE DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriani Setyawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Calliandra calothyrsus leaf contains 17-28% protein which is hihly potential for use as source of protein supplement for animal feed. However, the plants also contain high level (>10% of condensed tannins as antinutritional effects which may reduce consumtion efficiency of diet. The addition of protease (bromelain into feed containing tannin is expected to decrease the negative effects of tannins. Bromelain can be obtained from the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus including on the peels. This study was conducted to determine the effect of calliandra tannin combined with bromelain protease of pineapple peels in the feed on testicular histology and testosterone level of rats feeded during the growth period. The feeding experiment on post-weaning male rats was conducted using a completely randomized factorial design (4 main factors x 4 subfactors. The main factors were calliandra leaf meal substitution of 0; 10; 17.5 and 25% in the diets and subfactors were addition of pineapple peels, 0; 4.35; 8.70 and 13.05 g/rat/day. Rats were divided into 16 groups and were feeded the diets for two months (during the growth period. The results showed the susbtituion of feed with calliandra leaf had no sigbnificant effecton the thickness of the seminiferous tubules, but it appeared to have significant effect on the histology of seminiferous tubules. Increased pineapple peels level in the diets containing calliandra decreased wall thickness of the seminiferous tubules of the rat testes, indicating that bromalein fastened the maturation of spermatozoa. The addition of pineapple peels into the diet containing calliandra had a significant interaction effect on testoteron levels of male rats, but the testoteron levels among all treated rats were still within the normal range. ABSTRAK Daun kaliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus mengandung protein 17-28% sehingga potensial sebagai sumber protein pakan ternak, namun tanaman ini mengandung condensed tannin cukup tinggi (>10

  20. Farelo de canola na alimentação de alevinos de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella V. Use of canola meal in the diet of grasscarp fry (Ctenopharyngodon idella V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Rossetto Barriviera Furuya

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC, em dietas para alevinos de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos com peso vivo médio de 1,33 gramas e comprimento médio de 5,06cm, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, em 20 aquários com capacidade para 50 litros, com 5 peixes por unidade. Foram utilizados cinco níveis de substituição de proteína do FS pela do FC (0,00%; 20,00%; 40,00%; 60,00% e 80,00%, o que correspondeu a 0,00%; 8,03%; 16,10%; 24;10% e 32,15% de inclusão de FC nas dietas. As dietas, formuladas de modo a serem isoprotéicas, isocálcicas e isofosfóricas, foram fornecidas durante 28 dias; ao mesmo tempo, os parâmetros físico-químicos foram monitorados. Ao final do período experimental, foram avaliadas as características de desempenho. O ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxa de eficiência protéica, conversão alimentar, sobrevivência e custo de ração/peso ganho não foram afetados pelos níveis de substituição da proteína do FS pela do FC. Entretanto, foram observados efeitos quadráticos para o peso final (Y = 2,39190 + 0,01327X - 0,00019X2, r2 = 0,78, comprimento total (Y = 6,15270 + 0,01195X - 0,00016X2, r2 = 0,86 e incremento em comprimento total (Y = 1,10340 + 0,01198X - 0,00016X2, r2 = 0,86. Os parâmetros físico-químicos permaneceram dentro dos níveis adequados. O nível de substituição de 35,79% de proteína do FS pela do FC ou a inclusão de 14,40% de FC na dieta levou ao melhor desempenho em alevinos de carpa-capim.One hundred fry with 1.33 mean weight and 5.06cm mean length distributed in twenty 50-liter aquarium, with 5 fish each, were used in a completely randomized plotted experiment, with 4 replications, to evaluate the effects of soybean meal (SM protein replacement by canola meal (CM protein in diets for

  1. Inclusion of coconut meal in diets for growing pigs with or without enzimatic supplementation Inclusão de farelo de coco em dietas para suínos em crescimento com ou sem suplementação enzimática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Magalhaes Araújo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the productive and economic viability of coconut meal (FC and enzymatic complex (E inclusion in diets for growing pigs, it were used 20 homogenous barrows with average weight of 31.15 ± 5.59kg. The animals were distributed in a randomized block design with four treatments, and five replicates each, with an animal as experimental unit. The experimental treatments were: 0%FC – control diet, a corn-soy diet; 20%FC- control diet added of 20% of coconut meal (FC; 20%FC+0,05E – control diet added of 20% of coconut meal, plus 0,05% of enzymatic complex, and 20%FC+0,10E – control diet added of 20% of coconut meal, plus 0,10% of enzymatic complex. Experimental diets had the same level of nutrients. At the end of experimental period, blood samples were taken from each animal. Results demonstrated that coconut meal and enzymatic complex inclusion did not affect the performance and serum parameters of animals, except HDL fraction of cholesterol. In conclusion, the addition of 20% of coconut meal, added or not by enzymatic complex, did not affect the performance of the animals, but the inclusion of 20% of coconut meal without enzymatic complex resulted in economical efficiency.Com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade produtiva e econômica da inclusão do farelo de coco (FC e complexo enzimático (E em dietas para suínos na fase de crescimento, utilizaram-se 20 suínos machos castrados de mesma linhagem, com peso médio de 31,15 ± 5,59kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos, de cinco repetições cada, com um animal por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos foram: 0%FC - dieta constituída principalmente por milho, farelo de soja; 20%FC- dieta com inclusão de 20% de farelo de coco (FC; 20%FC+0,05E - dieta com inclusão de 20% FC e adição de 0,05% do complexo enzimático e 20%FC+0,10E - dieta com inclusão de 20% FC e adição de 0,10% do complexo enzimático. As dietas

  2. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOODS, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become

  3. Variety within a cooked meal increases meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke Ah; van der Meij, Barbara S; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-12-01

    Effective strategies to increase dietary intake in older persons with a poor appetite are needed. Previous studies have shown that increasing diet variety may increase dietary intake. This has not been tested in older adults with a poor appetite. We investigated if an increased variety of foods within a cooked meal results in a higher meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite. This study was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial among 19 older (>65 years) women with a poor appetite. Two cooked meals of similar weight and energy density (except starch) were served under standardized conditions on two weekdays: a test meal consisting of three different varieties of vegetables, meat or fish, and starch components, and a control meal without variety. Participants ate ad libitum and the actual consumed amounts and their nutritional content were calculated. Data were analyzed by mixed linear models. Average intake in energy was 427 kcal (SD 119) for the test meal with variety and 341 kcal (SD 115) for the control meal without variety. This resulted in a statistically significant (for period effects adjusted) mean difference of 79 kcal (95% CI = 25-134). Total meal intake in grams was also higher for the test meal with variety (48 g, 95% CI = 1-97) but protein intake (g) was not (3.7 g, 95% CI = -1.4 to 8.8). This was consistent for all meal components except starch and within each component three varieties were consumed equally. The results of the present study suggest that increasing meal variety may be an effective strategy to increase energy intake in older adults with a poor appetite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Postprandial changes in cardiometabolic disease risk in young Chinese men following isocaloric high or low protein diets, stratified by either high or low meal frequency - a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Alexander; Haldar, Sumanto; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-03-15

    Cardio-Metabolic Disease (CMD) is the leading cause of death globally and particularly in Asia. Postprandial elevation of glycaemia, insulinaemia, triglyceridaemia are associated with an increased risk of CMD. While studies have shown that higher protein intake or increased meal frequency may benefit postprandial metabolism, their combined effect has rarely been investigated using composite mixed meals. We therefore examined the combined effects of increasing meal frequency (2-large vs 6-smaller meals), with high or low-protein (40 % vs 10 % energy from protein respectively) isocaloric mixed meals on a range of postprandial CMD risk markers. In a randomized crossover study, 10 healthy Chinese males (Age: 29 ± 7 years; BMI: 21.9 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) underwent 4 dietary treatments: CON-2 (2 large Low-Protein meals), CON-6 (6 Small Low-Protein meals), PRO-2 (2 Large High-Protein meals) and PRO-6 (6 Small High-Protein meals). Subjects wore a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and venous blood samples were obtained at baseline and at regular intervals for 8.5 h to monitor postprandial changes in glucose, insulin, triglycerides and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Blood pressure was measured at regular intervals pre- and post- meal consumption. Urine was collected to measure excretion of creatinine and F2-isoprostanes and its metabolites over the 8.5 h postprandial period. The high-protein meals, irrespective of meal frequency were beneficial for glycaemic health since glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for PRO-2 (185 ± 166 mmol.min.L(-1)) and PRO-6 (214 ± 188 mmol.min.L(-1)) were 66 and 60 % lower respectively (both p meals with higher protein content, irrespective of meal frequency appears to be beneficial for postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in young, healthy Chinese males. Implications of this study may be useful in the Asian context where the consumption of high glycemic index, carbohydrate meals is prevalent. NCT02529228 .

  5. Farinha de vísceras de aves em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo,Oreochromis niloticus (L. Poultry by-product meal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2002-04-01

    digestibility of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with increasing levels of poultry by-product meal (PM were evaluated. Three hundred fingerlings with average initial weight of 0.35±0.01 g were placed in thirty 120 L net ponds in five cement 1000 L tanks. Six levels of PM inclusion (0.00, 4.00, 8.00, 12.00, 16.00 and 20.00% were used in the diets, in an experimental randomized blocks desing with six treatments and three replicates. An experiment of diet digestibility was undertaken with 0.00 and 20.00% PM diets on fish of average weight 47.81±9.97 g. A linear improvement was observed at PM inclusion levels with regard to final weight, percentage of weight gain, protein efficiency rate, nitrogen retention and quadratic effect for food conversion, ether extract retention and percentages of crude protein and carcass ethereal extract. Concerning to the digestibility experiment, the 20.00% PM diet showed lower coefficients of apparent digestibility for dry matter, crude protein, crude energy and higher coefficients for ether extract. However, higher values of digestible ether extract and energy were obtained with 20.00% PM diet, even though digestible protein was lower than the 0.00% PP diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of the ether extract, crude protein and crude energy of PM for the Nile tilapia were 70.45, 63.93 and 55.89% respectively. Thus, the inclusion of 20.00% PM in diet improved performance, however increased ether extract content and decreased crude protein levels in carcass and dry matter, crude protein and energy digestibility coefficients of the diets.

  6. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  7. Effects of 3-week total meal replacement vs. typical food-based diet on human brain functional magnetic resonance imaging food-cue reactivity and functional connectivity in people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahathuduwa, Chanaka Nadeeshan; Davis, Tyler; O'Boyle, Michael; Boyd, Lori Ann; Chin, Shao-Hua; Paniukov, Dmitrii; Binks, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Calorie restriction via total meal replacement (TMR) results in greater reduction of food cravings compared to reduced-calorie typical diet (TD). Direct evidence of the impact of these interventions on human brain fMRI food-cue reactivity (fMRI-FCR) and functional connectivity is absent. We examined the effects of a 3-week 1120 kcal/d TMR intervention as compared to an iso-caloric TD intervention using an fMRI-FCR paradigm. Thirty-two male and female subjects with obesity (19-60 years; 30-39.9 kg/m 2 ) participated in a randomized two-group repeated measures dietary intervention study consisting of 1120 kcal/d from either 1) TMR (shakes), 2) TD (portion control). Pre-intervention and following the 3-week diet fMRI-FCR, functional connectivity, food cravings (Food Craving Inventory) and weight were considered. Compared to TD, TMR showed increased fMRI-FCR of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC), orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, primary motor and left insular cortices and bilateral nucleus accumbens regions in the post-intervention state relative to the pre-intervention state. Compared to TD, TMR was also associated with negative modulation of fMRI-FCR of the nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala by dlPFC. Reduced body weight (4.87 kg, P < 0.001), body fat (2.19 kg, P = 0.004) and overall food cravings (0.41, P = 0.047) were seen in the TMR group. In the TD group reduced body weight (2.37 kg, P = 0.004) and body fat (1.64 kg, P = 0.002) were noted. Weight loss was significantly greater in TMR versus TD (2.50 kg, P = 0.007). Greater weight loss and reduced cravings, coupled with stronger activations and potential negative modulation of the food reward related regions by the dlPFC during exposure to visual food cues is consistent with increased executive control in TMR vs. TD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of genetically-improved (glandless) and genetically-modified low-gossypol cottonseed meal as alternative protein sources in the diet of juvenile southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma reared in a recirculating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) proteins from genetically-improved (glandless) seed (GI-CSM, 52.1% crude protein, CP), genetically-modified low-gossypol seed (GMO-CSM, 56.0% CP) and from an untreated regular (glanded) seed (R-CSM 49.9% CP) were evaluated to replace fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) in juvenil...

  9. MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES AND ENZYMES IN CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL BASED-DIETS FOR BROILERS MANANOLIGOSSACARÍDEOS E ENZIMAS EM DIETAS À BASE DE MILHO E FARELO DE SOJA PARA AVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Barbosa de Moraes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Mannan oligosaccharides, as an alternative to an-tibiotics, show promising results related to bird perfor-mance, immunity stimulus and improvement of intestinal mucosa. Enzyme inclusion in diets containing mannan oli-gosaccharides could improve these results. Poultry diets consist of corn and soybean meal, and approximately 30% of the phosphorus (P in these ingredients is bound to phytic acid. Phytase is capable of release not only the P but also other nutrients that can be better used by the birds while corn is relatively free of viscosous nonstarch poly-saccharides (NSP, soybean has about 20% of NSP, whose digestibility is almost null. NSP`s insoluble component of corn and soybean encapsulate nutrients and are responsive to exogenous enzymes. Negative environmental and nutri-tional consequences of dietary phytic acid are reduced by phytase inclusion in monogastric diets. Additionally, the enzymatic complex supplementation improves the nutri-tional value of feedstuffs through higher digestibility in birds. Finally, the use of exogenous enzymes allows re-duction in feed costs.

    KEY-WORDS: Animal nutrition, enzymatic supplementation, prebiotic.

    Os mananoligossacarídeos, como alternativa aos antibióticos, têm apresentado resultados promissores no que se refere tanto ao desempenho das aves quanto ao estímulo da imunidade e à melhora da mucosa intestinal. A inclusão de enzimas nas dietas contendo mananoligossacarídeos poderia melhorar ainda mais esses resultados. As dietas para aves são compostas de milho e farelo de soja, principalmente, e cerca de 30% do fósforo (P desses in-gredientes estão ligados ao ácido fítico. A fitase libera não só o P, mas também outros nutrientes para que sejam me-lhor utilizados pelas aves. O milho é relativamente isento de polissacarídeos não-amiláceos (PNAs viscosos e a soja apresenta cerca de 20% de PNAs, com digestibilidade praticamente nula. Os componentes insolúveis dos PNAs do

  10. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is different, but most kids with CF will eat three meals a day plus snacks to make sure that ... and Full of Calories All kids need to eat a balanced diet of regular meals and snacks that include plenty of fruits, veggies, ...

  11. Nutritional Evaluation of Yam Peel Meal for Pullet Chickens: 2. Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of replacing maize with yam peel meal (YPM) on sexual maturity and laying performance of pullet chickens reared on yam peel meal (YPM) based diets from day-old to point-of-lay. A total of 150 ... Thereafter, they were fed a common layer diet over a 35-day trial period.

  12. Apparent and true amino acid digestibility of artemia meal in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine the amino acid digestibility of artemia meal, five-week old male broiler chicks were given a semi-purified diet in which artemia meal was the sole source of protein. Apparent amino acid digestibility values of the assay diet, using ileal and excreta contents, were calculated using chromic oxide as ...

  13. Evaluation of Peanut Meal as an Alternative Dietary Protein Source for Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...

  14. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...... the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement...

  15. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (Pschool performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study.

  16. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is con...

  17. In vivo measurement of flatulence and nutrient digestibility in dogs fed poultry by-product meal, conventional soybean meal, and low-oligosaccharide low-phytate soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamka, Ryan M; Harmon, David L; Schoenherr, William D; Khoo, Christina; Gross, Kathy L; Davidson, Stephen J; Joshi, Dinesh K

    2006-01-01

    To determine an optimal window for determining peak flatulence and evaluate the effects of oligosaccharides and supplemental beta-mannanase in soybean meal-based diets on nutrient availability and flatulence. 6 dogs. Dogs were used in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a 6 x 6 Latin square experiment to evaluate the digestibility, flatulence, and fecal odor metabolites of low-oligosaccharide low-phytate soybean meal (LLM), conventional soybean meal (SBM), and poultry by-product (PBP) meal diets with or without supplemental beta-mannanase (5 g/kg). Enzyme supplementation had no effect on total tract dry matter (DM), nitrogen digestibility, or digestible energy; however, differences between protein sources did exist for total tract DM digestibility and digestible energy. The PBP meal had higher DM digestibility and digestible energy (mean, 0.913 and 4,255 cal/g), compared with soy-based diets (mean, 0.870 and 4,049 cal/g). No differences were detected for any treatment regardless of protein source or addition of supplemental enzyme for any flatulence components analyzed. No differences were detected for all fecal odor metabolites regardless of addition of supplemental enzyme; however, differences between protein sources were detected. The PBP meal had lower concentrations of carboxylic acids and esters and higher concentrations of heterocycles, phenols, thio and sulfides, ketones, alcohols, and indoles than LLM and SBM. Diets containing dogs.

  18. Rice-based Korean meals (bibimbap and kimbap have lower glycemic responses and postprandial-triglyceride effects than energy-matched Western meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Jung

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: We confirmed that Korean-style meals (bibimbap lowered the risk of metabolic diseases in participants with and without MetS. Despite the high-carbohydrate content in Korean meals, the GI and insulinogenic-index responses did not differ among the diet groups. The lower PTG in Korean diet groups may suggest a beneficial effect in lowering the risk of many other diet-related chronic diseases.

  19. Substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de algodão de alta energia em dietas para vacas leiteiras em produção: consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes, balanço de nitrogênio e produção leiteira Replacing soybean meal with high energy cottonseed meal in diets for dairy yielding cows: intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Ferreira Alves

    2010-03-01

    final lactation third on intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency and milk yield was assessed. Five crossbred 5/8 Holstein × 3/8 Gir cows were allotted to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five 18-day periods (eight days for adaptation and 10 days to determine intake and collect samples. The diets were formulated to have similar protein contents (14% CP, with 60% corn silage and 40% on the DM. There was no effect of including high energy cottonseed meal on the intakes of DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, total carbohydrates (TCHO and total digestible nutrients. The EE intake increased with levels of 26.1 and 34.8% of high energy cottonseed meal inclusion, while the non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC intake was higher for levels of 0, 8.7 and 26.1%. The digestibility coefficients of the nutrients did not differ among the high energy cottonseed meal levels experimental diets. Replacing soybean hulls levels with high energy cottonseed meal did not influence the nitrogen use efficiency or balance, or the milk urea nitrogen content (MUN and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. Average milk yield (14.03 kg/day and milk yield corrected for 3.5% fat milk fat (14.68 kg/day were not influenced by the different levels of high-energy cottonseed meal in the diet and there was no difference for feed efficiency. High-energy cottonseed meal presents potential for replacing soybean meal in the diet of cows with 15 kg/day production capacity.

  20. Effects of differently processed soybean substituted diets on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and nutrient studies was carried out on Clarias gariepinus Juveniles of mean weight 7.00-8.00g stocked into rectangular plastic aquarium tanks 30cm x 15cm for 120 days fed with differently processed soya bean meal. There were eight treatments labeled as diet T1-T8, diet T1 (control diet; contains no soybean meal ...

  1. Conventional and unconventional feedstuffs in poultry diets: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study,four experimental diets were prepared in a way that Diet 1 (LD1 - control) contained no maize / sorghum – based brewers dried grains (MSBDG), Jackbean and cassava root meal. Diets 2 (LD2), 3 (LD3) and 4 (LD4) contained various combinations of MSBDG, jackbean, and cassava root meal which completely ...

  2. Acute effects on metabolism and appetite profile of one meal difference in the lower range of meal frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-06-01

    A gorging pattern of food intake has been shown to enhance lipogenesis and increase body weight, which may be due to large fluctuations in storage and mobilisation of nutrients. In a state of energy balance, increasing meal frequency, and thereby decreasing inter-meal interval, may prevent large metabolic fluctuations. Our aim was to study the effect of the inter-meal interval by dividing energy intake over two or three meals on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and 24 h satiety, in healthy, normal-weight women in a state of energy balance. The study was a randomised crossover design with two experimental conditions. During the two experimental conditions subjects (fourteen normal-weight women, aged 24.4 (SD 7.1) years, underwent 36 h sessions in energy balance in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. The subjects were given two (breakfast, dinner) or three (breakfast, lunch, dinner) meals per d. We chose to omit lunch in the two meals condition, because this resulted in a marked difference in inter-meal-interval after breakfast (8.5 h v. 4 h). Eating three meals compared with two meals had no effects on 24 h energy expenditure, diet-induced thermogenesis, activity-induced energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate. Eating three meals compared with two meals increased 24 h fat oxidation, but decreased the amount of fat oxidised from the breakfast. The same amount of energy divided over three meals compared with over two meals increased satiety feelings over 24 h. In healthy, normal-weight women, decreasing the inter-meal interval sustains satiety, particularly during the day, and sustains fat oxidation, particularly during the night.

  3. Optimum Replacement Level of the Soybean Meal for Processed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Hence the need to source for alternative but promising feedstuffs. A 28- day feeding trial was therefore conducted to determine the feeding processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) in finisher broiler ration. Six experimental diets were formulated. Diet 1 was the control, while various quantities of HEBM was used to replace.

  4. Silkworm caterpillar - soybean meal blend as dietary protein source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the utilization of silkworm caterpillar meat (SCM) blended with soybean meal (SBM) as a dietary protein source in the practical diet of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings (M±SE=17.04±_0.02g). The fish were fed five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing blends of SCM ...

  5. Shrimp Waste Meal Supplementation Of Cassava Products Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the objective of investigating shrimp waste (SWM) and cassava leaf (CLM) meals as cheap alternatives and protein source mixtures that would best complement cassava root-soybean ration in total replacement for maize in broiler diets, six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets were evaluated using two weeks old ...

  6. Effects of copra (Cocos nucifera) meal on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusup, Cep Hikmat Maulana; Nugroho, Rudy A.

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the optimum concentration of copra meal as a fish meal replacement on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio. Various concentrations of copra (Cocos nucifera) meal, viz 3, 6, 9, and 12 % were used to determine the final weight, body weight gain (BWG), average weekly gain (AWG), daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the C. carpio (Initial body weight 25-25.2 g/fish) and compare with control group (Basal diet) without copra meal replacement and commercial diet (CD). Six groups of C. carpio with three replicates were used and fed with different concentration of copra meal at satiation level five times per day for 12 weeks. At the end of feeding trial, the C. carpio fed 9% copra meal in the diet had higher final weight, BWG, AWG, DWG, SGR than any other groups, except commercial diet (CD). Meanwhile, the highest PER was found on the fish fed CD, followed by fish fed 3 % of copra meal in the diet. However, FCR was not affected by any types of diets. These finding suggested that the 9% replacement of wheat in the diet with copra meal is beneficial to improve growth performance.

  7. Replacement of soybean meal with babassu meal in rations for broilers from 22 to 42 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Calixto da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal in rations to broiler from 22 to 42 days old. It was used 80 male broiler chicks at one day of age, distributed into complete random designs with four treatments (0, 10, 20 e 30% substituition of soybean meal by babassu meal and five repetitions of four broilers each. Were evaluated the performance (weight dain, feed intake and feed conversion, carcass and cuts, organ biometry, feed cost per kilogram body weight and gross margin. To verify the relationship of cost of replacing soybean meal with pie babassu, inequalities were established. The substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal had no influence (P>0,05 any of the performance characteristics, wich showed the technical viability of substituting up to 30%. Similarly, there was no affect on carcass yield, cuts weight and organ biometry. The cust less with feed per kg for chicken produced and the higher gross margin were obtained from chickens fed diets with 0% babassu meal. The increased of substitution level soybean meal by babassu meal in ration for broilers from 22 to 42 days old proved unviable economically, however, the inequalities produced can be useful in practical situations.

  8. Effects of blood meal as a substitute for fish meal in the culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the nutritive value of fermented and un-fermented blood meal as a possible protein source for diets of juvenile silver pompano, Trachinotus blochii. The experiments were carried out concurrently in a completely randomized design. A total of 330 fish (10.98 ±0. 5g and ...

  9. Substitution of soybean meal by meal moringa oleifera leaves in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the effect of the substitution of the soy bean meal by Moringa oleifera leaf powder in the diet of finish broiler were carry out in the Dschang University Experimental Farm ration completion from December 2003 to January 2004. Two hundred and four twenty eight chicks “Arbor acres” hens, four weeks old were ...

  10. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P meat and bone meal, or poultry byproduct meal). Low- and high-crystalline AA diets contained 4.5 or 1% fish meal, 6 or 1.2% meat and bone meal, and 6 or 1% poultry byproduct meal, respectively. No AA × protein source interactions were observed. From d 0 to 14, no differences in growth performance among protein sources was found, whereas increasing crystalline AA improved (P = 0.04) ADG. In conclusion, crystalline AA can replace fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal when balanced for SID AA ratios of Met and Cys:Lys (58%), Thr:Lys (62%), Trp:Lys (16.5%), Val:Lys (65%), and Ile:Lys (52%).

  11. Níveis de inclusão de farinha de penas na dieta sobre o desempenho e características de carcaça de codornas para corte = Inclusion levels of feather meal in the diet on performance and carcasses characteristics of quail for meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Letícia da Silva Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de 240 codornas européias para corte mediante diferentes níveis de inclusão de farinha de penas na dieta. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 4 tratamentos (0, 3, 6 e 9% de farinha de penas, 5 repetições e 12 animais por unidade experimental. De acordo com os resultados, a farinha de penas pode ser utilizada na dieta de codornas para corte, exceto no período de 1 a 7 dias, em até 9%, sem alterações negativassobre o desempenho dos animais. Entretanto, foi observado que na medida em que houve aumento da inclusão de farinha de penas na dieta, houve redução do consumo de ração e no rendimento de coxa mais sobrecoxa, assim como aumento do rendimento de dorso mais asas.The performance of 240 European quail for meat was evaluated using different levels of feather meal in the diet. The experiment was conducted with a totally randomized design, consisting of four treatments (0, 3, 6, and 9% of feather meal, five repetitions andtwelve animals per experimental unit. Results show that, feather meal can be utilized in the quail for meat diet, except in a period of 1 to 7 days, up to 9%, without significant negative effects on theperformance of the animals. However, as the inclusion of feather flour in the diet increased, a reduction in the consumption of feed and in the thigh yield were observed, as well as an increase in back + wing yield.

  12. Effects on Diabetes Medications, Weight and Glycated Hemoglobin Among Adult Patients With Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: 6-Month Observations From a Full Meal Replacement, Low-Calorie Diet Weight Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Judy Y; So, Derek Y F; Dent, Robert R

    2018-02-01

    A 6-month weight-management program with full meal replacement, low-calorie diet (full MR-LCD) (900 kcal/day for 6 to 12 weeks) follows a protocol for patients with diabetes for decreasing or discontinuing weight-gaining diabetes medications first (Group WG) and then titrating weight-neutral medications (Group WN). This is a retrospective cohort study (1992 to 2009) of weight, glycemic control and diabetes medications changes in 317 patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes who were taking medications. Group WG and Group WN were similar at baseline, except that glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels were significantly lower in Group WN (7.5% vs. 6.6%; p<0.001). At 6 months, both groups had lost 16% of their weight, and the decreases or discontinuations of medications were 92.1% sulfonureas, 86.5% insulins, 78.8% thiazolidinediones, 77.8% alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, 50% meglitinides, 33.3% dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and 32.8% metformin. At 6 months, compared with baseline, A1C levels improved in Group WG and Group WN (6-month A1C levels 6.7% and 5.8%, respectively; p<0.0001), and Group WN had significantly better A1C levels than Group WG. At 6 months, 30% of patients were no longer taking diabetes medications and had significantly better percentages of weight loss compared with those taking medications (18.6% vs. 16%; p=0.002); both groups had improved glycemic control at 6 months (A1C 6.0% vs. A1C 6.6%; NS). In patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes taking medications, a full MR-LCD program appears to be safe and includes improvement in A1C levels. At 6 months, the percentage of weight loss can be significantly better in patients who no longer require diabetes medications, and A1C levels are best controlled in patients who are on WN medications. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Substituição Parcial do Farelo de Soja pela Farinha de Vísceras de Aves em Dietas Balanceadas com Base na Proteína e em Aminoácidos Totais ou Digestíveis para Frangos de Corte Partial Substitution of Soybean Meal by Poultry Offal Meal in Diets Balanced According to Protein and Total or Digestible Amino Acids for Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Bellaver

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A formulação com base no conceito de proteína ideal (PI é mais eficiente quando são usados ingredientes alternativos ao milho (M e ao farelo de soja (FS. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar formulações de dietas utilizando o conceito de PI, usando farinha de vísceras (FV em substituição ao FS, em dietas de frangos de corte. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: T1 = dieta com 22 % e 20% de proteína bruta (PB nas fases inicial (FI e de crescimento (FC e 3200 kcal/kg de EM durante todo experimento; T2 = energia semelhante a dieta T1 e PI à base de M e FS (1,15% de lisina digestível na FI e 0,90% de lisina digestível na FC; T3=dieta semelhante a T2, com 20 % e 25 % de substituição do FS por FV nas FI e FC, respectivamente; T4=dieta semelhante a T3, com 40 e 50 % de substituição do FS por FV, nas FI e FC, respectivamente; T5=dieta semelhante a T4, porém com balanço por aminoácidos (AA totais (1,10 e 1,00 % de lisina total nas FI e FC, respectivamente. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a formulação com base na PI é melhor do que aquela que considera a PB ou AA totais. A inclusão de 20 % FV na FI e 25 % na FC de frangos de corte, em substituição ao FS, melhorou o desempenho até os 21 dias e não alterou o desempenho até os 42 dias em dietas formuladas dentro do conceito de proteína ideal.Ideal protein (IP concept in feed formulation is more suitable when alternative ingredients to corn (C and soybean meal (SBM are used. Thus, the objective of this paper was to compare diets using IP concept and poultry offal meal (POM in substitution to SBM in broiler diets. The treatments were: T1= diets with 22% and 20 % crude protein (CP in starting phase (SP and growing phase (GP, respectively and 3200 kcal ME/kg all over the experiment; T2= similar energy to T1 and IP diet based on C and SBM (1.15% digestible lysine in SP and 0.90 % in GP; T3= similar diet to T2, with 20% and 25% of substitution of SBM by POM in SP and GP

  14. UTILIZAÇÃO DO FARELO DE CANOLA EM RAÇÕES PARA POEDEIRAS COMERCIAIS FORMULADAS COM BASE EM AMINOÁCIDOS TOTAIS E DIGESTÍVEIS CANOLA MEAL IN LAYING HENS DIETS FORMULATED ACCORDING TO TOTAL AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACID BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Assuena

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da inclusão do farelo de canola em rações para poedeiras comerciais, formuladas com diferentes recomendações de aminoácidos. Foram utilizadas 144 poedeiras comerciais, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições de seis aves cada, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, constituído da combinação de duas recomendações de aminoácidos (totais e digestíveis e quatro níveis de inclusão do farelo de canola (0%, 4%, 8% e 12%. Durante quatro ciclos de 21 dias, avaliaram-se o desempenho e nos dois últimos dias de cada ciclo a qualidade dos ovos. As aves que receberam a ração formulada com aminoácidos digestíveis apresentaram menor massa de ovos e pior conversão alimentar (P<0,05. O farelo de canola pode ser incluído em até 8% da ração sem prejuízo ao desempenho e qualidade da casca dos ovos. Na região de condução da pesquisa o custo do farelo de canola onerou o custo da ração. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alimento alternativo, desempenho, nutrição, qualidade de ovos This experiment was conducted to evaluated increasing levels of canola meal in laying hens diets formulated based in different amino acid recommendations. 144 commercial laying hens was allotted in laying cages during 4 periods of 21 days. Performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated In the last two days of each period. Hens were distributed in a complete randomized design, in factorial arrangement 2x4, with eight treatments and three replicates of six hens each. The factors were diets formulated based on total and digestible aminoacids and increasing levels of canola meal on these diets (0; 4; 8 and 12%. Recommendations of digestible amino acid promoted worst feed conversion and lower egg mass output. Canola meal can be included in laying hens diets until 8% without decrease performance and egg shell quality. However, canola meal increased feed cost on the region where the experiment was

  15. The frequency of family meals and nutritional health in children: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallacker, M; Hertwig, R; Mata, J

    2018-05-01

    Findings on the relationship between family meal frequency and children's nutritional health are inconsistent. The reasons for these mixed results have to date remained largely unexplored. This systematic review and meta-analysis of 57 studies (203,706 participants) examines (i) the relationship between family meal frequency and various nutritional health outcomes and (ii) two potential explanations for the inconsistent findings: sociodemographic characteristics and mealtime characteristics. Separate meta-analyses revealed significant associations between higher family meal frequency and better overall diet quality (r = 0.13), more healthy diet (r = 0.10), less unhealthy diet (r = -0.04) and lower body mass index, BMI (r = -0.05). Child's age, country, number of family members present at meals and meal type (i.e. breakfast, lunch or dinner) did not moderate the relationship of meal frequency with healthy diet, unhealthy diet or BMI. Socioeconomic status only moderated the relationship with BMI. The findings show a significant relationship between frequent family meals and better nutritional health - in younger and older children, across countries and socioeconomic groups, and for meals taken with the whole family vs. one parent. Building on these findings, research can now target the causal direction of the relationship between family meal frequency and nutritional health. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Energy values of canola meal, cottonseed meal, bakery meal, and peanut flour meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Adeola, O

    2017-02-01

    The energy values of canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), bakery meal (BM), and peanut flour meal (PFM) for broiler chickens were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from d 21 to 28 posthatch. The birds were fed a standard broiler starter diet from d 0 to 21 posthatch. In each experiment, 320 birds were grouped by weight into 8 blocks of 5 cages with 8 birds per cage and assigned to 5 diets. Each experiment used a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 4 test diets in which test ingredients partly replaced the energy sources in the reference diet. The test diets in Exp. 1 consisted of 125 g CM, 250 g CM, 100 g CSM, or 200 g CSM/kg. In Exp. 2, the test diets consisted of 200 g BM, 400 g BM, 100 g PFM, or 200 g PFM/kg. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy (ME n ) of all the test ingredients were determined by the regression method. The DM of CM, CSM, BM and PFM were 883, 878, 878, and 964 g/kg, respectively and the respective gross energies (GE) were 4,143, 4,237, 4,060, and 5,783 kcal/kg DM. In Exp. 1, the IDE were 2,132 and 2,197 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The ME were 2,286 and 2,568 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The ME n were 1,931 kcal/kg DM for CM and 2,078 kcal/ kg DM for CSM. In Exp. 2, IDE values were 3,412 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,801 kcal/kg DM for PFM; ME values were 3,176 and 4,601 kcal/kg DM for BM and PFM, respectively, and the ME n values were 3,093 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,112 kcal/kg DM for PFM. In conclusion, the current study showed that chickens can utilize a considerable amount of energy from these 4 ingredients, and also provided the energy values of CM, CSM, BM and PFM for broiler chickens. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Ácidos graxos da gema e composição do ovo de poedeiras alimentadas com rações com farelo de coco Yolk fatty acids and egg components from layers fed diets with coconut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Carvalho Santiago Barreto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão do farelo de coco (FC na ração e do tempo de alimentação de poedeiras comerciais, sobre os ácidos graxos da gema e os componentes do ovo. O delineamento foi em esquema fatorial 5x2, com cinco níveis de inclusão do FC (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% e dois tempos de alimentação (14 e 28 dias. Foram avaliados o peso e as porcentagens de albúmen, gema e casca dos ovos, bem como os sólidos e lipídios totais e o perfil de ácidos graxos das gemas. A inclusão do FC e o tempo de alimentação influenciaram apenas a proporção de ácido mirístico na gema, que aumentou com a inclusão do FC aos 28 dias de alimentação. Os ácidos esteárico e oléico variaram somente com o tempo de alimentação, e as maiores concentrações foram obtidas aos 28 dias. A relação de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados para ácidos graxos saturados da gema diminuiu a partir de 10% de inclusão e aumentou com o tempo de alimentação das aves. O uso de farelo de coco, na ração de poedeiras comerciais, não influencia a proporção dos componentes do ovo, apenas altera a concentração do ácido mirístico da gema.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of coconut meal (CM inclusion in commercial layer diets and feeding time, on egg components and yolk fatty acid composition. The experiment followed a factorial design 5x2, with five levels of CM inclusion (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% and two feeding time (14 and 28 days. Parameters evaluated included: egg weight, and albumen, yolk and shell percentages, as well as solids, lipids and fatty acid profile of the yolk. The inclusion of CM and feeding time affected the yolk content of myristic acid which increased with CM level and with feeding time. The levels of stearic and oleic acids in the yolk varied with feeding time and were higher in the eggs after 28 days. Polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio in yolk decreased, when dietary CM levels were

  18. Meals for Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Leah R; Smith, Teresa M; Stern, Katherine; Boyd, Lisa Weissenburger-Moser; Rasmussen, Cristy Geno; Schaffer, Kelly; Shuell, Julie; Broussard, Karen; Yaroch, Amy L

    2017-12-01

    Innovative approaches to childhood obesity prevention are warranted in early care and education (ECE) settings, since intervening early among youth is recommended to promote and maintain healthy behaviors. The objective of the Meals for Good pilot was to explore feasibility of implementing a food bank-based catering model to ECE programs to provide more nutritious meals, compared to meals brought from home (a parent-prepared model). In 2014-2015, a 12-month project was implemented by a food bank in central Florida in four privately-owned ECE programs. An explanatory sequential design of a mixed-methods evaluation approach was utilized, including a pre-post menu analysis comparing parent-prepared meals to the catered meals, and stakeholder interviews to determine benefits and barriers. The menu analysis of lunches showed daily reductions in calories, fat, and saturated fat, but an increase in sodium in catered meals when compared to parent-prepared meals. Interviews with ECE directors, teachers, parents, and food bank project staff, identified several benefits of the catered meals, including healthfulness of meals, convenience to parents, and the ECE program's ability to market this meal service. Barriers of the catered meals included the increased cost to parents, transportation and delivery logistics, and change from a 5 to a 2-week menu cycle during summer food service. This pilot demonstrated potential feasibility of a food bank-ECE program partnership, by capitalizing on the food bank's existing facilities and culinary programming, and interest in implementing strategies focused on younger children. The food bank has since leveraged lessons learned and expanded to additional ECE programs.

  19. The associations of meals and snacks on family meals among a sample of grade 7 students from Southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Campbell, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Research has shown the positive associations of family meals and diet quality. However, little is known about how other meals/snacks may be associated with family meals. The purpose was to determine the associations among the frequency and calorie consumption of meals/snacks and family dinners. Cross-sectional. Data were collected using Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q), including a 24-h diet recall for breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and evening snack. Measured height and weight were used to determine body weight status (BMI). Participants included 1068 grade 7 students (52% males) from 26 schools in Windsor Essex County, Ontario, Canada. Meal, snack, and total daily caloric intake; meal and snack frequency; with whom dinner was consumed, and weekly family dinner frequency. Exploratory one-way ANOVAs and chi-square tests; nominal and ordinal logistic regression. Ninety-three percent of participants consumed dinner with family members on the night prior to the survey and 77% reported usually consuming dinner/supper with at least one parent on six to seven nights/week. Those who had dinner with family members consumed 4.88 (SD 1.1) meals/snacks per day compared with 4.40 (SD 1.3) and 4.40 (SD 1.3) times/day for consuming dinner alone or with friends, respectively (p=0.006). On the day prior to the survey, participants were less likely to consume a family meal if they consumed a lower number of meals and snacks per day (OR=0.69 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.87), psnacks per day (OR=0.84 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.96), p=0.009). While specific meals and snacks were not associated with family dinner, overall eating frequency was positively associated with family meals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Possible effects of the intake of a free, healthy school meal on overall meal frequency and watching TV while eating among 10-12-year-olds in Norway : The School Meal Project in Aust-Agder

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Ida Kile

    2017-01-01

    Master's Thesis Public Health Science ME516 - University of Agder 2017 Background: Irregular meal frequencies and watching TV while eating is associated with poorer diet quality in children/adolescents. Preventive public health measures organized in school will reach children regardless of socioeconomic position. Today, there is no arrangement of school meals in Norwegian schools. The aim of this study was to assess possible effects of the intake of a free, healthy school meal ...

  1. Substitution of Soybean Meal with Indigofera zollingeriana Top Leaf Meal on Egg Quality of Cortunix cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faradillah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the substitution of soybean meal (SBM with Indigofera zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM in the diet on egg quality of Japanese quails. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (ten quails of each replication. The dietary treatment contained five combination of SBM and ILM, R0= diets contained 18% SBM without ILM, R1= diet contained 16.2% SBM and 2.66% ILM, R2= diet contained 14.4% SBM and 5.32% ILM, R3= diet contained 12.6% SBM and 7.98% ILM, R4= diet contained 9% SBM and 13.3% ILM. The results showed that the use of 13.3% ILM (R4 significantly (P<0.05 increased feed consumption, egg weight, yolk colour score, egg cholesterol, and reduced malondialdehyde level. The conclusion of this study was I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could be used as much as 13.3% in the diets. The use of I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could improve the quality of eggs physically and chemically.

  2. Evaluation of Soybean Hulls in Grower Turkey Diets | Etuk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 42 day study was carried out to evaluate the effect of soybean hulls (SBH) in diets of grower turkeys. Four experimental turkey grower diets were formulated such that soybean hulls made up of 0.0 (control diet), 10.0, 20.0 and 30.0% of the diets respectively replacing maize and soybean meal. These diets were offered ...

  3. The timing of meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, JH; Woods, SC; Woods, Stephen C.

    In most individuals, food intake occurs as discrete bouts or meals, and little attention has been paid to the factors that normally determine when meals will occur when food is freely available. On the basis of experiments using rats, the authors suggest that when there are no constraints on

  4. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  5. Dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com enzimas na alimentação de frangos de corte Corn and soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymes in feed of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Maria Torres

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da adição de enzimas digestivas exógenas em dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte, conduziu-se este experimento. Foram utilizados 819 pintos Hubbard em DIC e esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 (enzimas, proteínas, níveis de energia e um tratamento testemunha com 3 repetições de 21 aves por parcela. Os níveis de enzimas foram 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 g/kg de dieta, e os de proteína foram normais (21,18, 19,95 e 19,43% PB e reduzidos (20,54, 19,35 e 18,46% PB; os de energia também foram normais (3000, 3100 e 3200 kcal/kg de EM e reduzidos (2910, 3007 e 3040 kcal/kg de EM, respectivamente, para as fases inicial, de crescimento e final da criação, e para o testemunha, a ração continha níveis normais de EM e PB, sem enzimas. Os fatores avaliados foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e fator europeu de produção. Pelos resultados, verificou-se manutenção do desempenho zootécnico das aves em razão da aplicação de enzimas, constatado pela não significância desses fatores aos 42 dias de idade e pela melhora na conversão alimentar, redução do consumo de ração e maior fator europeu de produção aos 21 dias de idade. O estudo da interação dos níveis de enzima x proteína mostrou que a adição de 0,5 g/kg de enzima na dieta com nível de proteína reduzido resultou em maior ganho de peso das aves. Conclui-se que é viável o uso de enzimas exógenas adicionadas em rações para frangos de corte.The objective of the experiment was verify the effect of the addition of exogen digestive enzymes in corn and soybean meal based diets on performance of broiler chickens. Were used 819 Hubbard chickens in completely randomized design, and 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 check factorial (enzyme, protein and energy levels and one treatment check with 3 replications, of the 21 birds by replicate. Enzyme levels were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg of diet, energy levels were

  6. Efeito da combinação de dietas contendo milho ou triticale e farelo de soja ou levedura sobre o desempenho de novilhas nelore terminadas em confinamento Effect of diet synchronization based on ground corn or triticale and soybean meal or yeast on feedlot Nelore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Takae Iwayama

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para comparar o efeito da combinação de quatro dietas contendo silagem de sorgo, milho ou triticale e farelo de soja ou levedura, em 48 novilhas nelore com peso médio de 235kg e idade aproximada de 18 meses, confinadas durante 84 dias, divididos em 3 períodos (PI, PII, PIII de 28 dias. Avaliaram-se o ganho médio diário (GMD, rendimento de carcaça (RC, conversão alimentar e consumo (ingestão para cada 100kg de peso vivo de MS, PB, MO, EB, FDN e FDA. Não houve interação (p > 0,05 entre os alimentos. O GMD das rações com levedura no PI foi superior (p 0,05 no GMD entre rações com levedura e farelo de soja. Por outro lado, não foram observadas diferenças (p > 0,05 para o GMD, nos PI e PII entre as rações à base de triticale e milho. No entanto, no PIII e na média geral, o triticale promoveu maior (p 0,05 entre os alimentos. O consumo de PB foi maior (p The aim of this work was to compare the effect of diet synchronization based on sorghum silage, ground corn or triticale and soybean meal and yeast on the performance of 48 18-month-old Nelore heifers with 235 kg average weight, stabled for 84 days, divided into three periods (PI, PII and PIII of 28 days. The average daily weight gain (ADG, carcass yield (CY, feed intake and conversion (intake ratio to 100 kg live weight of DM, CP, OM, GE, NDF and ADF were evaluated. There was no interaction (p > 0.05 between diets. The ADG of yeast in PI was higher (p 0.05 in ADG between yeast and soybean meal. There were no differences observed (p > 0.05 as for ADG in PI and PII between triticale and ground corn. However in PIII and in final average period triticale presented a higher (p 0.05 between diets. Conversion of CP was higher (p < 0.05 for diets with triticale than with corn and for diets with soybean meal than with yeast.

  7. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) meal as protein source by laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Diarra, Siaka Seriba; Kant, Rashmi; Tanhimana, Jemarlyn; Lela, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control), 33, 67 and 100%. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compa...

  8. Regular meal frequency creates more appropriate insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles compared with irregular meal frequency in healthy lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, H R; Taylor, M A; Macdonald, I A

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the impact of irregular meal frequency on circulating lipids, insulin, glucose and uric acid concentrations which are known cardiovascular risk factors. A randomised crossover dietary intervention study. Nottingham, UK--Healthy free-living women. A total of nine lean healthy women aged 18-42 y recruited via advertisement. A randomised crossover trial with two phases of 14 days each. In Phase 1, subjects consumed their normal diet on either 6 occasions per day (regular) or by following a variable meal frequency (3-9 meals/day, irregular). In Phase 2, subjects followed the alternative meal pattern to that followed in Phase 1, after a 2-week (wash-out) period. Subjects were asked to come to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each phase. Blood samples were taken for measurement of circulating glucose, lipids, insulin and uric acid concentrations before and for 3 h after consumption of a high-carbohydrate test meal. Fasting glucose and insulin values were not affected by meal frequency, but peak insulin and AUC of insulin responses to the test meal were higher after the irregular compared to the regular eating patterns (P meal frequency was associated with higher fasting total (P meal frequency appears to produce a degree of insulin resistance and higher fasting lipid profiles, which may indicate a deleterious effect on these cardiovascular risk factors. : The Ministry of Health and Medical Education, IR Iran.

  9. Response of early weaned pigs to full-fat soyabean diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    24 Large White X Landrace pigs weaned at 28 days with initial liveweight of 5.27 ±0.23 kg were fed four animal protein concentrates (fish meal (FM), Chicken offal meal (COM), fresh blood meal (FBM) and parboiled blood meal (PBM) in diets based on full-fat soyabean (FFSB) for 8 weeks to test different animal protein ...

  10. Desempenho e parâmetros sangüíneos de eqüinos em crescimento submetidos a dietas com diferentes níveis de farelo de canola Performance and blood parameters of growing equine fed diets with different levels of canola meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando potros, avaliaram-se dietas em que a proteína do farelo de soja foi substituído em diferentes níveis (0; 35; 65 e 100% pela do farelo de canola. As rações foram isoprotéicas ( 17% PB e isocalóricas (4200 kcal/kg. Foram utilizados 16 eqüinos da raça Mangalarga, sendo oito machos e oito fêmeas, com média de dez meses e 218 kg PV inicial, consumindo um total de 2,5% PV, na matéria seca (MS. A dieta era composta por 40% de volumoso e 60% de concentrado. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, considerando quatro blocos e quatro tratamentos. Não se verificou efeito dos tratamentos sobre as variáveis de desempenho (ganho diário de peso vivo, altura na cernelha, perímetro torácico e perímetro da canela e parâmetros sangüíneos (glicose e uréia dos potros em crescimento. Nos concentrados para potros dos 9 a 11,5 meses de idade, o farelo de soja pode ser substituído pelo farelo de canola.Diets composed by four different levels (0; 53; 65 and 100% of canola meal replacing soybean meal crude protein (CP were evaluated using foals. The diets were isoproteic (17% CP and isocaloric (4200 kcal/kg. Sixteen Managalarga breed foals, eight males and eight females, averaging 10 months and 218 kg LW, fed a total intake of 2.5% LW on dry matter (DM basis were used. The diet was composed by 60:40 forage to concentrate ratio. A completely block experimental design, with four blocks and four treatments, was used. There were no effect of treatments on the performance variables (average daily gain, wither height, heart girth and cannon bone circumference and blood parameters (glucose and urea of growing foals. In the concentrate for growing foals from 9 to 11.5 months old, the soybean meal can be replaced by canola meal.

  11. Objective measures of meal variety lacking association with consumers' perception of variety with self-selected buffet meals at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Brockhoff, Per B.; Lahteenmaki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Food variety has been linked to higher diet quality and increased food intake, but what constitutes variety for consumers is underexposed. The aim of the study was twofold: first to explore the relationship between objective measures of meal variety and subjective post-meal ratings of perceived...... variety, and second to explore the associations between subjective meal variety and decision-making rules and individual eating styles. Data consist of 510 meals compiled from workplace lunch buffets by 71 respondents over 31 optional days. Meals were photographed and coded according to the number...... of components (dishes served), food groups, colours, size and shape of food on the plates. A mixed model approach was used to analyse data due to the repetitive structure of the data. Results show that subjective variety was marginally associated with the number of food groups, but there was no association...

  12. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  13. Dieta hiperlipídica com farinha de soja como fonte proteica: utilização na seleção de ratos propensos e resistentes à obesidade High-fat diet using soybean meal as protein source: use for selecting rats prone and resistant to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludimila Canuto Cabeço

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma dieta hiperlipídica de baixo custo, tendo farinha de soja como fonte proteica, que seja eficiente na seleção de ratos propensos e resistentes à obesidade e que permita alcançar fenótipo obeso nos animais propensos. Além desses requisitos, a dieta deve ser palatável e não rejeitada a curto prazo pelo animal. MÉTODOS: A dieta proposta foi obtida misturando-se leite condensado (15,5%, amendoim (18,5%, farinha de soja (20,0%, óleo de milho (6,0%, ração Bio Tec (30,0% e bolacha wafer de chocolate (10,0%. A mistura foi peletizada e submetida à análise bromatológica. A dieta foi ofertada a ratos Wistar durante uma semana; posteriormente, os animais foram divididos em três grupos, de acordo com o ganho de peso. O terço superior foi considerado propenso à obesidade e o terço inferior, resistente à obesidade. Após 80 dias de oferta da dieta, os animais foram sacrificados e foram quantificados o peso corpóreo, consumo alimentar, gorduras retroperitoneal, periepididimal, de carcaça e gorduras totais. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que a dieta apresentava 5,31kcal/g, com a seguinte composição: 22,3% de gordura, 22,2% de proteína, 15,9% de fibra, estimando-se 35,7% de carboidrato. Ratos propensos à obesidade, alimentados por 87 dias com a dieta hipercalórica, apresentaram peso corpóreo, gorduras retroperitoneal, periepididimal e totais significativamente maiores do que animais resistentes à obesidade (pOBJECTIVE: The objective was to develop a high-fat, low cost diet, using soybean meal as protein source. This diet should effectively discriminate between rats prone and resistant to obesity and allow the obese phenotype to be achieved in the animals that are prone to obesity. Furthermore, the diet must be palatable and not be rejected by the animal in the short run. METHODS: The chow was obtained by mixing the following ingredients: condensed milk (15.5%, peanuts (18.5%, soybean meal (20.0%, corn oil (6

  14. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: meal frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout Jeffrey R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: Admittedly, research to date examining the physiological effects of meal frequency in humans is somewhat limited. More specifically, data that has specifically examined the impact of meal frequency on body composition, training adaptations, and performance in physically active individuals and athletes is scant. Until more research is available in the physically active and athletic populations, definitive conclusions cannot be made. However, within the confines of the current scientific literature, we assert that: 1. Increasing meal frequency does not appear to favorably change body composition in sedentary populations. 2. If protein levels are adequate, increasing meal frequency during periods of hypoenergetic dieting may preserve lean body mass in athletic populations. 3. Increased meal frequency appears to have a positive effect on various blood markers of health, particularly LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and insulin. 4. Increased meal frequency does not appear to significantly enhance diet induced thermogenesis, total energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate. 5. Increasing meal frequency appears to help decrease hunger and improve appetite control. The following literature review has been prepared by the authors in support of the aforementioned position statement.

  15. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Petersen, G I; Stein, H H

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent ileal digestibility and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and hominy feed and to compare these values with the apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and AA in corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Eight growing barrows (initial BW: 82.5 ± 5.5 kg) were randomly allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 diets and 8 periods. Diets contained corn, DDGS, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, or hominy feed as the sole source of protein and AA. An N-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and protein. Pigs were fed experimental diets for eight 7-d periods, with ileal digesta being collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results indicated that the SID of Lys in corn gluten meal (78.7%) was greater (P bakery meal, corn germ meal, and hominy feed (46.0, 48.4, 68.4, and 58.8%, respectively). The SID of all indispensable AA except Arg, Leu, and Met in bakery meal were not different from those in DDGS. The SID of Arg, His, Leu, and Met in corn gluten feed were less (P bakery meal had SID values of most AA that were less than in corn, but corn gluten meal had SID values for most AA that were greater than the SID of AA in corn, bakery meal, and corn coproducts.

  16. Effects of meal composition and meal timing on the expression of genes involved in hepatic drug metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, E M; Oosterman, J E; Eggink, H M; de Goede, P; Sen, S; Foppen, E; Boudzovitch-Surovtseva, O; Boelen, A; Romijn, J A; laFleur, S E; Kalsbeek, A

    2017-01-01

    With chronotherapy, drug administration is synchronized with daily rhythms in drug clearance and pharmacokinetics. Daily rhythms in gene expression are centrally mastered by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus as well as by tissue clocks containing similar molecular mechanisms in peripheral organs. The central timing system is sensitive to changes in the external environment such as those of the light-dark cycle, meal timing and meal composition. We investigated how changes in diet composition and meal timing would affect the daily hepatic expression rhythms of the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR and of enzymes involved in P450 mediated drug metabolism, as such changes could have consequences for the practice of chronotherapy. Rats were subjected to either a regular chow or a free choice high-fat-high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet. These diets were provided ad libitum, or restricted to either the light phase or the dark phase. In a second experiment, rats had access to chow either ad libitum or in 6 meals equally distributed over 24 hours. Pxr, Alas1 and Por displayed significant day-night rhythms under ad libitum chow fed conditions, which for Pxr was disrupted under fcHFHS diet conditions. Although no daily rhythms were detected in expression of CAR, Cyp2b2 and Cyp3a2, the fcHFHS diet did affect basal expression of these genes. In chow fed rats, dark phase feeding induced a diurnal rhythm in Cyp2b2 expression while light phase feeding induced a diurnal rhythm in Car expression and completely shifted the peak expression of Pxr, Car, Cyp2b2, Alas1 and Por. The 6-meals-a-day feeding only abolished the Pxr rhythm but not the rhythms of the other genes. We conclude that although nuclear receptors and enzymes involved in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolism are sensitive to meal composition, changes in meal timing are mainly effectuated via changes in the molecular clock.

  17. School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study-III: Volume I: School Food Service, School Food Environment, and Meals Offered and Served.

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Gordon; Mary Kay Crepinsek; Renée Nogales; Elizabeth Condon

    2007-01-01

    SNDA-III provides detailed information on the operation of school meal programs, the school environment that affects these programs, the nutrient content of school meals, and the contribution of school meals to students’ diets. Mathematica collected data for the study during school year 2004-2005 from a nationally representative sample of districts, schools, and students. This summary report notes that in a typical week, more than 70 percent of schools served meals that met standards for key ...

  18. Desempenho de novilhas alimentadas com rações contendo milho ou casca de mandioca como fonte energética e farelo de algodão ou levedura como fonte protéica Performance of heifers fed diets containing corn or cassava hull as energy source and cottonseed meal or yeast as protein source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Foi avaliado efeito da combinação de fontes energéticas (milho ou casca de mandioca e fontes protéicas (levedura ou farelo de algodão + farinha de carne e ossos de quatro dietas, usando silagem de milho como fonte de volumoso, sobre o desempenho e a ingestão de MS, PB, MO, EM, FDA, FDN, amido, Ca e P, em novilhas. O efeito da adição de sal ou sal mineralizado às dietas também foi avaliado. Foi usado um total de 28 novilhas com, em média, 303 kg PV e 18 meses de idade, confinadas durante 76 dias. Houve diferença na ingestão de nutrientes entre as dietas, porém, não houve efeito das fontes energéticas, protéicas e de sal sobre o ganho médio diário, o rendimento de carcaça e a conversão alimentar. Portanto, a levedura pode substituir o farelo de algodão, como fonte protéica, assim como a casca de mandioca pode substituir o milho, como fonte de energia, sem alterar o desempenho de novilhas terminadas em confinamento. O consumo de Ca pelas novilhas foi maior nas rações com sal mineralizado do que em rações contendo sal comum.ABSTRACT - The effect of the combination of energy sources (corn or cassava hull and protein sources (cottonseed meal or yeast + meat and bone meal in four diets, using corn silage as forage source, on the performance and intake of DM, CP, OM, ME, ADF, NDF, starch, Ca and P, using heifers. The effect of the addition salt or mineralized salt was also evaluated. A total of 28 heifers with average 303 kg LW and 18 months of age, confined during 76 days, was used. There were differences on nutrients intake among diets, however, there was no effect of the sources of energy, protein and salt on the average daily gain, carcass yield and feed:gain ratio. Therefore, yeast could substitute cottonseed meal as protein source, so as cassava hull could replace corn as energy source, without affecting the performance of feedlot heifers. The calcium intake by the heifers was higher in the mineralized salt

  19. Substituição do milho por farelo de palma forrageira em dietas de ovinos em crescimento: desempenho Replacement of corn by forage cactus meal in growing lambs diets: performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Magno Liberal Véras

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar quatro níveis de substituição do milho (0; 33; 67 e 100% pelo farelo de palma forrageira sobre o desempenho de ovinos em crescimento terminados em confinamento. Vinte carneiros mestiços Santa Inês foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de substituição do milho pelo farelo de palma e cinco repetições. Além do milho e/ou farelo de palma, os animais receberam feno de Tifton (Cynodon dactylon, como volumoso, farelo de soja, calcário e sal mineral. O ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar diminuíram, enquanto os consumos de FDN e de FDA aumentaram linearmente com a substituição. Os consumos de matéria seca, de proteína bruta, de matéria orgânica e de carboidratos totais e o rendimento de carcaça não foram influenciados pela substituição do milho pelo farelo de palma.The objective of this work was to evaluate four corn replacement levels (0, 33, 67 and 100% by forage cactus meal on performance of feedlot growing lambs. Twenty crossbred lambs were allotted to a completely randomized block design with four treatments (replacement of corn by forage cactus meal and five replications. Besides corn and/or forage cactus meal, the animals were fed Tifton hay (Cynodon dactylon, as forage, soybean meal, limestone and mineral salt. Weight gain and feed:gain ratio decreased and intakes of NDF and ADF increased linearly with corn replacement. The intakes of dry matter, crude protein, organic matter and total carbohydrates and carcass yield were not affected by replacement of corn by forage cactus meal.

  20. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  1. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  2. Incorporação de farinhas de resíduos de Jundiá na dieta: bioquímica plasmática, parâmetros hepáticos e digestivos Addition of Jundiá waste meal in diet: plasmatic biochemistry, hepatic and digestive parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete Rossato

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a influência da adição de farinha de resíduos de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen na dieta de exemplares desta espécie sobre a bioquímica plasmática, parâmetros hepáticos e digestivos. No experimento I (EXP I, compararam-se dietas com 30% de farinha de carne e ossos suína (FCO, farinha de carcaça de jundiás com vísceras (FCJCV, farinha de carcaça de jundiá sem vísceras (FCJSV e farinha de jundiás inteiros (FJI. No experimento II (EXP II, níveis de inclusão de FCJCV foram testados (0; 3,75; 7,5; 15 e 30%. No plasma, foram quantificadas proteínas totais circulantes, colesterol total, triglicerídeos, glicose, albumina e aminoácidos. No fígado, analisou-se glicose, amônia, proteínas totais, glicogênio, aminoácidos e transaminases. No estômago, foi determinada a atividade de protease ácida e, no intestino, tripsina e quimotripsina. No EXP I, foram observados menores níveis de glicose no plasma e alanina aminotransferase (ALT no fígado, para o tratamento FCJSV, e maiores índices destes para FCO. A atividade da protease ácida e da quimotripsina foram menores para a FCO e maior para a FCJCV. No EXP II, os índices de aminoácidos livres e colesterol total no plasma aumentaram com a elevação dos níveis de inclusão da FCJCV na dieta. A incorporação de farinhas de resíduos de jundiá à dieta altera a bioquímica plasmática, os parâmetros hepáticos e digestivos dos juvenis de jundiá, porém essas alterações não influenciaram na saúde dos peixes, demonstrando sua qualidade nutricional e eficiência no uso em dietas para peixes.The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the addition of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen waste meal in the diet of this species, on plasmatic biochemistry, liver and digestive parameters. Experiment I (EXP I compared diets with 30% of meat and swine bones (FCO, Jundiá carcass meal with viscera (FCJCV, Jundiá carcass meal without viscera (FCJSV and

  3. Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Syrad, Hayley; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Johnson, Laura; Boniface, David; Jebb, Susan A.; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939 children aged 21 months from the Gemini twin cohort, we assessed prospective associations between meal size, meal frequency and weight gain from two to five years. Separate longitudinal analyses demo...

  4. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Fermentação Ruminal e Concentrações de Uréia Plasmática e no Leite Replacement of Corn by Cassava By-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Diet Degradability, Ruminal Fermentation and Plasma and Milk Urea Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre a degradabilidade potencial, efetiva e efetiva corrigida das rações, bem como sobre o pH ruminal e as concentrações de amônia ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia no leite em cabras em lactação. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de mandiocade varredura. A degradabilidade das rações experimentais foi determinada em bovinos pela técnica in situ. Apesar de a degradabilidade potencial das dietas experimentais ter tido pequena variação para MS, PB e amido, a degradabilidade efetiva e a degradabilidade efetiva corrigida da MS, da PB e do amido aumentaram com a substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH ruminal, bem como as concentrações de NH3-ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia do leite. Houve correlação positiva (PThe objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on potencial, effective and corrected effective degradability of diets with steers, and on ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and milk urea nitrogen (MUN concentrations in lactating goats. Two steers and four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula and 100 days in milking were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin square and treatments as following: 0, 33, 67 and 100% replacement of corn by cassava by-product meal. Rations degradability was determined using in situ technique. Potential degradability of experimental diets showed small variation for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and starch (S but effective and corrected effective degradability increased as corn was

  5. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF GRASSCUTTERS FED DIETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A total of ninety six-week old grasscutters were used in a study conducted to investigate the growth performance of grasscutters fed diets containing Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) and/or soybean meal. (SBM). The ninety (90) grasscutters were randomly assigned to three experimental groups consisting of ...