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Sample records for barley varieties flour

  1. The viscoelastic properties of the protein-rich materials from the fermented hard wheat, soft wheat and barley flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    The linear and non-linear rheological properties of the suspensions for the hard red spring wheat (HRS) flour, soft wheat (Pastry) flour, barley flour, as well as the remain residues of HRS flour, Pastry flour, and barley flour after fermentation were investigated. The linear and non-linear rheologi...

  2. Fermented Dough Characteristics of Wheat-barley-hemp Composites. Comparison of Two Dosages of Barley and Hemp Wholemeal/Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour substitution by barley one led to shortening of fermentation and leavening times (about 14–57% and 35–83%, respectively as well as to lessening of dough volumes (about 25–75%, based on lowered protein quality (Zeleny value. Addition of barley flour affected specific bread volume; diminishing for wheat-barley blends 70:30 and 50:50 reached 30% and 43%, respectively. Volume of bread prepared from wheat-barley blend 70:30 enhanced by dehulled hemp wholemeal was the highest within the tested tri-composites set, achieving 130% of wheat-barley control; other hemp products caused the parameter decrease (from 8 to 33%. Within a group of bakery products containing 50% of barley flour, hulled hemp wholemeal partially supressed negative effect of barley flour – specific bread volumes increased about ca 15%. Commercial fine hemp flour samples demonstrated a reversal influence – its addition resulted into lower buns size than wheat-barley control (about 3–34%. Between wheat flour and both groups of flour tri-composites, PCA confirmed differences in dough and bread technological quality. Specific bread volume could be predicted according to maturograph dough elasticity, dough or bread OTG volumes.

  3. Yield and competition in barley variety mixtures

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    Kari Jokinen

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition between spring barley varieties and yield performance of two-, three and four-variety mixtures were studied in two replacement series field experiments. In the first experiment, repeated in three successive years (1983 —85 the components were the six-row varieties Agneta, Arra, Hja-673 and Porno. In the second experiment (1984, including two nitrogen doses (50 and 100 kgN/ha, both six-row (Agneta, Pomo and two-row (Ida, Kustaa varieties were used. Arra in the first and Agneta in the second experiment were the most competitive varieties. The results suggested that the fast growth of Arra at the beginning promoted its competitive ability. Increase in available nitrogen usually strengthened the competitiveness of Agneta. The observed competitive differences between varieties were not related to the earliness of a variety, neither to the morphological characters (two- and six-row varieties nor to the grain yield of a variety grown alone. The competitive ability was not always a stable character, the dominant suppression relationship varying from one environment to another (e.g. growing season, nitrogen dose. The observed overyielding was not statistically significant. The ratio of actual to expected yield and the relative yield total of several mixtures exceeded slightly one. As a conclusion, the yield advantage of mixtures was marginal. As a rule, the mixtures were not more stable than monocultures as determined by the coefficient of variation. However, the yield of some mixtures varied less than the yield of the most stable monoculture.

  4. The breeding of new malting barley variety 'Yangpi No.2'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Wang Jinrong; Yang Hefeng

    2005-01-01

    'Yangpi No.2' barley pasted the examination of Jiangsu province in 2002, is the new spring two-rowed malting barley variety selected by which irradiation mutated the early-maturing of barley. The yield capacity of 'Yangpi No.2' barley is about 6750 kg/hm 2 , it had the characters of early-maturing, good agronomic characters, strong anti-adversity, high quality, and adapted well to everywhere in Jiangsu province. (authors)

  5. The adsorption of α-amylase on barley proteins affects the in vitro digestion of starch in barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenwen; Zou, Wei; Dhital, Sushil; Wu, Peng; Gidley, Michael J; Fox, Glen P; Gilbert, Robert G

    2018-02-15

    The conversion of barley starch to sugars is a complex enzymic process. Most previous work concerned the biotechnical aspect of in situ barley enzymes. However, the interactions among the macromolecular substrates and their effects on enzymic catalysis has been little examined. Here, we explore the mechanisms whereby interactions of protein and starch in barley flour affect the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in an in vitro system, using digestion rate data and structural analysis by confocal microscopy. The degradation kinetics of both uncooked barley flour and of purified starches are found to be two-step sequential processes. Barley proteins, especially the water-soluble component, are found to retard the digestion of starch degraded by α-amylase: the enzyme binds with water-insoluble protein and with starch granules, leading to reduced starch hydrolysis. These findings are of potential industrial value in both the brewing and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiological and technological characterization of sourdoughs destined for bread-making with barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Emanuele; Garofalo, Cristiana; Aquilanti, Lucia; Santarelli, Sara; Silvestri, Gloria; Clementi, Francesca

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was the microbiological and technological characterization of laboratory- made sourdoughs for use in barley-flour-based bread-making. A defined multi-strain starter culture consisting of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts from wheat sourdoughs was inoculated into three flour-water mixtures, composed of: (i) 100% wheat flour (ii) 50% wheat flour and 50% hull-less barley flour (composite flour); (iii) 100% hull-less barley flour. After two months of continuous propagation, the chemical characteristics of the three sourdoughs were investigated by measuring: pH, total titratable acidity and concentrations of various microbial metabolites by HPLC (i.e. lactic, acetic, phenyllactic and butyric acids and diacetyl). The microbial traits were studied through viable counts, isolation and typing of LAB and yeasts and PCR-DGGE analyses. Only Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum were detectable in the sourdoughs together with other lactobacilli species which were different depending on the type of flour blend used. The molecular typing of the isolates highlighted that only a few strains among those initially inoculated prevailed. The volume increases of the three types of sourdough were also investigated and a correlation was seen between an increase in the barley flour content and a reduction in the dough volume.

  7. EFFECTS OF BARLEY FLOUR ADDITION AND BAKING TEMPERATURE ON Β-GLUCANS CONTENT AND BISCUITS PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Džafić, A; Oručević-Žuljević, Sanja; Spaho, Nermina; Akagić, Asima

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate opportunities to improve the nutritional value of biscuits. Therefore, the content of β-glucans, physical, chemical and sensory properties of biscuits were determined in relation to a share of added barley flour and a baking temperature. Five different blends of barley and wheat were used for biscuit production: barley/wheat flours in combinations: 0/100; 25/75; 50/50; 75/25 and 100/0 according to the procedure described in AACC method 10-52. The temp...

  8. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...

  9. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  10. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  11. The breeding of new malting barley variety 'yangpi NO.3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinrong; Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Wang Jianhua; Zhang Rong

    2009-01-01

    'Yangpi No 3' is a spring and two-rowed new malting barley variety. It was selected by the radiation-induced mutations. Its yield was about 6750 kg/hm 2 and the maturity was slightly later. The variety is with good agronomic traits, strong resistance, top quality and planted mainly in Huainan of Jiangsu Province. It had been qualified by Crop Variety Evaluation Committee of Jiangsu Province in Feb, 2009(200901). (authors)

  12. New NS varieties of six-rowed winter barley

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    Pržulj Novo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the characteristics of several new NS varieties of winter six-rowed barley released in Serbia between 2004 and 2007. These are Somborac, Ozren, Javor, Novosadski 773, Sremac and Leotar. In the official variety trials in the country, all six of these varieties outyielded the check variety, and the margins were as follows: Somborac - 3.4%, Ozren - 5.0%, Javor - 7.3%, Novosadski 773 - 3.4%, Sremac - 7.4%, and Leotar - 7.2%. Yield levels in absolute terms depended on the variety as well as year. All six-rowed NS varieties headed earlier than the check and had better resistance to lodging than the check has. The test weight of the new varieties was 70.2-73.8 kg/hl and the 1000-grain weight 33.4-50.2 g. The cellulose content was 4.4-4.8%, the fat content 1.4%, and the protein content 13.3-14.6%. The high variability of the new NS varieties of winter six-rowed barley makes it possible to choose the most suitable genotype for each barley-growing area in the country. .

  13. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    , Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... both yielding and competitive ability may be possible. Non-linear regression models were fitted to canopy height and light interception data for each variety in all three years. The canopy height model provided a precise description of development and maximum canopy height of the varieties. A light...

  14. The Importance of Barley Varieties in terms of Production, Marketing and Processing

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    Rahmi Taşcı

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to investigate the criteria affecting the marketing of barley in the stages of barley production, marketing and processing in Konya province. In the study; survey results were used which get from mixed feed (37 items and malt factory (1 item, traders (50 items purchasing and selling barley, and agricultural enterprises (107 items including barley production in agricultural activities operating in Konya province. It was determined that barley varieties were not an important criterion in the selling price, while the hectoliter and other plant species do not mix into barley are the main criteria considered by agricultural enterprises to affect the sale of barley. The most important criteria that traders keep in mind when buying barley is hectoliter of barley, which is followed by moisture, colour and foreign matter confusion rate of barley. The most important criteria that factories take into consideration when purchasing barley is determined as the moisture content of the barley, followed by the hectoliter of barley and the rate of foreign matter contamination. For the malt industry; Barley variety is a very important factor in the purchase criteria, followed by barley humidity and colour.

  15. Malt quality of 4 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... Grain flour starch pasting and malt qualities were analyzed. .... bags and stored in a cool place (ca. ... Pasting properties of four malting barely varieties grain flour starches and the effect of three fungicide (propiconazole) spray.

  16. Physical-chemical characterization of pre-cooked mixed rice flour and barley bagasse

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    Diego Palmiro Ramirez Ascheri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The extrusion processing parameters, chemical composition and water content of the flour mixture may affect the structure of rice flour, leading to products with different rheological behavior and hygroscopicity. Therefore, this work aimed to study the rheological properties and water adsorption of mixed flours of broken rice and barley bagasse obtained by extrusion cooking. Samples were prepared from a mixture of grits/bagasse between 82/18 and 73/27 (w/w with water content between 18.04 and 26.96%, using a single screw extruder. The rheological properties of the extruded flour were determined by a rapid viscosity analyzer to evaluate the cooking profile of the pastes by observing the pasting temperature, maximum viscosity, breakdown and retrogradation. The adsorption process was performed by weighing the samples stored at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 45 °C with water activity between 0.112 and 0.973. The isotherms were fitted using the following mathematical models: Halsey, Oswin, Smith, GAB and Peleg. The extruded composite flours were characterized by their lack of initial viscosity. The pasting temperature (40-67 °C, maximum viscosity (690-1146 cP, breakdown viscosity (0-175 cP and retrogradation (613-1382 cP were lower than for raw rice flour. The Peleg equation fitted well to the water adsorption data and can be used to represent the sigmoidal type II shape of the water adsorption isotherms for the extruded mixed flours from rice grits and barley bagasse.

  17. Using Goat's Milk, Barley Flour, Honey, and Probiotic to Manufacture of Functional Dairy Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Magdy Mohamed; Hamad, Mohamed Farid; Elraghy, Esraa Mohamed

    2017-08-23

    Stirred yogurt manufactured using probiotic culture which usually called Rayeb milk in the Middle East region is one of the most important functional fermented milk products. To increase the health and functionality properties to this product, some ingredients like fruits, cereal, and whey protein are used in production. This study was carried out to prepare functional Rayeb milk from goat's milk, barley flour (15%) and honey (4%) mixtures using ABT culture. Also, vanilla and cocoa powder were used as flavorings. Adding barley flour and honey to goat's milk increased curd tension and water-holding capacity and decreased coagulation time and susceptibility to syneresis. The values of carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber, ash, total protein, water soluble nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic acids, and antioxidant activity were higher in Rayeb milk supplemented with barley flour and honey than control. The viabilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Chr. Hansen's Lab A/S) increased in fortified Rayeb milk. The recommended level of 10 7  cfu g -1 of bifidobacteria as a probiotic was exceeded for these samples. Addition of vanilla (0.1%) or cocoa powder (0.5%) improved the sensory properties of fortified Rayeb milk.

  18. Fungal Distribution and Varieties Resistance to Kernel Discoloration in Korean Two-rowed Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Hyun Shin; Eun-Jo Seo; Jae-Seong Choi; JungKwan Lee; Jong-Chul Park; Chun-Sik Kang

    2013-01-01

    Barley kernel discoloration (KD) leads to substantial loss in value through downgrading and discounting of malting barley. The objective of this research is to investigate fungal distribution and varieties resistance to KD in Korean two-rowed barley. Several fungal organisms including Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp. and Rhizopus spp. were isolated from Korean two-rowed barley representing KD. The symptoms of KD were brown and black discolorations o...

  19. Phytochemical Pharmacokinetics and Bioactivity of Oat and Barley Flour: A Randomized Crossover Trial

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    Caleigh M. Sawicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While dietary fiber plays an important role in the health benefits associated with whole grain consumption, other ingredients concentrated in the outer bran layer, including alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols, may also contribute to these outcomes. To determine the acute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the major phytochemicals found in barley and oats, we conducted a randomized, three-way crossover trial in 13 healthy subjects, aged 40–70 years with a body mass index (BMI of 27–35.9 kg/m2. After a two-day run-in period following a diet low in phytochemicals, subjects were randomized to receive muffins made with either 48 g whole oat flour, whole barley flour, or refined wheat flour plus cellulose (control, with a one-week washout period between each intervention. At the same time, an oral glucose tolerance test was administered. In addition to plasma phytochemical concentrations, glucose and insulin responses, biomarkers of antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodeling were determined over a 24-h period. There was no significant effect on acute bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of major phytochemicals. Administered concurrently with a glucose bolus, the source of whole grains did not attenuate the post-prandial response of markers of glucoregulation and insulin sensitivity, inflammation, nor vascular remodeling compared to the refined grain control. No significant differences were observed in the bioavailability or postprandial effects between whole-oat and whole-barley compared to a refined wheat control when administered with a glucose challenge. These null results may be due, in part, to the inclusion criteria for the subjects, dose of the whole grains, and concurrent acute administration of the whole grains with the glucose bolus.

  20. Utilization of Gamma Irradiation for Improving Salinity Tolerance of Two Exotic Hull-less Barley Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The development of hull-less (naked) barley genotypes with the ability to grow under stressed environmental conditions becomes essential to increase the national production of the crop to supplement wheat production for bread making , which in turn will decrease our imports of wheat grains and flour. Thus, a selection breeding program was conducted to enhancement salt tolerance of the two local hull-less barley varieties Giza 129 and Giza 131. Grains of the both genotypes were exposed to gamma rays at doses of 0.0, 250 Gy and 350 Gy aiming to create genetic variability and selection within the induced variation. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between yield and its components for M2 populations indicated the possibility of using number of spikes/plant, biological yield/plant and harvest index as a selection criterion to pick out high yielding variants with improving tolerance to salt stress. On this basis, a considerable number of plants were selected and carried forward to the next generation to raise M3 progenies. The obtained results indicated that means of grain yield/plant for Giza 129 progenies derived from 250 and 350 Gy mutagenic treatments located between 10.37 gram and 13.90 gram for the former treatment and between 9.81 gram to 13.84 gram for the latter one compared to 8.01 gram for the average of the superior control populations. On the other hand, Averages of grain yield for Giza 131 progenies ranged from 11.10 gram to 14.17 gram (250 Gy treatment) and from 11.32 gram to 13.50 gram (350 Gy treatment) vs.8.92 gram for the better untreated control plants. Results also revealed that 250 Gy mutagenic treatment was superior to 350 Gy for improving yield potentiality of the materials at hand under salinity stressed conditions

  1. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability.

  2. Registration of Food Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Variety HB 1307 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six-rowed food type barley, HB 1307, was developed by Holetta Agricultural Research Center (HARC) from a cross between a landrace line and exotic germplasm (Awra gebs-1 x IBON93/91) and released in 2006 for mid and high altitude areas. The three consecutive years\\' (2002-2004) tests proved its superiority in grain ...

  3. Effects of Variety and Hydration of Rice Flour on Cake Making Properties

    OpenAIRE

    長沼, 誠子; NAGANUMA, Seiko

    1993-01-01

    The pysicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes of rice layer cake were investigated to study the effects of rice variety and rice flour treatment on cake making properties. The rice layer cake were made from rice flour ground from 4 rice varieties (Sasanishiki, Akitakomachi, Kiyonishiki and Akihikari), water, sugar, oil, and baking powder. The treatment of rice frour with water before adding other ingredients improved appearance, texture and palatability of the baking products. The...

  4. Comparative studies of different varieties of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Alizai, M.N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the nutritional quality of different samples of wheat flour, collected form various flour mills. These were analyzed physically for colour, flavour, taste, texture, microbiologically for total bacterial count, coliform bacteria, yeast, mould and chemically for moisture content, total protein, gluten, acidity, crude fiber and ash content. Effect of storage time on the gluten content was also studied. Out of 24 samples 13 samples were contaminated with mould. Deterioration of food constituents like protein and gluten was recorded in all the samples which were infected with mould. Moisture content of 12 samples out these 13 infected samples were also higher than the required standard. While the rate of 11 samples have moisture content within the specified range (less than 12%). In these samples there were no losses of protein, gluten and were also free from yeast and mould. (author)

  5. Total antioxidant capacity and starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, oat, corn and barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Yean Yean; Tan, Seow Peng; Leong, Lai Peng; Henry, Jeya Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Muffins are a popular snack consumed in western and emerging countries. Increased glycemic load has been implicated in the aetiology of diabetes. This study examined the starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, corn, oat and barley flour. Rapidly digested starch (RDS) was greatest in rice (445 mg/g) and wheat (444 mg/g) muffins, followed by oat (416 mg/g), corn (402 mg/g) and barley (387 mg/g). Total phenolic content was found to be positively correlated with total antioxidative capacity and inversely related to the RDS of muffins. The phenolic content was highest in muffin baked with barley flour (1,687 μg/g), followed by corn (1,454 μg/g), oat (945 μg/g), wheat (705 μg/g), and rice (675 μg/g) flour. Browning was shown not to correlate with free radical scavenging capacity and digestibility of muffins. The presence of high phenolic content and low RDS makes barley muffin an ideal snack to modulate glycemic response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

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    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  7. Rheological characteristics of flours milled from different wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Ladislav Haris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological quality was studied of wheat flours from three varieties of Triticum aestivum L. (Arida, Meritto, Verita delivered to the mill for three years (2007–2009. Physico-chemical parameters observed during the purchase of grain (STN 461100-2 were not significantly different. Also milled flours from tested varieties have by processors required ash content, gluten, acceptable Zeleny index, α-amylase activity (falling number, but as the rheological properties of dough from these flours show, these parameters are unsuited enough (unsuitability of material for efficient processing of flour. Rheological evaluation showed that each variety is suitable for different processing direction. Therefore, if we deliberately separate lots of purchased grain, not only by basic physico-che­mi­cal properties listed in the current standards (CSN and STN, but also by their rheological properties, which are important and reliable indicator of the direction of the end-use processing of wheat flours, the flours will be more likely to succeed in specific cereal technology. For the production of bread was satisfactory rheological properties of dough from variety Arida. Verita variety is suitable for processing into wafers, and a variety Meritto for producing biscuits and crackers. Verita and Me­rit­to varieties so do not achieved the expected values of the rheological optimum for „classic“ bread processing (bakery products despite satisfactory gluten content and falling number to use this processing direction. Reported results show us the possibilities of more efficient selection of varieties or lots purchased grain of wheat for use in baking and buscuit industry by using rheological evaluation methods. Results were evaluated by analysis of data exploration (Boxplot, scattering graphs, classical nonparametric testing of hypotheses and the distribution of the data (Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman, rates central tendency and dispersion.

  8. Morphological and starch structural characteristics of the Japonica rice mutant variety Seolgaeng for dry-milled flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing fine, good quality rice flour is more difficult than wheat flour because the rice grain is harder. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the morphology and starch of kernels from genetically different rice varieties that can be used to make dry-milled flour. The non-glutinous...

  9. Experimental Barley Flour Production in 12,500-Year-Old Rock-Cut Mortars in Southwestern Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eitam

    Full Text Available Experimental archaeology at a Natufian site in the Southern Levant documents for the first time the use of 12,500-year-old rock-cut mortars for producing wild barley flour, some 2,000 to 3,000 years before cereal cultivation. Our reconstruction involved processing wild barley on the prehistoric threshing floor, followed by use of the conical mortars (a common feature in Natufian sites, thereby demonstrating the efficient peeling and milling of hulled grains. This discovery complements nearly 80 years of investigations suggesting that the Natufians regularly harvested almost-ripe wild cereals using sickles hafted with flint blades. Sickles had been replicated in the past and tested in the field for harvesting cereals, thusly obtaining the characteristic sheen along the edge of the hafted flint blades as found in Natufian remnants. Here we report that Natufian wide and narrow conical mortars enabled the processing of wild barley for making the groats and fine flour that provided considerable quantities of nourishment. Dishes in the Early Natufian (15,000-13,500 CalBP were groat meals and porridge and subsequently, in the Late Natufian (13,500-11,700 CalBP, we suggest that unleavened bread made from fine flour was added. These food preparing techniques widened the dietary breadth of the sedentary Natufian hunter-gatherers, paving the way to the emergence of farming communities, the hallmark of the Neolithic Revolution.

  10. Experimental Barley Flour Production in 12,500-Year-Old Rock-Cut Mortars in Southwestern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, David; Kislev, Mordechai; Karty, Adiel; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Experimental archaeology at a Natufian site in the Southern Levant documents for the first time the use of 12,500-year-old rock-cut mortars for producing wild barley flour, some 2,000 to 3,000 years before cereal cultivation. Our reconstruction involved processing wild barley on the prehistoric threshing floor, followed by use of the conical mortars (a common feature in Natufian sites), thereby demonstrating the efficient peeling and milling of hulled grains. This discovery complements nearly 80 years of investigations suggesting that the Natufians regularly harvested almost-ripe wild cereals using sickles hafted with flint blades. Sickles had been replicated in the past and tested in the field for harvesting cereals, thusly obtaining the characteristic sheen along the edge of the hafted flint blades as found in Natufian remnants. Here we report that Natufian wide and narrow conical mortars enabled the processing of wild barley for making the groats and fine flour that provided considerable quantities of nourishment. Dishes in the Early Natufian (15,000-13,500 CalBP) were groat meals and porridge and subsequently, in the Late Natufian (13,500-11,700 CalBP), we suggest that unleavened bread made from fine flour was added. These food preparing techniques widened the dietary breadth of the sedentary Natufian hunter-gatherers, paving the way to the emergence of farming communities, the hallmark of the Neolithic Revolution.

  11. Monitoring levels of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour of Brazilian varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano L Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum and its intake represents a severe risk to human and animal health. The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of DON in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. flour from two representative locations of south Brazil. Experiments were carried out in Pato Branco (Paraná and Coxilha (Rio Grande do Sul in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Levels of DON were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. This mycotoxin was detected in 97% of samples, ranging from 200 to 4140 u,g kg-1. Only 17% of samples presented DON beyond of the maximum allowed by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency up to the year 2012; even though, Fusarium head blight (FHB epidemics were slight low in the growing season that the study was performed. According to our knowledge, this is the first report showing genetic variability of Brazilian cultivars to DON contamination and some genotypes have potential to be exploited as a source of low accumulation of this toxin.

  12. Effect of fertiliser on functional properties of flour from four rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Anil; Sirisena, Nihal; Ratnayaka, Upul Kumari; Ratnayaka, Jennet; Kong, Xiangli; Vidhana Arachchi, Lal Peruma; Corke, Harold

    2011-05-01

    Fertiliser is an essential agro-chemical input in modern rice farming. Fertiliser affects the grain quality and yield of rice. Although much research has been carried out to investigate the influence of fertiliser (recommended NPK addition) on yield and quality of rice grain, little is known about the effect of fertiliser on thermal, pasting, gelling and retrogradation properties of rice flour. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of recommended fertilisation on functional properties of rice flour from four popular high yielding rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka. Fertiliser (recommended NPK addition) increased the protein content but reduced the apparent amylose content in rice flour except in BG 357. Swelling power and amylose leaching were decreased by fertilizer. [corrected] Pasting onset temperature, cold paste viscosity and setback were increased but peak viscosity and granular breakdown decreased. In response to the fertiliser application, gelatinisation peak temperature was reduced in all varieties except BG 300. However, compared to pasting properties, gelatinisation parameters were not much affected by fertilisation. The extent of amylopectin retrogradation was decreased by fertiliser in BG 305 and BG 352 but unchanged in the other two varieties. Except in BG 305, fertiliser reduced the gel hardness of rice flour but increased the gel cohesiveness. It is apparent that the increased protein and reduced amylose content caused by fertiliser affect the functional properties of rice flour. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Glycemic potency of muffins made with wheat, rice, corn, oat and barley flours: a comparative study between in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Yean Yean; Quek, Rina Yu Chin; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-12-01

    Muffins made with wheat flour are a popular snack consumed in western and emerging countries. This study aimed to examine the content of amylose, glycemic response (GR) and glycemic index (GI) of muffins baked with refined wheat and rice flours, as well as wholegrain corn, oat and barley flours. This study adopted a randomized, controlled, crossover, non-blind design. Twelve healthy participants consumed wheat, rice, corn, oat and barley muffins once and the reference glucose solution three times in a random order on non-consecutive day. Capillary blood samples were taken every 15 min in the first 60 min and every 30 min for the remaining 60 min for blood glucose analysis. The Megazyme amylose/amylopectin assay procedure was employed to measure amylose content. The GR elicited from the consumption of wheat, rice and corn muffins was comparable between these samples but significantly greater when compared with oat and barley muffins. Consumption of wholegrain muffins, apart from corn muffin, blunted postprandial GR when compared with muffins baked with refined cereal flours. Muffins baked with wheat, rice, corn, oat and barley flours gave rise to GI values of 74, 79, 74, 53 and 55, respectively. The content of amylose was significantly higher in corn, oat and barley muffins than wheat and rice muffins. The greater content of amylose and fibre may play a part in the reduced glycemic potency of oat and barley muffins. Wheat flour can be substituted with oat and barley flours for healthier muffins and other bakery products.

  14. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  15. Molecular Chemical Structure of Barley Proteins Revealed by Ultra-Spatially Resolved Synchrotron Light Sourced FTIR Microspectroscopy: Comparison of Barley Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2007-01-01

    Barley protein structure affects the barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals among other factors such as protein matrix. Publications show various biological differences among barley varieties such as Valier and Harrington, which have significantly different degradation behaviors. The objectives of this study were to reveal the molecular structure of barley protein, comparing various varieties (Dolly, Valier, Harrington, LP955, AC Metcalfe, and Sisler), and quantify protein structure profiles using Gaussian and Lorentzian methods of multi-component peak modeling by using the ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron light sourced Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM). The items of the protein molecular structure revealed included protein structure α-helices, β-sheets, and others such as β-turns and random coils. The experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, US Department of Energy, NY). The results showed that with the SFTIRM, the molecular structure of barley protein could be revealed. Barley protein structures exhibited significant differences among the varieties in terms of proportion and ratio of model-fitted α-helices, β-sheets, and others. By using multi-component peaks modeling at protein amide I region of 1710-1576 cm -1 , the results show that barley protein consisted of approximately 18-34% of α-helices, 14-25% of β-sheets, and 44-69% others. AC Metcalfe, Sisler, and LP955 consisted of higher (P 0.05). The ratio of α-helices to others (0.3 to 1.0, P < 0.05) and that of β-sheets to others (0.2 to 0.8, P < 0.05) were different among the barley varieties. It needs to be pointed out that using a multi-peak modeling for protein structure analysis is only for making relative estimates and not exact determinations and only for the comparison purpose between varieties. The principal component analysis showed that protein amide I Fourier

  16. Effect of germination on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Anuonye, Julian Chukwuemeka; Simon, Omotade Comfort; Ohiare, Raliat Ozavize; Danbaba, Nahemiah

    2015-10-15

    This study determined the effect of germination (48 h) on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria. Local rice varieties (Jamila, Jeep and Kwandala) were evaluated and compared to an improved variety (MR 219). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of flours were determined using standard methods. Protein, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and antioxidant properties of rice flours increased after germination while phytic acid and total starch contents decreased. Foaming capacity and stability of rice flours increased after germination. Germination resulted to changes in pasting and thermal characteristics of rice flours. Germinated rice flours had better physicochemical and antioxidant properties with reduced phytic acid and starch contents compared to MR 219, which can be utilized as functional ingredients in the preparation of rice-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fungal Distribution and Varieties Resistance to Kernel Discoloration in Korean Two-rowed Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Shin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley kernel discoloration (KD leads to substantial loss in value through downgrading and discounting of malting barley. The objective of this research is to investigate fungal distribution and varieties resistance to KD in Korean two-rowed barley. Several fungal organisms including Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp. and Rhizopus spp. were isolated from Korean two-rowed barley representing KD. The symptoms of KD were brown and black discolorations of the lemma and palea. The most frequently detected fungal species was Alternaria spp. which exhibited 69.1% and 72.2% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Epicoccum spp., Fusarium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were also detected. Fusarium spp., primary pathogen of barley head blight, were rarely occurred in the 2011 and their occurrence increased to 4.7% in 2012. Twenty cultivars of Korean two-rowed barely were evaluated to KD. The average percentage of KD was 8.0−36.0% in 2011 and 5.2−36.6% in 2012. Two cultivars (‘Sacheon 6’ and ‘Dajinbori’ showed KD of 6.2% to 8.8% and determined resistant, however ‘Samdobori’ and ‘Daeyeongbori’ demonstrating KD of 22.2−36.6% were highly susceptible. ‘Jinyangbori’, ‘Danwonbori’, ‘Sinhobori’ and ‘Kwangmaegbori’ showing KD of less than 15% were moderately resistant cultivar.

  18. Organoleptic characteristics and nutritive value estimation of baked food products from Manonjaya variety salacca flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarto; Aprianty, D.; Bachtiar, R. A.; Kristiana, L.

    2018-01-01

    Manonjaya salacca (snake fruit) is one of the original varieties of Indonesia which is currently declining due to the quality of taste less favoured than the snake fruit on the market. This variety in the future is feared to be lost, so it is necessary to revitalize the utilization of this snake fruit by diversifying processed products, one of them is baked food products from Manonjaya salacca flour. The purpose of this research was to know the acceptance level of baked food products from Manonjaya salacca flour organoleptically and the nutritional value estimation. This research method was observational with a descriptive explanation. Panellists in this study were consumers with a total of 61 people. Organoleptically, respondents tend to value cake, muffin, cookies, and flakes in every color, flavor, taste, and texture parameters. Nutritional value per 100 g of baked food products from Salacca flour (cake, muffin, cookies, flakes) were energy 287.5-479.0 kcal, water 0.8-3.8 g, protein 6.0-6.7 g, fat 0.8-31.0 g, carbohydrates 45.0-98.8 g, and fiber 1.1-4.6 g. Panellists were accepted the organoleptic characteristics and the estimated nutritional values on baked food products from Manonjaya variety salacca flour were varied.

  19. Distribution and molecular characterization of β-glucans from hull-less barley bran, shorts and flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xueling; Li, Limin; Wang, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Six hull-less barley cultivars widely grown in China were roller-milled to produce bran, shorts and flour fractions. The distribution and molecular characteristics of β-glucans from the three roller-milled fractions were investigated. The β-glucan contents in the six hull-less barley cultivars varied from 4.96% to 7.62%. For all the six cultivars, the shorts fraction contained the highest concentration of β-glucan (8.12-13.01%), followed by bran (6.15-7.58%) and flour (2.48-2.95%). Crude β-glucans were prepared from the three roller-milled fractions using aqueous sodium carbonate (pH 10). These preparations contained 45.38-71.41% β-glucan, 10.81-17.26% arabinoxylan, 2.6-9.6% protein, 2.7-9.0% starch, and 5.23-9.68% ash. Purification using α-amylase and β-xylanase in combination with pH adjustment and dialysis produced high purity β-glucan preparations (91-95%). The molecular weight (Mw) of β-glucan preparations from roller-milled fractions ranged from 117,600 to 852,400 g/mol. β-Glucan from flour had higher Mw than those from shorts and bran within the same cultivar, and β-glucan preparations from bran had the lowest Mw.

  20. Researches on detection of barley varieties and lines against Ustilago nuda hordei “Jens.â€? Rostr. Schaffn.in Marmara Region

    OpenAIRE

    Gümüştekin, H.; Akın, K.

    2008-01-01

    This research has been started in 1994 to test barley varieties and lines against Ustilago nuda hordei “Jens.â€? Rostr. Schaffn. In 1994, 14 barley varieties and lines and in 1995 23 barley varieties and lines were tested. After testing 37 varieties and lines, 27 of them were found resistant (R), and 10 of them susceptible (S).

  1. Comparative study of the radionuclide uptake and distribution within plants for barley and maize varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, O.

    1998-01-01

    Differences in the Cs-134 and Sr-85 uptake by three barley and two maize varieties were investigated in a water culture experiment. In barley, the maximum differences were about 30% for cesium and 50% for strontium. The differences between the maize varieties were negligible. The maximum difference between the varieties of the two species of crops was approximately 30% for cesium and 1 70% for strontium with higher radionuclide uptake by maize. All barley varieties accumulated cesium nearly 3.5 times more effectively than strontium, whereas for the maize varieties, cesium was accumulated about 2 times more effectively. There is a large difference in the radionuclide distribution within the plants: the amount of radiocesium in the green part of plants of both species was approximately 30% of the total, while for radiostrontium it was about 80%. As a result, approximately the same amount of the radionuclides were present in the green part of plants, despite the large difference in the uptake of the radionuclides by the whole plants. It is concluded that crop selection as a provision to reduce radionuclide contamination of the food chain should only be applied taking into account the different radionuclide distributions within the plants

  2. Impact of variety type and particle size distribution on starch enzymatic hydrolysis and functional properties of tef flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Workineh; Collar, Concha; Ronda, Felicidad

    2015-01-22

    Tef grain is becoming very attractive in the Western countries since it is a gluten-free grain with appreciated nutritional advantages. However there is little information of its functional properties and starch digestibility and how they are affected by variety type and particle size distribution. This work evaluates the effect of the grain variety and the mill used on tef flour physico-chemical and functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior. In vitro starch digestibility of the flours by Englyst method was assessed. Two types of mills were used to obtain whole flours of different granulation. Rice and wheat flours were analyzed as references. Protein molecular weight distribution and flour structure by SEM were also analyzed to justify some of the differences found among the cereals studied. Tef cultivar and mill type exhibited important effect on granulation, bulking density and starch damage, affecting the processing performance of the flours and determining the hydration and pasting properties. The color was darker although one of the white varieties had a lightness near the reference flours. Different granulation of tef flour induced different in vitro starch digestibility. The disc attrition mill led to higher starch digestibility rate index and rapidly available glucose, probably as consequence of a higher damaged starch content. The results confirm the adequacy of tef flour as ingredient in the formulation of new cereal based foods and the importance of the variety and the mill on its functional properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association mapping for morphological traits relevant to registration of barley varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, Seyed H.; Mohammadi, Seyed A.; Sadeghzadeh, Behzad

    2017-07-01

    Elucidating marker-trait associations would have fruitful implications in distinctness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) tests of new varieties required for both variety registration and granting plant breeders’ rights. As the number of new varieties with narrow genetic bases increases, the necessity for deployment of molecular markers to complement morphological DUS traits gets particular attention. We used simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and sequence related amplification polymorphisms (SRAPs) markers in association mapping of morphological traits in a collection of 143 barley landraces and advanced breeding lines. This panel represented a diverse and uniform sample in terms of both quantitative and categorical traits whilst it was structurally partitioned by number of ear rows (six- and two-rowed) and seasonal growth habit (winter and spring types) characteristics. SSRs were more powerful compared with SRAPs in separating six- and two-rowed genotypes based on both model-based Bayesian and neighbor joining clustering methods. A number of associated SSR and SRAP markers were found for 15 out of 36 DUS traits after considering Bonferroni correction through linear models (GLM and MLM) and chi-square-based tests (SA and AAT). This is also the first report of association of awn roughness and grain color with molecular markers in barley. Moreover, SSR marker BMAC0113 appeared associated with time of ear emergence (TEE), confirming previous findings. These markers could be beneficial to complement and speed up DUS testing of new varieties, as well as for improving management of barley reference collections.

  4. Association mapping for morphological traits relevant to registration of barley varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, Seyed H.; Mohammadi, Seyed A.; Sadeghzadeh, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating marker-trait associations would have fruitful implications in distinctness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) tests of new varieties required for both variety registration and granting plant breeders’ rights. As the number of new varieties with narrow genetic bases increases, the necessity for deployment of molecular markers to complement morphological DUS traits gets particular attention. We used simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and sequence related amplification polymorphisms (SRAPs) markers in association mapping of morphological traits in a collection of 143 barley landraces and advanced breeding lines. This panel represented a diverse and uniform sample in terms of both quantitative and categorical traits whilst it was structurally partitioned by number of ear rows (six- and two-rowed) and seasonal growth habit (winter and spring types) characteristics. SSRs were more powerful compared with SRAPs in separating six- and two-rowed genotypes based on both model-based Bayesian and neighbor joining clustering methods. A number of associated SSR and SRAP markers were found for 15 out of 36 DUS traits after considering Bonferroni correction through linear models (GLM and MLM) and chi-square-based tests (SA and AAT). This is also the first report of association of awn roughness and grain color with molecular markers in barley. Moreover, SSR marker BMAC0113 appeared associated with time of ear emergence (TEE), confirming previous findings. These markers could be beneficial to complement and speed up DUS testing of new varieties, as well as for improving management of barley reference collections.

  5. Assessment of competition and yield advantage in addition series of barley variety mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Jokinen

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available In an addition series experiment the competition between three barley varieties (Agneta, Arra and Porno and the yield performance of mixtures were evaluated. Also two levels of nitrogen fertilization (50 and 100 kgN/ha were applied. Two approaches (the replacement series and the linear regression equation were used to analyse the competitive relationship based on grain yields in two-component mixtures. In three component mixtures the replacement series approach was applied. Both methods showed a similar dominance order of the varieties with Arra always being dominant and Agneta subordinate. The relationship between varieties was independent of the number of varieties in the mixture. Increase in available nitrogen strengthened the competitiveness of Arra especially in the dense, two-variety mixtures. Some mixtures over yielded but the differences were not statistically significant. The yield advantage based on relative yield total or on the ratio of actual and expected yield was greatest when the density and nitrogen fertilization were low and especially when one component in the mixture was a rather low yielding variety (Agneta. The land equivalent ratios (LER (the reference pure culture yield was the maximum yield of each variety were close to one, suggesting that under optimal growing conditions the yield advantage of barley varietal mixtures is marginal.

  6. Population structure of barley landrace populations and gene-flow with modern varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bellucci

    Full Text Available Landraces are heterogeneous plant varieties that are reproduced by farmers as populations that are subject to both artificial and natural selection. Landraces are distinguished by farmers due to their specific traits, and different farmers often grow different populations of the same landrace. We used simple sequence repeats (SSRs to analyse 12 barley landrace populations from Sardinia from two collections spanning 10 years. We analysed the population structure, and compared the population diversity of the landraces that were collected at field level (population. We used a representative pool of barley varieties for diversity comparisons and to analyse the effects of gene flow from modern varieties. We found that the Sardinian landraces are a distinct gene pool from those of both two-row and six-row barley varieties. There is also a low, but significant, mean level and population-dependent level of introgression from the modern varieties into the Sardinian landraces. Moreover, we show that the Sardinian landraces have the same level of gene diversity as the representative sample of modern commercial varieties grown in Italy in the last decades, even within population level. Thus, these populations represent crucial sources of germplasm that will be useful for crop improvement and for population genomics studies and association mapping, to identify genes, loci and genome regions responsible for adaptive variations. Our data also suggest that landraces are a source of valuable germplasm for sustainable agriculture in the context of future climate change, and that in-situ conservation strategies based on farmer use can preserve the genetic identity of landraces while allowing adaptation to local environments.

  7. Comparative studies on flour proximate compositions and functional properties of selected Pakistani rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, S.; Qazi, I.M.; Ahmed, I.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proximate and functional properties of flours obtained from various rice varieties, i.e., Super Basmati Shaheen, Super Basmati Kainat, Super Fine, JP5, Basmati 385, Fakhr-e-Malakand grown in different areas of Pakistan. Moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude fat, water absorption index, water solubility and swelling power varied significantly (P<0.05) from each other. Moisture content, ash content, crude protein and crude fat of rice flour ranged from 5.46-7.08 percentage, 0.48-1.23 percentage, 8.02-9.85 percentage and 0.43-1.5 percentage, respectively. While, functional properties such as water absorption index, water solubility index and swelling power were found in the range of 5.38-6.26 (g/g), 1.95-4.94 percentage and 5.74-7.64 (g/g), respectively. The results showed that the functional properties of rice flour were greatly influenced by the compositional variations of various rice varieties. (author)

  8. Performance of spring barley varieties and variety mixtures as affected by manure application and their order in an organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Berntsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a high and stable yield of organic spring barley, production should be optimized according to the specific environment. To test the performance of spring barley varieties under varying cropping conditions, a field experiment was carried out in 2003 and 2004 in a six-field mixed...... with low manure input than others, variety mixtures that give a robust and stable organic production may potentially be developed....... organic crop rotation. We investigated the choice of variety, the order in a rotation, and the application of manure (slurry and farmyard manure; 0 to 120 total-N ha−1) on grain yields of six selected varieties with different characteristics grown in either pure stands or in two spring barley mixtures...

  9. Proposal for the Identification of Barley Varieties Based on the Genotypes for 2 Hordein and 39 Isoenzym Loci of 47 Reference Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G.; Johansen, Hanne Bay

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-nine spring and 7 winter barley varieties in lsquoThe Danish List of Varieties of Agricultural Crops, 1983/84rsquo were examined for variation at 39 isoenzyme and two hordein loci. Twenty-three isoenzyme loci had one allele only, and 16 loci had from two to five alleles. One hordein locus had...

  10. Wheat and barley seed system in Syria: How diverse are wheat and barley varieties and landraces from farmer’s fields?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    The present study described the diversity of wheat and barley varieties and landraces available in farmer’s fields in Syria using different indicators. Analysis of spatial and temporal diversity and coefficient of parentage along with measurements of agronomic and morphological traits were employed

  11. Effects of variety, soil type and nitrogen fertilizer supply on the nutritive value of barley for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmo Valaja

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of variety, soil type and nitrogen (N fertilizer supply on the nutritive value of barley were studied with chemical analysis, in vitro digestibility and a growth experiment on 240 growing/finishing pigs (live-weight 25-95 kg. Twelve barley batches were formed from three varieties (two-rowed Kustaa and six-rowed Arra and Pokko grown on mould or clay soil and fertilized with either a low or normal level of N (43 or 71 kg N/ha to mould soil and 76.5 or 110 kg N/ha to clay soil. In the growth experiment all the diets contained similar amounts of barley and soya bean meal (845/120 g/kg. Variety Arra contained 21 g/kg more CP than did Pokko or Kustaa. The N fertilizer supply slightly increased the CP content of the barley samples (133 vs. 141 g/kg but decreased the amount of lysine in the protein (31 vs. 29 g/ 160g N. Regression equation showed that CP and β-glucan were positively and neutral detergen fibre content negatively related to the in vitro digestibility of N in barley samples. The content of CP and the in vitro digestibilities of dry matter and N were highest in var. Arra. The daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR of the pigs on Arra-based diets was better than that of those on Kustaa or Pokko (P

  12. Physicochemical and micro-structural properties of flours, starch and proteins from two varieties of legumes: bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptso, Kuaté Giscard; Njintang, Yanou Nicolas; Nguemtchouin, Mbouga Marie Goletti; Scher, Joël; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2015-08-01

    This work is part of a large study aimed to evaluate the potential of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) flour as starting raw material for the preparation of a widely cherished legume-based food product known as koki. Towards this objective, the flours from two varieties of bambara groundnut along with their respective starch and protein isolates were analyzed for some physicochemical and microstructural properties. It was observed that bambara flour contained appreciable amount of proteins (24.0-25.5 g/100 g), carbohydrates (57.9-61.7 g/100 g), fiber (3.45-3.68 g/100 g) and ash (3.65-3.85 g/100 g) with marginal differences between both varieties. The properties of starch and proteins isolated from the flours were different from one variety to another. In particular the starch granules of the white variety were larger (size range 10-35 μm) and polygonal while those from the black variety were smaller (size range 6-15 μm) and spherical in shape. In addition, the peak of gelatinization temperature was higher for white variety (81.7 °C) than for black variety (77.5 °C). The gelatinization temperature and the enthalpy of gelatinization of starch in the flours were systematically lower than for the starch isolates, suggesting an interaction of starch with other components on the gelatinization process.

  13. Tripartite Interactions of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Sitobion avenae and Wheat Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Keller, Mike A.; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1) aphid peak number (APN) in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid) treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC) on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (2) The production of alatae (PA) was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (3) The BYDV disease incidence (DIC) on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID) on Tam200(13)G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4) Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing. PMID:25184214

  14. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Liu

    Full Text Available The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L., the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1 aphid peak number (APN in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (2 The production of alatae (PA was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (3 The BYDV disease incidence (DIC on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID on Tam200(13G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4 Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing.

  15. Changes in the phenolic composition of pancake fractions made from refined and whole-wheat flour of two wheat varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the changes in the levels of phenolic acids during pancake preparation from refined and whole-wheat flours of two wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenolic acids, namely ultrasonic-assisted extrac...

  16. Investigation of Leaf Diseases and Estimation of Chlorophyll Concentration in Seven Barley Varieties Using Fluorescence and Hyperspectral Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf diseases, such as powdery mildew and leaf rust, frequently infect barley plants and severely affect the economic value of malting barley. Early detection of barley diseases would facilitate the timely application of fungicides. In a field experiment, we investigated the performance of fluorescence and reflectance indices on (1 detecting barley disease risks when no fungicide is applied and (2 estimating leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC. Leaf fluorescence and canopy reflectance were weekly measured by a portable fluorescence sensor and spectroradiometer, respectively. Results showed that vegetation indices recorded at canopy level performed well for the early detection of slightly-diseased plants. The combined reflectance index, MCARI/TCARI, yielded the best discrimination between healthy and diseased plants across seven barley varieties. The blue to far-red fluorescence ratio (BFRR_UV and OSAVI were the best fluorescence and reflectance indices for estimating LCC, respectively, yielding R2 of 0.72 and 0.79. Partial least squares (PLS and support vector machines (SVM regression models further improved the use of fluorescence signals for the estimation of LCC, yielding R2 of 0.81 and 0.84, respectively. Our results demonstrate that non-destructive spectral measurements are able to detect mild disease symptoms before significant losses in LCC due to diseases under natural conditions.

  17. Evaluation of Some Chemical Characteristics of barley Mutants induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Ali, H.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of acetonic extract from some barley mutations (P1, P2 and P3 varieties) induced by gamma irradiation as compared with local barley variety (Hordeum vulgare L.) as control. Barley samples were obtained from Plant Breeding Unit, Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. The measurements of the antioxidant activity using a radical scavenging capacity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene bleaching assay were assessed in the barley acetonic extract. Furthermore, amino acids composition of barley mutant samples was determined. The results indicated that the acetonic extract of barley varieties under investigation possess marked antioxidant and anti radical capacities. The data showed that the acetonic extract of barley mutant P1 possessed the higher antioxidant activity as compared with the antioxidant activities of acetonic extract from control and other barley mutant samples. Meanwhile, the flour of barley mutations under investigation contained trace elements of iron, copper and manganese. GC and mass analyses were used to identify the active compound of extract of control and mutant barley samples. The results illustrated that the main components of the control sample of barely extract was pentane, 3 methyl (47.73%) while gamma irradiation caused noticeable change in the relative percentage of some components of acetonic extract from barley mutant samples. Moreover, the results presented that changes were disappeared, and some compounds of the acetonic extract from mutant barley samples were appeared. Furthermore, the results exhibited that barley flour supplemented with wheat flour at 30% level produced acceptable cookies. Accordingly, the phenolic constituents of barley acetonic extract induced by gamma irradiation, especially samples of P1 mutant, may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  18. Target and Non-target metabolomics profiling of different barley varieties affected by enhanced ultraviolet radiation and various C:N stoichiometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oravec, Michal; Novotná, Kateřina; Rajsnerová, P.; Veselá, B.; Urban, Otmar; Holub, Petr; Klem, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2015), s. 887.7 ISSN 0892-6638 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : metabolomic profiling * different barley varieties * ultraviolet radiation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Identification of barley and rye varieties using matrix- assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, H.A.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena

    2001-01-01

    developed, which combines analysis of alcohol-soluble wheat proteins (gliadins) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks. Here we have applied the same method for the identification of both barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.......) varieties. For barley, 95% of the mass spectra were correctly classified. This is an encouraging result, since in earlier experiments only a grouping into subsets of varieties was possible. However, the method was not useful in the classification of rye, due to the strong similarity between mass spectra...

  20. Growth performance, productivity and diseases susceptibility of barley varieties in Slovenia within the Cobra project’s site comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grobelnik Mlakar Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different plant genotypes react differently in different climates. A field experiment was carried out to estimate the growth performance, productivity and diseases susceptibility of spring barley varieties in the Slovenian climate. We received some varieties, mainly of Nordic origin, from the Technical University of Denmark, a COBRA project partner, which were previously tested in estimated future climate in RERAF phytotron. Varieties of the highest grain yield (3,993 kg ha-1 in ‘Evergreen’ to 5,146 kg ha-1 in ‘Sebastian’ were rather shorter (58.7 cm to 67.1 cm and mostly had the highest specific grain weight (54.3 to 58.6 kg 100 L-1 and 1000-kernel weight (30.2 to 37.1 g. They developed 1,561 to 2,532 tillers m-2 and 515 to 840 ears m-2 and reached a heading stage between 13th and 25th of May. The tested varieties seem rather insusceptible to most common diseases, but susceptible to cereal leaf beetle attacks.

  1. Malt quality of 4 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... 76.6 to 79.7%). The varieties had a pasting- time and -temperature (Ti) of 4.7 to 5.0 min and 64.7 to .... 16°C) (Termaks chamber KBP 6395F, Bergen, Norway). Each .... varieties in the peak viscosity is in part attributed to the.

  2. Effect of parboiling on the formation of resistant starch, digestibility and functional properties of rice flour from different varieties grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Anil; Kao, Wu; Ratnayaka, Jennet; Collado, Lilia; Corke, Harold

    2013-08-30

    Hydrothermal treatment used in parboiling could induce formation of novel starch properties having potential food applications. In the current work, functional, digestible and retrogradation properties of flour from non-parboiled and steamed parboiled six rice varieties with high amylose content of around 30% but differing in length and width ratio were investigated and compared. The parboiling process reduced swelling volume and amylose leaching in all tested varieties. Among the varieties studied, the resistant starch content ranged from 1.6% in AT 306 to 0.46% in BG 357. Parboiling reduced the resistant starch content in AT 306 by about 50%, but it did not significantly affect the resistant starch content of the other varieties. The amylose-lipid complex remained unchanged after parboiling. Amylopectin retrogradation was not observed in parboiled rice. Amylose retrogradation was not seen except for AT 306. Pasting behaviour of parboiled rice flours showed high pasting stability and low setback. Flours were more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis after parboiling. Partial gelatinisation during parboiling was sufficient to produce grains with excellent milling quality showing a head rice recovery that ranged from 98% to 100% among the varieties studied. Degree of gelatinisation is the most important factor that determines the high head rice recovery. High pasting stability and low setback of flour of parboiled rice indicate some potential food applications. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Determination of Phenolic Content in Different Barley Varieties and Corresponding Malts by Liquid Chromatography-diode Array Detection-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O. Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of nine phenolic compounds in barley and malted barley was established, using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The phenolic compounds can be easily detected with both systems, despite significant differences in sensitivity. Concentrations approximately 180-fold lower could be achieved by mass spectrometry analysis compared to diode array detection, especially for the flavan-3-ols (+-catechin and (−-epicatechin, which have poor absorptivity in the UV region. Malt samples were characterized by higher phenolic content comparing to corresponding barley varieties, revealing a significant increase of the levels of (+-catechin and (−-epicatechin during the malting process. Moreover, the industrial malting is responsible for modification on the phenolic profile from barley to malt, namely on the synthesis or release of sinapinic acid and epicatechin. Accordingly, the selection of the malting parameters, as well as the barley variety plays an important role when considering the quality and antioxidant stability of beer.

  4. Relationship between the ratio of large and small starch granules determined by gravitational field-flow fractionation and malting quality of barley varieties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelík, Josef; Mazanec, Karel; Bohačenko, I.; Psota, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 30, 9-10 (2007), s. 1289-1301 ISSN 1082-6076 R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : gravitational field- flow fractionation * starch granules * barley varieties Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.977, year: 2007

  5. Physical, Textural, and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Waxy Wheat Flour Snack Supplemented with Several Varieties of Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Emily F; Kowalski, Ryan J; Morris, Craig F; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Chongjun; Ganjyal, Girish; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-09-28

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and although industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets fed to livestock. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran samples from hard red spring, soft white club cv. Bruehl, and purple wheat lines were added to cv. Waxy-Pen wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.) at replacement concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 37.5% (w/w; n = 10). Extrudates were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, color, and physical properties. Results showed that high fiber concentrations altered several pasting properties, reduced expansion ratios (P extrudates. Purple bran supplemented extrudates produced harder products compared to white and red bran treatments (P Extrudates produced with 37.5% (w/w) of each bran variety absorbed more water than the control with no added bran. The oxygen radical absorption capacity assay, expressed as Trolox Equivalents, showed that extrudates made with addition of red (37.5%) and purple (37.5%) bran had higher values compared to the other treatments; the control, red, and white bran treatments had less antioxidant activity after extrusion (P extrudates. Purple and red brans may serve as viable functional ingredients in extruded foods given their higher antioxidant activities. Future studies could evaluate how bran variety and concentration, extruded shape, and flavor influence consumer acceptance. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propiconazole) spray intervals (7, 14, 21 day) and no spray control were arranged in a RCBD in 4 replications to assess net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) effect on malt quality. The varieties were grown at Holetta agricultural research center in 2005, ...

  7. Free and Bound Phenolic Compound Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Cultivated Blue Highland Barley Varieties from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-Juan; Dang, Bin; Fan, Ming-Tao

    2018-04-11

    In this study, the polyphenols composition and antioxidant properties of 12 blue highland barley varieties planted on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area were measured. The contents of the free, bound and total phenolic acids varied between 166.20-237.60, 170.10-240.75 and 336.29-453.94 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry weight (DW) blue highland barley grains, while the free and bound phenolic acids accounted for 50.09% and 49.91% of the total phenolic acids, respectively. The contents of the free, bound and total flavones varied among 20.61-25.59, 14.91-22.38 and 37.91-47.98 mg of catechin equivalents per 100 g of dry weight (DW) of blue highland barley grains, while the free and bound flavones accounted for 55.90% and 44.10% of the total flavones, respectively. The prominent phenolic compounds in the blue hulless barley grains were gallic acid, benzoic acid, syringic acid, 4-coumaric acid, naringenin, hesperidin, rutin, (+)-catechin and quercetin. Among these, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and (+)-catechin were the major phenolic compounds in the free phenolics extract. The most abundant bound phenolics were gallic acid, benzoic acid, syringic acid, 4-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, dimethoxybenzoic acid, naringenin, hesperidin, quercetin and rutin. The average contribution of the bound phenolic extract to the DPPH • free radical scavenging capacity was higher than 86%, that of free phenolic extract to the ABTS •+ free radical scavenging capacity was higher than 79%, and that of free phenolic (53%) to the FRAP antioxidant activity was equivalent to that of the bound phenol extract (47%). In addition, the planting environment exerts a very important influence on the polyphenol composition, content and antioxidant activity of blue highland barley. The correlation analysis showed that 2,4-hydroxybenzoic acid and protocatechuic acid were the main contributors to the DPPH • and ABTS •+ free radical scavenging capacity in the free phenolic extract

  8. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking.

  9. HPLC bottom-up MS-based proteomics for mapping of specific proteins in several European spring barley varieties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Laštovičková, Markéta; Bobálová, Janette

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2015), s. 71-77 ISSN 0361-0470 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/12/P395 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : barley * gel electrophoresis * MALDI-TOF/TOF MS * protein profile * RP liquid chromatography Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.492, year: 2015

  10. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    germination. Lastly, the application of metabolomics to barley grain germination provides essential data on biochemical processes, including insights into the formation of compounds that contribute to malt quality. To maximize the benefits of the 'omics' revolution to the malting industry, there is a need......Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...

  11. Effects of inter-varietal diversity, biotic stresses and environmental productivity on grain yield of spring barley variety mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib M.; Østergård, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    than their component varieties when accounting also for the general response to environmental productivity. Hence, most mixtures adapted slightly better to environmental productivity and were less sensitive to environmental stress than their component varieties. We conclude that the efficacy of variety...... mixtures may be enhanced by mixing relatively high-yielding varieties differing in responsiveness to environmental productivity.......Varietal seed mixtures tend to increase and stabilize crop yields, yet their application is sparse. Large-scale cultivation of variety mixtures may require a better understanding of how inter-varietal interactions and their interaction with the environment may influence the grain yield of variety...

  12. The effect of gamma irradiation of seeds on germination - growth - mineral content and yield of two barley varieties grown under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbaji, T.; Khalifa, Kh.; Al-Ain, F.

    2003-01-01

    Seeds of two barley varieties [Arabi Abiad (AA) and Pakistani PK 30163 (PK)] were irradiated with 0 and 15 Gy doses of gamma irradiation. Then, they were sown on salty soil (16.8-18 dS/m) and irrigated with salty water (7-8 dS/m). Gamma irradiation significantly increased the % of seedling emergence of PK only. At the heading stage, gamma irradiation decreased the % of total N of PK and increased shoot dry weight, Mg++ and P content and the % of total N of AA. K+ content of PK was lower than that of AA. At harvest stage, gamma irradiation increased total and grain yields and harvest index of PK; however, straw yield and 1,000 grain weight of AA were higher than those of PK [it

  13. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat flour snack supplemented with several varieties of bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  14. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the phys......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... on the physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...

  15. Development beer technology with amaranth flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Danina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, the urgent problem is the development of product range of beer and the reduction of production costs. We used amaranth flour: "protein" and "carbohydrate", is designed and experimentally obtained from seeds of amaranth and made available for research "Agros" company (Kaliningrad region. The article discusses the effects of different concentrations of flour on the process of mashing, fermentation and the quality of beer. Prepared in the ratio of light barley malt:amaranth flour 90:10 and 80:20, respectively. Experimental were chosen of mashing barley malt with the addition of flour. The mashing process started with a temperature of 40 or 500C. Cytolytic pause was 30 min, protein-25 min, malt pause was increased up to 30 min. Using 20% of flour in the total grain charge leads to the increase of first wort extract content to 12.2%. By increasing the amount of flour in the grist of grain products increases the saccharification of the mash. The time of saccharification when you make 20% of the "protein" flour and the initial temperature of mashing 500C is 26 minutes, and "carbohydrate" flour -18min., therefore, when developing technology of new beer, from the point of view of reducing the cost of production, it is advisable to use "carbohydrate" amaranth flour in the amount of 20% in the total grain products. We estimated the impact of concentrations used flour on organoleptic indicators of finished beer on a 25 point scale. The aroma of the beer was felt citrus and malt undertones. Total score of beer with 10% amaranth flour is 18 points, and 20% amaranth flour is 20 points.

  16. Salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant barley varieties differ in the extent of potentiation of the ROS-induced K+ efflux by polyamines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velarde-Buendía, A. M.; Shabala, S.; Cvikrová, Milena; Dobrovinskaya, O.; Pottosin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, Dec 2012 (2012), s. 18-23 ISSN 0981-9428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Barley * Ca2+- ATPase * Hydroxyl radicals Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.775, year: 2012

  17. Progressive Pearling of Barley Kernel: Chemical Characterization of Pearling Fractions and Effect of Their Inclusion on the Nutritional and Technological Properties of Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Massimo; Locatelli, Monica; Sovrani, Valentina; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Rolle, Luca; Travaglia, Fabiano; Giacosa, Simone; Bordiga, Matteo; Scarpino, Valentina; Reyneri, Amedeo; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Two hulled barley varieties have been sequentially pearled for one to eight cycles, each with 5% removal. The derived fractions were analyzed for their bioactive compound content. The dietary fiber (DF) decreased from the external to the internal layers, whereas β-glucans showed an inverse trend. Deoxynivalenol contamination was concentrated in the outer layers. The total antioxidant activity (TAA) was higher in the 15-25% fractions, which were used to prepare bread. Five mixtures of refined wheat flour, with an increasing replacement of this pearled barley fraction, were compared with a control for the bioactive compound content, as well as for the rheological and physical bread properties. The inclusion of pearled fractions with up to a 10% substitution leads to a clear enhancement of the DF and TAA, with only minor detrimental effects on the physical parameters. Selected byproducts of barley pearling could be proposed as functional ingredients for bakery products rich in DF and TAA.

  18. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA TEPUNG UBI JALAR (Ipomoea batatas VARIETAS SUKUH DENGAN VARIASI PROSES PENEPUNGAN [Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Sukuh Variety Sweet Potatoes (Ipomea batatas Flours Made with Various Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifena Honestin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato has considerable potencies to support food diversification program based on flour and starch product. Various processing methods in the flour processing show great effect on alteration of the physicochemical properties of sweet potato flour. This research investigated the effects of different flour processing methods on the physicochemical properties of sweet potato flour. The results showed that processing method had a significant effect on water content, bulk density, colour (L, a, b, microscopic properties of starch granule, water absorption index, water soluble index and pasting properties of the sweet potato flour.

  19. Evaluation of growth, metabolism and production of potentially bioactive components during fermentation of barley with Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallin, Anton; Agback, Peter; Jonsson, Hans; Roos, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Eighteen bacterial isolates from millet, buckwheat and rye flour were identified as Lactobacillus reuteri. Genomic fingerprinting (rep-PCR) revealed that they represented five strains and phylogenetic analyses using multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA) showed that all clustered with strains of rodent origin. Two strains (SU12-3 and SU18-3) from different phylogenetic clades were used in fermentations of six varieties of barley, both untreated and heat-treated (with inactivated indigenous enzymes) flour. They were compared with two probiotic strains of human origin (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 6475), one previously isolated sourdough strain (LTH 5531) and one strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (36E). Analyses of growth (CFU) and metabolism (1H-NMR) revealed differences at species level, with L. plantarum showing a higher capacity to assimilate nutrients without help of the cereal enzymes. Similarities were observed between L. reuteri strains isolated from sourdough, while the greatest differences between L. reuteri strains were observed between strains 6475 and 17938. Multivariate analysis of the metabolic profiles revealed clear clustering according to flour treatment, species of bacteria and barley variety and to some extent also bacterial strain. Possible bioactive compounds such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 1,3- propanediol (sign of reuterin production) and histamine were identified and quantified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting spring barley yield from variety-specific yield potential, disease resistance and straw length, and from environment-specific disease loads and weed pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Kristensen, Kristian; Pinnschmidt, Hans O.

    2008-01-01

    For low-input crop production, well-characterised varieties increase the possibilities of managing diseases and weeds. This analysis aims at developing a framework for analyzing grain yield using external varietal information about disease resistance, weed competitiveness and yield potential and ...... growth habit. Higher grain yield was thus predicted for taller plants under weed pressure. The results are discussed in relation to the model framework, impact of the considered traits and use of information from conventional variety testing in organic cropping systems....

  1. Radiosensitivities of cultured barley of different type (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan

    1990-01-01

    The dormant seeds (with 13% moisture) of 47 barley varieties were irradiated with various doses (0-40 krad) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The radiosensitivities of naked barley was significantly higher than that of hulled barley. The sensitive coefficients of seedling height were 0.04945 and 0.03667 for naked barley and hulled barley, respectively. The radiosensitivity of four-row naked barley was significantly higher than that of two-row hulled barley and six-row hulled barley. 47 varieties studied could be divided into five types with different radiosensitivities, i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive and extreme sensitive. It was also found that the dose-effect curves of cell nucleus volume had a peal at 30 krad

  2. seed flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  3. Mutation breeding in malting barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Makoto; Sanada, Matsuyoshi

    1984-03-01

    The released varieties of malting barley through mutation breeding is more than ten in number, including foreign varieties. In Japan four varieties has been released so far. We started mutation breeding in 1956 together with cross breeding that we employed before. Until now, Gamma 4, Amagi Nijo 1 and Fuji Nijo 2 have been produced from the direct use of induced mutations and Nirasaki Nijo 8 from the indirect use of them. Mutation breeding has been used mainly in the partial improvement of agronomic characteristics since the selection for malting quality was very complicated. As the variety bred by induced mutation is usually equivalent to the original variety in malting quality, both this new variety and the original one could be cultivated in the same area without any problem on later malt production. Particularly when one farmer cultivates barley in an extensive acreage, he can harvest at the best time according to the different maturing time of each variety. From these points of view, mutation breeding is an efficient tool in malting barley breeding. Mutagens we have used so far are X-rays, ..gamma..-rays, neutron and chemicals such as dES. From our experience in selection, the low dose of radiation and chemical mutagens are more effective in selection of point mutation than the high dose of radiation which tends to produce many abnormal but few practical mutants. (author).

  4. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  5. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  6. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  7. Effects of process parameters on the properties of barley containing snacks enriched with brewer's spent grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjoranta, Satu; Tenkanen, Maija; Jouppila, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG), a by-product of malting of barley in the production of malt extract, was used as an ingredient in extruded barley-based snacks in order to improve the nutritional value of the snacks and widen the applications of this by-product in food sector. The effects of the extrusion parameters on the selected properties of the snacks were studied. Snacks with different ingredients including whole grain barley flour, BSG, whey protein isolate (WPI), barley starch and waxy corn starch were produced in 5 separate trials using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Extrusion parameters were water content of the mass (17-23 %), screw speed (200-500 rpm) and temperature of the last section and die (110-150 °C). Expansion, hardness and water content of the snacks were determined. Snacks containing barley flour and BSG (10 % of solids) had small expansion and high hardness. Addition of WPI (20 % of solids) increased expansion only slightly. Snacks with high expansion and small hardness were obtained when part of the barley flour was replaced with starch (barley or waxy corn). Yet, the highest expansion and the smallest hardness were achieved when barley flour was used with barley starch and WPI without BSG. Furthermore, expansion increased by increasing screw speed and decreasing water content of the mass in most of the trials. This study showed that BSG is a suitable material for extruded snacks rich in dietary fiber. Physical properties of the snacks could be improved by using barley or waxy corn starch and WPI.

  8. Detection of Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup in winter barley seed

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatov Maja; Petrović Dragana; Vujaković Milka; Taški-Ajduković Ksenija; Nikolić Zorica; Jovičić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereals grown in our agroecological conditions. The causal agent of loose smut on barley Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup occurs frequently as varieties susceptible to this pathogen are present in the production. Disease symptoms are manifested on barley head (spike). Parasite is transmitted by seed (seedborne) and stays in the embryo tissue of the infected kernel as dormant mycelium. Recommended method for detection of U. nuda is given by ISTA Rules (method ...

  9. Caracterização físico-quimica de farinhas oriundas de variedades de mandioca utilizadas no vale do Juruá, Acre Physicochemical characteristics of flours deriving of cassava varieties used in the Vale do Juruá, Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Maria Leite de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Algumas características de farinha de mandioca dependem da variedade da raiz utilizada para o processamento. Objetivou-se avaliar as características físico-químicas da farinha de mandioca oriundas de variedades utilizadas no estado do Acre. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelas variedades: T1= Paxiubão, T2= Im221, T3 = Caboquinha, T4 = Araçá, T5 = Colonial, T6 = Branquinha, T7 = Panati e T8 = Mansa e Brava. Foram coletadas amostras das oito variedades de mandioca em casas-de-farinha no município de Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre. As raízes foram transportadas via aérea para o Laboratório de Tecnologia de Alimentos da Embrapa-AC, na cidade de Rio Branco, Acre. Foram avaliados: teor de umidade, cinzas, lipídios, proteína, fibra bruta, carboidratos, acidez, pH e atividade de água. Todas as amostras se apresentaram de acordo com os padrões estabelecidos pela Legislação Brasileira para farinha de mandioca quanto ao teor de umidade, cinzas e carboidratos. As farinhas analisadas apresentam teores baixos de fibras e baixa acidez. A atividade de água das farinhas analisadas esteve abaixo do limite mínimo capaz de permitir o desenvolvimento de microrganismos. As variedades Araçá, Colonial e Branquinha se mostraram adequadas para a fabricação de farinha de mandioca devido, principalmente, ao elevado teor de proteína e carboidratos presente nas farinhas produzidas.Some characteristics of the cassava depend on the variety used for the processing. The objectified of this study was to evaluate physicochemical characteristics of the cassava flour from varieties used in Acre. The treatments were composed by the varieties: T1 = Paxiubão, T2 = Im221, T3 = Caboquinha, T4 = Araçá, T5 = Colonial, T6 = Branquinha, T7 = Panati and T8 = Mansa e Brava. Samples of flour of eight cassava varieties were collect in cassava mils in Cruzeiro do Sul. The samples were sent by airmail to Rio Branco, Acre, to be analyzed in the Food and Technology Laboratory at

  10. Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D.; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic fungus primarily infecting small grain cereals, including barley and wheat. Secreted enzymes play important roles in the pathogenicity of many fungi. In order to access the secretome of F. graminearum, the fungus was grown in liquid culture with barley...... or wheat flour as the sole nutrient source to mimic the host–pathogen interaction. A gel‐based proteomics approach was employed to identify the proteins secreted into the culture medium. Sixty‐nine unique fungal proteins were identified in 154 protein spots, including enzymes involved in the degradation...... between wheat and barley flour medium were mainly involved in fungal cell wall remodelling and the degradation of plant cell walls, starch and proteins. The in planta expression of corresponding F. graminearum genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction in barley...

  11. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley

    Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental

  12. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  13. Effects of Net Blotch ( Pyrenophora teres ) on Malt Barley Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production is constrained by diseases such as net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechsl. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of net blotch disease on malt barley yield and grain quality under natural infection. Four malt barley varieties (Beka, HB 120, HB 52 and Holker), ...

  14. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  15. Rheology of Potato flour Mixes and Wheat to Make Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón-Vera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate the rheological properties of flour mixes Ipomoea batata and Triticum vulgare for the preparation of bread dough, was the goal of this research for it a completely randomized design, as treatments sweet potato flour was used varieties are used: Toquecita, Guayaco Purple, Purple Ecuador, Brazil and Ina Purple in a 30/70 ratio (sweet potato flour / wheat flour respectively. The rheological variables: water absorption, development time, weakening of the dough stability, water absorption index (C1, mixing rate (C2, gluten strength index (C3, gel viscosity (C4, resistance index amylase (C5 and starch retro gradation index (C6 were evaluated with Mixolab equipment. The results showed that the variety Purple Brazil showed better characteristics of flours recommended premixes for the baking process in response to these indices

  16. Infection of green fluorescence protein-tagged Fusarium graminearum on wheat and barley spikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Dufresne, M.; Liu, T.; Lu, W.Z.; Yu, D.Z.; Ma, H.X.

    2008-01-01

    Fusorium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a very serious disease in wheat and barley production area. FHB epidemics cause yield decreases and production Of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and mail products. Understanding the infection mechanism of F.

  17. Quality characteristics of wheat flour dough and bread containing grape pomace flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šporin, Monika; Avbelj, Martina; Kovač, Boris; Možina, Sonja Smole

    2018-04-01

    Wheat bread was enriched with 6%, 10% and 15% dried and milled grape pomace flour from two grape cultivars: 'Merlot' and 'Zelen'. Rheological, textural, sensory and antioxidant properties of the enriched dough and bread were evaluated, and compared to control samples. Grape cultivar had significant impact on the rheological characteristics of the dough, and on the sensory and antioxidant properties of the final bread. Development time and dough stability were longer when 'Merlot' grape pomace flour was added compared to 'Zelen' grape pomace flour and the control. Grape pomace flour addition affected bread volume, firmness, crumb and crust colour, and odour and taste intensity. Moreover, grape pomace flour addition resulted in a stickier and less springy crumb texture, and some negative sensorial properties, such as increased intensity of aftertaste and sand feeling in the mouth. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bread were positively correlated with grape pomace flour addition ( r = 0.987, p = 0.01 and r = 0.941, p = 0.01 between phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power and phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, respectively). The highest total phenolic contents were 5.92 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dw for 'Merlot' and 3.65 mg gallic acid equivalents /g dw for 'Zelen', which were seen for the bread prepared with the highest grape pomace flour addition (15%). The highest antioxidant activity determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays were seen for the bread prepared with the highest 'Merlot' grape pomace flour addition (15%). Dough characteristic and sensory profile are strongly influenced by cultivar of grape pomace flour. Based on results of sensory profiling, the variety 'Zelen' is suggested for use.

  18. Physical and biochemical properties of green banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntharalingam, S; Ravindran, G

    1993-01-01

    Banana flour prepared from two cooking banana varieties, namely 'Alukehel' and 'Monthan', were evaluated for their physical and biochemical characteristics. The yields of flour averaged 31.3% for 'Alukehel' and 25.5% for 'Monthan'. The pH of the flour ranged from 5.4 to 5.7. The bulk density and particle size distribution were also measured. The average chemical composition (% dry matter) of the flours were as follows: crude protein, 3.2; crude fat, 1.3; ash, 3.7; neutral detergent fiber, 8.9; acid detergent fiber, 3.8; cellulose, 3.1; lignin, 1.0 and hemicellulose, 5.0. Carbohydrate composition indicated the flour to contain 2.8% soluble sugars, 70.0% starch and 12.0% non-starch polysaccharides. Potassium is the predominant mineral in banana flour. Fresh green banana is a good source of vitamin C, but almost 65% is lost during the preparation of flour. Oxalate content (1.1-1.6%) of banana flour is probably nutritionally insignificant. The overall results are suggestive of the potential of green bananas as a source of flour.

  19. Effect of Different Diets of Flour Moth on its Parasitoid Wasp Fitness, Trichogramma brassicae (Hym.:Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paria Soltaninejad

    2017-03-01

    lowest daily oviposition were found for treatment II (0.77±0.07 and IV (0.42±0.06, respectively. The treatment III and II meaningfully caused the longest parasitoid lifetime in the second (12.31 ± 0.09 days and forth generation (12.36±0.03 days, respectively. Nevertheless, no significant variation in lifetime of the parasitoid between the other treatments was found in the second and forth generations, separately. Several biotic and abiotic factors can influence T. brassicae lifetime such as temperature, adult feeding, humidity, the quality of the host egg and the size of parasitoids. Also, the proportion of wasps surviving at time x (lx were almost similar among all treatments in the second and forth generations, separately. The survival rate fluctuations of T. brassicae reared on eggs of Ch. suppressalis, were similar on different rice varieties and after eight days all adults were dead which was similar to our results. Conclusion: By referring to the results, treatment II, included wheat flour, wheat bran, barley flour, bread yeast and glycerin (ratios: 41.5: 2: 43.5: 3: 10%, respectively is proposed to optimize mass rearing of the parasitoid wasp, T. brassicae as an important biological control agent. The treatment II caused to increase the life span and parasitism rate of T. brassicae and is suitable for mass production of the parasitoid to promote the quality of biological control programs.

  20. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Alžbeta Žofajová; Jozef Gubiš; Ľudovít Sleziak; Klára Križanová; Vratislav Psota

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently descripti...

  1. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  2. Catering Gluten-Free When Simultaneously Using Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals

  3. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  4. Advances in the use of mutation induction for genetic improvement of barley and native grains in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Loli, M.; Luz Gomez, P.; Jorge Jimenez, D.; Agripina Roldan, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    Barley seeds of two varieties were treated with several doses of gamma rays and sodium azide. Seeds of a quinoa (Chenopodium) variety were treated with three doses of gamma rays. Yield trials were conducted also for doubled haploid lines of barley derived from earlier mutagenic treatments. Some promising new barley mutant lines were identified in the yield trials. The results from the Chenopodium trials facilitate the determination of the optimum dose of gamma rays for the PRQ-22 variety. (author)

  5. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  6. Influence of grain activation conditions on functional characteristics of brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit

    2017-09-01

    Grain activation is a natural processing technique that can be used to produce modified flours without chemical modification. Functional characteristics of brown rice flour as influenced by grain activation time and temperatures were investigated. Germination temperatures at 25 ℃, 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ and time for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h significantly influenced the functional properties of flour with modification of starch, protein and high enzymatic activity. Significant decrease in the bulk density, water absorption and swelling power of brown rice flour was observed in comparison to non-germinated flour. Gel consistency and oil absorption capacity of brown rice flour increased as the grain activation time and temperature were increased. Native flour had lowest emulsion and foaming properties, while increase in grain activation time and temperature enhanced the emulsifying and foaming properties of flour. Paste clarity of native flour was 54% which was reduced to 25.17%; however, increase in germination time and temperature increased the % synersis values of germinated flour. Native flour had least gelation concentration of 12% which increased to 25% after 48 h of germination at 35 ℃. Overall, germination can be used as a natural way to modify the functional properties of brown rice flours for their utilization in variety food products.

  7. Quinoa flour in baked products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K; Coulter, L

    1991-07-01

    The performance of quinoa-wheat flour blends (5/95, 10/90, 20/80, 30/70) were evaluated in breads, cakes and cookies. Breads baked with 5% and 10% quinoa flour were of good quality. Loaf volume decreased, crumb grain became more open and the texture slightly harsh at higher usage levels of quinoa flour. A bitter after taste was noted at the 30% level. Cake quality was acceptable with 5% and 10% of quinoa flour. Cake grain became more open and the texture less silky as the level of quinoa substitution increased. Cake taste improved with either 5% or 10% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and top grain scores decreased with increasing levels of quinoa flour blended with high-spread cookie flour. Flavor improved up to 20% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and cookie appearance was improved with a quinoa/low-spread flour blend by using 2% lecithin.

  8. Pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored wheat and barley, bread, burghul and parboiled wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidemetriou, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Residues of 14 C-pirimiphos-methyl in stored grain declined to 88% in wheat and 82% in barley after 12 months. Corresponding percentages with the unlabelled insecticide were 78% and 59% since only the parent chemical was determined. Surface residues, removed by washing the grain with water, decreased from 3.3 to 0.2 mg/kg for wheat and from 2.0 to 0.2 mg/kg for barley. Bound residues increased gradually with time and reached a maximum of 2.2% for wheat and 3.0% for barley in 12 months. Pirimiphos-methyl residues in flour increased from 1.1 at 0 time to 2.2 mg/kg after one year. The mean values of residues contained in the unwashed wheat grain were 81% for bran and 19% for flour. The loss in milling during preparation of wholemeal flour from prewashed grain was 7% for wheat and 6% for barley. Processed products from wheat showed residue losses ranging from 24 to 45%. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  10. BIOFILMS BASED ON CANIHUA FLOUR (Chenopodium Pallidicaule: DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady M. Salas-Valero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to (1 produce and characterize the flour obtained from two varieties of canihua, cupi and illpa-inia, and (2 evaluate the ability of these flours to form biofilms. The flours produced contain proteins, starches, lipids, organic substances containing phenol groups, and high percentages of unsaturated fatty acids. Films produced from the illpa variety presented lower water vapor permeability and larger Young’s modulus values than the films formed from the cupi variety. Both films were yellowish and displayed a high light blocking ability (as compared with polyethylene films, which can be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, they showed lesser solubility and water permeability than other polysaccharide films, which may be the result of the higher protein (12%–13.8% and lipid (11% contents in canihua flours, as well as the formation of a larger number of S–S bonds. On the other hand, these films presented a single vitreous transition temperature at low temperatures (< 0 °C, crystallization of the A and Vh types, and an additional diffraction peak at 2 = 7.5º, ascribed to the presence of essential fatty acids in canihua flour. Canihua flour can form films with adequate properties and shows promise for potential applications in food packaging, because it acts as a good barrier to incident ultraviolet light.

  11. 108-110 Registration of Guta Barley (Hordeium vulgare L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adoption potential by the local farmers. Keywords: Guta; Barley (Hordeium vulgare L); Yield ... evaluated along with Aruso and Shage as the local and standard variety, respectively at altitudinal range of 2400- ... 6. Farmers Evaluation of the Variety. To evaluate the perception and preferences of the local farmers, farmers' ...

  12. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) growing at Wollo Highland areas by using hordein and agro-morphological traits. Twenty (20) varieties were laid down in randomized complete block design (RCBD) design with three replications; they were ...

  13. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, V; Appoloni, C R

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, (7)Be and (137)Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of (228)Th and (40)K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg(-1) for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for (137)Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg(-1). The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y(-1) for (228)Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y(-1), to the public exposure.

  14. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, V.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and 137 Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of 228 Th and 40 K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg -1 for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for 137 Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg -1 . The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y -1 for 228 Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y -1 , to the public exposure. (authors)

  15. Is barley malt safe as a food ingredient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Olesen, P. A.

    hydrocarbons (PAH) are such process contaminants previously identified in e.g. smoked fish [3]. Germinated barley is smoke treated and for many whisky malt dried over peat-fuelled furnace for flavour addition probably with increased health risks for spent grain consumers as a result. To evaluate our concern we...... for animal feed and recently the high nutritive value has made it feasible as bread flour supplement [1] and therefore human food. Process contamination such as the genotoxic acrylamide formed due to Maillard reactions between reducing sugars and amino acids at raised temperature could appear during drying...

  16. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stinging nettle?(Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4...

  17. Committed effective dose determination in cereal flours by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2006-01-01

    The health impact from radionuclides ingestion of foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, corn, manioc, rye, oat, barley and rice flour). The radioactivity traces of 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and 137 Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The energy resolution for the 1332.46 keV line of 60 Co was 2.03 keV. The committed effective doses were calculated with the activities analyzed in the present flour samples, the foodstuff rates of consumption (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) and the ingestion dose coefficients (International Commission of Radiological Protection). The reliability median activities were verified with χ 2 tests, assuring the fittings quality. The highest concentration levels of 228 Th and 40 K were 3.5 ± 0.4 and 1469 ± 17 Bq.kg -1 for soy flour, respectively, with 95% of confidence level. The lower limit of detection for 137 Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq.kg -1 . The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y -1 for 228 Ra in manioc flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the UNSCEAR limits of 140 μSv.y -1 and much lower than the ICRP (1991) limits of 1 mSv.y -1 , for general public. There are few literature references for natural and artificial radionuclides in foodstuffs and mainly for committed effective doses. This work brings the barley flour data, which is not present at the literature and 7 Be data which is not encountered in foodstuffs at the literature, besides all the other flours data information about activities and committed effective doses. (author)

  18. Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, it has been difficult to accurately determine the location of many types of barley molecular markers due to the lack of commonality between international barley linkage maps. In this study, a consensus map of barley was constructed from five different maps (OWB, VxHs, KxM, barley consensus 2 and barley ...

  19. Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Iraqi Wheat Varieties and their Relationship with Bread Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhl, J.; AL-A'ani, S.; AL-Noori, F.; Sajet, A.

    2005-01-01

    The results showed that the volume of the bread baked from wheat flour of Tammoze 3 was increased significantly compared to other wheat varieties. Maxiback flour gave the smallest bread volume; whereas Abugraib and Rabi'ah bread were not significantly different. Abugraib wheat was not significantly different from Rabi'ah bread. The taste panel results were compatible with baking results. Tammoze 3 was the highest in one thousand grain weight and total protein percentage. Rabi'ah wheat flour was superior in water absorption Among the tested wheat flour varieties, maxiback flour showed best fat content. Amylases and proteases activities were higher in wheat grains than in flour. Protease activity was the highest in Maxiback flour; whereas in Tammoze 3 it was the lowest. (Author's) 19 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Malting barley BRS Borema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclydes Minella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Borema is an early maturing, two-rowed spring barley registered in 2003 for commercial production inSouthern Brazil, bred by Embrapa Trigo. It combines good yield potential with superior malting quality and a reasonable levelof disease (net blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust resistance. It is well-adapted to all major production regions of maltingbarley in Brazil.

  1. Radiosensitivity study of cultured barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan; Chen Qiufang

    1991-07-01

    For studying the radioactivity, forty seven varieties of dormant barley seeds were irradiated with various doses (0 ∼ 400 Gy) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The results showed that the dose-effects relations of seedling growth inhibition could be fitted by an equation of F(D) = 1 - (1 - e -a 1 D ) N , and the dose-effects of cell-nucleus, the frequency of root tip cell with chromosome aberations and peroxidase isoenzyme band could be expressed by a linear regression equation Y = A + B · X. The radioactivity of naked barley was much higher than of covered barley. According to different radiosensitivities the varieties studied could be divided into five types i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive, and extreme sensitive. The results also showed that there was close relationship between the DNA content of cell-nucleus, peroxidase isoenzyme zymogram and radioactivity. The radiosensitivty was proportional to the DNA content. The volume of cell-nucleus varied inversly as D 50 of nucleus volume and no obvious correlation with the D 50 of seedling growth inhibition

  2. Effect of different diets on development and Radiosensitivity of Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.U; Mazhar, A.; Shahid, M.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the effect of different diets on the development and radio-sensitivity of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The results revealed that development, losses and sensitivity varied significantly (P< 0.05) with respect to diet. Developmental period was highest (43.5 days) in wheat starch and lowest (22 days) in wheat flour + 5% yeast (Standard diet). Significantly higher progeny (948) was produced in barley and lower (105.3) in wheat starch. Maximum adult weight (37.35 mg/20 adults) was recorded in sorghum and minimum (33.4) in starch. Percent weight loss was highest (21.25 ) in barley and lowest (8.0) in starch. Barley flour was found as the best diet. Radiosensitivity in relation to diet indicated that adults reared on wheat starch were most sensitive. Comparing the dose response, insect mortality was dose and diet dependent. However, 2.5 kGy proved quite lethal. No significant effect of radiation was observed on moisture and protein contents of the diets except reducing sugars. (author)

  3. Effect of flour particle size and damaged starch on the quality of cookies

    OpenAIRE

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak; Khatkar, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Two wheat varieties ‘C 306’ and ‘WH 542’ were milled to obtain flour fractions of different particle sizes. Various physicochemical parameters such as wet and dry gluten, falling number, solvent retention capacity (SRC), alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC) and damaged starch content of the flour fractions were analyzed. The damaged starch values ranged from 5.14% to 14.79% for different flour fractions and increased significantly with decrease in particle size. AWRC and SRC of the flour ...

  4. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in bread making. The quality of bread was evaluated by considering the physical and sensorial parameters. When the wheat flour was substituted with malted rice flour, 35% substitution level and the malted rice flour from 3 days of germination was the best according to the physical and sensory qualities of bread. The quality of bread was improved by the addition of 20 g of margarine, 20 g of baking powder and 20 g of yeast in 1 kg of flour. Among different ratios of yeast and baking powder, 2:1 was the best. Bread improver containing amylases and oxidizing agents at the concentration of 40 g/kg was selected as the best concentration. When comparing the final formulation made in the bakery with wheat bread, malted rice-wheat bread contains more soluble dietary fiber (0.62%, insoluble dietary fiber (3.95%, total dietary fiber (4.57% and free amino acid content (0.64 g/kg than those in wheat bread (0.5%, 2.73%, 3.23% and 0.36 g/kg, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of dry heat treatment of soft wheat flour for the production of high ratio cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, S; Bakalis, S; Leadley, C E; Sahi, S S; Fryer, P J

    2018-05-01

    An accurate method to heat treat flour samples has been used to quantify the effects of heat treatment on flour functionality. A variety of analytical methods has been used such as oscillatory rheology, rheomixer, solvent retention capacity tests, and Rapid Visco Analysis (RVA) in water and in aqueous solutions of sucrose, lactic acid, and sodium carbonate. This work supports the hypothesis that heat treatment facilitates the swelling of starch granules at elevated temperature. Results furthermore indicated improved swelling ability and increased interactions of flour polymers (in particular arabinoxylans) of heat treated flour at ambient conditions. The significant denaturation of the proteins was indicated by a lack of gluten network formation after severe heat treatments as shown by rheomixer traces. Results of these analyses were used to develop a possible cake flour specification. A method was developed using response surfaces of heat treated flour samples in the RVA using i) water and ii) 50% sucrose solution. This can uniquely characterise the heat treatment a flour sample has received and to establish a cake flour specification. This approach might be useful for the characterisation of processed samples, rather than by baking cakes. Hence, it may no longer be needed to bake a cake after flour heat treatment to assess the suitability of the flour for high ratio cake production, but 2 types of RVA tests suffice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  7. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwen Niu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC, 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC, 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC, 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC, NaCl SRC (SCSRC, CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC, FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC, sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC, NaOH (pH 10 SRC (SHSRC, Na2CO3 (pH 10 SRC (SCABSRC and SDS (pH 10 SRC (SDSSRC values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl to acidic (5% lactic acid or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3, and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3 increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**, CCSRC (0.82**, SCHSRC (0.80** and FCSRC (0.78*. SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64* but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.

  8. Supplementary Material for: Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui; Saade, Stephanie; Kurtek, Sebastian; Berger, Bettina; Brien, Chris; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark A.; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we

  9. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  10. BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF BARLEY RIHANE (HORDEUM VULGARE L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahouar, Lamia; Ghrairi, Fatma; El Arem, Amira; Medimagh, Sana; El Felah, Mouledi; Salem, Hichem Ben; Achour, Lotfi

    2017-01-01

    Many experimental studies have suggested an important role for barley Rihane(BR)in the prevention of colon cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and nutritional characterizations of BR compared to other varieties grown in Tunisia (Manel, Roho and Tej). Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber(β-glucan), total protein, ash and some minerals of BR and Tunisian barley varieties were determined. The results revealed that BR is good source of dietary fiber mainly β-glucan compared to the other varieties. This variety is a relatively rich source of phosphorous and potassium and it contains many important unsaturated fatty acids. BR has higher nutritional value than other varieties. Barley Rihane has significant nutritional characterizations compared to others Tunisian barleys varieties. Abbreviations: BR, Barley Rihane; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL, high density lipoprotein; AOM, azoxymethane; TBV, Tunisian barley varieties; TGW, thousand grain weight; SW, weight specific; TDF, total dietary fiber; IDF, insoluble dietary fiber; SDF, soluble dietary fiber; DM, Dry Matter.

  11. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  12. Effects of Dry-Milling and Wet-Milling on Chemical, Physical and Gelatinization Properties of Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitranut Leewatchararongjaroen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour from nine varieties, subjected to dry- and wet-milling processes, was determined for its physical and chemical properties. The results revealed that milling method had an effect on properties of flour. Wet-milling process resulted in flour with significantly lower protein and ash contents and higher carbohydrate content. Wet-milled flour also tended to have lower lipid content and higher amylose content. In addition, wet-milled rice flour contained granules with smaller average size compared to dry-milled samples. Swelling power at 90 °C of wet-milled samples was higher while solubility was significantly lower than those of dry-milled flour. Dry milling process caused the destruction of the crystalline structure and yielded flour with lower crystallinity compared to wet-milling process, which resulted in significantly lower gelatinization enthalpy.

  13. Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackay Ian J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of population sub-structure. A major genotypic division within barley is that between winter- and spring-sown varieties, which differ in their requirement for vernalization to promote subsequent flowering. To date, all attempts to validate association genetics in barley by identifying major flowering time loci that control vernalization requirement (VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 have failed. Here, we validate the use of association genetics in barley by identifying VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, despite their prominent role in determining population sub-structure. Results By taking barley as a typical inbreeding crop, and seasonal growth habit as a major partitioning phenotype, we develop an association mapping approach which successfully identifies VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, the underlying loci largely responsible for this agronomic division. We find a combination of Structured Association followed by Genomic Control to correct for population structure and inflation of the test statistic, resolved significant associations only with VRN-H1 and the VRN-H2 candidate genes, as well as two genes closely linked to VRN-H1 (HvCSFs1 and HvPHYC. Conclusion We show that, after employing appropriate statistical methods to correct for population sub-structure, the genome-wide partitioning effect of allelic status at VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 does not result in the high levels of spurious association expected to occur in highly structured samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both VRN-H1 and the candidate VRN-H2 genes can be identified using association mapping

  14. Qualities of fufu flour from white yam varieties ( Dioscorea spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the sensory evaluation shows that the colour, texture, and general acceptability of Okpebe and Nwopoke were statistically the same, while they differed significantly with Ozibo. On the stickiness, the samples differed significantly (P<0.05). Nwopoke was generally preferred by consumers for fufu making followed ...

  15. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tinguish varieties of crop plants and establish their purity as a prerequisite for any ... of genetic material in germplasm collection and as a general guide for the choice ... Sixty-nine barley cultivars were grown under field condi- tions in three ...

  16. Quality assessment of dry noodles made from blend of mocaf flour, rice flour and corn flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifah, N.; Ratnawati, L.

    2017-12-01

    Mocaf flour, rice flour, and corn flour in different concentrations were used to produce dry noodles. The aims of this study were to investigate physicochemical properties of the flours and the quality characteristics of dry noodles made from these flours. Dry noodles were prepared by gelatinization of blending flours followed by feeding the dough to extruder and drying overnight in room temperature. Flours were analyzed for chemical and pasting properties and noodle samples were evaluated for chemical, cooking, and texture properties. The results showed there were significant differences in protein content and elongation between noodles made from blending mocaf and rice flour with that of blending mocaf, rice, and corn flour. The moisture, ash, and protein content of noodle samples ranged from 10.98 to 14.18%, 1.23 to 1.39%, and 4.09 to 5.58%, respectively. Values of noodle cooking quality were ranging from 12.0 - 13.8 minutes, 10.6 to 14.3%, and 204 to 248%, respectively for cooking time, cooking loss, and cooking weight. The elongation, hardness, and adhesiveness of noodles ranged from 276 to 374%, 3,523 to 10,478 gf, and -81.99 to -52.49 g.sec.

  17. Biofortification with Iron and Zinc Improves Nutritional and Nutraceutical Properties of Common Wheat Flour and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccolini, Valentina; Pellegrino, Elisa; Coccina, Antonio; Fiaschi, Anna Ida; Cerretani, Daniela; Sgherri, Cristina; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Ercoli, Laura

    2017-07-12

    The effect of field foliar Fe and Zn biofortification on concentration and potential bioavailability of Fe and Zn and health-promoting compounds was studied in wholemeal flour of two common wheat varieties (old vs modern). Moreover, the effect of milling and bread making was studied. Biofortification increased the concentration of Zn (+78%) and its bioavailability (+48%) in the flour of the old variety, whereas it was ineffective in increasing Fe concentration in both varieties. However, the old variety showed higher concentration (+41%) and bioavailability (+26%) of Fe than the modern one. As regard milling, wholemeal flour had higher Fe, Zn concentration and health-promoting compounds compared to white flour. Bread making slightly change Fe and Zn concentration but greatly increased their bioavailability (77 and 70%, respectively). All these results are of great support for developing a production chain of enriched functional bread having a protective role against chronic cardio-vascular diseases.

  18. The studies on the preparation of instant noodles from wheat flour supplementing withs weet potato flour

    OpenAIRE

    Taneya, M.L.J.; Biswas, M.M.H.; Shams-Ud-Din, M.

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on the effect of composite flours consisting of wheat and sweet potato flour on the physicochemical and sensory properties of instant noodles. Sweet potato flour was incorporated into wheat flour at flour replacement levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. The levels of sweet potato flours increased in the formulations of instant noodle that increased ash, starch, crude fiber and total carbohydrate contents but decreased level of protein. The instant noodles with 20% sweet potato flour...

  19. Quality Attributes of Tapioca Meal Fortified With Defatted Soy Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be processed to a variety of products such as soy flour, soy milk, soy yoghurt, soy .... Values are means of triplicate determinations on fresh weight basis; means ... of the sensory analysis is shown in Table 2 and it is based on the perception of.

  20. Quality of fermented cassava flour processed into placali | Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermented cassava flour was obtained from Yace variety. Cassava roots were washed, peeled and ground. After adding cassava inoculums at 8% (m/m), the pulp was allowed to ferment for 72 hours at ambient temperature. The fermented dough was removed, squeezed and oven-dried for 48 hours at 55 °C. The dried ...

  1. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D

    2015-01-01

    to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from Illumina....... Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  2. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and phosphated...

  3. Detection of Ustilago nuda (Jensen Rostrup in winter barley seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatov Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereals grown in our agroecological conditions. The causal agent of loose smut on barley Ustilago nuda (Jensen Rostrup occurs frequently as varieties susceptible to this pathogen are present in the production. Disease symptoms are manifested on barley head (spike. Parasite is transmitted by seed (seedborne and stays in the embryo tissue of the infected kernel as dormant mycelium. Recommended method for detection of U. nuda is given by ISTA Rules (method 7-013. In tests, nine samples (weighing 120 g each of naturally infected barley seed (about 1000 seeds, depending on the absolute mass of seed were examined, observed and described using a Zeiss microscope with sub stage illumination with magnification range x 40 or higher. Mycelium of the fungus approximately 3 μ thick, golden brown in colour was detected and visible without a stain. The percentage of infected embryos in the examined samples of barley seeds ranged from 0.8% to 5.2%.

  4. Aggressiveness of powdery mildew on 'ml-o'- resistant barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Lars

    1990-01-01

    The ml-o genes in barley are important sources in breeding for resistance against the barley powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis). The resistance mechanism is a rapid formation of a large callose containing cell wall apposition at the site of the pathogen's infection attempt. This reduces the chances of infection to almost nil in all epidermal cells, except in the small subsidiary cells, in which appositions are rarely formed. Small mildew colonies from infections in subsidiary cells may be seen on the otherwise resistant leaf. This is described by the infection type 0/(4). Mildew isolate HL 3 selected by SCHWARZBACH has increased aggressiveness. No ml-o-virulent isolates are known. However, ml-o-resistant varieties when grown extensively in Europe, will introduce field selection for mildew pathotypes with aggressiveness or virulence to ml-o resistance. Studies on increased aggressiveness require new methods. The material comprises two powdery mildew isolates: GE 3 without ml-o aggressiveness and the aggressive HL 3/5; and two near-isogenic barley lines in Carlsberg II: Riso 5678(R) with the recessive mutant resistance gene ml-o5 and Riso 5678(S) with the wild-type gene for susceptibility. Latent period and disease efficiency show no significant differences between the two isolates on the susceptible barley line (S) but the isolates differ from each other on the resistant barley line

  5. Identification of a Phytase Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Ye, Lingzhen; Wu, Dezhi; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Background Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. Conclusions/Significance It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains. PMID:21533044

  6. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  7. Development and characterization of polymorphic EST based SSR markers in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Won-Sam; Kim, Hye-Yeong; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2017-08-01

    In barley, breeding using good genetic characteristics can improve the quality or quantity of crop characters from one generation to the next generation. The development of effective molecular markers in barley is crucial for understanding and analyzing the diversity of useful alleles. In this study, we conducted genetic relationship analysis using expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers for barley identification and assessment of barley cultivar similarity. Seeds from 82 cultivars, including 31 each of naked and hulled barley from the Korea Seed and Variety Service and 20 of malting barley from the RDA-Genebank Information Center, were analyzed in this study. A cDNA library of the cultivar Gwanbori was constructed for use in analysis of genetic relationships, and 58 EST-SSR markers were developed and characterized. In total, 47 SSR markers were employed to analyze polymorphisms. A relationship dendrogram based on the polymorphism data was constructed to compare genetic diversity. We found that the polymorphism information content among the examined cultivars was 0.519, which indicates that there is low genetic diversity among Korean barley cultivars. The results obtained in this study may be useful in preventing redundant investment in new cultivars and in resolving disputes over seed patents. Our approach can be used by companies and government groups to develop different cultivars with distinguishable markers. In addition, the developed markers can be used for quantitative trait locus analysis to improve both the quantity and the quality of cultivated barley.

  8. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  9. Comparative Studies on Callose Formation in Powdery Mildew Compatible and Incompatible Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Lilholt, Ulla

    1984-01-01

    Callose formation in barley mutants, lines and varieties with different genes for resistance to powdery mildew in seven different loci was compared. Only barley with resistance genes in the ml-o locus showed so early a callose formation passing off at such a high rate that it prevented fungal...... penetration Ml-(La) resistant varieties and near-isogenic lines in 'Manchuria' with resistance genes in 5 other loci showed only a tendency to a larger callose formation than their susceptible counterparts after inoculation with avirulent as well as virulent powdery mildew. The callose formation in ml......-o resistant barley was independent of the powdery mildew culture applied. This supports the hypothesis set forth as to why the ml-o mutants are resistant against all known cultures or races of barley powdery mildew, and why this resistance may be more durable than other powdery mildew resistances...

  10. THE MALT EXTRACT, RELATIVE EXTRACT AND DIASTATIC POWER AS A VARIETAL CHARACTERISTIC OF MALTING BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Dráb

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality of barley depends on genetic and agro-ekological factors. Chemical composition of malting barley and its technological parameters are very important for malting and brewing, due to this fact the quality of barley must be strictly evaluated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of variety, locality and year of production on the 5 technological parameters of malt: extract, relative extract at 45 °C, Kolbach index, diastatic power and friability. It was found out that the barley variety significantly influenced the following parameters: extract, relative extract and diastatic power. The growing locality weakly influenced qualitative parameters i.e. Kolbach index and relative extract at 45°C. The study confirmed the most significant impact of the year on the Kolbach index and friability.

  11. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  12. Characteristics of Chemical and Functional Properties of Modified Cassava Flour (Manihot esculenta) by Autoclaving-Cooling Cycles Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecep Erwan Andriansyah, Raden; Rahman, Taufik; Herminiati, Ainia; Rahman, Nurhaidar; Luthfiyanti, Rohmah

    2017-12-01

    The modified cassava flour can be made using the method of the autoclaving cooling cycle (AAC). The stability of the warming can be seen from the decreasing value of breakdown viscosity, while the stability of the stirring process can be seen by the decreasing value of setback viscosity. The stages of research include: (1) the making of cassava flour, (2) the making of modified cassava flour by the method of treatment of ACC with a variety of flour concentration and autoclaving time, (3) chemical analysis of the moisture, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate; The functional properties of the pasting characteristics to the initial temperature of the pasting, peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, breakdown viscosity, cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity. The result shows that cassava flour modified by treatment of flour concentration 16% and autoclaving time 41 minutes having pasting code and pasting viscosity which is resistant to high temperature. Flour with this character is flour that is expected to maintain the texture of processed products with a paste form that remains stable. Utilization of modified cassava flour by the ACC method can be applied to the pasting product such as noodle and spaghetti, hoping to support for food diversification program to reduce dependence on wheat flour in Indonesia.

  13. Method of Converting Wheat Flour Quantity into Rice Flour Quantity in Cookies (Part-1)

    OpenAIRE

    村田,美穂子; 髙橋,由加

    2016-01-01

    A method of converting the wheat flour quantity of a recipe of wheat-flour cookies into the rice flour quantity of a recipe of rice-flour cookies used domestically for wheat-allergic children was studied. The proportion of the water content with respect to the flour content (the wheat or rice flour content) in cut cookies prepared according to a commercially available recipe was obtained. Next, four types of rice-flour cookies were prepared according to a recipe for wheat-flour cookies using ...

  14. Selecting of a new soft wheat variety of Yangfumai 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Han Yuepeng; Wang Jinrong; Yang Hefeng; Liu Xueyu

    2004-01-01

    A new variety Yangfumai 2 was developed by hybridization (Yangmai158 x mutation line 1-9012) and irradiation. The flour quality of new variety meets the national standard of soft wheat, and agronomic characteristics show stable high yield, high stress toloerance and high 1000-grain weight. (authors)

  15. Enumeration of fungi in barley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie, CJ

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of fungal contamination of barley grain is important as certain fungi can proliferate during the malting process. The following factors which may affect the enumeration of fungi were evaluated: dilution versus direct plating, pre...

  16. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, J.; Rosell, C. M.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  17. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Álvarez, J; García-Hernández, M J; Chávez, J A; Turó, A; Salazar, J; Rosell, C M

    2012-01-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  18. THE ENZYMATIC EFFECT (α-AMYLASE ON VISCOSITY AND CARBOHYDRATE COMPOSITION OF MAIZE FLOUR MODIFIED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarni Suarni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Technology is required in making new product of maize flour. Enzymatic modification of three varieties of maize flours i.e. MS2, Srikandi and Local product has been conducted using α-amylase from mung bean sprouts has been carried out in Laboratorium Bioproses BB Pascapanen Bogor. A research was performed used the flour without addition of sprouts (as control and with addition of 10, 20, 30 % of sprouts. Parameters observed were the change in viscosity of the maize flour; amylose, glucose and oligosaccharide contents. Results showed that there were changes in polymerization degree, dextrose equivalent, amylase content, viscosity (50 oC, viscosity (50 ºC/20΄, and carbohydrate composition. An enzymatic treatment using 20% of sprout to the three varieties gave results as follows:  amylose content was 20.02 - 24.02%, viscosity (50 ºC was  210 - 230 BU, and viscosity (50 ºC/20΄ was 200 - 220 BU. Functional properties of the flour fulfilled with the soft texture product, such as  food material for children under five years old. Data of the modified flour can be utilized by consuments as an alternative food material.   Keywords: modified maize flour, viscosity and carbohydrate composition

  19. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit.

  20. Yield improvement in barley by using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamer, Ibrahim Mohammed

    1990-01-01

    Breeding work for barley improvement in Libya is very rare. All varieties grown here are foreign varieties. Yield per hectare is low compared with other countries having similar climatic conditions. Productivity, lodging, disease resistance, drought and salt tolerance are the main characteristics that need to be improved. A mutation breeding programme for barley improvement was initiated at the Tajoura Nuclear Research Centre in 1983-1984. The objectives of this programme are the development of new lines that could be used directly or indirectly in the development of new varieties. The locally adapted barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) variety ''California Mariout'' was used as a parent material. Grains with 14% moisture were exposed to 200 Gy gamma-ray from 60 Co source at the Centre. Three experiments were conducted during 1986-1989. From the first experiment (1986-1987), 62 mutant lines were evaluated. From the second and third experiments (1987-1989), only seven mutant lines were evaluated. In the 1988-1989 experiment, the crop was irrigated and fertilised with 0, 100 and 200 kgN/ha. Lodging score was low in 0 kgN/ha and increased significantly by the increase in N level. None of the mutant lines more lodging resistant than the parent or the control. However, yield differences were significant and the application of 100 kgN/ha increased the grain yield

  1. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat flour. 137.200 Section 137.200 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.200 Whole wheat flour. (a) Whole wheat flour, graham flour, entire wheat flour is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned wheat, other than durum wheat and red durum...

  2. Breeding of proanthocyanidin free malting barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Anna Maria

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Haze formation in stored beer is due to colloidal precipitation of proteins with polyphenols of which proanthocyanidins are the most important group. 70-80% of proanthocyanidin in beer are from barley malt. Today breweries attain haze stability by using enzymes, additives or adsorbents. A better solution would be to remove proanthocyanidins. Carlsberg Plant Breeding uses induced mutations to breed proanthocyanidin-free malting barley. After mutagen treatment with sodium azide M1 seeds are planted in the field and M2 seeds are harvested in bulk. A single seed, non-destructive method has been developed to identify mutant kernels lacking proanthocyanidins in the testa. The method involves the inclusion of M2 seeds - 50 at a time - in semisolid clay blocks, whereafter a small part of the endosperm, testa and pericarp are exposed by sanding the seeds. The clay block is then placed in a vanillin-HCI solution so that the uncovered tissues can react with the solution. A red colour will develop in the testa of normal seeds, whereas the testa layers of proanthocyanid-free seeds remain colourless. So far, more than 600 mutants have been induced in over 100 barley varieties, spring as well as winter-types, from barley producing areas around the world. The mutants can be assigned to at least 7 loci, all of which can block the biosynthetic pathway for the proanthocyanidins. Mutants in the ant-18 and ant-19 loci show poor kernel development. Only a few mutants are known in the ant-12, ant-22 and ant-25 loci. Breeding work is focussed on mutants belonging to the ant-13 and ant-17 loci. Whereas the malting quality of ant-17 lines suffer from apparent abnormal enzyme development in the aleurone layer, this defect does not exist in ant-13 lines. Brewing trials with proanthocyanidin-free malt have shown excellent haze stability without changes in beer flavour. Breeding work based on the ant-13 lines led to disease resistant lines with good malting quality, while grain yield

  3. Useful mutations in Iraqi black barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.F.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important fodder crop in Iraq, with a cultivated area of about 1 392 375 ha and a total production of about 838500 t. The 2-row black barley ''LBB'' is the most desirable one in semi-arid zone in northern part of Iraq, because of its drought tolerance and high protein content. However, this cultivar is susceptible to powdery mildew, and lodges. Gamma rays and EMS were used to induce mutations in ''LBB'' and its hybrid with A rivat''. Nine mutants with improved lodging were selected during the first six generations. Five mutants INRC-BB-1, INRC-BB-3, INRC-BBR-4A, INRC-HB-552 and INRC-HB-553 were resistant to powdery mildew while 2 mutants INRC-BBH-1 and INRC-HBR-3 were moderately resistant. Two mutants INRC-BB-123 and INRC-HBR-3 were also resistant to drought under 350-400 mm rainfall. Three mutants INRC-BB-1, INRC-HBR-3 and INRC-HBR-88 exceeded their original variety in seed weight per spike and TKW. (author)

  4. Assaying total carotenoids in flours of corn and sweet potato flours by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kijak, K.; Grbesa, D.; Martinez, E.; Spruijt, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the application of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for quantification of total carotenoids (TC) in corn flours and sweetpotato flours. Overall, thirty-three different corn flours and nine sweetpotato flours were investigated. All PAS measurements were performed at

  5. Effects of extrusion variables on the properties of waxy hulless barley extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksel, Hamit; Ryu, Gy-Hyung; Başman, Arzu; Demiralp, Hande; Ng, Perry K W

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the extrudability of waxy hulless barley flour under various extrusion conditions. Waxy hulless barley flour was processed in a laboratory-scale corotating twin-screw extruder with different levels of feed moisture content (22.3, 26.8, and 30.7%) and die temperature (130, 150, and 170 degrees C) to develop a snack food with high beta-glucan content. The effects of extrusion condition variables (screw configuration, moisture, and temperature) on the system variables (pressure and specific mechanical energy), the extrudate physical properties (sectional expansion index, bulk density), starch gelatinization, pasting properties (cold peak viscosity, trough viscosity, and final viscosity), and beta-glucan contents were determined. Results were evaluated by using response surface methodology. Increased extrusion temperature and feed moisture content resulted in decreases in exit die pressure and specific mechanical energy values. For extrudates extruded under low shear screw configuration (LS), increased barrel temperature decreased sectional expansion index (SEI) values at both low and high moisture contents. The feed moisture seems to have an inverse relationship with SEI over the range studied. Bulk density was higher at higher moisture contents, for both low and high barrel temperatures, for samples extruded under high shear screw configuration (HS) and LS. Cold peak viscosities (CV) were observed in all samples. The CV increased with the increase in extrusion temperature and feed moisture content. Although beta-glucan contents of the LS extrudates were comparable to that of barley flour sample, HS samples had generally lower beta-glucan contents. The extrusion cooking technique seems to be promising for the production of snack foods with high beta-glucan content, especially using LS conditions.

  6. Significance of heat-moisture treatment conditions on the pasting and gelling behaviour of various starch-rich cereal and pseudocereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha

    2017-10-01

    The impact of heat-moisture treatment processing conditions (15%, 25%, and 35% moisture content; 1, 3, and 5 h heating time at 120 ℃) on the viscosity pasting and gelling profiles of different grain flours matrices (barley, buckwheat, sorghum, high β-glucan barley, and wheat) was investigated by applying successive cooking and cooling cycles to rapid visco analyser canisters with highly hydrated samples (3.5:25, w:w). At a milder heat-moisture treatment conditions (15% moisture content, 1 h heating time), except for sorghum, heat-moisture treatment flours reached much higher viscosity values during earlier pasting and subsequent gelling than the corresponding native counterparts. Besides heat-moisture treatment wheat flour, the described behaviour found also for non-wheat-treated flours has not been previously reported in the literature. An increased hydrophobicity of prolamins and glutelins in low moisture-short heating time heat-moisture treatment of non-wheat flours with high protein content (12.92%-19.95%) could explain the enhanced viscosity profile observed.

  7. Development of aerated confectionery products of high nutritional value using triticale flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastries are very popular among the Russian population. Pastry are the most promising targets for the enrichment of their function ingredients.. One of the most promising feedstocks for the production of flour confectionery products is flour from grain crops ofspring triticale. The different varieties of triticale were studied in particular, triticale flour grade "Ukro" for use in technologies of shortbread-butter cookies with enhanced food value. The first in the history of our country varieties of spring triticale "Ukro" was included in the State Register of selection achievements since 2004. Triticale is characterized by high-protein content. Triticale, protein is higher than in wheat by amino acids lysine and tryptophan, minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, B vitamins. It was pointed the choice and ratio of prescription ingredients. Recipe shortbread-butter cookies based on the seeded triticale flour and flour from coarse whole meal grain, grade "Ukro", with high consumer properties was developed. Cake samples prepared on the basis of flour triticale exceed the reference sample of prime grade wheat flour. Biscuits have a high content of complete protein, vitamins, macro - and microelements, dietary fibers, high gustatory qualities. The influence of prescription components on organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of sandy butter cookies was studied. The nutritional and biological value was calculated. It was state the daily needs of the organism in these materials when using 100 g. As a result of the conducted studies proved the feasibility of the use of flour from grain triticale in the production of flour confectionery products of functional purpose.

  8. Tailoring rice flour structure by rubbery milling for improved gluten-free baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brütsch, Linda; Tribolet, Liliane; Isabettini, Stéphane; Soltermann, Patrick; Baumann, Andreas; Windhab, Erich J

    2018-05-10

    Ever-growing demand for gluten-free products calls for the development of novel food processing techniques to widen the range of existing baked goods. Extensive research has been targeted towards recipe optimization, widely neglecting the tailoring potential of process-induced structuring of gluten-free raw materials. Herein, we address this shortcoming by demonstrating the potential of rubbery milling for the generation of structure and techno-functionality in breads obtained from a variety of rice flour types. Moisture and temperature induced state transitions during milling were exploited to tailor the physicochemical properties of the flour. Moisture addition during conditioning of the different rice varieties and milling in the rubbery state considerably decreased starch damage due to more gentle disintegration. The degree of starch damage dictated the water absorption capacity of the rice flour types. Flour types with reduced starch damage upon milling offered lower dough densities, yielding bread loafs with a higher volume and better appearance. The choice of rice variety enables fine-tuning of the final product quality by influencing the dough viscoelasticity, which defines the final loaf volume. Whole grain rice flour dramatically increased the loaf volume, whilst simultaneously offering nutritional benefits. Combining the proposed functionalised flour types with current and future advances in product recipes paves the way towards optimised gluten-free goods.

  9. Investigation of the indigenous fungal community populating barley grains: Secretomes and xylanolytic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Andersen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    The indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. To gain more insight into the grain surface......-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. Twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains of six barley cultivars over different harvest years and growing sites. The isolated fungi were grown...... on medium containing barley flour or wheat arabinoxylan as sole carbon source. Their secretomes and xylanase activities were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and enzyme assays and were found to vary according to species and carbon source. Secretomes were dominated by cell wall degrading enzymes with xylanases...

  10. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  11. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  12. Leaf rust of cultivated barley: pathology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert F; Golegaonkar, Prashant G; Derevnina, Lida; Sandhu, Karanjeet S; Karaoglu, Haydar; Elmansour, Huda M; Dracatos, Peter M; Singh, Davinder

    2015-01-01

    Leaf rust of barley is caused by the macrocyclic, heteroecious rust pathogen Puccinia hordei, with aecia reported from selected species of the genera Ornithogalum, Leopoldia, and Dipcadi, and uredinia and telia occurring on Hordeum vulgare, H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum, Hordeum bulbosum, and Hordeum murinum, on which distinct parasitic specialization occurs. Although Puccinia hordei is sporadic in its occurrence, it is probably the most common and widely distributed rust disease of barley. Leaf rust has increased in importance in recent decades in temperate barley-growing regions, presumably because of more intensive agricultural practices. Although total crop loss does not occur, under epidemic conditions yield reductions of up to 62% have been reported in susceptible varieties. Leaf rust is primarily controlled by the use of resistant cultivars, and, to date, 21 seedling resistance genes and two adult plant resistance (APR) genes have been identified. Virulence has been detected for most seedling resistance genes but is unknown for the APR genes Rph20 and Rph23. Other potentially new sources of APR have been reported, and additivity has been described for some of these resistances. Approaches to achieving durable resistance to leaf rust in barley are discussed.

  13. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... by aqueous 50% propan-2-ol containing a Tris-borate buffer, pH 8.6. The presence of the buffer facilitates the consecutive complete reduction of the extracted protein in the alcohol. Reduction and alkylation in the buffer containing propan-2-ol give sharper bands in the electrophoresis than reduction...

  14. Allelopathic effect of ryegrass (lolium persicum) and wild mustard (sinapis arvensis) on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baziar, M.R.; Farahvash, F.; Mirshekari, B.; Rashidi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Most crop plants and weeds have allelopathic effects and analysis of these effects on plants in crop alteration and successive planting is very important. In this research the allelopathic ability of different parts and concentrations of two weeds, Lolium Persicum (Ryegrass) and Sinapis arvensis (wild mustered), on growth characteristics of two barley varieties was studied in the greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. Test factors consisted of two barley varieties (Valfajr and Rehane), three weed organs (root, stalk, leaf) and four concentrations of extracts of weed organs (25, 50, 75 and control or distilled water). After the preparation of extracts of different weed organs with different concentrations, their effect on growth characteristics of barley plant was evaluated. Finally, seedling length, rootlet length caulicle length, wet weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling were measured. Also, the above two seeds had significant effects on the two strains of barley and could influence growth characteristics of barley. Based on the results of present study, one can argue that Ryegrass (Lolium Persicum) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) can strongly affect germination, growth and performance of barley through production of chemical materials with allelopathic properties, leading unfavorable growth and product yield. (author)

  15. Whole Tibetan Hull-Less Barley Exhibit Stronger Effect on Promoting Growth of Genus Bifidobacterium than Refined Barley In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lingxiao; Cao, Wenyan; Gao, Jie; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Huijuan; Sun, Baoguo; Yin, Meng

    2018-04-01

    The gut microbiota has recently become a new route for research at the intersection of diet and human health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whole Tibetan hull-less barley (WHB) and refined Tibetan hull-less barley (RHB) caused differentiation of the fecal microbiota in vitro. The microbiota-accessible ingredients in the 2 barley samples were studied using an in vitro enzymatic digestion procedure. After in vitro digestion, insoluble dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, proteins, and β-glucans were 93.2%, 103.4%. 18.8%, and 10.2% higher provided by WHB flour as compared with RHB flour based on the same mass amount. However, due to the significantly higher content of insoluble dietary fiber, WHB digesta had lower percentage contents of fast fermentable substrates including dietary fiber and starch as compared with RHB digesta. The results of Next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16SrRNA gene showed that both WHB and RHB fermentation had significantly promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium and inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Dorea, Escherichia, Oscillopira, and Ruminococcus. Moreover, in response to WHB fermentation, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium increased by 78.5% and 92.8% as compared with RHB and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOs). Both WHB and RHB are good sources of fermentable dietary fiber with the ability to yield high concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as compared to FOs. However, the higher fraction of soluble fiber in RHB digesta increase higher amounts of SCFA compared with WHB digesta. Our findings shed light on the complex interactions of whole cereals with gut microbiota and the possible impact on host health. Until now, only few reports have regarded the impact of in vitro digestion in components of whole grain with complex food matrix. Moreover, our findings shed light on the complex interactions of whole cereals with gut microbiota and the possible impact on host health. © 2018

  16. Physical and chemical characterization of composite flour from canna flour (Canna edulis) and lima bean flour (Phaseolus lunatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, Danar; Tryas, Anisha Ayuning; Affandi, Dian Rachmawanti; Atmaka, Windi; Ariyantoro, Achmad Ridwan; Minardi, Slamet

    2018-02-01

    The diversity of Indonesian local food sources has potential to be developed for supporting food security based development of local food diversification. Canna tubers (Canna edulis) and lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) are two local commodities in Indonesia which under is utilization and has limited assessment to its characteristics. This study aimed at determining the best formula of composite flour based on physical and chemical properties of composite flour produced. There were three formulas, F1 for 85% of canna flour and 15%of lima beans flour, F2 for 70% of canna flour and 30% of lima beans flour and F3 for 55% of canna flour and 45% of lima beans flour. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted and completely randomized design was used. De Garmo analysis was then used to determine the highest effectiveness index from the three formulas developed in this study and F3 demonstrated the highest effectiveness index (0.545) among three formulas evaluated. Thus, formula (F3) was selected as the best composite of the flour developed from canna flour and lima beans flour.

  17. Committed effective dose determination in cereal flours by gamma-ray spectrometry; Determinacao das doses efetivas por ingestao de farinhas de cereais atraves da espectrometria de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2006-07-01

    The health impact from radionuclides ingestion of foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, corn, manioc, rye, oat, barley and rice flour). The radioactivity traces of {sup 228}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The energy resolution for the 1332.46 keV line of {sup 60}Co was 2.03 keV. The committed effective doses were calculated with the activities analyzed in the present flour samples, the foodstuff rates of consumption (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) and the ingestion dose coefficients (International Commission of Radiological Protection). The reliability median activities were verified with {chi}{sup 2} tests, assuring the fittings quality. The highest concentration levels of {sup 228}Th and {sup 40}K were 3.5 {+-} 0.4 and 1469 {+-} 17 Bq.kg{sup -1} for soy flour, respectively, with 95% of confidence level. The lower limit of detection for {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra in manioc flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the UNSCEAR limits of 140 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} and much lower than the ICRP (1991) limits of 1 mSv.y{sup -1}, for general public. There are few literature references for natural and artificial radionuclides in foodstuffs and mainly for committed effective doses. This work brings the barley flour data, which is not present at the literature and {sup 7}Be data which is not encountered in foodstuffs at the literature, besides all the other flours data information about activities and committed effective doses. (author)

  18. EVALUATION OF ELASTICITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAD DOUGH MADE WITH REPLACED FLOUR POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón Vera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the incorporation of sweet potato flour, with 30% replacement in 1kg of wheat flour was evaluated to determine the behavior of elastic and mechanical properties during the kneading and baking stage of bread. For the evaluation the following varieties were studied: Morado Brazil, Morado Ecuador, Guayaco Morado, Ina and Toquecita, and the evaluated properties were: texture (hardness, elasticity, firmness, chewiness measured by a texture meter Bloomfield and volume was measured by INEN standard (NTE INEN 0530: 80. The design employed was completely at random, using analysis of variance at 5% significance level. The results obtained showed that elasticity attribute in texture variable presented significant differences (P <0.05. Analysis concluded that including Toquecita flour in the mixture to form the dough, had the highest elasticity of 13.32mm. However, Morado Ecuador variety flour presented a 6.24 mm elasticity value, ideal for both the malleability of the dough and the freshness of the bread, and concerning volume, the inclusion of Ecuador Morado flour and Ina in the formulation of bread, showed an increase in volume at 93.30 and 93.67cm3 respectively, close to the normed value for wheat flour bread.

  19. Control of mixing step in the bread production with weak wheat flour and sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several old Italian grain varieties have been reinstated, and the market seems to reward the breads made with these flours. Among such varieties, cultivar Verna appears to be interesting because the regular consumption of bread obtained by this variety and sourdough provides beneficial effects on human health such as the improving of the lipid, inflammatory, and hemorheological profiles. However, flours derived from Verna shows low technological performances. For example, the W value of these flours, obtained with alveoghraphic tests and considered as the commercial standard for the flour “strength” evaluation, is largely inferior than the W values of the commercial flour blends currently used in the bread making process. Moreover, the W values broadly change among the batches of Verna flours, whereas, usually, commercial blends are provided to bakeries with standard technological properties. Hence, these properties of Verna flour could lead to developed or overworked doughs and therefore to breads of worse quality. In addition, the previous mentioned large variability of flours from Verna can affect also the sourdough microbiota. For these reasons the composition and activity of the sourdough microorganisms should be controlled while the mixing process should be able to adapt to the different flour properties. Some works, in literature, report that monitoring the electrical consumption could provide useful information about the dough rheology, and this could be used to monitor the mixing step. In the present work the effect of different mixing times are evaluated on breads made with Verna flour type 2 leavened with sourdough. Tests were carried out at industrial scale in two different days. During the tests the electric consumption was monitored to highlight some features suitable for the mixing phase control. The breads were evaluated in terms of loaf volume measurement, crumb image analysis and losses of moisture content during

  20. The shutdown of celiac disease-related gliadin epitopes in bread wheat by RNAi provides flours with increased stability and better tolerance to over-mixing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin. The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet.

  1. The shutdown of celiac disease-related gliadin epitopes in bread wheat by RNAi provides flours with increased stability and better tolerance to over-mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Barro, Francisco; Rosell, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin). The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet.

  2. Cassava and turmeric flour blends as new raw materials to extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mussato Spinello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short cooking time and ability to blend varieties of food ingredients have made extrusion cooking a medium for low-cost and nutritionally improved food products. The effect of moisture, extrusion temperature and amount of turmeric flour mixed with cassava flour on physical characteristic of puffed snacks was evaluated in this work. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Results showed effect of extrusion parameters on dependents variables. High expansion, low browning, low water solubility index, intermediate water absorption index and high crispness desirable characteristics to puffed snacks are obtained in conditions of 12% moisture, 5% turmeric flour, 105º C of temperature and 250 rpm of screw speed. These paper point to the potential still unexplored of the use of flours of cassava and turmeric as raw materials in the development of extruded puffed snacks.

  3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of rice kernels and flours: Measurement of surface chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Malik A; Gaiani, Claire; Fukai, Shu; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to differentiate rice macromolecules and to calculate the surface composition of rice kernels and flours. The uncooked kernels and flours surface composition of the two selected rice varieties, Thadokkham-11 (TDK11) and Doongara (DG) demonstrated an over-expression of lipids and proteins and an under-expression of starch compared to the bulk composition. The results of the study showed that XPS was able to differentiate rice polysaccharides (mainly starch), proteins and lipids in uncooked rice kernels and flours. Nevertheless, it was unable to distinguish components in cooked rice samples possibly due to complex interactions between gelatinized starch, denatured proteins and lipids. High resolution imaging methods (Scanning Electron Microscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) were employed to obtain complementary information about the properties and location of starch, proteins and lipids in rice kernels and flours. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The Effect of Fungicides for Seed Treatment on Germination of Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Stevanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of chemicals, such as fungicides for seed treatment, is one of the most reliable and perhaps most efficient measures for integrated preservation of crops, and its practicing has become a legal obligation for all seed producers. This investigation was carried out in the laboratory for seed quality and phytopathology of the Small Grains Research Center in Kragujevac. The objective was to establish the effect of fungicides on germination energy and seed germinability (determined after treatments. Two varieties were tested due to a possibility of specific sensitivities of some varieties, so that the results acquired on one variety would not necessarily be valid for another one. Fungicides based on active ingredients from the triasol chemical group had different effects on the energy of germination of barley seeds. Applying Raxil S040-FS, the average germination of barley seeds was 79.3% for the variety Record, and 91.3% for the Grand variety. The variety Record achieved a lower value than the minimum for barley seed germination (88% stipulated by the Rules on Seed Quality of Agricultural Crops.Regardless of barley type, the product Raxil S040-FS showed a statistically significant effect on the number of atypical seedlings and increase in the number of non-germinated seeds, compared to the control.

  5. Characteristics of Analog Rice From Potato Flour (Solanum Tuberosom L.) Corn Flour (Zea Mays L.) and Sago Flour (Arenga Microcarpa Beccari)

    OpenAIRE

    Korompis, Olga S; Mamuaja, Christine F; Mandey, Lucia C

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), corn (Zea mays L.) and sago (Arenga microcarpa Beccari) are crops containing high carbohydrate, as source of calory food, and those can be made into rice analog. This study aimed: (1) to determine the formulations by organoleptic test in manufacture analog rice from potato flour, corn flour and sago flour, and (2) to analyze the physical properties, chemical properties of rice analog from potato flour with the addition of corn flour and sago flour. The research ...

  6. Variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dyulgerov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley. For this purpose, 22 lines from the ICARDA High Input Barley Program for favorable environment and 3 check varieties (Rihane-03, VMorales and Veslets were tested in an alpha-lattice design with two replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Bulgaria in 2014 and 2015 growing season. The traits days to heading, plant height, number of tillers per plant, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, spike length, awn length, peduncle length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei infection were studied. Significant differences between lines for all studied traits were found. The number of fertile tillers per plant was significantly positively correlated with grain yield. Lines expressed higher grain yields, shorter stem, better tolerance to net blotch and stripe rust than Bulgarian check variety Veslets were identified. These genotypes can, therefore, be used as parents for the improvement of spring barley.

  7. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  8. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is added...

  9. Correlation of concentration of modified cassava flour for banana fritter flour using simple linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminiati, A.; Rahman, T.; Turmala, E.; Fitriany, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of different concentrations of modified cassava flour that was processed for banana fritter flour. The research method consists of two stages: (1) to determine the different types of flour: cassava flour, modified cassava flour-A (using the method of the lactid acid bacteria), and modified cassava flour-B (using the method of the autoclaving cooling cycle), then conducted on organoleptic test and physicochemical analysis; (2) to determine the correlation of concentration of modified cassava flour for banana fritter flour, by design was used simple linear regression. The factors were used different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B (y1) 40%, (y2) 50%, and (y3) 60%. The response in the study includes physical analysis (whiteness of flour, water holding capacity-WHC, oil holding capacity-OHC), chemical analysis (moisture content, ash content, crude fiber content, starch content), and organoleptic (color, aroma, taste, texture). The results showed that the type of flour selected from the organoleptic test was modified cassava flour-B. Analysis results of modified cassava flour-B component containing whiteness of flour 60.42%; WHC 41.17%; OHC 21.15%; moisture content 4.4%; ash content 1.75%; crude fiber content 1.86%; starch content 67.31%. The different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B with the results of the analysis provides correlation to the whiteness of flour, WHC, OHC, moisture content, ash content, crude fiber content, and starch content. The different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B does not affect the color, aroma, taste, and texture.

  10. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1989-11-01

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137 Cs and 134 Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137 Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134 Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  12. Effect of yeast storage temperature and flour composition on fermentative activities of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast is a set of living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It contains around 70-72% of water, 42-45% of proteins, around 40% of carbohydrates, around 7.5% of lipids (based on dry matter, and vitamin B-complex. On the basis of yeast cell analysis it can be concluded that yeast is a complex biological system which changes in time. The intensity of the changes depends on temperature. Yeast sample was stored at 4°C i 24°C for 12 days. During storage at 4°C, the content of total carbohydrates decreased from 48.81% to 37.50% (dry matter, whereas carbohydrate loss ranged from 40.81% to 29.28% at 24°C. The content of trehalose was 12.33% in the yeast sample stored at 4°C and 0.24% at 24°C. Loss of fermentative activity was 81.76% in the sample stored at 24°C for 12 days. The composition of five samples of 1st category flour was investigated. It was found that flours containing more reducing sugars and maltose enable higher fermentation activities. The flours with higher ash content (in the range 0.5-0.94% had higher contents of phytic acid. Higher ash and phytic contents in flour increased the yeast fermentative efficiency. In bakery industry, a range of ingredients has been applied to improve the product's quality such as surface active substances (emulsifiers, enzymes, sugars and fats. In the paper, the effect of some ingredients added to dough (margarine, saccharose, sodium chloride and malted barley on the yeast fermentative activity was studied. The mentioned ingredients were added to dough at different doses: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%, flour basis. It was found that the investigated ingredients affected the fermentative activity of yeast and improved the bread quality.

  13. Genotypic differences in proembryoid development and green plantlets regeneration through androgenesis in barley varieties Diferenças genotípicas no desenvolvimento de pró-embrióides e regeneração de plântulas verdes via androgênese em genótipo de cevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Wiethölter

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of in vitro haploid plants followed by spontaneous or induced genome duplication allows to achieve, in one generation, the recovery of total homozygosis. The efficiency of the haplodiploidization process through in vitro anther culture of barley is variable among genotypes. This study was aimed at determining the androgenetic response of nine barley genotypes from the breeding program of Embrapa Trigo, analysing proembryoid development and green plantlets regeneration in anthers cultivated in vitro. Cultivar 'BR2' presented the highest average of proembryoids (104/anther and 'MN698' presented the highest average of green plantlets (0,41/anther. There was a significant variation among the average values of barley genotypes for embryo formation and green plantlets regeneration, making possible the selection to combine androgenetic capacity and good agronomic traits.A obtenção, na cevada, de plantas haplóides in vitro e a posterior duplicação natural ou artificial do genoma permitem alcançar a homozigose completa, em uma geração. A eficiência da haplodiploidização pela cultura de anteras é variável entre os genótipos. Foi avaliada a resposta androgenética através da formação de pró-embrióides e da regeneração de plântulas verdes em nove cultivares do programa de melhoramento de cevada da Embrapa Trigo, em anteras cultivadas in vitro. A cultivar "BR2" apresentou maior média de pró-embrióides (104/antera, enquanto "MN698" mostrou a maior média de plântulas verdes (0,41/antera. Houve variação significativa entre os valores médios dos genótipos em relação à formação de pró-embrióides e à regeneração de plântulas verdes, indicando a possibilidade de seleção para combinar a capacidade androgenética com boas características agronômicas.

  14. Submergence sensitivity of durum wheat, bread wheat and barley at the germination stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iduna Arduini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging at initial growth stages can cause heavy yield losses of winter cereals. Therefore, the screening for submergence tolerance traits in seeds of commercial varieties is of high concern worldwide. Ten Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., bread wheat (T. aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were investigated for their ability to germinate in submerged conditions and to recover after submergence periods of three to 15 days. Submergence prevented germination and decreased germinability, at rates that increased with duration of submergence. Sensitivity ranked in the order: barley >durum wheat >bread wheat. We related the higher sensitivity of barley to its slower germination and slightly higher leakage of electrolytes, whereas the percentage of abnormal seedlings was lower than in other species. It was less than 4%, compared to less than 15 and 8% in durum wheat and bread wheat, respectively. Wide varietal differences were found in all species. According to variety, after 6-day submergence, germinability ranged from 2 to 42% in barley, from 5 to 80% in durum wheat, and from 30 to 77% in bread wheat. Varieties with more than 40% seed survival were three, six and seven per species, in the same order. The differential submergence sensitivity of varieties indicates a potential to select for waterlogging tolerance within Italian genotypes of winter cereal crops.

  15. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopade Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

  16. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewayrga, Hailemichael; Sopade, Peter A

    2011-06-28

    Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

  17. Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus johnsonii , and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Anastasia S; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; Sigl, Stefanie; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrøm, Stefan

    2012-06-27

    The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the dietary phenolic acids in flours from whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting high feruloyl esterase activity (FAE). The highest increase of free phenolic acids was observed after fermentation with three probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, with maximum increases from 2.55 to 69.91 μg g(-1) DM and from 4.13 to 109.42 μg g(-1) DM in whole grain barley and oat groat, respectively. Interestingly, higher amounts of bound phenolic acids were detected after both water treatment and LAB fermentation in whole grain barley, indicating higher bioaccessibility, whereas some decrease was detected in oat groat. To conclude, cereal fermentation with specific probiotic strains can lead to significant increase of free phenolic acids, thereby improving their bioavailability.

  18. Flour production from shrimp by-products and sensory evaluation of flour-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mendes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products (cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein (50.05% and minerals (20.97%. Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol. The sensory evaluation indicated a good acceptance of the products, with satisfactory acceptability index (81% for soup, and 83% for pastry, which indicates that shrimp cephalothorax in the form of flour has a potential for developing new products.

  19. Development of instant noodles from high-iron rice and iron-fortified rice flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparat Reungmaneepaitoon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Instant high-iron noodles, prepared from wheat flour and high iron brown rice flour, were developed. Three varieties of rice flour, Suphan Buri 90 (SB, Homnin 313 (HW and Homnin 1000 (HP, containing amylose content of 30.40, 19.10 and 15.74% (w/w and iron content of 1.24, 2.04 and 2.22 (mg/100 g respectively, were used to replace wheat flour for instant fried noodle production. To determine the physicochemical properties and acceptability of instant fried noodles,different percentages (30, 40, 50% (w/w of each rice flour sample were used. The instant fried noodles were fortified with ferrous sulphate at levels of 0, 32, 64% iron of RDI per serving. Increasing amount of iron content in the mixtures decreased the L* value, b* value and increased a* value for the color of the instant fried noodle with brown rice flour. The texture characteristic of the noodles with 30, 40, 50% replacement with each variety of brown rice flour were significantly different from those of wheat noodle. Tensile force of the noodles decreased from 11.57±1.30 g to 6.38±1.45 g (SB, 8.36±0.96 g to 5.71±0.57 g (HP and 10.09±1.20 g to 5.46±1.31 g (HW as the rice flour content increased from 30 to 50%. The sensoryacceptability of the noodles made from each variety of 30% brown rice flour fortified with 32% iron of RDI had higher preference scores for elasticity, firmness, color and overall acceptability, than those with 64% iron of RDI. Instant fried noodles with HW and HP brown rice flour were subjected to consumer test using 100 rural primary school children. The frequency percent of the acceptability scores of the noodle with HP and HW were 88 and 84% respectively. Shelf life studyrevealed that the developed products were still acceptable up to 4 months. These products were claimed to be high iron noodle.

  20. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  1. Research on mutant barley population under biotic and abiotic stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskircioglu, H.; Tuyluer, I.; Sagel, Z.; Kunter, B.; Kantoglu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereal with 8,5 million tons production, 3,5 million hectares of sowing area in Turkey which is also one of the gene centres of barley. Barley is grown in every regions of Turkey where climatic conditions are available for the crop. But barley is the predominant crop in the driest land areas throughout the Anatolian plateau. Winters on that plateau are especially severe. Summers are hot and dry with temperatures above 30 degree C. Annual precipitation averages about 300 to 400 millimeters and rains mainly in winter. Because of all of these prerequisite conditions, winter barley dominates in Turkey, which indirectly refers to water economy. According to the above mentioned reasons the objectives of this investigation were: 1) Improvement of drought resistance, loading resistance and high yielding barley varieties by mutation breeding in Central Anatolian Region. 2) Determination and selection of abiotic stress such as salt resistance In our barley mutation breeding programme under Central Anatolian conditions well adapted Tokak 157/37 variety has been used. We applied 250 Gy-300 Gy gamma ray doses . Selection began at M 2 generation. Agronomical characters including earliness, straw length, lodging resistance and disease resistance are monitored in the field and greenhouse. Mutant lines have been tested for salt resistance in the hydrophonic culture which contains 180 mMol and 220 mMol NaCl concentrations. Preliminary yield trial and advanced yield trial are started after M 4 generations. In M 6 generation, we had some desirable lines those are 25-30 days earlier than its parents, so these lines escape from drought period. Some lines that have grown in the hydrophonic cultures, contains 180mMol NaCl still surviving.

  2. Influence of mango mesocarp flour supplement to micronutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of mango mesocarp flour supplement to micronutrient, physical and organoleptic qualities of wheat-based bread. ... Mango mesocarp flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 15, 20 and 30% levels to ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  3. Effect of flour particle size and damaged starch on the quality of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak; Khatkar, B S

    2014-07-01

    Two wheat varieties 'C 306' and 'WH 542' were milled to obtain flour fractions of different particle sizes. Various physicochemical parameters such as wet and dry gluten, falling number, solvent retention capacity (SRC), alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC) and damaged starch content of the flour fractions were analyzed. The damaged starch values ranged from 5.14% to 14.79% for different flour fractions and increased significantly with decrease in particle size. AWRC and SRC of the flour fractions also increased with decrease in particle size. AWRC(r = 0.659) showed positive correlation and cookie spread ratio (r = -0.826) was strongly negatively correlated with the damaged starch levels. Hardness of the cookies in term of compression force showed increasing trend as damaged starch of the flour fractions increased. Spread ratio of the cookies ranged from 6.72 to 10.12. Wheat flour of particle size greater than 150 μm produced cookies with best quality.

  4. Improving Quality and Microbial Safety of Wheat Flour by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A.; Hassan, M.F.; Soliman, S.M.; Abu-Shady, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study Egyptian wheat flour extracted from wheat (variety Seds 6 ) were irradiated at a dose of 5.0 kGy using Co-60 gamma source. The influence of this irradiation dose on the aerobic bacterial count, mold and yeast count, aflatoxins and major chemical composition of wheat flour was investigated. The influence of a 5.0 kGy gamma radiation dose on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour as well as on the sensory properties of Balady bread was also investigated. It was found that irradiation greatly reduced aerobic bacterial count and mold and yeast count as well as decreasing aflatoxin B1. The major chemical composition of wheat flour almost had no changes as a result of exposure to gamma radiation. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy caused a decrease in dough development time, dough stability time and deformation energy of dough as well as increasing dough water absorption which are all desirable in bread making. On the other hand, sensory properties of bread prepared from irradiated flour were almost similar to that of bread made from non-irradiated flour

  5. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it.

  6. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AI-Jibouri, A A.M.; Dham, K M [Department of Botany, Nuclear Research Centre, Baghdad (Iraq)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M{sub 11}) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  7. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  8. Investigation of the indigenous fungal community populating barley grains: Secretomes and xylanolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Abida; Frisvad, Jens C; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2017-10-03

    The indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. To gain more insight into the grain surface-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. Twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains of six barley cultivars over different harvest years and growing sites. The isolated fungi were grown on medium containing barley flour or wheat arabinoxylan as sole carbon source. Their secretomes and xylanase activities were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and enzyme assays and were found to vary according to species and carbon source. Secretomes were dominated by cell wall degrading enzymes with xylanases and xylanolytic enzymes being the most abundant. A 2-DE-based secretome analysis of Aspergillus niger and the less-studied pathogenic fungus Fusarium poae grown on barley flour and wheat arabinoxylan resulted in identification of 82 A. niger and 31 F. poae proteins many of which were hydrolytic enzymes, including xylanases. The microorganisms that inhabit the surface of cereal grains are specialized in production of enzymes such as xylanases, which depolymerize plant cell walls. Integration of gel-based proteomics approach with activity assays is a powerful tool for analysis and characterization of fungal secretomes and xylanolytic activities which can lead to identification of new enzymes with interesting properties, as well as provide insight into plant-fungal interactions, fungal pathogenicity and adaptation. Understanding the fungal response to host niche is of importance to uncover novel targets for potential symbionts, anti-fungal agents and biotechnical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of varing media on the susceptibility of rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Parvathy; Sethi, G.R.

    1974-01-01

    Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum adults reared on five food media viz., wheat, jowar, barley, maize and Bengal gram flour to gamma radiation was studied. The LD 50 values based on mortality observed 12 days after irradiation ranged from 4206 rads for beetles reared on Bengal gram to 9826 rads for those reared on jowar. On the basis of LD 50 values, the relative susceptibility of beetles reared on these foods was Bengal gram > barley> maize > wheat > jowar. Delayed response to irradiation (8000 rads) as indicated by LT 50 values also showed that insects reared on Bengal gram were more susceptible than those obtained from other media. On the basis of lower adult emergence and prolonged development period, Bengal gram was found to be much inferior food as compared to the rest. (author)

  10. BarleyBase—an expression profiling database for plant genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lishuang; Gong, Jian; Caldo, Rico A.; Nettleton, Dan; Cook, Dianne; Wise, Roger P.; Dickerson, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    BarleyBase (BB) (www.barleybase.org) is an online database for plant microarrays with integrated tools for data visualization and statistical analysis. BB houses raw and normalized expression data from the two publicly available Affymetrix genome arrays, Barley1 and Arabidopsis ATH1 with plans to include the new Affymetrix 61K wheat, maize, soybean and rice arrays, as they become available. BB contains a broad set of query and display options at all data levels, ranging from experiments to individual hybridizations to probe sets down to individual probes. Users can perform cross-experiment queries on probe sets based on observed expression profiles and/or based on known biological information. Probe set queries are integrated with visualization and analysis tools such as the R statistical toolbox, data filters and a large variety of plot types. Controlled vocabularies for gene and plant ontologies, as well as interconnecting links to physical or genetic map and other genomic data in PlantGDB, Gramene and GrainGenes, allow users to perform EST alignments and gene function prediction using Barley1 exemplar sequences, thus, enhancing cross-species comparison. PMID:15608273

  11. Purification of a lipoxygenase from ungerminated barley. Characterization and product formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Aarle, P.G.M. van; Barse, M.M.J. de; Veldink, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Lipoxygenase was purified from ungerminated barley (variety ‘Triumph’), yielding an active enzyme with a pl of 5.2 and a molecular mass of approximately 90 kDa. In addition to the 90 kDa band SDS-PAGE showed the presence of two further proteins of 63 kDa. Western blot analysis showed

  12. Relationship of carbohydrates and lignin molecular structure spectral profiles to nutrient profile in newly developed oats cultivars and barley grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Luciana Louzada; Refat, Basim; Lei, Yaogeng; Louzada-Prates, Mariana; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the chemical profile and the magnitude of differences in the oat and barley grain varieties developed by Crop Development Centre (CDC) in terms of Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System (CNCPS) carbohydrate sub-fractions: CA4 (sugars), CB1 (starch), CB2 (soluble fibre), CB3 (available neutral detergent fibre - NDF), and CC (unavailable carbohydrate); to estimate the energy values; to detect the lignin and carbohydrate (CHO) molecular structure profiles in CDC Nasser and CDC Seabiscuit oat and CDC Meredith barley grains by using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR); to develop a model to predict nutrient supply based on CHO molecular profile. Results showed that NDF, ADF and CHO were greater (P 0.05) for oat and barley grains as well as non-structural CHO. However, cellulosic compounds peak area and height were greater (P < 0.05) in oat than barley grains. Multiple regressions were determined to predict nutrient supply by using lignin and CHO molecular profiles. It was concluded that although there were some differences between oat and barley grains, CDC Nasser and CDC Meredith presented similarities related to chemical and molecular profiles, indicating that CDC Meredith barley could be replaced for CDC Nasser as ruminant feed. The FTIR was able to identify functional groups related to CHO molecular spectral in oat and barley grains and FTIR-ATR results could be used to predict nutrient supply in ruminant livestock systems.

  13. Malting Characteristics of Some Sorghum and Millet Grain Varieties Grown in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makokha, A.O; Makwaka, A.M; Oniang'o, R.O; Njoroge, S.M

    1999-01-01

    Industrial malt in Kenya for commercial beer production is made exclusively from barley. This study explored the potential of producing suitable malt from some sorghum and finger millet grain varieties grown in Kenya. Malting characteristics of two sorghum grain varieties, KARI Mtama-1 and local Red variety, and that of finger millet was done and compared to that of barley. Among the grain characteristics determined before malting were water sensitivity, polyphenol (tannin) content and total protein. The grain was malted by striping in water for 48 h, followed by germination for four days at 25 degrees celcious, then kilned at 50 degrees celcious for 24 h. The malting characteristics determined included total soluble N, free amino N, wort pH and fermentable sugars. The local red sorghum and millet had high polyphenol content while KARI Mtama-1 and barley had low levels. KARI Mtama-1 had positive water sensitivity while barley had negative sensitivity. Finger millet and local red sorghum were water insensitive. Free amino N was 113, 125, 144, and 154mg 100g - 1 malt for millet, barley, local Red and KARI Mtama-1, respectively. Total fermentation sugars were 307, 477, 610 and 178 mg 1 - 1 for finger millet, local red, barley and KARI Mtama 1 , respectively. The results showed that that the proteolytic and amyloytic characteristics of the KARI Mtama-1 malt are largely similar to those of barley. Hence the KARI Mtama-1 malt are largely similar to those of barley. Hence the KARI Mtama-1 has good potential fro conventional lager beer production. Malts of local Red sorghum grain and millet may be more suitable for industrial production of opaque/cloudy beer

  14. Comparison of ambient solvent extraction methods for the analysis of fatty acids in non-starch lipids of flour and starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Yonekura, Lina; Linforth, Robert; Carvalho da Silva, Margarida; Hill, Sandra; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Fisk, Ian Denis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipids are minor components of flours, but are major determinants of baking properties and end-product quality. To the best of our knowledge, there is no single solvent system currently known that efficiently extracts all non-starch lipids from all flours without the risk of chemical, mechanical or thermal damage. This paper compares nine ambient solvent systems (monophasic and biphasic) with varying polarities: Bligh and Dyer (BD); modified Bligh and Dyer using HCl (BDHCL); modified BD using NaCl (BDNaCl); methanol–chloroform–hexane (3:2:1, v/v); Hara and Radin (hexane–isopropanol, 3:2, v/v); water-saturated n-butanol; chloroform; methanol and hexane for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids (separated by lipid classes) from wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.). Seven ambient extraction protocols were further compared for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids from three alternative samples: barley flour (Hordeum vulgare L.), maize starch (Zea mays L.) and tapioca starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz). RESULTS For wheat flour the original BD method and those containing HCl or NaCl tended to extract the maximum lipid and a significant correlation between lipid extraction yield (especially the glycolipids and phospholipids) and the polarity of the solvent was observed. For the wider range of samples BD and BD HCl repeatedly offered the maximum extraction yield and using pooled standardized (by sample) data from all flours, total non-starch lipid extraction yield was positively correlated with solvent polarity (r = 0.5682, P starches when compared to the flour samples, which is due to the differences in lipid profiles between the two sample types (flours and starches). PMID:24132804

  15. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  16. CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE HARINA DE SIETE VARIEDADES DE YUCA Y POLVILLO DE FIQUE POR MICROSCOPÍA ÓPTICA DE ALTA RESOLUCIÓN -MOAR- CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DA FARINHA DE SETE VARIEDADES DE MANDIOCA E POEIRA DE FIQUE POR MICROSCOPIA ÓPTICA DE ALTA RESOLUÇÃO -MOAR- FLOUR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SEVEN CASSAVA VARIETIES AND FIQUE DUST BY HIGH RESOLUTION LIGHT MICROSCOPY-HRLM-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA PAOLA NAVIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las características morfológicas de siete variedades de harina nativa de yuca y polvillo de fique. Las muestras fueron dispersadas en albúmina de huevo, posteriormente extendidas sobre placas de vidrio y teñidas con azul de toluidina para su observación al microscopio. Se usó la técnica de Microscopía Óptica de Alta Resolución (MOAR por contraste diferencial de interferencia (DIC, para observar las muestras y caracterizar las imágenes. Se encontraron en las harinas gránulos de almidón esféricos y semiesféricos algunos con formas truncadas, y estructuras fibrosas de diferentes formas. En el polvillo de fique se observaron microfibrillas longitudinales en forma de cintas, celdas y espirales. Este estudio permitió caracterizar la morfología de las materias primas estudiadas, cuya información es punto de partida para la continuidad de su uso en el campo de los materiales biodegradables.Nós avaliamos as características morfológicas de sete variedades de farinha de mandioca nativas e pó de fique. As amostras foram dispersas em albúmina de ovo, em seguida, espalhar sobre placas de vidro e corados com azul de toluidina para observação ao microscópio. Utilizamos a técnica de Microscopia de Alta Resolução de Luz (HRLM com contraste de interferência diferencial (DIC de observar as amostras e caracterizar as imagens. Foram encontradas no amido de farinha de grãos esféricos e hemisférica, truncada e com algumas estruturas fibrosas de diferentes maneiras. Em microfibrilas poeira fique longitudinal foram observados sob a forma de fitas, e as células em espiral. Este estudo permitiu caracterizar a morfología das materias-primas estudadas, cuja informação é o ponto de partida para a sua utilização continuada na área de materiais biodegradáveis.Morphological characteristics of seven varieties of native cassava flour and fique dust were evaluated. The samples were dispersed in egg albumen, then spread on glass

  17. COMPARISON OF THE FROST RESISTANCE OF BARLEY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    immediate recovery of the photosynthetic quantum yield after freezing. Landraces which showed the highest cold tolerance were found to acclimatize best. Key words/phrases: Barley, chlorophyll fluorescence, cold acclimation, Ethiopia, frost tolerance. INTRODUCTION. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a traditional crop.

  18. Accumulation of mixed linkage (1¿3) (1¿4)-ß-D-glucan during grain filling in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jespersen, Birthe P Møller

    2009-01-01

    18% BG (w/w) dry matter 30 days after flowering (DAF), seemingly compensating for a decreased synthesis of starch. The spectral information of the barley flour was compared to pure BG spectra and partial least squares regression (PLS) models were constructed for calibration to BG content. Informative...... the normal control Cork were studied. The Cork and lys3a genotypes showed a linear BG accumulation throughout the grain filling to reach a maximum of approximately 6 and 4% BG (w/w) dry matter, respectively. However, lys5f mutant exhibited an exponential increase in BG synthesis to a maximum of approximately...

  19. Content of phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in 17 rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, M. F.; Christensen, L. P.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2000-01-01

    of the analyzed components were observed among the different rye varieties and also between different harvest years. However, the content of phenolic acids in the analyzed rye varieties was narrow compared to cereals such as wheat and barley. The concentration of ferulic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid...

  20. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  1. Functional properties of plantain, cowpea flours and oat fiber in extruded products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drying effect on functional properties of two plantain and cowpea varieties and suitability of their flour blends in extruded snacks was determined. The functional and rheological behaviors of (plantain: cowpea): 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 blends were evaluated. The extrusion product melt ...

  2. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters.

  3. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  4. Fungal growth during malting of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated and identified in two samples of winter two-row barley (SSK3 and SSK6 harvested in 2003, Kragujevac location, during micromalting. Fungi were isolated and identified in barley before the micromalting, after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of steeping, the first day and after the germination after kilning and after malt degermination. The total fungi count was followed in both barley samples, during the mentioned phases. The total count of fungi was also determined in the steeping water, and the isolation and identification was performed after the steeping process. Change of the total count of fungi during barley micromalting was exponentional. During barley micromalting nine fungi genera were isolated: Phoma, Alternaria, Fusarium aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Aureobasidium and Mucor. The most frequent genera were: Phoma, Alternaria and Fusarium. In water for steeping, five genera were identified: Geotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma Cladosporium and Mucor. The most frequent genera was Phoma.

  5. Effects of hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley on the immunomodulatory response in ICR mice and in Molt-4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Kyu-Yeob; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min; Hong, Seung-Heon; Um, Jae-Young

    2010-07-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is a unicellular and microscopic algae that is currently used in a variety of forms of tablets, capsules and liquid as a biological response modifier. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley for its potential reduction of the immobility time in ICR mice and on the cytokine regulation in human T cell line, Molt-4. After a forced swimming test, the changes in aspects of blood biochemical parameters due to the administration of hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley were examined. The effect of hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by the malted barley-treated group for 14 days on the immobility time was significantly reduced in comparison with that of the control group (P cells. These results indicate that hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley is useful for immune function improvements, enhanced physical stamina, and as a candidate for an anti-fatigue or antidepressant agent.

  6. Rice varieties in relation to rice bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kang, Hang Won; Koh, Bong Kyung

    2012-05-01

    It is difficult to predict rice bread quality only from the amylose content (AC) or dough characteristics of new lines produced by rice breeding programmes. This study investigated the AC relative to bread baking quality of rice varieties developed in Korea, and identified specific characteristics that contribute to rice bread quality. Manmibyeo, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng and Hanareumbyeo were classified as low AC, YR24088 Acp9, Suweon517, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo as intermediate AC and Milyang261 as high AC. Suweon517, Milyang261 and Manmibyeo had a high water absorption index (WAI), while Goamibyeo, YR24088 Acp9, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng, Hanareumbyeo and Chenmaai had a low WAI. The gelatinisation enthalpy of flour varied from 9.2 J g(-1) in Milyang261 to 14.8 J g(-1) in YR24088 Acp9. After 7 days of storage the rate of flour retrogradation and crumb firmness were weakly correlated, with the exception of Jinsumi. Bread volumes of Jinsumi, Chenmaai, YR24088 Acp9 and Goamibyeo were comparable to that of wheat flour, but the rest were unsuited to bread making because of their low volume and hard crumb texture. Based on volume, texture and crumb firmness ratio, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo were the most appropriate varieties for making bread. An intermediate AC and low WAI were the primary indicators of rice bread flour quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. WHIPPED FLOUR CONFECTIONERY BASED UPON WHOLE GRAIN GROUND FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Flour confectionery products for the Russian market are the traditional products and their sales occupy the 1st place among all types of confectionery. Therefore, it is especially important to conduct research aimed at developing biscuits with increased food and biological value, meeting the existing in the human body requirements in nutrients. The use of flour from whole grain rye, wheat and amaranth allows to receive a quality product with a fine pore structure, pleasant taste and aroma and of high nutritional value. Using a mechanical method for dough loosening reduces operating costs, significantly intensifies the whole technological process, greatly reduces production area of enterprise, the duration of the entire technological process of biscuit production is reduced by 40%. In the developed biscuits protein content increases in 1,5 times; fiber in 6 times, potassium in 10.8 times, calcium in 11 times, phosphorus in 3 times, iron in 3.3 times, vitamin the B6 in4.1 times; B12 in 2.4 times, B9 in 12.4 times.

  8. Milk Production, Physiological Condition and Performance of Etawa Crossbreed Goats Feed by Ration Supplemented with Mangosteen Peel Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzarnisa; Rachmadi, D.; Azhar, A.; Fakhrur Riza, R.; Hidayati, A.

    2018-02-01

    Study on the effect of the addition of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) peel flour on physiological condition and performance of Etawa crossbreed goats was done. This was to grant the use of mangosteen peel flour that rich of antioxidants and has variety good benefits for health as feed additive for cattle. This study used a Complete Randomized Block Design consisting of 4 treatment groups and 4 replications each. Subjects were 16 female Etawa crossbreed goats randomly designed into treatments group based on lactation periods. Subjects were feed with traditional rations (control, A), traditional rations and 2.5% mangosteen peel flour (B), tradition rations and 5% mangosteen peel flour (C), and traditional rations and 7,5 % mangosteen peel flour (D). Data on performance (milk production) and physiological condition (respiratory frequency, rectal temperature, and heart rate) obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the addition of mangosteen peel flour as food additive in the rations resulted in variations in the milk production, physiological condition (rectal temperature, heart rate and respiration frequency) and performances (daily weigh gain, food consumption, ration conversion and breast volume) of Etawa crossbreed goats, but significant effect was only observed in the respiration frequency. The addition of 2.5% mangosteen peel flour in the ration caused the best, expected effects on milk production physiological condition and performance of Etawa crossbreed goats.

  9. Relationship between population growth of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and protein and carbohydrate content in flour and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth.

  10. Esterase Isoenzyme Variants in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, S.; Nielsen, G.

    1977-01-01

    Gene symbols are proposed for 27 esterase isoenzyme alleles representing 10 loci in barley. Two new esterase loci, Est 9 and Est 10, each with an active and a silent allele, and three new alleles in previously described loci were found. A few chemical and physical characteristics of the different...... esterase isoenzyme systems were studied. The heat inactivation temperature differed for the isoenzymes coded by most of the loci, whereas the substrate and inhibitor specificity of the isoenzymes was less distinct. A possible relationship between some of the systems is discussed....

  11. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    in well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring...

  12. Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. using a modified bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaouel, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study focuses on the description of the allelopathic interactions between wild and crop species that may occur in a given ecosystem. Objectives. The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. seedlings by water-soluble allelochemicals. Method. The allelopathic activities of five Tunisian barley genotypes (modern varieties and landraces, one Saudi Arabian barley landrace and great brome were assessed using a modified laboratory bioassay named "seedling-after-seedling agar method". Results. The barley or the great brome reduced, to a greater extent, the root growth compared to the shoot growth of receiver species. The response of the root system architecture of the great brome towards barley root exudates was studied in detail. All the measured root traits were highly sensitive to the presence of barley. In our conditions, the allelopathic activity of barley root exudates had no apparent relationship with the size of the root and a prominent action of genetic determinants in the allelopathic potential between genotypes is proposed. The alloinhibitory activity of barley or great brome root exudates deferred between the receiver species but was always higher than the autoinhibition potential. The autoinhibition in barley proved to depend on whether the genotypes used as donor and receiver are identical or different, suggesting a specific interaction of allelochemicals with the receiver plant. These molecules seem to be the main actors in the allelopathic barley potential as external factors such variations of pH have no evident relevance in the inhibition process. Conclusions. Barley and great brome exude molecules in their surroundings. This affects the growth of the receiver plants, suggesting that these compounds might contribute to the plant community dynamics.

  13. Characteristics of bread prepared from wheat flours blended with various kinds of newly developed rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Suzuki, K; Ohtsubo, K

    2009-04-01

    Characteristics of the bread prepared from wheat flour blended with the flour of various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars were investigated. Qualities of the bread made from wheat flour blended with rice flour have been reported to be inferior to those from 100% wheat flour bread. To improve its qualities, we searched for the new-characteristic rice flours among the various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars to blend with the wheat flour for the bread preparation. The most suitable new characteristic rices are combination of purple waxy rice, high-amylose rice, and sugary rice. Specific volume of the bread from the combination of wheat and these 3 kinds of rice flours showed higher specific volume (3.93) compared with the traditional wheat/rice bread (3.58). We adopted the novel method, continuous progressive compression test, to measure the physical properties of the dough and the bread in addition to the sensory evaluation. As a result of the selection of the most suitable rice cultivars and blending ratio with the wheat flour, we could develop the novel wheat/rice bread, of which loaf volume, physical properties, and tastes are acceptable and resistant to firming on even 4 d after the bread preparation. To increase the ratio of rice to wheat, we tried to add a part of rice as cooked rice grains. The specific volume and qualities of the bread were maintained well although the rice content of total flour increased from 30% to 40%.

  14. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  15. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  16. Composite Flours for Baked Products and Possible Challenges – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It contains some suggestions on how to reduce the high import bills of wheat by using composite flours or blends of wheatless flours in place of wheat flour for making leavened and unleavened products. Some studies on the quality characteristics of leavened and unleavened products made from composite flours or blends ...

  17. Application to Food of Lentinus edodes Flour with Extrusion Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    岡村, 徳光; 上杉, 誓子; 星野, 由紀子; 奥田, 展子; 大杉, 匡弘; Tokumitsu, Okamura; Seiko, Uesugi; Yukiko, Hoshino; Nobuko, Okuda; Masahiro, Ohsugi

    1997-01-01

    We report the application to food using Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) flour, which is a good vegetable for health, rich in protein, fiber and vitamins (B_1, B_2, niacin). The wheat flour contained Lentinus edodes flour was expansed and textured by a twin screw extruder. The snack contained 1% Lentinus edodes flour was most prefered in the points of taste, flavor, color and appearance.

  18. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk ( Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis ), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  19. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oram, R N [Division of Plant industry, CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% {beta}-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  20. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oram, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  1. Application of multivariate statistical techniques for differentiation of ripe banana flour based on the composition of elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Ramli, Saifullah Bin; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    Major (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium) and minor elements (iron, copper, zinc, manganese) and one heavy metal (lead) of Cavendish banana flour and Dream banana flour were determined, and data were analyzed using multivariate statistical techniques of factor analysis and discriminant analysis. Factor analysis yielded four factors explaining more than 81% of the total variance: the first factor explained 28.73%, comprising magnesium, sodium, and iron; the second factor explained 21.47%, comprising only manganese and copper; the third factor explained 15.66%, comprising zinc and lead; while the fourth factor explained 15.50%, comprising potassium. Discriminant analysis showed that magnesium and sodium exhibited a strong contribution in discriminating the two types of banana flour, affording 100% correct assignation. This study presents the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of complex mineral content data from banana flour of different varieties.

  2. Birationally rigid varieties. I. Fano varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhlikov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The theory of birational rigidity of rationally connected varieties generalises the classical rationality problem. This paper gives a survey of the current state of this theory and traces its history from Noether's theorem and the Lueroth problem to the latest results on the birational superrigidity of higher-dimensional Fano varieties. The main components of the method of maximal singularities are considered.

  3. Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E; Rafi, M

    2017-01-01

    Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. (paper)

  4. Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E.; Rafi, M.

    2017-05-01

    Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour.

  5. Inositol phosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatzack, F.; Hübel, F.; Zhang, W.

    2001-01-01

    Inositolphosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants and their parent variety were analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR. Compound assignment was carried out by comparison of retention times using a chemical hydrolysate of phytate [Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P(6)] as a reference; Co-inciding rete......Inositolphosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants and their parent variety were analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR. Compound assignment was carried out by comparison of retention times using a chemical hydrolysate of phytate [Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P(6)] as a reference; Co...

  6. Developing a Molecular Identification Assay of Old Landraces for the Genetic Authentication of Typical Agro-Food Products: The Case Study of the Barley ‘Agordino’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Barcaccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The orzo Agordino is a very old local variety of domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. distichum L. that is native to the Agordo District, Province of Belluno, and is widespread in the Veneto Region, Italy. Seeds of this landrace are widely used for the preparation of very famous dishes of the dolomitic culinary tradition such as barley soup, bakery products and local beer. Understanding the genetic diversity and identity of the Agordino barley landrace is a key step to establish conservation and valorisation strategies of this local variety and also to provide molecular traceability tools useful to ascertain the authenticity of its derivatives. The gene pool of the Agordino barley landrace was reconstructed using 60 phenotypically representative individual plants and its genotypic relationships with commercial varieties were investigated using 21 pure lines widely cultivated in the Veneto Region. For genomic DNA analysis, following an initial screening of 14 mapped microsatellite (SSR loci, seven discriminant markers were selected on the basis of their genomic position across linkage groups and polymorphic marker alleles per locus. The genetic identity of the local barley landrace was determined by analysing all SSR markers in a single multi-locus PCR assay. Extent of genotypic variation within the Agordino barley landrace and the genotypic differentiation between the landrace individuals and the commercial varieties was determined. Then, as few as four highly informative SSR loci were selected and used to develop a molecular traceability system exploitable to verify the genetic authenticity of food products deriving from the Agordino landrace. This genetic authentication assay was validated using both DNA pools from individual Agordino barley plants and DNA samples from Agordino barley food products. On the whole, our data support the usefulness and robustness of this DNA-based diagnostic tool for the orzo Agordino identification, which

  7. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    on barley (Hordeum vulgare). Barley accumulates five hydroxynitrile glucosides, including one cyanogenic glucoside, in the epidermal cell layer. Cyanogenic glucosides are classically known as hydrogen cyanide-releasing defense compounds which act against generalist insects and herbivores. However...... is proposed. The results obtained in this Ph.D. study provide a unique insight demonstrating that hydroxynitrile glucosides play a far more complex role in barley defense against and susceptibility to Bgh than previously described. Future studies can build on the platforms established in this study to provide...

  8. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health.

  9. Effects of storage temperature on the fungal and chemical spoilage of maize grains and flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, T.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.; Ahmed, A.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical and fungal spoilage of maize grains and flour of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow varieties in relation to time temperature (10 C, 15 C, 20 C and room (30-56 C) storage period at 8-12 months was studied. The results showed that total fungal counts and percent infestation markedly increased with advanced storage and increased temperature. Percentage germination generally decreased during extended storage. Peroxide values of both the grain and flour increased with increasing temperature and storage time. At the end of one year storage the total fungal counts in the grain and flour of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow ranged 13.6x10/sup 12/ - 20.0x10/sup 13/ and Yellow ranged 17.1x10/sup 13/ - 22.1x10/sup 14/ respectively. germination and infestation percentage of the grains of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow ranged 76-78% and 96-99%. The peroxide value ranged 6.6-7.0 and 6.4-6.8 meg/Kg in the grain and flour of Sarhad White respectively after one year storage. There was more fungal infestation, fungal counts and peroxidation in the grain and flour Sarhad Yellow than that of Sarhad White. (author)

  10. Investigation of rheological properties of winter wheat varieties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móré M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of some experimental researches on the rheological characteristics of the dough obtained from the flour of three winter wheat varieties. We used valorigraph test to determine the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, because it determines the quality of the end-products. Winter wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag were produced and their samples were collected on Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen in the crop year of 2011/2012. We have carried out a short-term storage experiment (from July to August, 2012. We analysed the changes in water absorption capacity, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number for 3 times (24.07.2012, 31.07.2012, 21.08.2012 during short-term storage. Our results showed that the baking quality of Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag improved during the storage period.

  11. Genomic Prediction of Manganese Efficiency in Winter Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Leplat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Manganese efficiency is a quantitative abiotic stress trait controlled by several genes each with a small effect. Manganese deficiency leads to yield reduction in winter barley ( L.. Breeding new cultivars for this trait remains difficult because of the lack of visual symptoms and the polygenic features of the trait. Hence, Mn efficiency is a potential suitable trait for a genomic selection (GS approach. A collection of 248 winter barley varieties was screened for Mn efficiency using Chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence in six environments prone to induce Mn deficiency. Two models for genomic prediction were implemented to predict future performance and breeding value of untested varieties. Predictions were obtained using multivariate mixed models: best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP and genomic best linear unbiased predictor (G-BLUP. In the first model, predictions were based on the phenotypic evaluation, whereas both phenotypic and genomic marker data were included in the second model. Accuracy of predicting future phenotype, , and accuracy of predicting true breeding values, , were calculated and compared for both models using six cross-validation (CV schemes; these were designed to mimic plant breeding programs. Overall, the CVs showed that prediction accuracies increased when using the G-BLUP model compared with the prediction accuracies using the BLUP model. Furthermore, the accuracies [] of predicting breeding values were more accurate than accuracy of predicting future phenotypes []. The study confirms that genomic data may enhance the prediction accuracy. Moreover it indicates that GS is a suitable breeding approach for quantitative abiotic stress traits.

  12. Quality of arracachia flour (Arracacia xanthorriza Bancroft from the method of drying by conduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alberto Marín Idarraga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A quality assessment of the arracachia our grown in the village of Anaime (Cajamarca, Tolima was made by the efective method of drying by conduction. Samples of the existing varieties in Anaime were taken, in order to determine which variety has the best quality of flour after drying by conduction from the physicochemical and bromatological analysis. Out of the three varieties found in order of importance, the best variety was “paliverde” followed by “common” and finally “cartagenera”. With the drying process by conduction high degrees of quality can be achieved with a high quality standard and nutritional value.

  13. Mixed cropping of annual feed legumes with barley improves feed quantity and crude protein content under dry-land conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine a suitable mixture of annual feed legumes and barley as a winter crop under dry-land conditions. Seeds of Hungarian vetch (cv. 2670, smooth vetch (cv. Maragheh, and local varieties of grass pea and field pea were mixed with barley (cv. Abidar in a 1:1 ratio and were tested, along with related monoculture. All legumes in the mixture survived winter while legumes alone, except Hungarian vetch, did not survive in the cold areas. The maximum fresh and dry forage yields (56 and 15 ton ha-1 respectively were obtained from a mixture of smooth vetch and barley in provinces with mild winter and more than 400 mm of rainfall. The mixture of barley and smooth vetch resulted in the highest mean crude protein content (17%. Autumn seeding of smooth vetch and barley in a 1:1 ratio produced more than 2 ton ha-1 of dry biomass with good quality in all studied areas and thus could serve as an alternative cropping system after wheat/barley in cold and semi-cold dry land.

  14. Association Mapping of Malting Quality Quantitative Trait Loci in Winter Barley: Positive Signals from Small Germplasm Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality comprises one of the most economically relevant set of traits in barley ( L.. It is a complex phenotype, expensive and difficult to measure, that would benefit from a marker-assisted selection strategy. Malting quality is a target of the U.S. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP and development of winter habit malting barley varieties is a key objective of the U.S. barley research community. The objective of this work was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL for malting quality traits in a winter breeding program that is a component of the U.S. Barley CAP. We studied the association between five malting quality traits and 3072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the barley oligonucleotide pool assay (BOPA 1 and 2, assayed in advanced inbred lines from the Oregon State University (OSU breeding program from three germplasm arrays (CAP I, CAP II, and CAP III. After comparing 16 models we selected a structured association model with posterior probabilities inferred from software STRUCTURE (QK approach to use on all germplasm arrays. Most of the marker-trait associations are germplasm- and environment-specific and close to previously mapped genes and QTL relevant for malt and beer quality. We found alleles fixed by random genetic drift, novel unmasked alleles, and genetic-background interaction. In a relatively small population size study we provide strong evidence for detecting true QTL.

  15. Transcriptome assembly and analysis of Tibetan Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum developing grains, with emphasis on quality properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hulless barley is attracting increasing attention due to its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits. However, the molecular biology of the barley grain development and nutrient storage are not well understood. Furthermore, the genetic potential of hulless barley has not been fully tapped for breeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome features during hulless barley grain development. Using Illumina paired-end RNA-Sequencing, we generated two data sets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two hulless barley landraces. A total of 13.1 and 12.9 million paired-end reads with lengths of 90 bp were generated from the two varieties and were assembled to 48,863 and 45,788 unigenes, respectively. A combined dataset of 46,485 All-Unigenes were generated from two transcriptomes with an average length of 542 bp, and 36,278 among were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains or gene ontology terms. Furthermore, sequences and expression levels of genes related to the biosynthesis of storage reserve compounds (starch, protein, and β-glucan were analyzed, and their temporal and spatial patterns were deduced from the transcriptome data of cultivated barley Morex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We established a sequences and functional annotation integrated database and examined the expression profiles of the developing grains of Tibetan hulless barley. The characterization of genes encoding storage proteins and enzymes of starch synthesis and (1-3;1-4-β-D-glucan synthesis provided an overview of changes in gene expression associated with grain nutrition and health properties. Furthermore, the characterization of these genes provides a gene reservoir, which helps in quality improvement of hulless barley.

  16. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Hanne Cecilie

    remobilisation from ageing plant parts. Thus, GS is highly involved in determining crop yield and NUE. The major objective of this PhD project was to investigate the NUE properties of transgenic barley designed to constitutively overexpress a GS1 isogene (HvGS1.1). These transgenic lines exhibited an increased...... for N demand. Of the GS isogenes, only the transcript levels of root HvGS1.1 increased when plants were transferred from high to low N. This change coincided with an increase in total GS activity. Pronounced diurnal variation was observed for root nitrate transporter genes and GS isogenes in both root...... fertilizer requirement. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) has been a major topic in plant nitrogen research for decades due to its central role in plant N metabolism. The cytosolic version of this enzyme (GS1) plays an important role in relation to primary N assimilation as well as in relation to N...

  17. Gibberellic acid (GA3) induced changes in proanthocyanidins and malt quality of two- and six-row husked barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Luthra, Y P; Sood, D R; Aggarwal, N K

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of husked barleys for proanthocyanidins and malt quality attributes has shown that not a single variety is free of proanthocyanidins. The proanthocyanidins in barley grains varied from 3.85 to 4.94 mg/g as catechin equivalent. The concentration of proanthocyanidins decreased, while total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, diastatic power and beta-amylase activity increased during maltings as well as with exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3) application. Alfa 93 (two-row) and RD2560 (six-row) varieties appeared to be superior for malting and brewing purposes on the basis of proanthocyanidins, total phenols, diastatic power and beta-amylase activity. It is suggested that exogenous application of GA3 at 15 ppm may be useful for producing good quality malt from barley grains.

  18. Effects of milling on functional properties of rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, R S; Bryant, R J; Miller, J A

    2008-05-01

    A commercial long-grain rice flour (CRF) and the flours made by using a pin mill and the Udy mill from the same batch of broken second-head white long-grain rice were evaluated for their particle size and functional properties. The purpose of this study was to compare the commercial rice flour milling method to the pin and Udy milling methods used in our laboratory and pilot plant. The results showed that pin milled flour had more uniform particle size than the other 2 milled flours. The chalky kernels found in broken white milled rice were pulverized more into fines in both Udy milled flour and CRF than in the pin milled flour. The excessive amount of fines in flours affected their functional properties, for example, WSI and their potential usage in the novel foods such as rice breads (RB). The RB made from CRF collapsed more than loaves made from pin milled Cypress long-grain flours.

  19. Effect of Iron Fortified Wheat Flour on the Biology and Physiology of Red Flour Beetle, (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload in the fortified flour can influence the life stages and physiology of the insects. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of commercially available premix iron fortified flour as well as effect of different concentrations of post-mix iron fortified flour (30–5 ppm on biology of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Hebrst.. Larval and pupal duration, total developmental time, fecundity and larval weights in two consecutive generations of beetle were compared with control treatment. Amylase and protease activities of gut of the beetle were also measured in premix and postmix flours. Results showed that larval mortality increased in two sources of premix iron flour when compared with control. Larval weight was reduced in first generation only. The larval mortality was significantly higher in 30 ppm postmix iron fortified flour than in other postmix concentrations and control treatment. The larvae of T. castaneum fed on two sources of premix and in various concentrations of postmix iron fortified flour revealed an increase in amylases and decrease in protease activities.

  20. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  1. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed...... whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress...... tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...

  2. Impact of mineral fertilizers on common winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L. agrophytocenosis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. М. Мукан

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 to 2013 a study was completed for the impact of varying rates of fertilizing onto the indices of productivity for barley agrophytocenosis of Helios and Commandor, in particular, such its components as a number of productive stems, number of seeds per ear, potential biological activity of ear and photosynthetic apparatus. It is found that the level of spring barley agrophytocenosis productivity is subject both to varietal peculiarities and the rate of mineral fertilizer application. When applying N 60P 60K 60 і N 90P 90K 90 the highest potential and biological productivity of Helios and Commandor was recorder as compared against the control. Impact of varying application rates for fertilizers onto the components of ear biological productivity has been scrutinized. The qualitative composition of ear is a clear expression of variety phenotype and identifies the level of biological yield for spring barley. Application of N 60 P 60 K 60 і N 90 P 90 K 90 mineral fertilizers fairly increased the average leaf surface, photosynthetic lead capacity of varieties in 2 to 2.5 times, as well as FAR efficiency coefficient in 1.5 to 2.0 times as against control that thus contributed to the development of highest biological yield of Helios variety phytomass at the level of 14.9 to 15.0, grain – 7.8 to 8.0 ton per ha and, respectively, 12.7 and 7.5 tons per ha for Comandor variety.

  3. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-01-13

    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality.

  4. Utilization of Durian Seed Flour as Filler Ingredient of Meatball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Malini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Durian seed flour contains starch consisted of amylose and amylopectin like tapioca flour, so it can be utilized as a filler in meatball production. The purposes of this research were to evaluate the nutrient content and quality of durian seed flour, the best level of durian seed flour addition to the meatball production, and the quality of beef meatball during storage in room temperature and refrigerator. Complete randomized design (CRD was used with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments used different filler ingredients consisted of: 1 100% tapioca, 2 50% tapioca + 50% durian seed flour, and 3 100% durian seed flour utilization. The results showed that durian seed flour could affect the protein levels and hardness of beef meatballs. In the organoleptic test, the addition of durian seed flour had no effect on the appearance of the color, flavor, aroma, and texture. The meatballs with 100% durian seed flour had the lowest hardness. The protein content of the meatballs with 100% durian seed flour was the highest. The used of 50% durian seed flour gave the best effect to beef meatball during storage. Meatball could be stored up to 8 h in room temperature while refrigerator could keep it longer up to 12 d. It was concluded that the addition 50% durian seed flour may substitute tapioca flour as filler ingredient of beef meatball.

  5. FARINOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF WHEAT DOUGH ENRICHED WITH INULIN, NAKED BARLEY, MALT AND POTEX ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important biological substances consumed in insufficient quantity is fibre that is often deficient in the diet. In general, dietary fibre is edible part of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Nowadays, there are many sources of fibre available for bakery industry, whether through addition of non-traditional bread cereals or through isolated form as additives. Except to supposed increase the nutritional value of bakery products with added fiber and raw materials containing fiber is necessary to think about their technological quality and rheological properties of dough. The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the effect of the addition of selected polysaccharides (inulin, Potex - potato fiber and non-bakery crops (naked barley, malt containing significant polysaccharides used in the mixture with wheat flour type T-650 in different ratios on the basis of farinographic evaluations. Based on the results of rheological measurements we found out that quality of dough was deteriorating proportionally to the amount of used additives. On the other hand, positively could be considered the increase of water absorption with addition of Potex and naked barley.

  6. Starch and Free Sugars during Kernel Development of Bomi Barley and its High-Lysine Mutant 1508

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, Michael

    1978-01-01

    At maturity the high-lysine barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ris0 mutants 1508, 527 and 29 kernels contained about 20% less starch and twice as much free sugars as the parent varieties Bomi and Carlsberg II. An enhanched effect on starch reduction and free sugar accumulation was observed during kernel...

  7. Metabolite Profiling of Barley Grains Subjected to Water Stress: To Explain the Genotypic Difference in Drought-Induced Impacts on Malting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grain weight and protein content will be reduced and increased, respectively, when barley is subjected to water stress after anthesis, consequently deteriorating the malt quality. However, such adverse impact of water stress differs greatly among barley genotypes. In this study, two Tibetan wild barley accessions and two cultivated varieties differing in water stress tolerance were used to investigate the genotypic difference in metabolic profiles during grain-filling stage under drought condition. Totally, 71 differently accumulated metabolites were identified, including organic acids, amino acids/amines, and sugars/sugar alcohols. Their relative contents were significantly affected by water stress for all genotypes and differed distinctly between the wild and cultivated barleys. The principal component analysis of metabolites indicated that the Tibetan wild barley XZ147 possessed a unique response to water stress. When subjected to water stress, the wild barley XZ147 showed the most increase of β-amylase activity among the four genotypes, as a result of its higher lysine content, less indole-3-acetic acid (IAA biosynthesis, more stable H2O2 homeostasis, and more up-regulation of BMY1 gene. On the other hand, XZ147 had the most reduction of β-glucan content under water stress than the other genotypes, which could be explained by the faster grain filling process and the less expression of β-glucan synthase gene GSL7. All these results indicated a great potential for XZ147 in barley breeding for improving water stress tolerance.

  8. Analysis of the arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase gene family in barley does not support their involvement in the remodelling of endosperm cell walls during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Hunter K C; Lahnstein, Jelle; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Jobling, Stephen A

    2012-05-01

    Arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolases (AXAHs) are family GH51 enzymes that have been implicated in the removal of arabinofuranosyl residues from the (1,4)-β-xylan backbone of heteroxylans. Five genes encoding barley AXAHs range in size from 4.6 kb to 7.1 kb and each contains 16 introns. The barley HvAXAH genes map to chromosomes 2H, 4H, and 5H. A small cluster of three HvAXAH genes is located on chromosome 4H and there is evidence for gene duplication and the presence of pseudogenes in barley. The cDNAs corresponding to barley and wheat AXAH genes were cloned, and transcript levels of the genes were profiled across a range of tissues at different developmental stages. Two HvAXAH cDNAs that were successfully expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves exhibited similar activities against 4-nitrophenyl α-L-arabinofuranoside, but HvAXAH2 activity was significantly higher against wheat flour arabinoxylan, compared with HvAXAH1. HvAXAH2 also displayed activity against (1,5)-α-L-arabinopentaose and debranched arabinan. Western blotting with an anti-HvAXAH antibody was used to define further the locations of the AXAH enzymes in developing barley grain, where high levels were detected in the outer layers of the grain but little or no protein was detected in the endosperm. The chromosomal locations of the genes do not correspond to any previously identified genomic regions shown to influence heteroxylan structure. The data are therefore consistent with a role for AXAH in depolymerizing arabinoxylans in maternal tissues during grain development, but do not provide compelling evidence for a role in remodelling arabinoxylans during endosperm or coleoptile development in barley as previously proposed.

  9. Studies on Production of Arabic Bread From Irradiated and Stored Potato Flour as Partial Substitute of Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Arabic bread produced from potato flour and wheat flour. Potato flour was prepared from Diamont cultivar of potato tubers after irradiation with 50 and 150 Gy. The ratios of potato flour were 5, 10 and 15% and the flour was stored for six months and taken for analysis every three months. Amino acids, protein, carbohydrate, baking and staling tests were applied to study the effect of adding potato flour extracts from tubers of non-irradiated and irradiated potato to wheat flour in Arabic bread making. Amino acids in potato and wheat were studied. The flour of wheat was found to be poor in lysine while potato flour contained about twice of these amino acids. Protein content was decreased with increasing the ratios of potato flour. The addition of potato flour to the Arabic bread increased the percentage of essential amino acids. Moreover, the addition of potato flour during storage periods had an improving effect on the quality of Arabic bread. Water retention capacity (the staling rate) was increased progressively with increasing the percentage as potato flour in the bread which was effective in keeping bread fresh and organoleptic properties

  10. Germination conditions affect physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-01-01

    Germinated brown rice has been reported to be nutritious due to increased free gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The physicochemical properties of brown rice (BR) and glutinous brown rice (GNBR) after germination as affected by different steeping times (24, 36, 48, and 72 h depending on the rice variety) and pHs of steeping water (3, 5, 7, and as-is) were determined and compared to those of the nongerminated one (control). As the steeping time increased or pH of steeping water decreased, germinated brown rice flours (GBRF) from both BR and GNBR had greater reducing sugar, free GABA and alpha-amylase activity; while the total starch and viscosity were lower than their respective controls. GBRFs from both BR and GNBR prepared after 24-h steeping time at pH 3 contained a high content of free GABA at 32.70 and 30.69 mg/100 g flour, respectively. The peak viscosity of GBRF obtained from both BR and GNBR (7.42 to 228.22 and 4.42 to 58.67 RVU, respectively) was significantly lower than that of their controls (255.46 and 190.17 RVU, respectively). The principal component analysis indicated that the important variables for discriminating among GBRFs, explained by the first 2 components at 89.82% of total explained variance, were the pasting profiles, alpha-amylase activity, and free GABA.

  11. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Nutritional composition and digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley or barley grain with an haylage or pasture diet on nutrient digestibility and methane output. Barley grain was sprouted in climate controlled growth chambers, to be used as part ...

  12. Amylolytic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from barley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... naturally present in barley, and produced cell-bound and cell-free α-amylase at alkaline conditions. The two strains may be developed into starter cultures to facilitate the germination of barley and produce malt with a higher fermentable sugar content. Key words: Lactobacillus plantarum, starch hydrolysis, barley, malting ...

  13. Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Kalpana; Eipeson, Sushma W; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2010-07-14

    Malted grains are extensively used in weaning and geriatric foods. Malting generally improves the nutrient content and digestibility of foods. The present investigation examined the influence of malting of finger millet, wheat, and barley on the bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium, copper, and manganese. Malting increased the bioaccessibility of iron by >3-fold from the two varieties of finger millet and by >2-fold from wheat, whereas such a beneficial influence was not seen in barley. The bioaccessibility of zinc from wheat and barley increased to an extent of 234 and 100%, respectively, as a result of malting. However, malting reduced the bioaccessibility of zinc from finger millet. Malting marginally increased the bioaccessibility of calcium from white finger millet and wheat. Whereas malting did not exert any influence on bioaccessibility of copper from finger millet and wheat, it significantly decreased (75%) the same from barley. Malting did increase the bioaccessibility of manganese from brown finger millet (17%) and wheat (42%). Thus, malting could be an appropriate food-based strategy to derive iron and other minerals maximally from food grains.

  14. Field Screening of Waterlogging Tolerance in Spring Wheat and Spring Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Kristina Sundgren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved waterlogging tolerance of wheat and barley varieties may alleviate yield constraints caused by heavy or long-lasting precipitation. The waterlogging tolerance of 181 wheat and 210 barley genotypes was investigated in field trials between 2013 and 2014. A subset of wheat genotypes were selected for yield trials in 2015 and 2016. Our aim was to: (1 characterize the waterlogging tolerance of genotypes with importance for Norwegian wheat and barley breeding, and (2 identify which phenotypic traits that most accurately determine the waterlogging tolerance of wheat in our field trials. Waterlogging tolerance was determined by principal component analysis (PCA where best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs of the traits chlorosis, relative plant height, heading delay, relative spike number, relative biomass and an overall condition score were used as input variables. Six wheat and five barley genotypes were identified as consistently more tolerant in 2013 and 2014. This included the waterlogging tolerant CIMMYT line CETA/Ae. tauschii (895. Chlorosis and the overall condition score were the traits that best explained the yield response of the genotypes selected for the yield trials. Our results show that early stress symptoms did not necessarily reflect the ability to recover post treatment. Thus, records from full crop cycles appear as fundamental when screening populations with unknown tolerance properties.

  15. The influence of rearing medium on the irradiation sensitivity of eggs and larvae of the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum J. du Val

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunçbilek, A.Ş.; Kansu, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, gamma radiation was applied at six dose levels over the range of 5–40 Gy for 0–2-day-old eggs, and at eight dose levels between 10–80 Gy for 16–18-day-old larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sterility, mortality and other effects of gamma radiation were investigated. All experiments were performed in incubators maintained at 27 ± 0.5 °C and 70 ± 5% r.h. The development of adults reared on different flours from irradiated eggs and larvae was prevented by exposure to 40 and 50 Gy of gamma radiation, respectively. Rate of development of these stages on different flours and the yield of adults was influenced by rearing medium. Rapidly developing flour beetles are more susceptible to killing by gamma radiation. For each stage reared on different media (wheat, barley and maize flours), LD50 and LD99.9 values were determined, together with sterilizing dose levels (SD50 and SD99.9)

  16. The influence of rearing medium on the irradiation sensitivity of eggs and larvae of the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum J. du Val

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunçbilek, Aydin Ş.; Kansu, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, gamma radiation was applied at six dose levels over the range of 5–40 Gy for 0–2-day-old eggs, and at eight dose levels between 10–80 Gy for 16–18-day-old larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sterility, mortality and other effects of gamma radiation were investigated. All experiments were performed in incubators maintained at 27 ± 0.5 °C and 70 ± 5% r.h. The development of adults reared on different flours from irradiated eggs and larvae was prevented by exposure to 40 and 50 Gy of gamma radiation, respectively. Rate of development of these stages on different flours and the yield of adults was influenced by rearing medium. Rapidly developing flour beetles are more susceptible to killing by gamma radiation. For each stage reared on different media (wheat, barley and maize flours), LD 50 and LD 99.9 values were determined, together with sterilizing dose levels (SD 50 and SD 99.9 ). (author)

  17. Utilization of Durian Seed Flour as Filler Ingredient of Meatball

    OpenAIRE

    D. R. Malini; I. I. Arief; H. Nuraini

    2016-01-01

    Durian seed flour contains starch consisted of amylose and amylopectin like tapioca flour, so it can be utilized as a filler in meatball production. The purposes of this research were to evaluate the nutrient content and quality of durian seed flour, the best level of durian seed flour addition to the meatball production, and the quality of beef meatball during storage in room temperature and refrigerator. Complete randomized design (CRD) was used with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The tre...

  18. Development of Wet Noodles Based on Cassava Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmad Z. Abidin; Cinantya Devi; Adeline

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is one of Indonesia's original commodities and contains good nutrition and has high productivity and a relatively low price. Cassava flour has a high potential as a substitute for imported wheat flour that is widely used in noodle production. The main purpose of this research was to develop wet noodles from cassava flour that can compete with wet noodles from wheat flour. The research consisted of experiments with several variations of composition and production method for producing c...

  19. Effect of quinoa and potato flours on the thermomechanical and breadmaking properties ofwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodriguez-Sandoval

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanical properties of dough and the physical characteristics of bread from quinoa-wheat and potato-wheat composite flours at 10 and 20% substitution level were evaluated. The functional properties of flours were measured by the water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and swelling power (SP. The thermomechanical properties of wheat and composite flours were assessed using a Mixolab and the baking quality characteristics of breads were weight, height, width, and specific volume. The results showed that the higher values of WAI (4.48, WSI (7.45%, and SP (4.84 were for potato flour. The quinoa-wheat composite flour presented lower setback and cooking stability data, which are a good indicator of shelf life of bread. On the other hand, the potato-wheat composite flour showed lower stability, minimum torque and peak torque, and higher water absorption. Weight, height, width, and specific volume of wheat bread were most similar to samples of potato-wheat composite flour at 10% substitution level.

  20. Tempeh flour as a substitute for soybean flour in coconut cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare roasted and lyophilized tempeh flour with soybean cultivar BRS 267 to apply them in the formulation of coconut biscuits. The cookies produced with whole soy flour and mixed flour of soybean and tempeh were evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and isoflavone aglycones in order to verify the effects of inoculation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus and those of the drying processes of roasting and lyophilization on the chemical characteristics of the final product. Sensory acceptance and purchase intention of the formulated products were also evaluated. The results indicate the maintenance of linolenic acid, which is important in the prevention of coronary diseases, and an increase in the aglycones levels when the tempeh flour was used. Lipids and proteins showed differences, and the sensory analyses demonstrated similarity between the cookies with satisfactory scores for aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability for both samples. when compared to the control. Purchase intent was also positive for the lyophilized and toasted tempeh flours, thus enabling the use of the roasting process as a simple drying method, for processing tempeh and obtaining a flour rich in proteins and aglycones that can be used as a partial substitute for soy flour in cookies and other bakery products.

  1. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... which may be added include flours of other cereals, fat, malt flour, soya flour, ... but its protein is of lower nutritional quality than milk, soy, pea and lupin proteins as its ... improvers from local raw materials. It is thought that the.

  2. Effects on respiratory system due to exposure to wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mohammed Said

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Exposure to wheat flour increases the risk of developing respiratory symptoms; it also causes reduction in the pulmonary function parameters, as regards spirometry and DLCOSB. Exposure to wheat flour causes interstitial lung disease as detected by HRCT chest. Smoking augments the wheat flour induced lung disease.

  3. Effect of Cassava Flour Processing Methods and Substitution Level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consumption of bread is globally increasing. However, due to increased costs associated with production of bread from 100% wheat flour especially in developing countries, other cereal based flours are now being blended with wheat flour to produce bread. This study was carried out to assess the effect of using two ...

  4. Effect od Soybean/Cassava Flour Blend in the Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers were also peeled, chopped, dried and milled in a similar fashion. Eventually, the soybean and cassava flour samples were blended individually with the quality protein maize flour in three different proportions: 5:95, 10:90 and 15:85, respectively. Normal maize flour was used as a control for the quality ...

  5. Tocotrienols and tocopherols in colored-grain wheat, tritordeum and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jaromír; Hejtmánková, Alena; Orsák, Matyáš; Popov, Marek; Martinek, Petr

    2018-02-01

    Colored-grain spring and winter wheat, spring tritordeum and barley (blue aleurone, purple pericarp, and yellow endosperm) from the harvests 2014 and 2015 were evaluated for tocol contents by HPLC-FD. Higher content of total tocols was found in spring wheat varieties compared with winter varieties. Four tocols (β-tocotrienol, α-tocotrienol, β-tocopherol, and α-tocopherol) were identified in wheat and tritordeum varieties. Dominant tocols in purple- and blue-grained wheat and yellow-grained tritordeum were α-tocopherol and β-tocotrienol, whereas spring barley varieties differed from wheat and tritordeum by high α-tocotrienol content. Tocol content was significantly affected by genotype and in a lesser extent in some varieties and lines also by rainfall and temperatures during crop year. Higher rainfall and lower temperatures caused in most varieties higher tocol contents. Purple- and blue-grained wheat lines with higher tocol, anthocyanin and phenolic acids with health benefits may be useful for breeding new varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the Behavior of Some Spring Barley Lines with Two Rows Created at A.R.D.S Turda Regarding Production Capacity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana PORUMB

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The spring barley is a variety of a superior quality for brewing compared with the feed barley due to several reasons. Research was conducted in the field of breeding of spring barley with two rows, within ARDS Turda, during 2013-2015. The trials were comparatively developed, and included 25 variants. The biological material was represented by four  autochthonous genotypes: Turdeana, Daciana Romaniţa (A.R.D.S. Turda, and Adina (A.R.D.S. Suceava. The spring barley lines created by the S.C.D.A. Turda, meet the requirements of the beer industry in terms of protein content, starch, M.M.B. and germination energy.

  7. The influence of α-amylase supplementation, γ-irradiation (60Co) as well as long time of storage of wheat grain on flour technological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warchalewski, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The varieties of winter wheat, Aria and Beta, were studied. The Aria variety was stored for the period of four years. The part of wheat grain from Beta variety was irradiated with γ rays ( 60 Co). In extracts from wheat kernels and flour protein content, total α- and β-amylolytic activity as well as α-amylolytic activity were determined, α-amylases of native and fungal origin were added to the flour obtained from samples of stored wheat kernels (Aria), irradiated and non-irradiated (Beta). Consequently native α-amylase activity of flour increased by 25% and 50%, respectively. Extensive technological estimation of grain and flour with amylase supplements was carried out. The study included: sedimentation analysis, falling number test, milling experiment, farinogram and extensogram analyses, measurement of the degree of damaged starch and flour colour, as well as baking experiment. The obtained experimental loaves of bread were tested for their ability to remain fresh. It was found out that the stored grain flour was characterized by the highest α-amylolytic activity and the lowest falling number value, whereas the irradiated grain flour showed the highest degree of starch damage and water absorption. When α-amylase supplementation to doughs was not accompanied by either irradiation or storage of grain, it definitely changed their physical properties for the worse. The negative influence of native α-amylases appeared to be less significant than that of fungal α-amylases. The positive influence of α-amylase supplementations, especially of those increasing by 25% the native α-amylolytic activity of flour on volume, and freshness of loaves of bread was observed. (author)

  8. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  9. Quality evaluation of irradiated wheat flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, M.M.; Mastro, N.L. del; Rigoni, V.H.

    1995-01-01

    Co-60 irradiated wheat flour samples in the range of 0.2-30 kGy have been analysed by the ESR technique. (Electron Spin Resonance). Tests of color, stability and Falling Number were also performed. The observed ESR signals showed complex but similar behavior for all samples. The intensity of the ESR signal showed a linear dependence with dose up to 30 kGy. Tests of color, stability and Falling Number showed that up to the dose recommended to destroy plagues (1 kGy), the intrinsic properties of flours are preserved being the product in perfect conditions to be commercialized. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  10. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  11. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...... with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...

  12. Varieties of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, G. L.

    The English language is not a monolithic entity but an amalgam of many different varieties that can be associated respectively with groups of speakers, with individuals, and with the occasion. Among such varieties are slang, regional and class dialects, the language of children, and the language used by public speakers, journalists, lawyers,…

  13. Computing Tropical Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, D.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, T.

    2005-01-01

    The tropical variety of a d-dimensional prime ideal in a polynomial ring with complex coefficients is a pure d-dimensional polyhedral fan. This fan is shown to be connected in codimension one. We present algorithmic tools for computing the tropical variety, and we discuss our implementation...

  14. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND THE ENERGETIC VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR SUBSTITUTED BY DIFFERENT SHARES OF WHITE AND BROWN RICE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce dough with a lower gluten content, more enriched with rice components and satisfactory rheological properties, the rheological properties, energetic value and cake baking properties of wheat and white or brown rice flour in shares from 3 to 30% (w/w were investigated in this paper. The water absorption in wheat-rice flour mixtures was lower and decreased to 53.5% and 54.0% along with the increase of the white and the brown rice flour share, respectively, than in wheat flour, where it was 58.8%. In the dough made from rice flour, a gluten network had thinner filaments, about 2 and 1 μm in width for white and brown rice flour, respectively, compared to those in the dough from wheat flour only, where it was about 7 μm. The dough from rice flour had almost twice higher gelatinization maximum than the gelatinization maximum of the wheat flour only. The energetic values of the dough from rice flour were smaller than the energetic value of the wheat flour, for only 1.32%. Based on Cluster analysis, the white or brown rice flour share of 20% was pointed out.

  15. Study of mechanical and thermal properties of soy flour elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kendra Alicia

    Bio-based plastics are becoming viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics because they decrease dependence on petroleum derivatives and are more environmentally friendly. Raw materials such as soy flour are widely available, low cost, lightweight, stiffness and have high strength characteristics, but weak interfacial adhesion between the soy flour and the polymer poses a challenge. In this study, soy flour was utilized as a filler in thermoplastic elastomer composites. A surface modification called acetylation was investigated at soy flour concentrations of 10 wt%, 15 wt% and 20 wt%. The mechanical properties of the composites were then compared to that of elastomers without a filler. Chemical characterization of the acetylated soy flour was attempted in order to understand what occurs during the reaction and after completion. In the range of tests, soy flour loadings were observed to be inversely proportional to tensile strength for both the untreated and treated soy flour. However, the acetylated soy flour at 10 wt% concentration performed comparable to that of the neat rubber and resulted in an increase in tensile strength. Unexpectedly, the acetylation reaction increased elongation, which reduced stress within the composite and is believed to increase the adhesion of the soy flour to that of the elastomer. In the nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR), the intensity for the treated soy flour was larger than that of the untreated soy flour for the acetyl groups that were attached to the soy flour, particularly, the carbonyl function group next to the deprotonated oxygen and the methyl group next to the carbonyl. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the acetylated soy flour is slightly more thermally stable than the untreated soy flour. The treated soy flour also increased the decomposition temperature of the composite.

  16. Optimizing reed canary grass cropping to increase profitability. Field studies of plant varieties, intercropping with legumes and barley, fertilization and soil compaction; Optimering av odlingsaatgaerder i roerflen foer oekad loensamhet. Faeltstudier av sorter, samodling med baljvaexter och korn, goedsling samt markpackning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    Reed Canary Grass is a promising crop for biofuel production. For reed canary grass the first year is an establishment year when the small biomass is not harvested. The second year the biomass is usually cut in late autumn but the harvest (removal of the biomass from the field) is delayed until spring. This technique has resulted in lower costs and increases in fuel quality through lower ash contents, including lower contents of chlorine, sodium and potassium. However costs for production are still high, especially establishment costs, fertilization costs and harvesting costs. The aim of this project was to test ways to cut costs per MWh by increased yields, and decreased establishment costs. The methods used have been variety trials to develop more productive plant material, intercropping with nitrogen fixing legumes to reduce the nitrogen demand of the crop, fertilization with waste material (sewage sludge, reed canary grass ash or poultry manure) and harvest at frozen ground as a strategy to reduce soil compaction and harvest damages on the crop. Reed canary grass grown as a fuel has so far been grown as a mono culture. However, when it is been grown for forage, or as a biogas crop, intercropping with legumes has been successful in some studies. In addition to NPK-fertilizers sewage sludge, ash from combustion of reed canary grass and poultry manure was used. An economic calculation showed that the establishment costs (the first two growing seasons) can be lowered by intercropping with red clover. However it is also involves more risks, related to weeds, and cannot be recommended on fallow soil with a large seed bank of weeds. A ten year old reed canary grass ley was used for the experiment. Two 25 m wide strips were harvested with a mower on November 19 2008 when the top soil was frozen. The harvested material was chopped and removed from the field the following day. The following spring, May 19 2009, the remaining reed canary grass on the field was cut with a

  17. Evolutionary history of barley cultivation in Europe revealed by genetic analysis of extant landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Huw

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolution of cultivated barley is important for two reasons. First, the evolutionary relationships between different landraces might provide information on the spread and subsequent development of barley cultivation, including the adaptation of the crop to new environments and its response to human selection. Second, evolutionary information would enable landraces with similar traits but different genetic backgrounds to be identified, providing alternative strategies for the introduction of these traits into modern germplasm. Results The evolutionary relationships between 651 barley landraces were inferred from the genotypes for 24 microsatellites. The landraces could be divided into nine populations, each with a different geographical distribution. Comparisons with ear row number, caryopsis structure, seasonal growth habit and flowering time revealed a degree of association between population structure and phenotype, and analysis of climate variables indicated that the landraces are adapted, at least to some extent, to their environment. Human selection and/or environmental adaptation may therefore have played a role in the origin and/or maintenance of one or more of the barley landrace populations. There was also evidence that at least some of the population structure derived from geographical partitioning set up during the initial spread of barley cultivation into Europe, or reflected the later introduction of novel varieties. In particular, three closely-related populations were made up almost entirely of plants with the daylength nonresponsive version of the photoperiod response gene PPD-H1, conferring adaptation to the long annual growth season of northern Europe. These three populations probably originated in the eastern Fertile Crescent and entered Europe after the initial spread of agriculture. Conclusions The discovery of population structure, combined with knowledge of associated phenotypes and

  18. Technological characteristics of bread containing integral irradiated flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is normally used to make bread, pasta, and noodles, because among the cereal flours, only wheat flour has the ability to form cohesive dough upon hydration. For that reason, only partial substitution of wheat flour can be recommended. In this work, pan breads were prepared with 30% content of irradiated whole wheat, whole rye and coarse cornmeal and the influence of blending on bread making capabilities investigated through some technological characteristics. All-brand wheat, rye and cornmeal flours were irradiated with 0, 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a 60 Co and the deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with those blends were then determined. Breads prepared with irradiated whole wheat flour showed an increase in the deformation force with the increase of radiation dose. The bread height presented also an increase for the doses of 1 and 3 kGy. Breads prepared with refined wheat flour blended with irradiated whole rye flour showed an increased deformation force for radiation doses of 1 and 3 kGy and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 1 kGy. Coarse cornmeal blended flour showed a great increase of the deformation force upon irradiation, and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 3 kGy. The results indicate that the addition of irradiated integral flour, whole wheat, whole rye flour and cornmeal to wheat flour may confer changes in physical properties beside an increment in nutritional value. (author)

  19. Development of Wet Noodles Based on Cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Z. Abidin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of Indonesia’s original commodities and contains good nutrition and has high productivity and a relatively low price. Cassava flour has a high potential as a substitute for imported wheat flour that is widely used in noodle production. The main purpose of this research was to develop wet noodles from cassava flour that can compete with wet noodles from wheat flour. The research consisted of experiments with several variations of composition and production method for producing cassava flour-based wet noodles. The best result was then examined for its nutritional value, economical value, and market response, and also a comparison was made between the prepared wet noodles and the standard noodles made from wheat flour. The analysis was based on five characteristics: taste, texture, chewiness, aroma, and appearance. Relations between these characteristics with composition, materials used, and methods applied are discussed. The developed cassava flour-based wet noodle meets physical, nutritional, and economical standards. Raw materials of the noodle were cassava flour and a wheat flour composite with a 5:1 ratio, egg, gluten, soda-ash, water, and vegetable oil, while the process was completed in multiple stages. Market response showed that the cassava flour-based wet noodles were 80% similar to wheat-flour noodles.

  20. Improvement of Tagliatelle Quality by Addition of Red Quinoa Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to diversification of tagliatelle pasta and increasing segment of consumers it was intended to improvement of tagliatelle pasta quality by addition of red quinoa flour. The products obtained at Bakery Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of original recipe. To optimize the recipe were made four experimental variants, white flour and red quinoa flour is used in different proportions: Variant 1 – plain tagliatelle pasta (control sample who used white flour WF in 100%, Variant 2 consisting of 15% red quinoa flour (15 QF, Variant 3 consisting of 30 % red quinoa flour (30 QF and Variant 4 consisting of 50 % red quinoa flour (50 RQF. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: moisture content, protein content and acidity. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by using a 9-point Hedonic scale. Present study indicated that the variant 3 were most accepted by consumers.

  1. Impact of Quince Flour on Gluten-free Muffins Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PAUCEAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain gluten free muffins, with increased nutritional and sensorial value by adding quince flour into a composite flour. To optimize the recipe, four experimental variants using rice, soy, quince flours and starch in different proportions have been proposed. Quince is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, polyphenolic compounds and fibres. The quince flour addition led to muffins with increased content in minerals and very good sensorial properties in terms of taste, flavour, texture and general acceptance. It could be concluded that quince flour is a suitable source for obtaining gluten free muffins. Quince flour addition in aglutenic muffin composite flour up to 10% did not affect negatively their phisico-chemical and sensorial  properties.

  2. Fungi species and red flour beetle in stored wheat flour under Jazan region conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosly, Hanan AbuAlQasem; Kawanna, Maha Adel

    2014-05-01

    Infection of stored wheat flour with insects and toxic fungi can be an extremely serious problem. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungal species and insects in different stages, which infested and contaminated the stored flour under Jazan region conditions and changed its color and flavor. The obtained results revealed that the isolated insect was the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Live adult, larvae and cast skin were isolated. Four Aspergillus species were isolated from stored wheat flour; the isolated species prevalence being A. flavus > A. niveus > A. terreus > A. niger by rate 44.5%, 37.8%, 10.9% and 6.7%, respectively. The same fungal species isolated from flour were also isolated from different insect stages. A. flavus was the most common fungus and A. niger was isolated with a lower rate. The results about the isolated fungi either from the suspension of adult insects, larvae or cast skins may confirm the role of T. castaneum to carry and distribute fungi in different parts of the stored flour.

  3. Evaluation of replacing wheat flour with chia flour (Salvia hispanica L. in pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Rodrigues Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chia (Salvia hispanica L. has become increasingly more prevalent in the Brazilian diet and has triggered the interests of many researchers due to its functional properties and associated health benefits. The objective of this study was to develop pasta with different percentages of chia flour in lieu of wheat flour, and to evaluate the impact of chia on the nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of pasta. Pastas were prepared by replacing 7.5% (T1, 15% (T2, and 30% (T3 of wheat flour with chia flour relative to the control formulation (C. The quality of the pastas were evaluated through cooking tests (increase in weight and volume, cooking time, and loss of solids in the cooking water, chemical composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, ash, and carbohydrates, and color, using a Minolta colorimeter and sensory analysis by means of acceptance testing. Pasta made with chia flour had higher nutritional value and superior technological characteristics than did the control. Sensory analysis results showed that pasta with 7.5% chia flour had higher rates of acceptability in terms of the flavor, while the control pasta prevailed in terms of color and texture.

  4. INSECT AND MYCOFLORA INTERACTIONS IN MAIZE FLOUR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium moniliforme had the highest occurrence of 36.7%, 28.1% and 33.3% while Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus had a frequency of 3.2%, 3.1% and 3% on primary isolation media of czapek dox agar (CDA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) respectively, in maize flour without T. castaneum.

  5. Multigrain bread processing with extruded flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Crosa Balestra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect in bread quality of a new bread making process and two replacement levels (20%, 36% of refined wheat flour by extrusion precooked prepared based on combination of oats, soybeans and wheat bran was studied. Composite flour was characterized according to its functional properties (water absorption index, grain size and nutritional properties (protein, total fiber, soluble fiber, ash, fat. The volume, whiteness index, rheological measurements (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness of the bread were monitored. No significant changes were recorded in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread according to the level of substitution of composite flour; bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume bread with 20% substitution. The process conditions caused greatest impact on the quality of bread. The new process resulted in a 37% increase in volume, 6% elasticity, 15% of cohesiveness and 44% decrease in hardness and 34% in chewiness, compared to the traditional process. This trend continued in the four days following the date of processing. The substitution level of composite flour did not cause significant changes in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread, but changes were observed in cohesiveness and volume. Bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume than the 20% substitution.

  6. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched flour. 137.165 Section 137.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... riboflavin, 24 milligrams of niacin, 0.7 milligrams of folic acid, and 20 milligrams of iron. (b) It may...

  7. Inhibition of barley grain germination by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth-Bejerano, N.; Meulen, R.M. van der; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    Intact grains of barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Triumph) germinated rapidly in the dark or when exposed to brief daily light breaks in the temperature range 15-25°C, although germination proceeded less rapidly at low temperatures. Prolonged illumination (16 h/day) or continuous light inhibited

  8. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  9. Barley Breeding for Quality Improvement in Tunisia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... sub-humid environment at Beja and a semi-arid one at Kef. Heading date ... State of art showed that barley was a main food crop in. North Africa for ... rably to many other food grains (wheat, rye, and oats) and played a .... rates both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) into ...

  10. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  11. Chromosome aberration assays in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, M J [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville; Nilan, R A

    1982-01-01

    Barley is an exceellent organism for studies of induced chromosome aberrations because of its few (2n = 2x = 14) relatively large chromosomes. Root-tip and shoot-tip cells have been used extensively for the study of ionizing radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. The general procedures are well known, the technology is simple and easy to learn, and the assays are relatively quick and inexpensive. Both root tips and shoot tips can be used for the study of chemical mutagens as well as ionizing radiations. Pollen mother cells are well suited for studying the effects of mutagens on meiotic chromosomes. The literature review for the Gene-Tox Program reported on 61 chemicals tested for their effects on barley chromosomes. Of these, 90% were reported to be either positive or positive dose-related, while 7% were negative and 3% were questionable. Barley assays based on chromosomal aberrations are useful to detect the clastogenic potency of chemicals under laboratory conditions. Indications are that the data from barley can be used to corroborate data obtained from other organisms. Among the classes of chemicals assayed were: alcohols and phenols; alkaloids; epoxides; alkyl sulfates; amides and sulfonamides; aromatic amines; aryl halides; aziridines; alkenes; carbamates; hydroazides; nitroaromatics; nitrosamides; nitrosources; phenothiazines; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  12. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...

  13. Physicochemical properties of different corn varieties by principal components analysis and cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, J.; Li, G.; Sun, J.

    2013-01-01

    Principal components analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the properties of different corn varieties. The chemical compositions and some properties of corn flour which processed by drying milling were determined. The results showed that the chemical compositions and physicochemical properties were significantly different among twenty six corn varieties. The quality of corn flour was concerned with five principal components from principal component analysis and the contribution rate of starch pasting properties was important, which could account for 48.90%. Twenty six corn varieties could be classified into four groups by cluster analysis. The consistency between principal components analysis and cluster analysis indicated that multivariate analyses were feasible in the study of corn variety properties. (author)

  14. Curves and Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Valery; Clemens, C Herbert; Beauville, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in the study of curves and abelian varieties. It discusses both classical aspects of this deep and beautiful subject as well as two important new developments, tropical geometry and the theory of log schemes. In addition to original research articles, this book contains three surveys devoted to singularities of theta divisors, of compactified Jacobians of singular curves, and of "strange duality" among moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic varieties.

  15. Technical note: In situ ruminal starch disappearance kinetics of hull-less barley, hulled barley, and corn grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, G; Yang, Y; Teets, C L; Brooks, W S; Griffey, C A

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare ruminal starch disappearance rates of hull-less barley, hulled barley, and corn grains. Five different genotypes were used for each of the 2 barley types. In addition, each of these genotypes was grown in 2 different locations and years, resulting 10 independent barley samples for each of the 2 barley grain types. Five different genotypes of corn grain were obtained from a commercial seed company. After being ground to pass through a 4-mm screen of a cutter mill, 3.6 g of each grain was placed into a porous bag, which was then incubated in the rumen of 2 ruminally cannulated cows for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. Corn grains had greater instant ruminal starch disappearances than barley grains (22.4 and 8.2%, respectively). Instant ruminal starch disappearances did not differ between hulled and hull-less barley grains. Ruminal starch fractional disappearance rates were greatest for hulled barley grains, moderate for hull-less barley grains, and lowest for corn grains (15.3, 13.9, and 7.1%/h, respectively). Ruminal starch half-life was shortest for hulled and hull-less barley grains (4.4 h) and longest for corn grains (6.6 h). Ruminal starch half-life did not differ between hulled barley and hull-less barley grains. In conclusion, using a holistic experimental design and statistical analysis, this study showed that starch from hull-less barley grains has a ruminal half-life similar to that of hulled barley grains and shorter than that of corn grains. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Barley yellow dwarf virus: Luteoviridae or Tombusviridae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Allen; Liu, Sijun; Beckett, Randy

    2002-07-01

    Summary Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the most economically important virus of small grains, features highly specialised relationships with its aphid vectors, a plethora of novel translation mechanisms mediated by long-distance RNA interactions, and an ambiguous taxonomic status. The structural and movement proteins of BYDV that confer aphid transmission and phloem-limitation properties resemble those of the Luteoviridae, the family in which BYDV is classified. In contrast, many genes and cis-acting signals involved in replication and gene expression most closely resemble those of the Tombusviridae. BYDV is in genus Luteovirus, family Luteoviridae. BYDV includes at least two serotypes or viruses: BYDV-PAV and BYDV-MAV. The former BYDV-RPV is now Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV). CYDV is in genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Genus Luteovirus shares many features with family Tombusviridae. Physical properties: approximately 25 nm icosahedral (T = 3) virions. One major (22 kDa) and one minor (50-55 kDa) coat protein. 5.6-5.8 kb positive sense RNA genome with no 5'-cap and no poly(A) tail. Most grasses. Most important in oats, barley and wheat. Also infects maize and rice. Yellowing and dwarfing in barley, stunting in wheat; reddening, yellowing and blasting in oats. Some isolates cause leaf notching and curling. Key attractions: Model for the study of circulative transmission of aphid-transmitted viruses. Plethora of unusual translation mechanisms. Evidence of recombination in recent evolutionary history creates taxonomic ambiguity. Economically important virus of wheat, barley and oats, worldwide. Useful websites/meetings: International symposium: 'Barley Yellow Dwarf Disease: Recent Advances and Future Strategies', CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 1-5 September 2002, http://www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/Research/wheat/Conf_BYD_02/invitation.htm http://www.cimmyt.org/Research/wheat/BYDVNEWS/htm/BYDVNEWS.htm Aphid transmission animation: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/~sforza/tmv/bydv_aph.html.

  17. Genetic diversity in some tunisian barley land races based on raped markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellaos, R.; Kadir, K.; Naceur, M.B.; Kaab, L.B.B.

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity analysis of 15 barley land races was carried out using RAPD markers.These land races were collected from various bio climatic Tunisian zones. The amplification products varied from 4 to 11 bands ranging between 250 pb and 3000 pb. On 698 fragments counted, 578 are polymorphic showing a high level of polymorphism (82.8%). The relationship between the studied land races was evaluated according to (UPGMA) method that classified barley land races in 4 homogeneous groups. Among which, the group D included the majority of the land races with the introduced variety 'Martin'. The genetic distance between these land races is reduced, may be because of the presence of a common ancestor which led to a narrow genetic diversity. (author)

  18. Genetic diversity in some tunisian barley land races based on raped markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdellaos, R; Kadir, K; Naceur, M B; Kaab, L B.B.,

    2010-12-15

    The genetic diversity analysis of 15 barley land races was carried out using RAPD markers.These land races were collected from various bio climatic Tunisian zones. The amplification products varied from 4 to 11 bands ranging between 250 pb and 3000 pb. On 698 fragments counted, 578 are polymorphic showing a high level of polymorphism (82.8%). The relationship between the studied land races was evaluated according to (UPGMA) method that classified barley land races in 4 homogeneous groups. Among which, the group D included the majority of the land races with the introduced variety 'Martin'. The genetic distance between these land races is reduced, may be because of the presence of a common ancestor which led to a narrow genetic diversity. (author)

  19. Genetic diversity among wild and cultivated barley as revealed by RFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Østergård, H.; Giese, H.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic variability of cultivated and wild barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare and spontaneum, respectively, was assessed by RFLP analysis. The material consisted of 13 European varietes, single-plant offspring lines of eight land races from Ethiopia and Nepal, and five accessions of ssp. sponta...... an intermediate level. The proportion of gene diversity residing among,geographical groups (F-ST) varied from 0.19 to 0.94 (average 0.54) per RFLP pattern, indicating large diversification between geographical groups....... was estimated and the barley lines clustered into five groups reflecting geographical origin. The geographical groups of land-race lines showed less intragroup variation than the geographical groups of spontaneum lines. The group of European varieties, representing large variation in agronomic traits, showed...

  20. Complex Algebraic Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Peternell, Thomas; Schneider, Michael; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf

    1992-01-01

    The Bayreuth meeting on "Complex Algebraic Varieties" focussed on the classification of algebraic varieties and topics such as vector bundles, Hodge theory and hermitian differential geometry. Most of the articles in this volume are closely related to talks given at the conference: all are original, fully refereed research articles. CONTENTS: A. Beauville: Annulation du H(1) pour les fibres en droites plats.- M. Beltrametti, A.J. Sommese, J.A. Wisniewski: Results on varieties with many lines and their applications to adjunction theory.- G. Bohnhorst, H. Spindler: The stability of certain vector bundles on P(n) .- F. Catanese, F. Tovena: Vector bundles, linear systems and extensions of (1).- O. Debarre: Vers uns stratification de l'espace des modules des varietes abeliennes principalement polarisees.- J.P. Demailly: Singular hermitian metrics on positive line bundles.- T. Fujita: On adjoint bundles of ample vector bundles.- Y. Kawamata: Moderate degenerations of algebraic surfaces.- U. Persson: Genus two fibra...

  1. Food supplementation for workers: flour enriched with omega -3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Nery de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was preparing a product (omega-3 flour to increase the nutritional value of the food for workers concerning the content of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA. The omega-3 flour was prepared using waste (head sardines and leaves of carrot, flaxseed flour, manioc flour and spices. The fatty acids (FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 28 FA were identified in the omega-3 flour. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were 329.23mg EPA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour and 545.35 mg DHA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour. To meet the minimum requirements of omega -3, it is necessary the intake 2.5 to 3 tablespoons (soup of omega-3 flour day-1.There were analyzed two meals (A and B generally consumed by workers without and with the addition of the omega-3 flour (1 and 2 tablespoons to verify if there was an increase of n-3 FA. It was concluded that there was a significant increase of these FA in both meals. It was found that the omega-3 flour is constituted of a good nutritional value, especially the n-3 FA, so the product can be used as a supplement in the feeding of the workers as well as in other segments.

  2. Shelf life determinants and enzyme activities of pearl millet: a comparison of changes in stored flour of hybrids, CMS lines, inbreds and composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Preeti; Chugh, L K

    2017-09-01

    Shelf life of pearl millet flour is very short because of rapid development of rancidity. This investigation was carried out in view of generating breeding material for development of low rancid pearl millet hybrids/varieties. Flour of twenty-one genotypes; seven hybrids, seven CMS lines, five inbreds and two composites stored in covered aluminium boxes at 37 °C for 30 days along with respective fresh flour was analysed for shelf life indicators/determinants. Crude fat content and fat acidity (FA) of fresh flour of the genotypes varied from 3.8 to 7.2% and 11 to 75 mg KOH/100 g d.m., respectively. FA in stored flour ranged between 180 and 330 mg KOH/100 g d.m. After storage, magnitude of decrease in pH of water extract of flour of the genotypes varied from 0.15 to 0.44. Activity of peroxidase (POX) varied from 378 to 588 units in control flour and irrespective of the genotypes decreased upon storage. Increase in FA (difference between FA of fresh and stored flour) rather total build up of FA was positively associated with crude fat content (r = 0.440*) indicated comparatively more prominent role of lipolytic enzymes. Chemical changes taking place in water soluble fraction of flour were independent of fat content as no correlation was discerned between fat content and decrease in pH. Among the hybrids, HHB 197 had lowest crude fat content (4.7%), lowest total build up FA (212 mg KOH/100 g d.m.), slowest increase in FA (191 mg KOH/100 g d.m.), least decrease in pH (0.31) of water soluble fraction flour during storage and lowest activity of POX in fresh flour (377 units/g d.m). Among all the tested CMS lines, inbreds and composites, HBL 11 showed pattern of quantitative changes in FA, pH and POX activity similar to the hybrid HHB 197 and was identified a promising inbred for developing low-rancid pearl millet variety or hybrid.

  3. Predicting rheological behavior and baking quality of wheat flour using a GlutoPeak test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakita, Slađana; Dokić, Ljubica; Dapčević Hadnađev, Tamara; Hadnađev, Miroslav; Torbica, Aleksandra

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to gain an insight into the ability of the GlutoPeak instrument to predict flour functionality for bread making, as well as to determine which of the GlutoPeak parameters show the best potential in predicting dough rheological behavior and baking performance. Obtained results showed that GlutoPeak parameters correlated better with the indices of extensional rheological tests which consider constant dough hydration than with those which were performed at constant dough consistency. The GlutoPeak test showed that it is suitable for discriminating wheat varieties of good quality from those of poor quality, while the most discriminating index was maximum torque (MT). Moreover, MT value of 50 BU and aggregation energy value of 1,300 GPU were set as limits of wheat flour quality. The backward stepwise regression analysis revealed that a high-level prediction of indices which are highly affected by protein content (gluten content, flour water absorption, and dough tenacity) was achieved by using the GlutoPeak indices. Concerning bread quality, a moderate prediction of specific loaf volume and an intense level prediction of breadcrumb textural properties were accomplished by using the GlutoPeak parameters. The presented results indicated that the application of this quick test in wheat transformation chain for the assessment of baking quality would be useful. Baking test is considered as the most reliable method for assessing wheat-baking quality. However, baking test requires trained stuff, time, and large sample amount. These disadvantages have led to a growing demand to develop new rapid tests which would enable prediction of baked product quality with a limited flour size. Therefore, we tested the possibility of using a GlutoPeak tester to predict loaf volume and breadcrumb textural properties. Discrimination of wheat varieties according to quality with a restricted flour amount was also examined. Furthermore, we proposed the limit

  4. Tabletop Tectonics: Diverse Mountain Ranges Using Flour and Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    It has been recognized for some time that the frontal deformation zones where plates converge (foreland fold- and-thrust belts on continents and accretionary wedges at subduction zones) involve shortening over a decoupling layer, or decollement. A simple but successful way of explaining many aspects of their behavior is called the critical Coulomb wedge model, which regards these contractional wedges as analogous to the wedge-shaped mass of soil accreted in front of a bulldozer, or the wedge of snow that piles up in front of a snow plow. The shape and deformation history of the accreted wedge of soil or snow will depend upon the frictional strength of the material being plowed up and the surface over which it is being plowed. The same is true of `bulldozer' wedges consisting of many km thick piles of sediment at convergent plate margins. Using flour (or powdered milk), sandpaper, graphite, transparency sheets, and athletic field marker chalk, manipulated with sieves, brushes, pastry bags and blocks and sheets of wood, it is possible to demonstrate a wide variety of processes and tectonic styles observed at convergent plate boundaries. Model fold-and-thrust belts that behave like natural examples with a decollement that is strong (e.g., in rock without high pore fluid pressure) or weak (e.g., in a salt horizon or with elevated pore fluid pressure) can be generated simply by placing wither sandpaper or graphite beneath the flour that is pushed across the tabletop using a block of wood (the strong basement and hiterland rocks behind the fold-thrust belt). Depending upon the strength of the decollement, the cross-sectional taper of the deforming wedge will be thin or broad, the internal deformation mild or intense, and the structures either close to symmetric or strongly forward-vergent, just as at the analogous natural fold-thrust belts. Including a horizontal sheet of wood or Plexiglas in front of the pushing block allows generation of an accretionary wedge, outer

  5. Large-Scale Purification and Characterization of Barley Limit Dextrinase, a Member of the α-Amylase Structural Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Planchot, Véronique; Abe, Jun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    Homogeneous barley limit dextrinase (LD) was isolated on a large scale in a yield of 9 mg/kg of 10-day germinated green malt. This represents a 9,400-fold purification and 29% recovery of the activity in a flour extract in 0.2M NaOAc (pH 5.0) containing 5 mM ascorbic acid. The purification protocol...... consists of precipitation from the extract at 20-70% saturated ammonium sulfate (AMS), followed by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) 650S Fractogel anion-exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography on b-cyclodextrin-Sepharose in the presence of 2M AMS. LD was eluted by 7 mM b-cyclodextrin and contains...

  6. The Varieties of Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nottelmann, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses varieties of ignorance divided according to kind (what the subject is ignorant of), degree, and order (e.g. ignorance of ignorance equals second-order ignorance). It provides analyses of notions such as factual ignorance, erotetic ignorance (ignorance of answers to question...

  7. Morphism of Varieties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nagaraj, D. S. (IMSc, Chennai)

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... a notion of nearness of points in the set is defined. The maps are set maps .... of same degree. X6 + 17X is a degree 6 polynomial in one variable. ..... My current area of research is to study of morphisms of varieties: Given two ...

  8. Formulation and characterization of bread using coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour composite with addition of xanthan-gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erminawati; Sidik, W.; Listanti, R.; Zulfakar, H.

    2018-01-01

    Coconut-pulp flour is coconut flour made from by-product of coconut-milk based food products. The flour contains no gluten and high fibre, which can be considered as functional potential food. Bread made from composite-flour of coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour was studied for its physic-chemical and sensory characteristics. Addition of hydrocolloid, like xanthan-gum, was aimed to provide viscoelasticity for the dough which is essential for baked product. Composite-flour proportion used in this study was; 10CPF/90WF, 15CPF/85WF and 20CPF/80WF; and xanthan gum to total flour of 0,1% and 0,4%. Variable observed were; crumb-texture, crumb-colour, taste of coconut, preference and flavour; moisture, ash, fiber and soluble-protein contents. The research showed that addition of coconut-pulp flour in the composite-flour decreased specific volume value and increased the bread texture produced. It also increased the bread moisture-content, ash-content, fibre-content and soluble protein-content. Moreover, the xanthan-gum addition resulted in decreased specific-volume value and increased texture and fiber-content of the bread produced. Overall, the sensory characteristic of crumb colour, flavour and panellist preference revealed better than control bread made from wheat flour, however its crumb texture harder compare to control bread made from wheat flour. This study showed that coconut-pulp flour potential to be developed for production of functional food.

  9. Structural and regulatory differences in amylase isoenzymes in germinating Brazilian barley cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg-Kraemer J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amylase electrophoretic patterns of 10 Brazilian brewing-barley varieties with different malting grades and diastatic power were analyzed during the 7-day germination which occurs during the malting process. Intra and inter-variety genetic variability was observed at both the structural and regulatory level. In the first few days after germination all varieties showed a few active loci, all of them with low activity. In subsequent days, new loci became active and those already detected since early germination showed increased activity. All varieties showed a continuous increase in amylase synthesis until the 3rd and/or 4th day after germination. Some varieties maintained high amylase activity until the last day of germination, while others showed a decrease in activity on the 5th or 6th day. No specific band increased or decreased its intensity independently of the others. A total of 14 loci were detected, out of which only one locus was polymorphic, indicating very low structural genetic variability, with only 2.8% polymorphic loci, an average of 1.04 alleles per loci, and an average expected heterozygosity of only 0.7%. The mean intra-variety Jaccard similarity coefficient complement (1 - S J was 0.009. The mean intra-variety difference based on regulatory differences was higher (1 - S J = 0.17 than that obtained based on structural differences, suggesting differential gene activation. Inter-variety differentiation also showed low structural variability, with 1 - S J = 0.026 and a Nei genetic distance (D value of 0.0076, and a remarkable increase in divergence caused by differential gene activation (1 - S J = 0.34. These results indicate that regulatory polymorphism is the principal agent responsible for amylase variability in the barley varieties analyzed.

  10. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  11. Registration of a High Yielding Malt Barley Variety HB1454 for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    else

    Bayeh and Berhane 2011). Even though Ethiopia has favorable environment and .... malting profile for HB1454 is better than Beka for kernel weight, plump kernels, hectoliter weight and grain protein. HB1454 has shown relatively low percentage.

  12. Identifying irradiated flour by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The photo-stimulated luminescence technique is recommended by European Committee for standardization for the detection food irradiation (EN 13751:2009). This study shows on luminescence technique to identify gamma irradiated five types of flour (corn flour, tapioca flour, wheat flour, glutinos rice flour and rice flour) at three difference dose levels in the range 0.2 - 1 kGy. The signal level is compare with two thresholds (700 and 5000). The majority of irradiated samples produce a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/ 60 s). All the control samples gave negative screening result while the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/ 60s) suggest that the sample has not been irradiated. A few samples show the signal levels between the two thresholds (intermediate signals) suggest that further investigation. Reported procedure was also tested over 60 days, confirming the applicability and feasibility of proposed methods. (author)

  13. Evaluation of some properties of wheat-brewers' spent cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brewers' spent cassava flour blends and that it has a lot of potential in the food industry especially its use as thickener and binding agent in the food systems. Keywords: Brewers' spent cassava flour, wheat flour, proximate, functional properties.

  14. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  15. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  17. Efeito do armazenamento sobre as propriedades tecnológicas da farinha, de variedades de trigo cultivadas no Brasil Effect of storage on technological properties of wheat flour of Brazilian grown wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica R. Pirozi

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate changes in technological properties of newly milled flours of BR-23, BR-35 and Anahuac varieties (Brazilian grown wheat during storage for 180 days. Quality of samples was analysed for their rheological properties, acidity, falling number, glutomatic test and baking test, after periods of 0, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. Most evident changes were the increase in flour acitidy and dough elasticity. The other characteristics did not show expressive changes. The flour of Anahuac variety was less influenced by the storage than the other ones. The results showed an increment in the flour quality, during 60-90 days of storage, althoug the baking test did not show expressive changes during all the period of storage.

  18. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  19. Birationally rigid varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhlikov, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    Birational rigidity is a striking and mysterious phenomenon in higher-dimensional algebraic geometry. It turns out that certain natural families of algebraic varieties (for example, three-dimensional quartics) belong to the same classification type as the projective space but have radically different birational geometric properties. In particular, they admit no non-trivial birational self-maps and cannot be fibred into rational varieties by a rational map. The origins of the theory of birational rigidity are in the work of Max Noether and Fano; however, it was only in 1970 that Iskovskikh and Manin proved birational superrigidity of quartic three-folds. This book gives a systematic exposition of, and a comprehensive introduction to, the theory of birational rigidity, presenting in a uniform way, ideas, techniques, and results that so far could only be found in journal papers. The recent rapid progress in birational geometry and the widening interaction with the neighboring areas generate the growing interest ...

  20. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  1. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  2. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  3. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures.

  4. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  5. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  6. Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max used as botanical insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sorghum grains.

  7. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker?s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to...

  8. Photoluminescence and thermally stimulated luminescence characteristics of rice flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K.V.R.; Rey, L.; Belon, P.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the photoluminescence (PL) and the thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of rice flour. This study is undertaken to consider storage of rice at low temperature and irradiation for disinfection. From the Indian market a few varieties of rice was bought. All the samples of rice was ground using an agate motor and pestle. Thereafter, the powder was sieved to the size of 140 μm using appropriate sieves. When comparing the PL characteristics of the different rice powders studied, it is interesting to note that the PL emission wavelength (around 445 nm) is nearly same for all the rice varieties studied even though the excitation wave length is different. TL characteristics are studied in the temperature range 77-230 K as well as 300-700 K. TL is recorded for the virgin samples and also on irradiation of the same by exposing it to X-ray at 77 K, beta at 300 K and gamma at 77 K. The two varieties are given an X-ray dose of 1 kGy. The TL is recorded for 200 mg rice powder. The TL displayed for the as-received 1 kGy X- ray dose peak is around 160 K with a broad shoulder around 120 K. Basmati variety is given a gamma dose of 12.5 kGy and the TL and TL emission is recorded. It is seen that a well-defined low-temperature TL peak around 119 K and a hump around 145 K are observed in the sample. The TL emission is around 430 nm.The TL peak observed in most of the rice samples above room temperature is around 558 K

  9. Barley yellow dwarf virus in barley crops in Tunisia: prevalence and molecular characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Asma NAJAR; Imen HAMDI; Arvind VARSANI

    2017-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Tunisia in the North-Eastern regions (Bizerte, CapBon and Zaghouan), the North-Western region (Kef) and the Central-Eastern region (Kairouan) during the 2011/2012 growing season, in order to determine the incidence and the geographic distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDVs) in barley fields. Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA) showed that BYDV was most common in Zaghouan (incidence 14%), Cap Bon (14%) and Bizerte (35%), in randomly collected samples from t...

  10. Partial replacement of wheat flour by pumpkin seed flour in the production of cupcakes filled with carob

    OpenAIRE

    BATISTA, Jaqueline Eduarda Rodrigues; BRAGA, Lucas Pereira; OLIVEIRA, Renata Corrêa de; SILVA, Edson Pablo; DAMIANI, Clarissa

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Pumpkin seeds are considered waste and its composition has high protein content, being feasible for human consumption, also reducing costs in waste treatment. In this work we provided an alternative to reuse the wastes of pumpkin seed applied in cupcakes formulation as a complementary source to wheat flour. Four formulations with different proportions of pumpkin seed flour were investigated. The effects of partial wheat flour substitution were evaluated using the parameters texture, ...

  11. Effect of co-milled wheat, green gram and barley on the rheological and quality characteristics of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulse, Siddharth B; V, Reshma; Rajiv, Jyotsna; Sakhare, Suresh D

    2015-10-01

    Studies were carried out on the co-milling of wheat (W), green gram (GG) and barley (BR) grains using a roller milling system. The co-milled straight run flours obtained by varying proportions of wheat, barley and green gram WGGBR-1 (90:5:5), WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and WGGBR-3 (70:15:15) were used in the cookie baking experiments. As the amount of GG and BR increased in blend, water absorption increased (56.5-58.4%) and dough stability and extensibility values decreased (104-92 mm). Hardness of cookie doughs and spread ratio (7.70-6.00) of cookies decreased and breaking strength values increased from 2900 to 3700 g in cookies made using co-milled blends WGGBR-1, WGGBR-2 and WGGBR-3. The highest breaking strength value (3700 g), large islands, gummy mouth feel and lowest overall quality score of 51.5 were recorded for cookies made with blend WGGBR-3 indicating that the cookies had unacceptable hard texture. The optimum blend for cookies was WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and the cookies possessed slightly small islands, crisp, light texture and a pleasant taste. These cookies had 12.30 and 8.00% protein and dietary fibre as against the control cookie values of 8 and 4%, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility of the control cookies was 61% and it was 51% for cookies made with WGGBR-2 blend. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Population structure revealed by different marker types (SSR or DArT) has an impact on the results of genome-wide association mapping in European barley cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthies, I.E.; Hintum, van T.J.L.; Weise, S.; Röder, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Diversity arrays technology (DArT) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were applied to investigate population structure, extent of linkage disequilibrium and genetic diversity (kinship) on a genome-wide level in European barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. A set of 183 varieties could be

  13. Effect of gamma-radiation of pollen tube growth and seed set in barley-rye crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohilla, J.S.; Khanna, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    One variety of barley and one variety of rye were taken to study the effect of gamma-radiation on pollen germination, pollen tube growth and seed set in barley-rye crosses. There was an increase in pollen germination and pollen tube growth over control at 1 kR dose but it was reduced at higher doses. Seed set was maximum at 1 kR and it was more than control from 1-5 kR. Only seeds of the cross Karan - 4 (1 kR)*MRSP-992 were able to germinate. In these germinated seeds the root growth was arrested after the fourth day of germination and they turned brown. The shoot growth was also very poor and it stopped after a week. (author) 11 refs.; 2 tabs

  14. Effect of Substituting Purple Rice Flour for Wheat Flour on Physicochemical Characteristics, In Vitro Digestibility, and Sensory Evaluation of Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warinporn Klunklin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple rice flour contains high levels of a number of antioxidant compounds; however, it has seldom been used as an ingredient in bakery products. The aim was to increase the nutritional value of biscuits by adding purple rice flour to a basic wheat flour biscuit. The substitution of purple rice flour in place of wheat flour modified the characteristics of the biscuits in terms of increasing the nutritional values. They contained high fiber, antioxidants, and antioxidant activities, while slightly changing the physical properties such as hardness and spread ratio. The study showed that the protein digestibility increased as the content of the purple rice flour was increased in the biscuit mix. The 100% purple rice flour biscuits had the lowest predicted glycemic index (pGI of all the biscuits. Sensory analysis showed that the overall acceptability of the blended flour biscuits at 25 and 50% substitution levels was slightly less than that of the control biscuits with only 9%; however, the scores were above 5 which means the panelists still liked the biscuits a lot. Overall, the inclusion of purple rice flour in biscuits mix increased crude protein content, protein digestibility, and bioactive compounds with acceptable sensory scores from consumers up to 50% substitution of purple rice.

  15. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lutein Esterification in Wheat Flour Increases the Carotenoid Retention and Is Induced by Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mellado-Ortega

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term storage on the carotenoid pigments present in whole-grain flours prepared from durum wheat and tritordeum. As expected, higher storage temperatures showed a catabolic effect, which was very marked for free carotenoid pigments. Surprisingly, for both cereal genotypes, the thermal conditions favoured the synthesis of lutein esters, leading to an enhanced stability, slower degradation, and, subsequently, a greater carotenoid retention. The putative involvement of lipase enzymes in lutein esterification in flours is discussed, particularly regarding the preferential esterification of the hydroxyl group with linoleic acid at the 3′ in the ε-ring of the lutein molecule. The negative effects of processing on carotenoid retention were less pronounced in durum wheat flours, which could be due to an increased esterifying activity (the de novo formation of diesterified xanthophylls was observed. Moreover, clear differences were observed for tritordeum depending on whether the lutein was in a free or esterified state. For instance, lutein-3′-O-monolinoleate showed a three-fold lower degradation rate than free lutein at 37 °C. In view of our results, we advise that the biofortification research aimed at increasing the carotenoid contents in cereals should be based on the selection of varieties with an enhanced content of esterified xanthophylls.

  17. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  18. Revisit to Ethiopian traditional barley-based food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemal Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Barley producers in Ethiopia have given it the name gebs ye ehil nigus, which means barley is the king of crops, due to its suitability for preparing many of the known Ethiopians traditional dishes. Various barley foods and drinks play an important role in the socioeconomic and cultural life of Ethiopians, but detailed descriptions related to their preparation and their socioeconomic and cultural roles are not well-recorded and documented like most of the Ethiopian cultural foods. Foods such as ingera, kita, dabo, kolo, genfo, beso, chuko, shamet, tihlo, kinch, and shorba are the most commonly known traditional Ethiopian barley-based foods. These products are prepared from either roasted whole grain, raw and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley-based traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the consumers. For example, genfo is served to breast-feeding mothers with the belief that it enhances breast milk production and serves as a good substitute for breast milk. Beso is claimed to be a remedy for gastritis, while genfo and kinche are used to heal broken bones and fractures. Considering the Western consumers' trend on functional foods and health benefits of barley, Ethiopian traditional barley-based foods are worth studying as functional foods, which can be appealing to Western consumers.

  19. Molecular characterization of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed to select drought tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars through identification of stress genes responsible for drought tolerance. Several barley genotypes were tested for drought resistance using specific molecular markers, nine out of all the genotypes were chosen for this study; five out of ...

  20. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a

  1. (GPx) activity in young barley seedlings enriched with selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB_YOMI

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... E-mail: guzx@njau.edu.cn. Tel/Fax: +86. 25 84396293. have been used for animal feeds and beer malts. Recently, young barley seedlings have been used as food material for people in Asian countries such as China,. Japan, and Korea. Young barley seedlings are rich in dietary fiber, chlorophyll, carotene ...

  2. stability analysis of food barley genotypes in northern ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    interaction and stability for barley grain yield and yield related traits in the growing ... that the environments were diverse; causing most of the variation in grain yield. ... component axes IPCA1, IPCA2 and IPCA3, which explained 58.06, 27.11 and ..... AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield (t ha-1) of food barley genotypes ...

  3. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for...

  4. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity in four Italian traditional maize (Zea mays L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocchi, Antonella; Bottega, Stefania; Spanò, Carmelina; Fontanini, Debora

    2017-08-01

    Flours of four pigmented (from orange to red and dark red) local Italian corns, studied for their soluble, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-bound phenols and flavonoids, showed a prevalence of the insoluble-bound fraction (70-80%). Correlations were found between the flours antioxidant capacity, measured with CUPRAC, FRAP, and DPPH methods, and soluble phenols and flavonoids content. A correlation was also found between ascorbic acid content and flours antioxidant power. Anthocyanins were present in small amounts in the red/dark red seeds; however, acid-alcohol assays and spectral analyses of pericarp extracts indicated the presence of red-brick phlobaphenes in these varieties. Spectrophotometrically quantified total carotenoids were significantly higher in one of the local varieties (Nano); RP-HPLC analyses indicated that the local varieties contained significantly higher amounts of zeaxanthin and β-carotene, and lower amounts of lutein, than a commercial line. Among local varieties, Nano expressed the highest levels of zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin.

  5. Introduction to Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    1993-01-01

    The book represents an introduction to the theory of abelian varieties with a view to arithmetic. The aim is to introduce some of the basics of the theory as well as some recent arithmetic applications to graduate students and researchers in other fields. The first part contains proofs of the Abel-Jacobi theorem, Riemann's relations and the Lefschetz theorem on projective embeddings over the complex numbers in the spirit of S. Lang's book Introduction to algebraic and abelian functions. Then the Jacobians of Fermat curves as well as some modular curves are discussed. Finally, as an application, Faltings' proof of the Mordell conjecture and its intermediate steps, the Tate conjecture and the Shafarevich conjecture, are sketched. - H. Lange for MathSciNet.

  6. Varieties of online gatekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    News media organizations like newspapers and broadcasters have long functioned as gatekeepers between news and audiences, but with the rise of digital media, the search engines and social networking sites that are central to how most people find news online increasingly complement news media...... in different ways and for different purposes. The three varieties are (1) editorially-based gatekeeping processes (typically defining what information is displayed as news on news media websites), (2) link-based gatekeeping processes (the core of how search engines like Google select what information......). I show that news media websites remain amongst the most important gateways to news online, but also demonstrate how they are supplemented by other “second-order gatekeepers” (Singer, 2013) like search engines and social networking sites. While these rarely produce original content defined as “news...

  7. Creation of the first ultra-low gluten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for coeliac and gluten-intolerant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Gregory J; Blundell, Malcolm J; Colgrave, Michelle L; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a well-defined condition that is estimated to affect approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity is a condition that is less well defined, but is estimated to affect up to 10% of the population, and is often self-diagnosed. At present, the only remedy for both conditions is a lifelong gluten-free diet. A gluten-free diet is often expensive, high in fat and low in fibre, which in themselves can lead to adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is an opportunity to use novel plant breeding strategies to develop alternative gluten-free grains. In this work, we describe the breeding and characterization of a novel ultra-low gluten (ULG) barley variety in which the hordein (gluten) content was reduced to below 5 ppm. This was achieved using traditional breeding strategies to combine three recessive alleles, which act independently of each other to lower the hordein content in the parental varieties. The grain of the initial variety was shrunken compared to wild-type barleys. We implemented a breeding strategy to improve the grain size to near wild-type levels and demonstrated that the grains can be malted and brewed successfully. The ULG barley has the potential to provide novel healthy foods and beverages for those who require a gluten-free diet. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

  9. Field assessment of partial resistance to powdery mildew in spring barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. Chr.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1986-01-01

    Partial resistance to powdery mildew in spring barley was evaluated in three plot types: large isolation plots, in 1.4 m2 plots in chessboard design with guard plots of spring wheat and in single rows. Percentage leaf area covered by powdery mildew was scored four to six times during the season....... The relationship between single scores of amount of powdery mildew on the upper four leaves and the area under the disease progress curve was high in all plot designs during the first two to three weeks after heading, allowing selection for the trait by one or two scorings. Differential ranking of varieties...

  10. Analysis of chlorophyll mutations induced by γ-rays in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan; Chen Qiufang

    1991-06-01

    Thirty varieties of dormant barley seeds were irradiated with 137 Cs γ-rays. Dose-effect relations of chlorophyll mutation frequency in M 2 seedling and differences resulting from cultured types or radiosensitive types were investigated. Experimental results show that the relations between chlorophyll mutation frequency and doses can be fitted by a linear regression equation Y = A + BX. According to analysis of covariance, there is no considerable difference in various cultured types, but the difference of five different radiosensitive types is remarkable. The sensitive and intermediate types need much lower doses than other types to induce maximum chlorophyll mutation

  11. Linseed fibre – effect on composite flour properties and cereal products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour was fortified by 2.5 or 5.0 wt. per cent of linseed fibre, gained from seeds of golden flax varieties Amon and Raciol and brown one Recital (granulation 500 - 700 m, prepared from 2015 harvest. Technological quality of six flour composites was described analytically by Falling Number and Zeleny sedimentation test. Both screening methods shown a little impact on amylases activity and protein quality, respectively. Rheological tests included the farinograph, the extensigraph and the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA proofs. Additions of brown and yellow flax fibre significantly increased farinograph water absorption and shortened dough stability, somewhat stronger by addition of brown linseed fibre. Extensigraph curves course depended on dough resting time, higher differences between wheat control and flour composites were observed after 60 min dough resting. Linseed fibre supported dough extensibility, and energy as area under curve significantly decreased about 7 - 18%, mainly due to increasing alternative material portion in dough. In general, fibre is characterised as hydrophilic material, and pasting profiles of flour composites confirmed this experience. During dough leavening, tested samples were differentiated according to maturograph dough resistance; optimal leavening time of wheat-linseed fibre dough was shorter than control. Regardless described modifications in dough machinability, specific volumes of bread buns were similar though whole sample set. A weak worsening of buns vaulting reflected a partial dilution of dough gluten skeleton. Cut-off biscuits were characterised by gradually lowering spread ratio, correspondingly to elevated dough elasticity. Laboratory prepared elbow-pasta have the same cooking time as the control (8.0 min, and data variation could not be attributed to linseed fibre or addition level. All three cereal products were found to have acceptable sensory profiles. PCA method verified partial lowering of

  12. Sensitization to lupine flour: is it clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N. W.; van Maaren, M. S.; Vlieg-Boersta, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Groot, H.; Gerth van Wijk, R.

    2010-01-01

    Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. The aim of our study was to

  13. Sensitization to lupine flour : is it clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N. W.; van Maaren, M. S.; Vlieg-Boersta, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Groot, H.; van Wijk, R. Gerth

    2010-01-01

    Background Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. Objective The aim of our

  14. Functional properties of processed pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination increased water absorption capacity, bulk density, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion activity, nitrogen solubility and decreased gelatin and wetability of the pigeon pea flour. Germinated pigeon pea flour has great potentials in food prperations that require hydration to improve ...

  15. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  16. Rheological and qualitative characteristics of pea flour incorporated cracker biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of pea flour for cracker biscuits production was investigated in this study. Pea flour was characterised by high protein (21.46 % and ash (3.11 % content and exhibited relatively high emulsifying (37.50 ml/100 ml and foaming (53.50 ml/100 ml capacity. The effect of pea flour incorporation to wheat dough (substitution levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 % on the rheological properties, physical characteristics and sensory parameters of cracker biscuits were also evaluated. Farinographic measurements showed that pea flour addition resulted in increasing of water absorption (from 58.90 to 61.80 % and dough development time (from 3.55 to 4.50 min, whereas dough stability was decreased (from 6.69 to 3.50 min. It was also found that incorporation of pea flour to cracker biscuits modified physical properties of final products by different ways (decreasing of volume index, width and spread ratio, increasing of thickness. From the sensory evaluation revealed that cracker biscuits prepared from blend flour contained 10 % pea flour showed no significant differences from wheat cracker biscuits. Higher levels of pea flour in the products adversely affected the odour, taste, firmness, colour and overall acceptance of final products.

  17. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended.

  18. Production and evaluation of noodles from flour blends of cocoyam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flour blends were prepared from two cultivars of cocoyam ( and . ), African breadfruit ( ) and wheat ( ) at different proportions and extruded into noodles with a locally fabricated and manually operated singlescrew extruder. Proximate composition and the functional properties of the different flour blends were evaluated. The

  19. "Fufu" flour processing in Ghana: Costs, returns and institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of "fufu" flour is an innovative business venture that young entrepreneurs should explore. However, the level of costs and returns as well as institutional support to sustain the industry is not well understood. This study was conducted to determine the profitability of "fufu" flour and the strength of the ...

  20. optimizing soybean flour., whey powder. and colostrum ratios for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l4 days. If preserved colostrum could be supplemented with reconstituted soybean flour and whey powder, the period of colostrum feeding could be extended to 4 weeks. Various researchers reported the successful inclusion of soybean flour and/or soybean protein concentrate in milk replacers (Schmutz, Cravens, Soldner ...

  1. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  2. Bread Making Potential of Composite Flour of Wheat-Acha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread-making potentials of composite flours containing 90% wheat and 10% acha enriched with 0-15% cowpea flour were investigated. Proximate composition and functional properties of the blends were studied using AOAC standard methods. Bread loaves were prepared from the blends using the straight dough method ...

  3. TESTING FOR RISK PREMIUMS IN THE WHEAT-FLOUR SUBSECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.; Salih, Hachim M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper specifies a model of wholesale flour price determination that incorporates risk measures for input prices (wheat) and a joint output price (millfeed). Tests using daily price data for a Buffalo flour miller indicate that risk premiums do exist. Moreover, these premiums persist in a model that incorporates hedging.

  4. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  5. KAJIAN FORMULASI BISKUIT JAGUNG DALAM RANGKA SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG TERIGU [Study on Corn Biscuit Formulation to Subtitute of wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gracia C.L1*

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the formulation of substitute by corn flour. The flour used roasted corn flour and unroasted corn flour. Results showed that biscuit’s made of 80 gr corn flour and 20 gr wheat flour were accepted by panelist’s and the best formulation was 80 gr corn flour, 20 gr wheat flour, 50 gr margarine, 50 gr sugar and 10 gr yellow egg both of two corn flour. Roasting treatment of corn flour significantly affected fat content, carbohydrate content and digestibility of protein of the biskuit.

  6. Effects of bran pre-hydration on functional characteristics and bread baking quality of bran and flour blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of bran pre-hydration on the composition and bread baking quality was determined using bran and flour of two wheat varieties. Bran was hydrated in sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 5.3) to 50% moisture at 25 or 55°C for 1.5 or 12 h. The soluble sugar content in bran increased with pre-hydr...

  7. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  8. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  9. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  10. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  11. Relationships of damaged starch granules and particle size distribution with pasting and thermal profiles of milled MR263 rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmeda, R; Noorlaila, A; Norziah, M H

    2016-01-15

    This research was conducted to investigate the effects of different grinding techniques (dry, semi-wet and wet) of milled rice grains on the damaged starch and particle size distribution of flour produced from a new variety, MR263, specifically related to the pasting and thermal profiles. The results indicated that grinding techniques significantly (price flour. Wet grinding process yields flour with lowest percentage of starch damage (7.37%) and finest average particle size (8.52μm). Pasting and gelatinization temperature was found in the range of 84.45-89.63°C and 59.86-75.31°C, respectively. Dry ground flour attained the lowest pasting and gelatinization temperature as shown by the thermal and pasting profiles. Correlation analysis revealed that percentage of damaged starch granules had a significant, negative relationship with pasting temperature while average particle size distribution had a significant, strong negative relationship with gelatinization temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Plackett-Burman experimental design in the development of muffin using adlay flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmorida, J. S.; Castillo-Israel, K. A. T.

    2018-01-01

    The application of Plackett-Burman experimental design was made to identify significant formulation and process variables in the development of muffin using adlay flour. Out of the seven screened variables, levels of sugar, levels of butter and baking temperature had the most significant influence on the product model in terms of physicochemical and sensory acceptability. Results of the experiment further demonstrate the effectiveness of Plackett-Burman design in choosing the best adlay variety for muffin production. Hence, the statistical method used in the study permits an efficient selection of important variables needed in the development of muffin from adlay which can be optimized using response surface methodology.

  13. Reduced and high molecular weight barley beta-glucans decrease plasma total and non-HDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Delaney, Bryan; Chadwell, Kim; Moolchandani, Vikas; Kotyla, Timothy; Ponduru, Sridevi; Zheng, Guo-Hua; Hess, Richard; Knutson, Nathan; Curry, Leslie; Kolberg, Lore; Goulson, Melanie; Ostergren, Karen

    2004-10-01

    Consumption of concentrated barley beta-glucan lowers plasma cholesterol because of its soluble dietary fiber nature. The role of molecular weight (MW) in lowering serum cholesterol is not well established. Prior studies showed that enzymatic degradation of beta-glucan eliminates the cholesterol-lowering activity; however, these studies did not evaluate the MW of the beta-glucan. The current study was conducted to evaluate whether barley beta-glucan concentrates, partially hydrolyzed to reduce MW, possess cholesterol-lowering and antiatherogenic activities. The reduced MW fraction was compared with a high MW beta-glucan concentrate from the same barley flour. Concentrated beta-glucan preparations were evaluated in Syrian Golden F(1)B hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) with cholesterol, hydrogenated coconut oil, and cellulose. After 2 wk, hamsters were fed HCD or diets that contained high or reduced MW beta-glucan at a concentration of 8 g/100 g at the expense of cellulose. Decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) concentrations occurred in the hamsters fed reduced MW and high MW beta-glucan diets. Plasma HDL-C concentrations did not differ. HCD-fed hamsters had higher plasma triglyceride concentrations. Liver TC, free cholesterol, and cholesterol ester concentrations did not differ. Aortic cholesterol ester concentrations were lower in the reduced MW beta-glucan-fed hamsters. Consumption of either high or reduced MW beta-glucan increased concentrations of fecal total neutral sterols and coprostanol, a cholesterol derivative. Fecal excretion of cholesterol was greater than in HCD-fed hamsters only in those fed the reduced MW beta-glucan. Study results demonstrate that the cholesterol-lowering activity of barley beta-glucan may occur at both lower and higher MW.

  14. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  15. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development....

  16. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The distances between nine loci on barley chromosome 5 have been studied in five two-point tests, three three-point tests, and one four-point test. Our previous chromosome 5 linkage map, which contained eleven loci mapped from literature data (Jensen and Jørgensen 1975), is extended with four loci......-position is fixed on the map by a locus (necl), which has a good marker gene located centrally in the linkage group. The positions of the other loci are their distances in centimorgans from the 0-position; loci in the direction of the short chromosome arm are assigned positive values and those...

  17. Radiation induced desynaptic mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, H.M.

    1974-01-01

    Spontaneous occurrence of asynapsis and desynapsis has been frequently reported in a number of crop plants (Beadle 1930, 1933; Beasley and Brown 1942; Li et al. 1945; Magoon et al. 1961; Miller 1963) and other angiospermic texa (Calarier 1955; Chennaveraiah and Krisnappa 1968; Ehrenberg 1949; Johnson 1941, 1944; Roy and Jha 1958). However, there are only a few reports of induced asynapsis or desynapsis (Gottschalk and Baquar 1971; Martini and Bozzini 1966). The present paper deals with the morphology and meiotic behavior of gamma-ray induced barley mutants showing high degree of desynapsis resulting in partial to complete sterility. (author)

  18. Extraordinarily soft, medium-hard and hard Indian wheat varieties: Composition, protein profile, dough and baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Amritpal; Chopra, Nidhi; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2017-10-01

    Hard wheat (HW), medium-hard wheat (MHW) and extraordinarily soft wheat (Ex-SW) varieties with grain hardness index (GHI) of 83 to 95, 72 to 80, 17 to 29 were evaluated for pasting, protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, dough rheology and baking properties. Flours from varieties with higher GHI had more protein content, ash content and paste viscosities. Ex-SW had more glutenins proportion as compared to HW and MHW. Flours from Ex-SW varieties showed lower NaSRC, WA and mixographic parameters as compared to HW and MHW. Dough from flours milled from Ex-SW had higher Intermolecular-β-sheets (IM-β-sheets) than those from MHW and HW. Muffins volume increased with decrease in GHI, Ex-SW varieties had more muffin volume and less air space. The accumulation of polypeptides (PPs) varied significantly in different varieties. Ex-SW variety (QBP12-10) showed accumulation of 98, 90, 81 and 79kDa PPs, which was unique and was different from other varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  20. Varieties of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Jonathan W

    2015-06-01

    Clinical reasoning comprises a variety of different modes of inference. The modes that are practiced will be influenced by the sociological characteristics of the clinical settings and the tasks to be performed by the clinician. This article presents C.S. Peirce's typology of modes of inference: deduction, induction and abduction. It describes their differences and their roles as stages in scientific argument. The article applies the typology to reasoning in clinical settings. The article describes their differences, and their roles as stages in scientific argument. It then applies the typology to reasoning in typical clinical settings. Abduction is less commonly taught or discussed than induction and deduction. However, it is a common mode of inference in clinical settings, especially when the clinician must try to make sense of a surprising phenomenon. Whether abduction is followed up with deductive and inductive verification is strongly influenced by situational constraints and the cognitive and psychological stamina of the clinician. Recognizing the inevitability of abduction in clinical practice and its value to discovery is important to an accurate understanding of clinical reasoning. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Nutritional and functional characterization of barley flaxseed based functional dry soup mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sumeet; Das, Madhusweta

    2015-09-01

    Barley flaxseed based functional dry soup mix (BFSM) was developed from whole barely flour (46.296%), roasted flaxseed powder (23.148%) and the seasoning (30.555%) comprising several flavoring compounds and anticaking agent, using simple processing technique. Developed BFSM was nutritious. On dry matter basis it contained: protein (14.31%), carbohydrate excluding crude fiber (54.70%), fat (8.70%), ash (17.45%) and crude fiber (4.84%). It was low glycemic soup, free of antinutritional risk and had calorific value of 319.77 kcal/100 g (wet or sample basis, sb) estimated from its composition. 100 g (sb) of BFSM contained 4.36 g β-glucans and 8.08 g total lipid of which 25.6% was ω-3 fatty acids. Different extracts of BFSM revealed the presence of total phenols (0.57-1.86 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, sb) with antioxidants equivalence of DPPH (20.69-39.07%) and FRAP (120-331 μm Fe (II)/g, sb).

  2. Effect of processing on phenolic acids composition and radical scavenging capacity of barley pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paula, Rosanna; Rabalski, Iwona; Messia, Maria Cristina; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Marconi, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    Phenolic acids, total phenolics content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity in raw ingredients, fresh and dried spaghetti, and in uncooked and cooked spaghetti were evaluated and compared with semolina spaghetti as a reference. Ferulic acid was the major phenolic acid found in the free and bound phenolic extracts in all the investigated pasta samples. The addition of barley flour into pasta at incorporation levels of 30, 50 and 100% increased phenolic acids and total phenolics content. Pasta processing did not significantly affect the total phenolics content and free radical scavenging capacity, but a significant reduction in total phenolic acids measured by HPLC was found. Drying process differently affected individual phenolic compounds in the free and bound fractions, and thus, the total phenolic acids content. Free vanillic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids did not significantly change, while p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids of the free extracts showed higher values compared to the corresponding fresh pasta. Cooking did not greatly affect total phenolic acids, more leading to conserving free and bound phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of thermal treatments on the chemical and biological value of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dario, A.C.; Salgado, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated and nonirradiated cowpea bean at 0.2 kGy submitted to several thermal treatments were studied. The cowpea bean flours irradiated at 0.2 kGy were superior to those non-irradiated concerning digestibility and the flours submitted to microwave oven were superior to those cooked under low pressure, autoclaved or even raw from the nutritional point of view. As to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, the results showed that the variety of cowpea bean under research presented neither trypsin inhibitor nor haemagglutinin activity, however, regarding tannin, a 0.006% content was found and considered negligible

  4. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-03-23

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  5. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui; Saade, Stephanie; Kurtek, Sebastian; Berger, Bettina; Brien, Chris; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark A.; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  6. Substitution of wheat flour with “acha” ( Digitaria exilis ) for bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of wheat flour (WF) substitution with 'Acha' flour (AF) on the quality attributes in bread making was investigated using the following composite blends ratios 85:15, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30, 100:0 (AF) with 100% wheat flour as control. Proximate analysis on both composite flours and their bread products, as well as sensory ...

  7. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four

  8. Effect of partial substitution of dried plantain flour on the sensory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial substitution of dried plantain flour on the sensory and functional properties of maize flour based snack ( Kokoro ) ... It is concluded that plantain flour can be successfully blended with maize flour for the production of good kokoro product. Recommendation is made for the large scale production of fortified ...

  9. Physico-chemical properties of gluten-free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20 and 40%, of sweet potato flour. The apparent viscosity of the pancake batter increased with increased sweet potato flour replacement. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such as, har...

  10. Evaluation of size distribution of starch granules in selected wheat varieties by the Low Angle Laser Light Scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capouchová, I.; Petr, J.; Marešová, D.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of the size of wheat starch granules using the method LALLS (Low Angle Laser Light Scattering), followed by the evaluation of the effect of variety, experimental site and intensity of cultivation on the vol. % of the starch A (starch granules > 10 μm) was determined. The total starch content and crude protein content in dry matter of flour T530 in selected collection of five winter wheat varieties were determined. Vol. % of the starch A in evaluated collection of wheat varieties varied between 65.31 and 72.34%. The effect of a variety on the vol. % of starch A seemed to be more marked than the effect of site and intensity of cultivation. The highest vol. % of starch A reached evaluated varieties from the quality group C, i.e. varieties unsuitable for baking utilisation (except variety Contra with high total content of starch in dry matter of flour T530, but relatively low vol. % of starch A). A low vol. % of starch A was also found in the variety Hana (very good variety for baking utilisation). Certain variety differences followed from the evaluation of distribution of starch fractions of starch granules, forming starch A. In the case of varieties Hana, Contra and Siria higher representation of fractions up to 30 μm was recorded, while starch A in the varieties Estica and Versailles was formed in higher degree by size fractions of starch granules over 30 μm and particularly size fraction > 50 μm was greatest in these varieties of all evaluated samples. With increasing total starch content in dry matter of flour T530 the crude protein content decreased; the vol. % of starch A not always increased proportionally with increasing total starch content. (author)

  11. Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Feng; Piao, Yongzhe; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Changxin

    2015-03-30

    Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars. Forty-one volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds and furans were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were quantitatively in greatest abundance. Quantitative measurements performed by means of solvent extraction and calculation of odor activity values revealed that acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, 2-pentylfuran and benzeneacetaldehyde, whose concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds, could be considered as odor-active compounds of brewing barley. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the differences among cultivars. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the concentrations of aroma compounds enabled good differentiation of most barley cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  13. Diversity in boron toxicity tolerance of Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Julie E; Pallotta, Margaret; Garcia, Melissa; Öz, Mehmet Tufan; Rongala, Jay; Sutton, Tim

    2015-09-26

    Boron (B) is an important micronutrient for plant growth, but is toxic when levels are too high. This commonly occurs in environments with alkaline soils and relatively low rainfall, including many of the cereal growing regions of southern Australia. Four major genetic loci controlling tolerance to high soil B have been identified in the landrace barley, Sahara 3771. Genes underlying two of the loci encode the B transporters HvBot1 and HvNIP2;1. We investigated sequence and expression level diversity in HvBot1 and HvNIP2;1 across barley germplasm, and identified five novel coding sequence alleles for HvBot1. Lines were identified containing either single or multiple copies of the Sahara HvBot1 allele. We established that only the tandemly duplicated Sahara allele conferred B tolerance, and this duplicated allele was found only in a set of nine lines accessioned in Australian collections as Sahara 3763-3771. HvNIP2;1 coding sequences were highly conserved across barley germplasm. We identified the likely causative SNP in the 5'UTR of Sahara HvNIP2;1, and propose that the creation of a small upstream open reading frame interferes with HvNIP2;1 translation in Sahara 3771. Similar to HvBot1, the tolerant HvNIP2;1 allele was unique to the Sahara barley accessions. We identified a new source of the 2H B tolerance allele controlling leaf symptom development, in the landrace Ethiopia 756. Ethiopia 756, as well as the cultivar Sloop Vic which carries both the 2H and HvBot1 B tolerance alleles derived from Sahara 3771, may be valuable as alternative parents in breeding programs targeted to high soil B environments. There is significant diversity in B toxicity tolerance among contemporary Australian barley varieties but this is not related to variation at any of the four known B tolerance loci, indicating that novel, as yet undiscovered, sources of tolerance exist.

  14. Studies on the Preparation of Aglutenic Foam Type of Pastry Product Using Different Flour Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to obtain a mechanically loose gluten free pastry (leaf roulade by using gluten-free flour: corn flour and rice flour and cornstarch. The samples obtained were compared with a control sample of only wheat flour. To optimize the recipe were made ​​four experimental variants, flour and starch is used in different proportions. Version 1 (control sample who used wheat flour WF in 100%, Version 2 consisting of 20% maize flour (MF, 16 % rice flour (RF, 64% corn starch (CS; Version 3 consisting of: 10% of maize flour (MF, 10% of rice flour (RF, 80% corn starch (CS. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: length, width, thickness, specific gravity, moisture and carbohydrates. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by a group of un-trained panellists, using a 9-point Hedonic scale.

  15. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, R; Nagi, H P; Sharma, S; Sekhon, K S

    1993-07-01

    Sound and sprouted flours (24 and 48 hr) from bread wheat (WL-1562), durum wheat (PBW-34) and triticale (TL-1210) were stored at room temperature (34.8 degrees C) and relative humidity (66.7%) for 0, 45, 90 and 135 days to assess the changes in physico-chemical and baking properties. Protein, gluten, sedimentation value, starch and crude fat decreased during storage in all the samples; however, the decrease was more in sprouted flours. Free amino acids, proteolytic activity, diastatic activity and damaged starch decreased with increase in storage period. Total sugars and free fatty acids increased more rapidly in the flours of sprouted wheats during 135 days of storage. Loaf volume of breads decreased during storage in both sound and sprouted flour but the mean percent decrease in loaf volume was more in stored sound flours. Aging of sprouted flour for 45 days improved the cookie and cake making properties but further storage was of no value for these baked products. Chapati making properties of stored sound and sprouted flour were inferior to that of fresh counterparts.

  16. Classification of whole wheat flour using a dimensionless number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehn, Georgia Ane Raquel; Steel, Caroline Joy

    2017-11-01

    The rheological standards currently used for classifying refined wheat flour for technological quality of bread are also used for whole wheat flours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological and technological behavior of different whole wheat flours, as well as pre-mixes of refined wheat flour with different replacement levels of wheat bran, to develop a dimensionless number that assigns a numerical scale using results of rheological parameters to solve this problem. Through farinograph and extensograph results, most whole wheat flours evaluated presented parameters recommended for bread making, according to the current classification. However, the specific volume of breads elaborated with these flours was not suitable, that is, the rheological analyses were not able to predict the specific volume of pan bread. The development of the Sehn-Steel dimensionless number allowed establishing a classification of whole wheat flours as "suitable" (Sehn-Steel dimensionless number between 62 and 200) or "unsuitable" for the production of pan bread (Sehn-Steel dimensionless number lower than 62). Moreover, an equation that can predict the specific volume of whole pan bread through this dimensionless number was developed.

  17. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  18. The Effects of Treatments on Batu Banana Flour and Percentage of Wheat Substitution on The Resistant Starch, In Vitro Starch Digestibility Content and Palatability of Cookies Made with Banana (Musa balbisiana Colla) Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasari, D.; Rustanti, N.; Arifan, F.; Afifah, DN

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common endocrine disease worldwide. Resistant starch is polysaccharide that is recommended for DM patient diets. One of the staple crops containing resistant starch is banana. It is the fourth most important staple crop in the world and critical for food security, best suited plant in warm, frost-free, and coastal climates area. Among banana varieties, Batu bananas (Musa balbisiana Colla) had the highest content of resistant starch (~39%), but its use as a food ingredient is limited. Inclusion of Batu banana flour into cookies manufacturing would both increase the economic value of Batu bananas and provide alternative snacks for DM patients. Here we sought to examine whether cookies made with modified Batu banana flour would be a suitable snack for DM patients. This study used a completely randomized design with two factors: substitution of Batu banana flour (25%, 50%,75%) for wheat-based flour and Batu banana flour treatment methods (no treatment, autoclaving-cooling, autoclaving-cooling-spontaneous fermentation). The resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility levels were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test, whereas the acceptance level was analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. The content of resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility of the different treatments ranged from 3.10 to 15.79% and 16.03 to 52.59%, respectively. Both factors differed significantly (p0.05). Meanwhile, palatability in terms of color, aroma, texture, and flavor differed significantly among the different treatments and starch contents (ppatients. Keywords: Batu banana, cookies, resistant starch, in vitro starch digestibility

  19. Genetic variability in uptake of nitrogen at various growth stages of barley and wheat under dryland conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della, A.; Hadjichristodoulou, A.

    1976-01-01

    Protein and dry matter in a number of high protein and commercial varieties of barley and wheat were tested at various growth stages and at two locations. Large genetic variability was found in uptake of nitrogen, which was taken up generally before heading. High protein yields were not associated with high protein content but with higher dry matter yields. Nitrogen fertilization increased protein content and protein yield at a low protein location only. It was concluded that it is possible to breed for both high grain and high straw protein varieties. (author)

  20. γ-ray radiation decontamination of barley plant powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaojun; Fu Junjie; Wang Zhiping; Zhang Guobin

    2007-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of barley plant powder by 60 Co γ-rays and the effect on its components were studied. Results showed that irradiation was very effective in killing the microorganisms in barley plant powder. The irradiation did not cause obvious changes of the major components of protein, total sugar, free amino acid, crude fiber, but 35% loss of vitamin E was observed after 10kGy irradiation. It is suggested that 7.5-10kGy irradiation is good enough for decontamination of the barley plant powder. (authors)

  1. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  2. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected...... by accumulated free amino acids. There were no free amino acids following pepsin treatment, but the essential ones were well liberated by pancreatin. Results for barley grown in the field or in pots, and for decortified barley fractions agreed with true digestibility values determined with rats. Of these samples...... digestibility depended on the type of enzyme and on the enzyme-to-substrate ratio....

  3. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L.d.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it. - Highlights: ► We study the influence of gamma radiation on wheat flour and properties of breads. ► Falling number decreased with radiation remaining almost constant up to one month. ► Ionizing radiation may confer an increase in texture parameters, weight and height on the bread.

  4. Soybean flour asthma: detection of allergens by immunoblotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.K.; Schroeckenstein, D.; Meier-Davis, S.; Balmes, J.; Rempel, D.

    1988-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman developed asthma 6 years after beginning work in a food-processing plant in which soybean flour was used as a protein extender. Symptoms of sneezing, coughing, and wheezing would begin within minutes of exposure to soybean flour and resolve 2 hours after exposure ceased. Skin tests were positive to a soy extract prepared from the flour. Airway hyperreactivity was confirmed by a positive bronchial challenge to methacholine. Bronchial challenge with soybean flour produced an immediate increase in specific airway resistance from 5.0 to 22.7 L. cm of H2O/L/sec. There was no response to challenge with lactose. The patient's allergic response to soy-flour extract was further characterized by several immunologic methods. IgE binding to soy-flour protein by direct RAST was 5.98 times that of a normal control serum. The soy-flour extract was separated by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four protein bands were detected in the crude soy-flour extract. After immunoblotting and subsequent autoradiography, nine proteins with molecular weights ranging from 54,500 to 14,875 were found. Cross-reactivity studies with other legumes demonstrated apparent immunologic identity between a component in green pea extract and a soybean protein with a molecular weight of 17,000. The clinical significance of this cross-reactivity is not known. We conclude that in this case of occupational asthma to soybean flour, multiple allergens were involved. Immunoblotting may be useful in identifying the allergens involved in occupational asthma

  5. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  6. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  7. BREAD-MAKING QUALITY OF SLOVAK AND SERBIAN WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for the production of bakery products of a good quality is the knowledge of the quality parameters of raw materials introduced in the production process and the ability to use their potential. The bread making properties of 17 pure European wheat cultivars were analysed. Baking experiments were carried out according to the methodology of the research workplace; 1000 g of flour was processed with the addition of salt, sugar and yeast. Fermentation for 35 minutes at 30 ° C was followed by the baking with steaming (at 240 ° C and then 220 ° C. During an experimental baking test the selected parameters: loaf volume (cm3, specific loaf volume (cm3.100g-1 loaf, volume efficiency (cm3.100g-1 flour, cambering (loaf height/width ratio, bread yield (%, bread yield baking loss (% in bread were evaluated. Loaf volume has been considered as the most important criterion for the bread-making quality. In the analysed samples (11 varieties of Slovak origin and 6 varieties of Serbian origin, the value of this parameter ranged from 3575 cm3 to 5575 cm3 with higher values occurred in Slovak varieties (average 4 640.91 cm3 compared to the Serbian varieties (average 4 363.33 cm3. Based on the complex evaluation of wheat varieties of the Slovak and Serbian origin assessing the selected quality parameters of the baking experiment it can be concluded that in terms of baking quality the three Slovak varieties IS Ezopus, Bonavita and Jarissa were the best. Therefore, they are recommended for cultivation and their subsequent use in the baking industry, in particular for the production of bread According to a baking quality the evaluated varieties can be sorted from best to worst in the following order: IS Ezopus (SK > Bonavita (SK > Jarissa (SK > IS Questor > Etida (SRB > Venistar (SK > Renesansa (SRB > IS Conditor (SK > IS Corvinus (SK > Zvezdana (SRB > Simonida (SRB > Viglanka (SK > IS Agape (SK > NS 40S (SRB > Panonnija (SRB > IS Escoria (SK

  8. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...... about the function of many CSEPs in virulence and the identities of their host targets. In this PhD study, we investigated the function of nine CSEPs and found that CSEP0081, CSEP0105, CSEP0162 and CSEP0254 act as effectors by promoting the Bgh infection success. Independent silencing of these CSEPs...... proteins (sHsps), Hsp16.9 and Hsp17.5, were identified as interactors for both CSEP0105 and CSEP0162. These interactions were confirmed in planta by BiFC and co-localization studies. Small heat shock proteins are highly conserved ATP-independent chaperones that protect the cell from stress-induced protein...

  9. Industrial Potential of Two Varieties of Cocoyam in Bread Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the chemical (proximate composition, mineral composition, toxicant composition and vitamin composition, nutritional and industrial potentials of two varieties of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (XS and Colocasia esculenta (CE were carried out using recommended methods of analysis. Baking trials were conducted with the two varieties of cocoyam at different levels of substitution (20%, 30% and 50%. The produced bread samples were analyzed for their physical parameters and proximate composition. Sensory evaluation test was also carried out on the produced bread. The result of the analysis showed that the preferred bread in terms of loaf weight, volume and specific volume was given by sample I (control sample containing 100% wheat flour with a specific volume of 3.54 cm3/g. This was closely followed by sample A with specific volume of 3.25 cm3/g containing 20% substitution level of CE. Sample H containing 50% substitution level of XS with specific volume of 2.58 cm3/g gave the poorest performance. The sensory evaluation result further revealed that apart from the 100% wheat flour based sample I, sample D with 20% substitution level of XS was rated good and maintained better performance amongst the cocoyam varieties while samples G and C with 100% and 50% substitution level of CE respectively were rated the poorest. The proximate composition of the bread samples was also carried out. CE, XS and wheat bread samples (100% recorded 15.0633±1.4531, 12.1133±1.5975 and 11.2867±0.7978 respectively for the moisture content. XS bread recorded the highest carbohydrate content of 45.0133±3.0274. In terms of ash, CE bread recorded the highest value of 31.4367±1.6159 while wheat bread recorded the highest value for protein i.e. 20.6033± 0.8113. XS performed better in terms of crude fat and energy value of 12.2967± 0.8914 and 371.5367 respectively. The use of cocoyam - wheat flour mixture in producing composite bread is therefore

  10. [Determination of aluminium in flour foods with photometric method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Dajin

    2012-05-01

    To establish a determination method for aluminium in flour foods with photometric method. After samples being treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion, aluminium in staple flour foods was determined by photometric method. There was a good linearity of the result in the range of 0.25 - 5.0 microg/ml aluminium, r = 0.9998; limit of detection (LOD) : 2.3 ng/ml; limit of quantitation (LOQ) : 7 ng/ml. This method of determining aluminium in flour foods is simple, rapid and reliable.

  11. Predatory Aptness of Ants Against Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum Herbst (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) in Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, F.A.; Parveen, S.; Qadir, G.

    2016-01-01

    The red flour beetle (RFB), Tribolium castaneum is one of the most destructive pests of stored grains and other food products including wheat flour. Due to its severe infestation, the flour gets mouldy, turns yellowish, gets pungent odour and becomes unhealthy for human consumption. The infested samples of wheat flour by T. castaneum were collected from different localities and its culture was maintained in laboratory. Three ant species namely, Dorylus labiatus, Camponotus rufipes and Monomorium minimum were collected from forest and non-forest habitats and compared for their predation against different life stages of RFB. Results showed D. labiatus of forest habitat as an efficient pupal predator that consumed 91.66% pupae of RFB. It was significantly different from non-forest ant population and control with 73.33% and 11.66% pupal predation, respectively. C. rufipes from forest habitat showed maximum adult predation (25%), which was significantly higher than non-forest ant population and control jar with 15% and 3.33% adult predation, respectively. The forest population of M. minimum exhibited 56.66% larval predation that was significantly different from non-forest population with 41.66% larval consumption. Pupal stage was the highest vulnerable stage to the ant predation and was extremely predated by D. labiatus collected from forest habitats. The lowest predation was observed at larval stage by forest population of M. minimum (1.66%) that was significantly different from all the susceptible stages of RFB. These results indicate that ants could be used as biological control agents against RFB. (author)

  12. From oil spills to barley growth - oil-degrading soil bacteria and their promoting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Annett; Reinhard, Anne; Alimbetova, Anna; Omirbekova, Anel; Pasler, Lisa; Schumann, Peter; Kabisch, Johannes; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2016-11-01

    Heavy contamination of soils by crude oil is omnipresent in areas of oil recovery and exploitation. Bioremediation by indigenous plants in cooperation with hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms is an economically and ecologically feasible means to reclaim contaminated soils. To study the effects of indigenous soil bacteria capable of utilizing oil hydrocarbons on biomass production of plants growing in oil-contaminated soils eight bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soils in Kazakhstan and characterized for their abilities to degrade oil components. Four of them, identified as species of Gordonia and Rhodococcus turned out to be effective degraders. They produced a variety of organic acids from oil components, of which 59 were identified and 7 of them are hitherto unknown acidic oil metabolites. One of them, Rhodococcus erythropolis SBUG 2054, utilized more than 140 oil components. Inoculating barley seeds together with different combinations of these bacterial strains restored normal growth of the plants on contaminated soils, demonstrating the power of this approach for bioremediation. Furthermore, we suggest that the plant promoting effect of these bacteria is not only due to the elimination of toxic oil hydrocarbons but possibly also to the accumulation of a variety of organic acids which modulate the barley's rhizosphere environment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Hormonal changes in spring barley after triazine herbicide treatment and its mixtures of regulators of polyamine biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Trebichalský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants adapt to abiotic stress by undergoing diverse biochemical and physiological changes that involve hormone-dependent signalling pathways. The effects of regulators of polyamine biosynthesis can be mimicked by exogenous chemical regulators such as herbicide safeners, which not only enhance stress tolerance but also confer hormetic benefits such as increased vigor and yield. The phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA and auxin (IAA play key roles in regulating stress responses in plants. Two years pot trials at Slovak University of agriculture Nitra were carried out with analyses of contents of plant hormones in spring barley grain of variety Kompakt: indolyl-acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA, after exposing of tested plants to herbicide stress, as well as the possible decrease of these stress factors with application of regulators of polyamine synthesis was evaluated. At 1st year in spring barley grain after application of solo triazine herbicide treatment in dose 0,5 L.ha-1 an increase of all analyzed plant hormones was observed and contrary, at 2nd year there was the decrease of their contents. From our work there is an obvious influence of herbicide stress induced by application of certain dose of triazine herbicide at 1st year. Expect of the variant with mixture of triazine herbicide (in amount of 0,5 L.ha-1 and 29,6 g.ha-1 DAB, at this year all by us applied regulators of polyamine synthesis reduced the level of both plant hormones. Higher affect of stress caused by enhanced content of soluble macroelements in soil where the plants of barley were grown was observed next year. Soil with increased contents of macronutrients (mg.kg-1: N30.7 + P108.3 + K261.5 + Mg604.2 had reducing effect on contents of plant hormones in barley grain at variant treated with solo triazine herbicide (in dose at 0,5 L.ha-1 in comparison to control variant. The mixtures of regulators of polyamine synthesis reduced the contents of IAA only in comparison to

  14. Analysis on The Substitution Ability of Mocaf Flour Toward Wheat Flour, its Business Feasibility, and its Industry Multiple Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riza Firdaus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of mocaf flour in MSME scale in South Kalimantan area was not feasible considered from its business feasibility hence the multiple effect was unmeasured based on its industry existence. Mocaf flour production derived from cassava, which is a plant that not only match on dry land but also in the wetlands of South Kalimantan, can not be oriented consumer as a substitute for wheat flour for common food products in the society. Therefore, further research refers to aspects mocaf flour premium for health. This objective of this research was to increase the society consumption of mocaf flour for the healthy reason related to the trend on negative effect from high level of gluten in wheat flour. The laboratory test showed the result that supports mocaf product for health. With this consideration then mocaf processed product have potentials to bedeveloped though serious marketing effort is required due to infamiliarity of the mocaf flour especially in South Kalimantan area. Difference test result showed that prospects, indeed, haveintention to purchase mocaf-based processed products for healthy reason.

  15. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme; however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All formulations made from whole grain wheat flour and added with xylanase also had specific volumes significantly higher than those of the control sample, and the highest value was found for the 8 g xylanase.100 kg-1 flour formulation. With respect to moisture content, the formulations with different enzyme concentrations showed small significant differences when compared to the control samples. In general, breads made with the addition of 8 g enzyme.100 kg-1 flour had the lowest firmness values, thus presenting the best technological characteristics.

  16. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  17. Pure homology of algebraic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We show that for a complete complex algebraic variety the pure component of homology coincides with the image of intersection homology. Therefore pure homology is topologically invariant. To obtain slightly more general results we introduce "image homology" for noncomplete varieties.

  18. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Litwinek; Halina Gambuś; Gabriela Zięć; Renata Sabat; Anna Wywrocka-Gurgul; Wiktor Berski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation) to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb tex...

  19. On singularities of lattice varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Himadri

    2013-01-01

    Toric varieties associated with distributive lattices arise as a fibre of a flat degeneration of a Schubert variety in a minuscule. The singular locus of these varieties has been studied by various authors. In this article we prove that the number of diamonds incident on a lattice point $\\a$ in a product of chain lattices is more than or equal to the codimension of the lattice. Using this we also show that the lattice varieties associated with product of chain lattices is smooth.

  20. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanis, M.; Hanisova, A.; Knytl, V.; Cerny, J.; Benc, S.

    1977-01-01

    The induction of mutations in cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been part of the breeding programme at the Plant Breeding Station at Stupice since 1960. A total of 26 cultivars or selections of winter wheat, 4 cultivars or selections of spring wheat, 2 cultivars of field beans, and 43 selections of spring barley have been treated since 1960. A total of 140 mutant lines of wheat and 37 mutant lines of barley with improved disease resistance of a race-specific type have been obtained. Several mutation programme derived cultivars have been registered in Czechoslovakia (''Diamant'', ''Ametyst'', ''Favorit'', ''Hana'', ''Rapid'', and ''Atlas'' in barley, and ''Alfa'' in field beans), but none of them is a mutation for disease resistance. A series of mutants have been used in crossing programmes. Approaches to improve the efficiency of mutation breeding for disease resistance are suggested. (author)

  1. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2011-01-01

    Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...... of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  2. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    in plants under low N and iv) proteomes of uninfected plants were similar under two N levels. Correlation of level of proteolysis induced by the fungus with measurement of Fusarium-damaged kernels, fungal biomass and mycotoxin levels indicated that FHB was more severe in barley with low N. In Chapter 3......, the molecular mechanisms of barley defense to Fusarium graminearum at the early infection stage were studied. Antibodies against barley β-amylases were shown to be the markers for infection at proteome level and for selection of the time for proteome analysis before extensive degradation caused by the fungus...... the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D gels, it is used as a tool for studying the barley- Fusarium graminearum interaction form three different...

  3. Effects of irradiated barley on fattening quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlhelm, H.

    1999-01-01

    For the feeding experiments reported, barley grains irradiated at doses of 2, 10, and 100 kGy were used as a diet. The results obtained revealed no significant effects in the parameters analysed. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  5. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-01-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO 2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [ 14 C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO 2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  6. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  7. The Localization of Eceriferum Loci in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bodil

    1974-01-01

    Three different 3-point tests have been made for gene distances on chromosome 1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In all cases eceriferum, cer-f9, and albina, ac2, were examined with erectoides as the third gene. The erectoides, ert, genes are ert-a23, ert-d33 and ert-m40, respectively. The analyses...... have been carried through to F3. The experiments demonstrated the following sequence of the five genes: cer-f9 — ac2 — ert-d33 — ert-a23 — ert-m40 and the following distances: cer-f9 — ac2 = 2.3 %, ac2 — ert-a23 = 8.5 %, ac2 — ert-d33 = 2.5 % and ac2 — ert-m40 = 12.8 %. The cer-f9 — ac2 distance, which...

  8. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    phytase gene (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during grain filling to evaluate the cisgenesis concept in barley. The marker gene elimination method was used to obtain marker-free plant lines. Here, the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders to allow unlinked integration...... of the two genes. We analysed the transformants for co-transformation efficiency, increased phytase activities in the grain, integration of the kanamycin resistance gene of the vector-backbone and segregation between the HvPAPhy_a insert and the hygromycin resistance gene. The frequencies of the four......PAPhy_a insert for further analysis. Seeds from plants homozygous for the insert showed 2.6- and 2.8-fold increases in phytase activities and the activity levels were stable over the three generations analysed. In one of the selected lines, the flanking sequences from both the left and right T-DNA borders were...

  9. Cisgenic Barley with Improved Phytase Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T......-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. Transformed T0 plants show increases in the phytase activity of mature seeds from 1,400 in wild type to 8,950 FTU/kg in T0 plants. T1 plants of each transformant are currently screened with PCR for extra...... copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....

  10. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T......-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. Transformed T0 plants show increases in the phytase activity of mature seeds from 1,400 in wild type to 8,950 FTU/kg in T0 plants. T1 plants of each transformant are currently screened with PCR for extra...... copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....

  11. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fen; Finnie, Christine; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D...

  12. effect of cassava flour processing methods and substitution level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASAMBA

    the diet. Incorporation of different proportions of flours from cereals and legumes in baked ... desirability of the sensory attributes under consideration. 2193 ... Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) for windows version 12.0 and index to volume.

  13. The effect of apricot kernel flour incorporation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... 2Department of Food Engineering, Erciyes University 38039, Kayseri, Turkey. Accepted 27 ... Key words: Noodle; apricot kernel, flour, cooking, sensory properties. ... their simple preparation requirement, desirable sensory.

  14. The performance of cassava flour as a water reducing admixture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINYERE

    were then ground to a fine texture in a mill and the flour obtained sieved ... Figure 1: Effect of Water/cement Ratio Upon Slump and Compacting Factor. Saturated Density ... attributed to the bleeding and segregation observed in these mixes.

  15. Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home ...

  16. THE USE OF Orbignya speciosa FLOUR IN PLYWOOD ADHESIVE MIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Coelho Almeida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813340The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of babaçu flour on urea-formaldehyde adhesive properties and compare it to the adhesives produced with wheat flour, which is the extender usually used for plywood production. An amount of 0, 10, 20 and 30 parts of extender per weight of the adhesive were added. Ammonium sulfate was used as catalyst, in the proportion of 1.5% on dry weight of solid content. The following properties of the adhesive were determined: viscosity, nonvolatile content, gel time, working life and pH. The babaçu flour presented similar properties to wheat flour. Both, in general, although contributed to the increase of the adhesives viscosity, reduced its reactivity, as increased pH value, gel time and working life.

  17. INFLUENCE OF FOUR CEREAL FLOURS ON THE GROWTH OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Department of Biology, Food Storage Technology Programme, Federal University of ... Host preference (choice and no-choice) studies revealed millet flour as the most preferred food ... cadavers thus reducing the palatability, rheological.

  18. Molecular genetic analysis of grain protein content and flour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Tai'an Academy of Agricultural Science, Tai'an 271000, People's Republic of China ... (GPC) and flour whiteness degree (FWD) are important qualitative traits in common wheat. ... The objectives of present study were to identify QTLs con-.

  19. Toxic effects of chlorinated cake flour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, H M; Lawrence, G A; Tryphonas, L

    1977-05-01

    Four experiments were conducted using weanling Wistar rats to determine whether chlorinated cake flour or its constituents were toxic. Levels of 0.2 and 1.0% chlorine added to unbleached cake flour significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced growth rate by 20.7 and 85.2% and increased liver weight relative to body weight by 16.7 and 25.3%, respectively. Lipids extracted from flour chlorinated at the same levels had similar effects. Rat chow diets containing 0.2 and 0.6% chlorine in the form of chlorinated wheat gluten reduced growth rate and increased liver weight as a percentage of body weight. A rat chow diet containing 0.2% chlorine as chlorinated flour lipids increased absolute liver weight by 40%, kidney by 20%, and heart by 10% compared to pair-fed controls.

  20. Seed treatments affect functional and antinutritional properties of amaranth flours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of

  1. Development of endosperm transfer cells in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endosperm transfer cells (ETCs) are positioned at the intersection of maternal and filial tissues in seeds of cereals and represent a bottleneck for apoplasmic transport of assimilates into the endosperm. Endosperm cellularization starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the highly specialized ETCs. During differentiation barley ETCs develop characteristic flange-like wall ingrowths to facilitate effective nutrient transfer. A comprehensive morphological analysis depicted distinct developmental time points in establishment of transfer cell (TC) morphology and revealed intracellular changes possibly associated with cell wall metabolism. Embedded inside the grain, ETCs are barely accessible by manual preparation. To get tissue-specific information about ETC specification and differentiation, laser microdissection (LM)-based methods were used for transcript and metabolite profiling. Transcriptome analysis of ETCs at different developmental stages by microarrays indicated activated gene expression programs related to control of cell proliferation and cell shape, cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism reflecting the morphological changes during early ETC development. Transporter genes reveal distinct expression patterns suggesting a switch from active to passive modes of nutrient uptake with the onset of grain filling. Tissue-specific RNA-seq of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial stage until functionality in nutrient transfer identified a high number of novel transcripts putatively involved in ETC differentiation. An essential role for two-component signaling (TCS) pathways in ETC development of barley emerged from this analysis. Correlative data provide evidence for abscisic acid and ethylene influences on ETC differentiation and hint at a crosstalk between hormone signal transduction and TCS phosphorelays. Collectively, the data expose a comprehensive view on ETC development, associated pathways and identified candidate genes for ETC

  2. Concentrations of free amino acids and sugars in nine potato varieties: effects of storage and relationship with acrylamide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Nigel G; Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J; Gillatt, Peter N; Hartley, Lee; Elmore, J Stephen; Mottram, Donald S

    2012-12-05

    Acrylamide forms during cooking and processing predominately from the reaction of free asparagine and reducing sugars in the Maillard reaction. The identification of low free asparagine and reducing sugar varieties of crops is therefore an important target. In this study, nine varieties of potato (French fry varieties Maris Piper (from two suppliers), Pentland Dell, King Edward, Daisy, and Markies; and chipping varieties Lady Claire, Lady Rosetta, Saturna, and Hermes) grown in the United Kingdom in 2009 were analyzed at monthly intervals through storage from November 2009 to July 2010. Acrylamide formation was measured in heated flour and chips fried in oil. Analysis of variance revealed significant interactions between varieties nested within type (French fry and chipping) and storage time for most free amino acids, glucose, fructose, and acrylamide formation. Acrylamide formed in chips correlated significantly with acrylamide formed in flour and with chip color. There were significant correlations between glucose or total reducing sugar concentration and acrylamide formation in both variety types, but with fructose the correlation was much stronger for chipping than for French fry varieties. Conversely, there were significant correlations with acrylamide formation for both total free amino acid and free asparagine concentration in the French fry but not chipping varieties. The study showed the potential of variety selection for preventing unacceptable levels of acrylamide formation in potato products and the variety-dependent effect of long-term storage on acrylamide risk. It also highlighted the complex relationship between precursor concentration and acrylamide risk in potatoes.

  3. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis pattern (pH 6-11) and identification of water-soluble barley seed and malt proteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, S.; Roepstorff, P.

    2004-01-01

    A protocol was established for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of barley seed and malt proteins in the pH range of 6-11. Proteins extracted from flour in a low-salt buffer were focused after cup-loading onto IPG strips. Successful separation in the second dimension was achieved using...... gradient gels in a horizontal SDS-PAGE system. Silver staining of gels visualized around 380 (seed) and 500 (malt) spots. Thirty-seven different proteins from seeds were identified in 60 spots, among these 46 were visualized also in the malt 2-D pattern. Proteins were identified by peptide mass...... in defence against pathogens (21 spots), 4 in storage, folding, and synthesis of proteins, and in nitrogen metabolism (5 spots), 6 in carbohydrate metabolism (11 spots), and 4 in stress and detoxification (9 spots). Six proteins (7 spots) were not grouped in these categories, and 3 were not ascribed...

  4. ALTERATIONS IN BARLEY PROTEOME UPON FUNGAL INFECTION AND TRICYCLAZOLE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar a,b

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The barley proteome was investigated upon fungal infection and subsequent treatment by tricyclazole (TCZ, which is known to have applications in spot blotch disease management in barley.Significantly enhanced chlorophyll content was recorded in TCZ treated plants. The disease severity was significantly reduced after TCZ application in pathogen inoculated plants by reducing the appressoria formation at infection site in barley leaves. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE revealed the expression profile of proteins from (I control plants (healthy barley leaves; application with sterile water,(II plants after foliar application of TCZ (100 µg/ml, (III plants inoculated with B. sorokiniana and (IV plants treated with TCZ (72 h after B. sorokiniana inoculation. A set of 33 proteins expressed differentially after TCZ treatment. Out of this 19 had known functions, while others were unknown or hypothetical proteins. These differentially expressed proteins were related to redox-activity and gene expression, electron transfer,cell division and chromosome partitioning, cell envelop biogenesis, energy metabolism and conversion, respiration and pathogenesis related functions in the barley plants. The study provides a platform and documents the proteins that might be involved in disease management in barley following TCZ application. It is expected that the study will provide boost in understanding proteome regulation upon fungal infection and subsequent anti-fungal treatment and will attract researchers for further validation leading to better pest management.

  5. High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snape John W

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low ( Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley.

  6. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  7. Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera lam. seeds flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera seed flour was studied under various conditions of pH (2-10), time (5-60 minutes), salts (NaCl and CaCl ), salt concentrations (0-2 M) and solvent to flour ratio (10:1-30:1). 2 Results showed that protein extractability was dependent on pH, type of salt, salt concentrations and ...

  8. Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadi, Mohammed; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Wei; Sulieman, Abdellatif A; Mahdi, Amer Ali; Mohammed, Khalid; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-11-13

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Exposure to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests showed that ozone gas treatment influenced the extent of starch crystallinity. The relative starch crystallinity of bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min was lower than the control value, as were the hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Microscopic examination of crumb structure revealed remarkable differences between control and treated breads. Although ozone is a naturally occurring substance found in the atmosphere, ozone can also be produced synthetically. Recently, ozone has come to be regarded as a new treatment for flour. Especially in countries where the chlorination is forbidden, ozone treatment may be of a great interest if it were associated with significant and reliable changes in flour. Ozone treatment of wheat flour tends to improve bread shelf life and quality in terms of physiochemical, baking properties, X-ray diffraction data, volatile compound levels, crumb structure, and textural characteristics. Given such findings, desirable shelf life and bread qualities may be achieved when ozone is used as a flour oxidant prior to bread baking. Analyses of the effects of ozone gas on treatment of flour on bread shelf life and quality would aid the production of high quality and extend the shelf life of bread. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparing Soy Flour Wood Adhesives to Purified Soy Protein Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    While economics dictate that soy-based wood adhesives be made with soy flour, much of the recent literature on soy-based wood adhesives has involved using soy protein isolate. The obvious assumption is that the additional carbohydrates in the flour but not in the isolate only serve as inert diluents. Our studies have shown that the isolate can provide 10 times the wet...

  10. Asymmetric Price Transmission in Indonesia's Wheat Flour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Gonzalo J.; Taniguchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Data indicate that its domestic price in Indonesia has been increasing regardless of movements in the international price of wheat. A test for asymmetric price transmission from international wheat to domestic wheat flour markets is conducted using an error correction model and find the presence of asymmetric price transmission. The upward adjustment in the domestic price of wheat flour is much faster than its adjustment downward when it deviates from long-run equilibrium. Our results are rob...

  11. Nutritional characteristics of ancient Tuscan varieties of Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisetta Ghiselli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important cereal in human consumption. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in ancient wheat varieties. The latter represent an important source of germplasm, characterised by a broader genetic base and, therefore, a potential source of biodiversity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the optimal balance between the presence of secondary metabolites having beneficial effects on health and technological features that ensure successful baking quality. The experimental trial was performed in 2011-2012 on three organic farms located in three different areas within the province of Siena (Tuscany. In each location, an overall evaluation of the commercial, rheological and functional properties of five ancient Tuscan bread wheat varieties (Andriolo, Frassineto, Gentil rosso, Inallettabile 96, Verna as compared with a commercial modern variety (Palesio was carried out. The ancient varieties were compared both singularly (pure and in combination (mixtures of two varieties in equal proportion, respectively. Biometric and productive parameters were detected for each plot (32 plots in each farm. Macro- and trace elements, polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity (antiradical power, ARP were similarly determined on representative whole grain samples. Rheological analysis was carried out on flour samples. The multivariate statistical analysis using principal components analysis was performed on all variables analysed. The results showed a significant environment effect on the different parameters measured and did not reveal significant improvements in the variables measured when varieties were cultivated in mixtures. However, the study did reveal various interesting trends that are warranting of further investigation. The most interesting effect from a nutritional and functional point of view is the relationship between ARP, rheological properties, protein content and gluten content. These

  12. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh

    2017-01-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains......, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2-generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase...... activities were increased significantly by 110-fold (52 000 FTU/kg) and 57-fold (51 000 FTU/kg), respectively. The HvPAPhy_a-transformed barley plants with high phytase activities possess triple potential utilities for the improvement of phosphate bioavailability. First of all, the utilization of the mature...

  13. Expression of the Arabidopsis vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) improves the shoot biomass of transgenic barley and increases grain yield in a saline field

    KAUST Repository

    Schilling, Rhiannon K.

    2013-11-22

    Cereal varieties with improved salinity tolerance are needed to achieve profitable grain yields in saline soils. The expression of AVP1, an Arabidopsis gene encoding a vacuolar proton pumping pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase), has been shown to improve the salinity tolerance of transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions. However, the potential for this gene to improve the grain yield of cereal crops in a saline field has yet to be evaluated. Recent advances in high-throughput nondestructive phenotyping technologies also offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the growth of transgenic plants under abiotic stress through time. In this study, the growth of transgenic barley expressing AVP1 was evaluated under saline conditions in a pot experiment using nondestructive plant imaging and in a saline field trial. Greenhouse-grown transgenic barley expressing AVP1 produced a larger shoot biomass compared to segregants, as determined by an increase in projected shoot area, when grown in soil with 150 mm NaCl. This increase in shoot biomass of transgenic AVP1 barley occurred from an early growth stage and also in nonsaline conditions. In a saline field, the transgenic barley expressing AVP1 also showed an increase in shoot biomass and, importantly, produced a greater grain yield per plant compared to wild-type plants. Interestingly, the expression of AVP1 did not alter barley leaf sodium concentrations in either greenhouse- or field-grown plants. This study validates our greenhouse-based experiments and indicates that transgenic barley expressing AVP1 is a promising option for increasing cereal crop productivity in saline fields. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Expression of the Arabidopsis vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) improves the shoot biomass of transgenic barley and increases grain yield in a saline field

    KAUST Repository

    Schilling, Rhiannon K.; Marschner, Petra; Shavrukov, Yuri N.; Berger, Bettina; Tester, Mark A.; Roy, Stuart John; Plett, Darren Craig

    2013-01-01

    Cereal varieties with improved salinity tolerance are needed to achieve profitable grain yields in saline soils. The expression of AVP1, an Arabidopsis gene encoding a vacuolar proton pumping pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase), has been shown to improve the salinity tolerance of transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions. However, the potential for this gene to improve the grain yield of cereal crops in a saline field has yet to be evaluated. Recent advances in high-throughput nondestructive phenotyping technologies also offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the growth of transgenic plants under abiotic stress through time. In this study, the growth of transgenic barley expressing AVP1 was evaluated under saline conditions in a pot experiment using nondestructive plant imaging and in a saline field trial. Greenhouse-grown transgenic barley expressing AVP1 produced a larger shoot biomass compared to segregants, as determined by an increase in projected shoot area, when grown in soil with 150 mm NaCl. This increase in shoot biomass of transgenic AVP1 barley occurred from an early growth stage and also in nonsaline conditions. In a saline field, the transgenic barley expressing AVP1 also showed an increase in shoot biomass and, importantly, produced a greater grain yield per plant compared to wild-type plants. Interestingly, the expression of AVP1 did not alter barley leaf sodium concentrations in either greenhouse- or field-grown plants. This study validates our greenhouse-based experiments and indicates that transgenic barley expressing AVP1 is a promising option for increasing cereal crop productivity in saline fields. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Flour pads: devices to improve CHESS fat suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Susumu; Miki, Yukio; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    We compared the suppression of lingering fat signals in chemical shift selective (CHESS) images by pads filled with flour and pads filled with rice in a phantom and human subjects. First, we prepared a phantom by creating an empty space in a mass of lard and filling the space with air, rice, or flour. Then, we obtained MR images of the phantoms in the center of the magnetic field and at a position 8 cm to the left (off-center) to compare lingering fat signals. MR images of the knee were obtained in 10 healthy volunteers using CHESS after placing a polyurethane sponge pillow, rice pad, or flour pad in the popliteal space under the flexed knee. We visually assessed the number of areas with lingering fat signals and the statistical differences among the groups were assessed using Tukey's test. Similarly to rice, flour clearly decreased lingering fat signals in the phantom study. A similar effect was obtained in the off-center images. In the volunteer study, the mean number of areas with lingering fat signals was 2.5 with a sponge pillow, 0.5 with the rice pad, and 0.3 with the flour pad. Those numbers were significantly different using flour pad and rice pad compared with sponge pillow (P CHESS images.

  17. Mycopopulations of grain and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Dragana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the nutritive characteristics, whole grain flour is a high quality product, due to its high vitamin, mineral, and dietary fiber content. However, the cereal grains are susceptible to the series of contamination during the ripening, harvesting, processing and storage. The aim of this work was to determine mold presence in grains and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat. The determination of total number and identification of isolated genera and species of molds were the subject of this research. All samples were contaminated with the molds. The total number of molds per 100 cereal grains was between 60 cfu (wheat and 120 cfu (buckwheat. The total number of molds in the samples of flour ranged from 6.0x101 cfu/g in white wheat flour to 5.0 x102 cfu/g in buckwheat whole grain flour (DG18 medium. Eight fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysonilia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis and fifteen species were isolated. The largest number of species of molds was isolated from the genus Aspergillus. About 66.7% of isolated fungi belonged to potentially toxigenic species. The results pointed out the necessity of grain surface treatment, preceding the milling of grains in wheat, corn and whole grain buckwheat flour production.

  18. Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

    2014-04-01

    The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Litwinek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus. Organoleptic assesment was performed by 15 skilled pearson‘s panel. Moreover both in flours and breads protein, lipids, mineral compounds, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble fraction and β-glucans content were analyzed by AOAC methods.

  20. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  1. Characterization of a Thermo-Inducible Chlorophyll-Deficient Mutant in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaf color is an important trait for not only controlling crop yield but also monitoring plant status under temperature stress. In this study, a thermo-inducible chlorophyll-deficient mutant, named V-V-Y, was identified from a gamma-radiated population of the barley variety Vlamingh. The leaves of the mutant were green under normal growing temperature but turned yellowish under high temperature in the glasshouse experiment. The ratio of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in the mutant declined much faster in the first 7–9 days under heat treatment. The leaves of V-V-Y turned yellowish but took longer to senesce under heat stress in the field experiment. Genetic analysis indicated that a single nuclear gene controlled the mutant trait. The mutant gene (vvy was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 4H between SNP markers 1_0269 and 1_1531 with a genetic distance of 2.2 cM and a physical interval of 9.85 Mb. A QTL for grain yield was mapped to the same interval and explained 10.4% of the yield variation with a LOD score of 4. This QTL is coincident with the vvy gene interval that is responsible for the thermo-inducible chlorophyll-deficient trait. Fine mapping, based on the barley reference genome sequence, further narrowed the vvy gene to a physical interval of 0.428 Mb with 11 annotated genes. This is the first report of fine mapping a thermo-inducible chlorophyll-deficient gene in barley.

  2. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  3. PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG PORANG PADA PEMBUATAN MI DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG MOCAF (Modified cassava FLOUR [Addition of Porang Flour in Noodle as Mocaf Substitution (Modified cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Faridah*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noodle is one of the staple foods that are widely consumed and preferred by the Asian. However, wet noodles with modified cassava flour (mocaf substitution resulted in lower quality compared to 100% wheat noodle. Addition of a certain amount of konjac glucomannan (Amorphophallus oncophyllus flour to wet noodle is strongly recommended due to the fact that the food additive has a health benefit. Porang or konjac flour, which was used in the research, has soluble fiber properties, low calorie content, and highly viscous. It forms a heat stable gel with a mild alkali, interacts with starch, and has a synergistic interaction with kappa carrageenan. In this research, konjac flour was added to study the optimum combination between konjac and water. As much as 2, 4 and 6% (w/w of konjac flour were combined with 35, 40, 45% (v/w of water. The results showed that treatments with combinations of konjac flour and water were significantly contributing to characteristics of cooking time, cooking loss, color brightness index, tensile strength, swelling volume and water absorption. The best treatment was at a combination of 4% konjac (w/w and 35% water (v/w. The best porang noodles have the characteristics of cooking time at 2.13 minutes, cooking loss of 35%, tensile strength of 0.14 N, water absorption of 201.58%, color brightness index of 51.41, swelling volume of 103.63%, moisture content of 31.77%, protein content of 5.87%, fat content of 2.13%, ash content of 0.85% and crude dietary fiber of 4.58%.

  4. Study on the Formulation of Squid (Loligosp) Nugget Added with Yellow Pumpkin (Curcubitamoschata) Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Nurharyati, Lisa; ', Suparmi; Sari, N Ira

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the squid nugget formulation with the addition of pumpkin flour. It was evaluated for the organoleptic value and the proximate composition. The method used was an experimental method and designed as non-factorial completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were addition of pumpkin flour into the mix, consisting of four levels, namely: N0 (without the addition of pumpkin flour), N1 (pumpkin flour 50 g), N2 (pumpkin flour 75 g) and N3 (pumpkin flour 100 g).B...

  5. Upgrading of shamy wheat bread quality through supplement with flour of certain gamma irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread

  6. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Ritika B.; Yadav, Baljeet S.; Dhull, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144....

  7. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mesías

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  8. Use of Gamma Irradiation for the Control of the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in Bread Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbashi, E.E.B.M.; Ahmed, E.G.H.; Aljack, S.A.; Hamad, S.A.A.; Ahmed, M.E.; Elmamoun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Three doses of gamma irradiation (viz. 2, 2.5 and 3 KGy) were tested against the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in bread flour in Khartoum, Sudan. Corresponding control exhibited two groups of infested and uninfested flours. The results obtained showed that all the doses used reduced the infestation in a range 46-100 % during a six month storage period. The 2 KGy mortality range, of the test insect, was 46 - 100%, whereas the corresponding readings for 2.5 KGy and 3 KGy were 90 - 100% and total kill (100%), respectively. However, a natural infestation occurred in all the treated flours and in the infested and uninfested controls as well. This may refer to the resistant eggs of this insect whose a smaller size than the major bulk flour particles and therefore not affected by the milling process and the irradiation doses used too.The treatment mortality in this test was corrected by the Abbott's formula. Moreover, the flour analyses results implied that all the chemical parameters (moisture %, ash % and protein %) and the quality parameters (wet gluten and falling number) are within the recommended levels of the Codex Alimentarius.It was also found that these doses used had no harmful effect on dough rheological properties.

  9. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J

    2017-02-16

    Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  10. Lucerne varieties for continuous grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    severe grazing with heifers in two cutting/grazing managements. Two new varieties, Verbena and Camporegio, and an older variety Luzelle were established in 2009 in pure stands and in two different mixtures with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Camporegio had the lowest yield, the lowest competitive...... strength, the lowest plant density in spring, and the density was most reduced during grazing. The results could not confirm significant differences between the new and the older varieties. The results for Luzelle were generally between Verbena and Camporegio. The varieties did not differ in herbage...

  11. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Pošćić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2 and titanium oxide (nTiO2 nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively. Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production.

  12. The Development of Expanded Snack Product Made from Pumpkin Flour-Corn Grits: Effect of Extrusion Conditions and Formulations on Physical Characteristics and Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Norfezah Md; Carr, Alistair; Hardacre, Allan; Brennan, Charles S

    2013-05-14

    Pumpkin products confer natural sweetness, desirable flavours and β-carotene, a vitamin A precursor when added as ingredients to extruded snacks. Therefore, a potential use for dried pumpkin flour is as an ingredient in ready-to-eat (RTE) snack foods. Growth in this market has driven food manufacturers to produce a variety of new high value snack foods incorporating diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties of these foods. Ready-to-eat snacks were made by extruding corn grits with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of pumpkin flour. Snacks made from 100% corn grits were used as control products for this work. The effect of formulation and screw speeds of 250 rpm and 350 rpm on torque and specific mechanical energy (SME, kWh/kg), physical characteristics (expansion ratio, bulk density, true density and hardness) and the microstructure of the snacks were studied. Increasing the screw speed resulted in a decrease of torque for all formulations. When pumpkin flour was added the specific mechanical energy (SME) decreased by approximately 45%. Increasing the percentage of pumpkin flour at the higher screw speed resulted in a harder texture for the extruded products. X-ray tomography of pumpkin flour-corn grit snacks showed that increased levels of pumpkin flour decreased both the bubble area and bubble size. However, no significant differences ( p > 0.05) in bubble wall thickness were measured. By understanding the conditions during extrusion, desirable nutritional characteristics can be incorporated while maximizing expansion to make a product with low bulk density, a fine bubble structure and acceptable organoleptic properties.

  13. The Development of Expanded Snack Product Made from Pumpkin Flour-Corn Grits: Effect of Extrusion Conditions and Formulations on Physical Characteristics and Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfezah Md Nor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin products confer natural sweetness, desirable flavours and β-carotene, a vitamin A precursor when added as ingredients to extruded snacks. Therefore, a potential use for dried pumpkin flour is as an ingredient in ready-to-eat (RTE snack foods. Growth in this market has driven food manufacturers to produce a variety of new high value snack foods incorporating diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties of these foods. Ready-to-eat snacks were made by extruding corn grits with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of pumpkin flour. Snacks made from 100% corn grits were used as control products for this work. The effect of formulation and screw speeds of 250 rpm and 350 rpm on torque and specific mechanical energy (SME, kWh/kg, physical characteristics (expansion ratio, bulk density, true density and hardness and the microstructure of the snacks were studied. Increasing the screw speed resulted in a decrease of torque for all formulations. When pumpkin flour was added the specific mechanical energy (SME decreased by approximately 45%. Increasing the percentage of pumpkin flour at the higher screw speed resulted in a harder texture for the extruded products. X-ray tomography of pumpkin flour-corn grit snacks showed that increased levels of pumpkin flour decreased both the bubble area and bubble size. However, no significant differences (p > 0.05 in bubble wall thickness were measured. By understanding the conditions during extrusion, desirable nutritional characteristics can be incorporated while maximizing expansion to make a product with low bulk density, a fine bubble structure and acceptable organoleptic properties.

  14. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  15. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation on barley tolerance grown under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbaji, T.; Khalifa, Kh; Al-Ain, F.

    2003-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at Al-Hijanah, an area located at about 35 km south east of Damascus. Seeds of two barley varieties [White Arabi (WA) and Pakistani 30163 (PK) were irradiated with 2 doses 0 and 15 Gy of gamma irradiation. Then, they were shown on salty soil (17.6-18,9 m mos/cm) and irrigated with salty water (5.12-5.75 m mos/cm). A dose of 15 Gy of gamma irradiation was shown to positively affect the percent germination of PK but had no similar effect on WA. The results were obtained at 3 different growth stages: first, the heading stage, 15 Gy dose increased shoots dry weight, Mg ++ , P content and percent of WA, whereas N percent of PK was decreased. When the seeds were irradiated by the same dose. K + content in WA was significantly higher than that in PK. Second, physiological maturity stage, the same dose (15 Gy) increased shoot dry, but affected negatively K + and Na + contents in PK variety. As for WA variety, Mg ++ and P contents were increased, whereas Na + and Cl - were slightly decreased. Third, harvest stage, gamma irradiation had a positive effect on total yield, grain yield, nitrogen yield and harvest index of PK variety. A positive effect was produced on straw yield, 1000-grain weight, and nitrogen yield of WA variety. (author)

  16. Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurantz M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of β-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the β-glucan problem. First, β-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the β-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, β-glucosidase was used to complete the β-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While β-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding β-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS co-product had extremely low β-glucan (below 0.2% making it suitable for use in both ruminant

  17. The effect of gamma radiation on yield of Arabic Abiad barley under different nitrogen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.

    1994-03-01

    A field experiment was carried out at ACSAD research station in Deir-Ezzor district during two seasons 1987/88 and 1988/89 on medium-heavy textured soil. Arabic Abiad barley variety was used under irrigated conditions. The aim was to study the effect of five doses of gamma rays 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Gray and four levels of nitrogen 0, 50, 80, and 100 Kg N/ha, and their interactions on yield. The results showed that the irradiation doses and nitrogen rates significantly increased barley's grain and straw yield compared to control. All doses of gamma radiation significantly increased grain and straw yield. While nitrogen levels 50, 80 and 100 Kg N/ha lead to grain yield increases by 24.8, 32.0, and 29.9% and straw yield increases 19.2, 17.0 and 3.1% respectively. The highest positive interaction was observed between 5-20 Gy dose and 50 Kg N/Ha nitrogen levels. In general, the rate of yield increase was reduced as the irradiation doses and nitrogen levels were increased. (author). 34 refs., 19 tabs

  18. Free and esterified carotenoids in pigmented wheat, tritordeum and barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paznocht, Luboš; Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Orsák, Matyáš; Eliášová, Marie; Martinek, Petr

    2018-02-01

    Carotenoids are important phytonutrients responsible for the yellow endosperm color in cereal grains. Five carotenoids, namely lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, α- and β-carotene, were quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS in fourteen genotypes of wheat, barley and tritordeum harvested in Czechia in 2014 and 2015. The highest carotenoid contents were found in yellow-grained tritordeum HT 439 (12.16μg/gDW), followed by blue-grained wheat V1-131-15 (7.46μg/gDW), and yellow-grained wheat TA 4024 (7.04μg/gDW). Comparing carotenoid contents, blue varieties had lower whereas purple ones had the same or higher levels than conventional bread wheat. Lutein was the main carotenoid found in wheat and tritordeum while zeaxanthin dominated in barley. The majority of cereals contained considerable levels of esterified forms (up to 61%) of which lutein esters prevailed. It was assessed that cereal genotype determines the proportion of free and esterified forms. High temperatures and drought during the growing season promoted carotenoid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Some Root Traits of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. as Affected by Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bayani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought stress and mycorrhizal symbiosis on the colonization, root and leaf phosphorous content, root and leaf phosphatase activity, root volume and area as well as shoot dry weight of a variety of hulless barley were evaluated using a completely randomized experimental design (CRD with 3 replications. Treatments were three levels of drought stress of 30, 60 and 90% field capacity and two levels of mycorrhizal with and without inoculation. According to the results, the highest value of leaf phosphorous (1.54 mg/g was observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis against severe drought treatment. Root phosphatase activity was highest (297.9 OD min -1 FW-1 at severe drought stress with mycorrhizal symbiosis which in comparison with mild stress in the presence of mycorrhiza showed 16.6 fold increasing. The control and non-mycorrhizal symbiosis treatments had highest root dry weight (0.091 g. The lowest root volume (0.016 cm2 observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis × severe drought treatment. Generally, Inoculation of barley seed with mycorrhiza at severe water stress could transport more phosphorous to shoot, especially leaf via inducing of leaf and root phosphatase activity. Also, in addition to supply of nutrient sources especially phosphorous for plant, mycorrhizal symbiosis could play an important role in withstanding water stress in plant via increasing of root dry weight and area.

  20. Hydrophobicity of stored (15, 35 °C), or dry-heated (120 °C) rice flour and deteriorated breadmaking properties baked with these treated rice flour/fresh gluten flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Mariko; Tabara, Aya; Ushijima, Yuki; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2016-05-01

    Rice flour was stored at 15 °C/9 months, at 35 °C/14 days, or dry-heated at 120 °C/20 min. The breadmaking properties baked with this rice flour/fresh gluten flour deteriorated. In addition, the rice flour was mixed with oil in water vigorously, and oil-binding ability was measured. Every rice flour subjected to storage or dry-heated at 120 °C showed higher hydrophobicity, owing to changes in proteins. Then, proteins in the stored rice flour were excluded with NaOH solution, and bread baked with the deproteinized rice flour showed the same breadmaking properties as unstored rice flour/fresh gluten flour. The viscoelasticity of wheat glutenin fraction decreased after the addition of dry-heated rice flour in a mixograph profile. DDD staining increased Lab in color meter, which suggested an increase in SH groups in rice protein. The increase in SH groups caused a reduction in wheat gluten protein resulting in a deterioration of rice bread quality. .