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Sample records for barley seed proteomics

  1. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...

  2. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  3. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.; Noguera, O.R.;

    2004-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise is no longer widely used for malting, but is amenable to transformation and is therefore a valuable experimental cultivar. Its characteristics include high salt tolerance, however it is also susceptible to several fungal pathogens. Proteome....... Eleven of these were identified by mass spectrometric peptide mass mapping, including an abundant chitinase implicated in defence against fungal pathogens and a small heat-shock protein. To enable a comparison with transgenic seed protein patterns, differences in spot patterns between field...... with extra nitrogen. Finally, the fate of transgene products in barley seeds was followed. Spots containing two green fluorescent protein constructs and the herbicide resistance marker phosphinothricin acetyltransferase were observed in 2D-gel patterns of transgenic seeds and identified by mass spectrometry...

  4. Proteome analysis of grain filling and seed maturation in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, Christine; Melchior, Sabrina; Roepstorff, Peter; Svensson, Birte

    2002-07-01

    In monocotyledonous plants, the process of seed development involves the deposition of reserves in the starchy endosperm and development of the embryo and aleurone layer. The final stages of seed development are accompanied by an increase in desiccation tolerance and drying out of the mature seed. We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for a time-resolved study of the changes in proteins that occur during seed development in barley (Hordeum vulgare). About 1,000 low-salt extractable protein spots could be resolved on the two-dimensional gels. Protein spots were divided into six categories according to the timing of appearance or disappearance during the 5-week period of comparison. Nineteen different proteins or protein fragments in 36 selected spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MS) or nano-electrospray tandem MS/MS. Some proteins were present throughout development (for example, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase), whereas others were associated with the early grain filling (ascorbate peroxidase) or desiccation (Cor14b) stages. Most noticeably, the development process is characterized by an accumulation of low-M(r) alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, and enzymes involved in protection against oxidative stress. We present examples of proteins not previously experimentally observed, differential extractability of thiol-bound proteins, and possible allele-specific spot variation. Our results both confirm and expand on knowledge gained from previous analyses of individual proteins involved in grain filling and maturation.

  5. From Proteomics to Structural Studies of Cytosolic/Mitochondrial-Type Thioredoxin Systems in Barley Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azar Shahpiri; Birte Svensson; Christine Finnie

    2009-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trx) are ubiquitous proteins that participate in thiol disulfide reactions via two active site cysteine residues,allowing Trx to reduce disulfide bonds in target proteins.Recent progress in proteome analysis has resulted in identification of a wide range of potential target proteins for Trx,indicating that Trx plays a key role in several aspects of cell metabolism.In contrast to other organisms,plants contain multiple forms of Trx that are classified based on their primary structures and sub-cellular localization.The reduction of cytosolic and mitochondrial types of Trx is dependenl on NADPH and catalyzed by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR).In barley,two isoforms each of Trx and NTR have been identified and investigated using proteomics,gene expression,and structural studies.This review outlines the diverse roles suggested for cytosolic/mitochondrial-type Trx systems in cereal seeds and summarizes the current knowl-edge of the barley system including recent data on function,regulation,interactions,and structure.Directions for future research are discussed.

  6. Proteome analysis of dissected barley seed tissue during germination and radicle elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine

    2007-01-01

    Cereal grains are vital components of our diet, and therefore understanding of the biology of breakage of dormancy and initiation of germination very important. These processes are far from fully understood, despite extensive studies, and no specific markers for germination have been identified...... at the protein or the DNA level. In addition, germination of barley seeds is of interest for the brewing industry since this process corresponds to the steeping process that starts the industrial malting. In the present study a proteomics approach was employed to understand the initial changes in the water...... stress, storage breakdown, folding, and housekeeping were identified and tracked through 72 h PI. APX and the other enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase) were thought to have an important function during...

  7. Proteome analysis of barley seeds: Identification of major proteins from two-dimensional gels (pl 4-7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, O.; Finnie, Christine; Laugesen, S.;

    2004-01-01

    -soluble proteins in extracts of mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds and to follow their fate during germination. About 1200 and 600 spots of p/ 4-7 were detected on 2-D gels by silver staining and colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, respectively. About 300 spots were selected for in-gel digestion...

  8. Spatio-temporal changes in germination and radical elongation of barley seeds tracked by proteome analysis of dissected embryo, aleurone layer and endosperm tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Finnie, Christine; Roepstorff, P.

    2007-01-01

    Germination of barley is accompanied by changes in water-soluble seed proteins. 2-DE was used to describe spatio-temporal proteome differences in dissected seed tissues associated with germination and the subsequent radicle elongation. Protein identification by MS enabled assignment of proteins...... protein and an ABA-induced protein, suggesting that these proteins are also involved in desiccation stress. Several redox-related proteins differed in spatio-temporal patterns at the end of germination and onset of radicle elongation. Notably, ascorbate peroxidase that was observed only in the embryo......, increased in abundance at 36 h PI. The surprisingly early changes seen in the protein profiles already 4 h after imbibition indicate that germination is programmed during seed maturation...

  9. Integration of the barley genetic and seed proteome maps for chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H and 7H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, Christine; Bagge, Merethe; Steenholdt, Torben; Østergaard, Ole; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Backes, Gunter; Jensen, Anaïs; Giese, Henriette; Larsen, Jørgen; Roepstorff, Peter; Svensson, Birte

    2009-02-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to screen spring barley cultivars for differences in seed protein profiles. In parallel, 72 microsatellite (simple sequence repeat (SSR)) markers and 11 malting quality parameters were analysed for each cultivar. Over 60 protein spots displayed cultivar variation, including peroxidases, serpins and proteins with unknown functions. Cultivars were clustered based on the spot variation matrix. Cultivars with superior malting quality grouped together, indicating malting quality to be more closely correlated with seed proteomes than with SSR profiles. Mass spectrometry showed that some spot variations were caused by amino acid differences encoded by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Coding SNPs were validated by mass spectrometry, expressed sequence tag and 2D gel data. Coding SNPs can alter function of affected proteins and may thus represent a link between cultivar traits, proteome and genome. Proteome analysis of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between a malting (Scarlett) and a feed cultivar (Meltan) enabled genetic localisation of protein phenotypes represented by 48 spot variations, involving e.g. peroxidases, serpins, alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, peroxiredoxin and a small heat shock protein, in relation to markers on the chromosome map.

  10. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...... strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research....

  11. Barley seed aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temp

  12. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  14. The seed nuclear proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight.

  15. Identification of thioredoxin h-reducible disulphides in proteomes by differential labelling of cysteines: insight into recognition and regulation of proteins in barley seeds by thioredoxin h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kenji; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2005-04-01

    Using thiol-specific fluorescence labelling, over 30 putative target proteins of thioredoxin h with diverse structures and functions have been identified in seeds of barley and other plants. To gain insight at the structural level into the specificity of target protein reduction by thioredoxin h, thioredoxin h-reducible disulphide bonds in individual target proteins are identified using a novel strategy based on differential alkylation of cysteine thiol groups by iodoacetamide and 4-vinylpyridine. This method enables the accessible cysteine side chains in the thiol form (carbamidomethylated) to be distinguished from those inaccessible or disulphide bound form (pyridylethylated) according to the mass difference in the peptide mass maps obtained by matrix-assistend laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. Using this approach, in vitro reduction of disulphides in recombinant barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) by barley thioredoxin h isoform 1 was analysed. Furthermore, the method was coupled with two-dimensional electrophoresis for convenient thioredoxin h-reducible disulphide identification in barley seed extracts without the need for protein purification or production of recombinant proteins. Mass shifts of 15 peptides, induced by treatment with thioredoxin h and differential alkylation, identified specific reduction of nine disulphides in BASI, four alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors and a protein of unknown function. Two specific disulphides, located structurally close to the alpha-amylase binding surfaces of BASI and alpha-amylase inhibitor BMAI-1 were demonstrated to be reduced to a particularly high extent. For the first time, specificity of thioredoxin h for particular disulphide bonds is demonstrated, providing a basis to study structural aspects of the recognition mechanism and regulation of target proteins.

  16. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    , the molecular mechanisms of barley defense to Fusarium graminearum at the early infection stage were studied. Antibodies against barley β-amylases were shown to be the markers for infection at proteome level and for selection of the time for proteome analysis before extensive degradation caused by the fungus...... proteases which could be responsible for proteolysis of β-amylases in the infected barley. In Chapter 4, the in vitro secretome of F. graminearum on the 2-D gels in the presence of substrates of barley or wheat grain was studied. Totally 69 unique fungal proteins identified were mainly cell....... In addition, sharper increase in fungal biomass was observed in barley than in wheat and fungal induced proteolytic fragments of - amylases were only observed in barley not in wheat. Furthermore, a barley PR17 protein and a fungal hypothetical protein were expressed in E. coli and purified in Chapter 5...

  17. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  18. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  19. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  20. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  1. Integration of the barley genetic and seed proteome maps for chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H and 7H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Bagge, Merethe; Steenholdt, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    between cultivar traits, proteome and genome. Proteome analysis of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between a malting (Scarlett) and a feed cultivar (Meltan) enabled genetic localisation of protein phenotypes represented by 48 spot variations, involving e.g. peroxidases, serpins, alpha-amylase/trypsin...... inhibitors, peroxiredoxin and a small heat shock protein, in relation to markers on the chromosome map....

  2. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli He; Chao Han; Xiaojian Yin; Hui Zhang; Pingfang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination is a complex physiological which starts from the uptake of water by the dry seeds and ends at the protrusion of the radicle.In order to elucidate the mechanism of rice seed germination,we have conducted a systematic proteomic analyses combining with 1-D via LC MS/MS,comparative 2-DE and iTRAQ techniques using the whole seed or dissected embryos and endosperm.During rice seed germination,the embryo and endosperm played different roles.The seed weight increased and complied by a triphasic model.Phase I accompanied with rapid seed water-up-take,the embryo produced gibberellic acid (GA) and diffused to aleurone and then prepared to initiate a signaling cascade to drive the reserves degradation in the starchy endosperm.Phase II is the most important stage for metabolic reactions reactivation,the reserves mobilization,cell construction respiration,cell wall loosening and coleoptile elongation,most of the metabolism related proteins sorted to different pathways were identified at 24 h after imbibition,but the metabolism of nucleotides was not active at this stage for few related proteins have been involved.The degradation of seed maturation and desiccation-associated proteins seemed to be earlier than that of the storage proteins and starch.The glycolysis was the main pathway for energy and substance providing.Phase III is another rapid water-uptake stage accompanying with TCA and aerobic respiration strengthening,cell division initiation and the radical protrusion.Interesting,both biosynthesis and degradation of the same macromolecule were concurrence even in the dry seed,which implied the sequentially matabolic and regulatory events triggered by water uptake during rice seed germination have been programmed during seed maturation.

  3. The plasma membrane proteome of germinating barley embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.;

    2009-01-01

    with amphiphilicity and low abundance of membrane proteins. A fraction enriched in plasma membranes was prepared from embryos dissected from 18 h germinated barley seeds using aqueous two-phase partitioning. Reversed-phase chromatography on C-4 resin performed in micro-spin columns with stepwise elution by 2-propanol...... was used to reduce soluble protein contamination and enrich for hydrophobic proteins. Sixty-one proteins in 14 SDS-PAGE bands were identified by LC-MS/MS and database searches. The identifications provide new insight into the plasma membrane functions in seed germination....

  4. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Songbo; Tan, Cong; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling). Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%), intron retention (32%-34%) and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21%) were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  5. Dynamic Proteomic Insights of Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Galland; Romain Huguet; Erwann Arc; Gwendal Cueff; Dominique Job; Lo(i)c Rajjou

    2012-01-01

    Proteome analysis,which involves the identification and characterization of expressed proteins,is a powerful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins.Furthermore,by providing a systematic and without any a priori mean for large-scale identification of cellular proteins,proteomics is expected to accelerate discoveries in complex processes such as plant development.Our research activity is mainly focused on the "Functional proteomics" approach in the field of seed biology.We are developing a proteome analysis of the model plant,Arabidopsis thaliana,in order to investigate seed development,dormancy,germination and longevity and identify related changes in the seed proteome.Combined approaches associating classical 2D gel-based proteome and dynamic radiolabeled proteome disclosed data regarding protein turnover and protein stability (http://www.seed-proteome.com).The selective translation of mRNAs emerges as an important mechanism regulating molecular functions involved in the control of seed germination.

  6. Proteomes of the barley aleurone layer: A model system for plant signalling and protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, Christine; Andersen, Birgit; Shahpiri, Azar; Svensson, Birte

    2011-05-01

    The cereal aleurone layer is of major importance due to its nutritional properties as well as its central role in seed germination and industrial malting. Cereal seed germination involves mobilisation of storage reserves in the starchy endosperm to support seedling growth. In response to gibberellic acid produced by the embryo, the aleurone layer synthesises hydrolases that are secreted to the endosperm for the degradation of storage products. The barley aleurone layer can be separated from the other seed tissues and maintained in culture, allowing the study of the effect of added signalling molecules in an isolated system. These properties have led to its use as a model system for the study of plant signalling and germination. More recently, proteome analysis of the aleurone layer has provided new insight into this unique tissue including identification of plasma membrane proteins and targeted analysis of germination-related changes and the thioredoxin system. Here, analysis of intracellular and secreted proteomes reveals features of the aleurone layer system that makes it promising for investigations of plant protein secretion mechanisms.

  7. Fungicides, seed dresser adjuvants and storage time in the control of Drechslera teres in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In experiments conducted in laboratory, the effect of fungicides, seed dresser adjuvants and storage time in the control of Drechslera teres in seeds of barley cultivar BRS Elis, with 58% incidence, was quantified. Fungicides indicated by barley research (carboxin + thiram, difenoconazole and triadimenol compared with the mixture carbendazim + iprodione were tested. As seed dresser adjuvants, water (500m mL/100 Kg and a polymer (150 mL/100 Kg were used. Treated seeds were stored in paper bags and kept in the refrigerator at 5ºC. At 30-day intervals during six months, seeds were plated on semi-selective Reis's medium (1983. The best control was obtained by the mixtures carboxin + thiram and carbendazim + iprodione and the polymer as seed dresser. The control efficiency was improved by the storage time without negatively affecting seed germination. Due to the transmission efficiency, the fungus eradication in seeds should be pursued.

  8. Proteomes of the barley aleurone layer: A model system for plant signalling and protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Andersen, Birgit; Shahpiri, Azar

    2011-01-01

    The cereal aleurone layer is of major importance due to its nutritional properties as well as its central role in seed germination and industrial malting. Cereal seed germination involves mobilisation of storage reserves in the starchy endosperm to support seedling growth. In response to gibberel......The cereal aleurone layer is of major importance due to its nutritional properties as well as its central role in seed germination and industrial malting. Cereal seed germination involves mobilisation of storage reserves in the starchy endosperm to support seedling growth. In response...... to gibberellic acid produced by the embryo, the aleurone layer synthesises hydrolases that are secreted to the endosperm for the degradation of storage products. The barley aleurone layer can be separated from the other seed tissues and maintained in culture, allowing the study of the effect of added signalling...... molecules in an isolated system. These properties have led to its use as a model system for the study of plant signalling and germination. More recently, proteome analysis of the aleurone layer has provided new insight into this unique tissue including identification of plasma membrane proteins and targeted...

  9. Proteomics of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Demol, H.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2003-01-01

    To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and down-

  10. Proteomics and posttranslational proteomics of seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajjou, Loïc; Belghazi, Maya; Catusse, Julie; Ogé, Laurent; Arc, Erwann; Godin, Béatrice; Chibani, Kamel; Ali-Rachidi, Sonia; Collet, Boris; Grappin, Philippe; Jullien, Marc; Gallardo, Karine; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The seed is the dispersal unit of plants and must survive the vagaries of the environment. It is the object of intense genetic and genomic studies because processes related to seed quality affect crop yield and the seed itself provides food for humans and animals. Presently, the general aim of postgenomics analyses is to understand the complex biochemical and molecular processes underlying seed quality, longevity, dormancy, and vigor. Due to advances in functional genomics, the recent past years have seen a tremendous progress in our understanding of several aspects of seed development and germination. Here, we describe the proteomics protocols (from protein extraction to mass spectrometry) that can be used to investigate several aspects of seed physiology, including germination and its hormonal regulation, dormancy release, and seed longevity. These techniques can be applied to the study of both model plants (such as Arabidopsis) and crops.

  11. Homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid and barley seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, B; Koning, G; Lok, K Him

    2003-07-01

    The potentisation process by which homeopathic preparations are produced raises the concern that these medicines have placebo effects only, since they theoretically no longer contain active molecules of the diluted substance. Plant models offer a method of examining the efficacy of homeopathically prepared solutions. This study examined the effects of homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid (HGA3) on the germination performance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds. The effect of HGA3 (4-200 cH) on seed germination rate and seedling development was compared to that of the most commonly used form of gibberellic acid (GA3), 0.5 g l(-1), and control (distilled water). The extent and type of response was dependent on the vigour level of the seedlot. Treating seeds from three vigour groups in HGA3 consistently resulted in larger seedlings. High-vigour seeds treated with HGA3 4, 30 and 200 cH germinated faster, and roots of medium-vigour seedlots treated in HGA3 15 cH were longer. Biphasic effects of HGA3 were also demonstrated. As a plant model, germinating barley seeds successfully demonstrated the ability of HGA3 to produce a biological response.

  12. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of α-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, S.; Østergaard, O.

    2007-01-01

    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... identified only by immunostaining. Mass spectrometry identified 12 full-length forms and 12 fragments from the cultivar Barke. Products of both alpha-amylase 2 entries co-migrated in five full-length and one fragment spot. The alpha-amylase abundance and the number of fragments increased during germination...... and near the C-terminus. Only two shorter fragments were identified of the other alpha-amylase 2 (gi|166985). The 2D gels of dissected tissues showed alpha-amylase degradation to be confined to endosperm. In contrast, the aleurone layer contained essentially only full-length alpha-amylase forms. While only...

  13. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of alpha-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina; Østergaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... increased during germination. Assessing the fragment minimum chain length by peptide mass fingerprinting suggested that alpha-amylase 2 ( gi vertical bar 4699831) initially was cleaved just prior to domain B that protrudes from the (beta alpha)(8)-barrel between beta-strand 3 and alpha-helix 3, followed...... by cleavage on the C-terminal side of domain B and near the C-terminus. Only two shorter fragments were identified of the other alpha-amylase 2 (gi vertical bar 166985). The 2D gels of dissected tissues showed alpha-amylase degradation to be confined to endosperm. In contrast, the aleurone layer contained...

  14. Radioprotective effects of ascorbic acid in barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, B.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the radioprotective effects of a naturally occurring reducing agent, ascorbic acid, on seeds (caryopses) of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. emend Lam. Seeds were soaked either before or after ..gamma.. or fission neutron irradiation in distilled water or ascorbic acid solutions ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 1.00 M. Results are reported as percentage germination, seedling height, seedling growth reduction, and (in one experiment) percent of cells with chromosome aberrations. As evidenced by both reduced germination and seedling growth, ascorbic acid was toxic when seeds were soaked for 1 hr at ambient temperature prior to irradiation and then planted immediately. When seeds were soaked in ascorbic acid before irradiation and soaked after irradiation in air-bubbled water at 0/sup 0/C for 18 hr, the toxicity disappeared, and a protective effect (which increased with increasing ascorbic acid concentration) was observed for ..gamma.. and, to a lesser extent, for neutron irradiation. Additional studies suggested that the protective effect was related to reduced hydration of the embryos of seeds soaked in ascorbic acid. Also, no radioprotective effect was observed when seeds were presoaked for 2 or 16 hr in 0.01 M ascorbic acid solutions buffered at pH 3 or pH 7. A protective effect was observed for seeds of 1.5 percent water content soaked after irradiation in an oxygen-bubbled ascorbic acid solution of 0.5 M but was not observed for seeds soaked in nitrogen-bubbled ascorbic acid. The protective effect against oxygen-dependent damage may be a result of interaction of ascorbic acid with radiation-induced free radicals.

  15. Effect of pulsed electric field on the germination of barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Dejmek, Petr; Panarese, Valentina;

    2012-01-01

    This study explores metabolic responses of germinating barley seeds upon the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Malting barley seeds were steeped in aerated water for 24 h and PEF-treated at varying voltages (0 (control), 110, 160, 240, 320, 400 and 480 V). The seeds were then allowed...... to finish germination in saturated air. It is shown that exposure of germinating barley to PEF affects radicle emergence without significantly affecting the seeds’ gross metabolic activity, as quantified by isothermal calorimetry. An exploration of protein 2-DE profiles of both the embryo and the starchy...

  16. Viability of barley seeds after long-term exposure to outer side of international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi C.; Elena, Shagimardanova; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kihara, Makoto; Hoki, Takehiro; Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-09-01

    Barley seeds were exposed to outer space for 13 months in a vented metal container without a climate control system to assess the risk of physiological and genetic mutation during long-term storage in space. The space-stored seeds (S0 generation), with an 82% germination rate in 50 seeds, lost about 20% of their weight after the exposure. The germinated seeds showed normal growth, heading, and ripening. The harvested seeds (S1 generation) also germinated and reproduced (S2 generation) as did the ground-stored seeds. The culm length, ear length, number of seed, grain weight, and fertility of the plants from the space-stored seeds were not significantly different from those of the ground-stored seeds in each of the S0 and S1 generation. Furthermore, the S1 and S2 space-stored seeds respectively showed similar β-glucan content to those of the ground-stored seeds. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis with 16 primer combinations showed no specific fragment that appears or disappears significantly in the DNA isolated from the barley grown from the space-stored seeds. Though these data are derived from nine S0 space-stored seeds in a single exposure experiment, the results demonstrate the preservation of barley seeds in outer space for 13 months without phenotypic or genotypic changes and with healthy and vigorous growth in space.

  17. Proteomic analysis of mature Lagenaria siceraria seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Neha; Tajmul, Md; Yadav, Savita

    2015-04-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) class belongs to Magnoliopsida family curcurbitaceae that is a traditionally used medicinal plant. Fruit of this plant are widely used as a therapeutic vegetable in various diseases, all over the Asia and Africa. Various parts of this plant like fruit, seed, leaf and root are used as alternative medicine. In the present study, primarily, we have focused on proteomic analysis of L. siceraria seed using phenol extraction method for protein isolation. Twenty-four colloidal coomassie blue stained protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) after resolving on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Out of 24 identified protein spots, four were grouped as unidentified proteins which clearly suggest that less work has been done in the direction of plant seed proteomics. These proteins have been found to implicate in various functions such as biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins, serine/threonine kinase activity, plant disease resistance and transferase activity against insects by means of insecticidal and larval growth inhibitory, anti-HIV, antihelmintic and antimicrobial properties. By Blast2GO annotation analysis, amongst the identified proteins of L. siceraria, molecular function for majority of proteins has indispensable role in catalytic activity, few in binding activity and antioxidant activity; it is mostly distributed in cell, organelle, membrane and macromolecular complex. Most of them involved in biological process such as metabolic process, cellular process, response to stimulus, single organism process, signalling, biological recognition, cellular component organization or biogenesis and localization.

  18. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  19. Barley seed coating with free and immobilized alkaline phosphatase to improve P uptake and plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Izquierdo, María Concepción; Ortega Santamaría, Natividad; Pérez Mateos, Manuel; Busto Núñez, Mª Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Coating barley seeds with free and immobilized alkaline phosphatase was investigated as a potential means to enhance plant utilization of accumulated soil phosphorus (P). Two coating techniques were studied: film-coating and pelleting. The highest phosphatase activity retention in the coating layer, ranging from 0·48 to 0·67, was observed when seeds were film-coated with phosphatase–polyresorcinol complex (PPC). The germination of seeds film-coated or pelleted with alkaline phosph...

  20. Barley peroxidase isozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

  1. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...... was obtained.The absence of cluster sharing allows the recognition in the barley plant of 8 mutually exclusive mutant sectors which never had a mutant cluster in common. The anatomical analysis proves that the barley embryo contains at least 6 separate shoot meristems or prospective shoot meristems, which...... will constitute mutually exclusive mutant sectors in the plant. The combined genetical and anatomical analysis reveals that in large seeds there are always 9 meristems leading to 9 mutually exclusive mutant sectors. Up to 7 additional meristems leading to mutually exclusive mutant sectors can be present...

  2. Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Demol, H.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2001-01-01

    To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and down-

  3. Proteomic and activity profiles of ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in germinating barley embryo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Shahpiri, Azar; Finnie, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes involved in redox control are important during seed germination and seedling growth. Ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in barley embryo extracts were monitored both by 2D-gel electrophoresis and activity measurements from 4 to 144 h post imbibition (PI). Strikingly different activity...... profiles were observed. No ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was present in mature seeds but activity was detected after 24 h PI and increased 14-fold up to 144 h PI. In contrast, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) activity was present at 4 h PI and first decreased by 9-fold until 72 h PI followed by a 5...

  4. Cy5 maleimide labelling for sensitive detection of free thiols in native protein extracts: identification of seed proteins targeted by barley thioredoxin h isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kenji; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2004-03-01

    Barley thioredoxin h isoforms HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2 differ in temporal and spatial distribution and in kinetic properties. Target proteins of HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2 were identified in mature seeds and in seeds after 72 h of germination. Improvement of the established method for identification of thioredoxin-targeted proteins based on two-dimensional electrophoresis and fluorescence labelling of thiol groups was achieved by application of a highly sensitive Cy5 maleimide dye and large-format two-dimensional gels, resulting in a 10-fold increase in the observed number of labelled protein spots. The technique also provided information about accessible thiol groups in the proteins identified in the barley seed proteome. In total, 16 different putative target proteins were identified from 26 spots using tryptic in-gel digestion, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS and database search. HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2 were shown to have similar target specificity. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor, previously demonstrated to be reduced by both HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2, was among the identified target proteins, confirming the suitability of the method. Several alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, some of which are already known as target proteins of thioredoxin h, and cyclophilin known as a target protein of m-type thioredoxin were also identified. Lipid transfer protein, embryospecific protein, three chitinase isoenzymes, a single-domain glyoxalase-like protein and superoxide dismutase were novel identifications of putative target proteins, suggesting new physiological roles of thioredoxin h in barley seeds.

  5. Quantitative analysis of proteome extracted from barley crowns grown under different drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan O; Škodáček, Zbynek; Kosová, Klára; Pitelková, Iva; Vítámvás, Jan; Renaut, Jenny; Prášil, Ilja T

    2015-01-01

    Barley cultivar Amulet was used to study the quantitative proteome changes through different drought conditions utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Plants were cultivated for 10 days under different drought conditions. To obtain control and differentially drought-treated plants, the soil water content was kept at 65, 35, and 30% of soil water capacity (SWC), respectively. Osmotic potential, water saturation deficit, (13)C discrimination, and dehydrin accumulation were monitored during sampling of the crowns for proteome analysis. Analysis of the 2D-DIGE gels revealed 105 differentially abundant spots; most were differentially abundant between the controls and drought-treated plants, and 25 spots displayed changes between both drought conditions. Seventy-six protein spots were successfully identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The most frequent functional categories of the identified proteins can be put into the groups of: stress-associated proteins, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as DNA and RNA regulation and processing. Their possible role in the response of barley to drought stress is discussed. Our study has shown that under drought conditions barley cv. Amulet decreased its growth and developmental rates, displayed a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, and exhibited increased levels of several protective proteins. Comparison of the two drought treatments revealed plant acclimation to milder drought (35% SWC); but plant damage under more severe drought treatment (30% SWC). The results obtained revealed that cv. Amulet is sensitive to drought stress. Additionally, four spots revealing a continuous and significant increase with decreasing SWC (UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, and two non-identified) could be good candidates for testing of their protein phenotyping capacity together with proteins that were significantly distinguished in both drought treatments.

  6. cDNA, amino acid carbohydrate sequence of barley seed-specific peroxidase BP 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, A.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Harthill, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The major peroxidase of barley seed BP 1 was characterized. Previous studies showed a low carbohydrate content, low specific activity and tissue-specific expression, and suggested that this basic peroxidase could be particularly useful in the elucidation of the structure-function relationship...... plant modified-type structure, Man-alpha-1-6(Xyl-beta-1-2)Man-beta-1-4GlcNAc-beta-1-4(Fuc-alpha-1-3)GlcNAc. The BP 1 gene was RFLP-mapped on barley chromosome 3, and we propose Prx5 as the name for this new peroxidase locus....

  7. Molecular Clustering Interrelationships and Carbohydrate Conformation in Hull and Seeds Among Barley Cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N Liu; P Yu

    2011-12-31

    The objective of this study was to use molecular spectral analyses with the diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT) bioanlytical technique to study carbohydrate conformation features, molecular clustering and interrelationships in hull and seed among six barley cultivars (AC Metcalfe, CDC Dolly, McLeod, CDC Helgason, CDC Trey, CDC Cowboy), which had different degradation kinetics in rumen. The molecular structure spectral analyses in both hull and seed involved the fingerprint regions of ca. 1536-1484 cm{sup -1} (attributed mainly to aromatic lignin semicircle ring stretch), ca. 1293-1212 cm{sup -1} (attributed mainly to cellulosic compounds in the hull), ca. 1269-1217 cm{sup -1} (attributed mainly to cellulosic compound in the seeds), and ca. 1180-800 cm{sup -1} (attributed mainly to total CHO C-O stretching vibrations) together with an agglomerative hierarchical cluster (AHCA) and principal component spectral analyses (PCA). The results showed that the DRIFT technique plus AHCA and PCA molecular analyses were able to reveal carbohydrate conformation features and identify carbohydrate molecular structure differences in both hull and seeds among the barley varieties. The carbohydrate molecular spectral analyses at the region of ca. 1185-800 cm{sup -1} together with the AHCA and PCA were able to show that the barley seed inherent structures exhibited distinguishable differences among the barley varieties. CDC Helgason had differences from AC Metcalfe, MeLeod, CDC Cowboy and CDC Dolly in carbohydrate conformation in the seed. Clear molecular cluster classes could be distinguished and identified in AHCA analysis and the separate ellipses could be grouped in PCA analysis. But CDC Helgason had no distinguished differences from CDC Trey in carbohydrate conformation. These carbohydrate conformation/structure difference could partially explain why the varieties were different in digestive behaviors in animals. The molecular spectroscopy

  8. Proteome Analysis of Poplar Seed Vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Seed vigor is a complex property that determines the seed's potential for rapid uniform emergence and subsequent growth. However, the mechanism for change in seed vigor is poorly understood. The seeds of poplar (Populus × Canadensis Moench), which are short-lived, were stored at 30 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity for different periods of time (0-90 days) to obtain different vigor seeds (from 95 to 0% germination). With decreasing seed vigor, the temperature range of seed germination became narrower; the respiration rate of the seeds decreased markedly, while the relative electrolyte leakage increased markedly, both levelling off after 45 days. A total of 81 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (≥ 1.5-fold, P seeds with different vigor. Of the identified 65 proteins, most belonged to the groups involved in metabolism (23%), protein synthesis and destination (22%), energy (18%), cell defense and rescue (17%), and storage protein (15%). These proteins accounted for 95% of all the identified proteins. During seed aging, 53 and 6 identified proteins consistently increased and decreased in abundance, respectively, and they were associated with metabolism (22%), protein synthesis and destination (22%), energy (19%), cell defense and rescue (19%), storage proteins (15%), and cell growth and structure (3%). These data show that the decrease in seed vigor (aging) is an energy-dependent process, which requires protein synthesis and degradation as well as cellular defense and rescue.

  9. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Barley Seed ß-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leah, R.; Kigel, J.; Svendsen, I.

    1995-01-01

    A 60-kDa ß-glucosidase (BGQ60) was purified and characterized from seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). BGQ60 catalytic activity was restricted to the cleavage of short-chain oligosaccharides composed of(1, 2) -,(1, 2, 3) -, and/or(1, 2, 3, 4) -ß-linked glucose or mannose units. These oligosacch......A 60-kDa ß-glucosidase (BGQ60) was purified and characterized from seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). BGQ60 catalytic activity was restricted to the cleavage of short-chain oligosaccharides composed of(1, 2) -,(1, 2, 3) -, and/or(1, 2, 3, 4) -ß-linked glucose or mannose units....... These oligosaccharides are the primary products of endosperm cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis by other enzymes. In keeping with this, complete hydrolysis of the major polysaccharide of barley starchy endosperm cell wall, (1-3,1-4)-ß-glucan, to free glucose was shown to require the concerted action of endo-(1-3,1-4)-ß...... interrupted by 9 introns. The complete nucleotide sequence of the bgq60 structural gene represents the first characterized plant gene encoding a ß-glucosidase. The barley BGQ60 is a novel plant ß-glucosidase with a hitherto undescribed specific enzymatic activity. The possible biological functions of BGQ60...

  10. Evidence for osmotic regulation of hydrolytic enzyme production in germinating barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R L; Armstrong, J E

    1971-08-01

    alpha-Amylase levels in intact seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Himalaya) reach a maximum at 3 to 4 days of germination while gibberellin levels continue to increase beyond 6 days of germination. In contrast to its effect on half seeds, gibberellic acid does not increase the total amount of alpha-amylase produced in germinating seeds. The inability of gibberellic acid to stimulate alpha-amylase production is not related to its availability; rather, evidence suggests that a factor(s) in whole seeds prevents further enhancement of alpha-amylase formation and accumulation. Hydrolysis products accumulate in the subaleurone space of the endosperm of germinating seeds up to concentrations of 570 milliosmolar. Chromatography of these hydrolysis products indicate the presence of maltose and glucose. Calculations based on reducing sugar determinations show that glucose accounts for as much as 57% of the solutes present in the endosperm fluid. Both maltose and glucose in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 M effectively inhibit the production of alpha-amylase by isolated barley aleurone layers. This inhibition is quantitatively similar to that brought about by solutions of polyethylene glycol and mannitol. On the basis of these data we propose that hydrolysis products which accumulate in the starchy endosperm of germinating seeds function to regulate the production of hydrolytic enzymes by the aleurone layer.

  11. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid 1-1: an endosperm-specific, filial determinant of seed total phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboy, Victor; Cichy, Karen; Peterson, Kevin; Reichman, Sarah; Sompong, Utumporn; Srinives, Peerasak; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (Ins P6 or "phytic acid") typically accounts for 75 (± 10%) of seed total phosphorus (P). In some cases, genetic blocks in seed Ins P6 accumulation can also alter the distribution or total amount of seed P. In nonmutant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) caryopses, ~80% of Ins P6 and total P accumulate in the aleurone layer, the outer layer of the endosperm, with the remainder in the germ. In barley low phytic acid 1-1 (Hvlpa1-1) seed, both endosperm Ins P6 and total P are reduced (~45% and ~25%, respectively), but germs are phenotypically wild type. This translates into a net reduction in whole-seed total P of ~15%. Nutrient culture studies demonstrate that the reduction in endosperm total P is not due to a reduction in the uptake of P into the maternal plant. Genetic tests (analyses of testcross and F2 seed) reveal that the Hvlpa1-1 genotype of the filial seed conditions the seed total P reduction; sibling seed in the same head of barley that differ in their Hvlpa1-1 genotype (heterozygous vs. homozygous recessive) differ in their total P (normal vs. reduced, respectively). Therefore, Hvlpa1 functions as a seed-specific or filial determinant of barley endosperm total P.

  12. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared...... germination responses from two test parameters, root elongation and seed germination (sprouts elongation) of the barley (Hordeum vulgare). 2nd objective was to evaluate sewage sludge pre-treatments at batch-scale of sludge samples from two WWTPs using anaerobic digestion, and thermal and ozonation pre...

  13. A Role for Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by NADPH Oxidases in the Embryo and Aleurone Cells in Barley Seed Germination

    OpenAIRE

    Yushi Ishibashi; Shinsuke Kasa; Masatsugu Sakamoto; Nozomi Aoki; Kyohei Kai; Takashi Yuasa; Atsushi Hanada; Shinjiro Yamaguchi; Mari Iwaya-Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote the germination of several seeds, and antioxidants suppress it. However, questions remain regarding the role and production mechanism of ROS in seed germination. Here, we focused on NADPH oxidases, which produce ROS. After imbibition, NADPH oxidase mRNAs were expressed in the embryo and in aleurone cells of barley seed; these expression sites were consistent with the sites of ROS production in the seed after imbibition. To clarify the role of NADPH oxidas...

  14. Improvement of seedling establishment under flood condition by seed coating with molybdenum compounds for wheat and barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Hara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat and barley are often cultivated also in paddy fields in winter in Japan. The drainage of paddy fields is often poor. The seedling establishment of wheat and barley is more prone to become poor if it rains heavily after sowing. The flooding damage on seedling establishment is thought to be caused by many factors. The generation of sulfide ions in flooded and reduced soil is thought to be one factor of the flooding damage. In this study, the effect of seed coating with molybdenum compounds, which suppress the generation of sulfide ions, on the flooding damage of wheat and barley seedling establishment. Two poorly soluble molybdenum compounds were coated on wheat or barley seeds at different amounts. Coated seeds were sown in soil and soon flooded for 2 d at 20 °C. When seeds were not coated with molybdenum compounds, rates of seedling establishment were no more than 32%. However, when any molybdenum compounds of .05–.5 mol-Mo kg−1 were coated, seedling establishment was significantly improved and rates of seedling establishment were no less than 54%. However, when sown seed were not flooded, the establishment rates of the seeds, which were coated with a molybdenum compound of no less than .1 or .2 mol-Mo kg-1, were significantly decreased. Accordingly, coating of molybdenum compounds could improve the seedling establishment of coated seeds under flooded condition, but might impair the seedling establishment of coated seeds under unflooded condition.

  15. Proteomics of seed development, desiccation tolerance, germination and vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Song-Quan; Møller, Ian Max

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics, the large-scale study of the total complement of proteins in a given sample, has been applied to all aspects of seed biology mainly using model species such as Arabidopsis or important agricultural crops such as corn and rice. Proteins extracted from the sample have typically been separated and quantified by 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify the proteins in the gel spots. In this way, qualitative and quantitative changes in the proteome during seed development, desiccation tolerance, germination, dormancy release, vigor alteration and responses to environmental factors have all been studied. Many proteins or biological processes potentially important for each seed process have been highlighted by these studies, which greatly expands our knowledge of seed biology. Proteins that have been identified to be particularly important for at least two of the seed processes are involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the cytoskeleton, glycolysis, protein biosynthesis, post-translational modifications, methionine metabolism, and late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins. It will be useful for molecular biologists and molecular plant breeders to identify and study genes encoding particularly interesting target proteins with the aim to improve the yield, stress tolerance or other critical properties of our crop species.

  16. A Role for Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by NADPH Oxidases in the Embryo and Aleurone Cells in Barley Seed Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi Ishibashi

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS promote the germination of several seeds, and antioxidants suppress it. However, questions remain regarding the role and production mechanism of ROS in seed germination. Here, we focused on NADPH oxidases, which produce ROS. After imbibition, NADPH oxidase mRNAs were expressed in the embryo and in aleurone cells of barley seed; these expression sites were consistent with the sites of ROS production in the seed after imbibition. To clarify the role of NADPH oxidases in barley seed germination, we examined gibberellic acid (GA / abscisic acid (ABA metabolism and signaling in barley seeds treated with diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. DPI significantly suppressed germination, and suppressed GA biosynthesis and ABA catabolism in embryos. GA, but not ABA, induced NADPH oxidase activity in aleurone cells. Additionally, DPI suppressed the early induction of α-amylase by GA in aleurone cells. These results suggest that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases promote GA biosynthesis in embryos, that GA induces and activates NADPH oxidases in aleurone cells, and that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases induce α-amylase in aleurone cells. We conclude that the ROS generated by NADPH oxidases regulate barley seed germination through GA / ABA metabolism and signaling in embryo and aleurone cells.

  17. A Role for Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by NADPH Oxidases in the Embryo and Aleurone Cells in Barley Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yushi; Kasa, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Masatsugu; Aoki, Nozomi; Kai, Kyohei; Yuasa, Takashi; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote the germination of several seeds, and antioxidants suppress it. However, questions remain regarding the role and production mechanism of ROS in seed germination. Here, we focused on NADPH oxidases, which produce ROS. After imbibition, NADPH oxidase mRNAs were expressed in the embryo and in aleurone cells of barley seed; these expression sites were consistent with the sites of ROS production in the seed after imbibition. To clarify the role of NADPH oxidases in barley seed germination, we examined gibberellic acid (GA) / abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and signaling in barley seeds treated with diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. DPI significantly suppressed germination, and suppressed GA biosynthesis and ABA catabolism in embryos. GA, but not ABA, induced NADPH oxidase activity in aleurone cells. Additionally, DPI suppressed the early induction of α-amylase by GA in aleurone cells. These results suggest that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases promote GA biosynthesis in embryos, that GA induces and activates NADPH oxidases in aleurone cells, and that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases induce α-amylase in aleurone cells. We conclude that the ROS generated by NADPH oxidases regulate barley seed germination through GA / ABA metabolism and signaling in embryo and aleurone cells.

  18. Proteomic analysis of early seed development in Pinus massoniana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Yan; Zhao, Zhen-Zhou; Zheng, Ren-Hua; Shi, Jisen

    2012-05-01

    Understanding seed development is important for large-scale propagation and germplasm conservation for the Masson pine. We undertook a proteomic analysis of Masson pine seeds during the early stages of embryogenesis. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) was used to quantify the differences in protein expression during early seed development. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, we identified proteins from 43 gel spots that had been excised from preparative "pick" gels. Proteins involved in carbon metabolism were identified and were predominantly expressed at higher levels during the cleavage polyembryony and columnar embryo stages. Functional annotation of one seed protein revealed it involvement in programmed cell death and translation of selective mRNAs, which may play an important role in subordinate embryo elimination and suspensor degeneration in polyembryonic seed gymnosperms. Other identified proteins were associated with protein folding, nitrogen metabolism, disease/defense response, and protein storage, synthesis and stabilization. The comprehensive protein expression profiles generated by this study will provide new insights into the complex developmental process of seed development in Masson pine.

  19. A proteomics-based study of endogenous and microbial xylanases and xylanase inhibitors associated with barley grains used for liquid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida

    The mature barley grain contains a complement of enzymes that are synthesized during seed development for degradation of seed storage reserves during germination. These enzyme activities (first wave enzymes) are considered important for maximizing nutrient digestibility in food and feed. Several...... of these enzyme activities between barley cultivars, as well as the distribution and composition of the residing commensal fungal community and the grain surface associated proteins. To obtain new insight into the interplay between barley grains and the colonizing fungi, we set out to study the activities...

  20. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds containing high levels of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative evaluation of gene expression levels can lead to improved understanding of the gene networks underlying traits of economic importance. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley seeds that contain high levels of starch is of vital importance for analysing the expression of ca...

  1. Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend; Stougaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    proteomics data. Two characteristics of legumes are the high seed protein level and the nitrogen fixing symbiosis. Thus, the majority of the proteomics studies in Lotus have been performed on seed/pod and nodule/root tissues in order to create proteome reference maps and to enable comparative analyses within...... Lotus tissues or toward similar tissues from other legume species. More recently, N-glycan structures and compositions have been determined from mature Lotus seeds using glycomics and glycoproteomics, and finally, phosphoproteomics has been employed...... and annotated Lotus japonicus (Lotus) genome has been essential for obtaining high-quality protein identifications from proteomics studies. Furthermore, additional genomics and transcriptomics studies from several Lotus species/ecotypes support putative gene structures and these can be further supported using...

  2. Proteomic Analysis the Seed Development of Jatropha curcas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Liu; Setsuko Komatsu; Qing Yang; Shihua Shen

    2012-01-01

    Differential proteomic analysis and cellular structure observation were employed to analyze the developing seeds at 5,10,15,20,25 and 30 days after flowering.Results revealed that 214 of 355 protein spots with significant changes in abundance were identified through MALDI/TOF-TOF MS.Energy and metabolism related proteins were notable abundant in developing Jatropha curcas seed,accounting for 47% and 36% of the identified differentially expressed proteins respectively.The expressional profiles of energy and metabolic proteins identified in this study ensured a comprehensive overview on the carbon flux to lipid accumulation from the early to late stages of seed development.It seems that glycolysis and OPP are the major pathways for producing carbon flux in developing J.curcas seeds.These data suggested that sugar mobilization from glucose to coenzyme A and its acyl derivative is collaboration between the cytosol and plastids and that temporal control of enzymes and pathways extends beyond transcription.

  3. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  4. Comparison of frequency distributions of doubled haploid and single seed descent lines in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, T M; Reinbergs, E; Park, S J

    1982-09-01

    Both doubled haploid (DH) and single seed descent (SSD) methods were used to derive homozygous lines from two crosses of barley. The frequency distributions of grain yield, heading date, and plant height of the DH and SSD lines were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov twosample test and Wald-Wolfowitz runs test. It was found that the DH lines distributed in the same manner as the SSD lines with respect to the three characters. The results indicated that although the SSD method had more opportunity for recombination than the DH method, it did not produce a sample of recombinants which differed significantly from the DH sample; thus both methods were equally efficient for use in deriving homozygous lines from F1 hybrids in a relatively short time.

  5. THE STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF AN ALTERNATING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD OF COMMERCIAL FREQUENCY ON CROP SEED QUALITY OF SPRING BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobova M. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of the presowing seed treatment with alternating electromagnet field of the commercial frequency (EMF CF 50 Hz is economically efficient. The use of the EMF CF 50 Hz in the unit with ring pole pieces allows increasing the germinating energy and power. The electromagnet seed treatment in the units with ring pole pieces is the perspective process of the presowing treatment which does not make unhealthy influence on the operating personnel. At the presowing treatment we have to take into account three factors, they are the arrangement of seeds in the working chamber, the time of treatment and the seed humidity. In this article the authors recommend to promote the unit consisting of a magnetic circuit with ring pole pieces of the rectangular cross-section, a magnetizing coil and an embedding of the non-magnetic material in the working chamber which allows increasing the germinating energy of spring barley by 10% and the germination by 7%. As field experiences have shown the highest seed germination and good crop capacity take place in the work chamber zone with boundaries R1=0,012 m and R2=0,035 m at seed humidity from 12% till 18% and the time of seed treatment is 0,9-2,75 s. The addition to crop capacity has run to 7% as a result of the spring barley treatment

  6. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  7. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anjali, E-mail: joshianjali1982@gmail.com; Sharma, Arti [Centre For Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Nayyar, Harsh [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Verma, Gaurav [Dr. SS Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-08-28

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  8. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    conditions continue to be key to discovering the roles of individual protein forms and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation. Activity-based proteomics, particularly in combination with new gene editing technologies, has great potential to elucidate the network of enzymes in barley...

  9. Proteomic analysis of seed germination under salt stress in soybeans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan XU; Rui FAN; Rui ZHENG; Chun-mei LI; De-yue YU

    2011-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is a salt-sensitive crop,and its production is severely affected by saline soils.Therefore,the response of soybean seeds to salt stress during germination was investigated at both physiological and proteomic levels.The salt-tolerant cultivar Lee68 and salt-sensitive cultivar N2899 were exposed to 100 mmol/L NaCl until radicle protrusion from the seed coat.In both cultivars,the final germination percentage was not affected by salt,but the mean germination times of Lee68 and N2899 were delayed by 0.3 and 1.0 d,respectively,compared with controls.In response to salt stress,the abscisic acid content increased,and gibberellic acid (GA1+3) and isopentenyladenosine decreased.Indole-3-acetic acid increased in Lee68,but remained unchanged in N2899.The proteins extracted from germinated seeds were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE),followed by Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 staining.About 350 protein spots from 2-DE gels of pH range 3 to 10 and 650 spots from gels of pH range 4 to 7 were reproducibly resolved,of which 18 protein spots showed changes in abundance as a result of salt stress in both cultivars.After matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of the differentially expressed proteins,the peptide mass fingerprint was searched against the soybean UniGene database and nine proteins were successfully identified.Ferritin and 20S proteasome subunit β-6 were up-regulated in both cultivars.Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase,glutathione S-transferase (GST) 9,GST 10,and seed maturation protein PM36 were down-regulated in Lee68 by salt,but still remained at a certain level.However,these proteins were present in lower levels in control N2899 and were up-regulated under salt stress.The results indicate that these proteins might have important roles in defense mechanisms against salt stress during soybean seed germination.

  10. On the modulation effect of pulsing and static magnetic fields and mechanical vibrations on barley seed hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyan, Armine; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2004-01-01

    The changes of wet and dry weights of barley seed in different periods of swelling were studied in seeds treated with Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF EMF), Static Magnetic Fields (SMF) and Mechanical Vibrations (MV) in cold (4 degrees C) and warm (20 degrees C) distilled water as well as in seeds non-treated (control). The metabolic dependent seed hydration, dry weight loss and water binding in seed were modulated by preliminary EMF, SMF and MV-induced treatment of distilled water. The specific electrical conductivity (SEC) of control and treated distilled water was measured before the seed incubation. Frequency and intensity "windows" (i.e. range of frequency or intensity) for the effect of EMF, MV and SMF (correspondingly) on seed hydration, solubility and water binding in seed were studied. These "windows" were different in various phases of seed swelling. It is suggested that water structure modification is the result of valence angle changes (SMF and EMF) and dipole molecules vibration (EMF and MV) has different effects on the process of hydration, solubility and water binding in seed. These results are important from the point of understanding the mechanisms of the biological effect of EMF, as well as from the point of agriculture.

  11. Colonization pattern of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA 342 on barley seeds visualized by using green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombolini, R; van der Gaag, D J; Gerhardson, B; Jansson, J K

    1999-08-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA 342 is a potent biocontrol agent that can be used against several seed-borne diseases of cereal crops, including net blotch of barley caused by the fungus Drechslera teres. In this study, strain MA 342 was tagged with the gfp gene (encoding the green fluorescent protein) in order to study the fate of cells after seed inoculation. The gfp-tagged strain, MA 342G2, had the same biocontrol efficacy as the wild type when it was applied at high cell concentrations to seeds but was less effective at lower cell concentrations. By comparing cell counts determined by microscopy to the number of CFU, we found that the number of culturable cells was significantly lower than the total number of bacteria on seeds which were inoculated and dried for 20 h. Confocal microscopy and epifluorescence stereomicroscopy were used to determine the pattern of MA 342G2 colonization and cell aggregation on barley seeds. Immediately after inoculation of seeds, bacteria were found mainly under the seed glume, and there was no particular aggregation pattern. However, after the seeds were sown, irregularly distributed areas of bacterial aggregation were found, which reflected epiphytic colonization of glume cells. There was a trend towards bacterial aggregation near the embryo but never within the embryo. Bacterial aggregates were regularly found in the groove of each seed formed by the base of the coleoptile and the scutellum. Based on these results, we suggest that MA 342 colocalizes with the pathogen D. teres, which facilitates the action of the fungistatic compound(s) produced by this strain.

  12. Differences in grain ultrastructure, phytochemical and proteomic profiles between the two contrasting grain Cd-accumulation barley genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low-grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars.

  13. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species mediate metabolic changes in barley seed embryo during germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo eMa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The levels of nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS, ATP/ADP ratios, reduction levels of ascorbate and glutathione, expression of the genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism of NO and activities of the enzymes involved in fermentation and in metabolism of NO and ROS were studied in the embryos of germinating seeds of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars differing in dormancy level. The level of NO production continuously increased after imbibition while the level of nitrosylated SH-groups in proteins increased. This corresponded to the decrease of free SH-groups in proteins. At early stage of germination (0-48 h postimbibition the genes encoding class 1 phytoglobin (the protein scavenging NO and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (scavenging S-nitrosoglutathione were markedly expressed. More dormant cultivar exhibited lower ATP/ADP and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratios and lower lactate and alcohol dehydrogenase activities, while the production of NO and nitrosylation of proteins was higher as compared to the non-dormant cultivar. The obtained data indicate that at the onset of germination NO is actively generated causing nitrosylation of SH-groups and a switch from respiration to fermentation. After radicle protrusion the metabolism changes in a more reducing type as recorded by ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione and ascorbate. The turnover of NO by the scavenging systems (phytoglobin, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase and interaction with ROS might contribute to the maintenance of redox and energy balance of germinating seeds and lead to alleviation of dormancy.

  14. The proteome of seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S; Ornfelt, Jane H; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Staerfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Besenbacher, Søren; Krusell, Lene; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-03-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea. In a first attempt to determine the seed proteome, both a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach and a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach were used. Globulins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and five legumins, LLP1 to LLP5, and two convicilins, LCP1 and LCP2, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For two distinct developmental phases, seed filling and desiccation, a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was used, and 665 and 181 unique proteins corresponding to gene accession numbers were identified for the two phases, respectively. All of the proteome data, including the experimental data and mass spectrometry spectra peaks, were collected in a database that is available to the scientific community via a Web interface (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi). This database establishes the basis for relating physiology, biochemistry, and regulation of seed development in Lotus. Together with a new Web interface (http://bioinfoserver.rsbs.anu.edu.au/utils/PathExpress4legumes/) collecting all protein identifications for Lotus, Medicago, and soybean seed proteomes, this database is a valuable resource for comparative seed proteomics and pathway analysis within and beyond the legume family.

  15. The Proteome of Seed Development in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S.; Ornfelt, Jane H.

    2009-01-01

    three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea....... In a first attempt to determine the seed proteome, both a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach and a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach were used. Globulins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and five legumins, LLP1 to LLP5...

  16. Construction of the Seed-Coat cDNA Microarray and Screening of Differentially Expressed Genes in Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Song PANG; Meng-Yuan HE; Bao LIU

    2004-01-01

    Some barley mutants can synthesize neither anthocyanins nor proanthocyanidins in the seed coat, which is related to several genes in locus Ant13, but the exact model of action remains unknown. We used the cDNA microarray technology with barley transcription-deficient mutant (ant13-152) that does not synthesize proanthocyanidins as the tester, and its wild type genotype (Triumph) as the driver, to study this question. Six-thousand and forty-eight clones from the wild type Morex testa+pericarp cDNA library were amplified using PCR, and the DNA fragments were spotted on commercial amino-modified glass slide as microarray. The mRNAs from the developing seed coat (8-15 days) of both the mutant and the wild-type barley plants were isolated, and labeled respectively with Cy3-dUTP and Cy5-dUTP when reversely transcribed to cDNAs. The labeled cDNAs were used as probes, mixed at the same molar concentration, and hybridized with the DNA fragments on the slide. Seventy clones exhibiting marked differential expression (ratio>4) were identified from the microarray. All the 25 cDNA clones that showed an over-expression in wild type in comparison to the mutant ant13-152 were sequenced. It was found that most of these overexpressing clones were transcription/translation and hordein-associated genes. These results have laid a solid material basis for further elucidation of the metabolic pathway in proanthocyanidin synthesis in barley and likely other plants.

  17. Exogenous melatonin improves corn (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome in seeds subjected to chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Izabela; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Rafał; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MEL; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays an important role in plant stress defense. Various plant species rich in this indoleamine have shown a higher capacity for stress tolerance. Moreover, it has great potential for plant biostimulation, is biodegradable and non-toxic for the environment. All this indicates that our concept of seed enrichment with exogenous MEL is justified. This work concerns the effects of corn (Zea mays L.) seed pre-sowing treatments supplemented with MEL. Non-treated seeds (nt), and those hydroprimed with water (H) or with MEL solutions 50 and 500 μM (HMel50, HMel500) were compared. Positive effects of seed priming are particularly apparent during germination under suboptimal conditions. The impact of MEL applied by priming on seed protein profiles during imbibition/germination at low temperature has not been investigated to date. In order to identify changes in the corn seed proteome after applying hydropriming techniques, purified protein extracts of chilling stressed seed embryos (14 days, 5°C) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Then proteome maps were graphically and statistically compared and selected protein spots were qualitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques and identified. This study aimed to analyze the priming-induced changes in maize embryo proteome and at identifying priming-associated and MEL-associated proteins in maize seeds subjected to chilling. We attempt to explain how MEL expands plant capacity for stress tolerance.

  18. No effect of 5-fluorouracil on the properties of purified. cap alpha. -amylase from barley half-seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodaway, S.J.; Kende, H.

    1978-01-01

    Amylase has been purified from de-embryonated seeds of barley (Horedeum vulgare L. cv. Betzes) which have been incubated on 10/sup 6/M gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) following 3 days of imbibition in buffer. Incubation of the half-seeds in up to 10/sup -2/ M 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) during the entire incubation period, including imbibition, had no effect on any of the following characteristics of purified ..cap alpha..-amylase: thermal stability in the absence of calcium, molecular weight of the enzyme, isozyme composition, specific activity, or the amount of ..cap alpha..-amylase synthesized by the aleurone tissue. The synthesis of rRNA and tRNA was strongly inhibited by 5-FU, indicating that the analog had entered the aleurone cells. These results are not in agreement with those of Carlson (Nature New Biology 237: 39-41 (1972)) who found that treatment of barley aleurone with 10/sup -4/ M 5-FU to the addition of GA/sub 3/ resulted in decreased thermal stability of GA/sub 3/-induced ..cap alpha..-amylase and who interpreted this as evidence that the mRNA for ..cap alpha..-amylase was synthesized during the imbibition of the aleurone tissue and independently of gibberellin action. Results of the present experiments indicate that the thermal stability of highly purified ..cap alpha..-amylase is not altered by treatment of barley half-seeds with 5-FU, and that 5-FU cannot be used as a probe to examine the timing of ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA synthesis.

  19. Glycoproteins and Glycosylation Site Assignments in Cereal seed Proteomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol

    The study of plant proteomes is important to further the understanding of biological processes and enhance the agronomical and nutritional value of crops and food products. To gain deeper understanding on the proteome level, it is important to characterize posttranslational modifications. Glycosy...

  20. Transcript profile of barley aleurone differs between total and polysomal RNAs: Implications for proteome modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microarray analysis of mRNA populations is routinely conducted with total RNA. However, such analyses would probably represent the translated genome (proteome) more accurately if conducted with polysomal RNA. In order to determine whether significant variation occurs between these two populations,...

  1. Characterization of the microchemical structure of seed endosperm within a cellular dimension among six barley varieties with distinct degradation kinetics, using ultraspatially resolved synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yu, Peiqiang

    2010-07-14

    Barley varieties have similar chemical composition but exhibit different rumen degradation kinetics and nutrient availability. These biological differences may be related to molecular, structural, and chemical makeup among the seed endosperm tissue. No detailed study was carried out. The objectives of this study were: (1) to use a molecular spectroscopy technique, synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM), to determine the microchemical-structural features in seed endosperm tissue of six developed barley varieties; (2) to study the relationship among molecular-structural characteristics, degradation kinetics, and nutrient availability in six genotypes of barley. The results showed that inherent microchemical-structural differences in the endosperm among the six barley varieties were detected by the synchrotron-based analytical technique, SFTIRM, with the univariate molecular spectral analysis. The SFTIRM spectral profiles differed (P degradation). Weak correlations may indicate that limited variations of these six barley varieties might not be sufficient to interpret the relationship between spectroscopic information and the nutrient value of barley grain, although significant differences in biodegradation kinetics were observed. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated the potential of ultraspatially resolved synchrotron based technology (SFTIRM) to reveal the structural and chemical makeup within cellular and subcellular dimensions without destruction of the inherent structure of cereal grain tissue.

  2. The analysis of proteome changes in sunflower seeds induced by N+ implantation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dong Guijun; Pan Weidong; Liu Gongshe

    2006-06-01

    In this work, the proteomic changes induced by N+ ion implantation were investigated using a sunflower seed model by a two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis. To further understand the changes of total protein irradiated with N+ ion, a proteomic analysis of N+ ion implantation seeds was developed. Among approximately 369 total protein spots displayed in 2-D gels, eight specific proteins were found in non-implanted seeds while four proteins were found in implanted seeds. Six proteins were used for MALDI-TOF MS analysis, of which only two had been reported before. The proteins designated as No. 29 showed 23.4% homology to MADS-box transcriptional factor HAM59, while No. 279 protein had 23.20% identity to homeobox-leucine zipper protein HAHB-4. The analysis of proteome changes induced by N+ implantation could provid a new clue to studing mutation mechanism of ion implantation. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the analysis of proteome changes induced by N+ implantation in sunflower seeds.

  3. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  4. Proteomic Dissection of Seed Germination and Seedling Establishment in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianwei; Chao, Hongbo; Gan, Lu; Guo, Liangxing; Zhang, Kai; Li, Yonghong; Wang, Hao; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    The success of seed germination and establishment of a normal seedling are key determinants of plant species propagation. At present, only a few studies have focused on the genetic control of seed germination by using a proteomic approach in Brassica napus. In the present study, the protein expression pattern of seed germination was investigated using differential fluorescence two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in B. napus. One hundred and thirteen differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) that were mainly involved in storage (23.4%), energy metabolism (18.9%), protein metabolism (16.2%), defense/disease (12.6%), seed maturation (11.7%), carbohydrate metabolism (4.5%), lipid metabolism (4.5%), amino acids metabolism (3.6%), cell growth/division (3.6%), and some unclear functions (2.7%) were observed by proteomic analysis. Seventeen genes corresponding to 11 DEPs were identified within or near the associated linkage disequilibrium regions related to seed germination and vigor quantitative traits reported in B. napus in previous studies. The expression pattern of proteins showed that heterotrophic metabolism could be activated in the process of seed germination and that the onset of defense mechanisms might start during seed germination. These findings will help generate a more in-depth understanding of the mobilization of seed storage reserves and regulation mechanisms of the germination process in B. napus.

  5. Proteomic profile of the nucellus of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Soares, Emanoella L

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of nucellus from two developmental stages of Ricinus communis seeds by a GeLC-MS/MS approach, using of a high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer, which resulted in the identification of a total of 766 proteins that were grouped into 553 protein...

  6. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis pattern (pH 6-11) and identification of water-soluble barley seed and malt proteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, S.; Roepstorff, P.

    2004-01-01

    A protocol was established for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of barley seed and malt proteins in the pH range of 6-11. Proteins extracted from flour in a low-salt buffer were focused after cup-loading onto IPG strips. Successful separation in the second dimension was achieved using...

  7. Characterization of quinoa seed proteome combining different protein precipitation techniques: Improvement of knowledge of nonmodel plant proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Ventura, Salvatore; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2015-03-01

    A shotgun proteomics approach was used to characterize the quinoa seed proteome. To obtain comprehensive proteomic data from quinoa seeds three different precipitation procedures were employed: MeOH/CHCl3 /double-distilled H2 O, acetone either alone or with trichloroacetic acid; the isolated proteins were then in-solution digested and the resulting peptides were analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. However, since quinoa is a nonmodel plant species, only a few protein sequences are included in the most widely known protein sequence databases. To improve the data reliability a UniProt subdatabase, containing only proteins of Caryophillales order, was used. A total of 352 proteins were identified and evaluated both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. This combined approach is certainly useful to increase the final number of identifications, but no particular class of proteins was extracted and identified in spite of the different chemistries and the different precipitation protocols. However, with respect to the other two procedures, from the relative quantitative analysis, based on the number of spectral counts, the trichloroacetic acid/acetone protocol was the best procedure for sample handling and quantitative protein extraction. This study could pave the way to further high-throughput studies on Chenopodium Quinoa.

  8. Proteome-wide characterization of seed aging in Arabidopsis. A comparison between artificial and natural aging protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajjou, L.; Lovigny, Y.; Groot, S.P.C.; Belghazi, M.; Job, C.; Job, D.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms has been proposed to account for the extension of life span in seeds (seed longevity). In the present work, we have used Arabidopsis thaliana seeds as a model and carried out differential proteomics to investigate this trait, which is of both ecological and agricultural impor

  9. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus.

  10. 大麦发芽过程中蛋白质组的变化研究%Study on changes of barley proteome during the malting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝祥; 朴永哲; 翟明昌; 董亮; 郭敏利; 周华成; 赵长新

    2013-01-01

    通过双向电泳技术监测大麦发芽过程中水溶蛋白质组的变化,明确大麦发芽过程中蛋白质组的变化规律,为麦芽制造提供一定理论依据.以澳麦“schooner”为研究对象,提取其水溶蛋白进行双向电泳分析,结合分析软件监测大麦发芽过程中蛋白质组的变化.结果显示,本实验检测出大麦种子中大约有804种蛋白质,发芽过程中有424种蛋白质未发生变化,379种蛋白质降解消失或浓度降低,另有77种新的蛋白质产生.结果表明,进一步证实浸麦阶段主要是蛋白质的降解过程;发芽前期蛋白质的降解和合成转化较为缓和,发芽中期(48~72h)蛋白质的降解最为旺盛;发芽后期蛋白质的变化基本趋于平衡.%Study on the change of barley proteome during the malting process by two-dimensional electrophoresis,providing a theory of malting.In this study,Australian barley-" Schooner" was chosen.Two-dimensional electrophoresis and analysis software were used to survey the change of water-soluble barley proteome during the malting process.The results showed that during the malting process,only less than 424 kinds of protein retained,while more than 379 kinds of protein disappeared.And 77 kinds of new protein appeared,compared with the 804 kinds of protein in barley.The results showed that barley protein mainly resolved in steeping process.The solution and synthetic transformation of barley protein changed small at the start of germination.And protein resolved the most clearly in the middle of the germination(48~72h).So it was a gradual process of equilibrium.Later of it,protein mostly did not change.

  11. Proteomic analysis reveals key proteins and phosphoproteins upon seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun eDong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/ transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser355 was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination.

  12. Proteomic and functional analyses of Nelumbo nucifera annexins involved in seed thermotolerance and germination vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Pu; Chen, Huhui; Zhou, Yuliang; Li, Yin; Ding, Yu; Jiang, Liwen; Tsang, Edward W T; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-06-01

    Annexins are multifunctional proteins characterized by their capacity to bind calcium ions and negatively charged lipids. Although there is increasing evidence implicating their importance in plant stress responses, their functions in seeds remain to be further studied. In this study, we identified a heat-induced annexin, NnANN1, from the embryonic axes of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) using comparative proteomics approach. Moreover, the expression of NnANN1 increased considerably in response to high-temperature treatment. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the transcripts of NnANN1 were detected predominantly during seed development and germination in sacred lotus, implicating a role for NnANN1 in plant seeds. Ectopic expression of NnANN1 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance to heat stress in transgenic seeds. In addition, compared to the wild-type seeds, transgenic seeds ectopically expressing NnANN1 exhibited improved resistance to accelerated aging treatment used for assessing seed vigor. Furthermore, transgenic seeds showed enhanced peroxidase activities, accompanied with reduced lipid peroxidation and reduced ROS release levels compared to the wild-type seeds. Taken together, these results indicate that NnANN1 plays an important role in seed thermotolerance and germination vigor.

  13. Production responses by early lactation cows to whole sunflower seed or tallow supplementation of a diet based on barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, S B; Wittenberg, K M; Ingalls, J R; Undi, M

    1996-10-01

    A 2-yr study to evaluate the effectiveness of whole sunflower seed as a source of fat was conducted with 18 primiparous and 31 multiparous Holstein cows. The three diets evaluated were a basal diet based on barley (control), a basal diet supplemented with 2.7% tallow, and a basal diet supplemented with 7.1% whole sunflower seeds. The DMI of lactating cows during the 16-wk test period was not influenced by supplementation with either sunflower seeds or tallow. Milk production was 34.4, 34.6, and 35.5 kg/d for cows fed the control diet or the diets supplemented with sunflower or tallow, respectively, and was not influenced by diet. The production and concentrations of milk protein, fat, and SNF also were not influenced by diet. The concentrations of C6:0 to C14:1 fatty acids were highest in the milk of cows fed the control diet. The concentrations of C10:0 to C16:1 were higher when cows were fed the diet with the tallow supplement than when they were fed the diet with the sunflower supplement. However, the concentrations of C18:0 to C18:2 and C20:0 were higher in the milk of cows that were fed the sunflower supplement than in the milk of cows that were fed the tallow supplement or the control diet. Concentrations of individual VFA and the ratio of acetate to propionate were not influenced by diet. Body weight, body condition score, and reproduction parameters were similar for all diets, suggesting that there were no effects on subsequent production. The performance of cows fed whole sunflower seeds as a source of energy appeared to be similar to the performance of cows fed traditional high energy diets based on barley. The fatty acid profile of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds was more favorable than that of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with tallow.

  14. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Involved in Seed Imbibition under Salt Stress in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enshun; Chen, Mingming; He, Hui; Zhan, Chengfang; Cheng, Yanhao; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhoufei

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of salinity tolerance during seed germination is very important for direct seeding in rice. In this study, the salt-tolerant japonica landrace Jiucaiqing was used to determine the regulators that are involved in seed imbibition under salt stress. Briefly, the comparative proteomic analysis was conducted between dry (0 h) and imbibed (24 h) seeds with 150 mM NaCl. Under salt stress, the uptake of water increased rapidly before 24 h imbibition (Phase I), followed by a plateau of seed imbibition from 24 to 96 h imbibition (Phase II). We identified 14 proteins involved in seed imbibition, in which the majority of these proteins were involved in energy supply and storage protein. The early imbibition process was mediated by protein catabolism; the most of proteins were down-regulated after 24 h imbibition. Eleven genes in salt stress treated seeds were expressed early during the seed imbibition in comparison to control seeds. By comparison, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (BPM), glutelin (GLU2.2 and GLU2.3), glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase large subunit (GAS8), and cupin domain containing protein (CDP3.1 and CDP3.2) were near the regions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed dormancy, seed reserve utilization, and seed germination in Jiucaiqing. In particular, CDP3.1 was co-located in the region of qIR-3 for imbibition rate, and qGP-3 for germination percentage. The role of CDP3.1 was verified in enhancing seed germination under salt stress using T-DNA mutant. The identified proteins might be applicable for the improvement of seed germination under salt stress in rice.

  15. Barley peroxidase isozymes. Expression and post-translational modification in mature seeds as identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per

    2007-01-01

    putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass....... In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family. (C...

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PREPLANT TREATING OF SEEDS WITH INDUSTRIAL ALTERNATING ELECTROMAGNETIC FREQUENCY (EMF PF 50 HZ ON THE GERMINATION ENERGY OF MIDRIPENING SPRING BARLEY SEEDS OF THE VARIETIES OF VAKULA, VIKONT, RATNIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobova M. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of physical factors for preplant stimulation of seeds increases vigor, germination and improves the yield of agricultural products. One of the effective ways to improve seed grain quality is to impact on the seeds using physical factors, in particular, an alternating electromagnetic field of industrial frequency of 50 Hz (EMF of IF of 50 Hz. We studied the impact of EMF of IF of 50 Hz on the energy germination of mid-ripening spring barley seeds of promising varieties Vakula, Vikont, Ratnik. Carrying out the experimental studies we used a laboratory setup with annular pole points of rectangular cross section. Our disperse analysis resulted in data on germinative energy of seeds of spring barley varieties Vakula, Vikont, Ratnik, which showed that while treating seeds of spring barley by an alternating electromagnetic field of industrial frequency of 50Hz, we obtained the best values of germinative energy of seeds of Variety Vikont with a mode of processing being equal to W = 16%, T = 2 c, L = 0,03 m

  17. A flexible loop controlling the enzymatic activity and specificity in a glycosyl hydrolase family 19 endochitinase from barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukamizo, Tamo; Miyake, Ryoh; Tamura, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    To examine the role of the loop structure consisting of residues 70-82 (70-82 loop) localized to + 3/4 subsite of the substrate binding cleft of a family GH-19 endochitinase from barley seeds, Trp72 and Trp82 were mutated, and the mutated enzymes (W72A, W82A, and W72A/W82A) were characterized...... more substantial in W82A than in W72A, but surprisingly the effects of the W82A/W72A double mutation were intermediate between those of the two single mutations. A molecular dynamics simulation of the wild type and the Trp-mutated enzymes indicated that the 70-82 loop becomes more flexible upon...

  18. Effect of cadmium on germination, coleoptile and root growth of barley seeds in the presence of gibberellic acid and kinetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzuroglu, Omer; Zengin, Fikriye Kirbag

    2006-10-01

    Effect of cadmium on barley seeds treated with kinetin and gibberellic acid was investigated. As usual, cadmium has inhibited seed germination, and showed important inhibitory effects on roots and coleoptile growth after germination. In general, increase in cadmium concentration caused a greater inhibition of germination, root and coleoptile growth. The adverse effect of cadmium on root and coleoptile growth was more pronounced than that on germination. While testa was pierced by radicle (an indication of germination), no root or coleoptile development was observed above at concentration of 3-9.5 mM CdCl2xH2O. Low concentrations of cadmium have inhibited the root growth more than it did on coleoptile growth. Treatment of seeds with gibberellic acid and kinetin did not show any significant difference on the effect of cadmium in germination. However, inhibition of coleoptile elongation by cadmium has decreased a very much after kinetin application. The same result, although with lower rates when compared to kinetin, has been obtained for GA3 as well. In addition, the inhibitory effect of cadmium on root growth increased even more after kinetin application. The results have been found statistically significant through the least significant different (LSD) test at levels ofp < 0.05 and p < 0.01.

  19. Proteome analysis of developing seeds of Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohibullah Shah

    2014-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an important crop due to its ability of storing high content of oil in the seeds, which can serve as raw material for biodiesel production. Because of the presence of toxic constituents like phorbol esters (PEs) and curcins, the seed cake produced as a result of oil extraction cannot be utilize for animal feed. Development of the genotypes better suited for the industrial applications and biodiesel production as well as with lower level of toxic constituent...

  20. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA coding for the barley seed protein CMa: an inhibitor of insect α-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Johansson, A.

    1992-01-01

    The primary structure of the insect alpha-amylase inhibitor CMa of barley seeds was deduced from a full-length cDNA clone pc43F6. Analysis of RNA from barley endosperm shows high levels 15 and 20 days after flowering. The cDNA predicts an amino acid sequence of 119 residues preceded by a signal...... peptide of 25 amino acids. Ala and Leu account for 55% of the signal peptide. CMa is 60-85% identical with alpha-amylase inhibitors of wheat, but shows less than 50% identity to trypsin inhibitors of barley and wheat. The 10 Cys residues are located in identical positions compared to the cereal inhibitor...

  1. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue tambi

  2. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, G.; Dam, S.; Laursen, B. S.;

    2010-01-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses...... seed proteins, including 263 proteins distinguishing the pod. The complete data set is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi , where spots in a reference map are linked to experimental data, such as matched peptides, quantification values, and gene accessions. Identified pod...... of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965...

  3. Exploring the nuclear proteome of Medicago truncatula at the switch towards seed filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Firnhaber, Christian; Zuber, Hélène; Küster, Helge; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2008-11-01

    Despite its importance in determining seed composition, and hence quality, regulation of the development of legume seeds is incompletely understood. Because of the cardinal role played by the nucleus in gene expression and regulation, we have characterized the nuclear proteome of Medicago truncatula at the 12 days after pollination (dap) stage that marks the switch towards seed filling. Nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of nuclear protein bands excised from one-dimensional SDS-PAGE identified 179 polypeptides (143 different proteins), providing an insight into the complexity and distinctive feature of the seed nuclear proteome and highlighting new plant nuclear proteins with possible roles in the biogenesis of ribosomal subunits (PESCADILLO-like) or nucleocytoplasmic trafficking (dynamin-like GTPase). The results revealed that nuclei of 12-dap seeds store a pool of ribosomal proteins in preparation for intense protein synthesis activity, occurring subsequently during seed filling. Diverse proteins of the molecular machinery leading to the synthesis of ribosomal subunits were identified along with proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing or transport. Some had already been shown to play a role during the early stages of seed formation whereas for others the findings are novel (e.g. the DIP2 and ES43 transcriptional regulators or the RNA silencing-related ARGONAUTE proteins). This study also revealed the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and RNA interference proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and may be involved in modifying genome architecture and accessibility during seed filling and maturation.

  4. Characterization of the entire cystatin gene family in barley and their target cathepsin L-like cysteine-proteases, partners in the hordein mobilization during seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Cambra, Ines; Carrillo, Laura; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Diaz, Isabel

    2009-11-01

    Plant cystatins are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases of the papain C1A and legumain C13 families. Cystatin data from multiple plant species have suggested that these inhibitors act as defense proteins against pests and pathogens and as regulators of protein turnover. In this study, we characterize the entire cystatin gene family from barley (Hordeum vulgare), which contain 13 nonredundant genes, and identify and characterize their target enzymes, the barley cathepsin L-like proteases. Cystatins and proteases were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cultures. Each cystatin was found to have different inhibitory capability against barley cysteine-proteases in in vitro inhibitory assays using specific substrates. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that inhibitors and enzymes present a wide variation in their messenger RNA expression patterns. Their transcripts were mainly detected in developing and germinating seeds, and some of them were also expressed in leaves and roots. Subcellular localization of cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases fused to green fluorescent protein demonstrated the presence of both protein families throughout the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Proteases and cystatins not only colocalized but also interacted in vivo in the plant cell, as revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The functional relationship between cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases was inferred from their common implication as counterparts of mobilization of storage proteins upon barley seed germination. The opposite pattern of transcription expression in gibberellin-treated aleurones presented by inhibitors and enzymes allowed proteases to specifically degrade B, C, and D hordeins stored in the endosperm of barley seeds.

  5. Response of germinating barley seeds to Fusarium graminearum: The first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium seedling blight in cereals can result in significant reductions in plant establishment but has not received much attention. The disease often starts during seed germination due to sowing of the seeds infected by Fusarium spp. including Fusarium graminearum. In order to gain the first...... provides the first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight....

  6. Interrelation of exposure and exposure rate in germinating seeds of barley and its concurrence with dose-rate theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottino, P.J.; Sparrow, A.H.; Schwemmer, S.S.; Thompson, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    Germinating seeds of barley were irradiated with /sup 137/Cs gamma rays at various combinations of total exposure (400-3200 R) and exposure rate (30-24,000 R/hr). Seedling height was measured 5 days after the initiation of irradiation and the various levels of growth inhibition produced by each combination of treatments were determined. The results obtained ranged from no effect on growth to 100 percent growth inhibition. Growth inhibition curves based on both total exposure and exposure rate were constructed. The exposures required to produce 20 and 35 percent growth inhibition at each exposure rate were determined, 35 percent growth inhibition being the highest level that could be determined over the entire range of rates used (20 percent growth inhibition was used for comparative purposes). For both levels of growth inhibition, as exposure rate increased (or, concomitantly, as exposure time decreased), the total exposure required to produce the end point decreased (effectiveness increased) as a straight line relationship on a double logarithmic plot between 30 and 1500 R/hr (0.03 to 0.3 hr exposure time). Above 1500 R/hr, further increases in exposure rate (or decreases in exposure time) increased the total exposure required for a given effect, i.e., effectiveness decreased. Conversion of exposure rate to exposure time demonstrates this point of change in effectiveness to occur well within one mitotic cycle. These results are discussed with regard to current dose-rate theory and are at least partially consistent therewith. A straight-line dependency of the exposure rate producing maximum growth inhibition on total exposure is shown. The point at which the combinations of exposure and exposure rate for 35 percent growth inhibition occurs is restricted to barley and may differ for other species. This may depend on chromosome size or DNA content and/or the mitotic cycle time characteristic of a species. (auth)

  7. Comparative nutritional compositions and proteomics analysis of transgenic Xa21 rice seeds compared to conventional rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Dipak; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-07-15

    Transgenic rice expressing the Xa21 gene have enhanced resistant to most devastating bacterial blight diseases caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). However, identification of unintended modifications, owing to the genetic modification, is an important aspect of transgenic crop safety assessment. In this study, the nutritional compositions of seeds from transgenic rice plants expressing the Xa21 gene were compared against non-transgenic rice seeds. In addition, to detect any changes in protein translation levels as a result of Xa21 gene expression, rice seed proteome analyses were also performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. No significant differences were found in the nutritional compositions (proximate components, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients) of the transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds. Although gel electrophoresis identified 11 proteins that were differentially expressed between the transgenic and non-transgenic seed, only one of these (with a 20-fold up-regulation in the transgenic seed) shows nutrient reservoir activity. No new toxins or allergens were detected in the transgenic seeds.

  8. Comparative proteomics analysis of pomegranate seeds on fruit maturation period (Punica granatumL.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Shang-yin; NIU Juan; CAO Da; LI Hao-xian; XUE Hui; CHEN Li-na; ZHANG Fu-hong; ZHAO Di-guang

    2015-01-01

    Seeds play a central role in the life cycle of plants. Seed hardness in pomegranates is of economic relevance, yet scarcely studied and poorly understood in China. In this study, we compared the proteomic differences between Zhong-nonghong (soft-seeded) and Sanbai (hard-seeded) pomegranates. A total of 892 protein spots from both varieties were detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels (2-DE); 76 spots showed greater than a 1.5-fold or less than a 0.66-fold difference (P<0.05) in Zhongnonghong compared to Sanbai, of which 24 exhibited greater than a 2-fold change. Compared with Sanbai, Zhongnonghong possessed 14 up-regulated, and 10 down-regulated proteins. We identiifed and annotated 5 of these by using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS: pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) E1-β family protein (spot 4609); alanine aminotransferase 2-like (ALT2L); mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase complex P-protein (spot 5803);phosphofructokinase B (PfkB)-type family of carbohydrate kinase (spot 8411); and putative dnaK-type molecular chaperone heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) (spot 9006). Of these, 3 proteins (spots 4609, 5608, 5803) were hypothesized to play a role in the formation of seed hardness. The other two proteins (spots 8411, 9006) were theo-rized to play a role in protecting the seeds from adverse stress during periods of fruit maturation. This study sets the foundation for further research on molecular mechanisms related to pomegranate seed hardness.

  9. Molecular cloning of the barley seed protein CMd: a variant member of the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family of cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, N G; Morris, N A; Urwin, P; Williamson, M S; Kasarda, D D; Lew, E J; Kreis, M; Shewry, P R

    1988-09-07

    The nucleotide and deduced amino-acid sequences of a cDNA clone encoding the barley seed protein CMd are described. The sequence is homologous with those of a family of inhibitors of alpha-amylase and trypsin, except for two short insertions. The longest of these (14 residues) is at the junction between the three proposed ancestral regions that comprise this family of proteins, and has limited identity with alpha-amylases of bacterial origin.

  10. Toward characterizing seed vigor in alfalfa through proteomic analysis of germination and priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubi, Rafika; Job, Claudette; Belghazi, Maya; Chaibi, Wided; Job, Dominique

    2011-09-02

    Alfalfa, the most widely grown leguminous crop in the world, is generally exposed to severe salinity stress in Tunisia, notably affecting its germination performance. Toward a better understanding of alfalfa seed vigor, we have used proteomics to characterize protein changes occurring during germination and osmopriming, a pretreatment that accelerates germination and improves seedling uniformity particularly under stress conditions. The data revealed that germination was accompanied by dynamic changes of 79 proteins, which are mainly involved in protein metabolism, cell structure, metabolism, and defense. Comparative proteomic analysis also revealed 63 proteins specific to osmopriming, 65 proteins preferentially varying during germination, and 14 proteins common to both conditions. Thus, the present study unveiled the unexpected finding that osmopriming cannot simply be considered as an advance of germination-related processes but involves other mechanisms improving germination such as the mounting of defense mechanisms enabling osmoprimed seeds to surmount environmental stresses potentially occurring during germination. The present results therefore provide novel avenues toward understanding the mechanisms of invigoration of low vigor seeds by priming treatments that are widely used both in commercial applications and in developing countries (on farm seed priming) to better control crop yields.

  11. Effects of Seed Priming on Root Characteristics of Two Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars in Different Levels of Salinity Stress by using Gel Chamber Technique

    OpenAIRE

    H. R Khazaei; A Nezami; B Saadatian; O Armand Pishe

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed priming on root growth of two barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salinity stress was performed in phytogel. The treatments included two cultivars of barely (Yusuf and Maquie), levels of seed priming (control, hydro-priming and priming with 4.35 g l-1 of urea) and four levels of NaCl salinity stress (0, 0.2, 0.3 M). The experiment was conducted in Factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replic...

  12. 2-DE PROTEOME MAPS OF AMARANTH AND BUCKWHEAT SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our work was focus on amaranth (Amaranthus sp. cv. Plaisman and buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill., cv. Pyra proteome, which was analysed by 2-D electrophoresis. We found similarity between the chemical properties proteins of pseudocereals amaranth and buckwheat. Image analysis showed a higher number of spots on 2-DE map of buckwheat in comparison to amaranth. Some similarities were in protein spots at approximately 21,000 Da, pI 7 and strip of protein spots in range of pI 8-10, 21,000 Da. The buckwheat 2-DE map shows spots of protein with higher intensity in the region ranging from 30-45,000 Da, pI 5-6 as well as highly abundant protein spots from visible at 36-40,000 Da, pI 8-9. Protein maps showed that the pseudocereals do not content storage proteins, which indicates that they are suitable as a replacement for cereals for people with celiac disease.

  13. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L. "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel David Dufoo-Hurtado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that seed bulbs from ‘Coreano’ variety conditioned at 5 °C for five weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic seed cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23 °C, and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5 °C for five weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous

  14. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, Gitte; Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S; Siegumfeldt, Astrid L; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Lorentzen, Andrea; Roepstorff, Peter; Stougaard, Jens

    2010-11-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965 seed proteins, including 263 proteins distinguishing the pod. The complete data set is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi , where spots in a reference map are linked to experimental data, such as matched peptides, quantification values, and gene accessions. Identified pod proteins represented enzymes from 85 different metabolic pathways, including storage globulins and a late embryogenesis abundant protein. In contrast to seed maturation, pod maturation was associated with decreasing total protein content, especially proteins involved in protein biosynthesis and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate metabolism pathway were identified.

  15. 26 kDa endochitinase from barley seeds: an interaction of the ionizable side chains essential for catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnishi, Tsuneo; Juffer, André H; Tamoi, Masahiro;

    2005-01-01

    To explore the structure essential for the catalysis in 26 kDa endochitinase from barley seeds, we calculated theoretical pKa values of the ionizable groups based on the crystal structure, and then the roles of ionizable side chains located near the catalytic residue were examined by site...... coli expression system. The transition temperature of thermal unfolding (T(m)) of R215A was lower than that of the wild type protein by about 6.2 degrees C. In the crystal structure, the Arg215 side chain is in close proximity to the Glu203 side chain, whose theoretical pKa value was found...... to be abnormally low (-2.4), suggesting that these side chains may interact with each other. Mutation of Glu203 to alanine (E203A) completely eliminated the enzymatic activity and impaired the thermal stability (deltaT(m) = 6.4 degrees C) of the enzyme. Substrate binding ability was also affected by the Glu203...

  16. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility.

  17. Proteomic analysis of albumin and globulin fractions of pea (Pisum sativum L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dziuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proteomic analysis is emerging as a highly useful tool in food research, including studies of food allergies. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis involving isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is the most effective method of separating hundreds or even thousands of proteins. In this study, albumin and globulin tractions of pea seeds cv. Ramrod were subjected to proteomic analysis. Selected potentially alergenic proteins were identified based on their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Material and methods. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum L. cv. Ramrod harvested over a period of two years (Plant Breeding Station in Piaski-Szelejewo were used in the experiment. The isolated albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteomic images were analysed in the ImageMaster 2D Platinum program with the use of algorithms from the Melanie application. The relative content, isoelectric points and molecular weights were computed for all identified proteins. Electrophoregrams were analysed by matching spot positions from three independent replications. Results. The proteomes of albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins produced up to several hundred spots (proteins. Spots most characteristic of a given fraction were identified by computer analysis and spot matching. The albumin proteome accumulated spots of relatively high intensity over a broad range of pi values of -4.2-8.1 in 3 molecular weight (MW ranges: I - high molecular-weight albumins with MW of -50-110 kDa, II - average molecular-weight albumins with MW of -20-35 kDa, and III - low molecular-weight albumins with MW of -13-17 kDa. 2D gel electrophoregrams revealed the presence of 81 characteristic spots, including 24 characteristic of legumin and 14 - of vicilin. Conclusions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proved to be a useful tool for

  18. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  19. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  20. Identification of thioredoxin h-reducible disulphides in proteornes by differential labelling of cysteines: Insight into recognition and regulation of proteins in barley seeds by thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2005-01-01

    or production of recombinant proteins. Mass shifts of 15 peptides, induced by treatment with thioredoxin h and differential alkylation, identified specific reduction of nine disulphides in BASI, four alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors and a protein of unknown function. Two specific disulphides, located...... alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) by barley thioredoxin h isoform 1 was analysed. Furthermore, the method was coupled with two-dimensional electrophoresis for convenient thioredoxin h-reducible disulphide identification in barley seed extracts without the need for protein purification...... structurally close to the alpha-amylase binding surfaces of BASI and alpha-amylase inhibitor BMAI-1 were demonstrated to be reduced to a particularly high extent. For the first time, specificity of thioredoxin h for particular disulphide bonds is demonstrated, providing a basis to study structural aspects...

  1. A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the specific events associated with seed germination are still not fully understood. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the proteome during imbibition of Oryza sativa seeds at optimal temperature with or without abscisic acid (ABA) and high temperature (germination thermoinhibition) to further identify and quantify key proteins required for seed germination. A total of 121 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (1.5-fold increase/decrease) during germination under all conditions. Among these proteins, we found seven proteins specifically associated with seed germination including glycosyl hydrolases family 38 protein, granule-bound starch synthase 1, Os03g0842900 (putative steroleosin-B), N-carbamoylputrescine amidase, spermidine synthase 1, tubulin α-1 chain and glutelin type-A; and a total of 20 imbibition response proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell growth, cell defense and storage proteins. High temperature inhibited seed germination by decreasing the abundance of proteins involved in methionine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, reserve degradation, protein folding and stress responses. ABA treatment inhibited germination and decreased the abundance of proteins associated with methionine metabolism, energy production and cell division. Our results show that changes in many biological processes including energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cell defense and rescue occurred as a result of all treatments, while enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and weakening of cell wall specifically accumulated when the seeds germinated at the optimal temperature.

  2. Chloroindolyl-3-acetic Acid and its Methyl Ester Incorporation of 36Cl in Immature Seeds of Pea and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1974-01-01

    compounds besides Cl−. One compound, present in pea and probably in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4- and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acid methyl esters. Another, detected in pea, but probably not in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4-and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acids....

  3. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism...

  4. Deciphering Mineral Homeostasis in Barley Seed Transfer Cells at Transcriptional Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Darbani

    Full Text Available In addition to the micronutrient inadequacy of staple crops for optimal human nutrition, a global downtrend in crop-quality has emerged from intensive breeding for yield. This trend will be aggravated by elevated levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Therefore, crop biofortification is inevitable to ensure a sustainable supply of minerals to the large part of human population who is dietary dependent on staple crops. This requires a thorough understanding of plant-mineral interactions due to the complexity of mineral homeostasis. Employing RNA sequencing, we here communicate transfer cell specific effects of excess iron and zinc during grain filling in our model crop plant barley. Responding to alterations in mineral contents, we found a long range of different genes and transcripts. Among them, it is worth to highlight the auxin and ethylene signaling factors Arfs, Abcbs, Cand1, Hps4, Hac1, Ecr1, and Ctr1, diurnal fluctuation components Sdg2, Imb1, Lip1, and PhyC, retroelements, sulfur homeostasis components Amp1, Hmt3, Eil3, and Vip1, mineral trafficking components Med16, Cnnm4, Aha2, Clpc1, and Pcbps, and vacuole organization factors Ymr155W, RabG3F, Vps4, and Cbl3. Our analysis introduces new interactors and signifies a broad spectrum of regulatory levels from chromatin remodeling to intracellular protein sorting mechanisms active in the plant mineral homeostasis. The results highlight the importance of storage proteins in metal ion toxicity-resistance and chelation. Interestingly, the protein sorting and recycling factors Exoc7, Cdc1, Sec23A, and Rab11A contributed to the response as well as the polar distributors of metal-transporters ensuring the directional flow of minerals. Alternative isoform switching was found important for plant adaptation and occurred among transcripts coding for identical proteins as well as transcripts coding for protein isoforms. We also identified differences in the alternative-isoform preference between

  5. Investigation of relationships between barley stress peptides and beer gushing using SDS-PAGE and MS screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hégrová, Blanka; Farková, Marta; Macuchová, Simona; Havel, Josef; Preisler, Jan

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between gushing and antifungal peptides in barley and malt kernels was examined for five barley varieties produced in the Czech Republic with four conditions of infection and treatment. Proteome changes during pathogen-seed interaction were observed with SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS. These methods were applied as a fast screening for observing the relationship between gushing and peptides/proteins. It was found that the presence of basic peptides, presumably hordothionins and non-specific lipid transfer protein type 1, did not correlate with the degree of gushing for malt (/r/ in ), (/r/ in ), respectively, as detected by both methods.

  6. Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis seeds: molecular evidence for successive processing of seed proteins and its implication in the stress response to sulfur nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Fujiwara, Toru; Naito, Satoshi; Noji, Masaaki; Saito, Kazuki

    2006-11-01

    Seed storage proteins are synthesized as sources of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur for the next generation of plants. Their composition changes according to nutritional conditions. Here, we report the precise molecular identification of seed proteins by proteomic analysis of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and methionine-over-accumulating mutant mto1-1 plants. The identities of 50 protein spots were determined in the protein extract of mature Arabidopsis seeds by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Of these protein spots, 42 were identified as derived from 12S globulins or 2S albumins. These results indicate that approximately 84% of protein species in Arabidopsis seeds are derived from a few genes coding for 12S globulins and 2S albumins. Extensive mass spectrometric analysis of the 42 spots revealed that successive C-terminal degradation occurred on the 12S globulins. The feasibility of this C-terminal processing was rationalized by molecular modeling of the three-dimensional structure of 12S globulins. The C-terminal degradation at glutamic acid residues of the 12S globulin subunits was repressed under sulfur-deficient conditions. Transcriptome analysis was combined with proteomic analysis to elucidate the mechanism of changes in seed protein composition in response to sulfur deficiency. The results suggest that seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis undergo multi-layer regulation, with emphasis on post-translational modifications that enable the plant to respond to sulfur deficiency.

  7. Differential appearance of isoforms and cultivar variation in protein temporal profiles revealed in the maturing barley grain proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    -peroxiredoxin isoform was identified in three spots, one present throughout grain filling, one appearing during desiccation and one observed only in mature seeds. This suggested post-translational modification of the protein to different degrees during seed maturation. Distinct isoforms of several proteins were...

  8. Radioactive Chernobyl environment has produced high-oil flax seeds that show proteome alterations related to carbon metabolism during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Starting in 2007, we have grown soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. variety Soniachna) and flax (Linum usitatissimum, L. variety Kyivskyi) in the radio-contaminated Chernobyl area and analyzed the seed proteomes. In the second-generation flax seeds, we detected a 12% increase in oil content. To characterize the bases for this increase, seed development has been studied. Flax seeds were harvested in biological triplicate at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after flowering and at maturity from plants grown in nonradioactive and radio-contaminated plots in the Chernobyl area for two generations. Quantitative proteomic analyses based on 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) allowed us to establish developmental profiles for 199 2-DE spots in both plots, out of which 79 were reliably identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The data suggest a statistically significant increased abundance of proteins associated with pyruvate biosynthesis via cytoplasmic glycolysis, L-malate decarboxylation, isocitrate dehydrogenation, and ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde in early stages of seed development. This was followed by statistically significant increased abundance of ketoacyl-[acylcarrier protein] synthase I related to condensation of malonyl-ACP with elongating fatty acid chains. On the basis of these and previous data, we propose a preliminary model for plant adaptation to growth in a radio-contaminated environment. One aspect of the model suggests that changes in carbon assimilation and fatty acid biosynthesis are an integral part of plant adaptation.

  9. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise...

  10. Proteome analysis of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. seeds dormancy breaking and germination: influence of abscisic and gibberellic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawłowski Tomasz A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed dormancy is controlled by the physiological or structural properties of a seed and the external conditions. It is induced as part of the genetic program of seed development and maturation. Seeds with deep physiological embryo dormancy can be stimulated to germinate by a variety of treatments including cold stratification. Hormonal imbalance between germination inhibitors (e.g. abscisic acid and growth promoters (e.g. gibberellins is the main cause of seed dormancy breaking. Differences in the status of hormones would affect expression of genes required for germination. Proteomics offers the opportunity to examine simultaneous changes and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during seed dormancy breaking and germination. Analysis of the functions of the identified proteins and the related metabolic pathways, in conjunction with the plant hormones implicated in seed dormancy breaking, would expand our knowledge about this process. Results A proteomic approach was used to analyse the mechanism of dormancy breaking in Norway maple seeds caused by cold stratification, and the participation of the abscisic (ABA and gibberellic (GA acids. Forty-four proteins showing significant changes were identified by mass spectrometry. Of these, eight spots were identified as water-responsive, 18 spots were ABA- and nine GA-responsive and nine spots were regulated by both hormones. The classification of proteins showed that most of the proteins associated with dormancy breaking in water were involved in protein destination. Most of the ABA- and GA-responsive proteins were involved in protein destination and energy metabolism. Conclusion In this study, ABA was found to mostly down-regulate proteins whereas GA up-regulated proteins abundance. Most of the changes were observed at the end of stratification in the germinated seeds. This is the most active period of dormancy breaking when seeds pass from the quiescent

  11. A chemometric evaluation of the underlying physical and chemical patterns that support near infrared spectroscopy of barley seeds as a tool for explorative classification of endosperm genes and gene combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Susanne; Søndergaard, Ib; Møller, Birthe

    2005-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopic (NIR; 1100-2500 nm), chemical and genetic data were combined to study the pleiotropic secondary effects of mutant genes on milled samples in a barley seed model. NIR and chemical data were both effective in classifying gene and gene combinations by Principal Component ...

  12. Integrated and comparative proteomics of high-oil and high-protein soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiu Ping; Liu, Hui; Tian, Lihong; Dong, Xiang Bai; Shen, Shi Hua; Qu, Le Qing

    2015-04-01

    We analysed the global protein expression in seeds of a high-oil soybean cultivar (Jiyu 73, JY73) by proteomics. More than 700 protein spots were detected and 363 protein spots were successfully identified. Comparison of the protein profile of JY73 with that of a high-protein cultivar (Zhonghuang 13, ZH13) revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins, including oil synthesis, redox/stress, hydrolysis and storage-related proteins. All redox/stress proteins were less or not expressed in JY73, whereas the expression of the major storage proteins, nitrogen and carbon metabolism-related proteins was higher in ZH13. Biochemical analysis of JY73 revealed that it was in a low oxidation state, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. Vitamin E was more active than antioxidant enzymes and protected the soybean seed in a lower oxidation state. The characteristics of high oil and high protein in soybean, we revealed, might provide a reference for soybean nutrition and soybean breeding.

  13. Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-04-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa 'Jianyexianfeng No. 1') seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (Pgermination treatment. Nineteen proteins increasing and one protein decreasing in abundance during germination had higher abundance in germinated 15°C, 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, and 25°C in KNO3 seeds than in ungerminated 25°C seeds. Gene expression of 12 of those proteins correlated well with the protein accumulation. Methionine metabolism, ethylene production, lipid mobilization, cell elongation, and detoxification of aldehydes were revealed to be potentially related to lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition.

  14. Can a genetic correlation with seed mass constrain adaptive evolution of seedling desiccation tolerance in wild barley?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Biere, A.; Nevo, E.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Very young seedlings of wild barley Hordeum spontaneum have the ability to survive extended periods of severe drought. This desiccation tolerance is considered an adaptation to the rain-limited and unpredictable habitats that the species occupies. Genetic variation has been observed for this trait,

  15. Proteomics analysis reveals distinct involvement of embryo and endosperm proteins during seed germination in dormant and non-dormant rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Shun-Hua; Wang, Rui-Xia; Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is a complex trait which is influenced by many genetic, endogenous and environmental factors, but the key event(s) associated with seed germination are still poorly understood. In present study, the non-dormant cultivated rice Yannong S and the dormant Dongxiang wild rice seeds were used as experimental materials, we comparatively investigated the water uptake, germination time course, and the differential proteome of the effect of embryo and endosperm on germination of these two types of seeds. A total of 231 and 180 protein spots in embryo and endosperm, respectively, showed a significant change in abundance during germination. We observed that the important proteins associated with seed germination included those involved in metabolism, energy production, protein synthesis and destination, storage protein, cell growth and division, signal transduction, cell defense and rescue. The contribution of embryo and endosperm to seed germination is different. In embryo, the proteins involved in amino acid activation, sucrose cleavage, glycolysis, fermentation and protein synthesis increased; in endosperm, the proteins involved in sucrose cleavage and glycolysis decreased, and those with ATP and CoQ synthesis and proteolysis increased. Our results provide some new knowledge to understand further the mechanism of seed germination.

  16. Responses of barley root and shoot proteomes to long‐term nitrogen deficiency, short‐term nitrogen starvation and ammonium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell Blom Møller, Anders; Pedas, Pai; Andersen, Birgit;

    2011-01-01

    plants grown hydroponically for 33 d with 5 mm nitrate, plants grown under N deficiency (0.5 mm nitrate, 33 d) or short‐term N starvation (28 d with 5 mm nitrate followed by 5 d with no N source) were compared. N deficiency caused changes in C and N metabolism and ascorbate‐glutathione cycle enzymes...... in shoots and roots. N starvation altered proteins of amino acid metabolism in roots. Both treatments caused proteome changes in roots that could affect growth. Shoots of plants grown with ammonium as N source (28 d with 5 mm nitrate followed by 5 d with 5 mm ammonium) showed responses similar to N...

  17. Back to Osborne. Sequential protein extraction and LC-MS analysis for the characterization of the Holm oak seed proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Rodríguez, M Cristina; Maldonado-Alconada, Ana M; Valledor, Luis; Jorrin-Novo, Jesus V

    2014-01-01

    It is impossible to capture in just one experiment all or most of the total set of protein species that constitute the cell's proteome. Thus, according to our results, and even considering that they depend on the experimental system carried out (plant, yeast, fungi, or bacteria), the best protein extraction protocol yielded less than 20 % of the total amount of proteins, as determined by the Kjeldahl method. For this reason, protein cataloguing and the whole proteome characterization require the use of firstly, fractionation techniques at the cellular, subcellular, protein, or peptide level, and secondly, the use of complementary approaches.Within our current research on Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota), we aim to characterize its seed proteome. For that we have optimized an experimental workflow in which the Osborne sequential protein extraction (Osborne, Science 28:417-427, 1908) is combined with downstream electrophoretic protein separation or shotgun MS analysis. In general, it can be used to study any plant seed, as well as to investigate on seed maturation and germination, genotype characterization, allergens identification, food traceability, and substantial equivalence, among others.

  18. Novel seminal fluid proteins in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus identified by a proteomic and transcriptomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, H; Sayadi, A; Goenaga, J; Immonen, E; Arnqvist, G

    2017-02-01

    The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is a significant agricultural pest and increasingly studied model of sexual conflict. Males possess genital spines that increase the transfer of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) into the female body. As SFPs alter female behaviour and physiology, they are likely to modulate reproduction and sexual conflict in this species. Here, we identified SFPs using proteomics combined with a de novo transcriptome. A prior 2D-sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis identified male accessory gland protein spots that were probably transferred to the female at mating. Proteomic analysis of these spots identified 98 proteins, a majority of which were also present within ejaculates collected from females. Standard annotation workflows revealed common functional groups for SFPs, including proteases and metabolic proteins. Transcriptomic analysis found 84 transcripts differentially expressed between the sexes. Notably, genes encoding 15 proteins were highly expressed in male abdomens and only negligibly expressed within females. Most of these sequences corresponded to 'unknown' proteins (nine of 15) and may represent rapidly evolving SFPs novel to seed beetles. Our combined analyses highlight 44 proteins for which there is strong evidence that they are SFPs. These results can inform further investigation, to better understand the molecular mechanisms of sexual conflict in seed beetles.

  19. Immature Seed Endosperm and Embryo Proteomics of the Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn. by One-Dimensional Gel-Based Tandem Mass Spectrometry and a Comparison with the Mature Endosperm Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo F. Moro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. seed proteome has been the focus of our studies, and we have recently established the first proteome dataset for its mature seed endosperm. The current study unravels the immature endosperm, as well as the embryo proteome, to provide a comprehensive dataset of the lotus seed proteins and a comparison between the mature and immature endosperm tissues across the seed’s development. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE linked with tandem mass spectrometry provided a protein inventory of the immature endosperm (122 non-redundant proteins and embryo (141 non-redundant proteins tissues. Comparing with the previous mature endosperm dataset (66 non-redundant proteins, a total of 206 non-redundant proteins were identified across all three tissues of the lotus seed. Results revealed some significant differences in proteome composition between the three lotus seed tissues, most notably between the mature endosperm and its immature developmental stage shifting the proteins from nutrient production to nutrient storage.

  20. Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Trine Højgaard; Danscher, Anne Mette; Andersen, Pia Haubro;

    2012-01-01

    different proteins were identified, with 146 proteins available for identification in C, 279 proteins in D and 269 proteins in L. A functional annotation of the identified proteins was obtained using the on-line Blast2GO tool. Three hundred and sixteen of the identified proteins could be subsequently...... grouped manually to one or more of five major functional groups related to metabolism, cell structure, immunity, apoptosis and angiogenesis. These were chosen to represent basic cell functions and biological processes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of CHD. The LC–MS/MS-based proteomic analysis...

  1. THE STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF AN ALTERNATING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD OF COMMERCIAL FREQUENCY ON CROP SEED QUALITY OF SPRING BARLEY

    OpenAIRE

    Zholobova M. V.; Fedorishchenko M. G.; Shabanov N. I.; Grachyova N. N.

    2015-01-01

    The process of the presowing seed treatment with alternating electromagnet field of the commercial frequency (EMF CF) 50 Hz is economically efficient. The use of the EMF CF 50 Hz in the unit with ring pole pieces allows increasing the germinating energy and power. The electromagnet seed treatment in the units with ring pole pieces is the perspective process of the presowing treatment which does not make unhealthy influence on the operating personnel. At the presowing treatment we have to take...

  2. Microfluidic monitoring of programmed cell death in living plant seed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Zor, Kinga;

    such as concentration of selected compounds, external pH, oxygen consumption, redox state and cell viability. The aleurone layer of the barley seed is a 2-3 single cell type thick tissue that can be dissected from the embryo and starchy endosperm. During incubation in vitro this mechanically very robust maintains......, 126, p. 156; Finnie, Christine, et al., (2011), Proteomics, 11, p. 1595). The potential of microfluidics real-time monitoring is relatively unexplored within plant biology, and the barley aleurone layer system will thus enable new ground to be broken in the field of plant science and microfluidics....

  3. Proteomic analysis reveals differential accumulation of small heat shock proteins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins between ABA-deficient mutant vp5 seeds and wild-type Vp5 seeds in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin eWu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABA is a major plant hormone that plays important roles during many phases of plant life cycle, including seed development, maturity and dormancy, and especially the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Understanding of the molecular basis of ABA-mediated plant response to stress is of interest not only in basic research on plant adaptation but also in applied research on plant productivity. Maize mutant viviparous-5 (vp5, deficient in ABA biosynthesis in seeds, is a useful material for studying ABA-mediated response in maize. Due to carotenoid deficiency, vp5 endosperm is white, compared to yellow Vp5 endosperm. However, the background difference at proteome level between vp5 and Vp5 seeds is unclear. This study aimed to characterize proteome alterations of maize vp5 seeds and to identify ABA-dependent proteins during seed maturation. We compared the embryo and endosperm proteomes of vp5 and Vp5 seeds by gel-based proteomics. Up to 46 protein spots, most in embryos, were found to be differentially accumulated between vp5 and Vp5. The identified proteins included small heat shock proteins (sHSPs, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins, stress proteins, storage proteins and enzymes among others. However, EMB564, the most abundant LEA protein in maize embryo, accumulated in comparable levels between vp5 and Vp5 embryos, which contrasted to previously characterized, greatly lowered expression of emb564 mRNA in vp5 embryos. Moreover, LEA proteins and sHSPs displayed differential accumulations in vp5 embryos: six out of eight identified LEA proteins decreased while nine sHSPs increased in abundance. Finally, we discussed the possible causes of global proteome alterations, especially the observed differential accumulation of identified LEA proteins and sHSPs in vp5 embryos. The data derived from this study provides new insight into ABA-dependent proteins and ABA-mediated response during maize seed maturation.

  4. Crystal structure of an essential enzyme in seed starch degradation - barley limit dextrinase in complex with cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Malene Bech; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2010-01-01

    Barley limit dextrinase [Hordeum vulgare limit dextrinase (HvLD)] catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in limit dextrins. This activity plays a role in starch degradation during germination and presumably in starch biosynthesis during grain filling. The crystal structures of Hv......LD in complex with the competitive inhibitors α-cyclodextrin (CD) and β-CD are solved and refined to 2.5 Å and 2.1 Å, respectively, and are the first structures of a limit dextrinase. HvLD belongs to glycoside hydrolase 13 family and is composed of four domains: an immunoglobulin-like N-terminal eight......-stranded β-sandwich domain, a six-stranded β-sandwich domain belonging to the carbohydrate binding module 48 family, a catalytic (β/α)8-like barrel domain that lacks α-helix 5, and a C-terminal eight-stranded β-sandwich domain of unknown function. The CDs are bound at the active site occupying carbohydrate...

  5. Protein and hordein fraction content in barley seeds as affected by sowing date and their relations to malting quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Jun-cong; CHEN Jin-xin; WANG Jun-mei; WU Fei-bo; CAO Lian-pu; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sowing date on grain protein, hordein fraction content and malting quality of two-rowed spring barley was investigated by using ten commercial cultivars with different grain protein content and the relationships among these traits were examined. The results showed that grain protein content and B hordein content increased as the sowing date postponed and were significantly affected by sowing date, while C and D hordein contents were less influenced by sowing date. There were significant differences in grain protein and hordein fraction content among the ten cultivars. The coefficient of variation of D hordein content was much larger than that of B and C hordein contents, suggesting its greater variation caused by different sowing dates. Beta-amylase activity and diastatic power were also significantly affected by sowing date, with malt extract being less affected. Significant differences in measured malt quality were found among the ten cultivars. Grain protein was significantly correlated with B hordein and malt extract positively and negatively, respectively. There was no significant correlation between beta-amylase activity or diastatic power and grain protein content. B hordein was negatively and significantly correlated with malt extract, but no significant correlations between C hordein, D hordein and malting quality traits.

  6. Proteome Reference Maps of Vegetative Tissues in Pea. An Investigation of Nitrogen Mobilization from Leaves during Seed Filling1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Séverine; Gallardo, Karine; Huart, Myriam; Negroni, Luc; Sommerer, Nicolas; Burstin, Judith

    2004-01-01

    A proteomic approach was used to analyze protein changes during nitrogen mobilization (N mobilization) from leaves to filling seeds in pea (Pisum sativum). First, proteome reference maps were established for mature leaves and stems. They displayed around 190 Coomassie Blue-stained spots with pIs from 4 to 7. A total of 130 spots were identified by mass spectrometry as corresponding to 80 different proteins implicated in a variety of cellular functions. Although the leaf proteome map contained more abundant spots, corresponding to proteins involved in energy/carbon metabolism, than the stem map, their comparison revealed a highly similar protein profile. Second, the leaf proteome map was used to analyze quantitative variations in leaf proteins during N mobilization. Forty percent of the spots showed significant changes in their relative abundance in the total protein extract. The results confirmed the importance of Rubisco as a source of mobilizable nitrogen, and suggested that in pea leaves the rate of degradation of Rubisco may vary throughout N mobilization. Correlated with the loss of Rubisco was an increase in relative abundance of chloroplastic protease regulatory subunits. Concomitantly, the relative abundance of some proteins related to the photosynthetic apparatus (Rubisco activase, Rubisco-binding proteins) and of several chaperones increased. A role for these proteins in the maintenance of a Rubisco activation state and in the PSII repair during the intense proteolytic activity within the chloroplasts was proposed. Finally, two 14-3-3-like proteins, with a potential regulatory role, displayed differential expression patterns during the massive remobilization of nitrogen. PMID:15299134

  7. Differential labelling of cysteines for simultaneous identification of thioredoxin h-reducible disulphides in native protein extracts: insight into recognition and regulation of proteins in barley seeds by thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2005-01-01

    . Mass shifts of 15 peptides, induced by treatment with thioredoxin h and differential alkylation, identified specific reduction of nine disulphides in BASI, four a-amylase/trypsin inhibitors and a protein of unknown function. Two specific disulphides, located structurally close to the alpha......-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) by barley thioredoxin h isoform 1 was analysed. Furthermore, the method was coupled with twodimensional electrophoresis for convenient thioredoxin h-reducible disulphide identification in barley seed extracts without the need for protein purification or production of recombinant proteins......-amylase binding surfaces of BASI and alpha-amylase inhibitor BMAI-1 were demonstrated to be reduced to a particularly high extent. For the first time, specificity of thioredoxin h for particular disulphide bonds is demonstrated, providing a basis to study structural aspects of the recognition mechanism...

  8. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  9. Analysis of the embryo proteome of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) seeds reveals a distinct class of proteins regulating dormancy release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej; Staszak, Aleksandra Maria

    2016-05-20

    Acer pseudoplatanus seeds are characterized by a deep physiological embryo dormancy that requires a few weeks of cold stratification in order to promote germination. Understanding the function of proteins and their related metabolic pathways, in conjunction with the plant hormones implicated in the breaking of seed dormancy, would expand our knowledge pertaining to this process. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the changes occurring in seeds in response to cold stratification, which leads to dormancy release. In addition, the involvement of abscisic (ABA) and gibberellic acids (GA) was also examined. Fifty-three proteins showing significant changes were identified by mass spectrometry. An effect of ABA on protein variation was observed at the beginning of stratification, while the influence of GA on protein abundance was observed during the middle phase of stratification. The majority of proteins associated with dormancy breaking in the presence of only water, and also ABA or GA, were classified as being involved in metabolism and genetic information processing. For metabolic-related proteins, the effect of ABA on protein abundance was stimulatory for half of the proteins and inhibitory for half of the proteins. On the other hand, the effect on genetic information processing related proteins was stimulatory. GA was found to upregulate both metabolic-related and genetic information processing-related proteins. While seed dormancy breaking depends on proteins involved in a variety of processes, proteins associated with methionine metabolism (adenosine kinase, methionine synthase) and glycine-rich RNA binding proteins appear to be of particular importance.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Phosphoproteins in the Rice Nucleus During the Early Stage of Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Yang, Pingfang; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-07-01

    The early stage of seed germination is the first step in the plant life cycle without visible morphological change. To investigate the mechanism controlling the early stage of rice seed germination, we performed gel-and label-free nuclear phosphoproteomics. A total of 3467 phosphopeptides belonging to 102 nuclear phosphoproteins from rice embryos were identified. Protein-synthesis-related proteins were mainly phosphorylated. During the first 24 h following imbibition, 115 nuclear phosphoproteins were identified, and significant changes in the phosphorylation level over time were observed in 29 phosphoproteins. Cluster analysis indicated that nucleotide-binding proteins and zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins increased in abundance during the first 12 h of imbibition and then decreased. The in silico protein-protein interactions for 29 nuclear phosphoproteins indicated that the Sas10/Utp3 protein, which functions in snoRNA binding and gene silencing, was the center of the phosphoprotein network in nuclei. The germination rate of seeds was significantly slowed with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. The mRNA expression of the zinc finger CCCH-type protein did not change, and the zinc finger BED-type protein was upregulated in rice embryos during the early stage of germination with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. These results suggest that the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nuclear proteins are involved in rice seed germination. Furthermore, transcription factors such as zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins might play a key role through nuclear phosphoproteins, and Sas10/Utp3 protein might interact with nuclear phosphoproteins in rice embryos to mediate the early stage of seed germination.

  11. Unraveling the seed endosperm proteome of the lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) utilizing 1DE and 2DE separation in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Carlo F; Fukao, Yoichiro; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Shioda, Seiji; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Yonekura, Masami

    2015-05-01

    Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) or lotus, is an aquatic plant native to India, and presently consumed as food mainly in China and Japan. Lotus is also widely used in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. Extracts from different parts of the lotus plant have been reported to show diverse biological activities-antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory. Despite this, little work has been done in isolating and identifying proteins responsible for these activities, or yet importantly to establish a lotus proteome. The aim of our group is to develop a proteome catalog of the lotus plant, starting with its seed, the nutrient rich food source. In this present study, the seed endosperm-most abundant in proteins, and main nutrient storage tissue-was targeted for protein extraction by testing five different extraction protocols, followed by their proteomic analyses using complementary 1DE and 2DE approaches in conjunction with MS/MS. The inventory of 66 nonredundant proteins obtained by 1DE-MS and the 30 obtained by 2DE-MS provides the first catalog of the lotus seed endosperm, where the most abundant protein functions were in categories of metabolic activities related to carbohydrate metabolism and nutrient storage.

  12. The proteome of exudates from germinating Lupinus albus seeds is secreted through a selective dual-step process and contains proteins involved in plant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarafoni, Alessio; Ronchi, Alessandro; Prinsi, Bhakti; Espen, Luca; Assante, Gemma; Venturini, Giovanni; Duranti, Marcello

    2013-03-01

    The general knowledge of defence activity during the first steps of seed germination is still largely incomplete. The present study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of germinating white lupin seeds. During the first 24 h, a release of proteins was observed. Initially (i.e. during the first 12 h), the proteins found in exudates reflected the composition of the seed, indicating a passive extrusion of pre-formed proteins. Subsequently, when the rate of protein release was at its highest, the composition of the released proteome changed drastically. This transition occurred in a short time, indicating that more selective and regulated events, such as secretory processes, took place soon after the onset of germination. The present study considered: (a) the characterization of the proteome accumulated in the germinating medium collected after the appearance of the post-extrusion events; (b) the biosynthetic origin and the modalities that are the basis of protein release outside the seeds; and (c) an assessment of antifungal activity of these exudates. The most represented protein in the exudate was chitinase, which was synthesized de novo. The other proteins are involved in the cellular mechanisms responding to stress events, including biotic ones. This exudate was effectively able to inhibit fungal growth. The results of the present study indicate that seed exudation is a dual-step process that leads to the secretion of selected proteins and thus is not a result of passive leakage. The released proteome is involved in protecting the spermosphere environment and thus may act as first defence against pathogens.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of embryos between a maize hybrid and its parental lines during early stages of seed germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojian Guo

    Full Text Available In spite of commercial use of heterosis in agriculture, the molecular basis of heterosis is poorly understood. It was observed that maize hybrid Zong3/87-1 exhibited an earlier onset or heterosis in radicle emergence. To get insights into the underlying mechanism of heterosis in radicle emergence, differential proteomic analysis between hybrid and its parental lines was performed. In total, the number of differentially expressed protein spots between hybrid and its parental lines in dry and 24 h imbibed seed embryos were 134 and 191, respectively, among which 47.01% (63/134 and 34.55% (66/191 protein spots displayed nonadditively expressed pattern. Remarkably, 54.55% of nonadditively accumulated proteins in 24 h imbibed seed embryos displayed above or equal to the level of the higher parent patterns. Moreover, 155 differentially expressed protein spots were identified, which were grouped into eight functional classes, including transcription & translation, energy & metabolism, signal transduction, disease & defense, storage protein, transposable element, cell growth & division and unclassified proteins. In addition, one of the upregulated proteins in F1 hybrids was ZmACT2, a homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana ACT7 (AtACT7. Expressing ZmACT2 driven by the AtACT7 promoter partially complemented the low germination phenotype in the Atact7 mutant. These results indicated that hybridization between two parental lines can cause changes in the expression of a variety of proteins, and it is concluded that the altered pattern of gene expression at translational level in the hybrid may be responsible for the observed heterosis.

  14. Comparative Biochemical and Proteomic Analyses of Soybean Seed Cultivars Differing in Protein and Oil Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chul Woo; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, So Wun; Lee, So Eui; Kim, Yong Chul; Bae, Dong Won; Han, Won Young; Lee, Byong Won; Ko, Jong Min; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Sun Tae

    2015-08-19

    This study develops differential protein profiles of soybean (Glycine max) seeds (cv. Saedanbaek and Daewon) varying in protein (47.9 and 39.2%) and oil (16.3 and 19.7%) content using protamine sulfate (PS) precipitation method coupled with a 2D gel electrophoresis (2DGE) approach. Of 71 detected differential spots between Daewon and Saedanbaek, 48 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Gene ontology analysis revealed that up-regulated proteins in Saedanbaek were largely associated with nutrient reservoir activity (42.6%), which included mainly seed-storage proteins (SSPs; subunits of glycinin and β-conglycinin). Similar results were also obtained in two cultivars of wild soybean (G. soja cv. WS22 and WS15) differing in protein content. Western blots confirmed higher accumulation of SSPs in protein-rich Saedanbaek. Findings presented and discussed in this study highlight a possible involvement of the urea cycle for increased accumulation of SSPs and hence the higher protein content in soybean seeds.

  15. Studies on the molecular mechanisms of seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Yang, Pingfang

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination that begins with imbibition and ends with radicle emergence is the first step for plant growth. Successful germination is not only crucial for seedling establishment but also important for crop yield. After being dispersed from mother plant, seed undergoes continuous desiccation in ecosystem and selects proper environment to trigger germination. Owing to the contribution of transcriptomic, proteomic, and molecular biological studies, molecular aspect of seed germination is elucidated well in Arabidopsis. Recently, more and more proteomic and genetic studies concerning cereal seed germination were performed on rice (Oryza sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which possess completely different seed structure and domestication background with Arabidopsis. In this review, both the common features and the distinct mechanisms of seed germination are compared among different plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. These features include morphological changes, cell and its related structure recovery, metabolic activation, hormone behavior, and transcription and translation activation. This review will provide more comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of seed germination.

  16. Four conventional soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seeds exhibit different protein profiles as revealed by proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana S; Senna, Raquel; Sandim, Vanessa; Silva-Neto, Mário A C; Perales, Jonas E A; Zingali, Russolina B; Soares, Márcia R; Fialho, Eliane

    2014-02-12

    Soybeans have several functional properties due to their composition and may exert beneficial health effects that are attributed to proteins and their derivative peptides. The present study aimed to analyze the protein profiles of four new conventional soybean seeds (BRS 257, BRS 258, BRS 267, and Embrapa 48) with the use of proteomic tools. Two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoreses were performed, followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF and ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry analyses, respectively. These two different experimental approaches allowed the identification of 117 proteins from 1D gels and 46 differentially expressed protein spots in 2D gels. BRS 267 showed the greatest diversity of identified spots in the 2D gel analyses. In the 1D gels, the major groups were storage (25-40%) and lipid metabolism (11-25%) proteins. The differences in protein composition between cultivars could indicate functional and nutritional differences and could direct the development of new cultivars.

  17. Proteomic Comparison between Maturation Drying and Prematurely Imposed Drying of Zea mays Seeds Reveals a Potential Role of Maturation Drying in Preparing Proteins for Seed Germination, Seedling Vigor, and Pathogen Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Ye, Jian-Qing; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the role(s) of maturation drying in the acquisition of germinability, seedling vigor and pathogen resistance by comparing the proteome changes in maize embryo and endosperm during mature and prematurely imposed drying. Prematurely imposed dried seeds at 40 days after pollination...... (DAP) germinated almost as well as mature seeds (at 65 DAP), but their seedling growth was slower and they were seriously infected by fungi. A total of 80 and 114 proteins were identified to change at least two-fold (p ... abundant in this group and may contribute to the acquisition of seed germinability. However, a relatively large number of proteins changed in the embryo (47 spots) and endosperm (76 spots) specifically during maturation drying. Among these proteins, storage proteins in the embryo and defense proteins...

  18. Proteomic comparison between maturation drying and prematurely imposed drying of Zea mays seeds reveals a potential role of maturation drying in preparing proteins for seed germination, seedling vigor, and pathogen resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Ye, Jian-Qing; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, Katarzyna I; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2014-02-07

    We have studied the role(s) of maturation drying in the acquisition of germinability, seedling vigor and pathogen resistance by comparing the proteome changes in maize embryo and endosperm during mature and prematurely imposed drying. Prematurely imposed dried seeds at 40 days after pollination (DAP) germinated almost as well as mature seeds (at 65 DAP), but their seedling growth was slower and they were seriously infected by fungi. A total of 80 and 114 proteins were identified to change at least two-fold (p seed germinability. However, a relatively large number of proteins changed in the embryo (47 spots) and endosperm (76 spots) specifically during maturation drying. Among these proteins, storage proteins in the embryo and defense proteins in the endosperm may be particularly important for seedling vigor and resistance to fungal infection, respectively.

  19. Brewing with fractionated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Donkelaar, van, CC René

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley.  The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how ba...

  20. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly...

  1. Cy5 maleimide labelling for sensitive detection of free thiols in native protein extracts: identification of seed proteins targeted by barley thioredoxin h isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, K.; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2004-01-01

    search. HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2 were shown to have similar target specificity. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor, previously demonstrated to be reduced by both HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2, was among the identified target proteins, confirming the suitability of the method. Several alpha-amylase/trypsin...... inhibitors, some of which are already known as target proteins of thioredoxin h, and cyclophilin known as a target protein of m-type thioredoxin were also identified. Lipid transfer protein, embryo-specific protein, three chitinase isoenzymes, a single-domain glyoxalase-like protein and superoxide dismutase...

  2. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  4. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  5. Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus and the Frequency of Triploids and Aneuploids in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1973-01-01

    BSMV infection caused a pronounced increase in the frequency of triploid and aneuploid seeds in eleven barley varieties, but with considerable variation in frequency among varieties. In some of the varieties triploids exceeded three per cent. In virus-free material a few triploids were found in m...

  6. Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun;

    2015-01-01

    seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before twodimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two...

  7. Metabolomic and proteomic profiles reveal the dynamics of primary metabolism during seed development of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingfang eYang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera belongs to Nelumbonaceae family. Its seeds are widely consumed in Asia countries as snacks or even medicine. Besides the market values, lotus seed also plays crucial roles in lotus life cycle. Consequently, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the development of lotus seed. During its development, lotus seed undergoes cell division, expansion, reserve accumulation, desiccation and maturation phases. We observed morphological and biochemical changes from 10 to 25 days after pollination (DAP which was corresponding to the reserve synthesis and accumulation phase. The volume of the seed expanded until 20 DAP with the color of the seed coat changing from yellow-green to dark green and gradually fading again. Starch and protein rapidly accumulated from 15 to 20 DAP. To further reveal the metabolism adaptation, primary metabolites and proteins profiles were obtained using mass spectrometry based platforms. Metabolites and enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle and amino acids metabolism showed sequential dynamics enabling the clear separation of the different metabolic states during lotus seed development. The integration of the data revealed a highly significant metabolic switch at 15 DAP going through a transition of metabolically highly active tissue to the preparation of storage tissue. The results provide reference data set for the evaluation of primary metabolism during lotus seed development.

  8. Metabolomic and Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Dynamics of Primary Metabolism during Seed Development of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Fu, Jinlei; Li, Ming; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-01-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) belongs to the Nelumbonaceae family. Its seeds are widely consumed in Asian countries as snacks or even medicine. Besides the market value, lotus seed also plays a crucial role in the lotus life cycle. Consequently, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the development of lotus seed. During its development, lotus seed undergoes cell division, expansion, reserve accumulation, desiccation, and maturation phases. We observed morphological and biochemical changes from 10 to 25 days after pollination (DAP) which corresponded to the reserve synthesis and accumulation phase. The volume of the seed expanded until 20 DAP with the color of the seed coat changing from yellow-green to dark green and gradually fading again. Starch and protein rapidly accumulated from 15 to 20 DAP. To further reveal metabolic adaptation, primary metabolites and proteins profiles were obtained using mass spectrometry based platforms. Metabolites and enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism showed sequential dynamics enabling the clear separation of the different metabolic states during lotus seed development. The integration of the data revealed a highly significant metabolic switch at 15 DAP going through a transition of metabolically highly active tissue to the preparation of storage tissue. The results provide a reference data set for the evaluation of primary metabolism during lotus seed development.

  9. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Different Involvement of Embryo and Endosperm Proteins during Aging of Yliangyou 2 Hybrid Rice Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xue; Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian M.; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Seed aging is a process that results in a delayed germination, a decreased germination percentage, and finally a total loss of seed viability. However, the mechanism of seed aging is poorly understood. In the present study, Yliangyou 2 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were artificially aged at 100% relative humidity and 40°C, and the effect of artificial aging on germination, germination time course and the change in protein profiles of embryo and endosperm was studied to understand the molecular mechanism behind seed aging. With an increasing duration of artificial aging, the germination percentage and germination rate of hybrid rice seeds decreased. By comparing the protein profiles from the seeds aged for 0, 10 and 25 days, a total of 91 and 100 protein spots were found to show a significant change of more than 2-fold (P cell defense and rescue (28%), and with storage protein (18%). In endosperms, most of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism (37%), in energy (27%), and in protein synthesis and destination (11%). The most marked change was the increased abundance of many glycolytic enzymes together with the two fermentation enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the embryos during aging. We hypothesize that the decreased viability of hybrid rice seeds during artificial aging is caused by the development of hypoxic conditions in the embryos followed by ethanol accumulation.

  10. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Nørregaard Jensen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the cereal aleurone layer is the site of perception of germination signals and release of enzymes to the starchy endosperm. Analysis of membrane proteins is challenging due to their hydrophobicity and low abundance, thus little is known about the membrane proteins involved...... in seed germination. A membrane fraction highly enriched for the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was prepared from barley aleurone layers by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Since detergent and salt washes did not efficiently remove soluble proteins from the membrane preparations, an alternative procedure......+-ATPase, two proteins possibly involved in ion-channel regulation and two proteins of unknown function. This represents the first analysis of membrane proteins involved in seed germination, using a proteomics approach....

  11. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.

    2006-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the cereal aleurone layer is the site of perception of germination signals and release of enzymes to the starchy endosperm. Analysis of membrane proteins is challenging due to their hydrophobicity and low abundance; thus, little is known about the membrane proteins involved...... in seed germination. A membrane fraction highly enriched for the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was prepared from barley aleurone layers by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Because detergent and salt washes did not efficiently remove soluble proteins from the membrane preparations, an alternative procedure......+-ATPase, two proteins possibly involved in ion-channel regulation, and two proteins of unknown function. This represents the first analysis of membrane proteins involved in seed germination using a proteomics approach....

  12. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  13. New insight into quinoa seed quality under salinity: changes in proteomic and amino acid profiles, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of protein extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eAloisi

    2016-05-01

    . VR had the highest TPC and AA under non-saline conditions. Salinity increased TPC in all three landraces, with the strongest increase occurring in R49, and enhanced radical scavenging capacity in R49 and VR. Overall, results show that salinity deeply altered the seed proteome and amino acid profiles and, in general, increased the concentration of bioactive molecules and AA of protein extracts in a genotype-dependent

  14. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B.; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    highest TPC and AA under non-saline conditions. Salinity increased TPC in all three landraces, with the strongest increase occurring in R49, and enhanced radical scavenging capacity in R49 and VR. Overall, results show that salinity deeply altered the seed proteome and amino acid profiles and, in general, increased the concentration of bioactive molecules and AA of protein extracts in a genotype-dependent manner. PMID:27242857

  15. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    highest TPC and AA under non-saline conditions. Salinity increased TPC in all three landraces, with the strongest increase occurring in R49, and enhanced radical scavenging capacity in R49 and VR. Overall, results show that salinity deeply altered the seed proteome and amino acid profiles and, in general, increased the concentration of bioactive molecules and AA of protein extracts in a genotype-dependent manner.

  16. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  17. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in...

  18. Efficacy of imidacloprid for control of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, C; Blodgett, S L; Johnson, G D

    2000-02-01

    The toxicity of imidacloprid to the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), was measured under laboratory and field conditions. Insect mortality and plant damage were determined from artificial and natural infestations of O. melanopus applied to various growth stages of barley. All rates of imidacloprid formulated and applied as a seed treatment caused >90% mortality to cereal leaf beetle larvae when barley was infested with eggs at the 4-leaf stage, but were ineffective when barley was infested with eggs at the early tillering or flag-leaf stages of barley. This window of susceptibility influenced results obtained in field trials where peak larval emergence did not occur until the early tillering stage of barley. The resulting mortality in plants from treated seeds never exceeded 40% in the field. Foliar imidacloprid, however, caused >90% mortality in the field, and may be another option in the management of the cereal leaf beetle.

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tian

    Full Text Available Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS. Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and

  20. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20-30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20-30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development.

  1. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...... site cysteines and by removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. A cDNA clone of the barley key cysteine endoprotease...

  2. Heterologous expression and purification of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    The mobilization of protein during germination of barley seeds is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction...... of the active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. The barley key cysteine protease, endoprotease...

  3. Beer and wort proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Proteome analysis provides a way to identify proteins related to the quality traits of beer. A number of protein species in beer and wort have been identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with enzyme digestion such as trypsin, followed by mass spectrometry analyses and/or liquid chromatography mass/mass spectrometry. In addition, low molecular weight polypeptides in beer have been identified by the combination of non-enzyme digestion and mass analyses. These data sets of various molecular weight polypeptides (i.e., proteomes) provide a platform for analyzing protein functions in beer. Several novel proteins related to beer quality traits such as foam stability and haze formation have been identified by analyzing these proteomes. Some of the proteins have been applied to the development of efficient protein or DNA markers for trait selection in malting barley breeding. In this chapter, recent proteome studies of beer and wort are reviewed, and the methods and protocols of beer and wort proteome analysis are described.

  4. Effect of pH and Recombinant Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Endoprotease B2 on Degradation of Proteins in Soaked Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    . Proteolysis evaluated by SDS-PAGE and differential proteomics confirmed a powerful effect of adding rec-HvEP-B2 to the soaked barley, regardless of the genotype. Our study addresses the use of rec-HvEP-B2 as an effective feed enzyme protease. HvEP-B2 has the potential to increase the digestibility of protein...

  5. Proteomic analysis of anti-nutritional factors (ANF's) in soybean seeds as affected by environmental and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria John, K M; Khan, Farooq; Luthria, Davanand L; Garrett, Wesley; Natarajan, Savithiry

    2017-03-01

    The genotype (G), environment (E), and the relationship between G and E on soybean seed anti-nutritional factors (ANF's) were examined under three different agro-climatic conditions. The field trials were conducted at Maryland, South Carolina and South Dakota using nine region specific genotypes. At each location, the nine genotypes were grown with two planting/sowing dates. Differentially expressed protein spots from the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were analyzed using mass spectrometry. Seven ANF's corresponding to soybean agglutinin and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor were identified based on the statistical significance levels at p<0.005. The G and E conditions (planting/sowing season) influences the ANF's content. This initial study suggests that early sowing reduces the total ANF's content irrespective of genotypes and their growing locations.

  6. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  7. Competition and Facilitation in Hairy Vetch-Barley Intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Tosti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercrops between legumes and non-legumes are widely used for fodder production and as cover crops, but little quantitative data are available on competition between species in the mixture. The objective of the present study was to assess the interaction between hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown as pure crops or intercrops with different proportions of seed rates at sowing. A 4-year field study was conducted using hairy vetch and barley as pure stands at full sowing density and as intercrops at different proportions of their own full seed rate according to the replacement principle. Interaction between species was evaluated on the basis of Land Equivalent Ratio (LER, Relative Neighbour Effect (RNE and Aggressivity (A calculated on biomass and nitrogen (N accumulation. The N accumulation of the mixed crops increased linearly with the legume proportion in the mixture. The mixtures were more efficient than the pure crops in terms of N use (LER > 1. Partial LER values indicated that the barley component benefited from the presence of the legume, while the hairy vetch partial LER decreased with increasing barley proportion in the mixture. The competitive response in terms of biomass accumulation was high for both species when their density in the mixture was high. Concerning N accumulation, barley benefited from an asymmetric interspecific facilitation while the vetch behaviour was similar to that observed for biomass accumulation. Barley dominance progressively increased reaching a maximum just before the last sampling date. At the last sampling date the competitive ability of hairy vetch showed a considerable increase in all mixtures (A ≈ 0. These findings indicate that the use of mixtures between hairy vetch and barley allows an increase in the use efficiency of N resource with respect to pure crops. Barley is the dominant component of the mixture and the hairy vetch is able to cope with the cereal

  8. Quantitative Mitochondrial Proteomics Study on Protective Mechanism of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extracts Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Heart Injury in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei-da; QIU Jie; ZHAO Gai-xia; QIE Liang-yi; WEI Xin-bing; GAO Hai-qing

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury is a critical condition,often associated with high morbidity and mortality.The cardioprotective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts(GSPE) against oxidant injury during I/R has been described in previous studies.However,the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.This study investigated the effect of GSPE on reperfusion arrhythmias especially ventricular tachycardia(VT)and ventricular fibrillation(VF),the lactic acid accumulation and the ultrastructure of ischemic cardiomyocytes as well as the global changes of mitochondria proteins in in vivo rat heart model against I/R injury.GSPE significantly reduced the incidence of VF and VT,lessened the lactic acid accumulation and attenuated the ultrastructure damage.Twenty differential proteins related to cardiac protection were revealed by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation(iTRAQ) profiling.These proteins were mainly involved in energy metabolism.Besides,monoamine oxidase A(MAOA) was also identified.The differential expression of several proteins was validated by Western blot.Our study offered important information on the mechanism of GSPE treatment in ischemic heart disease.

  9. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development....

  10. 种子萌发过程中响应脱落酸与赤霉素的蛋白质组变化研究进展%Research Advances on Abscisic Acid and Gibberellin Responsive Proteomics during Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静静; 戴绍军

    2012-01-01

    蛋白质组学技术平台为探究激素功能应答蛋白质提供了有效手段。目前通过蛋白质组学方法已经鉴定出水稻(Oryzasativa)、欧洲山毛榉(Fagus sylvatica)、挪威槭(Acer platanoides)等多个物种种子萌发过程中ABA-和GA-应答蛋白质。综述了种子萌发过程中响应脱落酸和赤霉素的蛋白质组变化相关研究的进展,包括与转录、蛋白质降解、活性氧清除、能量代谢等相关的蛋白质,以及其他代谢相关的蛋白质.以期为揭示种子萌发过程中的激素应答调控机制提供参考。%Proteomies technology platform provides an effective method for exploring hormone-responsive proteins.Recently,many ABA-and GA-responsive proteins upon seed germination have been identified in rice (Oryza s ativa), European been (Fagus sylvatica), Norway maple (Acer platanoides )and other species.Research advances on abscisic acid-and gibberellin-responsive proteomics during seed germination were reviewed, including proteomics related with transcription,protein degradation and degradation, energy metabolism, and other related proteomics, so as to provide references for reveal regulation mechanism of hormones response during seed germination.

  11. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  12. The NAC transcription factors of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael; Holm, Preben Bach; Gregersen, Per L.

    2011-01-01

    ). From these data we have identified not only putative regulators of leaf senescence (HvNAC005, HvNAC027 and HvNAC029), but also possible regulators of secondary wall synthesis (HvNAC033, HvNAC034 and HvNAC039), lateral root formation (HvNAC022) and seed development (HvNAC017, HvNAC018, HvNAC019 and Hv...... genes characterized so far have regulatory functions in a broad range of plant developmental processes and tolerances to both biotic and abiotic stresses. This makes the NAC family highly interesting target genes for plant researchers and breeders. As part of a larger project on the identification...... of Hordeum vulgare (barley) leaf senescence regulators, we have attempted to characterize for the first time all presently available barley NAC genes (HvNACs). By searching the NCBI barley EST database using the tBLASTn function, with all known NAC genes from Brachypodium and rice as input, in combination...

  13. Biochemistry, Structure and Function of Non-Wheat Proteins: Case Study of Barley ß-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of a protein is not always evident and may be due to its multifunctional nature. ß-Amylase in seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) constitutes approximately 2% of the total protein in mature seeds and is assumed to be important when storage proteins are mobilized to support protein s...

  14. Loss-of-function of DELLA protein SLN1 activates GA signaling in barley aleurone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberellic acid (GA) is a key phytohormone regulating seed germination and seedling growth. In cereal species, GA is synthesized in embyros and then translocated to aleurone tissues where it induces production of hydrolytic enzymes for mobolization of seed storage reserve. De-embyronated barley a...

  15. Patrones de absorción de nitrógeno nativo y del fertilizante en cebada cervecera con fertilizaciones cercanas a la siembra Soil and fertilizer nitrogen uptake patterns in malting barley with near seeding fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aurora Lázzari

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Existe escasa información sobre la aplicación de fertilizantes nitrogenados, en cebada cervecera, y su relación con el aumento de rendimiento de granos sin aumentar la concentración proteica a niveles que excedan el rango exigido por las malterías. Se llevaron a cabo ocho experimentos a campo en diferentes sitios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, en los años 1999 y 2000, para determinar el efecto del nitrógeno sobre el crecimiento, la absorción de N del suelo y del fertilizante, el rendimiento y la concentración de N en grano. Los tratamientos fueron 0, 30 y 60 kg N ha-1 aplicados a la emergencia de la planta, 30 y 60 kg N ha-1 aplicados en macollaje temprano, y 60 kg N ha-1 fraccionado en dos momentos: 30 kg N ha-1 cada uno aplicados a la emergencia y en macollaje temprano. Dentro de cada parcela se ubicó una microparcela a la que se le aplicó urea marcada con 15N. En cuatro momentos del ciclo de la cebada, desde macollaje temprano hasta madurez fisiológica, se evaluó la producción de materia seca y la absorción de N de plantas extraídas de las microparcelas. El crecimiento continuó hasta madurez fisiológica, y generalmente alcanzó el máximo después de antesis, en coincidencia con el período de mayor absorción de nitrógeno. La dosis de 30 kg N ha-1 aumentó el rendimiento pero no la concentración de N del grano. El agregado de 60 kg N ha-1 afectó ambos. El momento de aplicación de N no afectó el rendimiento de la materia seca ni la concentración de N en el grano. La variación en la absorción de N entre sitios fue mayor que la variación en la absorción de N del fertilizante. El Índice de Cosecha de Nitrógeno no fue afectado por las dosis de N aplicado.There is a lack of data associated with applications of nitrogen fertilizer to increase yield while not increasing seed protein to levels exceeding those acceptable for malting barley in Buenos Aires province. Field experiments were carried out on eight sites

  16. Response of Barley Seedlings to Microwaves at 2.45 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Crețescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes induced upon germination and growth rate, expressed by vigor index of barley seeds exposed to microwave (MW treatment. As a microwave source was used a magnetron MWG20H, which emits radiation with a frequency of 2.45 GHz. In the experiment, barley seeds were exposed for 0s, 10s and 20s. The germination energy (GE and germination (G, cotyledon length (CL, leaves length (LL and roots length (RL in cm were determined on the 3th, 7th and 14th day after irradiation in order to estimate the influence of microwave treatment on them. The hypothesis was that seeds exposed to MW will behave differently than those unexposed. It was observed that the best results in terms of GE, G and vigor index (SVI were obtained in barley seeds for the treatment with output microwaves power of 400W for 20s.

  17. Malting barley BRS Borema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclydes Minella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Borema is an early maturing, two-rowed spring barley registered in 2003 for commercial production inSouthern Brazil, bred by Embrapa Trigo. It combines good yield potential with superior malting quality and a reasonable levelof disease (net blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust resistance. It is well-adapted to all major production regions of maltingbarley in Brazil.

  18. Identification of thioredoxin target disulfides in proteins released from barley aleurone layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, J.; Yang, Fen

    2010-01-01

    Thioredoxins are ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including DNA synthesis, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. In cereal seeds thioredoxins are proposed to facilitate the germination process by reducing disulfide bonds in storage proteins and other...... targets in the starchy endosperm. Here we have applied a thiol-specific labeling approach to identify specific disulfide targets of barley thioredoxin in proteins released from barley aleurone layers incubated in buffer containing gibberellic acid....

  19. Exploring the Plant–Microbe Interface by Profiling the Surface-Associated Proteins of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    -associated proteins and xylanolytic activities of two barley cultivars. The surface-associated proteome was dominated by plant proteins with roles in defense and stress-responses, while the relatively less abundant microbial (bacterial and fungal) proteins were involved in cell-wall and polysaccharide degradation...... and included xylanases. The surface-associated proteomes showed elevated xylanolytic activity and contained several xylanases. Integration of proteomics with enzyme assays is a powerful tool for analysis and characterization of the interaction between microbial consortia and plants in their natural environment....

  20. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  1. Efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus L. Effects of the culture of the Barley and of periods of control on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pinto de Souza

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle das plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus. Foram considerados dois tratamentos testemunha sem controle das plantas daninhas, com e sem a cultura. Nos oito demais tratamentos, a cultura esteve sempre presente, controlando-se as plantas daninhas até 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 e 100 dias após a emergência da cevada. A comunidade infestante da área era composta quase exclusivamente por R. .sativus. Avaliou-se o número de plantas, acúmulos de matéria seca, número médio de frutos e sementes de nabiça por planta e por unidade de área ; foram ainda avaliados o número médio de sementes por fruto, peso médio de 1.000 sementes e a contribuição das sementes na composição da matéria se catota. A análise dos resultados evidenciou que a espécie Raphanus sativus apresenta elevado potencial reprodutivo, sendo possível concluir pela ineficiência de programas de controle de curta duração, em termos de redução do banco de sementes. A presença da cultura da cevada reduziu tanto o crescimento quanto o número de sementes produzidas pela nabiça (R. sativus. Na ausência da cultura e de práticas de controle foram produzidas 5.074 sementes/m, a partir de 125 plantas/m ainda presentes na colheita da cultura.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of barley and weed control periods on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus, the major weed in the experimental area. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Two checks, with and without the crop, were kept weedy from seeding to harvest. In other eight treatments the crop was kept weed free up to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 days after emergence. It were evaluated the number of plants, the dry matter accumulation and the number of fruits and seeds per plant and per m2, the weight of 1.000 seeds and the

  2. Effect of cigarette smoke on seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, R E

    2001-02-21

    The effect of cigarette smoke was studied on the germination of radish, kale, lettuce, amaranth, wheat, rice, barley and rye seeds. It was found that such smoke markedly retarded, in all cases, the rate of germination. Furthermore, cigarette smoke caused a retardation of the levels of certain enzymes (alpha-amylase or lysozyme) known to be significant in the germination of these seeds.

  3. Response of Barley Seedlings to Microwaves at 2.45 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana Crețescu; Rodica Căpriță; Giancarla Velicevici; Sorina Ropciuc; Genoveva Buzamat

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes induced upon germination and growth rate, expressed by vigor index of barley seeds exposed to microwave (MW) treatment. As a microwave source was used a magnetron MWG20H, which emits radiation with a frequency of 2.45 GHz. In the experiment, barley seeds were exposed for 0s, 10s and 20s. The germination energy (GE) and germination (G), cotyledon length (CL), leaves length (LL) and roots length (RL) in cm were determine...

  4. Heterogeneity of Powdery Mildew Resistance Revealed in Accessions of the ICARDA Wild Barley Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiseitl, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    The primary genepool of barley comprises two subspecies – wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) and cultivated barley H. vulgare. subsp. vulgare. The former originated 5.5 million years ago in southwest Asia and is the immediate ancestor of cultivated barley, which arose around 10,000 years ago. In this study, the specific resistance of a set of 146 wild barley accessions, maintained by the International Center for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), to 32 isolates of barley powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei was evaluated. The set comprised 146 heterogeneous accessions of a previously tested collection. Seed was obtained by single seed descent and each accession was usually represented by five single plant progenies. In total, 687 plant progenies were tested. There were 211 phenotypes of resistance among the accessions, 87 of which were found in single plants, while 202 plants contained the eight most common phenotypes. The most frequent phenotype was found in 56 plants that were susceptible to all pathogen isolates, whereas the second most frequent phenotype, which occurred in 46 plants, was resistant to all isolates. The broad resistance diversity that was revealed is of practical importance and is an aid to determining the extent and role of resistance in natural ecosystems.

  5. Proteomic analysis of embryonic axis of Pisum sativum seeds during germination and identification of proteins associated with loss of desiccation tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2012-01-01

    these seeds to identify the candidate proteins associated with the loss of desiccation tolerance and found a total of seven proteins – tubulin alpha-1 chain, seed biotin-containing protein SBP65, P54 protein, vicilin, vicilin-like antimicrobial peptides 2–3, convicilin and TCP-1/cpn60 chaperonin family...

  6. Environmental impacts of barley cultivation under current and future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Saxe, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of spring barley cultivation in Denmark under current (year 2010) and future (year 2050) climatic conditions. Therefore, a Life Cycle Assessment was carried out for the production of 1 kg of spring barley in Denmark, at farm gate....... Both under 2010 and 2050 climatic conditions, four subscenarios were modelled, based on a combination of two soil types and two climates. Included in the assessment were seed production, soil preparation, fertilization, pesticide application, and harvest. When processes in the life cycle resulted in co...... categories, except human and freshwater eco-toxicity, are higher when the barley is produced under climatic circumstances representative for 2050. Comparison of the 2010 and 2050 climatic scenarios indicates that a predicted decrease in barley yields under the 2050 climatic conditions is the main driver...

  7. Reclamation of Sodic-Saline Soils. Barley Crop Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at assessing the salinity and sodicity effects of two soil types submitted to correction on barley crop. The two soils, contained in cylindrical pots (0.40 m in size and 0.60 m h supplied with a bottom valve for the collection of drainage water and located under shed to prevent the leaching action of rainfall, were clay-textured and saline and sodic-saline at barley seeding, as they had been cultivated for 4 consecutive years with different herbaceous species irrigated with 9 types of brackish water. In 2002-2003 the 2 salinized and sodium-affected soils (ECe and ESP ranging respectively from 5.84-20.27 dSm-1 to 2.83-11.19%, submitted to correction, were cultivated with barley cv Micuccio, and irrigated with fresh water (ECw = 0.5 dS m-1 and SAR = 0.45 whenever 30% of the maximum soil available moisture was lost by evapotranspiration. Barley was shown to be a salt-tolerant species and did not experience any salt stress when grown in soils with an initial ECe up to 11 dS m-1. When it was grown in more saline soils (initial ECe of about 20 dS m-1, despite the correction, it showed a reduction in shoot biomass and kernel yield by 26% and 36% respectively, as compared to less saline soils.

  8. Integrated analysis of seed proteome and mRNA oxidation reveals distinct post-transcriptional features regulating dormancy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Rampitsch, Christof; Chitnis, Vijaya R; Humphreys, Gavin D; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T

    2013-10-01

    Wheat seeds can be released from a dormant state by after-ripening; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still mostly unknown. We previously identified transcriptional programmes involved in the regulation of after-ripening-mediated seed dormancy decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we show that seed dormancy maintenance and its release by dry after-ripening in wheat is associated with oxidative modification of distinct seed-stored mRNAs that mainly correspond to oxidative phosphorylation, ribosome biogenesis, nutrient reservoir and α-amylase inhibitor activities, suggesting the significance of post-transcriptional repression of these biological processes in regulating seed dormancy. We further show that after-ripening induced seed dormancy release in wheat is mediated by differential expression of specific proteins in both dry and hydrated states, including those involved in proteolysis, cellular signalling, translation and energy metabolism. Among the genes corresponding to these proteins, the expression of those encoding α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor and starch synthase appears to be regulated by mRNA oxidation. Co-expression analysis of the probesets differentially expressed and oxidized during dry after-ripening along with those corresponding to proteins differentially regulated between dormant and after-ripened seeds produced three co-expressed gene clusters containing more candidate genes potentially involved in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Two of the three clusters are enriched with elements that are either abscisic acid (ABA) responsive or recognized by ABA-regulated transcription factors, indicating the association between wheat seed dormancy and ABA sensitivity.

  9. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  10. The effect of alpha-amanitin on the Arabidopsis seed proteome highlights the distinct roles of stored and neosynthesized mRNAs during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajjou, Loïc; Gallardo, Karine; Debeaujon, Isabelle; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the role of stored and neosynthesized mRNAs in seed germination, we examined the effect of alpha-amanitin, a transcriptional inhibitor targeting RNA polymerase II, on the germination of nondormant Arabidopsis seeds. We used transparent testa mutants, of which seed coat is highly permeable, to better ascertain that the drug can reach the embryo during seed imbibition. Even with the most permeable mutant (tt2-1), germination (radicle protrusion) occurred in the absence of transcription, while subsequent seedling growth was blocked. In contrast, germination was abolished in the presence of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide. Taken together, the results highlight the role of stored proteins and mRNAs for germination in Arabidopsis and show that in this species the potential for germination is largely programmed during the seed maturation process. The alpha-amanitin-resistant germination exhibited characteristic features. First, this germination was strongly slowed down, indicating that de novo transcription normally allows the synthesis of factor(s) activating the germination rate. Second, the sensitivity of germination to gibberellic acid was reduced 15-fold, confirming the role of this phytohormone in germination. Third, de novo synthesis of enzymes involved in reserve mobilization and resumption of metabolic activity was repressed, thus accounting for the failure in seedling establishment. Fourth, germinating seeds can recapitulate at least part of the seed maturation program, being capable of using mRNAs stored during development. Thus, commitment to germination and plant growth requires transcription of genes allowing the imbibed seed to discriminate between mRNAs to be utilized in germination and those to be destroyed.

  11. Allelopathic potential of Chrozophora tinctoria on early growth of Barley and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Aliloo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory bioassay was conducted to investigate the allelopathic effects of Chrozophora tinctoria on germination and seedling growth of barley and wheat. Aqueous leave extracts of C. tinctoria at 5, 10, 15 and 20 % concentrations were prepared and distilled water was used as a control. Results showed that germination percentage of two species decreased with increasing the extract concentrations; however, wheat germination was relatively resistant to allelochemicals than barley. In contrast to germination behavior, seedling traits showed different responses. The extracts improved seedling dry weights, particularly barley, whereas seedling lengths were inhibited. Roots of both species were more affected than shoots by extracts. The extracts reduced seed reserve mobilization significantly (p≤0.05. It was concluded that the used extract had inhibitory effects on seed germination of the crops; however, at seedling stages the effects were severely reduced.

  12. Dissecting molecular interactions involved in recognition of target disulfides by the barley thioredoxin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Maeda, Kenji; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds, thus regulating activities of target proteins in various biological systems, e.g., inactivation of inhibitors of starch hydrolases and proteases in germinating plant seeds. In the three-dimensional structure of a complex with barley α-amylase/subtilisin inhibi......Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds, thus regulating activities of target proteins in various biological systems, e.g., inactivation of inhibitors of starch hydrolases and proteases in germinating plant seeds. In the three-dimensional structure of a complex with barley α......-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI), two loops in barley thioredoxin h2 (HvTrxh2), containing an invariant cis-proline (86EAMP89) and a conserved glycine (104VGA106), surround the active site cysteines ( 45WCGPC49) and contribute to binding of BASI through backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds [Maeda, K., Hägglund, P., Finnie, C...

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  14. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of two barley thioredoxin h isozymes, HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Björnberg, Olof

    2010-01-01

    -dependent fluorescence, and the barley isozymes, reaction kinetics and thermodynamic properties were readily determined. The reaction constants were 60% higher for HvTrxh1 than HvTrxh2, while their redox potentials were very similar. The primary nucleophile, Cys(N), of the active site Trp-Cys(N)-Gly-Pro-Cys......Barley thioredoxin h isozymes 1 (HvTrxh1) and barley thioredoxin h isozymes 2 (HvTrxh2) show distinct spatiotemporal distribution in germinating seeds. Using a novel approach involving measurement of bidirectional electron transfer rates between Escherichia coli thioredoxin, which exhibits redox...

  15. Inactivation of barley limit dextrinase inhibitor by thioredoxin-catalysed disulfide reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johanne Mørch; Hägglund, Per; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager;

    2012-01-01

    Barley limit dextrinase (LD) that catalyses hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch-derived dextrins is inhibited by limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) found in mature seeds. LDI belongs to the chloroform/methanol soluble protein family (CM-protein family) and has four disulfide bridges a...

  16. Secretory expression of functional barley limit dextrinase by Pichia pastoris using high cell-density fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Malene Bech; Abou Hachem, Maher; Næsted, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Heterologous production of large multidomain proteins from higher plants is often cumbersome. Barley limit dextrinase (LD), a 98 kDa multidomain starch and alpha-limit dextrin debranching enzyme, plays a major role in starch mobilization during seed germination and is possibly involved in starch...

  17. [Metabolic control of seed germination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catusse, Julie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Job, Claudette; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Job, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    We have used proteomics to better characterize germination and early seedling vigor in sugarbeet. Our strategy includes (1) construction of proteome reference maps for dry and germinating seeds of a high-vigor reference seed lot; (2) investigation of the specific tissue accumulation of proteins (root, cotyledon, perisperm); (3) investigation of changes in protein expression profiles detected in the reference seed lot subjected to different vigor-modifying treatments, e.g. aging and/or priming. More than 1 000 sugarbeet seed proteins have been identified by LC/MS-MS mass spectrometry (albumins, globulins and glutelins have been analyzed separately). Due to the conservation of protein sequences and the quality of MS sequencing (more than 10 000 peptide sequences have been obtained), the success rate of protein identification was on the average of 80%. This is to our knowledge the best detailed proteome analysis ever carried out in seeds. The data allowed us to build a detailed metabolic chart of the sugarbeet seed, generating new insights into the molecular mechanisms determining the development of a new seedling. Also, the proteome of a seed-storage tissue as the perisperm is described for the first time.

  18. Transcriptomics analysis of hulless barley during grain development with a focus on starch biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yawei; Zeng, Xingquan; Wang, Yulin; Bai, Lijun; Xu, Qijun; Wei, Zexiu; Yuan, Hongjun; Nyima, Tashi

    2017-01-01

    Hulless barley, with its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits, has increasingly attracted attentions in recent years. However, the transcription dynamics during hulless barley grain development is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome changes during barley grain development using Illumina paired-end RNA-sequencing. Two datasets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two barley landraces with the differential seed starch synthesis traits were generated, and comparative transcriptome approach in both genotypes was performed. The results showed that 38 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found co-modulated in both genotypes during the barley grain development. Of those, the proteins encoded by most of those DGEs were found, such as alpha-amylase-related proteins, lipid-transfer protein, homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip), NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y, subunit B (NF-YBs), as well as MYB transcription factors. More interestingly, two genes Hvulgare_GLEAN_10012370 and Hvulgare_GLEAN_10021199 encoding SuSy, AGPase (Hvulgare_GLEAN_10033640 and Hvulgare_GLEAN_10056301), as well as SBE2b (Hvulgare_GLEAN_10018352) were found to significantly contribute to the regulatory mechanism during grain development in both genotypes. Moreover, six co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways (M1 to M6) were identified by consensus co-expression network. Significantly enriched pathways of those module genes showed difference in both genotypes. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanism of starch synthesis during barley grain development.

  19. Proteomic analysis of kidney and protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 in db/db mice indicate MFG-E8 as a key molecule in the development of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Bao-Ying; Li, Xiao-Li; Cheng, Mei; Yu, Fei; Lu, Wei-da; Cai, Qian; Wang, Jun-Fu; Zhou, Rui-Hai; Gao, Hai-Qing; Shen, Lin

    2013-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy, as a severe microvascular complication of diabetic mellitus, has become the leading cause of end-stage renal diseases. However, no effective therapeutic strategy has been developed to prevent renal damage progression to end stage renal disease. Hence, the present study evaluated the protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) and explored its molecular targets underlying diabetic nephropathy by a comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis in db/db mice. Here, we found that oral administration of GSPB2 significantly attenuated the renal dysfunction and pathological changes in db/db mice. Proteome analysis by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) identified 53 down-regulated and 60 up-regulated proteins after treatment with GSPB2 in db/db mice. Western blot analysis confirmed that milk fat globule EGF-8 (MFG-E8) was significantly up-regulated in diabetic kidney. MFG-E8 silencing by transfection of MFG-E8 shRNA improved renal histological lesions by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1⁄2), Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β) in kidneys of db/db mice. In contrast, over-expression of MFG-E8 by injection of recombinant MFG-E8 resulted in the opposite effects. GSPB2 treatment significantly decreased protein levels of MFG-E8, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-Akt, and phospho-GSK-3β in the kidneys of db/db mice. These findings yield insights into the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, revealing MFG-E8 as a new therapeutic target and indicating GSPB2 as a prospective therapy by down-regulation of MFG-E8, along with ERK1/2, Akt and GSK-3β signaling pathway.

  20. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA and abscisic acid (ABA are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up

  1. Transcriptional Responses to Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid in Barley Aleurone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kegui Chen; Yong-Qiang Charles An

    2006-01-01

    Cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to investigate giberrellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined the mRNA accumulation of over 22 000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than a threefold change in response to GA treatment, whereas 206 genes had a more than threefold change in response to ABA treatment. Interestingly, approximately 2.5-fold more genes were up-regulated than downregulated by ABA. Eighty-three genes were differentially regulated by both GA and ABA. Most of the genes were subject to antagonistic regulation by ABA and GA, particularly for genes related to seed maturation and germination, such as genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and storage mobilization enzymes. This supports the antagonistic roles of GA and ABA in seed maturation and seed germination.Interestingly, we observed that a significant percentage of the genes were coordinately regulated by both GA and ABA. Some GA-responsive genes encoded proteins involved in ethylene, jasmonate, brassinosteroid and auxin metabolic and signaling transduction pathways, suggesting their potential interaction with the GA response. We also identified a group of transcription factor genes, such as MYB and Homeobox genes, that were differentially regulated by GA. In addition, a number of GA- and/or ABA-responsive genes encoded components potentially involved in GA and ABA signal transduction pathway. Overall, the present study provides a comprehensive and global view of transcript expression accompanying the GA and ABA response in barley aleurone and identifies a group of genes with potential regulatory functions in GA- and ABA-signaling pathways for future functional validation.

  2. Improving the nutritional quality of the barley and wheat grain storage proteins by antisense technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Lange, Mette; Aaslo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Prolamins are the predominant storage proteins in barley and wheat grains, accounting for 50 to 80% of total seed protein. However, the prolamins are not optimal feed for monogastric animals as they have a low content of certain essential amino acids such as lysine, threonine and tryptophan...... gliadins) are also available from Germany and UK. We have grown them under different N regimes (high, medium and low N) in semi-field conditions. Previously five different antisense C-hordein lines of barley have been characterized in our laboratory. The analyses revealed that the lysine, threonine...

  3. Oligosaccharide and Substrate Binding in the Starch Debranching Enzyme Barley Limit Dextrinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie; Windahl, Michael Skovbo; Sim, Lyann;

    2015-01-01

    Complete hydrolytic degradation of starch requires hydrolysis of both the α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in amylopectin. Limit dextrinase (LD) is the only endogenous barley enzyme capable of hydrolyzing the α-1,6-glucosidic bond during seed germination, and impaired LD activity inevitably...... reduces the maltose and glucose yields from starch degradation. Crystal structures of barley LD and active-site mutants with natural substrates, products and substrate analogues were sought to better understand the facets of LD-substrate interactions that αconfine high activity of LD to branched...... starch synthesis....

  4. Differential Synthesis in Vitro of Barley Aleurone and Starchy Endosperm Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Hejgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Annette

    1986-01-01

    RNAs from isolated endosperm and aleurone tissues (developing and mature grain) and from cultured (germinating) aleurone layers treated with abscisic acid (ABA) and GA(3). B and C hordein polypeptides and the salt-soluble proteins beta-amylase, protein Z, protein C, the chymotrypsin inhibitors (CI-1 and 2......To widen the selection of proteins for gene expression studies in barley seeds, experiments were performed to identify proteins whose synthesis is differentially regulated in developing and germinating seed tissues. The in vitro synthesis of nine distinct barley proteins was compared using m......, expression of genes encoding ASI, PSI, protein C, and PAPI is tissue and stage-specific during seed development. Only ASI, CI-1, and PAPI were synthesized in significant amounts with mRNA from cultured aleurone layers. The levels of synthesis of PAPI and CI-1 were independent of hormone treatment...

  5. Mixed cropping of annual feed legumes with barley improves feed quantity and crude protein content under dry-land conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine a suitable mixture of annual feed legumes and barley as a winter crop under dry-land conditions. Seeds of Hungarian vetch (cv. 2670, smooth vetch (cv. Maragheh, and local varieties of grass pea and field pea were mixed with barley (cv. Abidar in a 1:1 ratio and were tested, along with related monoculture. All legumes in the mixture survived winter while legumes alone, except Hungarian vetch, did not survive in the cold areas. The maximum fresh and dry forage yields (56 and 15 ton ha-1 respectively were obtained from a mixture of smooth vetch and barley in provinces with mild winter and more than 400 mm of rainfall. The mixture of barley and smooth vetch resulted in the highest mean crude protein content (17%. Autumn seeding of smooth vetch and barley in a 1:1 ratio produced more than 2 ton ha-1 of dry biomass with good quality in all studied areas and thus could serve as an alternative cropping system after wheat/barley in cold and semi-cold dry land.

  6. The Metabolic Signature of Biomass Formation in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mohammad R; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Usadel, Björn; Junker, Björn; Schreiber, Falk; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-09-01

    The network analysis of genome-wide transcriptome responses, metabolic signatures and enzymes' relationship to biomass formation has been studied in a diverse panel of 12 barley accessions during vegetative and reproductive stages. The primary metabolites and enzymes involved in central metabolism that determine the accumulation of shoot biomass at the vegetative stage of barley development are primarily being linked to sucrose accumulation and sucrose synthase activity. Interestingly, the metabolic and enzyme links which are strongly associated with biomass accumulation during reproductive stages are related to starch accumulation and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citrate, malate, trans-aconitate and isocitrate. Additional significant associations were also found for UDP glucose, ATP and the amino acids isoleucine, valine, glutamate and histidine during the reproductive stage. A network analysis resulted in a combined identification of metabolite and enzyme signatures indicative for grain weight accumulation that was correlated with the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a rate-limiting enzyme involved in starch biosynthesis, and with that of alanine amino transferase involved in the synthesis of storage proteins. We propose that the mechanism related to vegetative and reproductive biomass formation vs. seed biomass formation is being linked to distinct fluxes regulating sucrose, starch, sugars and amino acids as central resources. These distinct biomarkers can be used to engineer biomass production and grain weight in barley.

  7. Study on processing of barley healthcare sausage%大麦保健香肠工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱萍; 张丽萍

    2014-01-01

    以香肠为研究对象,在香肠原配料中添加两种不同处理方式的大麦籽实,经过单因素试验与感官评价确定大麦保健香肠中大麦添加的最佳量,结果表明,大麦保健香肠的最佳配方为精肉80 g,肥膘20 g,大麦20 g,复合其他调配料。%Sausage was taken as the research object. Two different processing modes of barley seeds were added in sausage, through single factor experiment and sensory evaluation, the optimal addition of barley was determined. The result showed that the optimal formula of barley healthcare sausage was that lean meat 80g, fat 20g, barley 20g and composite of other ingredients.

  8. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring i...

  9. THE STIMULATING EFFECT OF LASER RED LIGHT, FAR RED LIGHT AND SODIUM CARBONATE AT THE INITIAL STAGES OF BARLEY ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Dudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Modern ecological state of the environment and human unhealthy diet cause many diseases. A healthy diet is the one that contains adequate amounts of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, macronutrients and micronutrients. Photosynthesis i. e. the process by which plants produce organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water, is the source of life, the source of evolution and proliferation of life forms on the Earth. Thus, the juice made from sprouted barley provides physiologically active chlorophyll, macronutrients and micronutrients, vitamins А, В2 , В3 , В5 , В6 , В8 , Е and К. It is well known that light from a red laser with a wavelength of 638.2 nm has a stimulating action on the germination energy, germination ability and productivity of seeds, and on the crop yields. Therefore, this research is of primary importance today. The research result produced a sharp decline in plant vigor and germinating capacity of barley when soaking in 1n sodium carbonate solution, as well as changes in the ratio of potassium-sodium balance in plants. Thus at lower concentrations of sodium carbonate and 0.1 n sodium increasing of pigment content in barley is observed on the seventh day. The red laser light has a similar stimulating action: the chlorophyll content of barley plants increased after the red laser treatment of barley seeds. However, the chlorophyll contents were depressed when the seeds were exposed to far red light with wavelengths of 754±10 nm. Using these factors, one can manage the content of chlorophyll and sodium-potassium balance in the initial stages of barley ontogenesis in the technology of barley juice or the powder for a healthy and proper human diet.

  10. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  11. High levels of genetic and genotypic diversity in field populations of the barley pathogen Ramularia collo-cygni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund; Ravnshøj, A.R.; Nyman, M.

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete pathogen Ramularia collo-cygni causes Ramularia leaf spot (RLS) on barley. Although R. collo-cygni is considerd an emerging disease of barley, little is known about genetic diversity or population genetic structure of this pathogen. We applied a set of polymorphic AFLP (Amplified F...... result from considerable levels of gene flow between populations most likely mediated by seed borne dispersal of inoculum....

  12. Use of Barley for the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater in a Hydroponics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley was examined for its ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater. The effects of seed sterilization using ethanol and bleach and seed density on germination and plant growth were investigated. Surface sterilization of barley seeds had a negative impact on germination. Increasing the ethanol concentration and/or the bleach concentration reduced the germination percentage. Barley seeds were first germinated in water in the hydroponics system. The seedlings then received wastewater from an aquaculture system stocked with Arctic charr. During the experiment, the crops grew rapidly and fairly uniformly and showed no signs of mineral deficiency or disease. The average crop height at harvest was 25.5 cm and the yield varied from 25 to 59 t haˉ1, depending on the seed density. The hydroponically grown barley was able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N, and PO43--P reductions ranged from 52.7 to 60.5%, from 72.9 to 83.1%, from 76.0 to 76.0%, from 97.6 to 99.2%, from 76.9 to 81.6% and from 87.1 to 95.1%, respectively. However, the effluent produced from the hydroponics system had slightly higher levels of TS (420-485 mg Lˉ1 than the 480 mg Lˉ1 recommended for aquatic animals. A sedimentation/filtration unit should be added to the hydroponics system.

  13. Efficient secretory expression of functional barley limit dextrinase inhibitor by high cell-density fermentation of Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johanne Mørch; Vester-Christensen, Malene Bech; Møller, Marie Sofie;

    2011-01-01

    The limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) from barley seeds acts specifically on limit dextrinase (LD), an endogenous starch debranching enzyme. LDI is a 14kDa hydrophobic protein containing four disulfide bonds and one unpaired thiol group previously found to be either glutathionylated or cysteinylat...

  14. Cisgenic barley for animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Service and Sejet Plant Breeding based on the Cisgenesis concept. Cisgenesis implies that the plants are transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material and that the final Cisgenic plants have to be free of any foreign genes. The Cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction...... of extra gene copies of a particular gene whereby a particular trait can be accentuated. Transgenic crops generated by the Cisgenesis concept are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. In our part of the project we are focusing on barley phytases as candidate genes...... using a genomic barley lambda library. The clone has been inserted into a Cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. T0-plants show...

  15. A novel approach of proteomics to study the mechanism of action of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on diabetic retinopathy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness among the people of occupational age. To prevent the progress of retina injury, effective therapies directed toward the key molecular target are required. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE) have been reported to be effective in treating diabetic complications, while little is discussed about the functional protein changes. Methods We used streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes in rats. GSPE (250 mg/kg body weight per day) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 weeks. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were determined. Consequently, 2-D difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to investigate retina protein profiles among control, STZ-induced diabetic rats, and GSPE treated diabetic rats. Results GSPE significantly reduced the AGEs of diabetic rats (P <0.05). Moreover, GSPE significantly suppressed the vascular lesions of central regions, decreased capillary enlargements and neovascularization, similar to those of the control rats under light microscope. Eighteen proteins were found either up-regulated or down-regulated in the retina of STZ-induced diabetic rats. And seven proteins in the retina of diabetic rats were found to be back-regulated to normal levels after GSPE therapy. These back-regulated proteins are involved in many important biological processes such as heat shock, ubiquitin-proteasome system, cell proliferation, cell growth and glucose metabolism. Conclusions These findings might promote a better understanding for the mechanism of DR, and provide novel targets for evaluating the effects of GSPE therapy.

  16. Platelet proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufferey, Anne; Fontana, Pierre; Reny, Jean-Luc; Nolli, Severine; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are small cell fragments, produced by megakaryocytes, in the bone marrow. They play an important role in hemostasis and diverse thrombotic disorders. They are therefore primary targets of antithrombotic therapies. They are implicated in several pathophysiological pathways, such as inflammation or wound repair. In blood circulation, platelets are activated by several pathways including subendothelial matrix and thrombin, triggering the formation of the platelet plug. Studying their proteome is a powerful approach to understand their biology and function. However, particular attention must be paid to different experimental parameters, such as platelet quality and purity. Several technologies are involved during the platelet proteome processing, yielding information on protein identification, characterization, localization, and quantification. Recent technical improvements in proteomics combined with inter-disciplinary strategies, such as metabolomic, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics, will help to understand platelets biological mechanisms. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the platelet proteome under different environmental conditions may contribute to elucidate complex processes relevant to platelet function regarding bleeding disorders or platelet hyperreactivity and identify new targets for antiplatelet therapy.

  17. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the pre

  18. Issues surrounding health claims for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Nancy P; Rhymer, Camille R

    2008-06-01

    Government-approved health claims support dietary intervention as a safe and practical approach to improving consumer health and provide industry with regulatory guidelines for food product labels. Claims already allowed in the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands for reducing cholesterol through consumption of oat or barley soluble fiber provide a basis for review, but each country may have different criteria for assessing clinical evidence for a physiological effect. For example, the FDA-approved barley health claim was based on a petition that included 39 animal model studies and 11 human clinical trials. Since then, more studies have been published, but with few exceptions, clinical data continue to demonstrate that the consumption of barley products is effective for lowering total and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to fully understand the mechanism of cholesterol reduction and the role of beta-glucan molecular weight, viscosity, and solubility. In an assessment of the physiological efficacy of a dietary intervention, consideration should also be given to the potential impact of physical and thermal food-processing treatments and genotypic variation in the barley source. New barley cultivars have been generated specifically for food use, possessing increased beta-glucan, desirable starch composition profiles, and improved milling/processing traits. These advances in barley production, coupled with the establishment of a government-regulated health claim for barley beta-glucan, will stimulate new processing opportunities for barley foods and provide consumers with reliable, healthy food choices.

  19. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  20. Characterization of recombinant high pI Barley α-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Svensson, Birte

    α-glucosidase activity in barley seeds plays a crucial role in embryonic development. The concerted action of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, β-amylase, and limit dextrinase serve as the machinery responsible for the supply of glucose as energy source for the developing embryo in the germinating seed...... of the enzyme was grown under high cell-density fermentation conditions. This approach enabled a successful protein expression profile under the highly sensitive methanol utilization phase of the fermentation procedure. The enzyme was purified using a four step purification strategy. Interestingly, the purified...

  1. Purification and characterization of recombinant high pI Barley α-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Bojsen, Kirsten; Svensson, Birte

    α-glucosidase activity in barley seeds plays a crucial role in embryonic development. The concerted action of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase serves as the machinery responsible for the supply of glucose as energy source for the developing embryo in the germinating seed......-glucosidase containing culture using a four step purification strategy yielding 42 mg of pure enzyme. remarkably, the purified enzyme exhibits a higher molecular mass in sds-page than expected from the primary structure. the apparent molecular mass of 100 kda compared to 92 kda calculated from the amino acid sequence...

  2. PRODUCTION OF RECOMBINANT HIGH pI-BARLEY α-GLUCOSIDASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Svensson, Birte

    α-glucosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 31 plays in barley seeds a crucial role in embryonic development. The concerted action of α-glucosidase, β-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase is responsible for supply of glucose in the germinating seed as energy source for the embryo and growing......-glucosidase was purified in a yield of 42 mg from the culture (3.5 liter) by a four step purification procedure. Remarkably, the purified enzyme exhibited slightly higher molecular mass of 100 kDa in SDS-PAGE than 92 kDa calculated from the primary structure. This difference in apparent molecular mass suggested...

  3. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;

    2008-01-01

    ) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration......Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR...

  4. New starch phenotypes produced by TILLING in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sparla

    Full Text Available Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1, GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I, LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1, SSI (Starch Synthase I, SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa. Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications.

  5. Proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Proteome provides highly valuable information on the amount, modifications, and subcellular localization of polypeptides. Accordingly, geneticists, molecular biologists, and biochemists have logically applied these new tools to respond to different lines of biological questions (inventory of proteins, impact of a mutation, dynamics of protein regulation under a given exposure, …). However, even if the results obtained are very informative, this approach needs an excellent experimental design which ensures robustness and thus yields reproducibility. The present chapter gives appropriate methods for assessing the proteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach. Protocols for crude protein extraction, protein separation by using immobilized pH gradients, and protein identification by Liquid Chromatography coupled with tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are given.

  6. Barley as a green factory for the production of functional Flt3 ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Lýdur S; Muench, Marcus O; Hellman, Ulf; Hrafnkelsdóttir, Soffía M; Jonsson, Anders; Balmer, Yves; Mäntylä, Einar; Orvar, Björn L

    2010-02-01

    Biologically active recombinant human Flt3 ligand was expressed and isolated from transgenic barley seeds. Its expression is controlled by a tissue specific promoter that confines accumulation of the recombinant protein to the endosperm tissue of the seed. The recombinant Flt3 ligand variant expressed in the seeds contains an HQ-tag for affinity purification on immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) resin. The tagged protein was purified from seed extracts to near homogeneity using sequential chromatography on IMAC affinity resin and cation exchange resin. We also show that the recombinant Flt3 ligand protein undergoes posttranslational modifications: it is a glycoprotein containing alpha-1,3-fucose and alpha-1,2-xylose. The HQ-tagged Flt3 ligand variant exhibits comparable biological activity to commercial Flt3 ligand. This is the first report showing expression and accumulation of recombinant human growth factor in barley seeds with a yield of active protein similar to a bacterial expression system. The present results demonstrate that plant molecular farming is a viable approach for the bioproduction of human-derived growth factors.

  7. Cyclitols in maturing grains of wheat, triticale and barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the feeding of stem-flag leaf-ear explants of wheat, triticale and barley with d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol was used for modification of the composition of soluble carbohydrates in grains without genetic transformation of plants. Maturing grains indicated ability to uptake exogenously applied cyclitols, not occurring naturally in cereal plants, and synthesized their a-d-galactosides. The pattern of changes in soluble carbohydrates during grain maturation and germination was not disturbed by the uptake and accumulation of cyclitols. Both, d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol as well as their a-d-galactosides can be an additional pool of soluble carbohydrates accumulated by maturing grains, without decreasing seeds viability. This is the first report indicating the possibility of introduction of cyclitols with potentially human health benefits properties into cereal grains.

  8. A functional genomics approach to understand the control and regulation of storage protein biosynthesis in barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, É; Hansen, M; Bowra, S;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain an insight into amino acid and storage protein metabolism in the developing barley grain at the molecular level. Our strategy was to analyse the transcriptome of relevant pathways in developing grains of field grown barley using a grain specific microarray...... reference to the temporal expression levels of a range of genes involved in the photosynthesis process, amino acid and storage protein metabolism. We conclude that the grain specific microarray is a reliable and cost-effective tool for monitoring temporal changes in the transcriptome of the major metabolic...... pathways in the barley grain. The study described here could provide a strong complement to existing knowledge assisting further  understanding of seed development and thereby provide a foundation for plant breeding towards storage protein with improved nutritional quality....

  9. Effect of sodium azide on cell processes in the embryonic barley shoot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, O.W.; Sander, C.; Nilan, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Sodium azide has been utilized recently both as an agent for the study of repair of radiation-induced chromosome damage, and as a mutagen in barley caryopses (seeds). However, the effect of this agent on the cell cycle and optimum time of treatment during the cell cycle in these studies is not known. To better understand the effects of sodium azide on the embryonic barley shoot cells, a detailed study of the effect of azide on the cell cycle was conducted. Himalaya barley seeds were treated for 2 hr with 10/sup -4/, 5 x 10/sup -4/, and 10/sup -3/ M oxygenated sodium azide solutions at pH 3. The principal effect on the cell cycle due to sodium azide treatment was a delay in the initiation of metabolism following germination. This resulted in a uniform delay in the following parameters: mitotic activity, seedling growth, and ATP and DNA syntheses. This delay was interpreted as being due to an ATP deficiency which when alleviated allows the cells to progress normally through mitosis. Chromosome damage caused by sodium azide was not reflected in the seedling heights as the reduction in height was due entirely to mitotic delay. No variation occurred in the progression of cells through mitosis between various regions of the shoot within the first 29 hr of germination.

  10. The effect of application of micromycetes on plant growth, as well as soybean and barley yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Lyudmila; Brazhnikova, Yelena; Berzhanova, Ramza; Mukasheva, Togzhan

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of application of micromycetes (strains Penicillium bilaiae Pb14, Aureobasidium pullulans YA05 and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa YR07) to increase yields of soybean (Glycine max cv Almaty) and barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Arna) was estimated. It was shown that the most positive effect on germination energy and seed germination after seed treatment with liquid culture, supernatant and filtrate, is achieved at 1:5 dilution. In studying the influence of cell-associated and extracellular biologically active compounds of micromycetes (liquid culture and supernatant) on biometric parameters of seedlings, the maximum stimulating effect was observed in the variants with liquid culture. These strains of micromycetes were used as a bases for various compositions of preparations - application of each strain separately and application of micromycetes mixes. In microfield experiments, the increase of soybean yield ranged from 4.5 to 9.4 quintal/ha, barley - from 2.9 to 5.9 quintal/ha. A significant increase in various parameters of structure of the yield was shown in all experimental variants when compared to the control. It was found that an increase in soybean and barley yields and yield components was higher in the variant with a mix of micromycetes when compared to the separate application of each strain. The most efficient mixture was based on the mix of fungal strains (culture filtrate of P. bilaiae Pb14 diluted 1:5 + liquid cultures of A. pullulans YA05 and Rh. mucilaginosa YR07 in a 1:5 dilution).

  11. Lunasin in cereal seeds: What is the origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rowan A C; Lovegrove, Alison; Shewry, Peter R

    2013-05-01

    Lunasin is a peptide from soybean seeds which has been demonstrated to have anticancer properties. It has also been reported in cereal seeds: wheat, rye, barley and Triticale. However, extensive searches of transcriptome and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals have failed to identify sequences encoding either the lunasin peptide or a precursor protein. This raises the question of the origin of the lunasin reported in cereal grain.

  12. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  13. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of High-Temperature Stress in Developing Barley Caryopses :Early Stress Responses and Effects on Storage Compound Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elke Mangelsen; Joachim Kilian; Klaus Harter; Christer Jansson; Dierk Wanke; Eva Sundberg

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature stress,like any abiotic stress,impairs the physiology and development of plants,including the stages of seed setting and ripening.We used the Aflymetrix 22K Barley1 GeneChip microarray to investigate the response of developing barley(Hordeum vulgare)seeds,termed caryopses,after 0.5,3,and 6 h of heat stress exposure;958 induced and 1122 repressed genes exhibited spatial and temporal expression patterns that provide a detailed insight into the caryopses'early heat stress responses.Down-regulation of genes related to storage compound biosynthesis and cell growth provides evidence for a rapid impairment of the caryopsis' development.Increased levels of sugars and amino acids were indicative for both production of compatible solutes and feedback-induced accumulation of substrates for storage compound biosynthesis.Metadata analysis identified embryo and endosperm as primary locations of heat stress responses,indicating a strong impact of short-term heat stress on central developmental functions of the caryopsis.A comparison with heat stress responses in Arabidopsis shoots and drought stress responses in barley caryopses identified both conserved and presumably heat-and caryopsis-specific stress-responsive genes.Summarized,our data provide an important basis for further investigation of gene functions in order to aid an improved heat tolerance and reduced losses of yield in barley as a model for cereal crops.

  15. SSR ANALYSIS IN THE STUDY OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY OF BARLEY CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. R. Lakhneko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to develop an evaluation system of the genetic polymorphism for barley cultivars of Ukrainian and foreign origin based on the analysis of simple sequence repeats and valuable agricultural trait loci as well as to compose the molecular genetic passports for those cultivars. PCRs with the following separation of amplification products by agarose and polyacrylamide electrophoresis were performed to find out genetic polymorphism. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean was used for phylogenetic relationship detection. The dandrogram of phylogenetic relationships of 55 barley cultivars was constructed and molecular genetic passports were developed. Molecular genetic passports can be involved in verification for the compliance with standards cultivars, stability and seed purity.

  16. Mapping of the Hor-3 locus encoding D hordein in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T K; Ullrich, S E; Nilan, R A

    1982-12-01

    The hordein storage proteins of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are of intense interest due to their genetic diversity and prominence and impact on the industrial and agricultural uses of the seed. Two major hordein loci have been previously mapped on chromosome 5 (Hor-1 and Hor-2 encoding the C and B hordeins, respectively). A third major locus, Hor-3, which codes for D hordein, has been located in the centromeric region of chromosome 5, probably on the long arm. Two allelic variants with apparent molecular weights of 83,000 and 91,000 and similar isoelectric points of 8.0 comprise the products of this locus in the barley varieties 'Advance' and 'Triple Awned Lemma'. The D hordein examined is similar in molecular weight and isoelectric point to the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin proteins encoded by the 1B chromosome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  17. Soil proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oonk, S.; Cappellini, Enrico; Collins, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, two sets of experiments were carried out to assess the potential of soil proteomics for archaeological site interpretation. First, we examined the effects of various protein isolation reagents and soil constituents on peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) of soil-like materials spiked...... with bovine serum albumin (BSA). In a subsequent case study, we assessed the relative age of soils from an ancient clay floor of a Roman farmhouse using amino acid racemization and then applied MALDI-TOF-MS-MS to detect and identify biomarkers for human occupation. The results from the first experiments......) are more susceptible to isolation than other regions and this suggest that soil proteins can be only partly isolated. Soil-protein interactions were also found to inhibit tryptic cleavage of BSA, resulting in an enhanced specificity of BSA peptides. Our results further stress the importance of multiple...

  18. Proteomics, peptidomics, and immunogenic potential of wheat beer (Weissbier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Cutignano, Adele; Fontana, Angelo; Zurlo, Lucia; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-04-08

    Wheat beer is a traditional light-colored top-fermenting beer brewed with at least 50% malted (e.g., German Weissbier) or unmalted (e.g., Belgian Witbier) wheat (Triticum aestivum) as an adjunct to barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt. For the first time, we explored the proteome of three Weissbier samples, using both 2D electrophoresis (2DE)-based and 2DE-free strategies. Overall, 58 different gene products arising from barley, wheat, and yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) were identified in the protein fraction of a representative Weissbier sample analyzed in detail. Analogous to all-barley-malt beers (BMB), barley and wheat Z-type serpins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins dominated the proteome of Weissbier. Several α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors also survived the harsh brewing conditions. During brewing, hundreds of peptides are released into beer. By liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) analysis, we characterized 167 peptides belonging to 44 proteins, including gliadins, hordeins, and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Because of the interference from the overabundant yeast-derived peptides, we identified only a limited number of epitopes potentially triggering celiac disease. However, Weissbier samples contained 374, 372, and 382 ppm gliadin-equivalent peptides, as determined with the competitive G12 ELISA, which is roughly 10-fold higher than a lager BMB (41 ppm), thereby confirming that Weissbier is unsuited for celiacs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Weissbier also contained large-sized prolamins immunoresponsive to antigliadin IgA antibodies from the pooled sera of celiac patients (n = 4).

  19. Water mobility in the endosperm of high beta-glucan barley mutants as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; van den Berg, Frans; Klöckenberger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    1H NMR imaging (MRI) was used as a noninvasive technique to study water distribution and mobility in hydrated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds of accessions with varying content of beta glucan (BG), a highly hygroscopic cell wall component. High contents of BG in barley are unfavorable in malting...... where it leads to clotting of filters and hazing of beer as well as in animal feed where it hinders the rapid uptake of energy. However, a high content of BG has a positive nutritional effect, as it lowers the cholesterol and the glycaemic index. It was studied whether water distribution and mobility...... were related to content and location of BG. Water mobility was investigated by following the rate and mode of desiccation in hydrated single seeds. In order to determine the different water components, a multispin echo experiment was set up to reveal the T2 transverse relaxation rates of water within...

  20. Analysis of Seed Sorting Process by Estimation of Seed Motion Trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Ole Thomsen; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seed sorting is a mechanical process in which the goal is to achieve a high level of purity and quality in the final product. Prediction and control of such processes are generally considered very difficult. One possible solution is a systems identification approach in which the seeds and their m......Seed sorting is a mechanical process in which the goal is to achieve a high level of purity and quality in the final product. Prediction and control of such processes are generally considered very difficult. One possible solution is a systems identification approach in which the seeds...... cylinder in action, sorting a batch of barley with both whole and broken kernels. The motion trajectories and angle of escape for each seed in each frame were estimated. Motion trajectories and frequency distributions for the angle of escape are shown for different velocities and pocket sizes. A possible...

  1. Evaluation of Barley as Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Köten

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley, as animal feed, raw material for malting and human food, constitute an important part among cereal sources in the world. Majority of barley that produced both in Turkey and other countries of the world, is being used as animal feed. Poor baking quality, taste and appearance of barley restricted its use in human nutrition. However, recently high protein, fiber, especially β-glucan and high starch content appeal to food industry. Many scientific researches established that β-glucan, a soluble fiber, has an effect in healing coronary-hearth diseases, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level, preventing obesity. Being a healthy cereal that can be used in various purposes, and an additive in many food products, barley is considered a very promising cereal, and research to increase possibilities of its use in human nutrition is being increased. In the literature, there has been researches on making noodles, bulgur, kavut (roasted cereal, breakfast cereals. In this study the researches relating to evaluation of barley, importance of which is increased every day, as human food was reviewed.

  2. Mining the granule proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Goetze, Jens P; Johnsen, Anders H

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics of secretory granules is an emerging strategy for identifying secreted proteins, including potentially novel candidate biomarkers and peptide hormones. In addition, proteomics can provide information about the abundance, localization and structure (post-translational modification) of g...

  3. The UCSC Proteome Browser

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Fan; Tom H Pringle; Kuhn, Robert M.; Karolchik, Donna; Diekhans, Mark; Haussler, David; Kent, W. James

    2004-01-01

    The University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) Proteome Browser provides a wealth of protein information presented in graphical images and with links to other protein-related Internet sites. The Proteome Browser is tightly integrated with the UCSC Genome Browser. For the first time, Genome Browser users have both the genome and proteome worlds at their fingertips simultaneously. The Proteome Browser displays tracks of protein and genomic sequences, exon structure, polarity, hydrophobicity, lo...

  4. Proteomics of the Peroxisome

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Genomes provide us with a blue print for the potential of a cell. However, the activity of a cell is expressed in its proteome. Full understanding of the complexity of cells demands a comprehensive view of the proteome; its interactions, activity states and organization. Comprehensive proteomic approaches applied to peroxisomes have yielded new insights into the organelle and its dynamic interplay with other cellular structures. As technologies and methodologies improve proteomics hold the pr...

  5. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  6. Effect of several germination conditions on total P, phytate P, phytase, and acid phosphatase activities and inositol phosphate esters in rye and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, C; Viveros, A; Brenes, A; Canales, R; Lozano, A; de la Cuadra, C

    2001-07-01

    Two assays were conducted to study the evolution of rye and barley phosphatases (phytase and acid phosphatase) and the degradation of its substrates (inositol phosphate esters) during seed germination. In this manner we could obtain a low-phytate, endogenous phosphatase rich ingredient to be used in animal nutrition. In the first assay, the seeds were soaked for 1 and 14 h and germinated for 3 and 5 days with and without the addition of gibberellic acid (GA3). In the second assay, the seeds were soaked for 1 h and germinated for 1, 3, and 5 days with GA3. Phytase (up to 5739 and 3151 U x kg(-1)) and acid phosphatase (up to 18288 and 3151 U x g(-1)) activities, and IP6 (6.09 and 6.01 mg x g(-1)), IP5 (0.48 and 0.48 mg x g(-1)), and IP4 (0.13 and 0.06 mg x g(-1)) were detected in ungerminated rye and barley, respectively. The germination process caused a significant increase of Phy and AcPh activities in rye (up to 112 and 213%) and barley (up to 212 and 634%) and a reduction in the phytate phosphorus content (up to 84 and 58%, respectively). Phytate phosphorus content was affected only by soaking time in the case of rye. Finally, during the course of germination, IP6 and IP5 were rapidly degraded in rye (88 and 79%) and barley (67 and 52%), and IP4 was only a short-living intermediate, which was increased during hydrolysis and degraded to IP3. In conclusion, a marked increase of Phy and AcPh activities in rye and barley with a concomitant decrease in phytate phosphorus content and an increase in the content of lower inositol phosphates were observed during the rye and barley germination.

  7. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, Christian; Sergusheva, Elena A; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W; Tarasov, Pavel E

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly

  8. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th–10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter–gatherer economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergusheva, Elena A.; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N.; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W.; Tarasov, Pavel E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440–890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter–gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early–Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the “Satsumon type” barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the “Okhotsk type” spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley

  9. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  10. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... by aqueous 50% propan-2-ol containing a Tris-borate buffer, pH 8.6. The presence of the buffer facilitates the consecutive complete reduction of the extracted protein in the alcohol. Reduction and alkylation in the buffer containing propan-2-ol give sharper bands in the electrophoresis than reduction...

  11. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part I. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during ripening of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was followed in ripening wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne seeds. In the investigated ontogenesis period the content in the seeds of total and acid-soluble phosphorus doubled. The phosphorus of free phytin and phytin that bound with proteins increased to the end of maturation. In dormant seeds the contribution of phosphorus bound with phytin was 62-70 per cent of total P. As the seeds ripened, the content of inorganic and nucleotides-P decreased, while that of saccharides-P and their metabolites started to decrease from the moment of wax ripeness. Later RNA-P and DNA-P level decreased only slight.ly and that of lipids-P markedly. Phosphoproteid content diminished at the beginning of ripening and further remained at almost the same level. Wheat, barley and rye seed exhibited similar dynamics of metabolically active (nucleotides, saccharide-P esters and their metabolites, functional (nucleic acids and structural (phospholipids phosphorus compounds. Accumulation of storage forms (phytin of phosphorus was higher in wheat and successively lower in rye and barley.

  12. Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, van E.

    1993-01-01

    Research ObjectivesBarley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation i

  13. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  14. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  15. Analysis of early events in the interaction between Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Scarlett

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Svensson, Birte;

    2010-01-01

    after inoculation. This coincided with the appearance of discrete F. graminearum-induced proteolytic fragments of beta-amylase. Based on these results, analysis of grain proteome changes prior to extensive proteolysis enabled identification of barley proteins responding early to infection by the fungus...... function was identified. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of selected genes showed a correlation between high gene expression and detection of the corresponding proteins. Fungal genes encoding alkaline protease and endothiapepsin were expressed during 1-3 days after inoculation, making them...... candidates for generation of the observed beta-amylase fragments. These fragments have potential to be developed as proteome-level markers for fungal infection that are also informative about grain protein quality....

  16. Proteomic analyses of male-fertility restoration in CMS onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using a proteomics ...

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Male-Fertility Restoration in CMS Onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using proteomics ...

  18. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  19. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  20. STEM CELLS AND PROTEOMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong-ming; GUO Tian-nan; HUANG Shi-ang

    2006-01-01

    The distinctive features of proteomics are large-scale and high throughput. The key techniques of proteomics are two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Stem cell can differentiate into all kinds of cells, tissues and organs. There are many proteins and cytokines involved in the process of differentiation. Applying proteomics techniques to the research of the complex process of stem cell differentiation is of great importance to study the mechanism and applications of stem cell differentiation.

  1. Protective effect and economic impact of insecticide application methods on barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Stoetzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of different forms of insecticide application on the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in barley cultivars, as well as to determine the production costs and the net profit of these managements. The experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons, using the following managements at main plots: T1, seed treatment with insecticide (ST + insecticide on shoots at 15-day interval; T2, just ST; T3, insecticide applied on shoots, when aphid control level (CL was reached; T4, without insecticide; and T5, ST + insecticide on shoots when CL was reached. Different barley cultivars - BRS Cauê, BRS Brau and MN 6021 - were arranged in the subplots. Insecticides lambda cyhalothrin (pyrethroid and thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid were used. There were differences on yellow dwarf disease index in both seasons for the different treatments, while damage to grain yield was influenced by year and aphid population. Production costs and net profit were different among treatments. Seed treatment with insecticide is sufficient to reduce the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in years with low aphid population pressure, while in years with larger populations, the application of insecticide on shoots is also required.

  2. Proteomics Technologies and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Proteomics is the study of proteins and their interactions in a cell. With the completion of the Human Genome Project, the emphasis is shifting to the protein compliment of the human organism. Because proteome reflects more accurately on the dynamic state of a cell, tissue, or organism, much is expected from proteomics to yield better disease markers for diagnosis and therapy monitoring. The advent of proteomics technologies for global detection and quantitation of proteins creates new opportunities and challenges for those seeking to gain greater understanding of diseases. High-throughput proteomics technologies combining with advanced bioinformatics are extensively used to identify molecular signatures of diseases based on protein pathways and signaling cascades. Mass spectrometry plays a vital role in proteomics and has become an indispensable tool for molecular and cellular biology. While the potential is great, many challenges and issues remain to be solved, such as mining low abundant proteins and integration of proteomics with genomics and metabolomics data. Nevertheless, proteomics is the foundation for constructing and extracting useful knowledge to biomedical research. In this review, a snapshot of contemporary issues in proteomics technologies is discussed.

  3. Mutation analysis of barley malt protein Z4 and protein Z7 on beer foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kimura, Tatsuji; Araki, Shigeki; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Masahide; Yamada, Shinji; Shigyou, Tatsuro; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2012-02-15

    Beer foam stability is an important characteristic. It has been suggested that isoforms of protein Z, that is, protein Z4 and protein Z7, contribute to beer foam stability. We investigated the relationship between beer foam stability and protein Z4 and protein Z7 using their deficient mutants. As a protein Z4-deficient mutant, cv. Pirkka was used. Protein Z7 deficiency was screened in 1564 barley accessions in the world collection of Okayama University, Japan. The barley samples from normal, protein Z4-deficient, protein Z7-deficient, and double-deficient were genotyped in F(2) populations and then pooled based on the DNA marker genotypes of protein Z4 and protein Z7. For a brewing trial, F(5) pooled subpopulations were used. After malting and brewing, the foam stability was determined, and the results showed that the levels of foam stability in the four samples were comparable. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the proteome in these beer samples. The results showed that low molecular weight proteins, including lipid transfer protein (LTP2), in the deficient mutants were higher than those in the normal sample. Our results suggest that the contribution of protein Z4 and protein Z7 to beer foam stability was not greater than that of other beer proteins.

  4. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  6. Proteome-Based Analysis of Colloidal Instability Enables the Detection of Haze-Active Proteins in Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fabian; Flaschel, Erwin; Niehaus, Karsten

    2016-09-01

    Colloidal haze is a serious quality defect of bright beers that considerably reduces their shelf life and is thought to be triggered by hordeins, a class of proline-rich barley proteins. In this work, the proteomes of fresh and old beers were investigated in bottled pilsners and compared to the protein inventory of haze to identify specific haze-active proteins. Haze isolates dissolved in rehydration buffer contained high concentrations of proteins and sugars but provided protein gels with weak spot signals. Consequently, a treatment for the chemical deglycation with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid was applied, which resulted in the identification of protein Z4, LTP1, CMb, CMe, pUP13, 3a, and Bwiph as constituents of the haze proteome. Because only one hordein was detectable and the proline content in haze hydrolysates was lower than those of barley prolamins, our results suggest that this class of proteins is of minor importance for haze development.

  7. Identification of Thioredoxin Disulfide Targets Using a Quantitative Proteomics Approach Based on Isotope-Coded Affinity Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Maeda, Kenji;

    2008-01-01

    , protein extract of embryos from germinated barley seeds was treated +/- Trx, and thiols released from target protein disulfides were irreversibly blocked with iodoacetamide. The remaining cysteine residues in the Trx-treated and the control (-Trx) samples were then chemically reduced and labeled...

  8. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate...... the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral...

  9. Changes of Limiting Dextrinase in Germinating Process of Malting Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiu-mei; LI Fen; WANG Hong-zhen; WANG Xing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five different species of barley, the foot layer analytic method was used to examine the activity and heat-resistance of the limiting dextrinase. The study was conducted on the dynamic changes of several types of the dextrinase in barley germinating process, the effect of temperature on the dextrinase and the divergence of dextrinase in different barley variety. The probability of the dextrinase that as reference index is used for screening and evaluating beer barley was discussed. The importance of dextrinase in brewing and its significant function was also discussed.

  10. Initial description of the developing soybean seed protein-Lys-Ne-acetylome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of the myriad protein posttranslational modifications (PTM) is a key aspect of proteome profiling. While there have been previous studies of the developing soybean seed phospho-proteome, herein we present the first analysis of protein Lys-Ne-acetylation (PKA) in this system. In rece...

  11. Cisgenic Barley with Improved Phytase Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops...... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  12. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The cisgenesis concept implies that plants are transformed only with their own genetic materials or genetic materials from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. We used a barley...... phytase gene (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during grain filling to evaluate the cisgenesis concept in barley. The marker gene elimination method was used to obtain marker-free plant lines. Here, the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders to allow unlinked integration...... of the two genes. We analysed the transformants for co-transformation efficiency, increased phytase activities in the grain, integration of the kanamycin resistance gene of the vector-backbone and segregation between the HvPAPhy_a insert and the hygromycin resistance gene. The frequencies of the four...

  13. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops...... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  14. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  15. Seeds, browse, and tooth wear: a sheep perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdarshan, Anusha; Blondel, Cécile; Brunetière, Noël; Francisco, Arthur; Gautier, Denis; Surault, Jérôme; Merceron, Gildas

    2016-08-01

    While grazing as a selective factor towards hypsodont dentition on mammals has gained a lot of attention, the importance of fruits and seeds as fallback resources for many browsing ungulates has caught much less attention. Controlled-food experiments, by reducing the dietary range, allow for a direct quantification of the effect of each type of items separately on enamel abrasion. We present the results of a dental microwear texture analysis on 40 ewes clustered into four different controlled diets: clover alone, and then three diets composed of clover together with either barley, corn, or chestnuts. Among the seed-eating groups, only the barley one shows higher complexity than the seed-free group. Canonical discriminant analysis is successful at correctly classifying the majority of clover- and seed-fed ewes. Although this study focuses on diets which all fall within a single dietary category (browse), the groups show variations in dental microwear textures in relation with the presence and the type of seeds. More than a matter of seed size and hardness, a high amount of kernels ingested per day is found to be correlated with high complexity on enamel molar facets. This highlights the high variability of the physical properties of the foods falling under the browsing umbrella.

  16. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed.

  17. THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Josip Šimenić

    2000-01-01

    Seed of cereal is normally grown on 5-8% of the overall plots under cereals in the Republic of Croatia. The produced seed meets the needs for high quality seed of wheat, barley, oat and other cereals. Certain quantities of seed remain unsold every year and are kept at various storage conditions and in various packaging material. The objective of this paper was to find out which storage conditions and what sort of packaging material would provide for the best viability of wheat see...

  18. Distribution frequency and incidence of seed-borne pathogens of some cereals and industrial crops in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Lević; Slavica Stankоvić; Vesna Krnjaja; Aleksandra Bočarov-Stančić; Dragica Ivanović

    2012-01-01

    A total of 41 species of fungi were isolated from seed samples of barley, maize, soybean, and sunflower collected at different locations in Serbia. The majority of detected species occurred on barley (35 of 41 species or 87.8%) comparing to soybean (17 of 41 species or 41.5%), sunflower (16 of 41 species or 39.0%) and maize (15 of 41 species or 36.9%). Species belonging to genera Alternaria, Chaetomium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopus were present on seeds of all four plant spec...

  19. Yield, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Copper and Zinc Uptake by Barley Forage Amended with Anaerobically Digested Cattle Feedlot Manure (ADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao X.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing production of bio-gas and availability of anaerobically digested cattle feedlot manure (ADM, we need a better understanding of the impact of its application on crop production and the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate nutrient and heavy metal uptake by barley forage from soil amended with ADM. A four-year field study was conducted in southern Alberta to compare annual application of ADM liquid (ADML, and the solid fraction separated from the ADM (ADMS to raw undigested cattle feedlot manure (CFMR. An unamended control (CK was also included for comparison. Treatments were replicated four times using a split plot experimental design. All amendments were applied in spring each year prior to seeding and barley was grown and harvested at the soft dough stage for making cattle silage feed. All amendments were applied at rates supplying 100 or 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1, assuming 100% mineral N and 50% organic N was available to crops in the year of application. Averaged over four years, the highest yields were found from ADML (9.55 and 9.6 Mg ha-1 yr-1, and lowest from CK (6.93 Mg ha-1 yr-1, with ADMS and CFMR (7.80 to 8.66 Mg ha-1 in between. Contents and total uptake of nutrients and heavy metals (N, P, Cu and Zn by barley forage from ADML were higher than ADMS and CFMR. and higher at 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1 than 100 kg N ha-1yr-1. Our data suggest that anaerobic digestion increases nutrients and heavy metal availability in cattle feedlot manure, but most increases occurred in the liquid fraction. Our data also suggest that the impact of organic amendment application on forage barley production is not only affected by the types of amendment used, but also by agronomic practices (e.g., seeding date as well as growing conditions.

  20. The 5' flanking region of a barley B hordein gene controls tissue and developmental specific CAT expression in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marris, C; Gallois, P; Copley, J; Kreis, M

    1988-07-01

    The 549 base pairs of the 5' flanking region of a barley seed storage protein (B1 hordein) gene were linked to the reporter gene encoding chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). The chimaeric gene was transferred into tobacco plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. CAT enzyme activity was detected in the seeds, but not in the leaves, of the transgenic plants. Furthermore, enzyme activity was found only in the endosperm, and only from fifteen days after pollination. In contrast, the constitutive 19S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) directed the expression of the CAT gene in the leaves as well as in both the endosperm and embryo and at all stages in seed development.

  1. Purification of barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) from beer and their impact on beer foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Kazuhiro; Ogushi, Kensuke

    2015-04-01

    Foam stability is a key factor of beer quality for consumers and brewers. Recent beer proteome analyses have suggested that barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) derived from barley are important for beer foam stability. In this study, BDAI-1 and ALP were purified from a Japanese commercial beer sample using salt precipitation and column chromatography. The purification level was verified using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and database searches. Purified BDAI-1 and ALP were added to a beer sample to compare the foam stability to that of a control beer sample. As a result, beer foam stability was significantly improved by BDAI-1 but not by ALP, thereby suggesting that BDAI-1 affects beer foam stability whereas ALP does not.

  2. Zinc absorption from low phytic acid genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) assessed in a suckling rat pup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Mendoza, Concepcion; Brown, Kenneth H; Rutger, J Neil; Raboy, Victor

    2011-05-11

    Dietary phytic acid is a major causative factor for low Zn bioavailability in many cereal- and legume-based diets. The bioavailability of Zn in seed of low phytic acid (lpa) variants of maize ( Zea mays L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) was evaluated using a suckling rat pup model. Suckling rat pups (14 days old, n = 6-8/treatment) were fasted for 6 h and intubated with (65)Zn-radiolabeled suspensions prepared using seed produced by either wild-type (normal phytic acid) or lpa genotypes of each cereal. Test solutions were radiolabeled overnight (all genotypes) or immediately prior to intubation (barley genotypes). Pups were killed 6 h postintubation and tissues removed and counted in a gamma counter. Zn absorption was low from wild-type genotypes of maize (21, 33%) and rice (26%), and phytic acid reduction resulted in significantly higher Zn absorption, 47-52 and 35-52%, respectively. Zn absorption from wild-type barley incubated overnight was high (86-91%), and phytate reduction did not improve Zn absorption (84-90%), which is likely due to endogenous phytase activity. When the wild-type barley solutions were prepared immediately before intubation, Zn absorption was significantly lower (63, 78%) than from the lpa cultivars (92, 96%). Variation in seed or flour phenolic acid levels did not affect Zn absorption. Differences in seed Zn levels did not substantially affect Zn absorption. Thus, when phytic acid is abundant in a diet, it has a larger effect on Zn absorption than the level of Zn. Therefore, reducing the phytic acid content of staple cereal grains may contribute to enhancing Zn nutrition of populations consuming these staple foods.

  3. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a pre

  4. Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...

  5. REGRESSION MODEL OF RATNIK BARLEY COMBINED PRESOWING PROCESSING BY OPTICAL RADIATION AND CHEMICAL PROTECTANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazalov V. S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of combined electrooptical processing which allows to disclose the reasonable energy and technological conditions of seeds’ treatment and to define the main factors which influence such seeds’ sowing qualities as: germinating power, germinating ability and length of sprouts is used in this article. Besides, the procedure allows conducting the research of efficiency evaluation of some rational parameters and conditions of treatment which influence their yield characteristics in field conditions. The research task was to obtain the data about the number of spring barley called “Ratnik” shoots and their productivity depending on the number of working volume converter’s lamps (1-6 and on the protectant’ norm percent (1-100. The experiments have been carried out and the data have been obtained for this purpose and the processing of these data has given the regression equation of the second order writing the process with the volumetric graphical interpretation. The rational parameter space of presowing treatment providing maximal germination and crop capacity of barley “Warrior” has been obtained on basis of the diagrams’ analysis. As the growth of germinating ability and crop capacity is observed when the number of working lamps is increased the double spreading at 6 working lamps should be recommended. The concentration of the protectant practically ceases to influent the crop capacity. According to the results of the research there has been drawn a conclusion that preliminary seeds treatment, for the purpose of plant diseases preventing, restrains the germination processes at the initial level. It happens in connection with conditions deterioration of moisture access to seeds which are covered with protectant film. Further processing of treated seeds by optical radiation promotes the growth of germinating ability and length of sprouts compensating negative effect of treatment

  6. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine;

    2007-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vecto...... inoculation, although large parts of the insert had been lost from the virus vector. The instability of the insert, observed consistently throughout our experiments, offers an explanation for the transient nature of silencing when using BSMV as a VIGS vector.......Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...... for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the resulting...

  7. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four hom...

  8. Proteomics in pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Russell P; Ellison, Misoo C; Reisdorph, Nichole

    2006-08-01

    Proteomics is the study of the entire protein complement of the genome (the proteome) in a biological system. Proteomic studies require a multidisciplinary approach and have only been practical with the convergence of technical and methodologic improvements including the following: advances in mass spectrometry and genomic sequencing that now permit the identification and relative quantization of small amounts (femtomole) of nearly any single protein; new methods in gel electrophoresis that allow the detection of subtle changes in protein expression, including posttranslational modifications; automation and miniaturization that permit high-throughput analysis of clinical samples; and new bioinformatics and computational methods that facilitate analysis and interpretation of the abundant data that are generated by proteomics experiments. This convergence makes proteomics studies practical for pulmonary researchers using BAL fluid, lung tissue, blood, and exhaled breath condensates, and will facilitate the research of complex, multifactorial lung diseases such as acute lung injury and COPD. This review describes how proteomics experiments are conducted and interpreted, their limitations, and how proteomics has been used in clinical pulmonary medicine.

  9. Proteomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, P

    2000-04-01

    The techniques of proteomics (high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein characterisation) are widely used for microbiological research to analyse global protein synthesis as an indicator of gene expression. The rapid progress in microbial proteomics has been achieved through the wide availability of whole genome sequences for a number of bacterial groups. Beyond providing a basic understanding of microbial gene expression, proteomics has also played a role in medical areas of microbiology. Progress has been made in the use of the techniques for investigating the epidemiology and taxonomy of human microbial pathogens, the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms and the analysis of drug resistance. In each of these areas, proteomics has provided new insights that complement genomic-based investigations. This review describes the current progress in these research fields and highlights some of the technical challenges existing for the application of proteomics in medical microbiology. The latter concern the analysis of genetically heterogeneous bacterial populations and the integration of the proteomic and genomic data for these bacteria. The characterisation of the proteomes of bacterial pathogens growing in their natural hosts remains a future challenge.

  10. A novel major gene on chromosome 6H for resistance of barley against the barley yellow dwarf virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Habekuss, A.; Bekele, B.; Ordon, F.

    2004-01-01

    In a mapping population derived from the Ethiopian barley line L94 x Vada, natural infection by barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) occurred. While line L94 hardly showed symptoms, Vada was severely affected. The 103 recombinant inbred lines segregated bimodally. The major gene responsible for this res

  11. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide;

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  12. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  13. Proteomics Research in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Despite intense scientific efforts, the neuropathology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia are poorly understood. Proteomic studies, by testing large numbers of proteins for associations with disease, may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of schizophrenia. They may also indicate the types and locations of cells most likely to harbor pathological alterations. Investigations using proteomic approaches have already provided much information on quantitative and qualitat...

  14. Cell Wall Proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Boudart, Georges; Minic, Zoran; Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we will focus on the contribution of proteomics to the identification and determination of the structure and function of CWPs as well as discussing new perspectives in this area. The great variety of proteins found in the plant cell wall is described. Some families, such as glycoside hydrolases, proteases, lectins, and inhibitors of cell wall modifying enzymes, are discussed in detail. Examples of the use of proteomic techniques to elucidate the structure of various cell wall...

  15. PROTEOMICS in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Pedro M.; Silva, Tomé S.; Dias, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance...... nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Farm animal proteomics....

  16. Seed planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes prairie seed plantings on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  17. Gibberellic Acid enhancement of DNA turnover in barley aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiz, L; Starks, J E

    1977-08-01

    When imbibed, deembryonated halfseeds from barley (Hordeum vulgare L., var. Himalaya) are incubated in buffer, the DNA content of the aleurone layer increases 25 to 40% over a 24-hour period. In contrast, the DNA of isolated aleurone layers declines by 20% over the same time period. Gibberellic acid (GA) causes a reduction in DNA levels in both halfseed aleurone layers and isolated aleurone layers. GA also increases the specific radioactivity of [(3)H]thymidine-labeled halfseed aleurone layer DNA during the first 12 hours of treatment. Pulse-chase studies demonstrated that the newly synthesized DNA is metabolically labile.The buoyant density on CsCl density gradients of hormone-treated aleurone DNA is identical with that of DNA extracted from whole seedlings. After density-labeling halfseed DNA with 5-bromodeoxyuridine, a bimodal absorption profile is obtained in neutral CsCl. The light band (1.70 g/ml) corresponds to unsubstituted DNA, while the heavy band (1.725-1.74 g/ml) corresponds to a hybrid density-labeled species. GA increases the relative amount of the heavy (hybrid) peak in halfseed aleurone layer DNA, further suggesting that the hormone enhances semiconservative replication in halfseeds.DNA methylation was also demonstrated. Over 60% of the radioactivity from [(3)H-Me]methionine is incorporated into 5-methylcytosine. GA has no effect on the percentage distribution of label among the bases.It was concluded that GA enhances the rate of DNA degradation and DNA synthesis (turnover) in halfseeds, but primarily DNA degradation in isolated aleurone layers. Incorporation by isolated aleurone layers is due to DNA repair. Semiconservative replication apparently plays no physiological role in the hormone response, since both isolated aleurone layers and gamma-irradiated halfseeds respond normally. The hypothesis was advanced that endoreduplication and DNA degradation are means by which the seed stores and mobilizes deoxyribonucleotides for the embryo during

  18. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  19. Oligosaccharide and substrate binding in the starch debranching enzyme barley limit dextrinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Marie S; Windahl, Michael S; Sim, Lyann; Bøjstrup, Marie; Abou Hachem, Maher; Hindsgaul, Ole; Palcic, Monica; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

    2015-03-27

    Complete hydrolytic degradation of starch requires hydrolysis of both the α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in amylopectin. Limit dextrinase (LD) is the only endogenous barley enzyme capable of hydrolyzing the α-1,6-glucosidic bond during seed germination, and impaired LD activity inevitably reduces the maltose and glucose yields from starch degradation. Crystal structures of barley LD and active-site mutants with natural substrates, products and substrate analogues were sought to better understand the facets of LD-substrate interactions that confine high activity of LD to branched maltooligosaccharides. For the first time, an intact α-1,6-glucosidically linked substrate spanning the active site of a LD or pullulanase has been trapped and characterized by crystallography. The crystal structure reveals both the branch and main-chain binding sites and is used to suggest a mechanism for nucleophilicity enhancement in the active site. The substrate, product and analogue complexes were further used to outline substrate binding subsites and substrate binding restraints and to suggest a mechanism for avoidance of dual α-1,6- and α-1,4-hydrolytic activity likely to be a biological necessity during starch synthesis.

  20. QTL analysis for Malt Quality in DH Lines of Barley (Steptoe × Morex grown in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bahman Sadeghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the quantitative variability of malting quality-related traits and to determine the genomic locations which control these traits, an experiment was conducted using one hundred fifty double haploid (DH lines of barley and their two parents ‛Steptoe’ & ‛Morex’. Protein content (% was measured using Kjeldahl method, diastatic power calculated with Lintner formula, Malt extract was measured for each by special weight achieved and based on Malt Berix Charts. Transgressive segregation in both directions was observed for all traits. Genetic map is fairly saturated and comprising 327 RFLP markers with a total length of 1226.3cM with an average marker spacing of 3.75cM. Seventeen QTLs by LOD≤2(LRS≤9.21 controlling different studied traits were identified for all studied traits. Total phenotypic variance explained by these QTLs varies from 23.2 to 45.05%. Highest LOD scores were obtained for QTL’s controlling diastatic power (Qdip3Ha on chromosome 3H, and lowest LOD scores were obtained for QTL’s controlling seed yield per plant (Qsyp1Hb on chromosome 1H. Therefore gain through marker-assisted selection (MAS in this population would be limited and some of the “Steptoe× Morex” population was developed with the intention of isolating and advancing barley lines for release to the malting quality.

  1. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  3. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 5}HO{sub 8} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn{sup 2+}, which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band ({approx} 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe{sup 3+} present in the goethite at g {approx} 2, and in the seeds

  4. Monitoring intra- and extracellular redox capacity of intact barley aleurone layers responding to phytohormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    2016-01-01

    Redox regulation is important for numerous processes in plant cells including abiotic stress, pathogen defence, tissue development, seed germination and programmed cell death. However, there are few methods allowing redox homeostasis to be addressed in whole plant cells, providing insight...... into the intact in vivo environment. An electrochemical redox assay that applies the menadione-ferricyanide double mediator is used to assess changes in the intracellular and extracellular redox environment in living aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Himalaya) grains, which respond...... to the phytohormones gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid is shown to elicit a mobilisation of electrons as detected by an increase in the reducing capacity of the aleurone layers. By taking advantage of the membrane-permeable menadione/menadiol redox pair to probe the membrane-impermeable ferricyanide...

  5. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded...... is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results...... In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm...

  6. Starch and Prolamin Level in Single and Double High-Lysine Barley Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, M.; Doll, Hans

    1980-01-01

    At maturity the high-lysine barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ris0 mutants 1508, 527 and 29 kernels contained about 20% less starch and twice as much free sugars as the parent varieties Bomi and Carlsberg II. An enhanched effect on starch reduction and free sugar accumulation was observed during kernel...... development when the single mutants 527 and 29 are combined with the mutant 1508. At maturity, kernels of the double mutants 527/1508 and 29/1508 contained, respectively, 68 and 43% less starch than Bomi. The double mutant 29/1508 kernel had a slightly lower prolamin content than mutant 1508 which is the most...... prolamin-deficient single mutant. In the double mutant 527/1508, however, an almost complete suppression of prolamin synthesis was observed during kernel development. The percentage of lysine in the seed proteins of the double mutants was about the same as in the most extreme single mutant 1508. Based...

  7. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  8. Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

    2010-11-24

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid.

  9. Proteomics of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerquist, Clifton K.

    This chapter is intended to be a relatively brief overview of proteomic techniques currently in use for the identification and analysis of microorganisms with a special emphasis on foodborne pathogens. The chapter is organized as follows. First, proteomic techniques are introduced and discussed. Second, proteomic applications are presented specifically as they relate to the identification and qualitative/quantitative analysis of foodborne pathogens.

  10. Environmental proteomics and metallomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barea, Juan; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2006-04-01

    Monitoring environmental pollution using biomarkers requires detailed knowledge about the markers, and many only allow a partial assessment of pollution. New proteomic methods (environmental proteomics) can identify proteins that, after validation, might be useful as alternative biomarkers, although this approach also has its limitations, derived mainly from their application to non-model organisms. Initial studies using environmental proteomics were carried out in animals exposed to model pollutants, and led to the concept of protein expression signatures. Experiments have been carried out in model organisms (yeast, Arabidopsis, rat cells, or mice) exposed to model contaminants. Over the last few years, proteomics has been applied to organisms from ecosystems with different pollution levels, forming the basis of an environmental branch in proteomics. Another focus is connected with the presence of metals bound to biomolecules, which adds an additional dimension to metal-biomolecule and metalloprotein characterization - the field of metallomics. The metallomic approach considers the metallome: a whole individual metal or metalloid species within a cell or tissue. A metallomic analytical approach (MAA) is proposed as a new tool to study and identify metalloproteins.

  11. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...... of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  12. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... for variations in storage protein and AA composition. These cultivars were selected based on their higher protein contents (11.8–17.6%). The results obtained indicated that substantial variation not only in the distribution of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins...

  13. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  14. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  15. Identification of embryo proteins associated with seed germination and seedling establishment in germinating rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Lu, Zhuang; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the mechanism of seed germination is still poorly understood. In the present study, rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Peiai 64S) seeds were sampled individually when they reached different germination stages, quiescent, germinated sensu stricto, germinated completely and seedling, and were used to study the changes in the embryo proteome. A total of 88 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance during germination in water, and the results showed an activation of metabolic processes. Cell division, cell wall synthesis, and secondary metabolism were activated at late seed germination and during preparation for subsequent seedling establishment. Cycloheximide (CHX) at 70μM inhibited seedling establishment without an apparent negative effect on seed germination, while CHX at 500μM completely blocked seed germination. We used this observation to identify the potentially important proteins involved in seed germination (coleoptile protrusion) and seedling establishment (coleoptile and radicle protrusion). Twenty-six protein spots, mainly associated with sugar/polysaccharide metabolism and energy production, showed a significant difference in abundance during seed germination. Forty-nine protein spots, mainly involved in cell wall biosynthesis, proteolysis as well as cell defense and rescue, were required for seedling establishment. The results help improve our understanding of the key events (proteins) involved in germination and seedling development.

  16. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  17. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...... for estimating a linkage map; it involves (1) transformation by the Kosambi mapping function of the available recombination percentages to additive map distances, (2) calculations of a set of map distances from the transformed recombination percentages by a maximum likelihood method in which all the available...... data are utilized jointly, and (3) omission of inconsistent data and determination of the most likely order of the loci. This procedure was applied to the 42 recombination percentages available for the 13 “mapped” loci. Due to inconsistencies 14 of the recombination percentages and, therefore, two...

  18. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  19. Phosphoproteome analysis of Lotus japonicus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Yoko; Ishikawa, Akiyo; Nomura, Ayako; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Harada, Kyuya; Hirano, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report the first dataset of phosphoproteins of the seeds of a model plant, Lotus japonicus. This dataset might be useful in studying the regulatory mechanisms of seed germination in legume plants. By proteomic analysis of seeds following water absorption, we identified a total of 721 phosphopeptides derived from 343 phosphoproteins in cotyledons, and 931 phosphopeptides from 473 phosphoproteins in hypocotyls. Kinase-specific prediction analyses revealed that different kinases were activated in cotyledons and hypocotyls. In particular, many peptides containing ATM-kinase target motifs, X-X-pS/pT-Q-X-X, were detected in cotyledons. Moreover, by real-time RT-PCR analysis, we found that expression of a homolog of ATM kinase is upregulated specifically in cotyledons, suggesting that this ATM-kinase homolog plays a significant role in cell proliferation in the cotyledons of L. japonicus seeds. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000053 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000053).

  20. Proteomics in uveal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasamy, Pathma

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence of 5-7 per million per year. It is associated with the development of metastasis in about 50% of cases, and 40% of patients with uveal melanoma die of metastatic disease despite successful treatment of the primary tumour. The survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years are 65%, 50% and 45% respectively. Unlike progress made in many other areas of cancer, uveal melanoma is still poorly understood and survival rates have remained similar over the past 25 years. Recently, advances made in molecular genetics have improved our understanding of this disease and stratification of patients into low risk and high risk for developing metastasis. However, only a limited number of studies have been performed using proteomic methods. This review will give an overview of various proteomic technologies currently employed in life sciences research, and discuss proteomic studies of uveal melanoma.

  1. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  2. Proteomics and insect immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Shi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect innate immunity is both a model for vertebrate immunity as well as a key system that impactsmedically important pathogens that are transmitted by insects. Recent developments in proteomics andprotein identification techniques combined with the completion of genome sequences for Anophelesgambiae and Drosophila melanogaster provided the tools for examining insect immunity at a new level ofmolecular detail. Application of proteomics to insect immunity resulted in predictions of new roles inimmunity for proteins already known in other contexts (e.g. ferritin, transferrin, Chi-lectins and helped totarget specific members of multi-gene families that respond to different pathogens (e.g. serine proteases,thioester proteins. In addition, proteomics studies verify that post-translational modifications play a keyrole in insect immunity since many of the identified proteins are modified in some way. These studiescomplement recent work on insect transcriptomes and provide new directions for further investigation ofinnate immunity.

  3. The effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from different qualities of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Hansen, Preben Bøje;

    Barley sorting is an important step for picking up grain of desired quality. Whilst brewing with 100% sorted barley (picked high quality) has become realistic with the addition of exogenous enzymes, the effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from un-sorted barley (mixed) and sorted...... filterability, the Ondea® Pro treatment resulted in significantly lower turbidity and smaller particle size compared to Cellic® CTec2; however, this effect was observed in sorted and un-sorted barley but not in sorted-out barley. Consequently the un-sorted barley demonstrated great potential in brewing process...

  4. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    of reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49......: Reconstituted barley had higher soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and lower phytate P (0.93 g/ kg DM) compared with dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM, respectively). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed increased P absorption (52%) and decreased P excretion in feces (21%) (P

  5. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  6. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF ALLELES OF HvITR1 GENE ENCODING CMe (BTI-CMe TRYPSIN INHIBITOR WHICH RELATED WITH COLLOIDAL STABILITY OF BEER AMONG BARLEY VARIETIES REGISTERED IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. I. Stepanenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnological analysis of modern barley varieties of national and foreign origin for the presence of valuable SE-ve genotypes was done. Identification of the allelic status of the gene was performed among 109 barley samples using the developed multiplex PCR system for SNAP molecular markers. Among the studied varieties SE+ve allele was identified in 75 barley samples and the other contained SE-ve allele. 6 samples which revealed both alleles SE+ve and SE-ve were heterogeneous (+/-. The obtained results were compared with the data of the State register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine and showed that 8 samples referred to as forage, contained SE+ve allele and none of them were SE-ve allele. Of 38 varieties, which quality was identified as suitable for brewing, 19 contained SE+ve allele, the rest — allele SE-ve. The results of performed analysis of the spring barley collection for allelic composition of HvITR1 gene are of great practical importance as for the correct selection of mating pairs for malting breeding, for the selection of elite plants in breeding populations, or evaluation of barley seeds for beverage brewing purposes.

  8. Constitutive expression of a barley Fe phytosiderophore transporter increases alkaline soil tolerance and results in iron partitioning between vegetative and storage tissues under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Pelacho, Ana M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Cereals have evolved chelation systems to mobilize insoluble iron in the soil, but in rice this process is rather inefficient, making the crop highly susceptible to alkaline soils. We therefore engineered rice to express the barley iron-phytosiderophore transporter (HvYS1), which enables barley plants to take up iron from alkaline soils. A representative transgenic rice line was grown in standard (pH 5.5) or alkaline soil (pH 8.5) to evaluate alkaline tolerance and iron mobilization. Transgenic plants developed secondary tillers and set seeds when grown in standard soil although iron concentration remained similar in leaves and seeds compared to wild type. However, when grown in alkaline soil transgenic plants exhibited enhanced growth, yield and iron concentration in leaves compared to the wild type plants which were severely stunted. Transgenic plants took up iron more efficiently from alkaline soil compared to wild type, indicating an enhanced capacity to increase iron mobility ex situ. Interestingly, all the additional iron accumulated in vegetative tissues, i.e. there was no difference in iron concentration in the seeds of wild type and transgenic plants. Our data suggest that iron uptake from the rhizosphere can be enhanced through expression of HvYS1 and confirm the operation of a partitioning mechanism that diverts iron to leaves rather than seeds, under stress.

  9. Targeted Proteomics of Metabolic Pathways and Protein Turnover Analysis in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Harvey Millar; Clark Nelson; Lei Li; Nicolas L.Taylor; Ricarda Fenske

    2012-01-01

    Shotgun approaches have dominated proteome studies as discovery tools to find changes in protein abundance.However,they often only provide a mosaic image of the proteome response and they focus mainly on the proteins that are changing in abundance to find biological insights.Using mass spectrometry for targeted identification of changes in whole biochemical pathways and analysing protein synthesis and degradation rates with stable isotope labelling provide an added depth of biological insights.These can help us to uncover the costs of protein production in plants and the role of specific pathways in responding to harsh or nutrient depleted environments.By adapting the selected reaction monitoring and the progressive 15N incorporation stu-dies we have developed in model plants,we are beginning to discover the power of these systems to analyse the response of barley to low nitrogen,rice to low phosphate and wheat to saline conditions.

  10. Increased Abundance of Proteins Involved in Phytosiderophore Production in Boron-Tolerant Barley1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, John; Ford, Kris; Cassin, Andrew; Natera, Siria; Bacic, Antony

    2007-01-01

    Boron (B) phytotoxicity affects cereal-growing regions worldwide. Although B-tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare) germplasm is available, molecules responsible for this tolerance mechanism have not been defined. We describe and use a new comparative proteomic technique, iTRAQ peptide tagging (iTRAQ), to compare the abundances of proteins from B-tolerant and -intolerant barley plants from a ‘Clipper’ × ‘Sahara’ doubled-haploid population selected on the basis of a presence or absence of two B-tolerance quantitative trait loci. iTRAQ was used to identify three enzymes involved in siderophore production (Iron Deficiency Sensitive2 [IDS2], IDS3, and a methylthio-ribose kinase) as being elevated in abundance in the B-tolerant plants. Following from this result, we report a potential link between iron, B, and the siderophore hydroxymugineic acid. We believe that this study highlights the potency of the iTRAQ approach to better understand mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in cereals, particularly when applied in conjunction with bulked segregant analysis. PMID:17478636

  11. In vivo monitoring of seeds and plant-tissue water absorption using optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Veronika V.; Kutis, Irina S.; Kutis, Sergey D.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Shabanov, Dmitry V.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.

    2004-07-01

    First experimental results on OCT imaging of internal structure of plant tissues and in situ OCT monitoring of plant tissue regeneration at different water supply are reported. Experiments for evaluating OCT capabilities were performed on Tradescantia. The investigation of seeds swelling was performed on wheat seeds (Triticum L.), barley seeds (Hordeum L.), long-fibred flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus L.). These OCT images correlate with standard microscopy data from the same tissue regions. Seeds were exposed to a low-intensity physical factor-the pulsed gradient magnetic field (GMF) with pulse duration 0.1 s and maximum amplitude 5 mT (4 successive pulses during 0.4 s). OCT and OCM enable effective monitoring of fast reactions in plants and seeds at different water supply.

  12. Salinity Stress in Roots of Contrasting BarleyGenotypes Reveals Time-Distinct and Genotype-Specific Patterns for Defined Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe abiotic stress factors threatening agriculture worldwide. Hence,particular interest exists in unraveling mechanisms leading to salt tolerance and improved crop plant performance onsaline soils. Barley is considered to be one of the most salinity-tolerant crops, but varying levels of tolerance are wellcharacterized. A proteomic analysis of the roots of two contrasting cultivars (cv. Steptoe and cv. Morex) is presented.Young plants were exposed to a period of 1, 4, 7, or 10 d at 0, 100, or 150mM NaCI. The root proteome was analyzedbased on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A number of cultivar-specific and salinity stress-responsive proteins wereidentified. Mass spectrometry-based identification was successful for 74 proteins, and a hierarchical clustering analysisgrouped these into five clusters based on similarity of expression profile. The rank product method was applied to sta-tistically access the early and late responses, and this delivered a number of new candidate proteins underlying salinitytolerance in barley. Among these were some germin-like proteins, some pathogenesis-related proteins, and numerousas-yet uncharacterized proteins. Notably, proteins involved in detoxification pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis weredetected as early responsive to salinity and may function as a means of modulating growth-regulating mechanisms andmembrane stability via fine tuning of phytohormone and secondary metabolism in the root.

  13. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part II. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was investigated in the embryos and endosperm of wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne grain after 2, 4 and 6 days of germination. In germinating grain the phosphorus compounds transformations ran along the way of synthesis in the embryo and of breakdown in the endosperm. The level of phosphorus: inorganic, nucleotides, saccharides esters and their metabolites, lipid, RNA, DNA, phytin free and phytin bound with proteins and proteins rapidly increased in germinating seed embryos. The content of phosphorus free phytin and that bound with proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA in the endosperm rapidly decreased during germination. On the other hand, the saccharides phosphorus and that of their metabolites did not change, and inorganic, nuclotides and proteins-P slightly increased. Germinating rye grains showed a higher rate of synthesis in the embryos and of breakdown in the endosperm of the investigated phosphorus compounds than wheat and barley grains.

  14. Non-target effects of the microbial control agents Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 and Clonostachys rosea IK726 in soils cropped with barley followed by sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Knudsen, Inge M.B.; Binnerup, Svend J.

    2005-01-01

    on plant growth or soil microorganisms. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis detected the perturbations of the soil microbial community structure in the MCA treatments as well as the return to non- perturbed conditions reflecting the decline of inoculant populations. The PLFA technique appears......Non-target effects of a bacterial (Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54) and a fungal (Clonostachys rosea IK726) microbial control agent (MCA), on the indigenous microbiota in bulk soil and rhizosphere of barley, and subsequent a sugar beet crop, were studied in a greenhouse experiment. MCAs were...... introduced by seed and soil inoculation. Bulk and rhizosphere soils were sampled regularly during the growth of barley and sugar beet. The soils were assayed for the fate of MCAs and various features of the indigenous soil microbiota. At the end of the experiment (193 d), DR54 and IK726 had declined...

  15. Comparative effect of salinity on ion accumulation, grain yield and stability salt tolerance degree of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in different growth stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdennaceur Ben Khaled

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, excess salts in agricultural land can limit crop production. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is one of the most salt tolerant crop species. This study was conducted to determine the effects of salinity on seed germination, mineral content and yield production of 14 barley accessions from two regions in the Southern Tunisia. First experiment was conducted in laboratory to test the effect of nine levels of NaCl concentrations in different germination parameter. Second experiments were conducted in a greenhouse. The accessions were grown in soil and exposed to three salinity levels. Salinity decreased significantly the germination rate and the germination rate index for all accessions. Na+ content, total dry matter and grain yield vary significantly with increasing salinity levels. The degree of tolerance varies between accessions in the different growth stage. A significant correlation were observed between ranking using grain yield and multivariate parameter. The tolerance degree based in germination rate and Na+ content don’t present significant correlation with yield ranking. Therefore, ranking using multivariate parameter can be the appropriate method to analysis the tolerance degree of barley under saline conditions. The differences response between accessions of local population of barley “Ardhaoui” reflected an important internal genetic variability against the salinity. This variability could be more explored and used for the barley breeding program. The accessions Ettalah, Chneni Tatouine and Elhezma showed more salt tolerance at 13 dS/m as indicated by the multivariate ranking using germination rate, Na+ content and grain yield.

  16. Gradients of seed photosynthesis and its role for oxygen balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiersch, Henning; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rutten, Twan; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2011-02-01

    Seeds are generally viewed in the context of plant reproduction and the supply of food and feed, but only seldom as a site of photosynthesis. However, the seeds of many plant species are green, at least during their early development, which raises the issue of the significance of this greening for seed development. Here we describe the two contrasting modes of photosynthesis in the developing seed. The dicotyledonous pea seed has a green embryo, while the monocotyledonous barley caryopsis has a chlorenchymatic layer surrounding its non-green endosperm (storage organ). We have employed pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorescence and oxygen-sensitive microsensors to localize and describe gradient distributions of photosynthetic activity across the seed/caryopsis, and have discussed its role in maintaining the endogenous O₂ balance. We also report the lack of photosynthetic activity in the stay-green embryo axis of the sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) seed following imbibition. The observations are discussed with respect to in vivo light supply and contrasted with the characteristics of leaf photosynthesis.

  17. The proteome of lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Bernd A; Wrocklage, Christian; Hasilik, Andrej; Saftig, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Lysosomes are organelles of eukaryotic cells that are critically involved in the degradation of macromolecules mainly delivered by endocytosis and autophagocytosis. Degradation is achieved by more than 60 hydrolases sequestered by a single phospholipid bilayer. The lysosomal membrane facilitates interaction and fusion with other compartments and harbours transport proteins catalysing the export of catabolites, thereby allowing their recycling. Lysosomal proteins have been addressed in various proteomic studies that are compared in this review regarding the source of material, the organelle/protein purification scheme, the proteomic methodology applied and the proteins identified. Distinguishing true constituents of an organelle from co-purifying contaminants is a central issue in subcellular proteomics, with additional implications for lysosomes as being the site of degradation of many cellular and extracellular proteins. Although many of the lysosomal hydrolases were identified by classical biochemical approaches, the knowledge about the protein composition of the lysosomal membrane has remained fragmentary for a long time. Using proteomics many novel lysosomal candidate proteins have been discovered and it can be expected that their functional characterisation will help to understand functions of lysosomes at a molecular level that have been characterised only phenomenologically so far and to generally deepen our understanding of this indispensable organelle.

  18. The minotaur proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; García, Guadalupe Espadas; Paz, Marcia Ivonne Peña;

    2010-01-01

    Cell culture is a fundamental tool in proteomics where mammalian cells are cultured in vitro using a growth medium often supplemented with 5-15% FBS. Contamination by bovine proteins is difficult to avoid because of adherence to the plastic vessel and the cultured cells. We have generated peptide...

  19. Cutting edge proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Espadas, Guadalupe; Molina, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Tryptic digestion is an important component of most proteomics experiments, and trypsin is available from many sources with a cost that varies by more than 1000-fold. This high-mass-accuracy LC-MS study benchmarks six commercially available trypsins with respect to autolytic species and sequence ...

  20. Xylem sap proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernonville, Thomas Dugé; Albenne, Cécile; Arlat, Matthieu; Hoffmann, Laurent; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of xylem sap has recently become a major field of interest to understand several biological questions related to plant development and responses to environmental clues. The xylem sap appears as a dynamic fluid undergoing changes in its proteome upon abiotic and biotic stresses. Unlike cell compartments which are amenable to purification in sufficient amount prior to proteomic analysis, the xylem sap has to be collected in particular conditions to avoid contamination by intracellular proteins and to obtain enough material. A model plant like Arabidopsis thaliana is not suitable for such an analysis because efficient harvesting of xylem sap is difficult. The analysis of the xylem sap proteome also requires specific procedures to concentrate proteins and to focus on proteins predicted to be secreted. Indeed, xylem sap proteins appear to be synthesized and secreted in the root stele or to originate from dying differentiated xylem cells. This chapter describes protocols to collect xylem sap from Brassica species and to prepare total and N-glycoprotein extracts for identification of proteins by mass spectrometry analyses and bioinformatics.

  1. Analyzing the platelet proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Angel; Zitzmann, Nicole; Watson, Steve P

    2004-08-01

    During the last 10 years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become a key tool for protein analysis and has underpinned the emerging field of proteomics. Using high-throughput tandem MS/MS following protein separation, it is potentially possible to analyze hundreds to thousands of proteins in a sample at a time. This technology can be used to analyze the protein content (i.e., the proteome) of any cell or tissue and complements the powerful field of genomics. The technology is particularly suitable for platelets because of the absence of a nucleus. Cellular proteins can be separated by either gel-based methods such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography (LC) -MS/MS or by multidimensional LC-MS/MS. Prefractionation techniques, such as subcellular fractionations or immunoprecipitations, can be used to improve the analysis. Each method has particular advantages and disadvantages. Proteomics can be used to compare the proteome of basal and diseased platelets, helping to reveal information on the molecular basis of the disease.

  2. Genomes to Proteomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panisko, Ellen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Grigoriev, Igor [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Daly, Don S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baker, Scott E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Biologists are awash with genomic sequence data. In large part, this is due to the rapid acceleration in the generation of DNA sequence that occurred as public and private research institutes raced to sequence the human genome. In parallel with the large human genome effort, mostly smaller genomes of other important model organisms were sequenced. Projects following on these initial efforts have made use of technological advances and the DNA sequencing infrastructure that was built for the human and other organism genome projects. As a result, the genome sequences of many organisms are available in high quality draft form. While in many ways this is good news, there are limitations to the biological insights that can be gleaned from DNA sequences alone; genome sequences offer only a bird's eye view of the biological processes endemic to an organism or community. Fortunately, the genome sequences now being produced at such a high rate can serve as the foundation for other global experimental platforms such as proteomics. Proteomic methods offer a snapshot of the proteins present at a point in time for a given biological sample. Current global proteomics methods combine enzymatic digestion, separations, mass spectrometry and database searching for peptide identification. One key aspect of proteomics is the prediction of peptide sequences from mass spectrometry data. Global proteomic analysis uses computational matching of experimental mass spectra with predicted spectra based on databases of gene models that are often generated computationally. Thus, the quality of gene models predicted from a genome sequence is crucial in the generation of high quality peptide identifications. Once peptides are identified they can be assigned to their parent protein. Proteins identified as expressed in a given experiment are most useful when compared to other expressed proteins in a larger biological context or biochemical pathway. In this chapter we will discuss the automatic

  3. HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Toni; Holme, Inger; Dockter, Christoph; Preuß, Aileen; Thomas, William; Waugh, Robbie; Braumann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv.) Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield. PMID:28005988

  4. The consequent influence of crop rotation and six-year-long spring barley monoculture on yields and weed infestation of white mustard and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the years 2007- 2008, after 6-year-long experiments in the cultivation of spring barley in a crop rotation system and in monoculture. The other experimental factor was the spring barley protection method. Intensive protection involved comprehensive treatment of barley (in-crop harrowing, seed dressing, application of herbicides, fungicides, a retardant and an insecticide. Extensive protection consisted only in in-crop harrowing, without the application of crop protection agents, except for seed dressing. The above mentioned factors formed the background for the study on the cultivation of white mustard and oats, as phytosanitary species, in successive years. In the test plants, no mineral fertilization and crop protection were applied. Such agricultural method enabled an objective assessment of the consequent effect of monoculture, crop rotation and crop treatments. A hypothesis was made that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants in the stand after 6-year-long barley monoculture would allow obtaining the level of yields and weed infestation similar to those of the crop rotation treatments. It was also assumed that the cultivation of white mustard and oats would eliminate differences in plant productivity caused by the negative influence of extensive protection. It was proved that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants eliminated the negative influence of monoculture on the level of their yields and weed infestation. However, the test plants did not compensate negative consequences of extensive protection. In spite of this, white mustard and oats effectively competed with weeds, and the number and weight of weeds in a crop canopy did not cause a dramatic decline in yields. In the test plant canopy, the following short-lived weeds were predominant: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli. The absence of herbicide application resulted in the compensation of perennial species

  5. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  6. Market opportunity in computational proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Enal

    2002-03-01

    The current exuberance on the potential of proteomics as a means to deploy the wealth of the human genome is expected to last into the coming years. Unlike the genome, a finite entity with a fixed number of base pairs of the genetic material, the proteome is "plastic", changing throughout growth and development and environmental stresses, as well as in pathological situations. Our proteomes change over time, and therefore there is no one proteome; the proteome is for practical purposes an infinite entity. It is therefore crucial to build systems that are capable of manipulating the information content that is the proteome, thence the need for computational proteomics as a discipline. In this Market View article, we present the industry landscape that is emerging in the computational proteomics space. This space is still in its infancy and for the most part undefined; therefore we seek to present the market opportunity in informatics in the drug discovery space and then extend that to an examination of industry trends in proteomics. Thus, the gestalt is a set of predictions as to the evolution of the landscape in computational proteomics over the coming years.

  7. Determination of mortality of different life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in stored barley using microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivambal, R; Jayas, D S; White, N D G

    2008-06-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., one of the important crops in Canada, is used in malting, feed, and food industries. Disinfestation of barley using microwaves can be an alternative to chemical methods used to kill insects. A pilot-scale industrial microwave system operating at 2.45 MHz was used in this study to determine the mortality of life stages (egg, larva, pupa, and adult) of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Barley samples of 50 g each at 14, 16, and 18% moisture content (MC; wet basis) were infested with various life stages of T. castaneum and exposed to microwave energy at different power levels and exposure times, and the mortality of the insects was determined. The average temperature of the 14% MC sample exposed to 28 s at 0, 200, 300, 400, and 500 W were 27.4, 42.6, 53.7, 66.9, and 73.0 degrees C, respectively, and those exposed to 56 s at 0, 200, 300, and 400 W were 27.4, 57.3, 75.5, and 91.2 degrees C, respectively. A similar range of temperature was observed for 16 and 18% MC barley. Complete mortality of all life stages of T. castaneum can be achieved at a power level of 400 W and an exposure time of 56 s or at 500 W for 28 s. Among the life stages of T. castaneum, eggs were the most susceptible to microwave energy and adults were the least susceptible. There was no significant difference in the mortality of larvae and adults at 14, 16, and 18% MC, but the mortality was significantly different for eggs and pupae at different MCs. There was a significant increase in the mortality with an increase in power level or exposure time or both. Germination capacity of the seeds was decreased with an increase in power level or exposure time or both. Quality characteristics such as alpha-amylase, diastatic power, soluble protein, viscosity, and density of the barley malt treated at 500 W for 28 s were same as the control sample, whereas the samples treated at 400 W for 56 s were significantly lower.

  8. Shotgun proteome analysis of beer and the immunogenic potential of beer polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Addeo, Francesco; Camarca, Alessandra; Vocca, Immacolata; Gianfrani, Carmen; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2012-10-22

    The majority of beer proteins originate from barley (Hordeum vulgare) which is used for brewing. Barley is known to contain celiacogenic gliadin-like prolamins (hordeins) along with other immunogenic proteins which endure malt proteases and the harsh conditions of brewing. In addition, a multitude of peptides that may retain or even amplify the immune-stimulating potential is released in beer because of proteolysis. The comprehensive annotation of the beer proteome is challenged both by the high concentration range of the protein entities and by a severe degree of processing-induced modifications. Overcoming the pitfalls of the classical two-dimensional electrophoresis approach coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), the gel-free shotgun proteomic analysis expanded the current inventory of a popular Italian beer to 33 gene products, including traces of intact B- and D-hordeins and 10 proteins from Saccharomyces spp. The high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray MS/MS peptidomic analysis of the low-molecular weight beer components disclosed a panel of hordein-derived peptides that encrypt gluten-like sequence motifs, potentially harmful to celiacs. The presence of antigliadin IgA-immunoresponsive prolamins was assayed by Western and dot blot using sera of N=4 celiac patients. Gliadin-reactive T-cell lines isolated from the intestine of N=5 celiacs activated an IFN-γ response when challenged with deamidated beer polypeptides.

  9. The barley grain thioredoxin system - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Björnberg, Olof; Navrot, Nicolas;

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type Trx facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent Trx reductase. This review presents a summary of the resear...

  10. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  11. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  12. Interaction between powdery mildew and barley with ¤mlo5¤ mildew resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Østergård, Hanne

    1998-01-01

    Powdery mildew infection of barley with the mlo5 barley powdery mildew resistance gene was examined, using near-isogenic barley lines, with and without mlo5 resistance, and two near-isogenic powdery mildew isolates, HL3/5 and GE3 with high (virulent) or low (avirulent) penetration efficiency...

  13. Products based on a high fiber barley genotype, but not on common barley or oats, lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, H G; Granfeldt, Y E; Björck, I M

    1996-02-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to cereal products made from common barley, oats or a barley genotype containing elevated levels of beta-glucans were evaluated in nine healthy subjects. Porridges were made from commercial Swedish whole-meal barley or oat flours, and a mixed whole-meal porridge using the high fiber barley genotype and commercial Swedish common barley (50:50). Also studied were two types of flour-based bread products composed of high fiber barley and common barley in ratios of 50:50 or 80:20, respectively. The common oat and barley porridges produced postprandial glucose and insulin responses similar to the white wheat bread reference, suggesting that the naturally occurring dietary fiber in these whole-meal flours has no impact on the glucose tolerance. In contrast, all high fiber barley products induced significantly lower responses than did the reference product, with the glycemic and insulin indices ranging from 57 to 72 or 42 to 72%, respectively. It is concluded that "lente" products of high sensory quality can be prepared from a barley genotype with an elevated content of soluble dietary fiber. The glycemic index of these products compares favorably with that of products made from common cereals, suggesting their use as a potential component of diets for patients with diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and for individuals predisposed to metabolic disease.

  14. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  15. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  16. Proteome research in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischetsrieder, Monika; Baeuerlein, Rainer

    2009-09-01

    The proteome is the totality of proteins present in a biological sample. In contrast to the static genome, the proteome is highly dynamic, influenced by the genome and many external factors, such as the state of development, tissue type, metabolic state, and various interactions. Thus, the proteome reflects very closely the biological (and chemical) processes occurring in a system. For proteome analysis, gel based and shotgun methods are most widely applied. Because of the potential to generate a systematic view of protein composition and biological as well as chemical interactions, the application of proteome analysis in food science is steadily growing. This tutorial review introduces several fields in food science, where proteomics has been successfully applied: analysis of food composition, safety assessment of genetically modified food, the search for marker proteins for food authentication, identification of food allergens, systematic analysis of the physiological activity of food, analysis of the effects of processing on food proteins and the improvement of food quality.

  17. An introduction to proteome bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew R; Hubbard, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    This book is part of the Methods in Molecular Biology series, and provides a general overview of computational approaches used in proteome research. In this chapter, we give an overview of the scope of the book in terms of current proteomics experimental techniques and the reasons why computational approaches are needed. We then give a summary of each chapter, which together provide a picture of the state of the art in proteome bioinformatics research.

  18. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  19. Plant redox proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2011-01-01

    In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox...... PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual roles to maintain oxidative stress resistance and regulate signal transduction pathways via redox PTMs....... To get a comprehensive overview of these types of redox-regulated pathways there is therefore an emerging interest to monitor changes in redox PTMs on a proteome scale. Compared to some other PTMs, e.g. protein phosphorylation, redox PTMs have received less attention in plant proteome analysis, possibly...

  20. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  1. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni;

    2014-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) production is an efficient tool in barley breeding, but efficiency of DH methods is not consistent. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the effect of n-butanol application on DH barley plant production efficiency. Five elite cultivars of barley and thirteen breeding...... crosses with different microspore embryogenesis capacities were selected for n-butanol application in anther and isolated microspore cultures. Application of 0.1 % n-butanol after a mannitol stress treatment in anther culture significantly increased the number of embryos (up to almost twice) and green...... plants (from 1.7 to 3 times) in three low-responding cultivars: Albacete, Astoria and Majestic. No significant differences on microspore embryogenesis efficiency were observed in medium and high responding cultivars. The application of n-butanol treatment to isolated microspores from cold treated spikes...

  2. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.;

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... insight into the substrate binding by describing residues defining 9 subsites, namely -7 through +2. These structures support that the pseudotetrasaccharide inhibitor acarbose is hydrolyzed by the active enzymes. Moreover, sugar binding was observed to the starch granule-binding site previously determined...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  3. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    ) and five antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines. Considering the amounts of soluble and protein-bound aspartate-derived amino acids together with the analysis of key enzymes of aspartate metabolic pathway, we suggest that the C-hordein suppression did not only alter the metabolism of at least one......The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition......, with increased lysine, methionine and threonine contents. The objective of the study was to investigate the possible changes in the regulation of key enzymes of the aspartate metabolic pathway and the contents of aspartate-derived amino acids in the nontransgenic line (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golden Promise...

  4. Factors underlying restricted crossover localization in barley meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, James D; Osman, Kim; Jones, Gareth H; Franklin, F Chris H

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic recombination results in the formation of cytological structures known as chiasmata at the sites of genetic crossovers (COs). The formation of at least one chiasma/CO between homologous chromosome pairs is essential for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division as well as for generating genetic variation. Although DNA double-strand breaks, which initiate recombination, are widely distributed along the chromosomes, this is not necessarily reflected in the chiasma distribution. In many species there is a tendency for chiasmata to be distributed in favored regions along the chromosomes, whereas in others, such as barley and some other grasses, chiasma localization is extremely pronounced. Localization of chiasma to the distal regions of barley chromosomes restricts the genetic variation available to breeders. Studies reviewed herein are beginning to provide an explanation for chiasma localization in barley. Moreover, they suggest a potential route to manipulating chiasma distribution that could be of value to plant breeders.

  5. The plant mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millar, A.H.; Heazlewood, J.L.; Kristensen, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial proteome might contain as many as 2000-3000 different gene products, each of which might undergo post-translational modification. Recent studies using analytical methods, such as one-, two- and three-dimensional gel electrophoresis and one- and two-dimensional liquid...... context to be defined for them. There are indications that some of these proteins add novel activities to mitochondrial protein complexes in plants....

  6. Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Françoise; Leymarie, Juliette

    2013-04-01

    In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature.

  7. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. yield with normal and coated urea in Pintag, Quito, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Lema-Aguirre

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the response of barley production to nitrogenized fertilization (NF and its impact on the protein content of the grain and the availability of nutrients on the soil. The study was carried out in two sites in Hacienda Valencia, in Pintag, Quito, Ecuador, between March 2014 and February 2015. A variety of INIAP Cañicapa 2003 was used, and the NF was done with normal urea and polymerized (urea + tiophosphate of N-nbutiltriamida. An experimental design of randomized full blocks in four repetitions of divided lots [the urea (normal and polymerized was used in the main lot and the NF (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, y 150 kg N/ha in the sub-lot]. 110 kg/ha of seed was used; 50% of the NF was applied three weeks after planting (broadcast and 50% eight weeks after. The type of urea did not affect the production (p>0,10, although the average was different between two sites (4,33 y 2,08 t/ha for sites 1 and 2, respectively. Excess of rain could have limit the effect on the urea type. On average a cuadratic response to NF was obtined, with an optimum dose of N (DON of 90 kg N/ha and a production of 3,41 t/ ha. This DON was similar to the dose of N recomended for barley in Ecuador. The NF augmented the protein content up to 14,50% (p<0,01 and acidi ed the ground, because the urea nitri cation produces H+.

  8. Gene Targeting Without DSB Induction Is Inefficient in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Mihaly; Steinbiss, Hans-Henning; Reiss, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Double strand-break (DSB) induction allowed efficient gene targeting in barley (Hordeum vulgare), but little is known about efficiencies in its absence. To obtain such data, an assay system based on the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene was established, a target gene which had been used previously in rice and Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of recombinases RAD51 and RAD54 had been shown to improve gene targeting in A. thaliana and positive-negative (P-N) selection allows the routine production of targeted mutants without DSB induction in rice. We implemented these approaches in barley and analysed gene targeting with the ALS gene in wild type and RAD51 and RAD54 transgenic lines. In addition, P-N selection was tested. In contrast to the high gene targeting efficiencies obtained in the absence of DSB induction in A. thaliana or rice, not one single gene targeting event was obtained in barley. These data suggest that gene targeting efficiencies are very low in barley and can substantially differ between different plants, even at the same target locus. They also suggest that the amount of labour and time would become unreasonably high to use these methods as a tool in routine applications. This is particularly true since DSB induction offers efficient alternatives. Barley, unlike rice and A. thaliana has a large, complex genome, suggesting that genome size or complexity could be the reason for the low efficiencies. We discuss to what extent transformation methods, genome size or genome complexity could contribute to the striking differences in the gene targeting efficiencies between barley, rice and A. thaliana.

  9. Dissection of brassinosteroid-regulated proteins in rice embryos during germination by quantitative proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Feng; Xiong, Min; Xu, Peng; Huang, Li-Chun; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs), essential plant-specific steroidal hormones, function in a wide spectrum of plant growth and development events, including seed germination. Rice is not only a monocotyledonous model plant but also one of the most important staple food crops of human beings. Rice seed germination is a decisive event for the next-generation of plant growth and successful seed germination is critical for rice yield. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms on how BR modulates seed germination in rice. In the present study, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based proteomic approach to study BR-regulated proteome during the early stage of seed germination. The results showed that more than 800 BR-responsive proteins were identified, including 88 reliable target proteins responsive to stimuli of both BR-deficiency and BR-insensitivity. Moreover, 90% of the 88 target proteins shared a similar expression change pattern. Gene ontology and string analysis indicated that ribosomal structural proteins, as well as proteins involved in protein biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolisms were highly clustered. These findings not only enrich BR-regulated protein database in rice seeds, but also allow us to gain novel insights into the molecular mechanism of BR regulated seed germination. PMID:27703189

  10. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore...... the opportunity to give a forecast of the taste of the bread, as the AA composition is known to control certain aspects of the taste. We uses a MSE approach on a time of flight instrument coupled to a UPLC and in gel digestion to identify and characterize the different D-hordeins responsible for baking quality...

  12. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by solubil......Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained...

  13. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  14. Effects of the Application of Different Concentrations of NaN3 for Different Times on the Morphological and Cytogenetic Characteristics of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Irfan ILBAS; Yasemin EROGLU; Halil Erhan EROGLU

    2005-01-01

    Sodium azide (NaN3) has been used in many biological studies as a mutagen. In the present study, the morphological and cytogenetic effects of NaN3 on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings were investigated. Seeds of barley were treated with different concentrations of NaN3 (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and3.0 mmol/L) and applied for different periods of time (3 and 4 h). Parameters investigated, except for the mitotic index, were determined on Days 7 and 14. Increasing concentrations of NaN3 affected germination rates on Days 7 and 14 following application for 3 and 4 h. Although the length of the roots and leaves was affected by treatment with NaN3 on Day 14 of the germination period, coleoptile length was affected by NaN3 treatment on Day 7. Increasing concentrations of NaN3 and increased treatment period decreased the mitotic index compared with the untreated control. The inhibitory effects of NaN3 on the mitotic index indicate that NaN3 can have genotoxic and mutagenic effects on barley seedlings.

  15. Influence of NaCl-Induced Salinity and Cd Toxicity on Respiration Activity and Cd Availability to Barley Plants in Farmyard Manure-Amended Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel R. A. Usman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cd availability and toxicity as affected by NaCl-induced salinity and farmyard manure addition. The Cd availability and toxicity were investigated in greenhouse pot and incubation experiments were conducted on a calcareous loamy sand soil contaminated with Cd (0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mg kg−1 of soil and amended with two rates of 0.0 and 30 g farmyard manure (FYM kg−1. Barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L. were sown in pots and irrigated with water containing different levels of salinity (0, 30, 60, and 120 mM NaCl. The results revealed that the DTPA-extractable Cd and its content in barley plant shoots tended to increase in line as Cd was applied and salt levels increased. Elevated decreases in the soil basal respiration with increased Cd applied and NaCl-induced salinity were found. However, applying FYM significantly reduced Cd availability and increased plant growth and soil respiration activity. The results clearly showed that adding farmyard manure as soil organic amendment decreased the availability of Cd to barley plants and mitigated the toxicity of both Cd and salinity to soil microbial activity.

  16. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...

  17. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  18. Evaluation of a malting barley quality assessment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuijsen, H.J. van; Douma, A.C.; Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1998-01-01

    New malting barley varieties are annually tested for their malting and brewing potential according to a field trial set-up combined with quality evaluation on pilot scale. To assess the effects of trial year and location on quality evaluation data, a data base consisting of quality data from Dutch m

  19. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptid...

  20. Radiation hybrid map of barley chromosome 3H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assembly of the barley genome is complicated by its large size (5.1 Gb) and proportion of repetitive elements (84%). This process is facilitated by high resolution maps for aligning BAC contigs along chromosomes. Available genetic maps; however, do not provide accurate information on the physical po...

  1. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  2. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly...

  3. Microgeographic Edaphic Differentiation in Hordein Polymorphisms of Wild Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevo, E.; Beiles, A.; Storch, N.

    1983-01-01

    and topography. Likewise, significant correlations were found between hordein phenotypes and allozyme types detected in a previous study. Our results suggest that at least part of the hordein polymorphisms in wild barley is adaptive and selected by soil and topographic differences over very short distances....

  4. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  5. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  6. Durum wheat and barley productivity in saline-drought environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Mastrorilli, M.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Lahmer, F.Z.; Hamdy, A.; Oweis, T.

    2009-01-01

    In two Successive years, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum Desf.) and barley (Hodeum vulgare L.) were tested in a factorial salinity-drought experiment, combining three levels of salinity and two levels of drought. The two drought treatments were obtained by applying irrigation water when the pre-dawn

  7. Characterization of Gibberellin Receptor Mutants of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter M.Chandler; Carol A.Harding; Anthony R.Ashton; Mark D.Mulcair; Nicholas E.Dixon; Lewis N.Mander

    2008-01-01

    The sequence of Gidl (a gene for a gibberellin (GA) receptor from rice) was used to identify a putative orthoIogue from barley.This was expressed in E.coil,and produced a protein that was able to bind GA in vitro with both structural specificity and saturability.Its potential role in GA responses was investigated using barley mutants with reduced GA sensitivity (gsel mutants).Sixteen different gsel mutants each carried a unique nucleotide substitution in this sequence.In all but one case,these changes resulted in single amino acid substitutions,and,for the remaining mutant,a substitution in the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA is proposed to interfere with translation initiation.There was perfect linkage in segregating populations between new mutant alleles and the gsel phenotype,leading to the conclusion that the putative GID1 GA receptor sequence in barley corresponds to the Gsel locus.Determination of endogenous GA contents in one of the mutants revealed enhanced accumulation of bioactive GA1,and a deficit of C20 GA precursors.All of the gsel mutants had reduced sensitivity to exogenous GA3,and to AC94377 (a GA analogue) at concentrations that are normally 'saturating',but,at much higher concentrations,there was often a considerable response.The comparison between barley and rice mutants reveals interesting differences between these two cereal species in GA hormonal physiology.

  8. Expression of lipoxygenase isoenzymes in developing barley grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, N.F.; Mechelen, J.R. van

    1997-01-01

    Expression of lipoxygenase was studied in whole developing barley grains from 5 days after flowering (DAF) to full maturity. Lipoxygenase showed two distinct peaks of activity. The first peak of activity occurred in the early stages of grain development from 5 until 20 DAF, whereas the second peak o

  9. Biotic stress in barley: disease problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated over a wider geographic range than almost any other major crop species. It can be found growing from the tropics to the high latitudes and from the seacoast to the highest arable mountaintops. On marginal lands where alkaline soils, drought, or cold summer t...

  10. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  11. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  12. Spatial aggregation of pathotypes of barley powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Aggregation in the distribution of pathotypes of Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei, the barley powdery mildew pathogen, was investigated in field plots of 'Golden Promise', 'Proctor' and 'Tyra'. 'Golden Promise' and 'Proctor' have no effective mildew resistance alleles, whereas 'Tyra' has Mla1, which...

  13. Dormant barley aleurone shows heterogeneity and a specific cytodifferentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurink, R.C.; Bakhuizen, R.; Libbenga, K.R.; Boulanger, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to gibberellic acid, aleurone layers isolated from dormant barley (Hordeum distichum L. cv. Triumph) kernels produced significantly less alpha-amylase than aleurones from non-dormant kernels. Light microscopical investigations using the dye acridine orange as well as electron microscopic

  14. STRUCTURES AND PERSPECTIVES OF CEREAL SEEDS PRODUCTION AND USE, IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najah Naiem Mutlak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper regarding the situation of Iraq we are tackling the production issue and the use of seeds for the main cereal crops (wheat, barley, and maize. Based on a pertinent methodology, the paper starts from the stringent need to produce seed quantities, while the arguments are based on the processing results of the information in the annual dynamics. We are making knowledge references on the used quantities, but also on the seed provisioning. By means of presenting and extrapolating the production functions, we discover the limits and conditions for the production factors use extension on the production. It emerged that for the analyzed crops, the seed quantity factor is predominant in increasing the cereal production volume.

  15. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  16. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  17. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  18. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  19. The Level of Expression of Thioredoxin is Linked to Fundamental Properties and Applications of Wheat Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Chun Li; Jiang-Ping Ren; Myeong-Je Cho; Su-Mei Zhou; Yong-Bum Kim; Hong-Xiang Guo; Joshua H.Wong; Hong-Bin Niu; Hyun-Kyung Kim; Susumu Morigasaki; Peggy G.Lemaux; Oscar L.Frick; Jun Yin; Bob B.Buchanan

    2009-01-01

    Work with cereals (barley and wheat) and a legume (Medicago truncatula) has established thioredoxin h (Trx h) as a central regulatory protein of seeds.Trx h acts by reducing disulfide (S-S) groups of diverse seed proteins (storage proteins,enzymes,and enzyme inhibitors),thereby facilitating germination.Early in vitro protein studies were comple-mented with experiments in which barley seeds with Trx h overexpressed in the endosperm showed accelerated germi-nation and early or enhanced expression of associated enzymes (α-amylase and pullulanase).The current study extends the transgenic work to wheat.Two approaches were followed to alter the expression of Trx h genes in the endosperm:(1) a hordein promoter and its protein body targeting sequence led to overexpression of Trx hS,and (2) an antisense construct of Trx h9 resulted in cytosolic underexpression of that gene (Arabidopsis designation).Underexpression of Trx h9 led toeffects opposite to those observed for overexpression Trx h5 in barley-retardation of germination and delayed or reduced expression of associated enzymes.Similar enzyme changes were observed in developing seeds.The wheat lines with underexpressed Trx showed delayed preharvest sprouting when grown in the greenhouse or field without a decrease in final yield.Wheat with overexpressed Trx h5 showed changes commensurate with earlier in vitro work:increased sol-ubility of disulfide proteins and lower allergenicity of the gliadin fraction.The results are further evidence that the level of Trx h in cereal endosperm determines fundamental properties as well as potential applications of the seed.

  20. Soybeans grown in the Chernobyl area produce fertile seeds that have increased heavy metal resistance and modified carbon metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Klubicová

    Full Text Available Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  1. Immunocapture strategies in translational proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredolini, Claudia; Byström, Sanna; Pin, Elisa; Edfors, Fredrik; Tamburro, Davide; Iglesias, Maria Jesus; Häggmark, Anna; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Uhlen, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at clinical studies of human diseases, antibody-assisted assays have been applied to biomarker discovery and toward a streamlined translation from patient profiling to assays supporting personalized treatments. In recent years, integrated strategies to couple and combine antibodies with mass spectrometry-based proteomic efforts have emerged, allowing for novel possibilities in basic and clinical research. Described in this review are some of the field's current and emerging immunocapture approaches from an affinity proteomics perspective. Discussed are some of their advantages, pitfalls and opportunities for the next phase in clinical and translational proteomics.

  2. Proteomics in obstetrics and gynecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Lekhwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics helps to understand the basic biological processes critical to normal cellular functions as well as the development of diseases. It identifies the essential components of these processes and exploits these components as targets in the development of new methods to prevent or treat diseases. Proteomics, although in an infancy stage in India, has the potential to complement and further enlarge the wealth of information in medicine, especially in the field of cancer. This article reviews the recent progress in proteomic techniques and their applications in the field of obstetrics and gynecology.

  3. Ovarian Cancer Proteomic, Phosphoproteomic, and Glycoproteomic Data Released - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have just released a comprehensive dataset of the proteomic analysis of high grade serous ovarian tumor samples,

  4. In this issue: Proteomics - Clinical Applications 3/2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    In this issue of Proteomics - Clinical Applications you will find the following highlighted articles: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/prca.200800050Labour isn't just a British party If you ask a woman who's had labor induced at the end of a normal pregnancy about the experience, she will probably flinch at the memory, which is not to say that spontaneous labor is a picnic. MacIntyre et al. report here on the proteomic analysis of the differences between spontaneous (SL) and induced (IL) labor in the myometrium. Applying 2-D DIGE to the question, they found 23 significant differences between SL and NL (non-laboring) myometria, and 59 differences between IL and NL samples. Comparison of SL to IL revealed 69 differences. Only two proteins showed the same changes for SL and IL vs, NL, suggesting that there might be more than one route to the same end. MacIntyre, D. A. et al., Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2009, 3, 288-298. Fresh mud for prostate info, not for spa facial Prostate cancer is one of the more challenging cancers to treat. It is not susceptible to any conventional chemotherapeutics, one of the most common approaches is implantation of radioactive "seeds" in the tumor. One chemotherapeutic agent that shows some promise when administered in combination with other therapies is mitoxantrone (MTXT). Symes et al. looked at proteomic changes in primary prostate cancer biopsy cultures with or without 100 nM MTXT, using MudPIT technology. Approximately 110 of 1500 proteins changed levels significantly. Among the up-regulated proteins were a number of membrane proteins - fatty acid synthase, caveolin-1 et al. - interesting targets for the combination therapy. Symes, J. et al., Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2009, 3, 347-358. Alien morph virus invasion We'll leave the royalty rights issue to the lawyers but if I were a wagering man, I'd put my money on the virus. We're talking about the battle between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and B-lymphocytes, the antibody boys. Once EBV gets into a

  5. Les Maîtres de l'Orge: the proteome content of your beer mug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Elisa; Aldini, Giancarlo; Regazzoni, Luca; Kravchuk, Alexander V; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2010-10-01

    The beer proteome has been evaluated via prior capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (ProteoMiner as well as a homemade library of reduced polydispersity) at three different pH (4.0, 7.0, and 9.3) values. Via mass spectrometry analysis of the recovered fractions, after elution of the captured populations in 4% boiling SDS, we could categorize such species in 20 different barley protein families and 2 maize proteins, the only ones that had survived the brewing process (the most abundant ones being Z-serpins and lipid transfer proteins). In addition to those, we could identify 40 unique gene products from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one from S. bayanus and one from S. pastorianus as routinely used in the malting process for lager beer. These latter species must represent trace components, as in previous proteome investigations barely two such yeast proteins could be detected. Our protocol permits handling of very large beer volumes (liters, if needed) in a very simple and user-friendly manner and in a much reduced sample handling time. The knowledge of the residual proteome in beers might help brewers in selecting proper proteinaceous components that might enrich beer flavor and texture.

  6. Inhibition of seed germination and induction of systemic disease resistance by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 requires phenazine production regulated by the global regulator, gacS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Beom Ryong; Han, Song Hee; Zdor, Rob E; Anderson, Anne J; Spencer, Matt; Yang, Kwang Yeol; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Baik Ho; Kim, Young Cheol

    2007-04-01

    Seed coating by a phenazine-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, induced dose-dependent inhibition of germination in wheat and barley seeds, but did not inhibit germination of rice or cucumber seeds. In wheat seedlings grown from inoculated seeds, phenazine production levels near the seed were higher than in the roots. Deletion of the gacS gene reduced transcription from the genes required for phenazine synthesis, the regulatory phzI gene and the biosynthetic phzA gene. The inhibition of seed germination and the induction of systemic disease resistance against a bacterial soft-rot pathogen, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, were impaired in the gacS and phzA mutants of P chlororaphis O6. Culture filtrates of the gacS and phzA mutants of P chlororaphis 06 did not inhibit seed germination of wheat, whereas that of the wild-type was inhibitory. Our results showed that the production of phenazines by P chlororaphis O6 was correlated with reduced germination of barley and wheat seeds, and the level of systemic resistance in tobacco against E. carotovora.

  7. Determination of ergosterol levels in barley and malt varieties in the Czech Republic via HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicková, Lenka; Gadas, David; Havlová, Pavla; Havel, Josef

    2008-06-11

    Ergosterol is considered to be a suitable indicator of mold infestation in barley and malt. In this study ergosterol levels in different varieties of barley and malt produced in the Czech Republic were determined. A modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was statistically processed, validated (Effivalidation program), and applied to 124 samples of barley and malt. Ergosterol was isolated by extraction and saponification, and the quantification was performed using HPLC with diode array detection. The content of ergosterol ranged between the limit of detection (LOD) and 36.3 mg/kg in barley and between the LOD and 131.1 mg/kg in malt. Ergosterol is presumably connected with metabolites generated when barley grain is attacked by pathogens, and such barley often shows a high overfoaming (gushing) value. However, it was found that the content of ergosterol does not correlate with the degree of beer gushing.

  8. Quantitative Proteome Mapping of Nitrotyrosines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Diana J.; Qian, Weijun

    2008-02-10

    An essential first step in the understanding disease and environmental perturbations is the early and quantitative detection of the increased levels of the inflammatory marker nitrotyrosine, as compared with its endogenous levels within the tissue or cellular proteome. Thus, methods that successfully address a proteome-wide quantitation of nitrotyrosine and related oxidative modifications can provide early biomarkers of risk and progression of disease as well as effective strategies for therapy. Multidimensional separations LC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has, in recent years, significantly expanded our knowledge of human (and mammalian model system) proteomes including some nascent work in identification of post-translational modifications. In the following review, we discuss the application of LC-MS/MS for quantitation and identification of nitrotyrosine-modified proteins within the context of complex protein mixtures presented in mammalian proteomes.

  9. Proteomics of early zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heisenberg Carl-Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish (D. rerio has become a powerful and widely used model system for the analysis of vertebrate embryogenesis and organ development. While genetic methods are readily available in zebrafish, protocols for two dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis and proteomics have yet to be developed. Results As a prerequisite to carry out proteomic experiments with early zebrafish embryos, we developed a method to efficiently remove the yolk from large batches of embryos. This method enabled high resolution 2D gel electrophoresis and improved Western blotting considerably. Here, we provide detailed protocols for proteomics in zebrafish from sample preparation to mass spectrometry (MS, including a comparison of databases for MS identification of zebrafish proteins. Conclusion The provided protocols for proteomic analysis of early embryos enable research to be taken in novel directions in embryogenesis.

  10. UNcleProt (Universal Nuclear Protein database of barley): The first nuclear protein database that distinguishes proteins from different phases of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavet, Nicolas; Uřinovská, Jana; Jeřábková, Hana; Chamrád, Ivo; Vrána, Jan; Lenobel, René; Beinhauer, Jana; Šebela, Marek; Doležel, Jaroslav; Petrovská, Beáta

    2017-01-02

    Proteins are the most abundant component of the cell nucleus, where they perform a plethora of functions, including the assembly of long DNA molecules into condensed chromatin, DNA replication and repair, regulation of gene expression, synthesis of RNA molecules and their modification. Proteins are important components of nuclear bodies and are involved in the maintenance of the nuclear architecture, transport across the nuclear envelope and cell division. Given their importance, the current poor knowledge of plant nuclear proteins and their dynamics during the cell's life and division is striking. Several factors hamper the analysis of the plant nuclear proteome, but the most critical seems to be the contamination of nuclei by cytosolic material during their isolation. With the availability of an efficient protocol for the purification of plant nuclei, based on flow cytometric sorting, contamination by cytoplasmic remnants can be minimized. Moreover, flow cytometry allows the separation of nuclei in different stages of the cell cycle (G1, S, and G2). This strategy has led to the identification of large number of nuclear proteins from barley (Hordeum vulgare), thus triggering the creation of a dedicated database called UNcleProt, http://barley.gambrinus.ueb.cas.cz/ .

  11. Retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four low-phytate, hulled lines, M2 422 (now referred to as barley lpa1-1), M2 635 (now referred to as barley lpa3-1), M2 955 and M2 1070 (now referred to as barley lpa2-1), and a "hulless" version of M2 422, were evaluated in a chick feeding experiment. The diets were provided in meal form, with the...

  12. Drying kinetics of barley grains and effects on the germination index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Aparecida Bomfim SOARES

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to assess the drying kinetics of barley grains and, using mathematical modeling, to evaluate the diffusivity during drying and after drying to evaluate the effect of high drying temperatures on the seed germination index for malt production. Three drying temperatures 40, 60 and 80°C were used. The last two, 60 and 80°C, reached moisture close to ideal for storage with 6 and 4 hours respectively; at 40°C, drying process took 12 hours and would still take additional hours to reach 13% moisture on a dry basis. Drying temperature influenced the germination power. The protein content was reduced according to increased drying time. The diffusivity coefficient was higher in conventional than in intermittent drying, probably due to heat loss in the intermittent process. It was observed that higher the temperature higher is the diffusivity. Ks values of the Omoto model ranged from 1.07 to 2.05E-4.

  13. Comparative phytohormone profiles, lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities in barley aleurone, coleoptile, and root tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meringer, Maria V; Villasuso, Ana L; Pasquaré, Susana J; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela E; Racagni, Graciela E

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities and determined endogenous phytohormone levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in root and coleoptile tissues following germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds. The enzymes showing highest activity in aleurone cells were diacylglycerol kinase (DAG-k, EC 2.7.1.107) and phosphatidate kinase (PA-k). The ratio of gibberellins (GAs) to abscisic acid (ABA) was 2-fold higher in aleurone than in coleoptile or root tissues. In coleoptiles, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4-k, EC 2.7.1.67) showed the highest enzyme activity, and jasmonic acid (JA) level was higher than in aleurone. In roots, activities of PI4-k, DAG-k, and PA-k were similar, and salicylic acid (SA) showed the highest concentration. In the assays to evaluate the hydrolysis of DGPP (diacylglycerol pyrophosphate) and PA (phosphatidic acid) we observed that PA hydrolysis by LPPs (lipid phosphate phosphatases) was not modified; however, the diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase (DGPPase) was strikingly higher in coleoptile and root tissues than to aleurone. Relevance of these findings in terms of signaling responses and seedling growth is discussed.

  14. Spectral library searching in proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griss, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Spectral library searching has become a mature method to identify tandem mass spectra in proteomics data analysis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of available spectral library search engines and highlights their distinct features. Additionally, resources providing spectral libraries are summarized and tools presented that extend experimental spectral libraries by simulating spectra. Finally, spectrum clustering algorithms are discussed that utilize the same spectrum-to-spectrum matching algorithms as spectral library search engines and allow novel methods to analyse proteomics data.

  15. Proteomics Characterization of Exosome Cargo

    OpenAIRE

    Schey, Kevin L.; Luther, J. Matthew; Rose, Kristie L

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of exosomal cargo is of significant interest because this cargo can provide clues to exosome biogenesis, targeting, and cellular effects and may be a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment. With recent improvements in proteomics technologies, both qualitative and quantitative characterization of exosomal proteins is possible. Here we provide a brief review of exosome proteomics studies and provide detailed protocols for global qualitat...

  16. Proteomic analysis in allergy and intolerance to wheat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2011-02-01

    Owing to its extensive use in the human diet, wheat is among the most common causes of food-related allergies and intolerances. Allergies to wheat are provoked by ingestion, inhalation or contact with either the soluble or the insoluble gluten proteins in wheat. Gluten proteins, and particularly the gliadin fraction, are also the main factor triggering celiac disease, a common enteropathy induced by ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related prolamins from oat, rye and barley in genetically susceptible individuals. The role of gliadin and of its derived peptides in eliciting the adverse reactions in celiac disease are still far from being completely explained. Owing to its unique pathogenesis, celiac disease is widely investigated as a model immunogenetic disorder. The structural characterization of the injuring agents, the gluten proteins, assumes a particular significance in order to deepen the understanding of the events that trigger this and similar diseases at the molecular level. Recent developments in proteomics have provided an important contribution to the understanding of several basic aspects of wheat protein-related diseases. These include: the identification of gluten fractions and derived peptides involved in wheat allergy and intolerance, including celiac disease, and the elucidation of their mechanism of toxicity; the development and validation of sensitive and specific methods for detecting trace amounts of gluten proteins in gluten-free foods for intolerant patients; and the formulation of completely new substitute foods and ingredients to replace the gluten-based ones. In this article, the main aspects of current and prospective applications of mass spectrometry and proteomic technologies to the structural characterization of gluten proteins and derived peptides are critically presented, with a focus on issues related to their detection, identification and quantification, which are relevant to the biochemical, immunological and toxicological

  17. The Succinated Proteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkley, Eric D.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Baynes, John; Frizell, Norma

    2014-03-30

    Succination is a chemical modification of cysteine in protein by the Krebs cycle intermediate, fumarate, yielding S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC). Intracellular fumarate concentration and succination of proteins are increased by hyperpolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane, in concert with mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress in adipocytes grown in high glucose medium and in adipose tissue in obesity and diabetes. Increased succination of proteins is also detected in the kidney of a fumarase conditional knock-out mouse which develops renal tumors. Keap1, the gatekeeper of the antioxidant response, was identified as a major succinated protein in renal cancer cells, suggesting that succination may play a role in activation of the antioxidant response. A wide range of proteins is subject to succination, including enzymes, adipokines, cytoskeletal proteins and ER chaperones with functional cysteine residues. There is also significant overlap between succinated and glutathionylated proteins, and with proteins containing cysteine residues that are readily oxidized to the sulfenic (cysteic) acid. Succination of adipocyte proteins is inhibited by uncouplers, which discharge the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and by ER stress inhibitors. 2SC serves as a biomarker of mitochondrial stress or dysfunction in chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and cancer, and recent studies suggest that succination is a mechanistic link between mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative and ER stress, and cellular progression toward apoptosis. In this article, we review the history of the succinated proteome and the challenges associated with measuring this non-enzymatic post-translational modification of proteins by proteomics approaches.

  18. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Ussatjuk, Anna; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Ventosa, Miguel; Lorentzen, Andrea; Gupta, Vikas; Andersen, Stig U; Enghild, Jan J; Ronson, Clive W; Roepstorff, Peter; Stougaard, Jens

    2014-02-01

    Legume symbiosis with rhizobia results in the formation of a specialized organ, the root nodule, where atmospheric dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia. In Lotus japonicus (Lotus), several genes involved in nodule development or nodule function have been defined using biochemistry, genetic approaches, and high-throughput transcriptomics. We have employed proteomics to further understand nodule development. Two developmental stages representing nodules prior to nitrogen fixation (white) and mature nitrogen fixing nodules (red) were compared with roots. In addition, the proteome of a spontaneous nodule formation mutant (snf1) was determined. From nodules and roots, 780 and 790 protein spots from 2D gels were identified and approximately 45% of the corresponding unique gene accessions were common. Including a previous proteomics set from Lotus pod and seed, the common gene accessions were decreased to 7%. Interestingly, an indication of more pronounced PTMs in nodules than in roots was determined. Between the two nodule developmental stages, higher levels of pathogen-related 10 proteins, HSPs, and proteins involved in redox processes were found in white nodules, suggesting a higher stress level at this developmental stage. In contrast, protein spots corresponding to nodulins such as leghemoglobin, asparagine synthetase, sucrose synthase, and glutamine synthetase were prevalent in red nodules. The distinct biochemical state of nodules was further highlighted by the conspicuous presence of several nitrilases, ascorbate metabolic enzymes, and putative rhizobial effectors.

  19. Potentiality of Soybean Proteomics in Untying the Mechanism of Flood and Drought Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahed Hossain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissecting molecular pathways at protein level is essential for comprehensive understanding of plant stress response mechanism. Like other legume crops, soybean, the world’s most widely grown seed legume and an inexpensive source of protein and vegetable oil, is also extremely sensitive to abiotic stressors including flood and drought. Irrespective of the kind and severity of the water stress, soybean exhibits a tight control over the carbon metabolism to meet the cells required energy demand for alleviating stress effects. The present review summarizes the major proteomic findings related to changes in soybean proteomes in response to flood and drought stresses to get a clear insight into the complex mechanisms of stress tolerance. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of different protein extraction protocols and challenges and future prospects of soybean proteome study are discussed in detail to comprehend the underlying mechanism of water stress acclimation.

  20. Potentiality of Soybean Proteomics in Untying the Mechanism of Flood and Drought Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Zahed; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-03-07

    Dissecting molecular pathways at protein level is essential for comprehensive understanding of plant stress response mechanism. Like other legume crops, soybean, the world's most widely grown seed legume and an inexpensive source of protein and vegetable oil, is also extremely sensitive to abiotic stressors including flood and drought. Irrespective of the kind and severity of the water stress, soybean exhibits a tight control over the carbon metabolism to meet the cells required energy demand for alleviating stress effects. The present review summarizes the major proteomic findings related to changes in soybean proteomes in response to flood and drought stresses to get a clear insight into the complex mechanisms of stress tolerance. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of different protein extraction protocols and challenges and future prospects of soybean proteome study are discussed in detail to comprehend the underlying mechanism of water stress acclimation.

  1. Strigolactone-Regulated Proteins Revealed by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhou [ORNL; Czarnecki, Olaf [ORNL; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of plant hormones. In addition to acting as a key inhibitor of shoot branching, SLs stimulate seed germination of root parasitic plants and promote hyphal branching and root colonization of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. They also regulate many other aspects of plant growth and development. At the transcription level, SL-regulated genes have been reported. However, nothing is known about the proteome regulated by this new class of plant hormones. Here, a quantitative proteomics approach using an isobaric chemical labeling reagent, iTRAQ, to identify the proteome regulated by SLs in Arabidopsis seedlings is presented. It was found SLs regulate the expression of about three dozens of proteins that have not been previously assigned to SL pathways. These findings provide a new tool to investigate the molecular mechanism of action of SLs.

  2. Assessment of the Seedling Reactions of Some Hulless Barley Genotypes to Drechslera teres f. maculata

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlegiz, Emine Tuba; KARAKAYA, Aziz; Celik Oguz, Arzu; MERT, Zafer; Sayim, İsmail; Ergun, Namuk; Aydogan, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The seedling reactions of three barley cultivars, one hulless barley cultivar, two candidate hulless barley lines and nine hulless barley genotypes were determined under greenhouse conditions to ten isolates of Drechslera teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of net blotch. Isolates were obtained from Ankara, Çankırı, Eskişehir, Kayseri, Konya and Şanlıurfa provinces. The reactions of the cultivars and hulless cultivar ranged between suscepible-resistant. The reactions of the hulle...

  3. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol.

  4. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  5. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  6. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated barley and wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    pretreatment conditions; hot water extraction and acid- or water impregnation followed by steam explosion showed there were slight differences between the effect of pretreatment conditions in relation to the overall yield from enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest glucose concentration was found for barley straw...... subjected to acid impregnation followed by steam explosion; however when the glucose concentration was related to the glucose potential in the substrates, the highest yield was obtained with hot water extracted. Analysis of the supernatants from the pretreatments by mass spectrometry showed that the water...... feeding strategy to increase the substrate loading in the hydrolysis reaction. The substrate for the enzymatic hydrolysis was primarily steam pretreated wheat and barley straw since these substrates were the primary feedstocks for the Babilafuente Bioethanol process. The initial work showed...

  8. Effect of ozone pretreatment on hydrogen production from barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangning; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Upreti, Simant

    2013-09-01

    Application of ozone technology to lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored with a barley straw. Ozone pretreatment effectively degraded the straw lignin and increased reducing sugar yield. A simultaneous enzyme hydrolysis and dark fermentation experiment was conducted using a mixed anaerobic consortium together with saccharification enzymes. Both untreated and ozonated samples produced hydrogen. Compared to the untreated group, hydrogen produced by the groups ozonated for 15, 30, 45 and 90 min increased 99%, 133%, 166% and 94%, respectively. Some inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed with the samples ozonated for 90 min, and the inhibition was on the fermentative microorganisms, not the saccharification enzymes. These results demonstrate that production of biohydrogen from barley straw, a lignocellulosic biomass, can be significantly enhanced by ozone pretreatment.

  9. In vitro fermentation of ten cultivars of barley silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Infascelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation characteristics of whole-crop barley silages from ten different cultivars were evaluated by the in vitro gas production technique. The organic matter degradability of barley silage (62.9% in average was comparable to those reported in our previous trials for oat (59.7% and sorghum silages (65.5%; while the maximum gas production rate (5.38 ml/h in average was slightly lower respect to oat (6.71 ml/h and sorghum silage (6.74 ml/h. The mean nutritive value (4.00 MJ/kg DM calculated on the basis of both chemical composition and in vitro fermentation data was comparable to that (4.16 MJ/kg DM obtained in our previous research performed on corn silage, from crop sowed in the same area.

  10. Pollen grain of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. - pattern of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen development in barley follows the general pattern established for other species of Poaceae: 1 microspore division occurs at the vacuolate microspore stage with polarly located nucleus; 2 microspore mitosis is immediately followed by phragmoplast and cell plate formation; 3 in consequence or unequal microspore division, the generative cell, at first attached to the pollen wall, is separated from the vegetative cell by a callosic wall; 4 during the postmitotic two-cell stage of development, the vegetative nucleus migrates to the aperture pole and is followed by the generative cell that is detached and free of callose wall. In this position the generative cell divides into two sperm cells. These data do not confirm the interpretation of pollen grain development in barley given by Cass and Karas in Can. J. Bot. 53: 1051-1062, 1975.

  11. Barley grain enrichement with essential elements by agronomic biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grain is rich in mineral nutrients, but their bioavailability to humans depends on antinutrients that restrain bioavailability and promoters that promote bioavailability. The aim of this study was to examine composition of barley grain, including phytate and phenolics as antinutrients, carotenoids and glutathione as promoters and mineral elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Si, Zn and Mn influenced by various non-standard foliar fertilizers (Zircon, Chitosan, Siliplant, Propikonazole, including some hormonal growth-stimulators (Epin Extra, Benzyladenine, as potential biofortification measure. Chitosan increased glutathione concentration in grain. Unfavorable meteorological conditions were partly mitigated by application of Benzyladenine and Siliplant, reflected through increased potential bioavailability of P, Mg, Ca and Fe. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31037

  12. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight...... into these aspects four experiments were set up; (1) a mapping experiment aiming at identifying QTL’s controlling disease levels under field conditions was conducted in two winterbarley populations. (2) a toxin assay testing the parental lines used in the mapping populations for response to Rubellin D was developed....... (3) microarray analysis of transcriptional response in barley to inoculation with R. collo-cygni was carried out, and finally the (4) population genetic structure of R. collo-cygni was assessed by AFLP and gene sequencing. Based on these experiments interaction was compared to the interactions of C...

  13. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  14. Shining light on the differences in molecular structural chemical makeup and the cause of distinct degradation behavior between malting- and feed-type barley using synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Doiron, Kevin; Liu, Dasen

    2008-05-14

    The objective of this study was to use advanced synchrotron-sourced FTIR microspectroscopy (SFTIRM) as a novel approach to identify the differences in protein and carbohydrate molecular structure (chemical makeup) between these two varieties of barley and illustrate the exact causes for their significantly different degradation kinetics. Items assessed included (1) molecular structural differences in protein amide I to amide II intensities and their ratio within cellular dimensions, (2) molecular structural differences in protein secondary structure profile and their ratios, and (3) molecular structural differences in carbohydrate component peak profile. Our hypothesis was that molecular structure (chemical makeup) affects barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals. Using SFTIRM, the protein and carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup of barley was revealed and identified. The protein molecular structural chemical makeup differed significantly between the two varieties of barleys. No difference in carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup was detected. Harrington was lower than Valier in protein amide I, amide II, and protein amide I to amide II ratio, while Harrington was relatively higher in model-fitted protein alpha-helix and beta-sheet, but lower in the others (beta-turn and random coil). These results indicated that it is the molecular structure of protein (chemical makeup) that may play a major role in the different degradation kinetics between the two varieties of barleys (not the molecular structure of carbohydrate). It is believed that use of the advanced synchrotron technology will make a significant step and an important contribution to research in examining the molecular structure (chemical makeup) of plant, feed, and seeds.

  15. Shining Light on the Differences in Molecular Structural Chemical Makeup and the Cause of Distinct Degradation Behavior Between Malting- and Feed- Type Barley Using Synchrotorn FTIR Microspectroscopy: A Novel Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu,P.; Doiron, K.; Liu, D.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use advanced synchrotron-sourced FTIR microspectroscopy (SFTIRM) as a novel approach to identify the differences in protein and carbohydrate molecular structure (chemical makeup) between these two varieties of barley and illustrate the exact causes for their significantly different degradation kinetics. Items assessed included (1) molecular structural differences in protein amide I to amide II intensities and their ratio within cellular dimensions, (2) molecular structural differences in protein secondary structure profile and their ratios, and (3) molecular structural differences in carbohydrate component peak profile. Our hypothesis was that molecular structure (chemical makeup) affects barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals. Using SFTIRM, the protein and carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup of barley was revealed and identified. The protein molecular structural chemical makeup differed significantly between the two varieties of barleys. No difference in carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup was detected. Harrington was lower than Valier in protein amide I, amide II, and protein amide I to amide II ratio, while Harrington was relatively higher in model-fitted protein a-helix and {beta}-sheet, but lower in the others ({beta}-turn and random coil). These results indicated that it is the molecular structure of protein (chemical makeup) that may play a major role in the different degradation kinetics between the two varieties of barleys (not the molecular structure of carbohydrate). It is believed that use of the advanced synchrotron technology will make a significant step and an important contribution to research in examining the molecular structure (chemical makeup) of plant, feed, and seeds.

  16. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  17. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegård, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species.

  18. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation.

  19. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

  20. Cellular recycling of proteins in seed dormancy alleviation and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Oracz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Each step of the seed-to-seed cycle of plant development including seed germination is characterized by a specific set of proteins. The continual renewal and/or replacement of these biomolecules are crucial for optimal plant adaptation. As proteins are the main effectors inside the cells, their levels need to be tightly regulated. This is partially achieved by specific proteolytic pathways via multicatalytic protease complexes defined as 20S and 26S proteasomes. In plants, the 20S proteasome is responsible for degradation of carbonylated proteins, while the 26S being a part of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP is known to be involved in proteolysis of phytohormone signaling regulators. On the other hand, the role of translational control of plant development is also well documented, especially in the context of pollen tube growth and light signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in seed biology, the sequence of cellular events that determine if the seed can germinate or not are still far from complete understanding. The role and mechanisms of regulation of proteome composition during processes occurring in the plant’s photosynthetic tissues have been well characterized since many years, but in nonphotosynthetic seeds it has emerged as a tempting research task only since the last decade. This review discusses the recent discoveries providing insights into the role of protein turnover in seed dormancy alleviation, and germination, with a focus on the control of translation and proteasomal proteolysis. The presented novel data of translatome profiling in seeds highlighted that post-transcriptional regulation of germination results from a timely regulated initiation of translation. In addition, the importance of 26S proteasome in the degradation of regulatory elements of cellular signaling and that of the 20S complex in proteolysis of specific carbonylated proteins in hormonal- and light-dependent processes occurring in seeds is

  1. Effects of ethylene on root elongation in barley and rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, A.; Hall, M.A.; Crossett, R.N.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of rice and barley to growth inhibition by ethylene. The mechanism of growth inhibition was investigated at the cellular level and a detailed comparison was made between the responses of the two species. The following measurements were made on intact plants in short (up to 200 minutes), medium (up to 3 days) or long (up to 10 days) experiments: the rate of extension growth of main root axes; the final cell length and number of elongating cells produced; and the extensibility of the apical growing region. Results indicate that the effects of ethylene on the elongation of roots of rice and barley plants are different. In barley there is a rapid inhibition of root extension which persists with prolonged exposure to the gas but with little effect on the production of growing cells. However, rice roots exhibit no rapid growth inhibition response, but a reduction does occur after prolonged exposure. Low concentrations promote extension rice roots. The inhibition of root growth is reflected in a reduced extensibility of the apical growing region.

  2. Nitrate Uptake into Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Glass, Anthony D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence is presented that chlorate is an extremely good analog for nitrate during nitrate uptake by intact barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Fergus) roots. The depletion of ClO3− or NO3− from uptake media over 2 to 6 hours by seedlings was found to be dependent on combined NO3− plus ClO3− concentrations, and total anion uptake was equivalent at different NO3−/ClO3− ratios. After loading barley seedlings with 36ClO3− for 6 hours, kinetic parameters were derived from the analysis of efflux of [36Cl] chlorate into unlabeled solution. On the basis of this analysis, the half times for exchange for the cytoplasmic and vacuolar phases were 17 minutes and 20 hours, respectively. Data pooled from a number of different experiments were used to calculate kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for 36ClO3− influx into barley roots at different external ClO3−/NO3− ratios, using short (10 minutes) influx times. There appeared to be no discrimination by the root cells between ClO3− and NO3−. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the interaction between nitrate and chlorate were characteristic of competitive inhibition at low nitrate concentrations (0-0.5 mm). At higher concentrations, in the range of >1 mm, similar interactions between these ions were evident. PMID:16662478

  3. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  4. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  5. Pysicochemical properties of Tibetan hull-less barley starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Gong, Lingxiao; Zhang, Ying; Jane, Jay-lin

    2016-02-10

    Objectives of this study were to (1) determine the starch physicochemical properties of two commercial Tibetan hull-less barley varieties, Beiqing (BQ) and Kangqing (KQ); and (2) understand the relationship between unique properties of the starches, their structures, and impacts of growing conditions. The BQ barleys were grown at a location with lower temperature and less rainfall compared with the KQ barleys. The BQ starches showed significantly lower onset-gelatinization temperature (54.1-54.9 °C), larger gelatinization-temperature range (9.4-10.6 °C), and higher peak-viscosities (138.9-153.9RVU) than the KQ starches (55.1-56.1 °C, 7.4-8.8 °C, and 63.4-64.7RVU, respectively). After a treatment with 2% sodium-dodecyl-sulphate solution, the KQ starches showed substantially greater increases in peak viscosities than the BQ starches. Annealing of starch and enhanced amylose-lipid complex formation, resulting from higher growing temperature during the development of the KQ starches, likely contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties between the BQ and KQ starches.

  6. Screening of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsvali, Alireza; Farzaneh, Vahid; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Zare, Zahra; Karami, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel. S.

    2016-10-01

    An understanding of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt is necessary for the appropriate design of equipment for the handling, shipping, dehydration, grading, sorting and warehousing of this strategic crop. Malting is a complex biotechnological process that includes steeping; germination and finally, the dehydration of cereal grains under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this investigation, the biophysical properties of barley malt were predicted using two models of artificial neural networks as well as response surface methodology. Stepping time and germination time were selected as the independent variables and 1 000 kernel weight, kernel density and terminal velocity were selected as the dependent variables (responses). The obtained outcomes showed that the artificial neural network model, with a logarithmic sigmoid activation function, presents more precise results than the response surface model in the prediction of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of produced barley malt. This model presented the best result with 8 nodes in the hidden layer and significant correlation coefficient values of 0.783, 0.767 and 0.991 were obtained for responses one thousand kernel weight, kernel density, and terminal velocity, respectively. The outcomes indicated that this novel technique could be successfully applied in quantitative and qualitative monitoring within the malting process.

  7. New nutrition, proteomics, and how both can enhance studies in cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helen

    2005-11-01

    The increased application of MS technologies to nutrition and cancer prevention research has enabled unique insights into the health benefits of polyphenols. Polyphenols are phytochemicals that appear to have chemical properties that provide valuable health benefits when ingested. In particular, experiments have suggested that grape seed proanthocyanidins, oligomers of the catechin family of polyphenols, may have health benefits, possibly due to their capacity to be oxidized. Two-dimensional gel proteomics technology identified specific rat brain proteins that were differentially affected after ingestion of grape seed extract. Beneficial changes in the expression of these proteins were observed relative to changes seen in the brains of Alzheimer disease patients at autopsy and of transgenic mouse models of dementia. These findings were consistent with the hypothesis that grape seed polyphenols may have neuroprotective activity. Previous experiments showed that grape seed extract was significantly chemopreventive in a rat model of breast cancer, but this depended on the specific diet in which the grape seed was administered. Thus, phytochemicals such as polyphenols may have health benefits in mammalian tissues unrelated to classical nutritional deficiency models. This report illustrates how experimental approaches that combine proteomics technologies with a dietary intervention with specific phytochemicals in normal animals can enhance studies on cancer prevention and treatment.

  8. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural socialities)

  9. [Galactomannan breakdown in germinating carob seeds (Ceratonia siliqua L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, A

    1977-01-01

    In the first days of germination of carob seeds (Ceratonia siliqua L., Leguminosae) (until penetration of the seed coat by the radicle) oligosaccharides of the raffinose series present in the endosperm and embryo are hydrolysed. The mobilisation of the reserve galactomannan of the endosperm begins after the emergence of the radicle. Its degradation is effected by hydrolytic enzymes (α-galactosidase [EC 3.2.1.22], β-mannanase, [EC 3.2.1.25] and β-mannosidase [EC 3.2.1.25]) and the breakdown products-galactose and mannose-are continuously metabolised by the embryo. At the same time starch synthesis is observed in the embryo.In the germination of Ceratonia siliqua seeds the embryo does not have a direct effect on the mobilisation of the reserve polysaccharide as it does in the case of barley. The endosperm consists of living cells which, independently of the embryo, synthesise the enzymes used for galactomannan breakdown. A weak α-galactosidase activity is already present in the endosperm of mature dry seeds. This activity cannot be suppressed by inhibitors of transcription or translation, so that their presence does not prevent degradation of oligosaccharides of the raffinose series.A high proportion of the α-galactosidase responsible for the breakdown of the galactomannan is synthesised de novo during germination. Such synthesis could be demonstrated by the incorporation of [U-(14)C]serine and could be inhibited by actinomycin D or cycloheximide.

  10. Advances in plant proteomics-key techniques of proteome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songlin RUAN; Huasheng MA; Shiheng WANG; Ya XIN; Lihua QIAN; Jianxing TONG; Jie WANG

    2008-01-01

    Following the completion of genome sequen-cing of model plants,such as rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Arabidopsis thaliana,the era of functional plant genomics has arrived which provides a solid basis for the develop-ment of plant proteomics.We review the background and concepts of proteomics,as well as the key techniques which include:(1) separation techniques such as 2-DE (two-dimensional electrophoresis),RP-HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography) and SELDI (surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization) protein chip; (2) mass spectrometry such as MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight- mass spectrometry) and ESI-MS/MS (elec-trospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectro-metry); (3) Peptide sequence tags; (4) databases related to proteomics; (5) quantitative proteome; (6) TAP (tandem affinity purification) and (7) yeast two-hybrid system.In addition,the challenges and prospects of pro-teomics are also discussed.

  11. Iron-biofortification in rice by the introduction of three barley genes participated in mugineic acid biosynthesis with soybean ferritin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eMasuda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is a serious problem around the world, especially in developing countries. The production of iron-biofortified rice will help ameliorate this problem. Previously, expression of the iron storage protein, ferritin, in rice using an endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a two-fold increase in iron concentration in the resultant transgenic seeds. However, further overexpression of ferritin did not produce an additional increase in the seed iron concentration, and symptoms of iron deficiency were noted in the leaves of the transgenic plants. In the present study, we aimed to further increase the iron concentration in rice seeds without increasing the sensitivity to iron deficiency by enhancing the uptake and transport of iron via a ferric iron chelator, mugineic acid. To this end, we introduced the soybean ferritin gene (SoyferH2 driven by two endosperm-specific promoters, along with the barley nicotianamine synthase gene (HvNAS1, two nicotianamine aminotransferase genes (HvNAAT-A and -B, and a mugineic acid synthase gene (IDS3 to enhance mugineic acid production in rice plants. A marker-free vector was utilized as a means of increasing public acceptance. Representative lines were selected from 102 transformants based on the iron concentration in polished seeds and ferritin accumulation in the seeds. These lines were grown in both commercially supplied soil (iron-sufficient conditions and calcareous soil (iron-deficient conditions. Lines expressing both ferritin and mugineic acid biosynthetic genes showed signs of iron-deficiency tolerance in calcareous soil. The iron concentration in polished T3 seeds was increased by 4 and 2.5 times, as compared to that in non-transgenic lines grown in normal and calcareous soil, respectively. These results indicate that the concomitant introduction of the ferritin gene and mugineic acid biosynthetic genes effectively increased the seed iron level without causing iron sensitivity under iron

  12. Proteomics and Metabolomics: two emerging areas for legume improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The crop legumes such as chickpea, common bean, cowpea, peanut, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. are important source of nutrition and contribute to a significant amount of biological nitrogen fixation (>20 million tons of fixed nitrogen in agriculture. However, the production of legumes is constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant response to different stresses and identify key candidate genes regulating tolerance which can be deployed in breeding programs. The information obtained from transcriptomics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes for the given trait of interest and utilizing them in crop breeding programs to improve stress tolerance. However, the mechanisms of stress tolerance are complex due to the influence of multi-genes and post-transcriptional regulations. Furthermore, stress conditions greatly affect gene expression which in turn causes modifications in the composition of plant proteomes and metabolomes. Therefore, functional genomics involving various proteomics and metabolomics approaches have been obligatory for understanding plant stress tolerance. These approaches have also been found useful to unravel different pathways related to plant and seed development as well as symbiosis. Proteome and metabolome profiling using high-throughput based systems have been extensively applied in the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, as well as in the model crop legume, soybean, to examine stress signalling pathways, cellular and developmental processes and nodule symbiosis. Moreover, the availability of protein reference maps as well as proteomics and metabolomics databases greatly support research and understanding of various biological processes in legumes. Protein-protein interaction techniques, particularly the yeast two-hybrid system have been advantageous for studying symbiosis and stress signalling in legumes. In

  13. Seed Development and Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  14. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by

  15. Barley Brassinosteroid Mutants Provide an Insight into Phytohormonal Homeostasis in Plant Reaction to Drought Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszka, Damian; Janeczko, Anna; Dziurka, Michal; Pociecha, Ewa; Oklestkova, Jana; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroid phytohormones, which regulate various processes of morphogenesis and physiology—from seed development to regulation of flowering and senescence. An accumulating body of evidence indicates that BRs take part in regulation of physiological reactions to various stress conditions, including drought. Many of the physiological functions of BRs are regulated by a complicated, and not fully elucidated network of interactions with metabolic pathways of other phytohormones. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize phytohormonal homeostasis in barley (Hordeum vulgare) in reaction to drought and validate role of BRs in regulation of this process. Material of this study included the barley cultivar “Bowman” and five Near-Isogenic Lines (NILs) representing characterized semi-dwarf mutants of several genes encoding enzymes participating in BR biosynthesis and signaling. Analysis of endogenous BRs concentrations in these NILs confirmed that their phenotypes result from abnormalities in BR metabolism. In general, concentrations of 18 compounds, representing various classes of phytohormones, including brassinosteroids, auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid were analyzed under control and drought conditions in the “Bowman” cultivar and the BR-deficient NILs. Drought induced a significant increase in accumulation of the biologically active form of BRs—castasterone in all analyzed genotypes. Another biologically active form of BRs—24-epi-brassinolide—was identified in one, BR-insensitive NIL under normal condition, but its accumulation was drought-induced in all analyzed genotypes. Analysis of concentration profiles of several compounds representing gibberellins allowed an insight into the BR-dependent regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis. The concentration of the gibberellic acid GA7 was significantly lower in all NILs when compared with the “Bowman” cultivar

  16. Influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of normal and waxy barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Avi; Annor, George; Vamadevan, Varatharajan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, molecular composition, crystallinity, and gelatinization properties of normal barley starch (NBS) and waxy barley starch (WBS) granules from plants cultivated in a greenhouse under normal diurnal (16h light...... that normal barley starch is less influenced by the diurnal photosynthetic lighting regime than amylose-free barley starch suggesting a role of amylose to prevent structural disorder and increase starch granule robustness against environmental cues....

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama;

    2012-01-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimens......To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis...

  18. Proteomics Study of Cotton Fiber Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the mechanism of fiber cell development in cotton.Initially,an efficient protein preparation method was established for proteomic analysis of developing cotton fibers by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and a microwave enhanced ink staining technique also was created for fast and sensitive protein quantification in proteomic studies.

  19. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  20. The proteome browser web portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Robert J A; Yu, Simon; Kannan, Anitha; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Beitz, Anthony; Hancock, William S; Nice, Edouard; Smith, A Ian

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Human Proteome Organization launched the Human Proteome Project (HPP), aimed at identifying and characterizing the proteome of the human body. To support complete coverage, one arm of the project will take a gene- or chromosomal-centric strategy (C-HPP) aimed at identifying at least one protein product from each protein-coding gene. Despite multiple large international biological databases housing genomic and protein data, there is currently no single system that integrates updated pertinent information from each of these data repositories and assembles the information into a searchable format suitable for the type of global proteomics effort proposed by the C-HPP. We have undertaken the goal of producing a data integration and analysis software system and browser for the C-HPP effort and of making data collections from this resource discoverable through metadata repositories, such as Australian National Data Service's Research Data Australia. Here we present our vision and progress toward the goal of developing a comprehensive data integration and analysis software tool that provides a snapshot of currently available proteomic related knowledge around each gene product, which will ultimately assist in analyzing biological function and the study of human physiology in health and disease.

  1. Proteomic approaches to bacterial differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Elias, Dwayne A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-12-01

    While genomic approaches have been applied for the detection and identification of individual bacteria within microbial communities, analogous proteomics approaches have been effectively precluded due to their inherent complexity. An in silico assessment of peptides that could potentially be present in the proteomes of artificial simple and complex communities was performed to evaluate the effect of proteome complexity on species detection. A mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was employed to experimentally detect and validate the predicted tryptic peptides initially identified as distinctive within the simple community. An assessment of peptide distinctiveness and the potential for mapping to a particular bacterium within a community was made throughout each step of the study. A second in silico assessment of peptide distinctiveness for a complex community of 25 microorganisms was conducted to investigate the levels of instrumental performance that would be required to experimentally detect these peptides, as well as how performance varied with complexity (e.g., the number of different microorganisms). The experimental data for a simple community showed that it is feasible to predict, observe, and to quantify distinctive peptides from one organism in the presence of at least a 100-fold greater abundance of another, thus yielding putative markers for identifying a bacterium of interest. This work represents a first step towards quantitative proteomic characterization of complex microbial communities and the possible development of community wide markers of perturbations to such communities.

  2. Structural Proteomics of Herpesviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Leroy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are highly prevalent viruses associated with numerous pathologies both in animal and human populations. Until now, most of the strategies used to prevent or to cure these infections have been unsuccessful because these viruses have developed numerous immune evasion mechanisms. Therefore, a better understanding of their complex lifecycle is needed. In particular, while the genome of numerous herpesviruses has been sequenced, the exact composition of virions remains unknown for most of them. Mass spectrometry has recently emerged as a central method and has permitted fundamental discoveries in virology. Here, we review mass spectrometry-based approaches that have recently allowed a better understanding of the composition of the herpesvirus virion. In particular, we describe strategies commonly used for proper sample preparation and fractionation to allow protein localization inside the particle but also to avoid contamination by nonstructural proteins. A collection of other important data regarding post-translational modifications or the relative abundance of structural proteins is also described. This review also discusses the poorly studied importance of host proteins in herpesvirus structural proteins and the necessity to develop a quantitative workflow to better understand the dynamics of the structural proteome. In the future, we hope that this collaborative effort will assist in the development of new strategies to fight these infections.

  3. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is needed on the effects of management practices on dryland malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) yields and quality. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland malt barley and pea yields, grain characterist...

  4. Malt barley yield and quality affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the comparison of management practices on malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and quality in irrigated and non-irrigated cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on malt barley yield and quality in a sandy loam s...

  5. Influence of alkali catalyst on product yield and properties via hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Z.; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Barley straw was successfully converted to bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction at temperature of 280 e400 C using an alkali catalyst (K2CO3) in our previous work, and the maximum bio-crude yield was obtained at 300 C. This paper extends previous work on studying liquefaction behavior of barley...

  6. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B;

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  7. Integration of weed management and tillage practices in spring barley production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring barley can be used to diversify and intensify winter wheat-based production systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, but the response of barley to conservation tillage systems, which are needed to reduce the risk of soil erosion, is not well documented. The objective of this study was to descri...

  8. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  9. Transformation of Barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) by Agrobacterium tumefasciens Infection of In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of in vitro cultured barley ovules is an attractive alternative to well-established barley transformation methods of immature embryos. The ovule culture system can be used for transformation with and without selection and has successfully been used to transform...

  10. Compositional equivalence of barleys differing only in low and normal phytate levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent breeding advances have led to the development of several barley lines with reduced levels of phytate. One of them was further developed and released as a hulless low phytate cultivar (Clearwater). Because barley oil contains high levels of tocotrienols and other functional lipids, we conduc...

  11. Localization to Chromosomes of Structural Genes for the Major Protease Inhibitors of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Bjørn, S.E.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Wheat-barley chromosome addition lines were compared by isoelectric focusing of protein extracts to identify chromosomes carrying loci for the major immunochemically distinct protease inhibitors of barley grains. Structural genes for the following inhibitors were localized: an inhibitor of both...

  12. Determinants of barley grain yield in a wide range of Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Li Destri Nicosia, O.; Akar, T.; Grando, S.; Al-Yassin, A.; Benkelkacim, A.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pechionni, N.

    2011-01-01

    Barley grain yield in rainfed Mediterranean regions can be largely influenced by terminal drought events. In this study the ecophysiological performance of the ‘Nure’ (winter) × ‘Tremois’ (spring) barley mapping population (118 Doubled Haploids, DHs) was evaluated in a multi-environment trial of eig

  13. Dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production using Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the fermentability test to investigate the feasibility of applying various dilute acids in the pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production. At a fixed acid loading of 1% (w/w dry matter) 28-32% of barley straw was converted to soluble m

  14. A comparison of energy use and productivity of wheat and barley (case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Ziaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of energy productivity of different crops can be used as an effective tool to prioritize crops planting in each area. This study was conducted in order to compare wheat and barley farms of Sistan and Baluchestan province in Iran in relation to various aspects of energy consumption at 2009. 100 wheat and 100 barley fields were selected randomly from main 11 cities in the studied region. Input data and yield of wheat and barley fields were collected in the form of questionnaires in a face-to-face interview. Results showed that total energy inputs of wheat and barley fields were 32492.97 and 25655.81 MJ ha−1, respectively. Total energy outputs for wheat and barley fields were 48517.24 and 49800.87 MJ ha−1, respectively. Based on these results the amount of energy use efficiency for wheat and barley fields were 1.49 and 1.94, respectively, and the amount of energy productivity for mentioned fields were 0.056 and 0.066. The share of renewable energy as one of the sustainability indexes of agricultural systems was 19.60 for wheat and 14.60 for barley fields. Therefore, it seems that barley production is more efficient from various aspects of energy consumption rather than wheat in the studied region.

  15. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  16. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...

  17. A promising low beta-glucan barley mutation of m351 for better bioethanol production use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol is an important liquid fuel complement. Barley is an alternative raw material for ethanol production and its byproduct is a nutritious feed. The barley m351mutant line, which has a mutation for low beta-glucan content, was tested for its ethanol production efficiency and feed fraction qua...

  18. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.

    1986-01-01

    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...

  19. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  20. Immunomodulatory properties of oat and barley β-glucan populations on bone marrow derived dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosch, Christiane; Meijerink, Marjolein; Delahaije, Roy J.B.M.; Taverne, Nico; Gruppen, Harry; Wells, Jerry M.; Schols, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Specific structures of oat and barley β(1,3)(1,4)-glucans induced different in vitro immunomodulatory effects in bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from TLR2/4 knock out mice. All barley β-glucan fractions induced larger amounts of cytokines in BMDCs than their oat equivalents. The particula