WorldWideScience

Sample records for barley mlo protein

  1. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...

  2. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  3. Spectrum of Resistance Conferred by ml-o Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1977-01-01

    Ten barley mutants and five Ethiopian barley lines representing 11 independently arisen powdery mildew resistance genes in the ml-o locus were tested at the seedling stage to cultures of the powdery mildew fungus from Europe, Israel, USA. Canada, and Japan. They were resistant with infection type 0...

  4. Comparative analysis of genome-wide Mlo gene family in Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Reena; Singh, V K; Singh, B D

    2016-04-01

    The Mlo gene was discovered in barley because the mutant 'mlo' allele conferred broad-spectrum, non-race-specific resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. The Mlo genes also play important roles in growth and development of plants, and in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The Mlo gene family has been characterized in several crop species, but only a single legume species, soybean (Glycine max L.), has been investigated so far. The present report describes in silico identification of 18 CcMlo and 20 PvMlo genes in the important legume crops Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. and Phaseolus vulgaris L., respectively. In silico analysis of gene organization, protein properties and conserved domains revealed that the C. cajan and P. vulgaris Mlo gene paralogs are more divergent from each other than from their orthologous pairs. The comparative phylogenetic analysis classified CcMlo and PvMlo genes into three major clades. A comparative analysis of CcMlo and PvMlo proteins with the G. max Mlo proteins indicated close association of one CcMlo, one PvMlo with two GmMlo genes, indicating that there was no further expansion of the Mlo gene family after the separation of these species. Thus, most of the diploid species of eudicots might be expected to contain 15-20 Mlo genes. The genes CcMlo12 and 14, and PvMlo11 and 12 are predicted to participate in powdery mildew resistance. If this prediction were verified, these genes could be targeted by TILLING or CRISPR to isolate powdery mildew resistant mutants. PMID:26961357

  5. Regulation of basal resistance by a powdery mildew-induced cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayapuram, Channabasavangowda; Jensen, Michael Krogh; Maiser, Fabian;

    2012-01-01

    The receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) constitute a large and diverse group of proteins controlling numerous plant physiological processes, including development, hormone perception and stress responses. The cysteine-rich RLKs (CRKs) represent a prominent subfamily of transmembrane-anchored RLKs...... affect R-gene-mediated resistance. Silencing of HvCRK1 phenocopied the effective penetration resistance found in mlo-resistant barley plants, and the possible link between HvCRK1 and MLO was substantiated by the fact that HvCRK1 induction on Bgh inoculation was dependent on Mlo. Finally, using both...

  6. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis Sheds Light on the Diversity and Origin of the MLO Family of Integral Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Stefan; Pesch, Lina; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Mildew resistanceLocusO(MLO) proteins are polytopic integral membrane proteins that have long been considered as plant-specific and being primarily involved in plant-powdery mildew interactions. However, research in the past decade has revealed that MLO proteins diverged into a family with several clades whose members are associated with different physiological processes. We provide a largely increased dataset of MLO amino acid sequences, comprising nearly all major land plant lineages. Based on this comprehensive dataset, we defined seven phylogenetic clades and reconstructed the likely evolution of the MLO family in embryophytes. We further identified several MLO peptide motifs that are either conserved in all MLO proteins or confined to one or several clades, supporting the notion that clade-specific diversification of MLO functions is associated with particular sequence motifs. In baker's yeast, some of these motifs are functionally linked to transmembrane (TM) transport of organic molecules and ions. In addition, we attempted to define the evolutionary origin of the MLO family and found that MLO-like proteins with highly diverse membrane topologies are present in green algae, but also in the distinctly related red algae (Rhodophyta), Amoebozoa, and Chromalveolata. Finally, we discovered several instances of putative fusion events between MLO proteins and different kinds of proteins. Such Rosetta stone-type hybrid proteins might be instructive for future analysis of potential MLO functions. Our findings suggest that MLO is an ancient protein that possibly evolved in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes, and consolidated in land plants with a conserved topology, comprising seven TM domains and an intrinsically unstructured C-terminus. PMID:26893454

  7. Naturally occurring broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in a Central American tomato accession is caused by loss of mlo function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuling; Pavan, Stefano; Zheng, Zheng; Zappel, Nana F; Reinstädler, Anja; Lotti, Concetta; De Giovanni, Claudio; Ricciardi, Luigi; Lindhout, Pim; Visser, Richard; Theres, Klaus; Panstruga, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    The resistant cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) line LC-95, derived from an accession collected in Ecuador, harbors a natural allele (ol-2) that confers broad-spectrum and recessively inherited resistance to powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici). As both the genetic and phytopathological characteristics of ol-2-mediated resistance are reminiscent of powdery mildew immunity conferred by loss-of-function mlo alleles in barley and Arabidopsis, we initiated a candidate-gene approach to clone Ol-2. A tomato Mlo gene (SlMlo1) with high sequence-relatedness to barley Mlo and Arabidopsis AtMLO2 mapped to the chromosomal region harboring the Ol-2 locus. Complementation experiments using transgenic tomato lines as well as virus-induced gene silencing assays suggested that loss of SlMlo1 function is responsible for powdery mildew resistance conferred by ol-2. In progeny of a cross between a resistant line bearing ol-2 and the susceptible tomato cultivar Moneymaker, a 19-bp deletion disrupting the SlMlo1 coding region cosegregated with resistance. This polymorphism results in a frameshift and, thus, a truncated nonfunctional SlMlo1 protein. Our findings reveal the second example of a natural mlo mutant that possibly arose post-domestication, suggesting that natural mlo alleles might be evolutionarily short-lived due to fitness costs related to loss of mlo function. PMID:18052880

  8. Cloning, Physical Mapping and Expression Analysis of a Wheat Mlo-like Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling YU; Ji-Shan NIU; Pei-Du CHEN; Zheng-Qiang MA; Da-Jun LIU

    2005-01-01

    Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to isolate a cDNA clone using specific primers designed based on the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Mlo gene cDNA sequence.A full-length cDNA encoding an Mlo-like protein was isolated and characterized in a Triticum aestivum L.-Haynaldia villosa L. 6VS/6AL translocation line. The putative protein consists of 534 amino acid residues,which contain a nuclear localization motif (NLS), nine casein kinase Ⅱ motifs (S/T-X-X-D/E) and seven protein kinase C motifs (S/T-X-R/K). It is highly homologous to other plant Mlo proteins. Thus, this clone was designated as Ta-Mlo (GenBank accession No. AF384144). Northern blotting analysis showed that the transcription of Ta-Mlo was enhanced slightly by Blumeria graminis (DC) EO Speer f. sp. tritici. Western blotting analysis showed that the protein expression product of the Ta-Mlo gene in wheat seedling leaves is a membrane-bound protein. The protein could be induced by B. graminis. Southern blotting analysis indicated that there is one copy of the Ta-Mlo gene in each wheat genome. Ta-Mlo was localized on specific chromosomal regions of 2AL, 2BL, and 2DL in wheat.

  9. Lipid transfer proteins of barley

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žídková, Jitka; Matejková, M.; Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Žídek, L.; Sikorová, K.; Nálezková, M.; Chmelík, Josef; Sklenář, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 51. ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics /6./. 29.03.2007-31.03.2007, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : protein separation * barley * MALDI-TOF/TOF MS-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  10. The barley protein project at Svaloev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important findings of the barley protein improvement project at Svaloev are reported. Linkage analyses have shown that in Hiproly the lysine factor is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. The results, so far, indicate that during favourable conditions the best high lysine barleys yield 95-100% of the standard variety Mona. However, when the growing conditions are unfavourable, high lysine barleys suffer more. Encouraging results were obtained from feeding experiments on pigs and it is anticipated that using available high-lysine barley, the protein supplementation can be reduced by 35%. (author)

  11. Radiostimulation of protein synthesis in barley seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds were irradiated with 10 gy of gamma-radiation and protein synthesis was measured in terms of incorporation of (3H) leucine at varying periods after the onset of germination. It is found that the process of translation of long-life mRNA is accentuated by about 20 percent in the irradiated barley seeds during the first hour of germination as compared to the corresponding appropriate control. (author)

  12. Studies on recombination between allele in the ml-o locus of barley and on pleiotropic effects of the alleles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five independently arisen genes, which are functionally allelic in the m1-o locus and conditioning resistance to the powdery mildew fungus, were tested for structural allelism by recombination. Two heteroallelic crosses produced susceptible recombinants in F2 with a frequency of 8.6 and 2.0 x 10-4, respectively, showing that m1-o 1 is structurally non-allelic to m1-o 5 and to m1-o 9. Homozygous resistant populations derived from crossing different m1-o resistant barleys with susceptible varieties were exposed to two successive cycles of selection against necrotic leaf spotting. Field experiments with selected F5 lines and their parents showed that the m1-o resistant parents differed in severity of spotting, and that the spotting can be reduced or eliminated by crossing and subsequent selection. It appears that a reduction in the necrotic leaf spotting is accopanied by an increase in grain yield. Two new experiments designed to further elucidate the interallelic recombination in m1-o and the pleiotropic effects are briefly described. (author)

  13. Inhibition of ABCA1 Protein Expression and Cholesterol Efflux by TNF α in MLO-Y4 Osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeier, Kent R; Kurban, William; Chandrasekharan, Chandrikha; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D; Haas, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Hip fracture and myocardial infarction cause significant morbidity and mortality. In vivo studies raising serum cholesterol levels as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF α manifest bone loss and atherosclerotic vascular disease, suggesting that abnormalities of cholesterol transport may contribute to osteoporosis. We used the mouse osteocyte cell line (MLO-Y4) to investigate the effects of TNF α on the expression of cholesterol acceptor proteins such as apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and apolipoprotein E (apo E), as well as on the cholesterol transporters ATP-binding cassette-1 (ABCA1), scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1), and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). MLO-Y4 cells do not express apo A-I or apo E; however, they do express all three cholesterol transporters (ABCA1, SRB1, and CD36). Treatment of MLO-Y4 cells with TNF α had no effect on SRB1, CD36, and osteocalcin levels; however, TNF α reduced ABCA1 protein levels in a dose-dependent manner and cholesterol efflux to apo A-I. Interestingly, TNF α treatment increased ABCA1 promoter activity and ABCA1 mRNA levels, and increased liver X receptor α protein expression, but had no effect on retinoid X receptor α and retinoic acid receptor α levels. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, but not c-jun-N-terminal kinase 1 or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK), restored ABCA1 protein levels in TNF α-treated cells. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines regulate cholesterol metabolism in osteocytes in part by suppressing ABCA1 levels post-translationally in a p38 MAP kinase-dependent manner. PMID:26759003

  14. Composition and nutritional quality of barley protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lysine concentration in barley seed protein is known to depend on both genetical and environmental factors. We investigated whether the differences in lysine concentration as well as the differences in nutritional quality between various barley cultivars could be accounted for by the protein composition of the hordein fraction. Hordein, the low lysine storage protein in barley seed, is classified in A, B and C hordeins with decreasing lysine content. The Riso high lysine mutants are characterized by decreased amounts of at least one of the three fractions. With increasing N-fertilization the content of the C hordeins in particular is elevated disproportionally more than the total N-content, resulting in overall decreasing lysine concentrations. Rat-feeding experiments did not displace any significant difference between the protein digestibility in the mutants and in the parent varieties. The biological value (BV) averaged 77 for field-grown normal-lysine barley against 90 for the high lysine mutant 1508. A marked negative correlation between BV and percentage N in the seed was found for both Bomi and mutant 1508. A marked negative correlation between BV and percentage N in the seed was found for both Bomi and mutant 1508. In Bomi this could be explained by the variation in lysine concentration whereas the sulphur-containing amino acids probably are limiting in mutant 1508. Provided that lysine is the first limiting amino acid, the nutritional quality of barley seed protein is closely related to the content of B- and C-hordeins. When this is not the case, as in mutant 1508, other unidentified proteins or groups of proteins become of importance. (author)

  15. Barley mutant line with high protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding was initiated in 1969 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, aiming at developing high yielding barley lines having also high protein or lysine content. The final results were reported at the FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting at Nicosia in 1980. At that time some lines were superior to their mother line in grain yield, protein content or protein yield. However, high yield is essential for feed-barley as there is no premium price for protein content or quality. In the experiments reported earlier, the mean grain yield of mutant M-Att-73-337-1 was 3202 kg/ha, 9.9% higher than the mother variety 'Attiki'. The Kjeldahl protein content was 12.7% for the mutant line and 13.4% for the mother variety. The mutant line was further evaluated in field trials (11 m2 plots and 6 replications) during 1983-88, along with other promising material from the breeding programme. The mutant line outyielded its mother variety by 9.7% in grain yield and 16% in straw yield. These increases are apparently the result of increased 1000-grain weight and a higher number of culms per m2. Protein content of the mutant line was slightly lower, but its protein yield was 5.5% higher. The yield of the mutant line over 16 trials during 1983-88 was also 4% higher than the yield of the main commercially grown variety Athenais

  16. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones

  17. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  18. Modification of ¤mlo5¤ resistance to ¤Blumeria graminis¤ attack in barley as a consequence of induced accessibility and inaccessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Carver, T.L.W.

    1999-01-01

    adjacent cells, showed almost complete induced inaccessibility. Induced inaccessibility, therefore, was more effective in preventing penetration than inherent resistance due to mlo. Papillae formed in inaccessible cells were larger than in controls, which might be related to their efficient penetration...... formed haustoria within epidermal cells. When either isolate was inoculated onto the same leaves as challenger 48 h later, attacks on cells containing an inducer haustorium were almost invariably successful. Thus, cells containing an inducer haustorium showed almost complete induced accessibility to...... challenge attacks, even by the avirulent isolate. Accessibility was also induced to someextent in adjacent cells, but the effect was localized. By contrast, where inducer attacks failed, and a papilla was formed in the attacked cell, later challenge attacks on the same cells always failed. These, and...

  19. Regulation of gene expression and subcellular protein distribution in MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells by lysophosphatidic acid: Relevance to dendrite outgrowth

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Katrina M.; Jon M Jacobs; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Karin, Norman J.

    2011-01-01

    Osteoblastic and osteocytic cells are highly responsive to the lipid growth factor lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) but the mechanisms by which LPA alters bone cell functions are largely unknown. A major effect of LPA on osteocytic cells is the stimulation of dendrite membrane outgrowth, a process that we predicted to require changes in gene expression and protein distribution. We employed DNA microarrays for global transcriptional profiling of MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells grown for 6 and 24 hours in t...

  20. Protein quality of induced high lysine mutants in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum, B O

    1978-01-01

    Evidence of high-lysine gene sources in barley derived from spontaneous and induced mutations has been presented. In addition barley sources considered to be "normal" also differ in lysine content. Changes in lysine concentrations invariable results in changes in other amino acids in barley protein. Protein fractions are altered in several mutant barleys and differ also in so called "normal barleys". The fractions in the normal barleys are probably more dependent upon environmental conditions than in mutant barleys. It is clearly demonstrated with chemical analyses and biological experiments with rats, poultry and pigs that high-lysine cultivars are superior in nutritive quality than their low-lysine isotypes. However, it appears that most of the lysine genotypes possess reduced grain weight and lower grain yield. This is of course unfortunate as an adequate supply of food appears to be the number one nutritional priority in the world today. This does not mean, however, that protein improvement would be of no practical value under conditions of marginal energy deprivation. The literature reviewed suggests that protein improvement would likely be of value under these conditions. PMID:727018

  1. Regulation of gene expression and subcellular protein distribution in MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells by lysophosphatidic acid: Relevance to dendrite outgrowth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, Katrina M.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Karin, Norman J.

    2011-02-26

    Osteoblastic and osteocytic cells are highly responsive to the lipid growth factor lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) but the mechanisms by which LPA alters bone cell functions are largely unknown. A major effect of LPA on osteocytic cells is the stimulation of dendrite membrane outgrowth, a process that we predicted to require changes in gene expression and protein distribution. We employed DNA microarrays for global transcriptional profiling of MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells grown for 6 and 24h in the presence or absence of LPA. We identified 932 transcripts that displayed statistically significant changes in abundance of at least 1.25-fold in response to LPA treatment. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the regulated gene products were linked to diverse cellular processes, including DNA repair, response to unfolded protein, ossification, protein-RNA complex assembly, and amine biosynthesis. Gene products associated with the regulation of actin microfilament dynamics displayed the most robust expression changes, and LPA-induced dendritogenesis in vitro was blocked by the stress fiber inhibitor cytochalasin D. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of MLO-Y4 cells revealed significant LPA-induced changes in the abundance of 284 proteins at 6h and 844 proteins at 24h. GO analysis of the proteomic data linked the effects of LPA to cell processes that control of protein distribution and membrane outgrowth, including protein localization, protein complex assembly, Golgi vesicle transport, cytoskeleton-dependent transport, and membrane invagination/endocytosis. Dendrites were isolated from LPA-treated MLO-Y4 cells and subjected to proteomic analysis to quantitatively assess the subcellular distribution of proteins. Sets of 129 and 36 proteins were enriched in the dendrite fraction as compared to whole cells after 6h and 24h of LPA exposure, respectively. Protein markers indicated that membranous organelles were largely excluded from the dendrites. Highly represented among

  2. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by...... solubilization of the lamellae in phenol/acetic acid/8 M urea. Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein....

  3. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly...

  4. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  5. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by......, the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in...

  6. Protein composition of malting barley varieties required in brewing industry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Bobálová, Janette

    Berlin : Freie Universität Berlin, 2011. s. 354. [Proteomic Forum 2011. 03.04.2011-07.04.2011, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley * varieties * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  7. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by...

  8. Breeding of value added barley by mutation and protein engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has been bred for food, feed and beverages over the past 5000 years by selecting for spontaneous mutations and random hybrids. Crosses with defined parents (since the turn of the century) and induced mutations (since 1927) have provided variability in selecting for novel varieties. Genetic transformation of barley has been a routine procedure since 1994 and permits the introduction of tailored genes for adding quality values to the grain. It complements, but does not replace, existing efficient breeding methods. Radiation and chemically induced mutations, as well as genes introduced by transformation, have to be fitted into the genome, which may take 50 years of breeding effort and testing for agronomic and industrial performance. The mutation breeding strategy for proanthocyanidin free malt barley, which has led to the commercial varieties Caminant and NFC 8808, is presented. As an example of the breeding strategy to improve barley endosperm cell wall degradation, a description is given of the protein engineering of a (1-3, 1-4)-β-glucanase towards heat stability and the insertion of the gene encoding this enzyme by genetic transformation. It is expected that such barley varieties will extend the use of the grain for beverage and feed uses as well as for the production of renewable raw materials by malting and mashing processes. (author). 34 refs, 1 tab

  9. THE VALUE OF PROTEIN IN FEED BARLEY FOR BEEF, DAIRY, AND SWINE FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    LaFrance, Jeffrey T.; Watts, Myles J.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of the protein content of feed barley on the costs of feeding beef, dairy cattle, and swine in Montana is evaluated. A model of least-cost feed rations is constructed to analyze the marginal value of additional protein content in feed barley. The results indicate that increasing the protein content of feed barley above 12% will not substantially increase the value of barley to feeders. This implies that the establishment and maintenance of a protein premium in the feed barley marke...

  10. Semidwarf, high yielding and high protein mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An induced mutations programme was undertaken in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with the primary objective of developing some semidwarf, short duration, high yielding types as most of the local cultivars grown in Meerut are tall statured with maturity period of 130-140 days. In recent years, the barley crop in this region, particularly at flowering/grain filling stages during February/March, has often been affected by unexpected rains accompanied by gusty winds, resulting in severe lodging of the crop and thereby reduction in crop yields. To combat this problem it is necessary to develop short statured types of barley, which can withstand lodging. If such types are associated with early maturity, that will be of greater help. Dry seeds of three local cultivars of barley 'K-169', 'K-272' and 'DL-281' were irradiated with gamma rays at 100; 200; 300 and 400 Gy. A number of morphological mutants for different plant characters like plant height (dwarfs and semidwarfs), maturity period (early and late maturing), spike density and size (lax panicled and erectoides), high tillering and chlorophyll deficiency (virescent) types were isolated from M2 mutated populations of the three varieties. Among these mutants, one semidwarf mutant (No. 3-20-5) of parent cultivar K-169 is of particular interest because of increased yield and significantly high protein content, besides the short stature

  11. Genetic variation for seed protein in barley germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley accessions collected from three regions of Pakistan were evaluated for seed protein (%) for two seasons. A wide range of variation (9 to 21%) was found in the germplasm studied during both seasons. Maximum accessions exhibited protein 12.1 - 16.0% protein whereas few accessions produced more than 18.0% protein. Correlation between two seasons' data was highly significant indicating the influence of genetic component. Germplasm were classified on the basis of regions. Accessions from Northern areas possessed average higher protein percentage followed by NWFP, Baluchistan and check varieties. Classification on the basis of altitude showed that the accessions collected from 200-800 masl had low protein while those collected from 2601-3000 masl had high protein. This study provides information on important protein sources of germplasm. (author)

  12. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS-p...

  13. Loss of function in Mlo orthologs reduces susceptibility of pepper and tomato to powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zheng

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica is a serious fungal threat to greenhouse tomato and pepper production. In contrast to most powdery mildew species which are epiphytic, L. taurica is an endophytic fungus colonizing the mesophyll tissues of the leaf. In barley, Arabidopsis, tomato and pea, the correct functioning of specific homologues of the plant Mlo gene family has been found to be required for pathogenesis of epiphytic powdery mildew fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the Mlo genes in susceptibility to the endophytic fungus L. taurica. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, a loss-of-function mutation in the SlMlo1 gene results in resistance to powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium neolycopersici. When the tomato Slmlo1 mutant was inoculated with L. taurica in this study, it proved to be less susceptible compared to the control, S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. Further, overexpression of SlMlo1 in the tomato Slmlo1 mutant enhanced susceptibility to L. taurica. In pepper, the CaMlo2 gene was isolated by applying a homology-based cloning approach. Compared to the previously identified CaMlo1 gene, the CaMlo2 gene is more similar to SlMlo1 as shown by phylogenetic analysis, and the expression of CaMlo2 is up-regulated at an earlier time point upon L. taurica infection. However, results of virus-induced gene silencing suggest that both CaMlo1 and CaMlo2 may be involved in the susceptibility of pepper to L. taurica. The fact that overexpression of CaMlo2 restored the susceptibility of the tomato Slmlo1 mutant to O. neolycopersici and increased its susceptibility to L. taurica confirmed the role of CaMlo2 acting as a susceptibility factor to different powdery mildews, though the role of CaMlo1 as a co-factor for susceptibility cannot be excluded.

  14. Approaches to improving the nutritional quality of barley seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The poor nutritional quality of barley grain is determined by the low level of lysine in the prolamin storage proteins (hordein). These account for between 35 to 50% of the total grain nitrogen, depending on the nutritional status of the plant. There is a reduced proportion of hordein in mutant high lysine lines but these also have reduced synthesis of storage carbohydrates and hence low yields. Three strategies for improvement are discussed. Increases in the lysine content of hordein may be difficult to achieve because of the presence of complex families of structural genes. It would also be necessary to insert a large number of additional lysine residues. Two more promising approaches are to increase the level of expression of genes coding for lysine-rich globulin storage proteins and to increase the pool of free lysine by selecting mutant lines with relaxed feedback regulation of lysine synthesis. (author)

  15. Fractionation of barley into value-added ingredients enriched with protein, beta-glucan or starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley contains several valuable nutrients, including protein, beta-glucan (BG) and starch. Each has additional value when concentrated. Among reported studies on barley fractionation (dry or wet), most focused enriching one or two components in term of concentrations in resulting fractions but negl...

  16. Lil3 Assembles with Proteins Regulating Chlorophyll Synthesis in Barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Mork-Jansson

    Full Text Available The light-harvesting-like (LIL proteins are a family of membrane proteins that share a chlorophyll a/b-binding motif with the major light-harvesting antenna proteins of oxygenic photoautotrophs. LIL proteins have been associated with the regulation of tetrapyrrol biosynthesis, and plant responses to light-stress. Here, it was found in a native PAGE approach that chlorophyllide, and chlorophyllide plus geranylgeraniolpyrophosphate trigger assembly of Lil3 in three chlorine binding fluorescent protein bands, termed F1, F2, and F3. It is shown that light and chlorophyllide trigger accumulation of protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase, and chlorophyll synthase in band F3. Chlorophyllide and chlorophyll esterified to geranylgeraniol were identified as basis of fluorescence recorded from band F3. A direct interaction between Lil3, CHS and POR was confirmed in a split ubiquitin assay. In the presence of light or chlorophyllide, geranylgeraniolpyrophosphate was shown to trigger a loss of the F3 band and accumulation of Lil3 and geranylgeranyl reductase in F1 and F2. No direct interaction between Lil3 and geranylgeraniolreductase was identified in a split ubiquitin assay; however, accumulation of chlorophyll esterified to phytol in F1 and F2 corroborated the enzymes assembly. Chlorophyll esterified to phytol and the reaction center protein psbD of photosystem II were identified to accumulate together with psb29, and APX in the fluorescent band F2. Data show that Lil3 assembles with proteins regulating chlorophyll synthesis in etioplasts from barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

  17. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedas, Pai Rosager; Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark;

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 , which encode membrane-bound pro......Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 , which encode membrane......-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed......8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi...

  18. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana;

    2016-01-01

    C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi...... family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C...

  19. Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D.; Svensson, Birte; Jørgensen, Hans J. L.; Collinge, David B.; FINNIE, CHRISTINE

    2012-01-01

    wheat flour as the sole nutrient source to mimic the host–pathogen interaction. A gel‐based proteomics approach was employed to identify the proteins secreted into the culture medium. Sixty‐nine unique fungal proteins were identified in 154 protein spots, including enzymes involved in the degradation of...... between wheat and barley flour medium were mainly involved in fungal cell wall remodelling and the degradation of plant cell walls, starch and proteins. The in planta expression of corresponding F. graminearum genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction in barley......Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic fungus primarily infecting small grain cereals, including barley and wheat. Secreted enzymes play important roles in the pathogenicity of many fungi. In order to access the secretome of F. graminearum, the fungus was grown in liquid culture with barley or...

  20. Biochemistry, Structure and Function of Non-Wheat Proteins: Case Study of Barley ß-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of a protein is not always evident and may be due to its multifunctional nature. ß-Amylase in seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) constitutes approximately 2% of the total protein in mature seeds and is assumed to be important when storage proteins are mobilized to support protein s...

  1. Influence of tannin on protein utilization in feedstuffs with special reference to barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of tannins on protein utilization, increasing amounts of tannin were added to diets fed to rats. Soybean meal was used as protein source. Tannin was found to exert a severe negative effect on protein digestibility. With tannin in the diet, availability of all amino acids decreased significantly, but to different degrees. Tannins are present in a number of plant materials at different levels, including barley. In feeding experiments using 29 barley samples varying in tannin content from 0.55 to 1.23%, tannin showed a significant negative correlation with protein digestibility. (author)

  2. Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Srichaikul, Korbua; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bashyam, Balachandran; Vidgen, Edward; Lamarche, Benoicirct; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Jones, Peter J H; Josse, Robert G; Jackson, Chung-Ja C; Ng, Vivian; Leong, Tracy; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-09-01

    High-protein diets have been advocated for weight loss and the treatment of diabetes. Yet animal protein sources are often high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Vegetable protein sources, by contrast, are low in saturated fat and without associated cholesterol. We have therefore assessed the effect on serum lipids of raising the protein intake by 5% using a cereal protein, barley protein, as part of a standard therapeutic diet. Twenty-three hypercholesterolemic men and postmenopausal women completed a randomized crossover study comparing a bread enriched with either barley protein or calcium caseinate [30 g protein, 8374 kJ (2000 kcal)] taken separately as two 1-mo treatment phases with a minimum 2-wk washout. Body weight and diet history were collected weekly during each treatment. Fasting blood samples were obtained at wk 0, 2, and 4. Palatability, satiety, and compliance were similar for both the barley protein- and casein-enriched breads, with no differences between the treatments in effects on serum LDL cholesterol or C-reactive protein, measures of oxidative stress, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, because no adverse effects were observed on cardiovascular risk factors, barley protein remains an additional option for raising the protein content of the diet. PMID:20668250

  3. The effect of irradiation treatment on Beta-Glucan and protein quality of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of barley (hordeum vulgare L) grains were tested for nutritional value after being irradiated at dose levels of 10, 20, and 30 KGy. The gross composition of raw and irradiated beans was similar. Soluble protein was reduced by 16.76%, 28.84% and 44.76% when barley grains were irradiated at 10, 20, and 30 KGy, respectively, The amount of water-soluble beta-glucan in raw barley was increased linearly from 1.76 to 2.40 g/100 g of sample as a function of dose. Meanwhile, the effect of irradiation treatment on total beta-glucan (3.90 g/100 g) was insignificant while the level of insoluble beta-glucan was decreased with increasing the dose levels of irradiation. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) of processed barley grains at the doses applied was increased by 6.38%, 12.77%, and 1135%, respectively as compared with the value for raw grains. The data showed that the radiation processing of raw barley grains increased the solubility of beta-glucan, the most anti nutritional factor in the grains and improved the PER in rats. Therefore it could be concluded thal the irradiation treatment (up tp 30 KGy) up-grade the biological value of barley through increase the solubility of Beta-glucan that affect the performance of animals

  4. Improving the nutritional quality of the barley and wheat grain storage proteins by antisense technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Lange, Mette; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    genetic modification with antisense or the more drastic RNAi suppression technology and study the change in protein pattern under different environmental conditions. We have five antisense and 12 RNAi C-hordein lines of barley (RNAi lines are under characterisation) and wheat RNAi lines (gamma and alpha...... result, a considerable amount of research is focused on improving the quality and quantity of seed storage protein both by traditional plant breeding and by modern genetic engineering technology. In our research program we are trying to enrich the nutritional quality of barley and wheat grains using...... plan to construct wheat omega RNAi lines using RNAi technology. The cloning of the omega gliadin from wheat is in progress. Finally, the agronomic properties and nutritional values of the genetically modified barley and wheat will be evaluated. References Hansen, M., Lange, M., Friis, M., Dionisio. G...

  5. Interactions between Barley a-Amylases, Substrates, Inhibitors and Regulatory Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachem, Maher Abou; Bozonnet, Sophie; Willemoës, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    Barley a-amylase binds sugars at two sites on the enzyme surface in addition to the active site. Crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis highlight the importance of aromatic residues at these surface sites as demonstrated by Kd values determined for ß-cyclodextrin by surface plasmon resonance...... is studied by mutagenesis, crystallography and microcalorimetry. Further improvement of recombinant AMY2 production allows future direct mutational analysis in this isozyme. Specific proteinaceous inhibitors act on a-amylases of different origin. In the complex of barley a-amylase...... are targets of the disulphide reductase thioredoxin h that attacks a specific disulphide bond in BASI and, remarkably, reduces two different disulphide bonds in the barley monomeric and dimeric amylase inhibitors that both belong to the CM-proteins and inhibit animal a-amylase....

  6. Induced micromutations in barley for protein content and quality in low-rainfall areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two high-yielding barley varieties were treated with mutagenic agents at three doses and the results were evaluated in M5-M7 in replicated trials at different locations. The aim was to select mutants with small changes in crude protein content and DBC without depression of yield. Lines with 0.5 to 1.0 percentage points higher crude protein content and 1.0 to 2.0mg higher DBC per 800mg flour than the control were selected. In all except one selected line there was a yield depression, which, however, was very small in certain lines. It appears that it is possible to increase the protein content slightly without decreasing the yield, thereby achieving a higher protein yield per unit area. Least significant differences detected in replicated trials at single locations varied with location from 0.51 to 1.73 percentage points for crude protein content and from 1.64 to 2.00mg for DBC. Trials at more than one location enable smaller differences to be detected. Variations in grain yield of three barley and one wheat varieties induced by changes in the environment were positively correlated with protein content (r ranged from 0.78 to 0.95), while in four other wheat varieties the correlation was not significant. It is suggested that in the case of barley varieties the increase in non-protein dry matter acted as a stimulus for a proportionally higher increase in nitrogen uptake. (author)

  7. CHANGES OF CRUDE PROTEIN CONTENT IN MALTING BARLEY INFLUENCED BY POSTHARVEST RIPENING

    OpenAIRE

    M. LÍŠKOVÁ; H FRANČÁKOVÁ; J. MAREČEK

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this experiment was to investigate to what extent post-harvest ripening and growing locality influenced changes of crude protein content in malting barley and values of Kolbach index in malt. Results revealed that already in the sixth week after harvest, amount of crude protein decreased and amount of Kolbach index increased, due to post-harvest ripening. Moreover climatic conditions during vegetation and harvest as well as the growing locality significantly influenced (P<0.001) the...

  8. Surprisingly high stability of barley lipid transfer protein, LTP1, towards denaturant, heat and proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Winther, J R

    2001-01-01

    Barley LTP1 belongs to a large family of plant proteins termed non-specific lipid transfer proteins. The in vivo function of these proteins is unknown, but it has been suggested that they are involved in responses towards stresses such as pathogens, drought, heat, cold and salt. Also, the proteins...... have been suggested as transporters of monomers for cutin synthesis. We have analysed the stability of LTP1 towards denaturant, heat and proteases and found it to be a highly stable protein, which apparently does not denature at temperatures up to 100 degrees C. This high stability may be important...

  9. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn;

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein...

  10. Antisense expression of peach mildew resistance locus O (PpMlo1) gene confers cross-species resistance to powdery mildew in Fragaria x ananassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwan, Derick; Roalson, Eric H; Main, Dorrie; Dhingra, Amit

    2013-12-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the major plant pathogens. The conventional method of PM control includes frequent use of sulfur-based fungicides adding to production costs and potential harm to the environment. PM remains a major scourge for Rosaceae crops where breeding approaches mainly resort to gene-for-gene resistance. We have tested an alternate source of PM resistance in Rosaceae. Mildew resistance locus O (MLO) has been well studied in barley due to its role in imparting broad spectrum resistance to PM. We identified PpMlo1 (Prunus persica Mlo) in peach and characterized it further to test if a similar mechanism of resistance is conserved in Rosaceae. Due to its recalcitrance in tissue culture, reverse genetic studies involving PpMloI were not feasible in peach. Therefore, Fragaria x ananassa LF9 line, a taxonomic surrogate, was used for functional analysis of PpMlo1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation yielded transgenic strawberry plants expressing PpMlo1 in sense and antisense orientation. Antisense expression of PpMlo1 in transgenic strawberry plants conferred resistance to Fragaria-specific powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis. Phylogenetic analysis of 208 putative Mlo gene copies from 35 plant species suggests a large number of duplications of this gene family prior to the divergence of monocots and eudicots, early in eudicot diversification. Our results indicate that the Mlo-based resistance mechanism is functional in Rosaceae, and that Fragaria can be used as a host to test mechanistic function of genes derived from related tree species. To the best of our knowledge, this work is one of the first attempts at testing the potential of using a Mlo-based resistance strategy to combat powdery mildew in Rosaceae. PMID:23728780

  11. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  12. Cold-induced accumulation of protein in the leaves of spring and winter barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, G; Darvishzadeh, R; Jalali-Javaran, M; Dehghani, H

    2005-01-01

    Electrophoretic pattern and quantitative changes in soluble proteins were determined in the leaves of spring and winter cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Makouei and cv. Reyhan, respectively) exposed to 4 degrees C for 14 d. Seedlings were grown in a controlled growth chamber for 2 weeks at a constant air temperature of 20 degrees C and then transferred to constant 4 degrees C for 14 d followed by returning to 20 degrees C (cold treatment), or they were maintained throughout at 20 degrees C during the experimental period of 40 d (control treatment). Plants were sampled every 48 h for leaf fresh weight measurements. Total leaf soluble proteins were extracted and their concentration was either determined by a colorimetric method, or size-fractionated on SDS-PAGE. Low temperature-induced increases in protein amount occurred over the second week of exposure to cold treatment irrespective of cultivar: the winter cultivar was 2 d prior in this response. The protein patterns and their density showed differences between-cultivars and between-temperature treatments. A new cold-induced polypeptide was recognized in the leaves of winter barley cultivar on day 22 (8 d at 4 degrees C) compared to the control. This polypeptide was produced earlier over the first 48 h of low temperature in the winter cultivar compared with the spring one, recognizing in the leaves of cold-treated seedling until day 26. This more rapid response to a low temperature by the winter barley cultivar indicates a more sensitive response compared with the spring barley, probably cold-shock protein is a component of this cold-induced response. PMID:15813217

  13. Invitro Synthesis of Barley Endosperm Proteins on Wild Type and Mutant Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, A.; Ingversen, J.

    1976-01-01

    an increased content of some hordein polypeptides catalyzed a preferential synthesis of these polypeptides in vitro. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the in vitro template activities of the free polyribosomes from the wild type and mutant endosperms were very similar. The......Membrane bound and free polyribosomes were isolated from 20 day old barley endosperms. Sucrose gradient analysis revealed distinct polysomal peaks up to heptamers. The isolated polysomes were active in a cell-free protein synthesizing system employing wheat germ extract. SDS-polyacrylamide gel......-migration with native hordein on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Membrane bound endosperm polysomes from a barley mutant defective in hordein synthesis produced in the cell-free protein synthesizing system only a small amount of hordein. Conversely membrane bound polysomes from the endosperm of a mutant giving rise to...

  14. Adaptation of aphid stylectomy for analyses of proteins and mRNAs in barley phloem sap

    OpenAIRE

    Gaupels, Frank; Buhtz, Anja; Knauer, Torsten; Deshmukh, Sachin; Waller, Frank; van Bel, Aart J. E.; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Kehr, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Sieve tubes are transport conduits not only for photoassimilates but also for macromolecules and other compounds that are involved in sieve tube maintenance and systemic signalling. In order to gain sufficient amounts of pure phloem exudates from barley plants for analyses of the protein and mRNA composition, a previously described stylectomy set-up was optimized. Aphids were placed in sealed cages, which, immediately after microcauterization of the stylets, were flooded with water-saturated ...

  15. Effect of pH and Recombinant Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Endoprotease B2 on Degradation of Proteins in Soaked Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    .3. Solubilized and degraded proteins evaluated by biuret, SDS-PAGE, and differential proteomics revealed that pH 4.3 had the greatest impact on both solubilization and degradation. In order to boost proteolysis, the recombinant barley endoprotease B2 (rec-HvEP-B2) was included after 8 h using the pH 4.3 regime....... Proteolysis evaluated by SDS-PAGE and differential proteomics confirmed a powerful effect of adding rec-HvEP-B2 to the soaked barley, regardless of the genotype. Our study addresses the use of rec-HvEP-B2 as an effective feed enzyme protease. HvEP-B2 has the potential to increase the digestibility of protein...

  16. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport

    OpenAIRE

    Pedas, Pai Rosager; Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegaard, Anne Hald; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 , which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fu...

  17. Inactivation of a MAPK-like protein kinase and activation of a MBP kinase in germinating barley embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, C.; Vennik, M.; Kijne, J.W.; Wang, M.; Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.

    2000-01-01

    We provide evidence for involvement of two different 45 kDa protein kinases in rehydration and germination of barley embryos. In dry embryos, a myelin basic protein (MBP) phosphorylating kinase was detected, which could be immunoprecipitated with an anti-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) antib

  18. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. PMID:26948880

  19. Comparative Studies on Callose Formation in Powdery Mildew Compatible and Incompatible Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Lilholt, Ulla

    1984-01-01

    Callose formation in barley mutants, lines and varieties with different genes for resistance to powdery mildew in seven different loci was compared. Only barley with resistance genes in the ml-o locus showed so early a callose formation passing off at such a high rate that it prevented fungal pen...

  20. 二维回转培养对MLO-Y4骨样细胞PKD2表达定位及胞内钙信号的影响%The Effects of 2D-Clinorotation on Expression and Location of PKD2 Protein and the Intracellular Ca2+Concentration of MLO-Y4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关莹; 续惠云; 瓮媛媛; 商澎

    2014-01-01

    目的:PKD2(polycystin2,多囊肾病蛋白2)能够在细胞膜上形成无选择性的阳离子通道,在肾上皮细胞中PKD2与初级纤毛共定位,通过改变胞内的钙信号过程参与细胞对力学刺激的响应.本实验通过二维回转培养来模拟失重效应,旨在探讨二维回转培养对MLO-Y4骨样细胞PKD2表达定位,及胞内钙信号的影响.初步了解PKD2在小鼠骨样细胞MLO-Y4响应力学刺激过程中起的作用.方法:采用二维回转培养骨样细胞MLO-Y4,用RT-PCR和western blotting检测PKD2的表达,用荧光共聚焦显微镜检测细胞中PKD2与初级纤毛的定位及细胞内钙离子含量.结果:与对照组相比,在二维回转培养后,骨样细胞MLO-Y4的PKD2表达在mRNA和蛋白水平都有明显的下降,PKD2、PKD1 (polycystin1,多囊肾病蛋白1)和乙酰化的α-tubulin共定位,同时二维回转培养降低了细胞内钙离子含量.结论:在二维回转培养下,PKD2可能通过调节自身表达来改变细胞膜上PKD通道的数目和开放情况来影响细胞内钙离子含量,参与骨细胞对细胞外应力的感受过程,其详细机制还有待进一步实验研究.这将对探讨骨细胞响应力学刺激的具体机制提供重要的理论依据.

  1. Mixed cropping of annual feed legumes with barley improves feed quantity and crude protein content under dry-land conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine a suitable mixture of annual feed legumes and barley as a winter crop under dry-land conditions. Seeds of Hungarian vetch (cv. 2670, smooth vetch (cv. Maragheh, and local varieties of grass pea and field pea were mixed with barley (cv. Abidar in a 1:1 ratio and were tested, along with related monoculture. All legumes in the mixture survived winter while legumes alone, except Hungarian vetch, did not survive in the cold areas. The maximum fresh and dry forage yields (56 and 15 ton ha-1 respectively were obtained from a mixture of smooth vetch and barley in provinces with mild winter and more than 400 mm of rainfall. The mixture of barley and smooth vetch resulted in the highest mean crude protein content (17%. Autumn seeding of smooth vetch and barley in a 1:1 ratio produced more than 2 ton ha-1 of dry biomass with good quality in all studied areas and thus could serve as an alternative cropping system after wheat/barley in cold and semi-cold dry land.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of barley and maize lipid transfer proteins show different ligand binding preferences in agreement with experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lorna J; Roby, Ysobel; Allison, Jane R; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-07-30

    Experimental studies of barley and maize lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) show that the two proteins bind the ligand palmitate in opposite orientations in their internal cavities. Moreover, maize LTP is reported to bind the ligand caprate in the internal cavity in a mixture of two orientations with approximately equal occupancy. Six 30 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of maize and barley LTP with ligands bound in two orientations (modes M and B) have been used to understand the different ligand binding preferences. The simulations show that both maize and barley LTP could bind palmitate in the orientation observed experimentally for maize LTP (mode M), with the predominant interaction being a salt bridge between the ligand carboxylate headgroup and a conserved arginine side chain. However, the simulation of barley LTP with palmitate in the mode B orientation shows the most favorable protein-ligand interaction energy. In contrast, the simulations of maize LTP with palmitate and with caprate in the mode B orientation show no persistent ligand binding, the ligands leaving the cavity during the simulations. Sequence differences between maize and barley LTP in the AB loop region, in residues at the base of the hydrophobic cavity, and in the helix A region are identified as contributing to the different behavior. The simulations reproduce well the experimentally observed binding preferences for palmitate and suggest that the experimental data for maize LTP with caprate reflect ligand mobility in binding mode M rather than the population of binding modes M and B. PMID:23834513

  3. 巴西橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)HbMlo7基因克隆与表达分析%Molecular cloning and characterization ofHbMlo7 gene in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海霞; 张宇; 王萌; 杨叶; 郑服丛

    2016-01-01

    Mlo基因是一种植物防卫相关基因,负调控植物白粉病抗性。为解析巴西橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)中Mlo基因的结构与功能,从橡胶树品种‘热研7-33-97’胶乳中扩增了一个Mlo cDNA序列,将其命名为HbMlo7。该基因编码499个氨基酸,分子量为56.85 kDa。蛋白结构分析发现,该蛋白含有Mlo保守结构域,有一个核定位信号和7个跨膜结构区域,无信号肽。通过qRT-PCR发现HbMlo7基因主要在橡胶树树皮中表达,其表达量在干旱、机械伤害和白粉菌侵染处理下显著上调。脱落酸(ABA)、乙烯利(ETH)、茉莉酸(JA)和过氧化氢(H2O2)均能诱导橡胶树叶片中HbMlo7基因显著上调表达。研究认为HbMlo7是植物Mlo家族成员,参与橡胶树的抗逆反应机制和植物激素信号传导途径。%Mildew resistance locus o(Mlo) is a defence-related gene in plant, which negatively regulates plant resistance to powdery mildew. To analyze the structure and function ofMlo gene inHevea brasiliensis, we cloned a cDNA sequence of Mlo from latex of the rubber tree clone ‘Reyan 7-33-97’. We deifned it asHbMlo7. HbMlo7 gene encoded 499 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 56.85 kDa. The protein structure analysis revealed that HbMLO7 has one conserved domain of Mlo, one nuclear localization signal (NLS), seven transmembrane domains, and no signal peptide. Gene expression analysis by quantitative and reverse transcrip-tion PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated thatHbMlo7expressed mainly in the bark of the rubber tree. The expression level ofHbMlo7 was induced by drought, wounding and powdery mildew infection. Abscisic acid (ABA), ethe-phon (ETH), jasmonic acid (JA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) signiifcantly upregulatedHbMlo7 geneexpres-sion in rubber tree leaves. The results suggest thatHbMlo7 is one of the members ofMlo family, and involved in response mechanisms of stress and signal transduction pathway of plant hormones in rubber tree.

  4. Exploring the Plant–Microbe Interface by Profiling the Surface-Associated Proteins of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte;

    2016-01-01

    Cereal grains are colonized by a microbial community that actively interacts with the plant via secretion of various enzymes, hormones, and metabolites. Microorganisms decompose plant tissues by a collection of depolymerizing enzymes, including β-1,4-xylanases, that are in turn inhibited by plant......-associated proteins and xylanolytic activities of two barley cultivars. The surface-associated proteome was dominated by plant proteins with roles in defense and stress-responses, while the relatively less abundant microbial (bacterial and fungal) proteins were involved in cell-wall and polysaccharide degradation and...... included xylanases. The surface-associated proteomes showed elevated xylanolytic activity and contained several xylanases. Integration of proteomics with enzyme assays is a powerful tool for analysis and characterization of the interaction between microbial consortia and plants in their natural environment....

  5. Differential appearance of isoforms and cultivar variation in protein temporal profiles revealed in the maturing barley grain proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina; Roepstorff, P.; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Proteome analysis of mature barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) seeds has led to the identification of proteins in about 450 spots on 2D-gels. To shed light on the role of some of these proteins, their temporal appearance was monitored over 5 weeks during grain-filling and maturation of field......-grown barley. Appearance profiles are described for 105 proteins identified in 185 2D-gel spots in the overlapping pI ranges 4-7 and 6-11. Grouping of proteins according to appearance across functional categories revealed instances of differential regulation of protein forms. Thus, a single 1-cys...... modification or defence against fungal pathogens. Comparison of two cultivars, Barke and Morex, led to identification of protein spots appearing earlier in Morex than Barke, reflecting the faster maturation of Morex seeds....

  6. Molecular identification based on coat protein sequences of the Barley yellow dwarf virus from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Bernardon Mar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow dwarf disease, one of the most important diseases of cereal crops worldwide, is caused by virus species belonging to the Luteoviridae family. Forty-two virus isolates obtained from oat (Avena sativa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., corn (Zea mays L., and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. collected between 2007 and 2008 from winter cereal crop regions in southern Brazil were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers designed on ORF 3 (coat protein - CP for the presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV. PCR products of expected size (~357 bp for subgroup II and (~831 bp for subgroup I were obtained for three and 39 samples, respectively. These products were cloned and sequenced. The subgroup II 3' partial CP amino acid deduced sequences were identified as BYDV-RMV (92 - 93 % of identity with "Illinois" Z14123 isolate. The complete CP amino acid deduced sequences of subgroup I isolates were confirmed as BYDV-PAV (94 - 99 % of identity and established a very homogeneous group (identity higher than 99 %. These results support the prevalence of BYDV-PAV in southern Brazil as previously diagnosed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and suggest that this population is very homogeneous. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BYDV-RMV in Brazil and the first genetic diversity study on B/CYDV in South America.

  7. A potential new selection criterion for breeding winter barley optimal protein and amino acid profiles for liquid pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    concentration was analysed in the supernatant after centrifugation. After 15 min., app. 16% of the total protein was soluble and until 8 hours an increase of 5% units was observed. However, from 8 to 48 hours it increased with 10% units for some cultivars. Based on these analyses, cultivars were selected for...... selection criterion for barley to be used in feeding....

  8. Study of barley cultivars with respect to Osborne classification of proteins and different SDS-gel staining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovičková, Markéta; Bobálová, Janette

    Kostelec na Hané : The Czech Proteomic Society, 2011. s. 84. [Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference /5./. 19.09.2011-22.09.2011, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley variety * protein Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  9. Identification of the differentially accumulated proteins associated with low phosphorus tolerance in a Tibetan wild barley accession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadira, Umme Aktari; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Zeng, Jianbin; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-07-01

    Low phosphorus (LP) in soil is a widely-occurred limiting factor for crop production in the world. In a previous study we identified a highly LP-tolerant Tibetan wild barley accession (XZ99). Here, a comparatively proteomic analysis was conducted using three barley genotypes differing in LP tolerance to reveal the mechanisms underlying the LP tolerance of XZ99. Totally, 31 differentially accumulated proteins were identified in the roots and leaves of the three genotypes using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. They were involved in the various biological processes, including carbon and energy metabolism, signal transduction, cell growth and division, secondary metabolism, and stress defense. In comparison with XZ100 (LP sensitive) and ZD9 (LP moderately-tolerant), XZ99 had a more developed root system, which is mainly attributed to enhanced carbohydrate metabolizing proteins under LP conditions. The current results showed that Tibetan wild barley XZ99 and cultivated barley cultivar ZD9 differ in the mechanism of LP tolerance. The changes of the proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism could account for the difference between the LP-tolerant and LP-sensitive genotypes. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of 9 LP responsive proteins were verified by qRT-PCR. The current results may open a new avenue of understanding the LP tolerance in plants on the proteomic basis. PMID:27111503

  10. HPLC bottom-up MS-based proteomics for mapping of specific proteins in several European spring barley varieties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Laštovičková, Markéta; Bobálová, Janette

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2015), s. 71-77. ISSN 0361-0470 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/12/P395 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : barley * gel electrophoresis * MALDI-TOF/TOF MS * protein profile * RP liquid chromatography Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2014

  11. Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Renaut, Jenny;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the effect of nitrogen (N) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) storage protein production (hordeins) during grain filling. Using a combination of advanced biochemistry methods, we could comprehensively describe...

  12. Factorial combinations of protein interactions generate a multiplicity of florigen activation complexes in wheat and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengxia; Lin, Huiqiong; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is a central component of a mobile flowering signal (florigen) that is transported from leaves to the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Two FT monomers and two DNA-binding bZIP transcription factors interact with a dimeric 14-3-3 protein bridge to form a hexameric protein complex. This complex, designated as the 'florigen activation complex' (FAC), plays a critical role in flowering. The wheat homologue of FT, designated FT1 (= VRN3), activates expression of VRN1 in the leaves and the SAM, promoting flowering under inductive long days. In this study, we show that FT1, other FT-like proteins, and different FD-like proteins, can interact with multiple wheat and barley 14-3-3 proteins. We also identify the critical amino acid residues in FT1 and FD-like proteins required for their interactions, and demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins are necessary bridges to mediate the FT1-TaFDL2 interaction. Using in vivo bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) assays, we demonstrate that the interaction between FT1 and 14-3-3 occurs in the cytoplasm, and that this complex is then translocated to the nucleus, where it interacts with TaFDL2 to form a FAC. We also demonstrate that a FAC including FT1, TaFDL2 and Ta14-3-3C can bind to the VRN1 promoter in vitro. Finally, we show that relative transcript levels of FD-like and 14-3-3 genes vary among tissues and developmental stages. Since FD-like proteins determine the DNA specificity of the FACs, variation in FD-like gene expression can result in spatial and temporal modulation of the effects of mobile FT-like signals. PMID:26252567

  13. The INDETERMINATE DOMAIN Protein BROAD LEAF1 Limits Barley Leaf Width by Restricting Lateral Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöst, Moritz; Hensel, Götz; Kappel, Christian; Druka, Arnis; Sicard, Adrien; Hohmann, Uwe; Beier, Sebastian; Himmelbach, Axel; Waugh, Robbie; Kumlehn, Jochen; Stein, Nils; Lenhard, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Variation in the size, shape, and positioning of leaves as the major photosynthetic organs strongly impacts crop yield, and optimizing these aspects is a central aim of cereal breeding [1, 2]. Leaf growth in grasses is driven by cell proliferation and cell expansion in a basal growth zone [3]. Although several factors influencing final leaf size and shape have been identified from rice and maize [4-14], what limits grass leaf growth in the longitudinal or transverse directions during leaf development remains poorly understood. To identify factors involved in this process, we characterized the barley mutant broad leaf1 (blf1). Mutants form wider but slightly shorter leaves due to changes in the numbers of longitudinal cell files and of cells along the leaf length. These differences arise during primordia outgrowth because of more cell divisions in the width direction increasing the number of cell files. Positional cloning, analysis of independent alleles, and transgenic complementation confirm that BLF1 encodes a presumed transcriptional regulator of the INDETERMINATE DOMAIN family. In contrast to loss-of-function mutants, moderate overexpression of BLF1 decreases leaf width below wild-type levels. A functional BLF1-vYFP fusion protein expressed from the endogenous promoter shows a dynamic expression pattern in the shoot apical meristem and young leaf primordia. Thus, we propose that the BLF1 gene regulates barley leaf size by restricting cell proliferation in the leaf-width direction. Given the agronomic importance of canopy traits in cereals, identifying functionally different BLF1 alleles promises to allow for the generation of optimized cereal ideotypes. PMID:26996502

  14. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji; Svensson, Birte

    2004-01-01

    Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunit...

  15. Investigation of the somaclonal and mutagen induced variability in barley by the application of protein and DNA markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is one of the most important crop species for Bulgaria. The characterisation of the genetic pool is of great necessity for the Bulgarian barley breeding programme which is directed toward improving quantitative and qualitative traits. Molecular markers [protein, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)] have been applied to characterise the Bulgarian barley cultivars and their regenerants. The changes in DNA loci coding for 26S, 5.8S and 18S rRNA repeats, C hordein locus and mitochondrial DNA organisation have been investigated. The potential for ribosomal DNA length polymorphism in Bulgarian barley cultivars appear to be limited to three different repeat lengths (10.2, 9.5 and 9.0kb) and three plant rDNA phenotypes. Polymorphism was not observed in ribosomal DNA repeat units in somaclonal variants. Variation concerning C hordein electrophoretic pattern was observed in one line from cultivar Jubiley. Analysis of the HorI locus reveals RFLPs in sequences coding for C hordeins in this line. Mitochondrial molecular markers are convenient for detection of DNA polymorphisms in the variant germplasm as well as for the somaclonal variants derived from it. Two lines from Ruen revealed polymorphic bands after hybridisation with mitochondrial DNA probe. RAPD assays have been carried out by using 20 different 10-mer primers. Heritable polymorphism in several tissue culture derived (TCD) lines was observed. RAPD assay is a sensitive and representative approach to distinguish the variability created by tissue culture and mutagenesis

  16. Expression of muscle anabolic and metabolic factors in mechanically loaded MLO-Y4 osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffer, Petra; Jaspers, Richard T; Lips, Paul; Bakker, Astrid D; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2012-02-15

    Lack of physical activity results in muscle atrophy and bone loss, which can be counteracted by mechanical loading. Similar molecular signaling pathways are involved in the adaptation of muscle and bone mass to mechanical loading. Whether anabolic and metabolic factors regulating muscle mass, i.e., insulin-like growth factor-I isoforms (IGF-I Ea), mechano growth factor (MGF), myostatin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are also produced by osteocytes in bone in response to mechanical loading is largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) modulates the mRNA and/or protein levels of muscle anabolic and metabolic factors in MLO-Y4 osteocytes. Unloaded MLO-Y4 osteocytes expressed mRNA of VEGF, HGF, IGF-I Ea, and MGF, but not myostatin. PFF increased mRNA levels of IGF-I Ea (2.1-fold) and MGF (2.0-fold) at a peak shear stress rate of 44Pa/s, but not at 22Pa/s. PFF at 22 Pa/s increased VEGF mRNA levels (1.8- to 2.5-fold) and VEGF protein release (2.0- to 2.9-fold). Inhibition of nitric oxide production decreased (2.0-fold) PFF-induced VEGF protein release. PFF at 22 Pa/s decreased HGF mRNA levels (1.5-fold) but increased HGF protein release (2.3-fold). PFF-induced HGF protein release was nitric oxide dependent. Our data show that mechanically loaded MLO-Y4 osteocytes differentially express anabolic and metabolic factors involved in the adaptive response of muscle to mechanical loading (i.e., IGF-I Ea, MGF, VEGF, and HGF). Similarly to muscle fibers, mechanical loading enhanced expression levels of these growth factors in MLO-Y4 osteocytes. Although in MLO-Y4 osteocytes expression levels of IGF-I Ea and MGF of myostatin were very low or absent, it is known that the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts is strongly affected by them. The abundant expression levels of these factors in muscle cells, in combination with low expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytes, provide a

  17. Thermal denaturation of barley lipid transfer protein 1 studied by nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žídková, Jitka; Matejková, M.; Žídek, L.; Wimmerová, M.; Sklenář, V.; Bobálová, Janette

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, 1a (2009), b53. ISSN 1211-5894. [Meeting of the Czech and Slovak Structural Biologists /7./. 12.03.2009-14.03.2009, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : thermal denaturation * barley lipid transfer protein 1 * NMR Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  18. Protein and malt quality in some gamma-ray induced high yielding mutants in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of various yield traits of 5 high yielding mutants isolated from 25 kR .gamma.-ray treated M2 population of a 6 rowed barley cv. DL-36 are reported. These mutants were superior over control in height, number of effective tillers, total grain yield and protein percentage. Though the mutants possessed high grain yields, malt quality declined due to the increase in hull percentage

  19. Enhanced tolerance to bacterial pathogens caused by the transgenic expression of barley lipid transfer protein LTP2

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Fernández, Antonio; García Olmedo, Francisco

    1997-01-01

    Purified lipid transfer protein LTP2 from barley applied on tobacco leaves eliminated symptoms caused by infiltration of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 153. Growth of the pathogen in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants was retarded when compared with non-transformed controls. The percentage of inoculation points that showed necrotic lesions was greatly reduced in transgenic tobacco 17–38% versus 78%) and the average size of these lesions was 61–81% that of control. The average total lesion a...

  20. Lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) from barley and maize leaves are potent inhibitors of bacterial and fungal plant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Fernández, Antonio; Segura, Ana; García Olmedo, Francisco

    1993-01-01

    Four homogeneous proteins (Cw18, Cw20, Cw21, Cw22) were isolated from etiolated barley leaves by extraction of the insoluble pellet from a Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) homogenate with 1.5 M LiCl and fractionation by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. All 4 proteins inhibited growth of the pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (EC50S = 1−3 × 10−7 M) and had closely related N-terminal amino acid sequences. The complete amino acid sequences of proteins Cw18 and Cw21 were ...

  1. Protein and carbohydrate components in the Risoe high-lysine barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of the Risoe high-lysine barley mutant were analysed for nitrogenous and carbohydrate components to identify possible interactions between the high-lysine character and the low grain yield. The protein yields of the high-lysine mutants are 73-97% of that of the parents. In the parents protein is fractionated into approximately 40% prolamin (approximately 1% lysine), 55% non-prolamin protein (NPP) (6% lysine) and 5% non-protein nitrogen (NPN). In all high-lysine mutants NPP is increased and prolamin reduced. Neither different high-lysine genes nor large differences in N content in the seeds have any significant influence on the amino acid composition of NPP. The amounts of the main prolamin components, hordein-1 and hordein-2, are reduced in different and often characteristic ways in most of the mutants. The starch yields of the mutants are 38-88% of the yields of the parents. This decrease is mainly caused by a reduced content of starch per seed, but also by a reduced seed number. The latter may be independent of the high-lysine genes. There is no correlation between the amounts of starch and prolamin in the mutants, but both may be changed in the same direction in allelic mutants with different genetic background. The percentage of starch and soluble sugars in all the high-lysine mutants shows a highly significant negative correlation. This suggests a possible common mechanism responsible for the reduction in starch synthesis in all the high-lysine mutants. (author)

  2. Barley metallothioneins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjørring, Jan Kofod

    2012-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the prot...... storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations....... proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and...

  3. Biochemical characterization of protein composition of high-lysine mutant ML-109 of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present studies was to determine the biochemical basis of a high lysine content in the mutant ML-109. The protein composition of kernels of high-lysine mutant of winter barley and its initial breeding line were analysed. The portion of individual fractions differing by their solubility in total proteins as well as amino acid composition of kernel protein and separated main protein fractions were also determined. The performed studies showed that a high lysine content in the kernels of the analysed mutant results from a decrease in the hordein level and from an increase in the portion of salt soluble proteins - albumins and globulins. Besides that, the obtained results indicate that the amino acid composition of the main protein fractions of the analysed mutant was advantageously changed; these fractions contained more lysine and other exogenic amino acids. (author). 15 refs, 6 tabs

  4. Effect of nitrogen nutrition on endosperm protein synthesis in wild and cultivated barley grown in spike culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In normal growth conditions, total protein percent, in the endosperm at maturity in barley cultivar Hordeum vulgare L. cv Ruth was about 14%, whereas in an accession of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum Koch line 297, it was about 28%. Spike culture experiments were conducted to ascertain whether there were basic differences between the two genotypes under conditions of widely different nitrogen supply. Spikes of each genotype were grown from 8 to 25 days after flowering in in vitro culture in a growth medium containing 0 to 4 grams per liter nitrogen supplied as NH4NO3. Spikes were pulse-labeled at intervals from 12 to 24 days after flowering with 3.7 megabecquerel of [3H]leucine to determine relative rates of synthesis of hordein-1 and hordein-2 polypedtides. At low nitrogen levels Ruth had a lower protein content than 297, but at increasing nitrogen levels its protein content increased rapidly and reached a maximum (35%) higher than 297 (30%). The relative contribution of the hordein fraction to total protein increased mainly with time, and hordein-1 to total hordein increased mainly with nitrogen level, in both genotypes. There appeared to be no fundamental limitations in the capacity of Ruth to accumulate protein: 297 appears to have a greater basal level of nitrogen availability under normal conditions

  5. Barley lipid transfer protein, LTP1, contains a new type of lipid-like post-translational modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Lerche, Mathilde H.; Poulsen, Flemming Martin;

    2001-01-01

    In plants a group of proteins termed nonspecific lipid transfer proteins are found. These proteins bind and catalyze transfer of lipids in vitro, but their in vivo function is unknown. They have been suggested to be involved in different aspects of plant physiology and cell biology, including the...... formation of cutin and involvement in stress and pathogen responses, but there is yet no direct demonstration of an in vivo function. We have found and characterized a novel post-translational modification of the barley nonspecific lipid transfer protein, LTP1. The protein-modification bond is of a new type...... found to be lipid-like in nature. The modification does not resemble any standard lipid post-translational modification but is similar to a compound with known antimicrobial activity....

  6. Anti-biofilm and sporicidal activity of peptides based on wheat puroindoline and barley hordoindoline proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagaghi, Nadin; Alfred, Rebecca L; Clayton, Andrew H A; Palombo, Enzo A; Bhave, Mrinal

    2016-07-01

    The broad-spectrum activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and low probability of development of host resistance make them excellent candidates as novel bio-control agents. A number of AMPs are found to be cationic, and a small proportion of these are tryptophan-rich. The puroindolines (PIN) are small, basic proteins found in wheat grains with proposed roles in biotic defence of seeds and seedlings. Synthetic peptides based on their unique tryptophan-rich domain (TRD) display antimicrobial properties. Bacterial endospores and biofilms are highly resistant cells, with significant implications in both medical and food industries. In this study, the cationic PIN TRD-based peptides PuroA (FPVTWRWWKWWKG-NH2 ) and Pina-M (FSVTWRWWKWWKG-NH2 ) and the related barley hordoindoline (HIN) based Hina (FPVTWRWWTWWKG-NH2 ) were tested for effects on planktonic cells and biofilms of the common human pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and the non-pathogenic Listeria innocua. All peptides showed significant bactericidal activity. Further, PuroA and Pina-M at 2 × MIC prevented initial biomass attachment by 85-90% and inhibited >90% of 6-h preformed biofilms of all three organisms. However Hina, with a substitution of Lys-9 with uncharged Thr, particularly inhibited Listeria biofilms. The PIN based peptides were also tested against vegetative cells and endospores of Bacillus subtilis. The results provided evidence that these tryptophan-rich peptides could kill B. subtilis even in sporulated state, reducing the number of viable spores by 4 log units. The treated spores appeared withered under scanning electron microscopy. The results establish the potential of these tryptophan-rich peptides in controlling persistent pathogens of relevance to food industries and human health. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27238815

  7. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji;

    2004-01-01

    Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunitz...... Ca2+-modulated kinetics of the AMY2/BASl interaction and found that the complex formation involves minimal structural changes. The modulation of the interaction by calcium ions makes it unique among the currently known binding mechanisms of proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors....

  8. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Nørregaard Jensen, Ole; Barkholt, Vibeke; Finnie, Christine

    2006-01-01

    developed, comprising batch reversed-phase chromatography with stepwise elution of hydrophobic proteins by 2-propanol. Proteins in the most hydrophobic fraction were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS and barley EST sequence database search. The method was efficient for enrichment of integral...

  9. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.; Barkholt, Vibeke; Finnie, Christine

    2006-01-01

    was developed, comprising batch reversed-phase chromatography with stepwise elution of hydrophobic proteins by 2-propanol. Proteins in the most hydrophobic fraction were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS and barley EST sequence database search. The method was efficient for enrichment of...

  10. Interaction of barley powdery mildew effector candidate CSEP0055 with the defence protein PR17c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Pedersen, Carsten; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J; Gregersen, Per L.; Mørch, Sara Melhedegård; Hanisch, Susanne; Kristensen, Astrid; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Collinge, David B.; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    A large number of effector candidates have been identified recently in powdery mildew fungi. However, their roles and how they perform their functions remain unresolved. In this study, we made use of host-induced gene silencing and confirmed that the secreted barley powdery mildew effector candid...

  11. 2D-HPLC and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis of barley proteins glycated during brewing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Žídková, Jitka; Flodrová, Dana; Bobálová, Janette

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 878, č. 30 (2010), s. 3143-3148. ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : 2D-HPLC * MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry * barley Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.971, year: 2010

  12. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... in a buffer without propan-2-ol but containing sodium dodecyl sulfate....

  13. Protein and Carbohydrate Accumulation in Normal and High-Lysine Barley in Spike Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mather, D.E; Giese, Nanna Henriette

    1984-01-01

    Spikes of barley cv. Bomi and high-lysine mutants Riso 1508 and Riso 56 were cultured on liquid media at varying N and sucrose levels. Bomi accumulated N in response to increasing N levels in the medium and a higher level was reached than in spikes of intact plants. The distribution of N in salt...

  14. Thioredoxin reductase from barley: Structure, recognition of thioredoxin, protein engineering and catalytic mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine Groth

    in Trx from barley and E. coli Finally, the expression levels of HvNTR1, HvNTR2, HvTrxh1, HvTrxh2 and α‐amylase during imbibition was examined in different tissues of barley seeds by Q‐PCR and micro‐ array data analysis. The effects of the plant hormone gibberellic acid, dormancy/after‐ ripening...... different from other LMW NTRs in the flavin oxidising (FO) and flavin reducing (FR) conformations. The difference can be described by a 38.2% closure, a 1.0 Å translation and a 24.7° rotational twist when compared to the only other plant NTR structure of AtNTR‐B from Arabidopsis thaliana (which is in the FO...

  15. Purification and analysis of glycosylated barley grain proteins using bottom-up proteomic approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benkovská, Dagmar; Flodrová, Dana; Bobálová, Janette

    2012. s. 95. ISBN 978-963-9970-28-1. [Central and Eastern European Proteomics conference /6./. 14.10.2012-17.10.2012, Budapest] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/12/P395; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : barley * glycoprotein * concanavalin A Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  16. The germinlike protein GLP4 exhibits superoxide dismutase activity and is an important component of quantitative resistance in wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bentsen; Thordal-Christensen, Hans; Zimmermann, Grit;

    2004-01-01

    Germinlike proteins (GLP) are encoded in plants by a gene family with proposed functions in plant development and defense. Genes of GLP subfamily 4 of barley (HvGLP4, formerly referred to as HvOxOLP) and the wheat orthologue TaGLP4 (formerly referred to as TaGLP2a) were previously found to be exp...

  17. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero; Michael J. Edney

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four cl...

  18. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... recent progress in barley germination research and discuss the factors to be considered when designing 'omics' experiments and interpreting the results. These factors include the structural and functional relationships between the various tissues of the barley caryopsis and the timing of the events...

  19. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during......Barley is a major cereal crop grown mainly for feed and malting. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has been used to analyse barley proteins for over 20 years and more recently, mass spectrometry was applied. In the absence of a genome sequence, barley gene and EST sequences combined with...... grain filling, maturation, germination and radicle elongation. Cultivar comparisons and genetic mapping of polymorphic protein spots in doubled haploid populations provide a means to link the genome to the proteome and identify proteins that can influence grain quality. Many proteins appear in multiple...

  20. Subcellular localization and functions of the barley stem rust resistance receptor-like serine/threonine-specific protein kinase Rpg1

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmala, Jayaveeramuthu; Brueggeman, Robert; Maier, Christina; Clay, Christine; Rostoks, Nils; Kannangara, C. Gamini; von Wettstein, Diter; Steffenson, Brian J.; Kleinhofs, Andris

    2006-01-01

    The Rpg1 gene confers resistance to many pathotypes of the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and has protected barley from serious disease losses for over 60 years. Rpg1 encodes a constitutively expressed protein with two tandem kinase domains. Fractionation by differential centrifugation and aqueous two-phase separation of the microsome proteins located Rpg1 mainly in the cytosol but also in the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes. Recombinant Rpg1 autophosphorylates ...

  1. Wheat and barley dehydrins under cold, drought and salinity - what can LEA-II proteins tell us about plant stress response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára eKosová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrins as a group of Late embryogenesis abundant II (LEA-II proteins represent important dehydration-inducible proteins whose accumulation is induced by developmental processes (embryo maturation as well as by several abiotic stress factors (low temperatures, drought, salinity. In the review, an overview of studies aimed at investigation of dehydrin accumulation patterns at transcript and protein levels as well as their possible functions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum, durum wheat (Triticum durum and barley (Hordeum vulgare plants exposed to various abiotic stress factors (cold, frost, drought, salinity is provided. Possible roles of dehydrin proteins in an acquisition and maintenance of an enhanced frost tolerance are analysed in the context of plant developmental processes (vernalization. Quantitative and qualitative differences as well as posttranslational modifications in accumulated dehydrin proteins between barley cultivars revealing differential tolerance to drought and salinity are also discussed. Current knowledge on dehydrin role in wheat and barley response to major dehydrative stresses is summarized and the major challenges in dehydrin research are outlined.

  2. Wheat and barley dehydrins under cold, drought, and salinity - what can LEA-II proteins tell us about plant stress response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Prášil, Ilja T

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrins as a group of late embryogenesis abundant II proteins represent important dehydration-inducible proteins whose accumulation is induced by developmental processes (embryo maturation) as well as by several abiotic stress factors (low temperatures, drought, salinity). In the review, an overview of studies aimed at investigation of dehydrin accumulation patterns at transcript and protein levels as well as their possible functions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants exposed to various abiotic stress factors (cold, frost, drought, salinity) is provided. Possible roles of dehydrin proteins in an acquisition and maintenance of an enhanced frost tolerance are analyzed in the context of plant developmental processes (vernalization). Quantitative and qualitative differences as well as post-translational modifications in accumulated dehydrin proteins between barley cultivars revealing differential tolerance to drought and salinity are also discussed. Current knowledge on dehydrin role in wheat and barley response to major dehydrative stresses is summarized and the major challenges in dehydrin research are outlined. PMID:25071816

  3. Mutational analysis of the β-trefoil fold protein barley α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor probes hot spots for the interaction with barley α-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Nielsen, P. K.; Abou Hachem, Maher;

    2005-01-01

    The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) with subnanomolar affinity. The contribution of selected side chains of BASI to this high affinity is discerned in this study, and binding to other targets is investigated. Seven BASI residues along the AMY2-BASI...... interface and four residues in the putative protease-binding loop on the opposite side of the inhibitor were mutated. A total of 15 variants were compared with the wild type by monitoring the alpha-amylase and protease inhibitory activities using Blue Starch and azoalbumin, respectively, and the kinetics of...

  4. Rumen Microbial Protein Production in Rumen-Simulating-Technique (RUSITEC) Using 15N-Urea Nitrogen, as Influenced By Hay and Barley Ratios in Feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolism of dietary nitrogen using labeled 15N and the changes in the microbial protein mass and NH3-N were studied in five rumen-simulating-technique(RUSITEC)-fermenters, which were run simultaneously in three identically repeated experiments. Each experiment consisted of a 6-day adaptation period followed directly by a 3-day collection period. The feed of the fermenters (G1, G2, G3, G4 and G5) varied in the ratio of barley. The barley increased by 20% between the fermenters. Grass hay+barley (g/d) in the feed of the fermenters was 10+2 (G1), 8+4 (G2), 6+6 (G3), 4+8 (G4) and 2+10 (G5). The results indicated that there were no significant (P>0.05) changes in the amounts of microbial nitrogen (92-118 mg/d) and microbial mass syntheses which were (mg/d): 1154 (G1), 1063 (G2), 1152 (G3), 1127 (G4) and 1362 (G5). Increasing the proportion of barley in the fermenters (G4 and G5) decreased NH3-N amounts (G2 and G3) significantly (P<0.05). The energy was not efficiently used in G5 having a lower ratio of the microbial nitrogen and microbial mass to the total short chain fatty acids than that other fermenters. (authors)

  5. Differential disease resistance response in the barley necrotic mutant nec1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunga Laura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ion fluxes are considered to be an integral part of signal transduction during responses to pathogens, only a few ion channels are known to participate in the plant response to infection. CNGC4 is a disease resistance-related cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. Arabidopsis thaliana CNGC4 mutants hlm1 and dnd2 display an impaired hypersensitive response (HR, retarded growth, a constitutively active salicylic acid (SA-mediated pathogenesis-related response and elevated resistance against bacterial pathogens. Barley CNGC4 shares 67% aa identity with AtCNGC4. The barley mutant nec1 comprising of a frame-shift mutation of CNGC4 displays a necrotic phenotype and constitutively over-expresses PR-1, yet it is not known what effect the nec1 mutation has on barley resistance against different types of pathogens. Results nec1 mutant accumulated high amount of SA and hydrogen peroxide compared to parental cv. Parkland. Experiments investigating nec1 disease resistance demonstrated positive effect of nec1 mutation on non-host resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst at high inoculum density, whereas at normal Pst inoculum concentration nec1 resistance did not differ from wt. In contrast to augmented P. syringae resistance, penetration resistance against biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh, the causal agent of powdery mildew, was not altered in nec1. The nec1 mutant significantly over-expressed race non-specific Bgh resistance-related genes BI-1 and MLO. Induction of BI-1 and MLO suggested putative involvement of nec1 in race non-specific Bgh resistance, therefore the effect of nec1on mlo-5-mediated Bgh resistance was assessed. The nec1/mlo-5 double mutant was as resistant to Bgh as Nec1/mlo-5 plants, suggesting that nec1 did not impair mlo-5 race non-specific Bgh resistance. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that nec1 mutation alters activation of systemic acquired resistance

  6. Advances in protein improvement of spring barley by mutation breeding based on a quantitative genetic approach with integrated selection for protein content, lysine content and grain yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous selection for several quantitative breeding characters is demonstrated by an 'integrated selection method' on spring barley with the characters protein content, lysine content and grain yield. A mutation breeding programme (modified pedigree selection) and a cross-breeding programme (pedigree selection) are compared on the basis of different selection procedures (integrated selection, selection using independent culling levels). The differences are demonstrated on a realized gain through selection (RGSsub(r)), relative to parents in M9. Application of 'integrated selection' is demonstrated in two stages, resulting in a general selection model for protein characters in relation to grain yield. Significant mutants selected in M9 on the basis of improved utilizable protein yield (UPY = gram utilizable protein/m2) are compared with their mutagenic origin. Differences in mutagenic efficiency among varieties and among types and numbers of repeated treatments are discussed. A significant improvement using integrated selection for UPY is found to be possible in the range of 10 to 15%, compared with parents. Improvement is observed in three significant fractions: (1) protein improved at higher rates than grain yield, (2) protein improved at equal rates with grain yield, and (3) protein improved at lower rates than grain yield. All mutants selected from the mutation breeding programme were found to inherit the three characters quantitatively. Selection between families (M2 to M7) and within families (M8 to M9) was effective at both stages, provided genetic advance was determined by the significant selection rates used throughout the entire selection process. (author)

  7. Proteolysis of the barley receptor-like protein kinase RPG1 by a proteasome pathway is correlated with Rpg1-mediated stem rust resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmala, Jayaveeramuthu; Dahl, Stephanie; Steffenson, Brian J.; Kannangara, C. Gamini; von Wettstein, Diter; Chen, Xianming; Kleinhofs, Andris

    2007-01-01

    In plants, disease resistance mediated by the gene-for-gene mechanism involves the recognition of specific effector molecules produced by the pathogen either directly or indirectly by the resistance-gene products. This recognition triggers a series of signals, thereby serving as a molecular switch in regulating defense mechanisms by the plants. To understand the mechanism of action of the barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1, we investigated the fate of the RPG1 protein in response to infect...

  8. Actin Cytoskeleton and Golgi Involvement in Barley stripe mosaic virus Movement and Cell Wall Localization of Triple Gene Block Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoun-Sub Lim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV induces massive actin filament thickening at the infection front of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. To determine the mechanisms leading to actin remodeling, fluorescent protein fusions of the BSMV triple gene block (TGB proteins were coexpressed in cells with the actin marker DsRed: Talin. TGB ectopic expression experiments revealed that TGB3 is a major elicitor of filament thickening, that TGB2 resulted in formation of intermediate DsRed:Talin filaments, and that TGB1 alone had no obvious effects on actin filament structure. Latrunculin B (LatB treatments retarded BSMV cell-to-cell movement, disrupted actin filament organization, and dramatically decreased the proportion of paired TGB3 foci appearing at the cell wall (CW. BSMV infection of transgenic plants tagged with GFP-KDEL exhibited membrane proliferation and vesicle formation that were especially evident around the nucleus. Similar membrane proliferation occurred in plants expressing TGB2 and/or TGB3, and DsRed: Talin fluorescence in these plants colocalized with the ER vesicles. TGB3 also associated with the Golgi apparatus and overlapped with cortical vesicles appearing at the cell periphery. Brefeldin A treatments disrupted Golgi and also altered vesicles at the CW, but failed to interfere with TGB CW localization. Our results indicate that actin cytoskeleton interactions are important in BSMV cell-to-cell movement and for CW localization of TGB3.

  9. In silico and in vitro analyses of the angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of hydrolysates generated from crude barley (Hordeum vulgare) protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Wynne, Kieran; O'Connor, Paula; Gallagher, Eimear; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K; Hayes, Maria

    2016-07-15

    Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) plays a key role in control of hypertension, and type-2 diabetes mellitus, which frequently co-exist. Our current work utilised in silico methodologies and peptide databases as tools for predicting release of ACE-I inhibitory peptides from barley proteins. Papain was the enzyme of choice, based on in silico analysis, for experimental hydrolysis of barley protein concentrate, which was performed at the enzyme's optimum conditions (60 °C, pH 6.0) for 24 h. The generated hydrolysate was subjected to molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filtration, following which the non-ultrafiltered hydrolysate (NUFH), and the generated 3 kDa and 10 kDa MWCO filtrates were assessed for their in vitro ACE-I inhibitory activities. The 3 kDa filtrate (1 mg/ml), that demonstrated highest ACE-I inhibitory activity of 70.37%, was characterised in terms of its peptidic composition using mass spectrometry and 1882 peptides derived from 61 barley proteins were identified, amongst which 15 peptides were selected for chemical synthesis based on their predicted ACE-I inhibitory properties. Of the synthesized peptides, FQLPKF and GFPTLKIF were most potent, demonstrating ACE-I IC50 values of 28.2 μM and 41.2 μM respectively. PMID:26948626

  10. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Nørregaard Jensen, Ole;

    2006-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the cereal aleurone layer is the site of perception of germination signals and release of enzymes to the starchy endosperm. Analysis of membrane proteins is challenging due to their hydrophobicity and low abundance, thus little is known about the membrane proteins involved in...... seed germination. A membrane fraction highly enriched for the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was prepared from barley aleurone layers by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Since detergent and salt washes did not efficiently remove soluble proteins from the membrane preparations, an alternative procedure was...

  11. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.;

    2006-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the cereal aleurone layer is the site of perception of germination signals and release of enzymes to the starchy endosperm. Analysis of membrane proteins is challenging due to their hydrophobicity and low abundance; thus, little is known about the membrane proteins involved...... in seed germination. A membrane fraction highly enriched for the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was prepared from barley aleurone layers by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Because detergent and salt washes did not efficiently remove soluble proteins from the membrane preparations, an alternative procedure...

  12. Allelic variations of a light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (Lhcb1 associated with agronomic traits in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanshi Xia

    Full Text Available Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (LHCP is one of the most abundant chloroplast proteins in plants. Its main function is to collect and transfer light energy to photosynthetic reaction centers. However, the roles of different LHCPs in light-harvesting antenna systems remain obscure. Exploration of nucleotide variation in the genes encoding LHCP can facilitate a better understanding of the functions of LHCP. In this study, nucleotide variations in Lhcb1, a LHCP gene in barley, were investigated across 292 barley accessions collected from 35 different countries using EcoTILLING technology, a variation of the Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes (TILLING. A total of 23 nucleotide variations were detected including three insert/deletions (indels and 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Among them, 17 SNPs were in the coding region with nine missense changes. Two SNPs with missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Seventeen SNP formed 31 distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. The levels of nucleotide diversity in the Lhcb1 locus differed markedly with geographic origins and species of accessions. The accessions from Middle East Asia exhibited the highest nucleotide and haplotype diversity. H. spontaneum showed greater nucleotide diversity than H. vulgare. Five SNPs in Lhcb1 were significantly associated with at least one of the six agronomic traits evaluated, namely plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, flag leaf area and leaf color, and these SNPs may be used as potential markers for improvement of these barley traits.

  13. In vitro performance of 13-93 bioactive glass fiber and trabecular scaffolds with MLO-A5 osteogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modglin, Vernon C; Brown, Roger F; Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Jung, Steven B; Day, Delbert E

    2012-10-01

    This in vitro study was performed to evaluate the ability of two types of porous bioactive glass scaffolds to support the growth and differentiation of an established osteogenic cell line. The two scaffold types tested included 13-93 glass fiber and trabecular-like scaffolds seeded with murine MLO-A5 cells and cultured for intervals of 2 to 12 days. Culture in MTT-containing medium showed metabolically active cells both on the surface and within the interior of the scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy revealed well-attached cells on both types of scaffolds with a continual increase in cell density over a 6-day period. Protein measurements also showed a linear increase in cell density during the incubation. Activity of alkaline phosphatase, a key indicator of osteoblast differentiation, increased about 10-fold during the 6-day incubation with both scaffold types. The addition of mineralization media to MLO-A5 seeded scaffolds triggered extensive formation of alizarin red-positive mineralized extracellular material, additional evidence of cell differentiation and completion of the final step of bone formation on the constructs. Collectively, the results indicate that the 13-93 glass fiber and trabecular scaffolds promote the attachment, growth, and differentiation of MLO-A5 osteogenic cells and could potentially be used for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:22528984

  14. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    granular component. Particles with the same structure were present in the protein body preparation from the mutant, where, however, the granular component was the most prominent. Amino-acid composition and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins from the protein body preparation revealed......-polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis. Sections through pellets of isolated protein bodies from both the mutant and the wild type revealed protein body structures corresponding with those observed in sections through the intact starchy endosperms. The majority of the wild-type protein bodies was homogeneous spheres accompanied with a...

  15. Salinity Stress in Roots of Contrasting BarleyGenotypes Reveals Time-Distinct and Genotype-Specific Patterns for Defined Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe abiotic stress factors threatening agriculture worldwide. Hence,particular interest exists in unraveling mechanisms leading to salt tolerance and improved crop plant performance onsaline soils. Barley is considered to be one of the most salinity-tolerant crops, but varying levels of tolerance are wellcharacterized. A proteomic analysis of the roots of two contrasting cultivars (cv. Steptoe and cv. Morex) is presented.Young plants were exposed to a period of 1, 4, 7, or 10 d at 0, 100, or 150mM NaCI. The root proteome was analyzedbased on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A number of cultivar-specific and salinity stress-responsive proteins wereidentified. Mass spectrometry-based identification was successful for 74 proteins, and a hierarchical clustering analysisgrouped these into five clusters based on similarity of expression profile. The rank product method was applied to sta-tistically access the early and late responses, and this delivered a number of new candidate proteins underlying salinitytolerance in barley. Among these were some germin-like proteins, some pathogenesis-related proteins, and numerousas-yet uncharacterized proteins. Notably, proteins involved in detoxification pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis weredetected as early responsive to salinity and may function as a means of modulating growth-regulating mechanisms andmembrane stability via fine tuning of phytohormone and secondary metabolism in the root.

  16. Production of extruded barley, cassava, corn and quinoa enriched with whey proteins and cashew pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well-formulated snacks can play a positive role in enhancing health by providing essential nutrients, such as increased protein and fiber, that mitigate metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Adding whey protein concentrate (WPC80) and cashew pulp (CP) to corn meal, a major ingredient in extru...

  17. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM. PMID:26468909

  18. Spontaneous mutation frequencies in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Estimation of the spontaneous mutation frequency requires screening of very large populations and has therefore rarely been carried out in higher plants. A study on inter-allelic recombination in the ml-o locus allowed to collect some data on spontaneous chlorophyll mutants. 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. 25 plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among a total of 470129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7±0.6x10-4). If these data are pooled with others from similar materials the resulting estimate is 1.6x10-4 in about 1,43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 6.3x10-4 per diploid genome. Assuming that the number of loci that can give rise to chlorophyll mutants is in the order of 500, the spontaneous mutation rate would be in the order of 6x10-7 per locus and haploid genome per generation. (author)

  19. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based backgrounding diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to characterize the effects of CP concentration and ruminal degradability of barley-based backgrounding diets on route and chemical form of N excretion, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and nutrient digestion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (479 ± 14.6 kg average BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square. The basal diet consisted of 54% barley silage and 46% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (12% CP) or diets formulated to contain 14% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). The amount of feed offered was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. There was no effect of the diets on DMI (P = 0.38), and therefore, N intake was less (P 0.10) on the amount of urine N output. Urine N output was 38.9 and 45.1 ± 5.50% of N intake in heifers fed the 12% CP and 14% CP diets (P < 0.05), respectively. Urea N, the form of N most susceptible to NH3-N volatilization and loss, was the major form of N in urine (75.5% in heifers fed the 12% CP diet and 81.4 ± 1.7% in heifers fed the 14% CP diets; P < 0.05). Supplemental RDP (UREA+CM) and RUP combined with urea (UREA+CGM+xSBM) to provide 14% CP increased (P < 0.05) ruminal NH3-N but had no effect on ruminal peptide N (P = 0.62) and free AA N (P = 0.18) concentration, the flow of microbial (P = 0.34) and feed (P = 0.55) N, and ruminal (starch, P = 0.11; NDF, P = 0.78) and total tract nutrient digestibility (OM, P = 0.21; starch, P = 0.16). Supplementation of barley-based backgrounding diets containing 12% CP with NPN alone or combined with ruminally degradable and undegradable true protein to attain 14% CP had no effect on fecal N output, but urine N and urea N increased irrespective of protein source. In addition, the ruminal degradability of

  20. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the...... physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars for...

  1. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Bowra, Steve

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the...... physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars for...

  2. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  3. Differential Synthesis in Vitro of Barley Aleurone and Starchy Endosperm Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Hejgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Annette;

    1986-01-01

    . Thus, expression of genes encoding ASI, PSI, protein C, and PAPI is tissue and stage-specific during seed development. Only ASI, CI-1, and PAPI were synthesized in significant amounts with mRNA from cultured aleurone layers. The levels of synthesis of PAPI and CI-1 were independent of hormone treatment....... In contrast, synthesis of alpha-amylase (included as control) and of ASI showed antagonistic hormonal control: while GA promotes and ABA reduces accumulation of mRNA for alpha-amylase, these hormones have the opposite effect on ASI mRNA levels....

  4. Corticosterone regulates the expression of neuropeptide Y and reelin in MLO-Y4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xiangnan; Li, Xianxian; Fu, Jing; Shen, Jiefei; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hang

    2012-06-01

    Osteocytes that have a dendritic appearance are widely believed to form a complex cellular network system and play crucial roles in mechanotransduction as a principal bone mechanosensor, which is the basis of their neuronallike biology, as previously reported. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and reelin mRNA, which are brain-specific neurogenic markers, have been identified in osteocytes. However, changes in the production of NPY and reelin in response to specific biochemical stimulation are unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effect of corticosterone, one of the endogenous glucocorticoids, on the expression of NPY and reelin in the MLO-Y4 osteocyte cell line. Cells were treated with corticosterone at different concentrations (10(-9) M-10(-5) M) for 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. As revealed, corticosterone reduced the MLO-Y4 cell viability and proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner based on an MTT assay and a Vi-CELL analyzer. The cells were then incubated with corticosterone (10(-6) μM), and the NPY and reelin expression levels were detected at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. These results demonstrated that at the gene and the protein levels, corticosterone significantly upregulated the NPY and reelin expression in a time-dependent manner. The application of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, reversed the reduced cell viability and the increased expression of NPY and reelin that were caused by corticosterone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to verify that corticosterone regulates the NPY and reelin expression in osteocytes. PMID:22610366

  5. Using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy to detect effects of blend DDGS inclusion level on the molecular structure spectral and metabolic characteristics of the proteins in hulless barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of inclusion of a bioethanol co-product of blend DDGS (wheat:corn = 70%:30%) on protein molecular structure spectral and metabolic characteristics in hulless barley-based feed using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy. Hulless barley grain with the blend DDGS were mixed in the five ratios. The results showed that when blend DDGS was included at an increased ratio, predicted truly absorbed protein supply was highly and linearly increased (P products for dairy and beef cattle.

  6. Chemical characterization of Brazilian hulless barley varieties, flour fractionation, and protein concentration Caracterização química de variedades brasileiras de cevada nua, fracionamento da farinha e concentração de proteína

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Vieira Helm; Alicia de Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Even though hulless barley is widely known due to its nutritional potential, in Brazil it is only grown at a few agricultural experimental stations. There is no published data about the chemical composition of Brazilian hulless barley varieties; however, research laboratories have studied their agronomical characteristics. The objectives of this study were to present the chemical characterization and effect of flour fractionation on protein concentration of six Brazilian hulless barley variet...

  7. Novel prediction method of beer foam stability using protein Z, barley dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and yeast thioredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Takoi, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Takafumi; Kihara, Makoto; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Ito, Kazutoshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    2008-09-24

    Foam stability is an important quality trait of beer. Our previous results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) analyses of beer proteins implied a relationship between barley dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and beer foam stability as judged by the NIBEM-T analyzer. To develop a novel prediction method of beer foam stability under different conditions of barley cultivar and malt modification, multiple linear regression analysis was applied. The spot intensities of major beer proteins on 2DE gel were quantified and used as explanatory variables. The foam stabilities of 25 beer samples each brewed from malt with different malt modification in one of the three cultivars (cultivars A, B, and C) were explained by the spot intensities of BDAI-1 at the 5% significance level ( r = 0.421). Furthermore, two other major protein spots (b0 and b5) were observed on the 2DE gels of Japanese commercial beer samples with different foam stability. Then, multiple regression for foam stability was calculated using these three spot intensities as explanatory variables. As a result, 72.1% of the beer foam stability in 25 beer samples was explained by a novel multiple regression equation calculated using spot b0 and BDAI-1 as positive explanatory variables and spot b5 as a negative variable. To verify the validity of the multiple regression equation and the explanatory variables, the beer foam stability in practical beer samples was analyzed. As a result, 81.5% of the beer foam stability in 10 Japanese commercial beer samples was also explained by using spot b0 and BDAI-1 as positive explanatory variables and spot b5 as a negative variable. Mass spectrometry analyses followed by database searches revealed that protein spots b0 and b5 were identified as protein Z originated from barley and thioredoxin originated from yeast, respectively. These results confirm that BDAI-1 and protein Z are foam-positive factors and identify yeast thioredoxin as a possible novel foam

  8. Simulating CC and MLO compressions with the Surface Evolver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammographies are X-ray images of the breast under external compressions called Craniocaudal (CC) and Mediolateral Oblique (MLO). Together they increase the chances of detecting cancer but the breast is shown in strongly deformed shapes. Cancer location is highly uncertain for the surgery and so the breast is commonly taken out entirely, a serious trauma for the patient. In this paper we present a fully virtual mammography procedure that faithfully reproduces all shapes of the breast and in its inside tracks the cancer at any step. The cancer is then precisely located for the surgery and can be removed through a small incision. So the whole structure is preserved and cured as an integral benefit to the patient

  9. Effect of the growth stage and cultivar on policosanol profiles of barley sprouts and their adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Woo Duck; Yuk, Heung Joo; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Jang, Ki Chang; Lee, Jin Hwan; Han, Sang-Ik; Kang, Hang Won; Nam, Min Hee; Lee, Sung-Joon; Lee, Ji Hae; Park, Ki Hun

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an intracellular sensor that can regulate glucose levels within the cell. For this reason, it is well-known to be a target for drugs against diabetes and obesity. AMPK was activated significantly by the hexane extract of barley sprouts. This AMPK activation emerges across the growth stages of the sprout, becoming most significant (3 times above the initial stages) 10 days after sprouting. After this time, the activation decreased between 13 and 20 days post-sprouting. Analysis of the hexane extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the amounts of policosanols (PCs, which are linear, primary aliphatic alcohols with 20-30 carbons) in the plant dramatically increased between 5 days (109.7 mg/100 g) and 10 days (343.7 mg/100 g) post-sprouting and then levels fell back down, reaching 76.4 mg/100 g at 20 days post-sprouting. This trend is consistent with PCs being the active ingredient in the barley plants. We validate this by showing that hexacosanol is an activator of AMPK. The richest cultivar for PCs was found to be the Daejin cultivar. Cultivars had a significant effect on the total PC content (113.2-183.5 mg/100 g) within the plant up to 5 days post-sprouting. However this dependence upon the cultivar was not so apparent at peak stages of PC production (10 days post-sprouting). The most abundant PC in barley sprout, hexacosanol, contributed 62-80% of the total PC content at every stage. These results are valuable to determine the optimal times of harvest to obtain the highest yield of PCs. PMID:23301834

  10. Multi-method research strategy for understanding changes in storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated in a range of diverse environments and is widely utilised as feed for animal and as malt in brewing. Nitrogen (N) is a key macronutrient whch directly increases plant growth and is used as a fertiliser to meet the demands for higher yield. However, the in...... regimes. To reach the objective, integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis complemented with AAs profiling have been undertaken....

  11. Storage protein mutations identified in common wheat and barley accessions and utilization of those mutants in studies of crop properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of mutations in prolamines and glutelins encoding regions which lead to disappearance of whole block of components, the particular component of the block and changing in electrophoretic mobility have been identified as a result of screening of the number of common winter wheat varieties and lines as well as spring and winter barley varieties, which have been treated by both chemical and ionizing radiation mutagens. The importance of such type of plant material for fundamental and applied research is discussed. (author)

  12. Assesment of amylose and amylopectin variability in barley germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley grain is composed of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. The present study was conducted to investigate the variability for amylose and amylopectin content in different accessions of wild and cultivated barley from different regions. Our results showed that apparent amylose content ranged from 14.1 to 35.8 percentage, 5.7 to 26.8 percentage and 13.9 to 36.2 percentage for wild barley, barley landraces and varieties, respectively. The highest range for amylopectin content was observed in barley landraces from 33.7 to 81.7 percentage with the highest mean average value and the lowest range from 39.9 to 63.7 percentage with 52.5 percentage mean average value was observed in wild barley for amylopectin content. Furthermore, we found that out of 157 accessions, 52 had an average content of amylose (20-30 percentage), whereas six accessions had more than 30 percentage of amylose content. Our results indicated that the wild barley and barley varieties had considerable variation for amylose and amylopectin ratio compared to barley landraces, which not only provided some useful information about the difference in the amount of amylose and amylopectin content among these barley accessions, but also offered some prospects of using selected germplasm for barley quality improvement in respect of preferred amylose and amylopectin content. (author)

  13. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based finishing diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives were to characterize the effects of supplemental CP concentration and ruminal degradability in barley-based finishing diets on microbial protein synthesis, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion, and route and chemical form of N excretion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (564 ± 18 kg BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square with four 28-d periods (9 d for diet adaptation and 19 d for measurements). The basal diet consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% barley-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (13% CP) or diets containing 14.5% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). Nutrient digestion was determined using Yb as a digesta flow marker and purine N as a microbial marker with the collection of ruminal, duodenal, and fecal samples over 5 d. The next week, total collections of feces and urine were performed for 5 d to quantify route and chemical form of N excretion. Feed offered was restricted (95% of ad libitum) and there was no effect of the dietary treatments on DMI (P = 0.55); therefore, N intake was less (P < 0.05) in heifers fed the 13% CP diets than the 14.5% CP diets. Supplemental RDP and RUP had no effect on ruminal NH3-N (P = 0.17), peptide N (P = 0.46), and VFA (P = 0.62) concentrations, flow of microbial (P = 0.69) and feed (P = 0.22) N, and ruminal and total tract nutrient digestibility (P ≥ 0.18). Nutrient digestion in the rumen and total tract averaged 75.4 ± 3.8% and 84.6 ± 0.9% for OM, 80.8 ± 3.6% and 95.8 ± 0.8% for starch, and 41.2 ± 7.9% and 60.4 ± 3.3% of intake for NDF, respectively. Daily output of N in feces (P = 0.91) and urine (P = 0.14) were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fecal N output averaged 19.9 ± 1.9% (P = 0.30) and urine N output averaged 44.1 ± 2.8% (P = 0.63) of N intake

  14. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  15. Optimised purification and characterisation of lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1) and its lipid-bound isoform LTP1b from barley malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Melanie; Lombard, Nicolaas; Rautenbach, Marina

    2014-08-15

    In beer brewing, brewers worldwide strive to obtain product consistency in terms of flavour, colour and foam. Important proteins contributing to beer foam are lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), in particular LTP1 and its lipid-bound isoform LTP1b, which are known to transport lipids in vivo and prevent lipids from destabilising the beer foam. LTP1 and LTP1b were successfully purified using only five purification steps with a high purified protein yield (160 mg LTP1 and LTP1b from 200 g barley). Circular dichroism of LTP1 and LTP1b confirmed that both proteins are highly tolerant to high temperatures (>90 °C) and are pH stable, particularly at a neutral to a more basic pH. Only LTP1 exhibited antiyeast and thermo-stable lytic activity, while LTP1b was inactive, indicating that the fatty acid moiety compromised the antimicrobial activity of LTP1. This lack in antiyeast activity and the positive foam properties of LTP1b would benefit beer fermentation and quality. PMID:24679818

  16. Impact of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication on MLO-Y4 Sclerostin and Soluble Factor Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, S L; Sethu, P; Saunders, M M

    2016-04-01

    Bone remodeling is a continual process in which old bone is resorbed by osteoclasts and new bone is formed by osteoblasts, providing a mechanism for bones' ability to adapt to changes in its mechanical environment. While the role of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in bone remodeling is well understood, the cellular regulation of bone remodeling is unclear. One theory is that osteocytes, found within bone, play an important role in controlling the bone remodeling response. Osteocytes possess gap junctions, narrow channels that extend between nearby cells and allow communication between cells via the transfer of small molecules and ions. This work investigated the potential role of gap junctional intercellular communication in bone remodeling by exposing osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells to mechanical strains and quantifying the expression of soluble factors, including sclerostin, a protein closely associated with bone remodeling. The soluble factors and sclerostin expression were further examined after inhibiting gap junctional intercellular communication to study the impact of the communication. At supraphysiologic strains, the inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication led to increases in sclerostin expression relative to cells in which communication was present, indicating that the communication may play a significant role in regulating bone remodeling. PMID:26154422

  17. Enhanced quantitative resistance against fungal disease by combinatorial expression of different barley antifungal proteins in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jach, G; Görnhardt, B; Mundy, J;

    1995-01-01

    original cytosolic form or fused to a plant secretion peptide (spRIP). Fungal infection assays revealed that expression of the individual genes in each case resulted in an increased protection against the soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, which infects a range of plant species including tobacco....... Transgenic tobacco lines were generated with tandemly arranged genes coding for RIP and CHI as well as GLU and CHI. The performance of tobacco plants co-expressing the barley transgenes GLU/CHI or CHI/RIP in a Rhizoctonia solani infection assay revealed significantly enhanced protection against fungal attack....... To create a situation similar to 'multi-gene' tolerance, which traditional breeding experience has shown to provide crops with a longer-lasting protection, several of these antifungal genes were combined and protection against fungal attack resulting from their co-expression in planta was evaluated...

  18. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  19. Quantitative Interactor Screening with next-generation Sequencing (QIS-Seq identifies Arabidopsis thaliana MLO2 as a target of the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopZ2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Jennifer D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of protein-protein interactions is a fundamental aspect of understanding protein function. A commonly used method for identifying protein interactions is the yeast two-hybrid system. Results Here we describe the application of next-generation sequencing to yeast two-hybrid interaction screens and develop Quantitative Interactor Screen Sequencing (QIS-Seq. QIS-Seq provides a quantitative measurement of enrichment for each interactor relative to its frequency in the library as well as its general stickiness (non-specific binding. The QIS-Seq approach is scalable and can be used with any yeast two-hybrid screen and with any next-generation sequencing platform. The quantitative nature of QIS-Seq data make it amenable to statistical evaluation, and importantly, facilitates the standardization of experimental design, data collection, and data analysis. We applied QIS-Seq to identify the Arabidopsis thaliana MLO2 protein as a target of the Pseudomonas syringae type III secreted effector protein HopZ2. We validate the interaction between HopZ2 and MLO2 in planta and show that the interaction is required for HopZ2-associated virulence. Conclusions We demonstrate that QIS-Seq is a high-throughput quantitative interactor screen and validate MLO2 as an interactor and novel virulence target of the P. syringae type III secreted effector HopZ2.

  20. Study on transfection method to MLO-Y4 cells%小鼠骨样细胞MLO-Y4转染方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安龙; 续惠云; 瓮媛媛; 商澎

    2010-01-01

    为了建立质粒转染小鼠骨样细胞MLO-Y4的方法,分别采用阳离子脂质体法和电转染法将增强型绿色荧光蛋白(EGFP)质粒pEGFP-C1转染小鼠骨样细胞MLO-Y4,正常培养48h后检测并统计转染率和死亡率.结果显示,脂质体法转染,当质粒与脂质体比例为1∶4时,转染效率可达到(36.8 ±3.7)%,细胞死亡率为(18.4 ±1.9)%;电转染法转染,脉冲电压240 V,脉冲时间300μs,脉冲次数3次时,转染率最高,可达到(23.8 ±2.3)%,细胞死亡率为(14.1 ±1.1)%.而后MTT实验显示脂质体转染法相对于电转柒法对MLO-Y4细胞的增殖有一定的抑制作用,但对后续实验研究影响不大.脂质体转染法转染小鼠骨样细胞MLO-Y4优于电转染法.

  1. Synthesis of Salt Soluble Proteins in Barley. Pulse-Labeling Study of Grain Filling in Liquid-Cultured Detached Spikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1984-01-01

    from isolated endosperms and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Fluorography revealed an early, middle and late synthesis of specific proteins during grain filling. Synthesis of proteins appearing at the later stages responded to...

  2. The movement protein of barley yellow dwarf virus-GAV self-interacts and forms homodimers in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zongliang; Cao, Rufei; Sun, Kaile; Zhang, Hua

    2012-07-01

    The 17-kDa movement protein (MP) of the GAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-GAV) can bind the viral RNA and target to the nucleus. However, much less is known about the active form of the MP in planta. In this study, the ability of the MP to self-interact was analyzed by yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The BYDV-GAV MP has a strong potential to self-interact in vitro and in vivo, and self-interaction was mediated by the N-terminal domain spanning the second α-helix (residues 17-39). Chemical cross-linking and heterologous MP expression from a pea early browning virus (PEBV) vector further showed that MP self-interacts to form homodimers in vitro and in planta. Interestingly, the N-terminal domain necessary for MP self-interaction has previously been identified as important for nuclear targeting. Based on these findings, a functional link between MP self-interaction and nuclear targeting is discussed. PMID:22437255

  3. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on protein quality/quantity and Zn content of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Lange, Mette; Schjørring, Jan Kofod;

    2011-01-01

    Among all metals Zn is required by the largest number of proteins. In plants, Zn deficiency leads to reduction of photosynthesis, decreased starch and protein formations, reduced auxin and amino acids levels and increased permeability of bio-membranes, which enhance inorganic P uptake. In humans...

  4. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...... significantly decreased the Bgh haustorial formation rate, indicating their contribution to fungal pathogenesis. All these CSEPs were highly expressed during and after haustorial formation, suggesting that they play a role in virulence during the late infection processes. In addition, they all localized to the...... misfolding and aggregation. Through their chaperone activity, some sHsps contribute to pathogen defence by stabilizing intracellular proteins, including resistance and defence signalling proteins. In this study, we validated the chaperone activity of the barley Hsp16.9, which prevented the aggregation of...

  5. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  6. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  7. Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of α-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, α-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat. PMID:25578157

  8. Proteome analysis of barley seeds: Identification of major proteins from two-dimensional gels (pl 4-7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, O.; Finnie, Christine; Laugesen, S.; Roepstorff, P.; Svensson, Birte

    2004-01-01

    Germination of monocotyledonous plants involves activation and de novo synthesis of enzymes that degrade cell walls and starch and mobilize stored endosperm reserves for embryo growth. Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were applied to identify major water-soluble pro......Germination of monocotyledonous plants involves activation and de novo synthesis of enzymes that degrade cell walls and starch and mobilize stored endosperm reserves for embryo growth. Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were applied to identify major water...... followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry-peptide map fingerprint analysis. Database searches using measured peptide masses resulted in 198 identifications of 103 proteins in 177 spots. These include housekeeping enzymes, chaperones, defence proteins (including enzyme...

  9. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  10. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control...... expressed in E. coli and purified in Chapter 5. The functional characterization of two proteins is undergoing. In Chapter 6, microarray data of F. graminearum during interaction with barley and wheat was analysed. The expression patterns of 11fungal genes in microarray analysis were different from q...

  11. Serotonin Transporter and Receptor Expression in Osteocytic MLO-Y4 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    BLIZIOTES, M.; ESHLEMAN, A.; BURT-PICHAT, B.; Zhang, X.-W.; Hashimoto, J; WIREN, K.; C. Chenu

    2006-01-01

    Neurotransmitter regulation of bone metabolism has been a subject of increasing interest and investigation. We reported previously that osteoblastic cells express a functional serotonin (5-HT) signal transduction system, with mechanisms for responding to and regulating uptake of 5-HT. The clonal murine osteocytic cell line, MLO-Y4, demonstrates expression of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), and the 5-HT1A, and 5-HT2A receptors by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. Immunohistochemistr...

  12. Brachypodium distachyon line Bd3-1 resistance is elicited by the barley stripe mosaic virus triple gene block 1 movement protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.Y.; Yan, L.J.; Gorter, F.A.; Kim, B.Y.T.; Cui, Y.; Hu, Y.; Yuan, C.; Grindheim, J.; Ganesan, U.; Liu, Z.Y.; Han, C.G.; Yu, J.L.; Li, D.W.; Jackson, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus North Dakota 18 (ND18), Beijing (BJ), Xinjiang (Xi), Type (TY) and CV21 strains are unable to infect the Brachypodium distachyon Bd3-1 inbred line, which harbours a resistance gene designated Bsr1, but the Norwich (NW) strain is virulent on Bd3-1. Analysis of ND18 and NW g

  13. Analysis of promoters in transgenic barley and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J; Pellegrineschi, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Advances in the genetic transformation of cereals have improved the prospects of using biotechnology for plant improvement, and a toolbox of promoters with defined specificities would be a valuable resource in controlling the expression of transgenes in desired tissues for both plant improvement and molecular farming. A number of promoters have been isolated from the important cereals (wheat, barley, rice and maize), and these promoters have been tested mostly in homologous cereal systems and, to a lesser extent, in heterologous cereal systems. The use of these promoters across the important cereals would add value to the utility of each promoter. In addition, promoters with less sequence homology, but with similar specificities, will be crucial in avoiding homology-based gene silencing when expressing more than one transgene in the same tissue. We have tested wheat and barley promoters in transgenic barley and wheat to determine whether their specificity is shared across these two species. The barley bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (Isa) promoter, specific to the pericarp in barley, failed to show any activity in wheat, whereas the wheat early-maturing (Em) promoter showed similar activity in wheat and barley. The wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin (HMW-Glu) and barley D-hordein (D-Hor) and B-hordein (B-Hor) storage protein promoters maintained endosperm-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in wheat and barley, respectively. Using gfp, we have demonstrated that the Isa and Em promoters can be used as strong promoters to direct transgenes in specific tissues of barley and wheat grain. Differential promoter activity across cereals expands and adds value to a promoter toolbox for utility in plant biotechnology. PMID:19175520

  14. The CELLULOSE-SYNTHASE LIKE C (CSLC) Family of Barley Includes Members that Are Integral Membrane Proteins Targeted to the Plasma Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenny M. Dwivany; Dina Yuli; Rachel A. Burton; Neil J. Shirley; Sarah M. Wilson; Geoffrey B. Fincher; Antony Bacic; Ed Newbigin; Monika S. Doblin

    2009-01-01

    The CELLULOSESYNTHASE-LIKE C(CSLC) family is an ancient lineage within the CELLULOSE SYNTHASE/CEL-LULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE (CESA/CSL) polysaccharide synthase superfamily that is thought to have arisen before the diver-gence of mosses and vascular plants. As studies in the flowering plant Arabidopsis have suggested synthesis of the (1,4)-β-glucan backbone of xyloglucan (XyG), a wall polysaccharide that tethers adjacent cellulose microfibrils to each other, as a probable function for the CSLCs, CSLC function was investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a species with low amounts of XyG in its walls. Four barley CSLC genes were identified (designated HvCSLC1-4). Phylogenetic analysis reveals three well supported clades of CSLCs in flowering plants, with barley having representatives in two of these clades. The four barley CSLCs were expressed in various tissues, with in situ PCR detecting transcripts in all cell types of the coleoptile and root, including cells with primary and secondary cell walls. Co-expression analysis showed that HvCSLC3 was coor-dinately expressed with putative XyG xylosyltransferase genes. Both immuno-EM and membrane fractionation showed that HvCSLC2 was located in the plasma membrane of barley suspension-cultured cells and was not in internal membranes such as endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus. Based on our current knowledge of the sub-cellular locations of poly-saccharide synthesis, we conclude that the CSLC family probably contains more than one type of polysaccharide synthase.

  15. Effect Of Barley Fibres And Barley Intake On The Ileal Endogenous Nitrogen Losses In Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Leterme, Pascal; Souffrant, Wb.; Thewis, André

    2000-01-01

    Ileal endogenous N losses (ENL) were measured, using the 15N isotope dilution technique, in piglets (17 kg) fed different barley genotypes (naked, spring, winter with low/high beta-glucan content) or diets containing 330, 530, 730 or 930 g of a blend of barleys/kg diet. The apparent protein and amino acid digestibilities of the naked variety and the winter variety with a high beta-glucan content were, on average, significantly higher than those for the other two varieties. The ENL were invers...

  16. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    A Ri Byun; Hyejin Chun; Jin Lee; Sang Wha Lee; Hong Soo Lee; Kyung Won Shim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided i...

  17. Expression of Barley Endopeptidase B in Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Saarelainen, R.; Mantyla, A.; Nevalainen, H.; Suominen, P.

    1997-01-01

    The gene for barley endopeptidase B (EPB) has been expressed in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei from the cbh1 promoter. The EPB signal sequence allowed secretion of over 90% of the recombinant protein. Yields reached about 500 mg of immunoreactive protein per liter and exceeded values for any other protein derived from a higher eukaryotic organism produced in T. reesei.

  18. Cy5 maleimide labelling for sensitive detection of free thiols in native protein extracts: identification of seed proteins targeted by barley thioredoxin h isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, K.; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2004-01-01

    thioredoxin-targeted proteins based on two-dimensional electrophoresis and fluorescence labelling of thiol groups was achieved by application of a highly sensitive Cy5 maleimide dye and large-format two-dimensional gels, resulting in a 10-fold increase in the observed number of labelled protein spots. The...

  19. Genomic Analysis of Xanthomonas translucens Pathogenic on Wheat and Barley Reveals Cross-Kingdom Gene Transfer Events and Diverse Protein Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, Donald M.; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Stiller, Jiri; Ellis, Jeff G.; Dodds, Peter N; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to dicot-infecting bacteria, only limited numbers of genome sequences are available for monocot-infecting and in particular cereal-infecting bacteria. Herein we report the characterisation and genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens isolate DAR61454 pathogenic on wheat and barley. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene, DAR61454 is most closely related to other X. translucens strains and the sugarcane- and banana- infecting Xanthomonas str...

  20. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus

  1. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis. PMID:26471595

  2. Albinism in barley androgenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Makowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Androgenesis is highly useful for plant breeding, significantly reducing breeding cycle times, as well as in a wide range of biological research. However, for widespread use this process must be efficient. Despite several decades of research on the phenomenon of androgenesis, many processes involved are obscure and there is much to be understood about androgenesis. One of the problems inherent in androgenesis, and reducing its efficiency, is albinism. This article reviews albinism in barley a...

  3. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe;

    2011-01-01

    objective is to develop barley varieties with good baking properties. The poor leavening properties of barley can be attributed, at least partially, to the physical properties of the storage proteins. Studies based on small scaled baking trials and protein pattern analysed by SDS-PAGE on a large number of...... high protein barley cultivars suggested differences in baking quality and correlation between baking quality and D-hordeins. The amino acid composition was measures using the newly developed AccQ Tag Ultra Amino acid (AA) derivatisation system designed for the Acquity UPLC. Obtained results from the...... opportunity to give a forecast of the taste of the bread, as the AA composition is known to control certain aspects of the taste. We uses a MSE approach on a time of flight instrument coupled to a UPLC and in gel digestion to identify and characterize the different D-hordeins responsible for baking quality...

  4. CN-PAGE as a tool for separating pigment–protein complexes and studying their thermal stability in spruce and barley thylakoid membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurasová, Irena; Svrčinová, K.; Karlický, Václav; Špunda, Vladimír

    Brno: Global Change Research Centre, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v. v. i., 2015 - (Urban, O.; Šprtová, M.; Klem, K.), s. 146-149 ISBN 978-80-87902-10-3. [Global Change: A Complex Challenge /4th/. Brno (CZ), 23.03.2015-24.03.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-28093S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : thermal stability * barley thylakoid Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  6. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA re...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development.......The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...

  7. Acetylcholine affects osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells via acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Li, Xianxian; Fu, Jing; Li, Yue; Gao, Li; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Ping; Shen, Jiefei; Wang, Hang

    2014-03-25

    The identification of the neuronal control of bone remodeling has become one of the many significant recent advances in bone biology. Cholinergic activity has recently been shown to favor bone mass accrual by complex cellular regulatory networks. Here, we identified the gene expression of the muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (m- and nAChRs) in mice tibia tissue and in osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells. Acetylcholine, which is a classical neurotransmitter and an osteo-neuromediator, not only influences the mRNA expression of the AChR subunits but also significantly induces the proliferation and viability of osteocytes. Moreover, acetylcholine treatment caused the reciprocal regulation of RANKL and OPG mRNA expression, which resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA ratio of RANKL:OPG in osteocytes via acetylcholine receptors. The expression of neuropeptide Y and reelin, which are two neurogenic markers, was also modulated by acetylcholine via m- and nAChRs in MLO-Y4 cells. These results indicated that osteocytic acetylcholine receptors might be a new valuable mediator for cell functions and even for bone remodeling. PMID:24508663

  8. On the origin of Spanish two-rowed barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo, M; Romagosa, I; Salcedo, G; Sánchez-Monge, R; Molina-Cano, J L

    1994-02-01

    To investigate the phylogenetic origin of Spanish two-rowed barleys, we studied 44 accessions of old land-races both morphologically and biochemically to ascertain their similarity with 51 entries of old cultivars and land-races of widespread origin across Europe. They were also compared with 20 accessions of Hordeum spontaneum from the Mediterranean basin and other regions of its distribution range, 14 accessions of Moroccan cultivated six-rowed barley land-races, and different six-rowed Spanish and two-and six-rowed European cultivars. CM-(trypsin inhibitors and subunits of the barley tetrameric α-amylase inhibitor) proteins and hordeins, all of which are endosperm proteins, were used as biochemical markers. The appearance of separate clusters of the Spanish barleys in the numerical classifications for both protein systems as a result of the existence of characteristic gene combinations that do not exist in entries from other origins permitted us to postulate the existence of local ancestors for most of the Spanish two-rowed barleys studied, and, therefore, a possible in situ domestication. PMID:24190469

  9. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly......A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse...

  10. 17β-estradiol rapidly activates calcium release from intracellular stores via the GPR30 pathway and MAPK phosphorylation in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Jian

    2012-03-06

    Estrogen regulates critical cellular functions, and its deficiency initiates bone turnover and the development of bone mass loss in menopausal females. Recent studies have demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E 2) induces rapid non-genomic responses that activate downstream signaling molecules, thus providing a new perspective to understand the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated rapid estrogen responses, including calcium release and MAPK phosphorylation, in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. E 2 elevated [Ca 2+] i and increased Ca 2+ oscillation frequency in a dose-dependent manner. Immunolabeling confirmed the expression of three estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [GPR30]) in MLO-Y4 cells and localized GPR30 predominantly to the plasma membrane. E 2 mobilized calcium from intracellular stores, and the use of selective agonist(s) for each ER showed that this was mediated mainly through the GPR30 pathway. MAPK phosphorylation increased in a biphasic manner, with peaks occurring after 7 and 60 min. GPR30 and classical ERs showed different temporal effects on MAPK phosphorylation and contributed to MAPK phosphorylation sequentially. ICI182,780 inhibited E 2 activation of MAPK at 7 min, while the GPR30 agonist G-1 and antagonist G-15 failed to affect MAPK phosphorylation levels. G-1-mediated MAPK phosphorylation at 60 min was prevented by prior depletion of calcium stores. Our data suggest that E 2 induces the non-genomic responses Ca 2+ release and MAPK phosphorylation to regulate osteocyte function and indicate that multiple receptors mediate rapid E 2 responses. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. 17β-estradiol rapidly activates calcium release from intracellular stores via the GPR30 pathway and MAPK phosphorylation in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Wu, Jun Hua

    2012-05-01

    Estrogen regulates critical cellular functions, and its deficiency initiates bone turnover and the development of bone mass loss in menopausal females. Recent studies have demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E(2)) induces rapid non-genomic responses that activate downstream signaling molecules, thus providing a new perspective to understand the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated rapid estrogen responses, including calcium release and MAPK phosphorylation, in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. E(2) elevated [Ca(2+)]( i ) and increased Ca(2+) oscillation frequency in a dose-dependent manner. Immunolabeling confirmed the expression of three estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [GPR30]) in MLO-Y4 cells and localized GPR30 predominantly to the plasma membrane. E(2) mobilized calcium from intracellular stores, and the use of selective agonist(s) for each ER showed that this was mediated mainly through the GPR30 pathway. MAPK phosphorylation increased in a biphasic manner, with peaks occurring after 7 and 60 min. GPR30 and classical ERs showed different temporal effects on MAPK phosphorylation and contributed to MAPK phosphorylation sequentially. ICI182,780 inhibited E(2) activation of MAPK at 7 min, while the GPR30 agonist G-1 and antagonist G-15 failed to affect MAPK phosphorylation levels. G-1-mediated MAPK phosphorylation at 60 min was prevented by prior depletion of calcium stores. Our data suggest that E(2) induces the non-genomic responses Ca(2+) release and MAPK phosphorylation to regulate osteocyte function and indicate that multiple receptors mediate rapid E(2) responses. PMID:22392527

  12. Establishment of action levels for quality control of IMRT flat panel: experience with the algorithm iGRiMLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algorithm has been used at our institution iGRiMLO scheduled for individual verification of treatment plans for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) step and shoot through portal dosimetry pretreatment of non-transmission, triggering the plan directly to a portal imaging device (EPID) of an amorphous silicon flat panel.

  13. Barley malt increases hindgut and portal butyric acid, modulates gene expression of gut tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors in rats fed high-fat diets, but high advanced glycation end-products partially attenuate the effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yadong; Teixeira, Cristina; Marungruang, Nittaya; Sae-Lim, Watina; Tareke, Eden; Andersson, Roger; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-09-01

    Barley malt, a product of controlled germination, has been shown to produce high levels of butyric acid in the cecum and portal serum of rats and may therefore have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the study was to investigate how four barley malts, caramelized and colored malts, 50-malt and 350-malt, differing in functional characteristics concerning beta-glucan content and color, affect short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), barrier function and inflammation in the hindgut of rats fed high-fat diets. Male Wistar rats were given malt-supplemented high-fat diets for four weeks. Low and high-fat diets containing microcrystalline cellulose were incorporated as controls. All diets contained 70 g kg(-1) dietary fiber. The malt-fed groups were found to have had induced higher amounts of butyric and propionic acids in the hindgut and portal serum compared with controls, while cecal succinic acid only increased to a small extent. Fat increased the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the small intestine and distal colon of the rats, as well as the concentration of some amino acids in the portal plasma, but malt seemed to counteract these adverse effects to some extent. However, the high content of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in caramelized malt tended to prohibit the positive effects on occludin in the small intestine and plasma amino acids seen with the other malt products. In conclusion, malting seems to be an interesting process for producing foods with positive health effects, but part of these effects may be destroyed if the malt contains a high content of AGE. PMID:26227569

  14. Induced High Lysine Mutants in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Køie, B.; Eggum, B. O.

    1974-01-01

    Screening of mutagenically treated materials by combined Kjeldahl nitrogen and dye-binding capacity determinations disclosed fourteen barley mutants, which have from a few to about 40 per cent more lysine in the protein and one mutant with 10 per cent less lysine in the protein than the parent...... variety. Comparisons of six high lysine mutants with the parent variety showed that grain yield and seed size of the mutants are reduced between 10 and 30 per cent. However, the most promising mutant had the lowest reduction in grain yield, and the absolute lysine yield of this mutant was some 30 per cent...... above that of the parent variety. Feeding tests with rats revealed substantial increases in the biological value of the high lysine mutant protein. Also the net protein utilization was improved but less so because of a somewhat reduced digestibility of the mutant protein....

  15. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...... site cysteines and by removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. A cDNA clone of the barley key cysteine endoprotease...

  16. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  17. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  18. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz Hensel; Doreen M Floss; Elsa Arcalis; Markus Sack; Stanislav Melnik; Friedrich Altmann; Twan Rutten; Jochen Kumlehn; Eva Stoger; Udo Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4) signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (SE)KDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up...

  19. The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2015-01-27

    The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley. PMID:25583503

  20. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  1. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  2. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  3. Protein quality in cereals and pulses. 1. Application of microbiological and other in vitro methods in the evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), barley and field beans (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J E; Hewitt, D

    1979-03-01

    1. The Streptococcus zymogenes assay procedure was modified and used in the estimation of available methionine and relative nutritional value in rice (Oryza sativa L.), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), barley and field beans (Vicia faba L.). The results were assessed in relation to the content of tannins and 'dye-binding lysine', and to published information on the nutritional quality of some of the test samples. 2. In grain of ten varieties of sorghum, for which other workers had reported a correlation (r -0.82; P less than 0.01) between tannin content and amino acid digestibility in chicks, the available methionine content ranged from 6.3 to 17.7 g/kg protein (nitrogen x 6.25) and was highly correlated with tannin content (r -0.97; P less than 0.001). The content of total methionine and dye-binding lysine varied little between varieties and was not related to tannin content. 3. In nine samples of rice the availability of methionine was uniformly high, in accordance with literature values for true digestibility of the N. 4. In field beans the presence of tammins in the seed coat was associated with a significant (P less than 0.001) reduction in the availability of methionine. In eleven tannin-free varieties the coefficient of availability averaged 0.791, compared with 0.685 in eleven tannin-containing varieties. The standard deviation associated with both values was 0.04. There was no such difference between the corresponding dye-binding lysine values. 5. Thirty-three samples of barley were examined, representing fourteen varieties, four of which had been grown at several widely different latitudes in England and Sweden. There was little difference in methionine content between samples. The average availability coefficient for eighteen samples grown in England was 0.995+/-0.044, and for fifteen varieties grown in Sweden it was 0.851+/-0.042. The difference was not associated with any difference in tannin content, which was uniformly low. The findings contradict

  4. Winter forage quality of oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare) and vetch (vicia sativa) in pure stand and cereal legume mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)

  5. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisen Zhang

    Full Text Available Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling. Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%, intron retention (32%-34% and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21% were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  6. Molecular analysis of genome instability in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable protocol for regenerating barley from seedling explants, including leaf bases with a complete apical meristem, has been developed at the Institute of Genetic Engineering. The system was established with Bulgarian barley cultivars (Ruen, Karnobat, Obzor and Yubilei) and reconstructed genotypes (K. Gecheff IG). Pretreatment of the mature embryos with a high concentration of 2.4D generated valuable and stable genetic deviations in the regenerants. The brewery cultivar Ruen was selected as the model genotype. It has been demonstrated that genetic variations, such as higher yield, earlier maturation and lower protein content, have been induced and maintained for 5 years. Comparative experiments, including treatment of barley mature seeds with 60Co gamma rays (10 and 20 krad) and sodium azide (1.10-3 M and 5 x 10-4 M), were also carried out. The results obtained showed that both treatments stimulated calusogenesis and regeneration of the plants. Molecular markers such as proteins, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were applied in studies on the mutagenic effects of 2.4D, gamma rays and sodium azide, and a combination threof, on the quality and quantity of the genetic diversification generated in tissue culture of the Bulgarian barley cultivars Ruen, Karnobat, Obzor and Yubilei and the reconstructed genotypes

  7. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  8. Wheat and barley dehydrins under cold, drought, and salinity – what can LEA-II proteins tell us about plant stress response?

    OpenAIRE

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Prášil, Ilja T.

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrins as a group of late embryogenesis abundant II proteins represent important dehydration-inducible proteins whose accumulation is induced by developmental processes (embryo maturation) as well as by several abiotic stress factors (low temperatures, drought, salinity). In the review, an overview of studies aimed at investigation of dehydrin accumulation patterns at transcript and protein levels as well as their possible functions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. duru...

  9. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed. PMID:26101533

  10. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ri Byun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L. contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n=51. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n=25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years and the other consumed placebo capsules (n=26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL- cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p=0.415 and p=0.351, resp. and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed.

  11. Convergent evidence for a role of WIR1 proteins during the interaction of barley with the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douchkov, Dimitar; Johrde, A.; Nowara, D.; Himmelbach, A.; Lueck, S.; Niks, R.E.; Schweizer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogen attack triggers a multifaceted defence response in plants that includes the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins and their corresponding transcripts. One of these transcripts encodes for WIR1, a small glycine- and proline-rich protein of unknown function that appears to be specific

  12. 17β estradiol regulation of connexin 43-based gap junction and mechanosensitivity through classical estrogen receptor pathway in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Jian

    2013-04-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) plays an essential role in osteocyte mechanotransduction. Although estrogen involves in the adaptive responses of bone cells to mechanical loadings, its effects on osteocytic Cx43-based gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) remain obscure. We found that 17β estradiol (E2) up-regulated Cx43, and enhanced GJIC in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells in fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assay. Combination of E2 pre-treatment and oscillating fluid flow (OFF) further enhanced Cx43 expression and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, comparing to E2 or OFF treatment alone. Both blocking of classical estrogen receptors (ERα/β) by fulvestrant and ERα knockdown by small interfering RNA inhibited E2-mediated Cx43 increase, while a GPR30-specific agonist G-1 failed to promote Cx43 expression. Our results suggest that the presence of E2 enhanced Cx43-based GJIC mainly via ERα/β pathway, and sensitized osteocytes to mechanical loading. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 17β estradiol regulation of connexin 43-based gap junction and mechanosensitivity through classical estrogen receptor pathway in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Wang, Xu-Hui; Wang, Guang-Chao; Wu, Jun-Hua

    2013-04-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) plays an essential role in osteocyte mechanotransduction. Although estrogen involves in the adaptive responses of bone cells to mechanical loadings, its effects on osteocytic Cx43-based gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) remain obscure. We found that 17β estradiol (E2) up-regulated Cx43, and enhanced GJIC in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells in fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assay. Combination of E2 pre-treatment and oscillating fluid flow (OFF) further enhanced Cx43 expression and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, comparing to E2 or OFF treatment alone. Both blocking of classical estrogen receptors (ERα/β) by fulvestrant and ERα knockdown by small interfering RNA inhibited E2-mediated Cx43 increase, while a GPR30-specific agonist G-1 failed to promote Cx43 expression. Our results suggest that the presence of E2 enhanced Cx43-based GJIC mainly via ERα/β pathway, and sensitized osteocytes to mechanical loading. PMID:23247057

  14. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  15. Comparison of barley stripe mosaic virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Elsayed E; Abdel Aleem, Engy E; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2008-01-01

    BSMV (barley stripe mosaic virus) particles were obtained in a pure state from infected host plant tissues of Hordeum vulgare. The three genomic parities (alpha, beta and gamma) were amplified by PCR using specific primers for each particle; each was cloned. Partial sequence of the alpha, beta and gamma segments was determined for the Egyptian isolate of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV AE1). Alignment of nucleotide sequences with that of other known strains of the virus, BSMV type strains (CV17, ND18 and China), and the generation of phylogenetic trees was performed. A low level of homology was detected comparing 467 bp of the a and 643 bp of the segments to that of the other strains, and thus BSMV alpha and beta segments were in separate clusters. However, 1154 bp of the gamma segments of BSMV AE1 showed a high level of homology especially to strain BSMV ND18, as they both formed a distinct cluster. Northern blotting of pure BSMV AE1 virus and H. vulgare-infected tissue were compared using an alpha ND18 specific probe. Western blotting using antibodies specific for the coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block 1 (TGB1) protein, which are both encoded by the beta ND18 segment, still indicated a high level of similarity between proteins produced by BSMV ND18 and AE1. We suggest that the BSMV AE1 isolate is a distinct strain of BSMV which reflects the genetic evolutionary divergence among BSMV strains and members of the Hordeivirus group. PMID:18533473

  16. Heterologous expression and purification of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    The mobilization of protein during germination of barley seeds is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction of the...... active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. The barley key cysteine protease, endoprotease...

  17. Consolidated conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Taylor, Frank; Hicks, Kevin B

    2011-06-01

    A novel process using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic treatment for conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars was developed. The purpose of this process is to convert both lignocellulosic polysaccharides and starch in hulled barley grains into fermentable sugars simultaneously without a need for grinding and hull separation. In this study, hulled barley grains were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 wt.-% sulfuric acid at various temperatures ranging from 110 to 170 °C in a 63-ml flow-through packed-bed stainless steel reactor. After sulfuric acid pretreatment, simultaneous conversion of lignocellulose and starch in the barley grains into fermentable sugars was performed using an enzyme cocktail, which included α-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, and β-glucosidase. Both starch and non-starch polysaccharides in the pre-treated barley grains were readily converted to fermentable sugars. The treated hulled barley grains, including their hull, were completely hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars with recovery of almost 100% of the available glucose and xylose. The pretreatment conditions of this chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) process for achieving maximum yield of fermentable sugars were 1.0 wt.% sulfuric acid and 110 °C. In addition to starch, the acid pretreatment also retained most of the available proteins in solid form, which is essential for subsequent production of fuel ethanol and high protein distiller's dried grains with solubles co-product. PMID:21229334

  18. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly in r...... indicated that increased Fusarium infection occurred in barley with low N and suggests control of N fertilization as a possible way to minimise FHB in barley.......The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly in...... degraded by fungal proteases. Greater spot volume changes occurred in response to Fg in plants grown with low nitrogen, although proteomes of uninfected plants were similar for both treatments. Correlation of proteome changes with measurement of Fusarium-damaged kernels, fungal biomass and mycotoxin levels...

  19. Antisense-mediated suppression of C-hordein biosynthesis in the barley grain results in correlated changes in the transcriptome, protein profile, and amino acid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Lange, Marianne; Friis, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    Antisense- or RNAi-mediated suppression of the biosynthesis of nutritionally inferior storage proteins is a promising strategy for improving the amino acid profile of seeds. However, the potential pleiotropic effects of this on interconnected pathways and the agronomic quality traits need to be...

  20. Heat-induced disassembly and degradation of chlorophyll-containing protein complexes in vivo. A study with linearly heated barley leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lípová, L.; Krchňák, P.; Komenda, Josef; Ilík, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1797, č. 1 (2010), s. 63-70. ISSN 0005-2728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Chlorophyll-containing protein complex * Chlorophyll fluorescence temperature curve * Disassembly Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.132, year: 2010

  1. The Barley Grain Thioredoxin System – an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eHägglund

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type thioredoxin facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. This review presents a summary of the research conducted during the last ten years to elucidate the structure and function of the barley seed thioredoxin system at the molecular level combined with proteomic approaches to identify target proteins.

  2. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    hydroxynitrile glucosides can act as carbohydrate and nitrogen storage compounds and as reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching compounds. A positive correlation between the hydroxynitrile glucoside content in barley and susceptibility toward the barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, Bgh...... to regulate defense related genes in maize. Barley plants that are gene-silenced in the first step of hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis have been generated to further investigate these results. It appears that hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley have a dual role; up to a certain level Bgh profits...

  3. Inactivation of barley limit dextrinase inhibitor by thioredoxin-catalysed disulfide reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johanne Mørch; Hägglund, Per; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Barley limit dextrinase (LD) that catalyses hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch-derived dextrins is inhibited by limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) found in mature seeds. LDI belongs to the chloroform/methanol soluble protein family (CM-protein family) and has four disulfide bridges and...

  4. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly......A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse...... from barley coleoptiles. P9.3 and P7.3 had Reinheitszahl values of 3.31 and 2.85 and specific activities (with 2,2'-azino-di-[3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], pH 5.5, as the substrate) of 11 and 79 units/mg, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption...

  5. Mutation work done at Svaloef, Sweden, for improving disease resistance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutation work at Svaloef has so far resulted in 51 barley mutants with induced resistance to powdery mildew. Several susceptible varieties (Foma, Mari, Kristina, Bonus, Pallas) have been used in the experiments and many different mutagentia have also been included. Thirteen mutants are recognized by having the same type of resistance as conditioned by alleles at the ml-o locus, i.e. almost immunity with the exception of a few well-developed colonies of mildew on each plant, a very broad spectrum of resistance and a monogen, recessive inheritance of the character. Six mutants have been completely immune in all mildew tests, while nineteen mutants have shown a more or less hypersensitive reaction type and partial resistance. For both of these groups resistance is normally conditioned by a single, dominant gene, associated with the Ml-a locus. More studies, however, are necessary to reveal the number of, and the relationship between, the induced genes for resistance. Three of the mutants, namely SR1, SR34a and SR34b, have been included in comparative trials. In these trials SR1 yielded 5% less than its parent variety Foma, while SR34a and SR34b were equal to their parent Kristina. (author)

  6. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions...... supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments...

  7. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  8. Morocco as a possible domestication center for barley: biochemical and agromorphological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cano, J L; Fra-Mon, P; Salcedo, G; Aragoncillo, C; de Togores, F R; García-Olmedo, F

    1987-02-01

    The distribution of genetic variants of a group of low molecular weight, chloroform-methanol soluble proteins (CM proteins), among Moroccan and non-Moroccan accessions of Hordeum spontaneum and among selections from several Moroccan landraces of H. vulgare and cultivars of the same species with widespread European origin, suggests that domestication of barley might have taken place in Morocco. An agromorphological characterization of the H. spontaneum accessions further supports this hypothesis. The possible Moroccan origin of the French cultivar 'Hatif de Grignon' and of several Spanish 6-rowed barleys is also presented. PMID:24241109

  9. Associated field mycobiota on malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf; Svendsen, Anne; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    1996-01-01

    composition of field mycobiota compared with the pesticide-free barley. The determining factor on the mycobiota was the location. The dominant species on barley was Alternaria infectoria Simmons. The most frequent Fusarium species detected were F. tricinctum (Corda) Sacc. and F. avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. Results...... implied an interaction between Alternaria and Fusarium on the surface of the kernels....

  10. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  11. Healthier cereal products: breadmaking with barley flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya Romero, Carolina; Novillo, Carmen; Rodríguez Badiola, Guillermo; Callejo González, Maria Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Promote consumption of barley breads, in order to improve intake of fibre and healthenhancing components: Instrumental evaluation of breads. Sensory consumer evaluation of breads. Bread-making performances of flours. Instrumental evaluation of barley substituted wheat Dough.

  12. Computerized image analysis: Texture-field orientation method for pectoral muscle identification on MLO-view mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a new texture-field orientation (TFO) method that combines a priori knowledge, local and global information for the automated identification of pectoral muscle on mammograms. Methods: The authors designed a gradient-based directional kernel (GDK) filter to enhance the linear texture structures, and a gradient-based texture analysis to extract a texture orientation image that represented the dominant texture orientation at each pixel. The texture orientation image was enhanced by a second GDK filter for ridge point extraction. The extracted ridge points were validated and the ridges that were less likely to lie on the pectoral boundary were removed automatically. A shortest-path finding method was used to generate a probability image that represented the likelihood that each remaining ridge point lay on the true pectoral boundary. Finally, the pectoral boundary was tracked by searching for the ridge points with the highest probability lying on the pectoral boundary. A data set of 130 MLO-view digitized film mammograms (DFMs) from 65 patients was used to train the TFO algorithm. An independent data set of 637 MLO-view DFMs from 562 patients was used to evaluate its performance. Another independent data set of 92 MLO-view full field digital mammograms (FFDMs) from 92 patients was used to assess the adaptability of the TFO algorithm to FFDMs. The pectoral boundary detection accuracy of the TFO method was quantified by comparison with an experienced radiologist's manually drawn pectoral boundary using three performance metrics: The percent overlap area (POA), the Hausdorff distance (Hdist), and the average distance (AvgDist). Results: The mean and standard deviation of POA, Hdist, and AvgDist were 95.0±3.6%, 3.45±2.16 mm, and 1.12±0.82 mm, respectively. For the POA measure, 91.5%, 97.3%, and 98.9% of the computer detected pectoral muscles had POA larger than 90%, 85%, and 80%, respectively. For the distance measures, 85.4% and 98.0% of the

  13. Fungal growth during malting of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated and identified in two samples of winter two-row barley (SSK3 and SSK6 harvested in 2003, Kragujevac location, during micromalting. Fungi were isolated and identified in barley before the micromalting, after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of steeping, the first day and after the germination after kilning and after malt degermination. The total fungi count was followed in both barley samples, during the mentioned phases. The total count of fungi was also determined in the steeping water, and the isolation and identification was performed after the steeping process. Change of the total count of fungi during barley micromalting was exponentional. During barley micromalting nine fungi genera were isolated: Phoma, Alternaria, Fusarium aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Aureobasidium and Mucor. The most frequent genera were: Phoma, Alternaria and Fusarium. In water for steeping, five genera were identified: Geotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma Cladosporium and Mucor. The most frequent genera was Phoma.

  14. Should wheat, barley, rye, and/or gluten be avoided in a 6-food elimination diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Kara L; Venter, Carina; Cassin, Alison M; Abonia, J Pablo; Aceves, Seema S; Bonis, Peter A; Dellon, Evan S; Falk, Gary W; Furuta, Glenn T; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Gupta, Sandeep K; Hirano, Ikuo; Kagalwalla, Amir; Leung, John; Mukkada, Vincent A; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a food antigen-mediated disease, is effectively treated with the dietary elimination of 6 foods commonly associated with food allergies (milk, wheat, egg, soy, tree nuts/peanuts, and fish/shellfish). Because wheat shares homologous proteins (including gluten) with barley and rye and can also be processed with these grains, some clinicians have suggested that barley and rye might also trigger EoE as a result of cross-reaction and/or cross-contamination with wheat. In this article, we discuss the theoretical risks of cross-reactivity and cross-contamination among wheat, barley, and rye proteins (including gluten); assess common practices at EoE treatment centers; and provide recommendations for dietary treatment and future studies of EoE. PMID:26725190

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of aluminum tolerance in tibetan wild and cultivated barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huaxin; Cao, Fangbin; Chen, Xianhong; Zhang, Mian; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Li, Chengdao; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major limiting factor for plant production in acid soils. Wild barley germplasm is rich in genetic diversity and may provide elite genes for crop Al tolerance improvement. The hydroponic-experiments were performed to compare proteomic and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes Al- resistant/tolerant XZ16 and Al-sensitive XZ61 as well as Al-resistant cv. Dayton. Results showed that XZ16 had less Al uptake and translocation than XZ61 and Dayton under Al stress. Thirty-five Al-tolerance/resistance-associated proteins were identified and categorized mainly in metabolism, energy, cell growth/division, protein biosynthesis, protein destination/storage, transporter, signal transduction, disease/defense, etc. Among them, 30 were mapped on barley genome, with 16 proteins being exclusively up-regulated by Al stress in XZ16, including 4 proteins (S-adenosylmethionine-synthase 3, ATP synthase beta subunit, triosephosphate isomerase, Bp2A) specifically expressed in XZ16 but not Dayton. The findings highlighted the significance of specific-proteins associated with Al tolerance, and verified Tibetan wild barley as a novel genetic resource for Al tolerance. PMID:23691047

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of aluminum tolerance in tibetan wild and cultivated barleys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxin Dai

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major limiting factor for plant production in acid soils. Wild barley germplasm is rich in genetic diversity and may provide elite genes for crop Al tolerance improvement. The hydroponic-experiments were performed to compare proteomic and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes Al- resistant/tolerant XZ16 and Al-sensitive XZ61 as well as Al-resistant cv. Dayton. Results showed that XZ16 had less Al uptake and translocation than XZ61 and Dayton under Al stress. Thirty-five Al-tolerance/resistance-associated proteins were identified and categorized mainly in metabolism, energy, cell growth/division, protein biosynthesis, protein destination/storage, transporter, signal transduction, disease/defense, etc. Among them, 30 were mapped on barley genome, with 16 proteins being exclusively up-regulated by Al stress in XZ16, including 4 proteins (S-adenosylmethionine-synthase 3, ATP synthase beta subunit, triosephosphate isomerase, Bp2A specifically expressed in XZ16 but not Dayton. The findings highlighted the significance of specific-proteins associated with Al tolerance, and verified Tibetan wild barley as a novel genetic resource for Al tolerance.

  17. Barley metallothioneins differ in ontogenetic pattern and response to metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Pedas, Pai;

    2014-01-01

    pollination. However, among the MT grain transcripts MT2c was the most abundant, whereas MT4 was the least abundant. Excess Cu up-regulated three out of the six MTs expressed in leaves of young barley plants. In contrast, most MTs were down-regulated by excess Zn or Cd. Zn starvation led to up-regulation of......, the root-specific gene MT1b1 was 1000-fold up-regulated. Immunolocalizations provided the first evidence for accumulation of MT1a and MT2a proteins in planta, with correlation to transcript levels. In developing grains, MT2a and MT4 expression increased 4- and 300-fold over a 28-day-period after...... MT1a, whereas Cu starvation up-regulated MT2a, which has two copper-responsive elements in the promoter. Arabidopsis lines constitutively overexpressing barley MT2a showed increased sensitivity to excess Cd and Zn but no Cu-induced response. We suggest that barley MTs are differentially involved in...

  18. COMPARATIVE ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERNS OF ALBUMINS/ GLOBULINS EXTRACTED FROM DRY GRAINS AND GREEN MALTS OF BARLEY VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Strelec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of electrophoretic separations of albumins/globulins, followed by nonspecific protein staining and specific glycoprotein and aminopeptidase detection has been examined for barley variety discrimination. Albumins/globulins extracted from dry grains and green malt of six barley varieties were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (10 % T, pH=8.9 of native and sodium dodecyl sulfate denatured proteins, and by isoelectric focusing in pH gradient of 3.5-9.5 and 4.0-6.5. Analysis of dry grain extracts gave better results than green malt extracts. Obtained data indicate that SDS-PAGE of albumins/globulins and IEF in pH gradient 3.5-9.5 followed by Coomassie Blue staining could be useful in Croatian barley variety discrimination. Angora barley could be clearly distinguished from the other varieties which were grouped as follows: Rodnik/Sladoran, Barun/Rex, and Martin. Glycoprotein patterns did not improve the recognition of individual varieties. Broad specificity, phenylalanine and leucine preferring, and arginine specific aminopeptidase were not found as applicable markers for discrimination of examined barley varieties.

  19. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring in...

  20. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

  1. Gamma Ray and Barley Improvement for drought Land in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Barley breeding program has been concentrated to improve it's yield under dry conditions (zone-C 250 m.m), so the Barley Breeder's in GCSAR reached to Barley mutant (M4) suitable for rain-fed area in zone-C by exposing Arabi Aswad (local Barley variety) to gamma-ray treatment 10 Kr/dose, It's cod is Furat A-4806. Furat A-4806 tested in yield trials 1988/1989-1992/1993 in Hasakeh Research Station RCBD 4.5 M2 plot size , Its out yielded A. Aswad by 31 %. And completed testing in On-Farme yield Trials (At Farmers fields) 1993/1994 - 1996/1997 RCBD 32 M2 plot size , Its out yielded the Farmers Variety 18 - 28 % in Hama and Daraa provinces, 16 % in Hasakeh province (Sig. at 1%). Furat A-4806 has been released and has a new name (furat 3). Furat 3 has planted at Farmers fields to released it under there conditions ( 1 Hac in 47 locations in Hama, Homs, Edleb, Aleppo and Hasakeh provinces 2000/2001 - 2002/2003. Agronomic data were: 1000-kernel weight 37.4 g ; protein content 11.7%, number of days to heading 117; Number of days to maturity 156 ; plant height 52 cm. It was also found to be moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to scald, and moderately resistant to Powdery Mildew. Furat 3 is two-row type, with brunet seeds color, and resistant to lodging. Furat 3 has been released for: Hassake, Hama, Aleppo and Dara'a, and has good adoption. (Author)

  2. The Comparison of Biological Characteristics between Osteocyte-like Cell MLO-Y4 and Osteoblast-like Cell MC3T3-E1%骨样细胞MLO-Y4与成骨样细胞MC3T3-E1生物学特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瓮媛媛; 续惠云; 安龙; 商澎

    2010-01-01

    分别采用倒置显微镜观察法、细胞计数法、RT-PCR法、磷酸对硝基苯酚法(PNPP法)和ELISA法来比较小鼠骨样细胞MLO-Y4与小鼠成骨样细胞MC3T3-E1的细胞形态、增殖、相关基因的表达和分泌功能的差异.结果显示MC3T3-E1细胞呈长梭形,具有少量短的突触;而MLO-Y4细胞呈星状或树枝状且具有很多长的突触.MC3T3-E1细胞的增殖能力强于MLO-Y4细胞,两者的倍增时间分别是18 h和20 h.MC3T3-E1细胞中原癌基因c-fos和骨桥蛋白基因OPN mRNA的表达明显高于MLO-Y4细胞,而骨钙素基因OC mRNA的表达则是MC3T3-E1细胞远低于MLO-Y4细胞,白细胞分化抗原44基因CD44 mRNA在两种细胞中的表达差异不明显.ALP的分泌在MC3T3-E1细胞中高于MLO-Y4细胞,NO的分泌在两种细胞中没有显著性差异,M-CSF在MLO-Y4细胞中的分泌较高.由此可见骨样细胞MLO-Y4与成骨样细胞MC3T3-E1在形态、ALP和M-CSF分泌及c-fos、OPN和OC mRNA表达方面差异明显.

  3. Mutational Events in a Homeobox Gene Vrs1 that Created a Six-Rowed Spike in Barley Domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early cultivators of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) selected a phenotype with a six-rowed spike that stably produced three times the usual grain number during domestication. SIX-ROWED SPIKE 1 (Vrs1) isolated from barley encoded a homeodomain leucine zipper I-class protein (HD-ZIP I), a potential transcription factor. Vrs1 is expressed only in lateral spikelet primordia of the early developmental stage. Fifty-four six-rowed mutant lines showed mutational events at the vrs1 gene except for five mutant lines, which suggested mutational events at the regulatory regions of Vrs1. We found three haplotypes among six-rowed barley revealing loss-of-function mutation of the homeobox gene Vrs1, while another allele showed no DNA changes throughout the coding region of the Vrs1 gene indicating another origin of the six-rowed barley. (author)

  4. 骨碎补总黄酮对 MLO-Y4细胞增殖、分化、矿化和凋亡影响的探究%Effect of drynaria total flavonoids on the proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and apoptosis of MLO-Y4 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋; 康倩; 荣婵; 舒晓春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of drynaria total flavonoids on the proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and apoptosis of MLO-Y4 cells.Methods MLO-Y4 cells were cultured with different concentrations (1, 10, 100 mg/l) of drynaria total flavonoids in vitro, and MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured as a control.The proliferation and differentiation of MLO-Y4 cells were examined using CCK-8 method and the alkaline phosphatase ( ALP) kit, respectively.The mineralization was detected using Alizarin red staining.DAPI staining and flow cytometry were used to reflect the cell apoptosis induced by etoposide.Results The most effective concentration of the drynaria total flavonoids on the proliferation and differentiation of MLO-Y4 cells were 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l, respectively.The concentration of 100mg/l did not stimulate cell proliferation and ALP activity.There was no effect on the formation of calcium nodules with all concentrations.Concentrations of 1 and 10 mg/l inhibited the apoptosis to a certain extent.In contrary, concentration of 100 mg/l played a role in invoking cell apoptosis.Conclusion Certain concentrations of drynaria total flavonoids can promote the proliferation and differentiation of MLO-Y4 cells, and can inhibit the cell apoptosis.%目的:研究骨碎补总黄酮对MLO-Y4类骨细胞系增殖、分化、矿化以及凋亡的影响。方法体外培养MLO-Y4细胞,并以MC3T3-E1细胞作对照细胞,分别用不同质量浓度(1,10,100 mg/l)的骨碎补总黄酮干预,采用CCK-8法以及ALP试剂盒检测MLO-Y4细胞的增殖和分化情况;用茜素红染色法观察矿化结节的形成;DAPI染色和流式细胞术定性和定量反映依托泊苷诱导的细胞凋亡情况。结果1,10 mg/l浓度组的骨碎补总黄酮能促进MLO-Y4细胞的增殖,并且能够一定程度上促进细胞ALP的合成分泌,100 mg/l组不具有促进细胞增殖,ALP合成分泌的作用。三个浓度组均无影响MLO-Y4细

  5. Chromosomal Location and Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein (gfp) Gene in Microspore Derived Transgenic Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)%转基因大麦中gfp基因的染色体位置及其表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建民; Carlson A R; 万建民; Kasha K J

    2003-01-01

    通过对大麦小孢子进行基因枪轰击获得4株转绿色荧光蛋白基因(gfp)的植株(A、C、D、E),以gfp基因为探针进行荧光原位杂交(FISH)研究转化植株中转基因插入位置和基因表达.4个株系在染色体7L(5HL)的不同位置都有一个插入点,而E株系在染色体5S(7HS)还有第2个插入点.所有的转基因T0代植株都是半合子并在T1、T2代发生分离.D株系GFP未表达,但FISH和PCR分析表明gfp基因已成功插入其染色体.各株系在根尖和花粉中的GFP表达水平不同:C株系在花粉表达强而在根尖表达中等;A株系在花粉中等表达而在根尖表达较淡;E株系则在根尖高表达,花粉中等表达.A和C株系在根尖和花粉的GFP分离都表现单位点特性,而E株系的根尖分离表现重叠作用(15∶1)特征,但在花粉中表达GFP的频率低.PCR结果和3个分离株系的根尖表达结果一致.D和E株系的GFP表达不正常可能和gfp基因插入位置或基因的结构有关.%Four doubled haploid barley lines (A,C,D,E) derived from gfp (green fluorescent protein) transformation and selection following particle bombardment of microspores were studied for gene expression pattern and the location of genome inserts.The integration sites were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the gfp plasmid DNA as a probe.Plants from events A,C,D and E all have a single insert site on chromosome 7L(5HL) at different locations while line E has a second insert site on chromosome 5S(7HS).All original transgenic plants were hemizygous for the transgenes and segregated in the T1 and T2 generations.Although line D had no GFP expression,FISH and PCR could detect gfp gene on its chromosome in transformed plants.Expression levels of GFP varied with lines and tissues examined.Plants from line C showed good expression in pollen and an intermediate level in root tips.Plants from A have intermediate expression of GFP in the pollen and light expression in the

  6. Rapid assignment of malting barley varieties by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedo, Ondrej; Kořán, Michal; Jakešová, Michaela; Mikulíková, Renata; Boháč, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2016-09-01

    A method for discriminating malting barley varieties based on direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) fingerprinting of proteins was developed. Signals corresponding to hordeins were obtained by simple mixing of powdered barley grain with a MALDI matrix solution containing 12.5mgmL(-1) of ferulic acid in an acetonitrile:water:formic acid 50:33:17 v/v/v mixture. Compared to previous attempts at MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of barley proteins, the extraction and fractionation steps were practically omitted, resulting in a significant reduction in analytical time and costs. The discriminatory power was examined on twenty malting barley varieties and the practicability of the method was tested on sixty barley samples acquired from Pilsner Urquell Brewery. The method is proposed as a rapid tool for variety assignment and purity determination of malting barley that may replace gel electrophoresis currently used for this purpose. PMID:27041307

  7. Hordein polypeptide patterns in relation to malting quality in Brazilian barley varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echart-Almeida Cinara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since there is evidence that malting quality is related to the storage protein (hordein fraction, in the present work the hordein polypeptide patterns from 13 barley (Hordeum vulgare L. varieties of different malting quality were analysed in order to explore the feasibility of using hordein electrophoresis to assist in the selection of malting barleys. The formation of clusters separating the varieties with higher malting quality from the others with lower quality suggests that there is a relationship between the general hordein polypeptide pattern and malting quality in the varieties analysed. By the Sperman's correlation test three hordein bands correlated negatively with malting quality in the germplasm studied.

  8. Replacing grass silage with pea-barley intercrop silage in the feeding of the dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Pursiainen, Pirjo; Tuori, Mikko

    2006-01-01

    The effect of replacing wilted grass silage (GS) with pea-barley intercrop silage (PBS) on feed intake, diet digestibility and milk production was studied with 8 multiparous Ayrshire-cows in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Proportion of PBS was 0 (PBS0), 33 (PBS33), 67 (PBS67) or 100 (PBS100) % of silage dry matter (DM). The DM content was 559 and 255 g kg-1 for GS and PBS. Crude protein content was 131 and 170 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Pea-barley silage was more extensively fermen...

  9. PRODUCTION OF RECOMBINANT HIGH pI-BARLEY α-GLUCOSIDASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Svensson, Birte

    α-glucosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 31 plays in barley seeds a crucial role in embryonic development. The concerted action of α-glucosidase, β-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase is responsible for supply of glucose in the germinating seed as energy source for the embryo and growing...... plantlet [1]. Recently, expression and characterization of the recombinant full length, fully functional barley high pI α-glucosidase in Pichia pastoris has been achieved. To enable production of recombinant protein in mg amounts, a transformant harbouring a clone encoding the N-terminally hexa histidine...

  10. Characterization of recombinant high pI Barley α-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Svensson, Birte

    α-glucosidase activity in barley seeds plays a crucial role in embryonic development. The concerted action of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, β-amylase, and limit dextrinase serve as the machinery responsible for the supply of glucose as energy source for the developing embryo in the germinating seed...... (MacGregor A.W.). Here we present the recent results of the expression and characterization of the recombinant full length barley high pI α-glucosidase in Pichia Pastoris. In order to facilitate in the range of mg protein yield, a clone representing an N-terminal hexa histidine tagged recombinant form...

  11. Purification and characterization of recombinant high pI Barley α-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Bojsen, Kirsten; Svensson, Birte

    α-glucosidase activity in barley seeds plays a crucial role in embryonic development. The concerted action of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase serves as the machinery responsible for the supply of glucose as energy source for the developing embryo in the germinating seed...... (MACGREGOR & sissons). recently expression and characterization of the recombinant full length and fully functional barley high pi α-glucosidase in pichia pastoris has been achieved. in order to facilitate protein yield in the mg range, a clone representing an n-terminal hexa histidine tagged recombinant...

  12. A Comparison of Factors Involved in Starch Degradation in Barley Germination Under Laboratory and Malting Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grains of the malting barley cultivar Legacy were laboratory germinated (LG) or micromalted (MM) and sampled daily from 0 to 5 days after imbibition/steeping. Alpha-amylase and beta-amylase activities and protein levels along with starch, osmolyte concentration (OC), and sugar (glucose, sucrose, fr...

  13. Optimization of thermal stability of barley protein-glucose maillard reaction by response surface methodology%响应面分析法在大麦蛋白-葡萄糖Maillard反应物热稳定性研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董学艳; 刘继超; 王晓丹; 聂妤; 赵长新

    2011-01-01

    酿造大麦是啤酒生产过程中最重要的原料,大麦中的蛋白质对麦芽与啤酒的质量起着重要的作用,其中蛋白的热稳定性对啤酒泡沫的形成和稳定均具有重要的作用.国内外的研究表明,通过美拉德反应能够有效地改善蛋白质的功能特性.本论文主要研究美拉德反应对于大麦蛋白热稳定性的影响,通过二次回归通用旋转正交试验设计,应用响应面分析法对大麦蛋白-葡萄糖(Pr-G)Maillard反应过程中的各反应条件进行分析,建立数学模型,优化反应条件参数,以求得到热稳定性佳的Pr-G Maillard反应共聚物.结果表明:在90℃、pH9.08、反应时间为39.00min、大麦蛋白-葡萄糖的配比为1:1.04可以得到高热稳定性的反应共聚物.在此最佳反应条件下对反应共聚物的热稳定性进行了研究,证实了预测值和实测值是一致的.%Brewing barley is the most important raw material in beer production. The protein in the barley plays an important part in the quality of malt and beer, and the heat -stable protein plays important roles on formation and stability of the beer foam. It was reported that the functional properties of protein could be modified by Maillard reaction. The effect of the thermal stability of barley protein by Maillard reaction was studied. The factors such as pH, the ratio of reactants and reaction time affecting the Maillard reaction kinetics were discussed. Response surface methodology was used to optimize Maillard reaction factors in order to get Maillard reaction with the highest thermal stability property.The results indicated that reaction temperature 90 ℃, pH 9.08, reaction time 40 min and weight ratio of barley protein to glucose 1: 1.04 were the optimum reaction conditions. Under the above conditions, the thermal stability of conjugation was studied, and it was confirmed that the predicted and actual value of the thermal stability were identical.

  14. Fermented Barley Supplementation Modulates the Expression of Hypothalamic Genes and Reduces Energy Intake and Weight Gain in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Cho, Suk-Ho; Han, Seong-Kyu; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Dietary fiber and proteins are individually known to decrease feeding, but could result greater weight management benefit when both are combined. We hypothesized that supplementing the diet with fermented barley, being rich in both dietary fiber and proteins, could lower energy intake by modulating the mRNA expression level of hypothalamic genes associated with the regulation of feeding behavior and satiety; thereby decreasing body weight gain. To test our hypothesis, four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design (n = 6), low-fat diet with either guar gum (LFD-G) or fermented barley (LFD-FB) and high-fat diet with either guar gum (HFD-G) or fermented barley (HFD-FB). Using oral gavage, fermented barley was given at a dosage of 1500 mg/kg body weight and guar gum was supplemented in an equivalent quantity to that of the fiber in the fermented barley. After 19 weeks, the fermented barley-supplemented groups showed a significant reduction in energy intake, triglyceride, body weight gain, and serum leptin, compared to the guar gum-supplemented groups in both the low- and high-fat diet groups. Likewise, the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA level were significantly higher in the fermented barley-supplemented groups compared to the guar gum-supplemented groups in rats fed on both high- and low-fat diets. In conclusion, fermented barley supplementation upregulated hypothalamic POMC/CART, decreased energy intake in both low- and high-fat diet groups, and prevented excessive weight gain in rats. PMID:27074621

  15. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  16. Zinc Blotting Assay for Detection of Zinc-Binding Prolamin in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Langkilde, Ane; Vincze, Éva

    2014-01-01

    -binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric......In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  17. The plasma membrane proteome of germinating barley embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.;

    2009-01-01

    amphiphilicity and low abundance of membrane proteins. A fraction enriched in plasma membranes was prepared from embryos dissected from 18 h germinated barley seeds using aqueous two-phase partitioning. Reversed-phase chromatography on C-4 resin performed in micro-spin columns with stepwise elution by 2-propanol......Cereal seed germination involves a complex coordination between different seed tissues. Plasma membranes must play crucial roles in coordination and execution of germination; however, very little is known about seed plasma membrane proteomes due to limited tissue amounts combined with...... was used to reduce soluble protein contamination and enrich for hydrophobic proteins. Sixty-one proteins in 14 SDS-PAGE bands were identified by LC-MS/MS and database searches. The identifications provide new insight into the plasma membrane functions in seed germination....

  18. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  19. Establishment of action levels for quality control of IMRT flat panel: experience with the algorithm iGRiMLO; Establecimiento de niveles de accion para el control de calidad de IMRT con panel plano: experiencia con el algoritmo iGRiMLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, V.; Dolores, VV. de los; Pastor, V.; Martinez, J.; Gimeno, J.; Guardino, C.; Crispin, V.

    2011-07-01

    Algorithm has been used at our institution iGRiMLO scheduled for individual verification of treatment plans for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) step and shoot through portal dosimetry pretreatment of non-transmission, triggering the plan directly to a portal imaging device (EPID) of an amorphous silicon flat panel.

  20. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus. PMID:25752426

  1. Transcriptional Responses to Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid in Barley Aleurone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kegui Chen; Yong-Qiang Charles An

    2006-01-01

    Cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to investigate giberrellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined the mRNA accumulation of over 22 000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than a threefold change in response to GA treatment, whereas 206 genes had a more than threefold change in response to ABA treatment. Interestingly, approximately 2.5-fold more genes were up-regulated than downregulated by ABA. Eighty-three genes were differentially regulated by both GA and ABA. Most of the genes were subject to antagonistic regulation by ABA and GA, particularly for genes related to seed maturation and germination, such as genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and storage mobilization enzymes. This supports the antagonistic roles of GA and ABA in seed maturation and seed germination.Interestingly, we observed that a significant percentage of the genes were coordinately regulated by both GA and ABA. Some GA-responsive genes encoded proteins involved in ethylene, jasmonate, brassinosteroid and auxin metabolic and signaling transduction pathways, suggesting their potential interaction with the GA response. We also identified a group of transcription factor genes, such as MYB and Homeobox genes, that were differentially regulated by GA. In addition, a number of GA- and/or ABA-responsive genes encoded components potentially involved in GA and ABA signal transduction pathway. Overall, the present study provides a comprehensive and global view of transcript expression accompanying the GA and ABA response in barley aleurone and identifies a group of genes with potential regulatory functions in GA- and ABA-signaling pathways for future functional validation.

  2. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  3. The Nutritive Value of Wastewater Grown Barley and its Utilization in Fish Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Snow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using wastewater grown barley plants as a component of fish feed was evaluated. The barley plants were grown in a hydroponics system on wastewater from a recirculating aquaculture facility. The effects of wastewater application rate on plant growth and pollution potential reduction were investigated. At the end of the experiment, the average crop heights and yields were 31.0 and 36.0 cm and 59 and 83 t ha -1 at wastewater application rates of 690 and 1380 mL compartment -1 day -1, respectively. The hydroponics system reduced the TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and PO4 -3-P of the aquaculture wastewater by 51.5-52.9, 72.3-72.3, 81.8-82.3, 97.9-98.2, 78.9-79.7 and 84.7-86.3%, respectively. The aquaculture wastewater grown barley met the energy, fat, Ca, Mg, P, Na, S and Mn dietary requirements of aquatic animals. It exceeded the carbohydrate, crude fiber, Cl, K, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn dietary requirements of fish and shellfish. It did not contain sufficient amounts of protein. The aquaculture wastewater grown barley could potential be used as a component in fish feed, but will require supplementation with a high protein source that contains low concentrations of carbohydrate, crude fiber, Cl, K, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn. Common protein sources that could be used for supplementation included fishmeal, bone meal and blood meal.

  4. The effect of maleinized linseed oil (MLO) on mechanical performance of poly(lactic acid)-thermoplastic starch (PLA-TPS) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, J M; Garcia-Garcia, D; Sánchez-Nacher, L; Fenollar, O; Balart, R

    2016-08-20

    In this work, poly(lactic acid), PLA and thermoplastic starch, TPS blends (with a fixed content of 30wt.% TPS) were prepared by melt extrusion process to increase the low ductile properties of PLA. The TPS used contains an aliphatic/aromatic biodegradable polyester (AAPE) that provides good resistance to aging and moisture. This blend provides slightly improved ductile properties with an increase in elongation at break of 21.5% but phase separation is observed due to the lack of strong interactions between the two polymers. Small amounts of maleinized linseed oil (MLO) can positively contribute to improve the ductile properties of these blends by a combined plasticizing-compatibilizing effect. The elongation at break increases over 160% with the only addition of 6phr MLO. One of the evidence of the plasticizing-compatibilizing effect provided by MLO is the change in the glass transition temperature (Tg) with a decrease of about 10°C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) of PLA-TPS blends with varying amounts of maleinized linseed oil also suggests an increase in compatibility. PMID:27178909

  5. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed...... tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...

  6. 流体剪切力对MLO-Y4骨细胞骨性标志物表达的影响%Effect of Fluid Shear Stress on the expression of bone markers in MLO-Y4 Osteocyte-Like Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亮; 杨雁琪; 李小彤; 张丁; 傅民魁

    2007-01-01

    目的 通过研究MLO-Y4骨细胞受流体剪切力作用前后骨性标志物在mRNA水平的表达变化,探讨机械力影响骨组织代谢中骨细胞的作用.方法 以小鼠成骨细胞(MOB)为参照,逆转录聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)检测MLO-Y4细胞在体外培养条件下,以及受流体剪切力作用0.5 h,1 h,2 h,4 h,6 h,12 h,24 h后骨性标志物在mRNA水平的表达特征和变化.结果 以MOB为参照,在mRNA水平,体外培养条件下MLO-Y4细胞骨钙素(OCN)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)和骨桥蛋白(OPN)高表达;破骨细胞分化因子(RANKL)、骨保护因子(OPG)低表达,但RANKL/OPG比值明显高于MOB.受流体剪切力作用后,MLO-Y4细胞ALP、OCN表达降低;RANKL和OPN表达增加;OPG随加力时间也有一定变化.结论 MLO-Y4细胞具有分化终末骨细胞的特点;流体剪切力作用后,RANKL/OPG比值以及ALP、OCN和OPN等骨性标志物的表达发生变化,为其参与机械力信号到生物信号的传导过程提供了间接证据.

  7. Identification of Osteocyte-Selective Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Dayong; Keightley, Andrew; Guthrie, Jill; Veno, Patricia A.; Harris, Stephen E.; Bonewald, Lynda F.

    2010-01-01

    Since little is known regarding osteocytes, cells embedded within the mineralized bone matrix, a proteomics approach was used to discover proteins more highly expressed in osteocytes than in osteoblasts to determine osteocyte specific function. Two proteomic profiles obtained by two different proteomic approaches using total cell lysates from the osteocyte cell line MLO-Y4 and the osteoblast cell line MC3T3 revealed unique differences. Three protein clusters, one related to glycolysis, (Phosp...

  8. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muavviz Ayvaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98 were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm to plants that had grown from seeds for four weeks. Plants were harvested, stem-root length and stem-root dry-fresh weight content were determined. For further analysis, chlorophyll, total protein, endogenic IAA and ABA content analyses were carried out. Results: According to the data obtained, plant growth and development decreased with increasing boron concentrations. With increasing boron concentrations, soluble total protein increased in both cultivars. Boron application led to increased endogenic IAA content in both cultivars. 10 and 20 ppm boron application led to increased endogenic ABA content in Vamik Hoca cultivar whereas endogenic ABA content decreased in Efes 98. Absence of boron application led to increased endogenic IAA and ABA content in both cultivars. Conclusion: As a result, the response to boron is different in the two cultivars and Efes 98 may be more resistant to the toxicity than Vamik Hoca cultivar.

  9. Effects of fast neutrons on seedling growth and metabolism in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds irradiated with fast neutrons showed reduced O2 uptake per lot of seeds compared with untreated controls, but no difference per mg of embryo ''protein''-N. This signifies that respiration per unit of active protoplasm was unchanged. Endosperm proteolytic activity and nitrogen transport to the embryo were unchanged, but embryonic protein synthesis was inhibited and nucleic acid synthesis was reduced. The relationship between seedling growth retardation and nucleic acid reduction are discussed. (author). 3 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  10. Morocco as a possible domestication center for barley: biochemical and agromorphological evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Cano, J.L.; Fra-Mon, P.; Salcedo Duran, Gabriel; Aragoncillo Ballesteros, Cipriano; Roca Togores, F.; García Olmedo, Francisco

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of genetic variants of a group of low molecular weight, chloroform-methanol soluble proteins (CM proteins), among Moroccan and non-Moroccan accessions of Hordeum spontaneum and among selections from several Moroccan landraces of H. vulgare and cultivars of the same species with widespread European origin, suggests that domestication of barley might have taken place in Morocco. An agromorphological characterization of the H. spontaneum accessions further supports this hypothes...

  11. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni; Valles, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) production is an efficient tool in barley breeding, but efficiency of DH methods is not consistent. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the effect of n-butanol application on DH barley plant production efficiency. Five elite cultivars of barley and thirteen breeding...

  12. Chemical characterization of Brazilian hulless barley varieties, flour fractionation, and protein concentration Caracterização química de variedades brasileiras de cevada nua, fracionamento da farinha e concentração de proteína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Vieira Helm

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though hulless barley is widely known due to its nutritional potential, in Brazil it is only grown at a few agricultural experimental stations. There is no published data about the chemical composition of Brazilian hulless barley varieties; however, research laboratories have studied their agronomical characteristics. The objectives of this study were to present the chemical characterization and effect of flour fractionation on protein concentration of six Brazilian hulless barley varieties, namely IAC IBON 214/82, IAC 8612/421, IAC 8501/31, IAC 8501/12, IAPAR 39-Acumaí, and IAC 8501/22. The analyses included: ash, ether extract, total protein, starch, total insoluble and soluble dietary fiber, and beta-glucans. Flour fractionation was carried out by sieving. The flour fractions were evaluated for crude protein, protein, and protein and non-protein nitrogen. Chemical composition varied (P Apesar de a cevada nua ser amplamente conhecida por seu potencial nutricional, no Brasil é apenas cultivada em poucas estações experimentais agronômicas. Em relação as variedades brasileiras de cevada nua, não se têm dados sobre a composição química, entretanto instituições de pesquisa têm estudado suas características agronômicas. Os objetivos deste estudo foram apresentar a caracterização química e o efeito no fracionamento da farinha obtida visando à concentração de proteína de seis variedades brasileiras de cevada nua: IAC IBON 214/82, IAC 8612/421, IAC 8501/31, IAC 8501/12, IAPAR 39-Acumaí, e IAC 8501/22. Foram realizadas análises de: cinzas, extrato etéreo, proteína total, amido, fibra alimentar total, solúvel e insolúvel e beta-glucanas. As frações das farinhas foram obtidas por peneiramento e avaliadas quanto aos teores de proteína bruta, proteína, nitrogênio protéico e não protéico. Houve variação entre as variedades testadas (P < 0,05. As variedades IAC 8501/22, IAC 8501/31 e IAC 8501/12 apresentaram o

  13. Improvement of barley for drought tolerance by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley (cultivar Ardhaoui) is a traditional cereal adapted to the agroclimatic and abiotic stresses of South Tunisia. It is used by local communities as the food plant and source of proteins for animals. It is a heterogeneous mixtures of land races and represent the adapted natural germplasm which needs to be improved in yield, quality and tolerance to stress (especially drought). Irradiation technique is used in this work for the selection of barley lines tolerant to drought. Building on the obtained results, the technique will be used to develop barley lines matching specific environments prevailing in the south of Tunisia. The obtained mutants are characterized by the increased of grain yield and water use efficiency through a greater tolerance to drought. On the level of the physiological behavior, the mutants are more efficient regarding the values of rate of photosynthesis A, the stomatic conductance gs, the rate of transpiration E, chlorophyl rate and the internal CO2 concentration Ci. The content of proline shows that this amino acid is strongly concentrated at the irradiated lines. The analysis of nutritional behavior shows that the content of (Ca+Mg) in irradiated lines decreases by increasing the stress. The phosphorus content was also assigned by the water stress. On the contrary, the potassium content increases with the intensity of stress. Under water deficit, the growth parameter, the grain production and the number of spike and tillers are significantly reduced for the control (the reduction reached 42 to 50%). This reduction does not exceed 25% for the irradiated lines. The availability of these improved mutant seeds can contribute to increase food security for the local population. (author)

  14. Barley germplasm conservation and resources. Chapter 7 in barley: improvement, production, and uses. Blackwell Publishing, ED.S.E. Ullrich

    Science.gov (United States)

    The history and current status of barley germplasm preservation activities is presented on a global scale and specifically for the United States. Total of barley germplasm holdings at 47 major barley collections (those with more than 500 accessions) worldwide is approximately 402,000 accessions. I...

  15. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  16. Cloning and overexpression of antifungal barley chitinase gene in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, S Isaac; Sakthivel, N

    2007-03-01

    Plant chitinases are pathogenesis-related proteins, which are believed to be involved in plant defense responses to pathogen infection. In this study, chitinase gene from barley was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Chitinase (35 kDa) was isolated and purified. Since the protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies, the protein was solubilized and refolded. Purified chitinase exerted broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea (blight of tobacco), Pestalotia theae (leaf spot of tea), Bipolaris oryzae (brown spot of rice), Alternaria sp. (grain discoloration of rice), Curvularia lunata (leaf spot of clover) and Rhizoctonia solani (sheath blight of rice). Due to the potential of broad-spectrum antifungal activity barley chitinase gene can be used to enhance fungal-resistance in crop plants such as rice, tobacco, tea and clover. PMID:17029984

  17. Survival of the biocontrol agents Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116 on the spikes of barley in the field*

    OpenAIRE

    Xin ZHANG; Zhang, Bing-xin; Zhang, Zhen; Shen, Wei-feng; Yang, Ching-Hong; Yu, Jing-Quan; ZHAO, YU-HUA

    2005-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that results in extensive yield losses to wheat and barley. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing plasmid pRP22-GFP was constructed for monitoring the colonization of two biocontrol agents, Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116, on the spikes of barley and their effect on suppression of FHB. Survival and colonization of the Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116 strai...

  18. Isolation, mapping, and characterization of two barley multiovary mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, J D; Kudrna, D A; Kleinhofs, A

    2000-01-01

    Mutations in homeotic genes disturb the spatial and temporal patterns of development, often leading to the appearance of tissues in abnormal locations. Many homeotic genes, involved in flower development, code for proteins with a highly conserved domain called the MADS box, which acts as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Two floral development mutants were isolated from a fast neutron irradiated M2 barley population. The phenotypes are multiovary, that is, stamens replaced with carpels, designated mo7a, and stamens replaced with carpels and lodicules converted to leaflike structures, designated mo6b. These phenotypes resemble the Arabidopsis mutants APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILATA (PI). The mo6b and mo7a mutants were mapped to the centromeric region of chromosome 1 (7H) and to the telomeric region of chromosome 3 (3H), respectively. PMID:11218087

  19. Supplementing barley or rapeseed meal to dairy cows fed grass-red clover silage: I. Rumen degradability and microbial flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P

    2002-08-01

    The present study was conducted to measure the flow of microbial and nonmicrobial N fractions entering the omasal canal of lactating dairy cows fed grass-red clover silage supplemented with barley and rapeseed meal. Four ruminally cannulated Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed, in a 4 x 4 Latin square design, grass-red clover silage alone or supplemented with (on DM basis) 5.1 kg/d of barley, 1.9 kg/d of rape-seed meal or 5.1 kg/d of barley and 1.9 kg/d rapeseed meal. Nonammonia N flow entering the omasal canal was fractionated into microbial and nonmicrobial N using 15N. Microbial N was fractionated into N associated with liquid-associated bacteria, particle-associated bacteria, and protozoa. Supplementation of diets with barley increased microbial N flow entering the omasal canal (P degradability, but increased true ruminal N degradability (P degradability (P degradability. Despite higher N excretion in urine, rapeseed meal improved daily N retention (P improvements in energy and protein supply for the animal. However, provision of readily digestible carbohydrates in barley did not improve microbial capture of ruminal ammonia. Benefits associated with rapeseed meal supplementation were explained as an increase in the supply of ruminally undegradable protein. PMID:12211388

  20. Cell layer-specific distribution of transiently expressed barley ESCRT-III component HvVPS60 in developing barley endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, Julia; Kapusi, Eszter; Stoger, Eva; Ibl, Verena

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III in cereal endosperm has been shown by the identification of the recessive mutant supernumerary aleurone layer1 (SAL1) in maize. ESCRT-III is indispensable in the final membrane fission step during biogenesis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), responsible for protein sorting to vacuoles and to the cell surface. Here, we annotated barley ESCRT-III members in the (model) crop Hordeum vulgare and show that all identified members are expressed in developing barley endosperm. We used fluorescently tagged core ESCRT-III members HvSNF7a/CHMP4 and HvVPS24/CHMP3 and the associated ESCRT-III component HvVPS60a/CHMP5 for transient localization studies in barley endosperm. In vivo confocal microscopic analyses show that the localization of recombinantly expressed HvSNF7a, HvVPS24 and HvVPS60a differs within barley endosperm. Whereas HvSNF7a induces large agglomerations, HvVPS24 shows mainly cytosolic localization in aleurone and subaleurone. In contrast, HvVPS60a localizes strongly at the plasma membrane in aleurone. In subaleurone, HvVPS60a was found to a lesser extent at the plasma membrane and at vacuolar membranes. These results indicate that the steady-state association of ESCRT-III may be influenced by cell layer-specific protein deposition or trafficking and remodelling of the endomembrane system in endosperm. We show that sorting of an artificially mono-ubiquitinated Arabidopsis plasma membrane protein is inhibited by HvVPS60a in aleurone. The involvement of HvVPS60a in different cell layer-specific trafficking pathways, reflected by localization of HvVPS60a at the plasma membrane in aleurone and at the PSV membrane in subaleurone, is discussed. PMID:25796522

  1. Fast neutron mutagenesis in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to conduct a deletion mutant analysis of the barley genome, seeds of cultivar 'Steptoe' were irradiated in 1992 with two doses of fast neutrons, 3.5 Gy and 4.0 Gy at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf SNIF facility by Dr. H. Brunner. M1 seeds were grown at Pullman, Washington, USA in the field. Approximately 500 M2 spikes were picked from each treatment and the remainder harvested in bulk. Mutation rates were determined on 1000 bulk M2 seedlings (chlorophyll deficient) and 500 M2 head rows (chlorophyll deficient and morphological) per treatment. Chlorophyll-deficient mutations were observed at a frequency of 8.1% and 9.4% on M1 spike basis and 2.2% and 2.6% on M2 seedling basis for the 3.5 and 4.0 Gy treatments, respectively. Total mutations observed in the field were 19.0% and 20.8% on M1 spike basis for the two treatments. Approximately 2,500 M2 seedlings were assayed for nitrate reductasedeficient mutants and 12,000 M2 seeds screened for waxy mutants. Although several putative mutants were identified, none have been confirmed to date. The mutation frequencies observed are similar for both treatments and appear to be approximately the same as what we have previously observed with γ-radiation treatments. The absence of nitrate reductase-deficient and waxy mutants is most likely due to the small population size screened. The morphological mutants recovered include dwarfs, sterile, necrotic, glossy, elongated outer glume, winter type and some very interesting floral mutants such as multi-ovary and branched inflorescence. Mutants affecting functions of genes for which cloned DNA segments are available will be sought in order to identify specific molecular changes that have been induced by fast neutron radiation. (author)

  2. A mutant homeobox gene created six-rowed spike in barley domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased seed production has been a common goal during the domestication of cereal crops. Early cultivators of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) selected a phenotype with a six-rowed spike that stably produced three times the usual grain number during domestication. We isolated the SIX-ROWED SPIKE 1 (Vrs1) from barley by chromosome walking. We discovered that Vrs1 encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper I-class protein (HD-ZIP I), a potential transcription factor. RNA in situ hybridization revealed that the Vrs1 is expressed only in lateral spikelet primordia. Sequencing alleles of 54 six-rowed mutant lines revealed a single amino acid substitution in 22 lines, creation of a new stop codon in 12 lines, a nucleotide substitution in the conserved splicing site in 3 lines, a frameshift mutation by a deletion in 5 lines, complete deletion of the gene region in 7 lines, and no DNA changes throughout the coding region with no gene expression detected in the remaining 5 lines. We found three haplotypes among six-rowed barley revealing loss-of-function mutation of the homeobox gene Vrs1. We found that two of them independently originated from two different type two-rowed barleys, but origin of the remaining one six-rowed allele remained unclear. (author)

  3. Structure and function of the bacterial root microbiota in wild and domesticated barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Davide; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Münch, Philipp C; Weiman, Aaron; Dröge, Johannes; Pan, Yao; McHardy, Alice C; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-03-11

    The microbial communities inhabiting the root interior of healthy plants, as well as the rhizosphere, which consists of soil particles firmly attached to roots, engage in symbiotic associations with their host. To investigate the structural and functional diversification among these communities, we employed a combination of 16S rRNA gene profiling and shotgun metagenome analysis of the microbiota associated with wild and domesticated accessions of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Bacterial families Comamonadaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, and Rhizobiaceae dominate the barley root-enriched microbiota. Host genotype has a small, but significant, effect on the diversity of root-associated bacterial communities, possibly representing a footprint of barley domestication. Traits related to pathogenesis, secretion, phage interactions, and nutrient mobilization are enriched in the barley root-associated microbiota. Strikingly, protein families assigned to these same traits showed evidence of positive selection. Our results indicate that the combined action of microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions drives microbiota differentiation at the root-soil interface. PMID:25732064

  4. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat, Barley, Maize and Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it....... Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only...

  5. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Using a Supercontinuum Laser: Application to Long Wavelength Transmission Spectra of Barley Endosperm and Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsted, Tine; Dupont, Sune; Ramsay, Jacob; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; Keiding, Søren Rud; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-07-01

    The supercontinuum laser is a new type of light source, which combines the collimation and intensity of a laser with the broad spectral region of a lamp. Using such a source therefore makes it possible to focus the light onto small sample areas without losing intensity and thus facilitate either rapid or high-intensity measurements. Single seed transmission analysis in the long wavelength (LW) near-infrared (NIR) region is one area that might benefit from a brighter light source such as the supercontinuum laser. This study is aimed at building an experimental spectrometer consisting of a supercontinuum laser source and a dispersive monochromator in order to investigate its capability to measure the barley endosperm using transmission experiments in the LW NIR region. So far, barley and wheat seeds have only been studied using NIR transmission in the short wavelength region up to 1100 nm. However, the region in the range of 2260-2380 nm has previously shown to be particularly useful in differentiating barley phenotypes using NIR spectroscopy in reflectance mode. In the present study, 350 seeds (consisting of 70 seeds from each of five barley genotypes) in 1 mm slices were measured by NIR transmission in the range of 2235-2381 nm and oils from the same five barley genotypes were measured in a cuvette with a 1 mm path length in the range of 2003-2497 nm. The spectra of the barley seeds could be classified according to genotypes by principal component analysis; and spectral covariances with reference analysis of moisture, β-glucan, starch, protein and lipid were established. The spectral variations of the barley oils were compared to the fatty acid compositions as measured using gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:27340221

  6. Damage resistance and microstructure of barley kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velikanov L.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Relations between mechanical properties, damage susceptibility and microstructure of five Polish cultivars of barley were examined. Brabender Hardness test, Instron measurements, PSI, PRI, and glassiness were used to characterise mechanical properties. The structure analysis was carried out with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microscopy. Mechanical properties of grain were related to barley cultivar. Grain of cultivars with glassy endosperm were characterised by higher mechanical resistance than those with floury endosperm. Particle size distribution of the extracted starch granules, as determined by digital image analysis, did not correlate with the mechanical properties of barley grains. Generally speaking, the number of damaged kernels correlated with the fracture resistance and was related both to the direction of compression force and water content of grain. Compression along the axis of kernel thickness always resulted in a high number of damaged creases. When water content was high no damaged to the crease zone and a low number of internal damage was characteristic of kernels compressed along the width axis. It was observed that barley endosperm cracked inside cells, while the spaces between cell walls remained unfractured.

  7. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Vincze, Éva; Holm, Preben Bach

    2010-01-01

    barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  8. Structural modeling and molecular simulation analysis of HvAP2/EREBP from barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bharati; Sharma, Pradeep; Tyagi, Chetna; Goyal, Sukriti; Grover, Abhinav; Sharma, Indu

    2016-06-01

    AP2/ERF transcription factors play a critical role in plant development and stress adaptation. This study reports the three-dimensional ab initio-based model of AP2/EREBP protein of barley and its interaction with DNA. Full-length coding sequence of HvAP2/EREBP gene isolated from two Indian barley cultivars, RD 2503 and RD 31, was used to model the protein. Of five protein models obtained, the one with lowest C-score was chosen for further analysis. The N- and C-terminal regions of HvAP2 protein were found to be highly disordered. The dynamic properties of AP2/EREBP and its interaction with DNA were investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of trajectories from simulation yielded the equilibrated conformation between 2-10ns for protein and 7-15ns for protein-DNA complex. We established relationship between DNA having GCC box and DNA-binding domain of HvAP2/EREBP was established by modeling 11-base-pair-long nucleotide sequence and HvAP2/EREBP protein using ab initio method. Analysis of protein-DNA interaction showed that a β-sheet motif constituting amino acid residues THR105, ARG100, ARG93, and ARG83 seems to play important role in stabilizing the complex as they form strong hydrogen bond interactions with the DNA motif. Taken together, this study provides first-hand comprehensive information detailing structural conformation and interactions of HvAP2/EREBP proteins in barley. The study intensifies the role of computational approaches for preliminary examination of unknown proteins in the absence of experimental information. It also provides molecular insight into protein-DNA binding for understanding and enhancing abiotic stress resistance for improving the water use efficiency in crop plants. PMID:26198402

  9. Immunological characterization of the gluten fractions and their hydrolysates from wheat, rye and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-18

    Gluten proteins in wheat, rye and barley cause celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, which affects approximately 1% of the world population. Gluten is comprised of prolamin and glutelin. Since avoidance of dietary gluten is the only option for celiac patients, a sensitive gluten detection and quantitation method is warranted. Most regulatory agencies have set a threshold of 20 ppm gluten in foods labeled gluten-free, based on the currently available ELISA methods. However, these methods may exhibit differences in gluten quantitation from different gluten-containing grains. In this study, prolamin and glutelin fractions were isolated from wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. Intact and pepsin-trypsin (PT)-digested prolamin and glutelin fractions were used to assess their immunoreactivity and gluten recovery by three sandwich and two competitive ELISA kits. The Western blots revealed varied affinity of ELISA antibodies to gluten-containing grain proteins and no reactivity to oat and corn proteins. ELISA results showed considerable variation in gluten recoveries from both intact and PT-digested gluten fractions among different kits. Prolamin fractions showed higher gluten recovery compared to their respective glutelin fractions. Among prolamins, barley exhibited higher recovery compared to wheat and rye with most of the ELISA kits used. Hydrolysis resulted in reduced gluten recovery of most gluten fractions. These results suggest that the suitability of ELISA for accurate gluten quantitation is dependent upon various factors, such as grain source, antibody specificity, gluten proteins and the level of their hydrolysis in foods. PMID:25619974

  10. Diamagnetic levitation causes changes in the morphology, cytoskeleton, and focal adhesion proteins expression in osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, A R; Wang, L; Gao, X; Zhang, W; Hu, L F; Han, J; Li, J B; Di, S M; Shang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Diamagnetic levitation technology is a novel simulated weightless technique and has recently been applied in life-science research. We have developed a superconducting magnet platform with large gradient high magnetic field (LG-HMF), which can provide three apparent gravity levels, namely, μg (diamagnetic levitation), 1g, and 2g for diamagnetic materials. In this study, the effects of LG-HMF on the activity, morphology, and cytoskeleton (actin filament, microtubules, and vimentin intermediate filaments) in osteocyte - like cell line MLO-Y4 were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) methods, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), respectively. The changes induced by LG-HMF in distribution and expression of focal adhesion (FA) proteins, including vinculin, paxillin, and talin in MLO-Y4 were determined by LSCM and Western blotting. The results showed that LG-HMF produced by superconducting magnet had no lethal effects on MLO-Y4. Compared to control, diamagnetic levitation (μg) affected MLO-Y4 morphology, nucleus size, cytoskeleton architecture, and FA proteins distribution and expression. The study indicates that osteocytes are sensitive to altered gravity and FA proteins (vinculin, paxillin, and talin) may be involved in osteocyte mechanosensation. The diamagnetic levitation may be a novel ground-based space-gravity simulator and can be used for biological experiment at cellular level. PMID:21216704

  11. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  12. Electrospray mass spectrometry characterization of post-translational modifications of barley alpha-amylase 1 produced in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, M; Andersen, Jens S.; Roepstorff, P;

    1993-01-01

    We have used electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) in combination with protein chemistry and genetics to delineate post-translational modifications in yeast of barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1), a 45 kD enzyme crucial for production of malt, an important starting material in the manufacture of beer and...

  13. In vitro interactions of the aphid endosymbiotic SymL chaperonin with barley yellow dwarf virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Filichkin, S A; Brumfield, S; Filichkin, T P; Young, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-vector relationships suggest that there are specific interactions between BYDV virions and the aphid's cellular components. However, little is known about vector factors that mediate virion recognition, cellular trafficking, and accumulation within the aphid. Symbionins are molecular chaperonins produced by intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria and are the most abundant proteins found in aphids. To elucidate the potential role of symbionins in BYDV transmission...

  14. 株化骨細胞MLO-Y4-A2におけるPTH受容体遺伝子のメカニカルストレスによる発現

    OpenAIRE

    岡山, 三紀; 荒川, 俊哉; 谷村, 明彦; 溝口, 到; 田隈, 泰信; オカヤマ, ミキ; アラカワ, トシヤ; タニムラ, アキヒコ; ミゾグチ, イタル; タクマ, タイシン; Miki, OKAYAMA; Toshiya, ARAKAWA; Akihiko, TANIMURA; Itaru, MIZOGUCHI; Taishin, TAKUMA

    2004-01-01

    Osteocytes are generally accepted to function as sensors for mechanical stress, which are deeply involved in bone homeostasis. However, the signal transduction mechanism of mechanical stresses in osteocytes is still mostly unclear. Here the effect of fluid shear stress on gene expressions of MLO-Y4-A2 cells, a murine osteocyte-like cell line, was investigated. When shear stress was loaded on the MLO-Y4-A2 cells, PTH receptor mRNA increased to 5 to 8 times over the control level. The PTH recep...

  15. Effects of high glucose and advanced glycation end products on the expressions of sclerostin and RANKL as well as apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In diabetes mellitus (DM), high glucose (HG) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in bone quality deterioration. Osteocytes produce sclerostin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) and regulate osteoblast and osteoclast function. However, whether HG or AGEs directly affect osteocytes and regulate sclerostin and RANKL production is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on the expression of sclerostin and RANKL and on apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells. Treatment of the cells with 22 mM glucose, 100 μg/mL either AGE2 or AGE3 significantly increased the expression of sclerostin protein and mRNA; however, both AGEs, but not glucose, significantly decreased the expression of RANKL protein and mRNA. Moreover, treatment of the cells with HG, AGE2, or AGE3 for 72 h induced significant apoptosis. These detrimental effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on sclerostin and RANKL expressions and on apoptosis were antagonized by pretreatment of the cells with 10−8 M human parathyroid hormone (PTH)-(1–34). Thus, HG and AGEs likely suppress bone formation by increasing sclerostin expression in osteocytes, whereas AGEs suppress bone resorption by decreasing RANKL expression. Together, these processes may cause low bone turnover in DM. In addition, HG and AGEs may cause cortical bone deterioration by inducing osteocyte apoptosis. PTH may effectively treat these pathological processes and improve osteocyte function. - Highlights: • AGEs are involved in bone quality deterioration in diabetes mellitus (DM). • AGEs increased sclerostin as well as apoptosis, and decreased RANKL in osteocytes. • The effects of AGEs on osteocyte function were antagonized by human PTH-(1–34). • AGEs may cause low bone turnover and cortical porosity in DM. • PTH may be effective in bone quality deterioration by improving osteocyte function

  16. Effects of high glucose and advanced glycation end products on the expressions of sclerostin and RANKL as well as apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ken-ichiro, E-mail: ken1nai@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Toru, E-mail: yamaguch@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Kanazawa, Ippei, E-mail: ippei.k@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu, E-mail: sugimoto@med.shimane-u.ac.jp

    2015-05-29

    In diabetes mellitus (DM), high glucose (HG) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in bone quality deterioration. Osteocytes produce sclerostin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) and regulate osteoblast and osteoclast function. However, whether HG or AGEs directly affect osteocytes and regulate sclerostin and RANKL production is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on the expression of sclerostin and RANKL and on apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells. Treatment of the cells with 22 mM glucose, 100 μg/mL either AGE2 or AGE3 significantly increased the expression of sclerostin protein and mRNA; however, both AGEs, but not glucose, significantly decreased the expression of RANKL protein and mRNA. Moreover, treatment of the cells with HG, AGE2, or AGE3 for 72 h induced significant apoptosis. These detrimental effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on sclerostin and RANKL expressions and on apoptosis were antagonized by pretreatment of the cells with 10{sup −8} M human parathyroid hormone (PTH)-(1–34). Thus, HG and AGEs likely suppress bone formation by increasing sclerostin expression in osteocytes, whereas AGEs suppress bone resorption by decreasing RANKL expression. Together, these processes may cause low bone turnover in DM. In addition, HG and AGEs may cause cortical bone deterioration by inducing osteocyte apoptosis. PTH may effectively treat these pathological processes and improve osteocyte function. - Highlights: • AGEs are involved in bone quality deterioration in diabetes mellitus (DM). • AGEs increased sclerostin as well as apoptosis, and decreased RANKL in osteocytes. • The effects of AGEs on osteocyte function were antagonized by human PTH-(1–34). • AGEs may cause low bone turnover and cortical porosity in DM. • PTH may be effective in bone quality deterioration by improving osteocyte function.

  17. Effects of high glucose and advanced glycation end products on the expressions of sclerostin and RANKL as well as apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Yamaguchi, Toru; Kanazawa, Ippei; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2015-05-29

    In diabetes mellitus (DM), high glucose (HG) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in bone quality deterioration. Osteocytes produce sclerostin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-кB ligand (RANKL) and regulate osteoblast and osteoclast function. However, whether HG or AGEs directly affect osteocytes and regulate sclerostin and RANKL production is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on the expression of sclerostin and RANKL and on apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells. Treatment of the cells with 22 mM glucose, 100 μg/mL either AGE2 or AGE3 significantly increased the expression of sclerostin protein and mRNA; however, both AGEs, but not glucose, significantly decreased the expression of RANKL protein and mRNA. Moreover, treatment of the cells with HG, AGE2, or AGE3 for 72 h induced significant apoptosis. These detrimental effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on sclerostin and RANKL expressions and on apoptosis were antagonized by pretreatment of the cells with 10(-8) M human parathyroid hormone (PTH)-(1-34). Thus, HG and AGEs likely suppress bone formation by increasing sclerostin expression in osteocytes, whereas AGEs suppress bone resorption by decreasing RANKL expression. Together, these processes may cause low bone turnover in DM. In addition, HG and AGEs may cause cortical bone deterioration by inducing osteocyte apoptosis. PTH may effectively treat these pathological processes and improve osteocyte function. PMID:25721666

  18. Barley Genes as Tools to Confer Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Filiz; Öztürk, Zahide N; Uçarlı, Cüneyt; Rosellini, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Barley is one of the oldest cultivated crops in the world with a high adaptive capacity. The natural tolerance of barley to stress has led to increasing interest in identification of stress responsive genes through small/large-scale omics studies, comparative genomics, and overexpression of some of these genes by genetic transformation. Two major categories of proteins involved in stress tolerance are transcription factors (TFs) responsible from the re-programming of the metabolism in stress environment, and genes encoding Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins, antioxidant enzymes, osmolytes, and transporters. Constitutive overexpression of several barley TFs, such as C-repeat binding factors (HvCBF4), dehydration-responsive element-binding factors (HvDREB1), and WRKYs (HvWRKY38), in transgenic plants resulted in higher tolerance to drought and salinity, possibly by effectively altering the expression levels of stress tolerance genes due to their higher DNA binding affinity. Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, channel proteins, and lipid transporters can also be the strong candidates for engineering plants for tolerance to salinity and low temperatures. PMID:27536305

  19. Stress tolerance of transgenic barley accumulating the alfalfa aldose reductase in the cytoplasm and the chloroplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Bettina; Majer, Petra; Mihály, Róbert; Pauk, János; Horváth, Gábor V

    2016-09-01

    Barley represents one of the major crops grown worldwide; its genetic transformation provides an important tool for the improvement of crop quality and tolerance to environmental stress factors. Biotic and abiotic stresses produce reactive oxygen species in the plant cells that can directly oxidize the cellular components including lipid membranes; resulting in lipid peroxidation and subsequently the accumulation of reactive carbonyl compounds. In order to protect barley plants from the effects of stress-produced reactive carbonyls, an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was carried out using the Medicago sativa aldose reductase (MsALR) gene. In certain transgenic lines the produced MsALR enzyme was targeted to the chloroplasts to evaluate its protective effect in these organelles. The dual fluorescent protein-based method was used for the evaluation of tolerance of young seedlings to diverse stresses; our results demonstrated that this technique could be reliably applied for the detection of cellular stress in a variety of conditions. The chlorophyll and carotenoid content measurements also supported the results of the fluorescent protein-based method and the stress-protective effect of the MsALR enzyme. Targeting of MsALR into the chloroplast has also resulted in increased stress tolerance, similarly to the observed effect of the cytosolic MsALR accumulation. The results of the DsRed/GFP fluorescent protein-based method indicated that both the cytosol and chloroplast accumulation of MsALR can increase the abiotic stress tolerance of transgenic barley lines. PMID:27469099

  20. Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackay Ian J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of population sub-structure. A major genotypic division within barley is that between winter- and spring-sown varieties, which differ in their requirement for vernalization to promote subsequent flowering. To date, all attempts to validate association genetics in barley by identifying major flowering time loci that control vernalization requirement (VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 have failed. Here, we validate the use of association genetics in barley by identifying VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, despite their prominent role in determining population sub-structure. Results By taking barley as a typical inbreeding crop, and seasonal growth habit as a major partitioning phenotype, we develop an association mapping approach which successfully identifies VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, the underlying loci largely responsible for this agronomic division. We find a combination of Structured Association followed by Genomic Control to correct for population structure and inflation of the test statistic, resolved significant associations only with VRN-H1 and the VRN-H2 candidate genes, as well as two genes closely linked to VRN-H1 (HvCSFs1 and HvPHYC. Conclusion We show that, after employing appropriate statistical methods to correct for population sub-structure, the genome-wide partitioning effect of allelic status at VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 does not result in the high levels of spurious association expected to occur in highly structured samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both VRN-H1 and the candidate VRN-H2 genes can be identified using association mapping

  1. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz Hensel

    Full Text Available Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4 signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER retention signal (SEKDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up to 1.2 g/kg dry weight of recombinant protein (GFP, deposited in small roundish compartments assumed to be ER-derived protein bodies. The molecular farming potential of the system was tested by generating doubled haploid transgenic lines engineered to synthesize the anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody 2G12 with up to 160 μg recombinant protein per g grain. The recombinant protein was deposited at the periphery of protein bodies in the form of a mixture of various N-glycans (notably those lacking terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues, consistent with their vacuolar localization. Inspection of protein-A purified antibodies using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that their equilibrium and kinetic rate constants were comparable to those associated with recombinant 2G12 synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  2. Microbial dynamics during barley tempeh fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xinmei

    2006-01-01

    Tempeh is a traditional staple food in Indonesia mainly made from soybeans. Barley tempeh has been developed by adapting the soybean tempeh process. During soybean tempeh fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporus is dominant. However, other fungi and bacteria also occur, which may influence tempeh quality or even constitute a health risk. Introduction of food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to tempeh fermentation may enhance tempeh nutritional and hygienic quality. The abilities of LAB a...

  3. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  4. Enhancement of methane production from barley waste

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Two different approaches were attempted to try and enhance methane production from an industrial waste composed of 100% barley, which results from production of instant coffee substitutes. In previous work, this waste was co-digested with an excess of activated sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant located in same industrial unit, resulting in a very poor methane yield (25LCH4(STP)/ kgVSinitial), and low reductions in total solids (31%) and in volatile solids (40%). Wh...

  5. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine;

    2007-01-01

    for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the...... length influenced stability but not efficiency of VIGS. Silencing was transient in most cases; however, the decrease in PDS mRNA levels measured by qRT-PCR began earlier and lasted longer than the photobleaching. Occasionally, silencing persisted and could be transmitted through seed as well as via......Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...

  6. Survival of the biocontrol agents Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116 on the spikes of barley in the field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; ZHANG Bing-xin; ZHANG Zhen; SHEN Wei-feng; YANG Ching-hong; YU Jing-quan; ZHAO Yu-hua

    2005-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that results in extensive yield losses to wheat and barley. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing plasmid pRP22-GFP was constructed for monitoring the colonization of two biocontrol agents, Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116, on the spikes of barley and their effect on suppression of FHB. Survival and colonization of the Brevibacillus brevis ZJY- 1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY- 116 strains on spikes of barley were observed by tracking the bacterial transformants with GFP expression. Our field study revealed that plasmid pRP22-GFP was stably maintained in the bacterial strains without selective pressure. The retrieved GFP-tagged strains showed that the bacterial population fluctuation accorded with that of the rain events. Furthermore, both biocontrol strains gave significant protection against FHB on spikes of barley in fields. The greater suppression of barley FHB disease was resulted from the treatment of barley spikes with biocontrol agents before inoculation with F. graminearum.

  7. Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 displays an endophytic lifestyle in cultivated cereals and enhances yield in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Alós, Enriqueta; Rey, María Dolores; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an indigenous inhabitant of olive roots, displays an endophytic lifestyle in this woody crop and exerts biocontrol against the fungal phytopathogen Verticillium dahliae Here we report microscopy evidence that the strain PICF7 is also able to colonize and persist on or in wheat and barley root tissues. Root colonization of both cereal species followed a similar pattern to that previously reported in olive, including inner colonization of the root hairs. This demonstrates that strain PICF7 can colonize root systems of distant botanical species. Barley plants germinated from PICF7-treated seeds showed enhanced vegetative growth. Moreover, significant increases in the number of grains (up to 19.5%) and grain weight (up to 20.5%) per plant were scored in this species. In contrast, growth and yield were not significantly affected in wheat plants by the presence of PICF7. Proteomics analysis of the root systems revealed that different proteins were exclusively found depending on the presence or absence of PICF7 and only one protein with hydrogen ion transmembrane transporter activity was exclusively found in both PICF7-inoculated barley and wheat plants but not in the controls. PMID:27130938

  8. PAMP-triggered immune responses in barley and susceptibility to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hückelhoven, Ralph; Seidl, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) builds one of the first layers of plant disease resistance. In susceptible plants, PTI is overcome by adapted pathogens. This can be achieved by suppression of PTI with the help of pathogen virulence effectors. However, effectors may also contribute to modification of host metabolism or cell architecture to ensure successful pathogenesis. Barley responds to treatment with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns flg22 or chitin with phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and an oxidative burst. RAC/ROP GTPases can act as positive or negative modulators of these plant immune responses. The RAC/ROP GTPase RACB is a powdery mildew susceptibility factor of barley. However, RACB apparently does not negatively control early PTI responses but functions in polar cell development during invasion of the pathogen into living host epidermal cells. Here, we further discuss the incomplete picture of PTI in Triticeae. PMID:27348336

  9. CDNA cloning, characterization and expression of an endosperm-specific barley peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Welinder, K.G.; Hejgaard, J.

    1991-01-01

    amino acid residues of mature BP 1. The clone pcR7 encodes an additional C-terminal sequence of 22 residues, which apparently are removed during processing. BP 1 is less than 50% identical to other sequenced plant peroxidases. Analyses of RNA and protein from aleurone, endosperm and embryo tissue showed......A barley peroxidase (BP 1) of pI ca. 8.5 and M(r) 37000 has been purified from mature barley grains. Using antibodies towards peroxidase BP 1, a cDNA clone (pcR7) was isolated from cDNA expression library. The nucleotide sequence of pcR7 gave a derived amino acid sequence identical to the 158 C-terminal...

  10. Cloning and characterization of four B-hordein genes from Tibetan hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhao-Xue; Qian, Gang; Pan, Zhi-Fen; Deng, Guang-Bing; Wu, Fang; Tang, Ya-Wei; Qiang, Xiao-Lin; Yu, Mao-Qun

    2006-10-01

    Four B-hordein genes, designated BH1-BH4, were cloned using PCR amplification from two hull-less barley cultivars, ZQ7239 and ZQ148, collected from Tibet. The results of sequencing indicated that BH1-BH4 contained complete open reading frames (ORFs). Comparison of their predicted polypeptide sequences with the published sequences suggested that they all share the same basic protein structure. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the deduced amino-acid sequences of BH1-BH4 genes were more closely related to B-hordeins from cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) than to any other prolamins from wild barley and Aegilops tauschii. Comparison of the coding regions of BH1-BH4 genes showed that BH1 had a lower sequence identity to other previously published B-hordeins than the other three B-hordeins obtained in this study. BH1 was then cloned in a bacterial expression vector based on bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The resulting plasmid produced a 28.15 kDa protein in Escherichia coli. The potential value of B-hordein genes in grain quality improvement of hull-less barley has been discussed. PMID:17046594

  11. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability. PMID:26396387

  12. Structural lability of Barley stripe mosaic virus virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V Makarov

    Full Text Available Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed.

  13. [Effect of amino acid supplements to barley meal on the nitrogen metabolism of growing castrated male swine (20-65 kg live weight)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wecke, C; Gebhardt, G

    1981-03-01

    In 56 N-balance experiments of the influence of differentiated amino acid supplements to coarse barley meal enriched with energy, minerals and additives on the nitrogen metabolism of castrated male pigs, was investigated. The joint supplement of lysine and methionine remained without result in comparison with the sole supplementation of lysine. Only the additional supplementation of threonine resulted in the further improvement of protein utilisation. The results corroborate the effect of the amino acid lysine limiting the performance in barley protein and prove that threonine takes the second place in the sequence of limitation. PMID:6791610

  14. Expression of Ethylene Biosynthesis Genes in Barley Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant hormone ethylene influences green plant regeneration rates from barley callus cultures. Our studies have focused on the effects of short treatments of an ethylene inhibitor or an ethylene precursor on green plant regeneration from two barley cultivars and the expression patterns of two eth...

  15. TILLING in two-rowed spring barley: mutation frequencies and phenotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) searches the genomes of mutagenized organisms for mutations in a chosen gene, and allows functional analysis in the context of the whole organism. Moreover, TILLING extends reverse genetics to mutation breeding, since it can generate large allelic series of economically interesting genes. As part of the GABI-TILL consortium (GABI II) we have established a TILLING platform for the two-rowed, malting barley cultivar 'Barke'. The population comprises 10,492 M2 plants, and the respective DNA was arranged in 8-fold two dimensional (2D)-pools for mutation screening. Mutations were detected by following the original TILLING procedure of Cel I based hetero-duplex analysis. By screening ten gene fragments for mutations in 7,348 M2 lines 81 mutations were identified, yielding an average mutation frequency of approximately 1 mutation per 0.5 Mb. Seventy-nine percent of these mutations were located in coding regions of the analysed gene fragments of which 45% represented missense alleles inducing a change of amino acid in the protein. Five percent of the mutations provided truncation mutations either by elimination of a splice junction or by insertion of a premature stop codon. For instance for the vrs1 gene (Komatsuda et al. 2007), which is the major factor that controls row-type morphology of the barley spike, thirty-one mutations were identified by screening a 1,270bp fragment. Three of the identified mutants either exhibited a 6-rowed or an intermediate phenotype. One mutant displayed a spikelet morphology that was significantly altered compared to 'Barke' wild-type. The barley TILLING activity is going to be extended into the GABI-Future program. Additionally, tests to improve mutation frequency in barley will be undertaken. Furthermore, attempts for generating an instantly homozygous TILLING-Population by Barley microspore culture mutagenesis are underway in co-operation with the group of Jochen Kumlehn (Co-PI GABI-FUTURE-TILL-Barley

  16. The International Barley Sequencing Consortium — At the Threshold of Efficient Access to the Barley Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequencing the genome of barley, an agriculturally and industrially important cereal crop and a useful diploid model for bread wheat, has become a realistic undertaking. Important steps have been initiated to improve genomics tools, build and anchor a physical map, develop a high-density genetic ma...

  17. 周期性压应力作用下MLO-Y4细胞基因差异表达的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何陨; 朱智敏; 陈文川; 王航; 方园; 李磊

    2012-01-01

    目的:本研究对骨细胞实施应力刺激,进行基因表达谱检测,从基因转录组水平阐明MLO-Y4细胞的力学敏感基因,考察加载应力的力值、频率、作用时间对力学敏感基因表达的影响以及三者之间的相互作用。方法:本实验运用小鼠全基因组寡核苷酸芯片、qRT-PCR等方法,筛选出CCS(周期性压应力)作用下MLO-Y4细胞的差异表达基因,并进行验证,考察IL-6的mRNA表达变化与应力力值、频率、作用时间的关系。结果:1.芯片和qRT-PCR检测出的基因表达率具有良好的相关性,其皮尔森线性相关值R=0.903。2.最具统计学意义的GO Terms是“趋化因子活性”;出现频率最高及最具统计学意义的KEGG通路是“MAPK”和“细胞因子.细胞因子受体相互作用”。3.在CCS作用下MLO—Y4细胞IL-6mRNA的表达受压应力力值、频率和作用时间的影响:当三个变量中的两个一定时,IL-6mRNA的表达随着第三个变量的增加而增加。结论:1.CCS作用下MLO-Y4细胞差异表达基因(以IL-6为代表)以表达上调为主,且与破骨细胞和骨吸收密切相关。2.在CCS作用下.MLO-Y4细胞IL-6mRNA表达受压应力力值、频率和作用时间的共同影响。

  18. Improvement of the nutritional quality of barley and spring wheat: A review of the FAO/SIDA/SAREC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the joint FAO/SIDA/SAREC project was to develop new varieties of barley and spring wheat adapted to conditions in developing countries and with increased protein and lysine contents of the grain. Six premier research institutes in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey co-operated in the project under the technical leadership of Svaloev AB, formerly the Swedish Seed Association, during the period 1974 to 1981. Barley lines having grain with high protein and high lysine contents derived from Hiproly, Risoe 1508 and B1 were used as donors and backcrossed at Svaloev into adapted breeding material provided by breeders in the participating countries. Backcrosses and other progenies selected for homozygosity of the lysine genes on the basis of their protein content and dye-binding capacity (DBC) were distributed to the participants who continued selection in their own environments. A similar programme was initiated for wheat, based largely on Atlas 66, Nap Hal and Rageni as donors of high protein and lysine, but the expression of high lysine was very weakly inherited and selection was abandoned in 1978. It has proved extremely difficult, and so far impossible, to find high yielding lines with desirable agronomic characters combined with increased protein and lysine contents. Evidence of positive improvement in protein production per unit area was obtained in both wheat and barley in India. Under the aegis of the project over 14,000 lines of wheat and nearly 21,000 lines of barley, which included around 6,000 mutant progenies, were screened for protein content and DBC values at Svaloev, but no new prospective donors were identified that were superior to those already available. Conclusions are drawn concerning the benefit of the project and suggestions are made for further action. (author)

  19. Simvastatin rescues homocysteine-induced apoptosis of osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells by decreasing the expressions of NADPH oxidase 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeno, Ayumu; Kanazawa, Ippei; Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Notsu, Masakazu; Yokomoto-Umakoshi, Maki; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-04-25

    Clinical studies have shown that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with bone fragility. Homocysteine (Hcy) induces apoptosis of osteoblastic cell lineage by increasing oxidative stress, which may contribute to Hcy-induced bone fragility. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, ameliorate oxidative stress by regulating oxidant and anti-oxidant enzymes. However, the effects of statins on Hcy-induced apoptosis of osteocytes are unknown. This study was thus aimed to investigate whether or not statins prevent Hcy-induced apoptosis of osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells and regulate NADPH oxidase (Nox) expression. TUNEL staining showed that 5 mM Hcy induced apoptosis of MLO-Y4 cells, and that co-incubation of 10(-9) or 10(-8) M simvastatin significantly suppressed the apoptotic effect. Moreover, we confirmed the beneficial effect of simvastatin against Hcy's apoptotic effect by using a DNA fragment ELISA assay. However, TUNEL staining showed no significant effects of pravastatin, a hydrophilic statin, on the Hcy-induced apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed that Hcy increased the mRNA expressions of Nox1 and Nox2, whereas simvastatin inhibited the stimulation of Nox1 and Nox2 expressions by Hcy. In contrast, neither Hcy nor simvastatin had any effect on Nox4 expression. These findings indicate that simvastatin prevents the detrimental effects of Hcy on the apoptosis of osteocytes by regulating the expressions of Nox1 and Nox2, suggesting that statins may be beneficial for preventing Hcy-induced osteocyte apoptosis and the resulting bone fragility. PMID:26842590

  20. Differences in physiological features associated with aluminum tolerance in Tibetan wild and cultivated barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huaxin; Zhao, Jing; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Cao, Fangbin; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Zhang, Guoping; Li, Chengdao; Wu, Feibo

    2014-02-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major limiting factor for plant production in acid soils. Wild barley germplasm is a treasure trove of useful genes and offers rich sources of genetic variation for crop improvement. Al-stress-hydroponic-experiments were performed, and the physiochemical characteristic of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes (Al-resistant XZ16 and Al-sensitive XZ61) and Al-resistant cv. Dayton were compared. Ultrastructure of chloroplasts and root cells in XZ16 was less injured than that in Dayton and XZ61. Moreover, XZ16 secreted significantly more malate besides citrate and exhibited less Al uptake and distribution than both of XZ61 and Dayton in response to Al stress, simultaneously maintained higher H⁺-, Ca²⁺Mg²⁺- and total-ATPase activities over XZ61. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide reduced citrate secretion from XZ16, but not from Dayton. In Tibetan wild barley, our findings highlight the significant correlations between Al tolerance, ATPase activity and citrate secretion, providing some insights into the physiological basis for Al-detoxification. PMID:24361508

  1. Deoxynivalenol removal from barley intended as swine feed through the use of an abrasive pearling procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James D; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Abramson, David

    2003-08-13

    Samples of naturally contaminated hulled barley, with varying deoxynivalenol concentrations, were subjected to an abrasive type dehulling procedure. The remaining grain fractions were analyzed for weight remaining (%), deoxynivalenol (ppm), crude protein (%CP), neutral detergent fiber (%NDF), ash (%ASH), gross energy (GE; kcal/kg), and calculated digestible energy values (DE; kcal/kg). Following the initial 15 s of pearling, 85% of the grain mass remained. Additional pearling resulted in a linear decline of grain mass. Following 15 s of pearling, the grain contained 34% of the initial deoxynivalenol content, irrespective of the initial level of contamination. Further pearling resulted in continued significant (p < 0.05) reductions in the percent of deoxynivalenol remaining to a level of 7.9% after 120 s but with significant losses in grain mass. Pearling can serve as an effective means of reducing the deoxynivalenol content of barley, with improvements in nutrient levels. However, the need to reduce the deoxynivalenol content of contaminated barley to less than 1 ppm for swine will necessitate the removal of a significant amount of the grain mass for heavily contaminated samples. PMID:12903987

  2. Effects of Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Barley Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, S. M.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, H. J.; Joo, Y. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of bacterial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation indices of barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at 24% dry matter (DM) and wilted to 47.9% DM. The wilted barley forage was chopped to 3–5 cm length and applied with no inoculant (CON), L. plantarum (1×1010 cfu/g, LP) or Effective Microorganisms (0.5×109 cfu/g, EM). Then the forages were ensiled in four replications for each treatment in 20 L mini silos and stored for 100 days. The contents of crude protein and ether extract were higher in CON silage ensiled for 100-d, while the contents of DM and crude ash were higher in EM silage (p0.05). The pH, ammonia-N concentration and lactate to acetate ratio were higher (psilage, while lactate concentrations were higher (psilage. Acetate concentration and lactic acid bacteria was increased (psilage was improved by the application of bacterial inoculants. PMID:25049981

  3. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide;

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... polymerization DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  4. Mutation breeding of barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has special value as a food for people living in the Andes mountain area of Peru. It is also the basic raw material for the malting industry. The factors limiting barley production in Peru are mainly diseases, low soil fertility, low rainfall, drought, frost and hail. Improved varieties should have the capability to overcome most of the factors limiting production. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to apply appropriate methods in mutation induction, and crossing and selection. The mutation induction methods are used to improve well adapted varieties and lines. The barley variety Buenavista is suited to the Altiplano conditions. Because of its spikes, it can withstand hail damage better than other varieties. Naked barley is appreciated very much as a different type of food by people living in the highlands. Based on these facts, a mutation breeding programme was initiated to search for naked kernels and other interesting mutants in the Buenavista variety. The mutagenic agents applied were: gamma rays at 20 and 30 krad (200 and 300 Gy); EMS at 0.05 M and 0.1 M; and sodium azide at 0.001 and 0.004 M. The M1 populations were planted in Callejon de Huaylas at 2700 m of elevation. The M2 generation was grown at La Molina on the campus of the University at 200 m of elevation. The total number of plants in the M2 was 187,574. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations ranged from 1.13% to 5.94%. The highest doses of mutagens resulted in a higher number of chlorophyll mutations, while in the case of naked kernels selected from the bulked seeds of each treatment, the lower dose gave the higher number. The frequency of mutants with naked kernels ranged from 0.07% to 0.12%. The main goal of obtaining naked kernel mutants was achieved. At the applied treatments gamma rays were more effective as a mutagenic agent for this purpose than EMS or sodium azide. (author). 4 refs, 5 tabs

  5. Analysis of Spring Barley Actual Evapotranspiration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Pohanková, Eva; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    Brno: Mendel university, 2013 - (Škarpa, P.; Ryant, P.; Cerkal, R.; Polák, O.; Kovárník, J.), s. 357-361 ISBN 978-80-7375-908-7. [MendelNet 2013. Mendelova univerzita v Brně (CZ), 20.11.2013-21.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MZe QJ1310123 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : reference evapotranspiration * Bowen ratio/energy balance method * crop coefficient * spring barley * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of starches isolated from malting barley varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pycia, Karolina; Gałkowska, Dorota; Juszczak, Lesław; Fortuna, Teresa; Witczak, Teresa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of starches isolated from malting barley varieties. The analyzed starches contained 19.6-25.2 g of amylose, 42.47-70.67 mg of phosphorus, 0.50-1.26 g of protein and 0.10-0.61 g of fat per 100 g of starch dry mass. The clarity of the 1 % (w/w) starch pastes ranged from 5.4 to 9.8 %. Values of the characteristic gelatinization temperatures were in the ranges of 56.5-58.5 °C, 61.2-63.0 °C and 66.7-68.7 °C, respectively for TO, TP and TE, whereas values of gelatinization enthalpy were from 6.49 to 9.61 J/g. The barley starches showed various tendency to retrogradation, from 24.52 to 44.22 %, measured as R = ∆HR/∆HG value. The pasting curves showed differences in pasting characteristics of the barley starches, where values of peak (PV) and final (FV) viscosities were 133-230 mPa·s and 224-411 mPa·s, respectively. The barley starch pastes exhibited non-Newtonian, shear thinning flow behaviour and thixotropy phenomenon. After cooling the starch gels showed different viscoelastic properties, however, most of them behaved like weak gels (tan δ = G″/G' > 0.1). Significant linear correlations between the parameters of pasting characteristic and some rheological parameters were found. PMID:26243900

  7. Acute-phase protein serum amyloid A3 is a novel paracrine coupling factor that controls bone homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Roman; Sturmlechner, Ines; Spitzer, Silvia; Riester, Scott M; Rumpler, Monika; Zwerina, Jochen; Klaushofer, Klaus; van Wijnen, Andre J; Varga, Franz

    2015-04-01

    Serum amyloid A (A-SAA/Saa3) was shown before to affect osteoblastic metabolism. Here, using RT-quantitative PCR and/or immunoblotting, we show that expression of mouse Saa3 and human SAA1 and SAA2 positively correlates with increased cellular maturation toward the osteocyte phenotype. Expression is not detected in C3H10T1/2 embryonic fibroblasts but is successively higher in preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, late osteoblastic MLO-A5 cells, and MLO-Y4 osteocytes, consistent with findings using primary bone cells from newborn mouse calvaria. Recombinant Saa3 protein functionally inhibits osteoblast differentiation as reflected by reductions in the expression of osteoblast markers and decreased mineralization in newborn mouse calvaria. Yet, Saa3 protein enhances osteoclastogenesis in mouse macrophages/monocytes based on the number of multinucleated and tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase-positive cells and Calcr mRNA expression. Depletion of Saa3 in MLO osteocytes results in the loss of the mature osteocyte phenotype. Recombinant osteocalcin, which is reciprocally regulated with Saa3 at the osteoblast/osteocyte transition, attenuates Saa3 expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytes. Mechanistically, Saa3 produced by MLO-Y4 osteocytes is integrated into the extracellular matrix of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, where it associates with the P2 purinergic receptor P2rx7 to stimulate Mmp13 expression via the P2rx7/MAPK/ERK/activator protein 1 axis. Our data suggest that Saa3 may function as an important coupling factor in bone development and homeostasis. PMID:25491310

  8. Agronomic evaluation of barley mutants under semi-arid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutant line, Cyp M9, selected from a population of the barley variety Attiki treated with gamma rays, was evaluated against commercial varieties for the grain yield, yield components, and the protein content and yield in 15 trials. The grain yield of Cyp M9 was 14% higher than that of its mother variety, Attiki, and similar to those of the best commercial varieties, Athenais and Kantara. The protein yield of the mutant line (711 kg/ha) was higher than those of the commercial varieties. Regression analyses of the varietal grain yield and the environmental mean showed that the response of Cyp M9 to improved environmental conditions was greater than those of the commercial varieties. Furthermore, Cyp M9 showed a better response to higher rainfall conditions than Kantara. In general, the mutant Cyp M9 responded to environmental changes in the semi-arid environment in a manner similar to, or better than, those of the commercial varieties. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Differential in vitro and in vivo effect of barley cysteine and serine protease inhibitors on phytopathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Laura; Herrero, Ignacio; Cambra, Inés; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Protease inhibitors from plants have been involved in defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. Phytocystatins and trypsin/α-amylase inhibitors are two of the best characterized protease inhibitor families in plants. In barley, thirteen cystatins (HvCPI-1 to 13) and the BTI-CMe trypsin inhibitor have been previously studied. Their capacity to inhibit pest digestive proteases, and the negative in vivo effect caused by plants expressing these inhibitors on pests support the defence function of these proteins. Barley cystatins are also able to inhibit in vitro fungal growth. However, the antifungal effect of these inhibitors in vivo had not been previously tested. Moreover, their in vitro and in vivo effect on plant pathogenous bacteria is still unknown. In order to obtain new insights on this feature, in vitro assays were made against different bacterial and fungal pathogens of plants using the trypsin inhibitor BTI-CMe and the thirteen barley cystatins. Most barley cystatins and the BTI-CMe inhibitor were able to inhibit mycelial growth but no bacterial growth. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants independently expressing the BTI-CMe inhibitor and the cystatin HvCPI-6 were tested against the same bacterial and fungal pathogens. Neither the HvCPI-6 expressing transgenic plants nor the BTI-CMe ones were more resistant to plant pathogen fungi and bacteria than control Arabidopsis plants. The differences observed between the in vitro and in planta assays against phytopathogenic fungi are discussed. PMID:21482127

  10. Crystal structures of barley thioredoxin h isoforms HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2 reveal features involved in protein recognition and possibly in discriminating the isoform specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine;

    2008-01-01

    segment of one HvTrxh1 molecule is positioned along a shallow hydrophobic groove at the primary nucleophile Cys40 of another HvTrxh1 molecule. The association mode can serve as a model for the target protein recognition by Trx, as it brings the Met82 C gamma atom (gamma position as a disulfide sulfur) of...... the bound loop segment in the proximity of the Cys40 thiol. The interaction involves three characteristic backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds in an antiparallel beta-sheet-like arrangement, similar to the arrangement observed in the structure of an engineered, covalently bound complex between Trx and a...... substrate protein, as reported by Maeda et al. in an earlier paper. The occurrence of an intermolecular salt bridge between Glu80 of the bound loop segment and Arg101 near the hydrophobic groove suggests that charge complementarity plays a role in the specificity of Trx. In HvTrxh2, isoleucine corresponds...

  11. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762

  12. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.;

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active...

  13. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  14. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    OpenAIRE

    Ayed Sourour; Bouharb Ameni; Cherif Mejda

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel) through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours), on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours) and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours). Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germinat...

  15. Resistance against barley leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in West-European spring barley germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Niks, Rients; Walther, Ursula; Jaiser, Heidi; Martinez, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2000-01-01

    International audience The level and type of resistance against leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) was determined in modern spring barley germplasm. In field trials all over Europe most accessions were in some locations and years significantly less infected than the moderately resistant reference ,Grit'. Differentiating P. hordei isolates indicated that most accessions carried hypersensitivity (Rph) genes. A virulence survey indicated that among the known resistance genes, only Rph7 is still full...

  16. Evaluation of the protein quality of cereal mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein content, true protein digestibility, biological value, net protein utilization, and utilizable protein in several varieties of barley, wheat and rice were determined in nitrogen-balance trials with rats. It appeared that protein quality varied significantly between these three cereal grains, with the lowest values for wheat. However, the protein content was markedly higher in wheat; consequently, utilizable protein was highest in this cereal grain. The different varieties within barley, wheat and rice varied considerably in protein quality. This demonstrates a large variation in the potential for protein synthesis. The main problem with rice and barley is the low protein concentration, whereas with wheat the biggest problem seems to be the quality of the protein. As the lysine level in all cereal grains, expressed in percentage of the protein, cannot meet the requirements for either man or domestic animals efforts should be made to increase the lysine concentration in these food sources. (author)

  17. Contribution of the drought tolerance-related Stress-responsive NAC1 transcription factor to resistance of barley to Ramularia leaf spot

    OpenAIRE

    McGrann, Graham R. D.; STEED, ANDREW; BURT, CHRISTOPHER; Goddard, Rachel; LACHAUX, CLEA; Bansal, Anuradha; CORBITT, MARGARET; GORNIAK, KALINA; Nicholson, Paul; James K.M. Brown

    2014-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant transcription factors that are involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in many developmental processes. Stress-responsive NAC1 (SNAC1) transcription factor is involved in drought tolerance in barley and rice, but has not been shown previously to have a role in disease resistance. Transgenic over-expression of HvSNAC1 in barley cv. Golden Promise reduced the severity of Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, but ha...

  18. Identification of barley and rye varieties using matrix- assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, H.A.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena;

    2001-01-01

    developed, which combines analysis of alcohol-soluble wheat proteins (gliadins) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks. Here we have applied the same method for the identification of both barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye (Secale cereale L...

  19. 大麦营养品质及加工研究进展%Research progress on nutritional quality and processing technology of barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文; 叶晓汀; 谢静; 史定国; 张智超; 刘加友; 隋中泉

    2016-01-01

    Barley is one of the major cereal foods for people lived in Eastern Europe,North Africa,Hima-layan region in Asia and other region with extreme climate,providing novel functional benefit for human health.The progress in nutritional components and process of barley was summarized in the aspects of starch,fiber,protein and β-glucan.The qualities of barley products were affected by the physicochemi-cal properties of barley and process,which provided information for the development and application of barley food.%大麦是欧洲东部、非洲北部、亚洲喜马拉雅地区和其他极端气候地区居民的主食和主要碳水化合物来源。大麦在食品中的添加应用有助于提升食品的营养价值,对人体有一定益处。从大麦淀粉、膳食纤维、蛋白质、β-葡聚糖等方面综述现阶段大麦的营养价值和加工应用的研究进展,并讨论了大麦理化性质与加工工艺的关联性,为大麦食品的开发应用提供一定的参考。

  20. The potential of an insoluble dietary fiber-rich source from barley to protect from DMH-induced intestinal tumors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, G H; Jorgensen, L; Royle, P

    1993-01-01

    The influence of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber supplements from barley and wheat on colon cancer risk was assessed using male Sprague-Dawley rats from four weeks of age on a semipurified (AIN76A) rat diet modified to contain 20% fat of mixed animal and plant origin and 5% dietary fiber. Gastrointestinal tumors were induced with dimethylhydrazine given weekly for five weeks at 15 mg/kg body wt by subcutaneous injection, commencing four weeks after rats were established on the experimental diets. At 32 weeks of age, rats were killed and tumors assessed. The insoluble dietary fiber-rich source from barley (spent barley grain, SBG) was significantly more effective at preventing induced tumors than soluble fiber-rich commercial barley bran. There were no significant differences among the results for the other three fiber sources, which were intermediate in their influence. Both incidence of rats affected and tumor mass index were reduced, the latter significantly, when SBG was compared with commercial barley bran. SBG also produced a significant reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration (down 17%, p source of cellulose and hemicellulose. It is also a good source of proteins, polyphenolics, fatty acids (including alpha-linolenic), vitamin E, and minerals. Further research is needed to clarify the relevance of these other factors to the differences observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8389043

  1. Purification and characterization of three chitinases and one beta-1,3-glucanase accumulating in the medium of cell suspension cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, K.M.; Jacobsen, S.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.;

    1991-01-01

    Three basic chitinases and one basic beta-1,3-glucanase were secreted into the medium when embryogenic cell suspensions of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. 'Igri' were cultured as undifferentiated aggregates in the presence of 2,4-D. The enzymes were purified by affinity and ion exchange......I at 8.7. Further analysis showed that this enzyme is also expressed in barley grain. The amino acid composition and five partial amino acid sequences covering 93 residues of chitinase K were determined. A high similarity was found between chitinase K and barley chitinase T and C as well as basic...... chitinases from barley aleurone and barley, bean and potato leaves. The purified beta-1,3-glucanase with a molecular weight (MW) of 32 kDa and pI greater-than-or-equal-to 9.8 constituted 1% of the soluble protein in the medium. Based on similar MW, pI and amino acid composition as well as identical N...

  2. Global analysis of the root hair morphogenesis transcriptome reveals new candidate genes involved in root hair formation in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Janiak, Agnieszka; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Szarejko, Iwona

    2010-09-01

    Root hairs are long tubular outgrowths of specialized root epidermal cells that play an important role in plant nutrition and water uptake. They are also an important model in studies of higher plant cell differentiation. In contrast to the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana, currently very little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of root hair formation in monocots, including major cereals. To elucidate candidate genes controlling this developmental process in barley, we took advantage of the recently established Affymetrix GeneChip Barley1 Genome Array to carry out global transcriptome analyses of hairless and root hair primordia-forming roots of two barely mutant lines. Expression profiling of the root-hairless mutant rhl1.a and its wild type parent variety 'Karat' revealed 10 genes potentially involved in the early step of root hair formation in barley. Differential expression of all identified genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The genes identified encode proteins associated with the cell wall and membranes, including one gene for xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, three for peroxidase enzymes and five for arabinogalactan protein, extensin, leucine-rich-repeat protein, phosphatidylinositol phosphatidylcholine transfer protein and a RhoGTPase GDP dissociation inhibitor, respectively. The molecular function of one gene is unknown at present. The expression levels of these genes were strongly reduced in roots of the root-hairless mutant rhl1.a compared to the parent variety, while expression of all 10 genes was similar in another mutant, i.e. rhp1.b, that has lost its ability to develop full root hairs but still forms hairs blocked at the primordium stage, and its wild type relative. This clearly indicates that the new genes identified are involved in the initiation of root hair morphogenesis in barley. PMID:20388575

  3. Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

    Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 μ Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (β -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of β -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No

  4. A high lysine mutant of winter forage barley induced by Co60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is typical of the induced high lysine mutant of winter forage barley that compared to the parental form its height is reduced 10-15 cm. Besides, it is distinguished by greatly shrunken endosperm and, therefore, reduced (24.32%) 1000 grain weight. The crude protein content of the grain is 17.37%, and of lysine - 5,46 g/16 g N. The gene controlling endosperm is linked with the gene governing synthesis of more lysine. The test of allelisms for that gene has revealed that it is not allelic to the gene of Hiproly, Notch 1 and Riso-1508

  5. 26kDa endochitinase from barley seeds: real-time monitoring of the enzymatic reaction and substrate binding experiments using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dennhart, Nicole; Weigang, Linda M M; Fujiwara, Maho;

    2009-01-01

    activity with unlabeled substrate. Further, the enzymatic activity of the E67Q mutant of the barley chitinase was analyzed and the role of Glu67 was discussed comparing the mass spectra of enzyme protein obtained in native and in denatured conditions. Then it was determined that the observed loss of the...... enzymatic activity in E67Q is definitely caused by a point mutation of Glu67 but not due to partial unfolding of the mutated enzyme. Finally, association constants of enzyme-oligosaccharide complexes were calculated from Scatchard plots obtained by mass spectra. The binding free energy values obtained for E......A 26 kDa endochitinase from barley seeds was enzymatically characterized exclusively by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). At first, oligosaccharide hydrolysis catalyzed by the barley chitinase was monitored in real-time by ESI-MS. The reaction time-course obtained by ESI...

  6. Activation of β–catenin Signaling in MLO-Y4 Osteocytic Cells versus 2T3 Osteoblastic Cells by Fluid Flow Shear Stress and PGE2: Implications for the Study of Mechanosensation in Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Kamel, Mohamed A; Picconi, Jason L; Lara-Castillo, Nuria; Johnson, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The osteocyte is hypothesized to be the mechanosensory cell in bone. However, osteoblastic cell models have been most commonly used to investigate mechanisms of mechanosensation in bone. Therefore, we sought to determine if differences might exist between osteocytic and osteoblastic cell models relative to the activation of β-catenin signaling in MLO-Y4 osteocytic, 2T3 osteoblastic and primary neonatal calvarial cells (NCCs) in response to pulsatile fluid flow shear stress (PFFSS). β–catenin ...

  7. The strategy of carbon utilization in uniculm barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following exposure of the youngest mature leaf of uniculm barley to 14CO2, groups of plants were harvested over a 72 h period to determine the fate of 14C in the photosynthesizing leaf and in growing leaves and roots. Initially, 14C was mainly present in sucrose with a little in starch and charged compounds; transport out of the fed leaf was rapid and, by 7 and 24 h, 56 and 93% respectively of the 14C had been translocated about equally to growing leaves and roots. Sucrose entering meristems was quickly metabolized to protein and structural carbohydrate (40 and 60% of the 14C in these organs at 7 and 24 h respectively), while the remainder was converted to short-term storage products or intermediary metabolites. By the end of the first day c.35% of the 14C originally assimilated had been lost in respiration. The metabolism of the leaf appeared to be organized on a diurnal basis, for it exported nearly all its carbon within 24 h of assimilation. In contrast, some of the assimilate imported into growing leaves and, to a lesser extent, roots was not immediately used for growth but persisted as temporary metabolites and was subsequently used for growth in the following days. (author)

  8. Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of barley

    OpenAIRE

    H. Samarah, Nezar

    2005-01-01

    International audience Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Mediterranean regions undergoes drought stress during the grain-filling period. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of drought stress on grain growth and yield of barley. Plants were exposed to three drought treatments at the beginning of grain filling: (1) well-watered at 100% field capacity, (2) mild drought stress at 60% field capacity, and (3) severe drought stress at 20% field capacity until grain maturity....

  9. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    OpenAIRE

    Muavviz Ayvaz; Mesut Koyuncu; Avni Guven; FAGERSTEDT, KURT V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98) were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm) ...

  10. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  11. Volatile organic compounds released by barley roots attract wireworms

    OpenAIRE

    Barsics, Fanny; Fiers, Marie; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles and are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed in order to develop integrated management strategies. Our work consists in elucidating the role of barley root-emitted volatile organic compounds on the orientation behaviour of Agriotes sordidus wireworms. Using a dual choice olfactometer we have evaluated the attractiveness of a variety of baits ranging from barley roots themselves to isolated root...

  12. Differences in grain ultrastructure, phytochemical and proteomic profiles between the two contrasting grain Cd-accumulation barley genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low-grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars.

  13. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  14. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [14C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  15. Oscillatory fluid flow elicits changes in morphology, cytoskeleton and integrin-associated molecules in MLO-Y4 cells, but not in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huiyun; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Jiawei; Guan, Ying; Weng, Yuanyuan; Shang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow stress is one of the most important mechanical stimulations of bone cells under physiological conditions. Osteocytes and osteoblasts act as primary mechanosensors within bones, and in vitro are able to respond to fluid shear stress, both morphologically and functionally. However, there is little information about the response of integrin-associated molecules using both osteoblasts and osteocytes. In this study, we investigated the changes in response to 2 hours of oscillatory fluid flow stress in the MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cell line and the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell line. MLO-Y4 cells exhibited a significant increase in the expression of integrin-associated molecules, including OPN, CD44, vinculin and integrin αvβ3. However, there was no or limited increase observed in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. Cell area and fiber stress formation were also markedly promoted by fluid flow only in MLO-Y4 cells. But the numbers of processes per cell remain unaffected in both cell lines. PMID:23096360

  16. Concomitant activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signalling is involved in cyclic compressive force-induced IL-6 secretion in MLO-Y4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Hao, Zhichao; Ma, Yuanyuan; Liao, Shuang; Li, Xianxian; Fu, Jing; Wu, Yeke; Shen, Jiefei; Zhang, Ping; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hang

    2014-05-01

    IL-6 has a dual role in bone remodelling. The ERK1/2 pathway partially upregulated IL-6 secretion in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells exposed to CCF. We have now investigated the possible role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway in the CCF-induced IL-6 expression. MLO-Y4 cells were treated with CCF 2,000 µstrain, 2 Hz, or 10, 30 min, 1, 3 and 6 h. IL-6 expression, Akt and ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt phosphorylation were determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and Western blotting. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt with LY294002 or ERK1/2 with PD98059 significantly attenuated IL-6 upregulation, and IL-6 expression was abolished by inhibiting both pathways. Inhibition of one pathway downregulated the other's phosphorylation level. In conclusion, concomitant activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways mediated IL-6 expression in MLO-Y4 cells under CCF. PMID:24375569

  17. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Wanic; Magdalena Jastrzębska; Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale), when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley), when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full ...

  18. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Carsten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease. Results Here we characterise a superfamily predicted to be the full complement of Candidates for Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs in the fungal barley powdery mildew parasite B. graminis f.sp. hordei. The 491 genes encoding these proteins constitute over 7% of this pathogen’s annotated genes and most were grouped into 72 families of up to 59 members. They were predominantly expressed in the intracellular feeding structures called haustoria, and proteins specifically associated with the haustoria were identified by large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomics. There are two major types of effector families: one comprises shorter proteins (100–150 amino acids, with a high relative expression level in the haustoria and evidence of extensive diversifying selection between paralogs; the second type consists of longer proteins (300–400 amino acids, with lower levels of differential expression and evidence of purifying selection between paralogs. An analysis of the predicted protein structures underscores their overall similarity to known fungal effectors, but also highlights unexpected structural affinities to ribonucleases throughout the entire effector super-family. Candidate effector genes belonging to the same family are loosely clustered in the genome and are associated with repetitive DNA derived from retro-transposons. Conclusions We employed the full complement of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as well as structural prediction methods to identify and characterize the members of the CSEPs superfamily in B. graminis f

  19. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  20. From Proteomics to Structural Studies of Cytosolic/Mitochondrial-Type Thioredoxin Systems in Barley Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azar Shahpiri; Birte Svensson; Christine Finnie

    2009-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trx) are ubiquitous proteins that participate in thiol disulfide reactions via two active site cysteine residues,allowing Trx to reduce disulfide bonds in target proteins.Recent progress in proteome analysis has resulted in identification of a wide range of potential target proteins for Trx,indicating that Trx plays a key role in several aspects of cell metabolism.In contrast to other organisms,plants contain multiple forms of Trx that are classified based on their primary structures and sub-cellular localization.The reduction of cytosolic and mitochondrial types of Trx is dependenl on NADPH and catalyzed by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR).In barley,two isoforms each of Trx and NTR have been identified and investigated using proteomics,gene expression,and structural studies.This review outlines the diverse roles suggested for cytosolic/mitochondrial-type Trx systems in cereal seeds and summarizes the current knowl-edge of the barley system including recent data on function,regulation,interactions,and structure.Directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Whole transcriptome analysis of transgenic barley with altered cytokinin homeostasis and increased tolerance to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Petr; Kokáš, Filip; Husičková, Alexandra; Grúz, Jiří; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Marchetti, Cintia F; Jiskrová, Eva; Ježilová, Eliška; Mik, Václav; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Cytokinin plant hormones have been shown to play an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we expand upon the findings of Pospíšilová et al. [30] regarding preparation of novel transgenic barley lines overexpressing cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis under the control of mild root-specific promotor of maize β-glycosidase. These lines showed drought-tolerant phenotype mainly due to alteration of root architecture and stronger lignification of root tissue. A detailed transcriptomic analysis of roots of transgenic plants subjected to revitalization after drought stress revealed attenuated response through the HvHK3 cytokinin receptor and up-regulation of two transcription factors implicated in stress responses and abscisic acid sensitivity. Increased expression of several genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway as well as of genes encoding arogenate dehydratase/lyase participating in phenylalanine synthesis was found in roots during revitalization. Although more precursors of lignin synthesis were present in roots after drought stress, final lignin accumulation did not change compared to that in plants grown under optimal conditions. Changes in transcriptome indicated a higher auxin turnover in transgenic roots. The same analysis in leaves revealed that genes encoding putative enzymes responsible for production of jasmonates and other volatile compounds were up-regulated. Although transgenic barley leaves showed lower chlorophyll content and down-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis than did wild-type plants when cultivated under optimal conditions, they did show a tendency to return to initial photochemical activities faster than did wild-type leaves when re-watered after severe drought stress. In contrast to optimal conditions, comparative transcriptomic analysis of revitalized leaves displayed up-regulation of genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in photosynthesis, and especially

  2. Effect of simulated microgravity on nitric oxide synthase activity of osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4 in response to fluid shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lian-Wen; Yang, Xiao; Fan, Yu-Bo

    It is well known that microgravity could induce bone loss. However, the mechanism remains poorly understood. Osteocytes are extremely sensitive to fluid shear stress, even more than osteobleasts. The effect of simulated microgravity on osteocytes in response to fluid shear was investigated in this study in order to see if the mechanosensibility of osteocytes changed under simulated microgravity. The osteocyte-like cell line, MLO-Y4, was cultured and divided into four groups, including control (CON), control and shear (CONS), rotary (RT), rotary and shear (RTS). In RT and RTS, the cells were cultured in the rotary cell culture system to simulate microgravity condition. After 5 days, the cells in RTS and CONS were subjected to flow shear for 15 min. Then nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the cells was measured using assay kit. The results showed that NOS activity in respond to fluid shear decreased significantly in RTS compared with CONS. In addition, there was significant difference in NOS activity between CONS and CON while no significant difference between RTS and RT. These indicates that the mechanosensibility of osteocytes decreased under simulated microgravity and this maybe the partly causes of the poor effect of exercise to counter microgravity-induced-bone loss. However, further research need to be done to support this finding.

  3. Effect of simulated microgravity and centrifugation on nitric oxide synthase activity of osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lian-Wen; Yang, Xiao; Fan, Yu-Bo

    Bone is a highly mechanosensitive tissue, which can adapt functionally to varying levels of mechanical loads throughout a lifetime. Osteocytes are thought to be the most mechanically sensitive bone cell population. In order to understand the mechanism of microgravity-induced bone loss, it's very important to research the behavior of osteocytes under microgravity. In this study, rotary cell culture system was used to simulate microgravity. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in osteocyte-like cell MLO-Y4 was investigated under simulated microgravity. And the effect of centrifugation on NOS activity in sedentary and rotary culture cell was also investi-gated. The cultured cells were divided into four groups, including sedentary control (CON), sedentary control and centrifugation (CONC), rotary culture (RT), rotary and centrifugation (RTC). In CONC and RTC, NOS activity was determined after centrifugation (1100g 5min). The results showed NOS activity decreased significantly in RT compared with CON. However, this difference disappeared after centrifugation. On the other hand, NOS activity increased significant in RTC compared with RT while there was no difference between CON and CONC. These results indicate the normal centrifugation could counter the effect of simulated micro-gravity on NOS activity. However, it has no effect on the cells cultured under 1G. In general, osteocytes under simulated microgravity are more sensitive to centrifugation than that under 1G.

  4. Competition and Facilitation in Hairy Vetch-Barley Intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Tosti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercrops between legumes and non-legumes are widely used for fodder production and as cover crops, but little quantitative data are available on competition between species in the mixture. The objective of the present study was to assess the interaction between hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown as pure crops or intercrops with different proportions of seed rates at sowing. A 4-year field study was conducted using hairy vetch and barley as pure stands at full sowing density and as intercrops at different proportions of their own full seed rate according to the replacement principle. Interaction between species was evaluated on the basis of Land Equivalent Ratio (LER, Relative Neighbour Effect (RNE and Aggressivity (A calculated on biomass and nitrogen (N accumulation. The N accumulation of the mixed crops increased linearly with the legume proportion in the mixture. The mixtures were more efficient than the pure crops in terms of N use (LER > 1. Partial LER values indicated that the barley component benefited from the presence of the legume, while the hairy vetch partial LER decreased with increasing barley proportion in the mixture. The competitive response in terms of biomass accumulation was high for both species when their density in the mixture was high. Concerning N accumulation, barley benefited from an asymmetric interspecific facilitation while the vetch behaviour was similar to that observed for biomass accumulation. Barley dominance progressively increased reaching a maximum just before the last sampling date. At the last sampling date the competitive ability of hairy vetch showed a considerable increase in all mixtures (A ≈ 0. These findings indicate that the use of mixtures between hairy vetch and barley allows an increase in the use efficiency of N resource with respect to pure crops. Barley is the dominant component of the mixture and the hairy vetch is able to cope with the cereal

  5. Oxidation of proline decreases immunoreactivity and alters structure of barley prolamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Stoddard, Frederick L; Kato, Yoji

    2017-01-01

    Elimination of celiac-toxic prolamin peptides and proteins is essential for Triticeae products to be gluten-free. Instead of enzymatic hydrolysis, in this study we investigated metal-catalyzed oxidation of two model peptides, QQPFP, and PQPQLPY, together with a hordein isolate from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). We established a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) LC-MS method to detect and quantify proline oxidation fragments. In addition to fragmentation, aggregation and side chain modifications were identified, including free thiol loss, carbonyl formation, and dityrosine formation. The immunoreactivity of the oxidized hordein isolate was considerably decreased in all metal-catalyzed oxidation systems. Cleavage of peptides or protein fragments at the numerous proline residues partially accounts for the decrease. Metal-catalyzed oxidation can thus be used in the modification and elimination of celiac-toxic peptides and proteins. PMID:27507515

  6. HvPap-1 C1A protease actively participates in barley proteolysis mediated by abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Gandullo, Jacinto; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Santamaria, M Estrella; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose D; Hensel, Goetz; Martinez, Manuel; Kumlehn, Jochen; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Protein breakdown and mobilization from old or stressed tissues to growing and sink organs are some of the metabolic features associated with abiotic/biotic stresses, essential for nutrient recycling. The massive degradation of proteins implies numerous proteolytic events in which cysteine-proteases are the most abundant key players. Analysing the role of barley C1A proteases in response to abiotic stresses is crucial due to their impact on plant growth and grain yield and quality. In this study, dark and nitrogen starvation treatments were selected to induce stress in barley. Results show that C1A proteases participate in the proteolytic processes triggered in leaves by both abiotic treatments, which strongly induce the expression of the HvPap-1 gene encoding a cathepsin F-like protease. Differences in biochemical parameters and C1A gene expression were found when comparing transgenic barley plants overexpressing or silencing the HvPap-1 gene and wild-type dark-treated leaves. These findings associated with morphological changes evidence a lifespan-delayed phenotype of HvPap-1 silenced lines. All these data elucidate on the role of this protease family in response to abiotic stresses and the potential of their biotechnological manipulation to control the timing of plant growth. PMID:27217548

  7. The Use of gamma-Irradiation in Counteracting the Effect of Salinity for Cultivation of Barley and Pea Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biochemical changes induced by salinity in two economic plants (Barley and Pea) and the probable counteraction of gamma irradiation for enhancement of growth were studied. The data obtained revealed that the reduction in pigments content due to salinity treatment was more pronounced in pea plants than barley. However, gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in pigment content of both plants. The interaction effect of salinity and radiation varied from an increase in case of barley to a reduction in peas. In both plants, soluble sugars content increased due to salinity and /or gamma-radiation. Moreover, total carbohydrates increased due to the combined treatment. A matched increase in free proline content was recorded with increase of salinity. While, gamma-irradiation showed a different trend. Protein and nucleic acids contents were proportionally decreased with increase of salinity levels, whereas gamma radiation induced an increase in both protein and nucleic acids content. A progressive reduction in the yield by increasing salinity was observed, while gamma-irradiation increased the yield of both plants. 14CO2 fixation was reduced by salinity treatment while gamma-radiation increased it. Contrary to 14CO2 fixation, salinity enhanced respiration, while radiation retarded it

  8. Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley. PMID:21932866

  9. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  10. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bi Fu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Twenty-five informative primer pairs were applied to screen all samples and 359 alleles were detected over seven barley chromosomes. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.004 to 0.708 and averaged 0.072. More than 24% or 7% SSR variation resided among accessions of 16 countries or two regions, respectively. Accessions from Israel and Jordan were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Lebanon and Greece were most differentiated. Four and five optimal clusters of accessions were obtained using STRUCTURE and BAPS programs and partitioned 16.3% and 20.3% SSR variations, respectively. The five optimal clusters varied in size from 15 to 104 and two clusters had only country-specific accessions. A genetic separation was detected between the accessions east and west of the Zagros Mountains only at the country, not the individual, level. These SSR patterns enhance our understanding of the wild barley gene pool, and are significant for conserving wild barley germplasm and exploring new sources of useful genes for barley improvement.

  11. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  12. Barley polyamine oxidase: Characterisation and analysis of the cofactor and the N-terminal amino acid sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radova, A.; Sebela, M.; Galuszka, P.;

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the first purification method developed for the isolation of an homogeneous polyamine oxidase (PAO) from etiolated barley seedlings. The crude enzyme preparation was obtained after initial precipitation of the extract with protamine sulphate and ammonium sulphate. The enzyme was...... further purified to a final homogeneity (by the criteria of isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE) using techniques of low pressure chromatography followed by two FPLC steps. The purified yellow enzyme showed visible absorption maxima of a flavoprotein at 380 and 450 nm: the presence of FAD as the cofactor...... was further confirmed by measuring the fluorescence spectra, Barley PAO is an acidic protein (pI 5.4) containing 3% of neutral sugars: its molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE was 56 kDa, whilst gel permeation chromatography revealed the higher value of 76 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of...

  13. Spectral characteristics and orientation of native forms of pigment in chloroplasts of barley seedlings under intermittent and continuous irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorophyll (Chl) form at 710-712 nm localized on the small protein simultaneously connected with the reaction centre of photosystem 1 (RC PS1) and the light-harvesting complex I (LHC-I) polypeptides is supposed to be the source of long-wavelength band of low-temperature fluorescence of chloroplasts at 735-740 nm. Chloroplasts of intermittently irradiated seedlings (or chloroplasts of the Chl b-less barley mutant) did not differ from chloroplasts of continuously irradiated seedlings (or chloroplasts of wild type barley) in the set of Chl a and beta-carotene forms and their orientation in the membrane. A competition for the newly synthesized Chl a molecules occurred between the RC PS 2 and LHC-II polypeptides

  14. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part II. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was investigated in the embryos and endosperm of wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne grain after 2, 4 and 6 days of germination. In germinating grain the phosphorus compounds transformations ran along the way of synthesis in the embryo and of breakdown in the endosperm. The level of phosphorus: inorganic, nucleotides, saccharides esters and their metabolites, lipid, RNA, DNA, phytin free and phytin bound with proteins and proteins rapidly increased in germinating seed embryos. The content of phosphorus free phytin and that bound with proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA in the endosperm rapidly decreased during germination. On the other hand, the saccharides phosphorus and that of their metabolites did not change, and inorganic, nuclotides and proteins-P slightly increased. Germinating rye grains showed a higher rate of synthesis in the embryos and of breakdown in the endosperm of the investigated phosphorus compounds than wheat and barley grains.

  15. Variation of Grain and Malt Qualities in Barley as Affected by Cultivars and Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-mei; ZHANG Guo-ping; CHEN Jin-xin; DING Shou-ren; ZHOU Ti-yao

    2003-01-01

    Inferior and unstable quality of malt barley in China has limited its wide use in malting and brewing industries. In this research, eight two-rowed barley cultivars were planted at 7 locations with different ecological conditions in southern China, to investigate the cultivar and environmental effect on grain and malt qualities. The results showed that grain protein content differed dramatically among locations, but there were no significant differences among cultivars. For four malt qualities including diastatic power, wort viscosity,Kolbach index and malt extract, significant differences were found among cultivars and locations, except for diastatic power among cultivars. Coefficients of variance (CV) caused by location were greater than those caused by cuitivar for each quality parameter, especially for diastatic power and Kolbach index, indicating the predominant influence of environment on malt quality. The analysis showed that grain protein content was positively related to diastatic power and wort viscosity, and negatively to malt extract. Kolbach index was positively related to malt extract, and negatively to diastatic power and wort viscosity. Diastatic power showed positive and negative correlation with wort viscosity and malt extract, respectively.

  16. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds. PMID:26788318

  17. Addition of Manas barley chromosome arms to the hexaploid wheat genome

    OpenAIRE

    Türkösi, Edina; Cseh, András; Darkó, Éva; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultivated barley belongs to the tertiary genepool of hexaploid wheat. Genes of interest can be transferred from barley into wheat through wide hybridization. The application of wheat-barley introgression lines could provide an excellent tool for the transfer of earliness, favourable amino acid composition, biotic stress resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, or good tillering ability into wheat. Results A set of 10 wheat-barley ditelosomic addition lines (2HS, 2HL, 3HS, 3HL, 4HS, 4...

  18. Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

  19. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  20. Effect of Different Levels of Germinated Barley on Live Performance and Carcass Traits in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastar B

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of germinated barley (GB on live performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. The experiment lasted for 5 weeks starting from 7 days of age and ending at 42 days of age. Chicks (Ross 308 were fed six dietary treatments including a corn–soy diet (corn diet, a barley–soy diet (barley diet, a barley diet plus enzymes (enzyme barley diet, and 3 other diets in which GB was replaced with barley at levels of 33%, 66%, and 100% in the barley diet (33% GB diet, 66% GB diet, and GB diet, respectively. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. Results indicated that birds fed a barley diet had significantly lower performance than those fed other diets (P. Supplementing of the barley diet with β-glucanase enzyme as well as replacing GB with barley improved the performance of broilers. Birds fed a GB diet had a significantly higher carcass yield those fed other diets (P. The lowest abdominal fat percentage was observed in birds fed a barley diet or a corn diet. Thus, it is concluded that replacing GB with barley, especially at 33% level, is more effective than supplementing barley diets with β-glucanase enzyme in improving live performance of broiler chickens.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of beta-expansin gene related to root hair formation in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona

    2006-07-01

    Root hairs are specialized epidermal cells that play a role in the uptake of water and nutrients from the rhizosphere and serve as a site of interaction with soil microorganisms. The process of root hair formation is well characterized in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana); however, there is a very little information about the genetic and molecular basis of root hair development in monocots. Here, we report on isolation and cloning of the beta-expansin (EXPB) gene HvEXPB1, tightly related to root hair initiation in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Using root transcriptome differentiation in the wild-type/root-hairless mutant system, a cDNA fragment present in roots of wild-type plants only was identified. After cloning of full-length cDNA and genomic sequences flanking the identified fragment, the subsequent bioinformatics analyses revealed homology of the protein coded by the identified gene to the EXPB family. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that expression of HvEXPB1 cosegregated with the root hair phenotype in F2 progeny of the cross between the hairless mutant rhl1.a and the wild-type Karat parent variety. Expression of the HvEXPB1 gene was root specific; it was expressed in roots of wild-type forms, but not in coleoptiles, leaves, tillers, and spikes. The identified gene was active in roots of two other analyzed root hair mutants: rhp1.a developing root hair primordia only and rhs1.a with very short root hairs. Contrary to this, a complete lack of HvEXPB1 expression was observed in roots of the spontaneous root-hairless mutant bald root barley. All these observations suggest a role of the HvEXPB1 gene in the process of root hair formation in barley. PMID:16679418

  2. The project of mutation breeding in barley (first report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley is a second main crop with the production of 7 million tons per year and 3,5 million hectare cultivation area in Turkey. Because of wateer deficiency, cereals cultivated in Central Anatolian region. Barley is well adapted to dry farming system besides it is basic food for animal husbandry and main raw material for brewery industry. the main problems in barley production are drought disease epidemic and increasing salinity gradually. Main purposes of our project is to increase resistance and tolerence to this stress factors. In order to reach to our aim we have been using mutation breeding techniques and conventional breeding methods. This Project has been started with irradiation of barley seeds with different gamma ray doses. After that resistant and tolerant mutant has been selected most of these mutanys have resistance and tolerance to different disease and stress conditions. During the selection procedure, hydroponics and tissue culture techniques have been applied to improve the selection efficiency. Up to now, promising barley mutant lines 71 that have earliness (30 days) than parents and because of that reason that escape from drought period. Disease tests of our mutant lines have been conducted under controlled conditions and tolerant lines have been determined under the high the high epidemic conditions. Salt tolerance studies have been applied under hydroponics conditions and salt tolerant mutant have been determined under 180-200mMolNaCl concentration. All mutant lines are carried out to preliminary yield trials for their evaluation

  3. Simulation of in situ Root Decomposition of Two Barley Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jing-gang; Duan Xue-jiao; Nooralla Juma

    2014-01-01

    Root C and root-released C are closely related to soil organic matter content and mechanistic simulation modeling has proven to be useful for studying root and soil organic C dynamics in plant-soil ecosystems. A computer model was designed in this study to simulate the dynamics of root C and root released C decomposition in situ and the dynamics of different forms of C in soil under two barley cultivars (Abee and Samson). The results showed that on the 15th day, about 48%of the total 14C fixed in roots was respired for Abee and 42%for Samson. This indicated that the turnover rate of root 14C of Abee was higher than that of Samson. The percentage of water-soluble organic 14C, active microbial 14C and stable 14C over the total fixed 14C were not different between two barley cultivars. From the analysis of the model for two barley cultivars, the total 14C transformed into different soil pools (excluding CO2-C and root C pools) for the two barley cultivars was similar (26%for Abee and 25%for Samson), but the difference of 14C remaining in soil between the two barley cultivars was mainly because of the difference of 14C remaining in roots which have not been yet decomposed. Some of the information which could not be measured in the laboratory conditions was obtained in this study.

  4. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  5. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: → The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. → Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. → Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. → Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  6. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Rosset Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC, with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs.

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  8. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  9. In vitro culture in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  11. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    hordein-2 at the highest N level 20 and 25 d after anthesis. Hordein-1 thus appears to act as the main N sink at high N levels. The synthesis of the major groups of hordein-2 polypeptides responded differently to increasing N in that the slower-migrating polypeptides increased more with increasing N than...

  12. Improvement of quinoa and barley through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main cropping problems in the Bolivian highlands are the long growing period of barley, high degree of environmental influence on the performance of quinoa, and low soil moisture at sowing time, leading to low germination rate and poor stands, and frost or chilling damages. The program aimed to establish protocols for induction of mutations with X rays and chemical mutagens (NaN3, MNH, EMS) in quinoa, barley, native forage species and forest plants and to obtain mutant lines, especially in barley and quinoa; and to establish callus regeneration in quinoa and micropropagation of kenua (Polilepis). The project is still in its study stages, hence further evaluations are needed before firm conclusions are drawn. (author)

  13. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise' and...... 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high...... crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri .times. H. brevisubulatum) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 27-30) and (H. jubatum .times. H. lechleri) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 20-22). The first combination...

  14. 6-Plex microsphere immunoassay with imaging planar array detection for mycotoxins in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeroen; Cardall, Alice; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2014-08-21

    Mycotoxins are produced by fungi as secondary metabolites. They often multi-contaminate food and feed commodities posing a health risk to humans and animals. A fast and easy to apply multiplex screening of these commodities could be useful to detect multi-contamination. For this, we developed a semi-quantitative 6-plex immunoassay using a suspension array of paramagnetic colour-coded microspheres combined with imaging planar array detection for the mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, T2-toxin, HT-2 toxin and fumonisin B1. Mycotoxin specific monoclonal antibodies were coupled to different sets of microspheres and mycotoxins conjugated to the fluorescent protein R-phycoerythrin served as reporter molecules. Competition between free mycotoxins in the sample and mixed reporter molecules for antibody binding sites on mixed microspheres created a multiplex direct inhibition immunoassay. The reagents were selected for no or low cross-interactions between the assays and cross-reactions with metabolites and possible masked forms were determined. A within-laboratory validation was carried out using blank and spiked barley samples. Furthermore, the 6-plex was used to screen available barley, and malted barley, reference materials. The validation showed very high inter and intra-day precision for all samples with a maximum relative standard deviation value of 10%. The screening assay allows easy and rapid multiplex detection of the target mycotoxins in barley according to EU legislation. With a cut off factor of 50%, based on the EU maximum levels, we were able to screen at 2 μg kg(-1) for aflatoxin B1, 2.5 μg kg(-1) for ochratoxin A, 625 μg kg(-1) for deoxynivalenol, 50 μg kg(-1) for zearalenone, 1000 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1 and 25 μg kg(-1) for T-2 toxin. Thanks to the transportable planar array system, the developed 6-plex has potential for future on-site testing. Future implementation of this method as a pre-screening tool, prior to

  15. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  16. Shining Light on the Differences in Molecular Structural Chemical Makeup and the Cause of Distinct Degradation Behavior Between Malting- and Feed- Type Barley Using Synchrotorn FTIR Microspectroscopy: A Novel Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to use advanced synchrotron-sourced FTIR microspectroscopy (SFTIRM) as a novel approach to identify the differences in protein and carbohydrate molecular structure (chemical makeup) between these two varieties of barley and illustrate the exact causes for their significantly different degradation kinetics. Items assessed included (1) molecular structural differences in protein amide I to amide II intensities and their ratio within cellular dimensions, (2) molecular structural differences in protein secondary structure profile and their ratios, and (3) molecular structural differences in carbohydrate component peak profile. Our hypothesis was that molecular structure (chemical makeup) affects barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals. Using SFTIRM, the protein and carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup of barley was revealed and identified. The protein molecular structural chemical makeup differed significantly between the two varieties of barleys. No difference in carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup was detected. Harrington was lower than Valier in protein amide I, amide II, and protein amide I to amide II ratio, while Harrington was relatively higher in model-fitted protein a-helix and β-sheet, but lower in the others (β-turn and random coil). These results indicated that it is the molecular structure of protein (chemical makeup) that may play a major role in the different degradation kinetics between the two varieties of barleys (not the molecular structure of carbohydrate). It is believed that use of the advanced synchrotron technology will make a significant step and an important contribution to research in examining the molecular structure (chemical makeup) of plant, feed, and seeds.

  17. Comparison between MLO-Y4 osteocyte and osteoblast to support osteoclast formation in vitro%骨细胞与成骨细胞诱导破骨细胞分化的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亮; 李小彤; 杨雁琪; 傅民魁; 张丁

    2010-01-01

    目的 比较骨细胞和成骨细胞对破骨细胞分化形成的支持作用,初步探讨骨细胞在骨改建过程中的作用.方法 以小鼠骨髓基质细胞单独培养为空白对照组,以小鼠颅顶骨来源的成骨细胞与小鼠骨髓基质细胞共培养为成骨细胞组,以MLO-Y4骨细胞与小鼠骨髓基质细胞共培养为骨细胞组.使用骨吸收促进因子维生素D3处理3组细胞,抗酒石酸磷酸酶(tartrat resistant acid phosphatase,TRAP)染色后比较维生素D3处理前后3组破骨细胞数量的差异.结果 维生素D3处理前空白对照组破骨细胞计数为(6.0±1.O)个/孔板;成骨细胞组破骨细胞计数为(12.7±5.5)个/孔板,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);骨细胞组破骨细胞计数为(1963.3±93.1)个/孔板,与其他两组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.001).维生素D3对3组破骨细胞的分化形成均有促进作用.结论 在没有骨吸收促进因子存在的情况下,成骨细胞无法单独诱导破骨细胞分化,而MLO-Y4骨细胞可单独促进破骨细胞分化.骨吸收促进因子维生素D3可加强成骨细胞和骨细胞诱导破骨细胞分化的能力.%Objective To compare between MLO-Y4 osteocyte and osteoblast to support osteoclast formation in co-culture system.Methods MLO-Y4 cells and murine osteoblast cells were co-cultured with bone marrow cells with or without vitamin D3 presence.Bone marrow cells were as control group.Tartrat resistant acid phosphatase(TRAP) + giant cells with three or more nuclei were counted and compared under a microscope at day 9.Results In the absence of vitamin D3,(1963.3±93.1)/plate osteoclasts were observed when MLO-Y4 cells co-cultured with bone marrow cells in 24-well plate.While only (12.7±5.5)/plate osteoclasts were found in the osteeblast group,and (6.0±1.O)/plate in control group.The statistical difference occurs for any two groups(P <0.05).Vitamin D3 could significantly increase osteoclast formation in the three groups

  18. True-breeding targeted gene knock-out in barley using designer TALE-nuclease in haploid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Gurushidze

    Full Text Available Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs are customizable fusion proteins able to cleave virtually any genomic DNA sequence of choice, and thereby to generate site-directed genetic modifications in a wide range of cells and organisms. In the present study, we expressed TALENs in pollen-derived, regenerable cells to establish the generation of instantly true-breeding mutant plants. A gfp-specific TALEN pair was expressed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in embryogenic pollen of transgenic barley harboring a functional copy of gfp. Thanks to the haploid nature of the target cells, knock-out mutations were readily detected, and homozygous primary mutant plants obtained following genome duplication. In all, 22% of the TALEN transgenics proved knocked out with respect to gfp, and the loss of function could be ascribed to the deletions of between four and 36 nucleotides in length. The altered gfp alleles were transmitted normally through meiosis, and the knock-out phenotype was consistently shown by the offspring of two independent mutants. Thus, here we describe the efficient production of TALEN-mediated gene knock-outs in barley that are instantaneously homozygous and non-chimeric in regard to the site-directed mutations induced. This TALEN approach has broad applicability for both elucidating gene function and tailoring the phenotype of barley and other crop species.

  19. The experience of induction of mutation on barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on induced mutation of barley was started in 1978 under the Programme of Cereal Improvement. Barley was irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 Krad. Radiation doses of 18 and 21 Krad gave the highest frequency of albino and cloroticos mutants. Induced mutation is being carried out in different parts of the country to develop mutants having early germination property. These mutants will play an important role in the late cultivation in the mountain areas of Peru

  20. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...... irregular and showed no distinct melting enthalpy and very weak X-ray scattering. Hyperphosphorylated barley starch was achieved by endosperm specific overexpression of the potato glucan water dikinase1 (StGWD1). The content of phosphate esters in this starch was tenfold higher than the control lines...

  1. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba;

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  2. Mutants pave the way to wheat and barley for celiac patients and dietary health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat has two major nutritional problems for the consumer: (1) The flour or pasta produced from the grain is not acceptable to congenital celiac patients and may induce intolerance of dietary 'gluten' in people later in life. (2) The grain is highly deficient in the essential amino acid lysine. Currently there is only one treatment for sufferers of celiac disease: the complete exclusion of wheat, barley and rye grains from their diets. Celiac disease is caused by an autoimmune reaction against undigested proline/glutamine rich peptides (epitopes) that are taken up through the intestinal mucosa and initiate an autoimmune response in human leucocyte antigen DQ2- or DQ8-positive individuals. This leads to chronic erasure of the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium and to permanent intolerance of dietary 'gluten'. Cereal prolamins are of two types: high molecular weight glutenins (HMWG) with a molecular structure of elastic fibrils that form dityrosine cross-links during dough formation and baking, and gliadins. The gene promoters of the gliadin-type proteins are silenced by DNA methylation in vegetative tissues. This methylation is removed during grain development to permit protein synthesis. Inhibition of the demethylation by mutation specifically inhibits the synthesis of the gliadin-type proteins and only proteins consisting of elastic fibrils are produced. As a proof of principle, a barley cultivar called Lysiba already exists that has such a mutation and provides the rationale creating wheat varieties by mutation of the 5-methylcytosine deglycosylases in the endosperm. Celiac patients are sensitive to a wide variety of different epitopes, which are located in the gliadin-type prolamins. Gliadin-type prolamins are of no importance for baking because wheat HMW glutenin has been shown to be alone sufficient to produce high quality breads. (author)

  3. Mutants Pave the Way to Wheat and Barley for Celiac Patients and Dietary Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat has two major nutritional problems for the consumer: (1) The flour or pasta produced from the grain is not acceptable to congenital celiac patients and may induce intolerance of dietary 'gluten' in people later in life. (2) The grain is highly deficient in the essential amino acid lysine. Currently there is only one treatment for sufferers of celiac disease: the complete exclusion of wheat, barley and rye grains from their diets. Celiac disease is caused by an autoimmune reaction against undigested proline/glutamine rich peptides (epitopes) that are taken up through the intestinal mucosa and initiate an autoimmune response in human leucocyte antigen DQ2- or DQ8-positive individuals. This leads to chronic erasure of the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium and to permanent intolerance of dietary 'gluten.' Cereal prolamins are of two types: high molecular weight glutenins (HMWG) with a molecular structure of elastic fibrils that form dityrosine cross-links during dough formation and baking, and gliadins. The gene promoters of the gliadin-type proteins are silenced by DNA methylation in vegetative tissues. This methylation is removed during grain development to permit protein synthesis. Inhibition of the demethylation by mutation specifically inhibits the synthesis of the gliadin-type proteins and only proteins consisting of elastic fibrils are produced. As a proof of principle, a barley cultivar called Lysiba already exists that has such a mutation and provides the rationale for creating wheat varieties by mutation of the 5-methylcytosine deglycosylases in the endosperm. Celiac patients are sensitive to a wide variety of different epitopes, which are located in the gliadin-type prolamins. Gliadin-type prolamins are of no importance for baking because wheat HMW glutenin has been shown to be alone sufficient to produce high quality breads. (author)

  4. Improving barley culm robustness for secured crop yield in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockter, Christoph; Hansson, Mats

    2015-06-01

    The Green Revolution combined advancements in breeding and agricultural practice, and provided food security to millions of people. Daily food supply is still a major issue in many parts of the world and is further challenged by future climate change. Fortunately, life science research is currently making huge progress, and the development of future crop plants will be explored. Today, plant breeding typically follows one gene per trait. However, new scientific achievements have revealed that many of these traits depend on different genes and complex interactions of proteins reacting to various external stimuli. These findings open up new possibilities for breeding where variations in several genes can be combined to enhance productivity and quality. In this review we present an overview of genes determining plant architecture in barley, with a special focus on culm length. Many genes are currently known only through their mutant phenotypes, but emerging genomic sequence information will accelerate their identification. More than 1000 different short-culm barley mutants have been isolated and classified in different phenotypic groups according to culm length and additional pleiotropic characters. Some mutants have been connected to deficiencies in biosynthesis and reception of brassinosteroids and gibberellic acids. Still other mutants are unlikely to be connected to these hormones. The genes and corresponding mutations are of potential interest for development of stiff-straw crop plants tolerant to lodging, which occurs in extreme weather conditions with strong winds and heavy precipitation. PMID:25614659

  5. In vitro effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on barley oxalate oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley oxalate oxidase (OxO), a manganese-containing protein, is largely employed for determination of oxalate in various biologic materials. The present report describes in vitro effects of nanoparticles (NPs) of three metal oxides, i.e., zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO), and manganese oxide (MnO2), on the activity and stability of OxO purified from barley roots. The transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies of these NPs revealed their very fine crystalline structure with the dimeter in the range 30–70, 50–60, and 20–60 nm for ZnO NPs, CuO NPs, and MnO2 NPs, respectively. The addition of suspension of these three NPs into assay mixture of enzyme individually, led to the adsorption of OxO over their surface, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV–Vis spectroscopic studies. Compared to free enzyme, MnO2 NPs-bound enzyme showed improved activity (35 % stimulation at 2.5 mg/ml concentration), while ZnO NPs- and CuO NPs-bound enzyme had no substantial improvement. The kinetic properties of individually NPs-bound enzyme were studied and compared with those of free enzyme. The MnO2 NPs-bound enzyme also showed marked improvement in its storage and thermal stability compared to free enzyme.

  6. Increased intake of Juniperus phoenicea L. by supplementation with barley and Optigen® in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dry littoral grasslands and rocky ground pastures throughout the Mediterranean basin are a significant source of forage for small ruminants and as such associated with traditional grazing practices. During the last decade, dissemination of terpene-rich Mediterranean shrubs, Juniperus phoenicea L., onto pastures in Adriatic region of Croatia have caused reduction in forage production and plant diversity. In order to facilitate the intake of this new plant by small ruminants, we investigated the effects of barley and Optigen® (a source of controlled-release non-protein nitrogen mixture to increase consumption of J. phoenicea by sheep. The preliminary results suggest that barley alone, or in combination with Optigen® enhance the intake of J. phoenicea by sheep. Furthermore, this model can be used as an environmentally safe and economically affordable approach to reduce the abundance of less palatable J. phoenicea in the environment and to increase growth of alternate, better quality forage (grasses and forbs on Mediterranean pastures.

  7. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

    1999-03-23

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  8. TOTAL IMPORTS AND IMPORT PATTERNS OF BARLEY INTO JAPAN: Implications of the 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Makus, Larry D.

    1990-01-01

    A two-stage budgeting procedure was employed to analyze (1) the Japanese import demand for barley and (2) allocation of Japanese barley imports between North America (Canada and the United States) and Australia. It was found that the import demand for barley was price inelastic and corn was a substitute for barley. Japanese barley imports were also influenced by size of the cattle herd and the number of cattle slaughtered. Price competition played a significant role in import allocation and b...

  9. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  10. The miR9863 family regulates distinct Mla alleles in barley to attenuate NLR receptor-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Mla alleles encode coiled-coil (CC, nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR receptors that trigger isolate-specific immune responses against the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh. How Mla or NB-LRR genes in grass species are regulated at post-transcriptional level is not clear. The microRNA family, miR9863, comprises four members that differentially regulate distinct Mla alleles in barley. We show that miR9863 members guide the cleavage of Mla1 transcripts in barley, and block or reduce the accumulation of MLA1 protein in the heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Regulation specificity is determined by variation in a unique single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP in mature miR9863 family members and two SNPs in the Mla miR9863-binding site that separates these alleles into three groups. Further, we demonstrate that 22-nt miR9863s trigger the biogenesis of 21-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs and together these sRNAs form a feed-forward regulation network for repressing the expression of group I Mla alleles. Overexpression of miR9863 members specifically attenuates MLA1, but not MLA10-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling. We propose a key role of the miR9863 family in dampening immune response signaling triggered by a group of MLA immune receptors in barley.

  11. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    homologues of each of the chromosomes. The aneuploid C2--seedlings were fairly equally distributed on hypo-and hyperploids, and on the seven chromosome groups. This suggests that a particular chromosome is lost or gained at random in gametes and embryos. The 11 C3--seedlings comprised seven true euploids......The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four......, one seedling with 2n=28 having an extra chromosome 6 and missing one chromosome 3, and three seedlings with 2n=29. The chromosomal composition of aneuploid C3--seedlings did not reflect that of their aneuploid C2--parents with respect to missing or extra chromosomes. Two hypohexaploid C2--seedlings...

  12. Small grain cereals compared for dietary fibre and protein contents

    OpenAIRE

    Žilić Slađana; Dodig Dejan; Milašinović-Šeremešić Marija; Kandić Vesna; Kostadinović Marija; Prodanović Slaven; Savić Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    The content of dietary fibres (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, NDF, ADF), tryptophan and proteins, as well as their quality index were determined in whole grains of bread and durum wheat, rye, hull-less barley and hull-less oat, each represented with four genotypes. In addition, content of β-glucans in hull-less barley were determined. In average, hull-less barley and oat had the lowest content of hemicellulose (22.54 and 13.11% d.m., respectively), cellu...

  13. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem around the world. During infection, trichothecene mycotoxins are produced and act as virulence factors, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. There are two types of tricho...

  14. Physiological tests for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological tests for characterizing drought tolerance in barley (H. vulgare L.) and durum wheat (T. durum L.) were evaluated. These tests involved: 1) germination in osmotic solution (-13 atm by d-mannitol); 2) thermal stress on seedlings (42 deg. C for 5 hours); 3) stability of the cellular membrane under osmotic stress (PEG 6000 at 43%). For both species genotypic variability which was associated with drought tolerance in the field was identified by the laboratory evaluation techniques. Based on these procedures, the two-row barley types were more drought tolerant than six-row types. In durum wheat, only some local populations and some varieties, bred in drought environments, showed high laboratory test values. Weak and not significant correlations were found between the physiological tests indicating that the genetic mechanisms which control these traits may be independent and process-specific. Yield trials, in barley, have been carried out in environments with drought conditions and the correlation between grain and physiological tests were significant. Of the three procedures evaluated in this study, the dry matter increase after a period of thermal stress and electrolyte leakage seemed to be most reliable and potentially useful for screening for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

  15. Modelling phytate degradation kinetics in soaked wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, A B; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    or Phytase 2 had no effect on the degradation of phytate. The F0 was greater in the heat-treated barley compared with the heat-treated wheat (0.19 vs. 0.14; P=0.02; Phytase 1). Heat-treatment of the cereals increased the F0 from 0.05 to 0.15 (P=0.0007; Phytase 2). The K was lower in the non-heat-treated...... wheat compared with the non-heat-treated barley (averaging 23.3 vs. 43.5 h), whereas K was higher in the wheat compared with the barley (averaging 12.3 vs. 11.1 h; P=0.02 and P=0.006; Phytase 1 and Phytase 2) when the cereals were heat-treated. In conclusion, the GMM function is a suitable model for......The objective of this study was to identify an appropriate mathematical function describing the in vitro phytate degradation profile of soaked wheat or barley (20 °C; 1 cereal: 2.75 water (w/w)) as affected by heat-treatment (stem pelleting at 90 °C) and phytase addition (Phytase 1: 0, 250, 500...

  16. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  17. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 400, subpart G. (b) Approved malting variety. A variety of barley specified as... and Drug Administration when determining concentrations of mycotoxins or other substances or... organization of the United States for substances or conditions, including mycotoxins, that are identified...

  18. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an alpha-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the...

  19. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  20. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  1. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a...

  2. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K;

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  3. 2012 North Dakota Transgenic Barley FHB Nursery Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2012 North Dakota transgenic field trials consisted of 23 barley lines, tested in three misted and three non-misted replicates. Plots were sown on May 9, 2012 in hill plots with 10 seed per hill spaced at 30 cm, and all plots were inoculated using the grain spawn method at heading. Lines include...

  4. Identifying root system genes using induced mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root systems play an important role in plant growth and development. They absorb water and nutrients, anchor plant in the soil and affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Despite their importance, the progress in understanding the molecular processes underlying root development has been achieved only in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was accomplished through detailed analysis of root mutants with the use of advanced molecular, genomic and bioinformatic tools. Recently, similar studies performed with rice and maize root mutants have led to the identification of homologous and novel genes controlling root system formation in monocots. The collection of barley mutants with changes in root system development and morphology has been developed in our Department after mutagenic treatments of spring barley varieties with N-methyl N-nitosourea (MNU) and sodium azide. Among these mutants, the majority was characterized by seminal roots significantly shorter than roots of a parent variety throughout a whole vegetation period. Additionally, several mutants with root hairs impaired at different stages of development have been identified. These mutants have become the material of studies aimed at genetic and molecular dissection of seminal root and root hair formation in barley. The studies included the molecular mapping of genes responsible for mutant phenotype using DNA markers and root transcriptome analysis in the mutant/parent variety system. Using cDNA RDA approach, we have identified the HvEXPB1 gene encoding root specific beta expansin related to the root hair initiation in barley. We have also initiated the database search for barley sequences homologous to the known Arabodopsis, maize and rice genes. The identified homologous ESTs are now used for isolation of the complete coding sequences and gene function will be validated through identification of mutations related to the altered phenotype. This work was supported by the IAEA Research Contracts 12611 and 12849

  5. Synthesis of SP II albumin, β-amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitor CI-1 on polysomes from the endoplasmic reticulum of barley endosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free and initially membrane bound polysomes were isolated from 20 day old endosperms of Bomi and Hiproly barley and used as templates in an in vitro protein synthesizing system based on wheat germ extract. Three 35S--labelled translation products were identified as SP II albumin, β-amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitor CI-1 among the polypeptides synthesized by the polysomes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Identification employed immunoaffinity isolation. Protein Z was not detectable among the in vitro translation products of either initially membrane bound or free endosperm polysomes. Compared to Bomi barley the Hiproly endosperm is enriched for translatable mRNA coding SP II albumin, β-amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitor CI-1. In vitro and in vivo synthesized β-amylases have identical molecular weights. Only one form of SP II albumin is produced in vitro, confirming that the lower molecular weight SP II B albumin is a proteolytic cleavage product of the SP II A albumin. (author)

  6. Gibberellic Acid-Induced Aleurone Layers Responding to Heat Shock or Tunicamycin Provide Insight into the N-Glycoproteome, Protein Secretion, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol; Hägglund, Per;

    2014-01-01

    The growing relevance of plants for the production of recombinant proteins makes understanding the secretory machinery, including the identification of glycosylation sites in secreted proteins, an important goal of plant proteomics. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone layers maintained in vitro res...

  7. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

  8. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  9. Production of barley endoprotease B2 in Pichia pastoris and its proteolytic activity against native and recombinant hordeins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2014-01-01

    was 60 °C, thermal stability T50 value was 44 °C and the pH optimum was 4.5. r-HvEPB2ΔC was incubated with native purified barley seed storage proteins for up to 48 h. After 12 h, r-HvEPB2ΔC efficiently reduced the C and D hordeins almost completely, as evaluated by SDS–PAGE. The intensities of the B...

  10. Whole-genome analysis with SNPs from BOPA1 shows clearly defined groupings of Western Mediterranean, Ethiopian, and Fertile Crescent barleys

    OpenAIRE

    Igartua Arregui, Ernesto; Moralejo, María Ángeles; Casas Cendoya, Ana María; Torres, Lluis; Molina-Cano, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch, a wild ancestor of cultivated barley, in Morocco in 1978 led to the proposal of a multicentric origin for this crop, as an alternative to the widely accepted theory of a single centre of domestication in the Fertile Crescent. Since this discovery, we have tested this hypothesis using the most advanced genetic techniques available at the time, from CM-proteins to RFLP and DNA-chloroplast markers. Nowadays, the availability of single nucleotide polym...

  11. Peroxidase profiling reveals genetic linkage between peroxidase gene clusters and basal host and non-host resistance to rusts and mildew in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Higher plants possess a large multigene family encoding secreted class III peroxidase (Prx proteins. Peroxidases appear to be associated with plant disease resistance based on observations of induction during disease challenge and the presence or absence of isozymes in resistant vs susceptible varieties. Despite these associations, there is no evidence that allelic variation of peroxidases directly determines levels of disease resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current study introduces a new strategy called Prx-Profiling. We showed that with this strategy a large number of peroxidase genes can be mapped on the barley genome. In order to obtain an estimate of the total number of Prx clusters we followed a re-sampling procedure, which indicated that the barley genome contains about 40 peroxidase gene clusters. We examined the association between the Prxs mapped and the QTLs for resistance of barley to homologous and heterologous rusts, and to the barley powdery mildew fungus. We report that 61% of the QTLs for partial resistance to P. hordei, 61% of the QTLs for resistance to B. graminis and 47% of the QTLs for non-host resistance to other Puccinia species co-localize with Prx based markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that Prx-Profiling was effective in finding the genetic location of Prx genes on the barley genome. The finding that QTLs for basal resistance to rusts and powdery mildew fungi tend to co-locate with Prx clusters provides a base for exploring the functional role of Prx-related genes in determining natural differences in levels of basal resistance.

  12. 26 kDa endochitinase from barley seeds: an interaction of the ionizable side chains essential for catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnishi, Tsuneo; Juffer, André H; Tamoi, Masahiro;

    2005-01-01

    To explore the structure essential for the catalysis in 26 kDa endochitinase from barley seeds, we calculated theoretical pKa values of the ionizable groups based on the crystal structure, and then the roles of ionizable side chains located near the catalytic residue were examined by site...... coli expression system. The transition temperature of thermal unfolding (T(m)) of R215A was lower than that of the wild type protein by about 6.2 degrees C. In the crystal structure, the Arg215 side chain is in close proximity to the Glu203 side chain, whose theoretical pKa value was found to be...

  13. Heat shock causes destabilization of specific mRNAs and destruction of endoplasmic reticulum in barley aleurone cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Belanger, F. C.; Brodl, M R; Ho, T H

    1986-01-01

    In response to a phytohormone, gibberellic acid, the aleurone layers of barley seeds synthesize and secrete alpha-amylases, which are coded by a set of stable mRNAs. When aleurone layers are subjected to heat shock treatment, the synthesis of alpha-amylase is suppressed while heat shock proteins are induced. The suppression of alpha-amylase synthesis is not the result of translational control as reported in several other systems. Rather, the sequences of alpha-amylase mRNA are rapidly degrade...

  14. Barley polyamine oxidase: Characterisation and analysis of the cofactor and the N-terminal amino acid sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radova, A.; Sebela, M.; Galuszka, P.; Frebort, I.; Jacobsen, Susanne; Faulhammer, H.G.; Pec, P.

    2001-01-01

    further purified to a final homogeneity (by the criteria of isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE) using techniques of low pressure chromatography followed by two FPLC steps. The purified yellow enzyme showed visible absorption maxima of a flavoprotein at 380 and 450 nm: the presence of FAD as the cofactor...... was further confirmed by measuring the fluorescence spectra, Barley PAO is an acidic protein (pI 5.4) containing 3% of neutral sugars: its molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE was 56 kDa, whilst gel permeation chromatography revealed the higher value of 76 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of...

  15. Electrospray mass spectrometry characterization of post-translational modifications of barley alpha-amylase 1 produced in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, M; Andersen, J S; Roepstorff, P; Svensson, B

    1993-10-01

    We have used electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) in combination with protein chemistry and genetics to delineate post-translational modifications in yeast of barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1), a 45 kD enzyme crucial for production of malt, an important starting material in the manufacture of beer and whisky. In addition to signal peptide processing these modifications are: (1) removal of C-terminal Arg-Ser by Kex1p, (2) glutathionylation of Cys95, (3) O-glycosylation, and (4) additional degradation of the C-terminus. PMID:7764097

  16. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf;

    2014-01-01

    were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs in...... dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  17. Study of quantitative changes of cereal allergenic proteins after food processing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Laštovičková, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2015), s. 983-990. ISSN 0022-5142 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : allergens * proteins * barley * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.714, year: 2014

  18. Relationship of lychnis ringspot virus to barley stripe mosaic virus and poa semilatent virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, B G; Smith, J; Fattouh, F; Jackson, A O

    1989-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), poa semilatent virus (PSLV), and lychnis ringspot virus (LRSV) have previously been assigned to the hordeivirus group because of similarities in their particle morphology, physicochemical properties and serological analyses. However, the serological relationships of the three viruses have not been determined by direct comparison. The present study evaluated the relatedness of these viruses by Western and dot immunoblotting and by nucleic acid hybridizations. Serological analyses of the coat proteins separated by gel electrophoresis and of intact virus particles bound to nitrocellulose membranes revealed that BSMV and PSLV are distantly related, but that they are more closely related to each other than to LRSV. The genomic RNAs of the viruses failed to cross-hybridize in northern hybridization tests conducted at different temperatures. These comparisons showed that BSMV, PSLV and LRSV are distinct viruses with little nucleotide sequence relatedness. Thus our data provide additional support for their inclusion as separate members of the hordeivirus group. PMID:2722469

  19. Starch and Prolamin Level in Single and Double High-Lysine Barley Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, M.; Doll, Hans

    1980-01-01

    At maturity the high-lysine barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ris0 mutants 1508, 527 and 29 kernels contained about 20% less starch and twice as much free sugars as the parent varieties Bomi and Carlsberg II. An enhanched effect on starch reduction and free sugar accumulation was observed during kernel...... development when the single mutants 527 and 29 are combined with the mutant 1508. At maturity, kernels of the double mutants 527/1508 and 29/1508 contained, respectively, 68 and 43% less starch than Bomi. The double mutant 29/1508 kernel had a slightly lower prolamin content than mutant 1508 which is the most...... prolamin-deficient single mutant. In the double mutant 527/1508, however, an almost complete suppression of prolamin synthesis was observed during kernel development. The percentage of lysine in the seed proteins of the double mutants was about the same as in the most extreme single mutant 1508. Based on...

  20. Ruminal protein metabolism and intestinal amino acid utilization as affected by dietary protein and carbohydrate sources in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H S; Jordan, R M; Stern, M D

    1991-05-01

    Eight wether lambs fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to study the effects of carbohydrate and protein sources on ruminal protein metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation and intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Carbohydrate sources were corn and barley; protein sources were soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM). Diets contained 15.5% CP, of which 40% was supplied by SBM or FM. Corn or barley provided 39% of dietary DM that contained equal amounts of grass hay and wheat straw. Fish meal diets produced a lower (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 concentration and resulted in less CP degradation and bacterial protein flow to the duodenum than did SBM diets. Replacing SBM with FM increased (P less than .05) ruminal digestion of all fiber fractions. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose digestibilities in the rumen tended to increase (P greater than .05) when barley replaced corn in the FM diets. Carbohydrate x protein interactions (P less than .05) were observed for OM digestion in the rumen and AA absorption in the small intestine (percentage of AA entering); these interactions were highest for the barley-FM diet. These results suggest that feeding FM with barley, which is high in both degradable carbohydrate and protein, might benefit ruminants more than feeding FM with corn, which is high in degradable carbohydrate but relatively low in degradable protein. PMID:1648551

  1. Analysis of enzyme production by submerged culture of Aspergillus oryzae using whole barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Susumu; Kikuchi, Kaori; Matsumoto, Yuko; Sugimoto, Toshikazu; Shoji, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Masayuki

    2009-10-01

    We have reported on high enzyme production by submerged culture of Aspergillus kawachii using barley with the husk (whole barley). To elucidate the mechanism underlying this high enzyme production, we performed a detailed analysis. Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 was submerged-cultured using whole barley and milled whole barley. Enzyme production was analyzed in terms of changes in medium components and gene expression levels. When whole barley was used, high production of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase and high gene expression levels of these enzymes were observed. Low ammonium concentrations were maintained with nitrate ion uptake continuing into the late stage using whole barley. These findings suggest that the sustainability of nitrogen metabolism is related to high enzyme production, and that a mechanism other than that associated with the conventional amylase expression system is involved in this relationship. PMID:19809198

  2. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    Introduction: Cereals are normally stored dry at low moisture content (< 14%) to maintain grain quality. The hypothesis is that reconstitution of grain with water activates the endogenous enzymes and makes grain nutrients more soluble and digestible. The objective is to investigate the effect of...... reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49......: Reconstituted barley had higher soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and lower phytate P (0.93 g/ kg DM) compared with dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM, respectively). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed increased P absorption (52%) and decreased P excretion in feces (21%) (P<0.001). Reconstitution increased P...

  3. Purification, enzymatic characterization, and nucleotide sequence of a high-isoelectric-point alpha-glucosidase from barley malt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, T P; Lok, F; Mirgorodskaya, E;

    2000-01-01

    .5, and catalyzed the hydrolysis by a retaining mechanism, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance. Acarbose was a strong inhibitor (K(i) = 1.5 microM). Molecular recognition revealed that all OH-groups in the non-reducing ring and OH-3 in the reducing ring of maltose formed important hydrogen bonds to the...... enzyme in the transition state complex. Mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments assigned the 92-kD protein to a barley cDNA (GenBank accession no. U22450) that appears to encode an alpha-glucosidase. A corresponding sequence (HvAgl97; GenBank accession no. AF118226) was isolated from a genomic phage...... library using a cDNA fragment from a barley cDNA library. HvAgl97 encodes a putative 96.6-kD protein of 879 amino acids with 93.8% identity to the protein deduced from U22450. The sequence contains two active site motifs of glycoside hydrolase family 31. Three introns of 86 to 4,286 bp interrupt the...

  4. Effect of barley-legume intercrop on disease frequency in an organic farming system

    OpenAIRE

    Kinane, Dr. J.; Lyngkjær, Dr. M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of barley-legume intercrop in an organic farming system on disease incidence was investigated. The legumes were lupin, faba bean and pea. Diseases were detected on pea and barley. On pea, only ascochyta blight (Ascochyta pisi) was observed. When either pea variety was intercropped with barley, the level of ascochyta blight was reduced. Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres), brown rust (Puccinia recondita) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) (in order of incidence) were mo...

  5. Molecular Phylogeography of Domesticated Barley Traces Expansion of Agriculture in the Old World

    OpenAIRE

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided...

  6. Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group GAG-1, the common pathogen of wheat, barley and sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka; Jan Adamiak; Ewa Adamiak

    2014-01-01

    Isuluies of Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group GAG-1 were obtained from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and on barley culms and from diseased sugar beet seedlings. Isolates of R. cerealis were collected from a fields with crop rotation experiments: sugar beet-spring wheat-winter barley. In pathogenicity tests isolates of R. cerealis from sugar beet seedlings and from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and barley were pathogenic to these crops. Isolates of R. cerealis from sharp eyespot lesions...

  7. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  8. Yield of Different Green Forage Crops, in Pure Stand and in Mixtures Part 1.: Spring (two roweed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., Pea (Pisum sativum L. and Vetch (Vicia sp. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hoffman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Green fodder crops in pure stand and in mixtures have a great potential and will have a great role in the nutrition for ruminants in Hungary. Therefore experiment was carried out to measure the born of green fodder crop production in the present situation of cattle husbandry. The experimental area was situated on the farm of the Department of Botany and Plant Production at the University of Kaposvár, Faculty of Animal Science. The type of the soil was brown forest soil with clay illuvitation. The small plot trials were carried out in four repetitions using conventional random adjustment. After the harvesting the yield of the plots were weighted and the dry matter content, crude protein yield crude fibber was determined by Weendei analysis. The chemical components of the variations were determined in two repetitions. The following species was used in the small plot trial: spring barley, pea and vetch. The highest green and dry matter yield was measured at the barley varieties in pure stand. Between the barley varieties Annabell gave the highest green, DM and crude protein yield. Spring Barley Annabell and pea Rubin in mixture gave the highest yield of crude protein.

  9. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  10. Genotypic and Environmental Variations of Arabinoxylan Content and Endoxylanase Activity in Barley Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-qin; XUE Da-wei; WU Fei-bo; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) content in barley grains is an important quality determinant when barley is used as raw material of malt or beer production. The cultivar and environmental variations of total arabinoxylan (TAX), water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) and endoxylanase activity (EA) were investigated using eight barley cultivars growing at seven locations with diverse environmental conditions. The results showed that both barley cultivar and location significantly affected the TAX, WEAX and EA levels, but the variations of TAX content and EA were mainly attributed to cultivar, while the impact of location on WEAX content was greater than that of cultivar. Correlation analysis indicated that TAX was significantly correlated to WUAX.

  11. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  12. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  13. Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

    2012-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (ΔGg) and excited (ΔGe) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley α-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

  14. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 105 to ca. 6 x 103 by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of 62Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  15. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  16. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  17. New high yielding, high lysine mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley mutants with an increased content of lysine have successfully been selected. Unfortunately, they had a reduced grain yield, and this has led to the opinion that it may not be possible to obtain normal yielding high lysine mutants. In the present study, twenty low hordein barley mutants were derived from 49,000 M2 seeds. Two probably had a 10% increase in lysine content and a grain yield that was the same as that of the mother variety. The mutants were initially selected by a fast turbidity test on the M2 seeds, using special controls that make the tests sensitive. The screening procedure further consists of determination of the non-hordein/hordein ratio in later generations. 14 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  18. The barley EST DNA Replication and Repair Database (bEST-DRRD as a tool for the identification of the genes involved in DNA replication and repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruszka Damian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high level of conservation of genes that regulate DNA replication and repair indicates that they may serve as a source of information on the origin and evolution of the species and makes them a reliable system for the identification of cross-species homologs. Studies that had been conducted to date shed light on the processes of DNA replication and repair in bacteria, yeast and mammals. However, there is still much to be learned about the process of DNA damage repair in plants. Description These studies, which were conducted mainly using bioinformatics tools, enabled the list of genes that participate in various pathways of DNA repair in Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh to be outlined; however, information regarding these mechanisms in crop plants is still very limited. A similar, functional approach is particularly difficult for a species whose complete genomic sequences are still unavailable. One of the solutions is to apply ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags as the basis for gene identification. For the construction of the barley EST DNA Replication and Repair Database (bEST-DRRD, presented here, the Arabidopsis nucleotide and protein sequences involved in DNA replication and repair were used to browse for and retrieve the deposited sequences, derived from four barley (Hordeum vulgare L. sequence databases, including the “Barley Genome version 0.05” database (encompassing ca. 90% of barley coding sequences and from two databases covering the complete genomes of two monocot models: Oryza sativa L. and Brachypodium distachyon L. in order to identify homologous genes. Sequences of the categorised Arabidopsis queries are used for browsing the repositories, which are located on the ViroBLAST platform. The bEST-DRRD is currently used in our project during the identification and validation of the barley genes involved in DNA repair. Conclusions The presented database provides information about the Arabidopsis genes involved in

  19. SOMACLONAL VARIABILITY AND BARLEY BREEDING ON RESISTANCE TO ALUMINUM

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Shirokikh; S.Yu. Ogorodnikova; O.N. Shupletsova; I.N. Shchennikova

    2011-01-01

    In barley callus culture on acid selective media with aluminum the authors selected the resistant lines, from which the regenerated plants were obtained. During a growing on acid sod-podzol soil the seed progeny of regenerated lines was compared with initial varieties on biochemical parameters, on determinants of productivity and yield. It was revealed, that hereditable in regenerated progeny the determinants of somaclonal variability can be used for creation of high productive and resistant ...

  20. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  1. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Sparla; Giuseppe Falini; Ermelinda Botticella; Claudia Pirone; Valentina Talamè; Riccardo Bovina; Silvio Salvi; Roberto Tuberosa; Francesco Sestili; Paolo Trost

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant...

  2. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  3. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  4. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eBrod; Anne Falk Øgaard; Tore eKrogstad; Trond Knapp Haraldsen; Emmanuel eFrossard; Astrid eOberson

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared wit...

  5. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  6. Microbes in the tailoring of barley malt properties

    OpenAIRE

    Laitila, Arja

    2007-01-01

    Microbes have a decisive role in the barley-malt-beer chain. A major goal of this thesis was to study the relationships between microbial communities and germinating grains during malting. Furthermore, the study provided a basis for tailoring of malt properties with natural, malt-derived microbes. The malting ecosystem is a dynamic process, exhibiting continous change. The first hours of steeping and kilning were the most important steps in the process with regard to microbiological qual...

  7. Alcohol Yield of Oat, Barley and Wheat Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    PIKL, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Major part of ethanol production for industrial use in Czech Republic is made from cereals. Effect of acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis after thermopressure preparation takes part in the paper. The most promising alternative is enzymatic hydrolysis. Especially efficiency of different hydrolytic enzymes towards different species of cereals takes the main part of the simulations. Local farm products, oats, barley and wheat were prepaired by steam explosion in different pressure. After hydro...

  8. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

  9. Proteomic analysis of different extracts from barley grains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelík, Josef; Řehulka, Pavel; Střelcová, M.; Kubáň, V.; Mayrhofer, C.; Allmaier, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2002), s. 261-264. ISSN 0370-663X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/99/1576 Grant ostatní: Austrian-Czech Republic Collaboration Grant(AT) II/4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : proteomics * barley * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2002

  10. In vitro interactions of the aphid endosymbiotic SymL chaperonin with barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filichkin, S A; Brumfield, S; Filichkin, T P; Young, M J

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-vector relationships suggest that there are specific interactions between BYDV virions and the aphid's cellular components. However, little is known about vector factors that mediate virion recognition, cellular trafficking, and accumulation within the aphid. Symbionins are molecular chaperonins produced by intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria and are the most abundant proteins found in aphids. To elucidate the potential role of symbionins in BYDV transmission, we have isolated and characterized two new symbionin symL genes encoded by the endosymbionts which are harbored by the BYDV aphid vectors Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae. Endosymbiont symL-encoded proteins have extensive homology with the pea aphid SymL and Escherichia coli GroEL chaperonin. Recombinant and native SymL proteins can be assembled into oligomeric complexes which are similar to the GroEL oligomer. R. padi SymL protein demonstrates an in vitro binding affinity for BYDV and its recombinant readthrough polypeptide. In contrast to the R. padi SymL, the closely related GroEL does not exhibit a significant binding affinity either for BYDV or for its recombinant readthrough polypeptide. Comparative sequence analysis between SymL and GroEL was used to identify potential SymL-BYDV binding sites. Affinity binding of SymL to BYDV in vitro suggests a potential involvement of endosymbiotic chaperonins in interactions with virions during their trafficking through the aphid. PMID:8985385

  11. The effect of lanthanum applications on drought tolerance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Glasshouse investigations carried out by the authors on both perlite and soil, have repeatedly shown that several plant species, when treated with lanthanum, retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. Dry matter increases under water stress have been observed in some cases. Barley plants watered to 50% field capacity, and show-ing signs of water stress, yielded 18% more dry matter when treated with 5 kg/ha and 10 kg/ha of lanthanum than control plants (P<0.05). The results of these experiments suggest that increased dry matter production in crops under periods of water stress, is likely when previously treated with lanthanum. Consequently, it is conceivable that lanthanum may have potential as an agent that induces drought tolerance in grain crops, grown in low rainfall areas. Subsequent field trials using barley as a test crop at Walpeup, in the Mallee region of Victoria have shown that in a below average rainfall year, combined soil and foliar applications of lanthanum can significantly increase grain yield. This effect was not evident when barley grown on the same soil type was treated with lanthanum under above average rainfall conditions

  12. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  13. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  14. Internal water balance of barley under soil moisture stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, A A; Duysen, M E; Wilkinson, G E

    1968-06-01

    Leaf water potential, leaf relative water content, and relative transpiration of barley were determined daily under greenhouse conditions at 3 growth stages: tillering to boot, boot to heading, and heading to maturity. The leaf moisture characteristic curve (relative water content versus leaf water potential) was the same for leaves of the same age growing in the same environment for the first 2 stages of growth, but shifted at the heading to maturity stage to higher leaf relative water content for a given leaf water potential. Growth chamber experiments showed that the leaf moisture characteristic curve was not the same for plants growing in different environments.Relative transpiration data indicated that barley stomates closed at a water potential of about -22 bars at the 3 stages studied.The water potential was measured for all the leaves on barley to determine the variation of water potential with leaf position. Leaf water potential increased basipetally with plant leaf position. In soil with a moisture content near field capacity a difference of about 16.5 bars was observed between the top and bottom leaves on the same plant, while in soil with a moisture content near the permanent wilting point the difference was only 5.6 bars between the same leaf positions. PMID:16656869

  15. Host and tissue selection, virion purification, RNA characterization and serological studies of barley yellow dwarf virus-RPV-IL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A purification scheme was improved for an isolate of barley yellow dwarf virus transmitted specifically by Rhopalosiphum padi L. (RPV-IL). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detects RPV-IL in all tissues and therefore is an inaccurate measure of extractable virus concentration in plants. The 5' terminus of RPV-IL RNA does not become labeled with 32P after dephosphorylation with phosphatase and subsequent treatment with [γ-32P] ATP and kinase and therefore is some derivative other than phosphate(s). An 125I-labeled 17,000 d protein is detected after treatment of RPV-IL RNA with 125I-Bolten-Hunter reagent and analyses by acid precipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This 17,000 d protein, as determined by immunoprecipitation assays, is a 17,000 d BYDV VPg (virion protein-genome linked). The serological relationships among five luteoviruses were compared using three variations of ELISA

  16. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare)WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions betweenmonocots and dicots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Kolukisaoglu, Uner; Harter, Klaus; Jansson, Christer; Wanke, Dierk

    2008-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far, as regulators in sucrose signaling, in pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought, respectively. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used the available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in mono- and dicot species.

  17. THE COMPARISON OF PROLAMINS EXTRACTED FROM DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF WHEAT, BARLEY, RYE AND TRITICALE SPECIES: AMINO ACID COMPOSITION, ELECTROPHORESIS AND IMMUNODETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Urminská

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the prolamin complex of several varieties of cereals: 16 varieties of wheat (including common, durum and spelt wheat, 8 varieties of barley, 3 varieties of triticale and 1 variety of rye. In amino acids composition the major part represent glutamic acid in all type of prolamins (38 – 43 % but there were some differences between content of proline (in wheat and triticale it was 17 %, in rye 20 % but in barley 25 %. By ELISA based on monoclonal antibody R5 it was showed positive reaction in relation to coeliac disease active peptides. Immunoblot based on polyclonal gluten antibody detected only proteins with molecular weight higher than 35 kDa.

  18. Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers’ Grains in Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, M.; Shao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers’ grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (psilages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (psilage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%. PMID:25049588

  19. Molecular phylogeography of domesticated barley traces expansion of agriculture in the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D

    2007-11-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided into six clusters and that barley landraces from 10 different geographical regions of Eurasia and North Africa show distinct patterns of distribution across these clusters. Using haplotype frequency data, it appears that the Europe/North Africa landraces are most similar to the Near East population (F ST = 0.15) as well as to wild barley (F ST = 0.11) and are strongly differentiated from all other Asian populations (F ST = 0.34-0.74). A neighbor-joining analysis using these F ST estimates also supports a division between European, North African, and Near East barley types from more easterly Asian accessions. There is also differentiation in the presence of a naked caryopsis and spikelet row number between eastern and western barley accessions. The data support the differential migration of barley from two domestication events that led to the origin of barley--one in the Fertile Crescent and another farther east, possibly at the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau--with European and North African barley largely originating from the former and much of Asian barley arising from the latter. This suggests that cultural diffusion or independent innovation is responsible for the expansion of agriculture to areas of South and East Asia during the Neolithic revolution. PMID:17947416

  20. Marker-trait associations in Virginia Tech winter barley identified using genome-wide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gregory L; Liu, Shuyu; Hall, Marla D; Brooks, Wynse S; Chao, Shiaoman; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Baik, B-K; Steffenson, Brian; Griffey, Carl A

    2013-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an opportunity to examine the genetic architecture of quantitatively inherited traits in breeding populations. The objectives of this study were to use GWAS to identify chromosome regions governing traits of importance in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers that can be implemented in a marker-assisted breeding program. Advanced hulled and hulless lines (329 total) were screened using 3,072 SNPs as a part of the US. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP). Phenotypic data collected over 4 years for agronomic and food quality traits and resistance to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia hordei G. Otth), powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f. sp. hordei Em. Marchal], net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres), and spot blotch [caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechsler ex Dastur] were analyzed with SNP genotypic data in a GWAS to determine marker-trait associations. Significant SNPs associated with previously described quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes were identified for heading date on chromosome 3H, test weight on 2H, yield on 7H, grain protein on 5H, polyphenol oxidase activity on 2H and resistance to leaf rust on 2H and 3H, powdery mildew on 1H, 2H and 4H, net blotch on 5H, and spot blotch on 7H. Novel QTL also were identified for agronomic, quality, and disease resistance traits. These SNP-trait associations provide the opportunity to directly select for QTL contributing to multiple traits in breeding programs. PMID:23139143

  1. Investigation of Leaf Diseases and Estimation of Chlorophyll Concentration in Seven Barley Varieties Using Fluorescence and Hyperspectral Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Yu; Georg Leufen; Mauricio Hunsche; Georg Noga; Xinping Chen; Georg Bareth

    2013-01-01

    Leaf diseases, such as powdery mildew and leaf rust, frequently infect barley plants and severely affect the economic value of malting barley. Early detection of barley diseases would facilitate the timely application of fungicides. In a field experiment, we investigated the performance of fluorescence and reflectance indices on (1) detecting barley disease risks when no fungicide is applied and (2) estimating leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC). Leaf fluorescence and canopy reflectance were...

  2. Effect of Barleys Having Different Liter Weights on Performance, Economic Value, Ruminal Fermentation of Lambs, and Nutrient Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Talat; ŞAHİN, Kazım; ÇERÇİ, İ.Halil; ERTAS, O. Nihat

    1999-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing barleys having different liter weights (It wt) on average daily gain, feed efficiency, profit margins, ruminal fermentation, and carcass characteristics of lambs and diet digestibility. 16 Akkaraman lambs approximately 8 mo old (averaging 30 kg) were used in a randomized design. Treatment groups consisting of barley grains and barley grains were classified to liter weights as follows: 1. Barley has 643 g lt wt (Grou...

  3. Transfer experiments, light microscopy and electron microscopy studies on the contribution of procaryotes to the novel forest decline patterns. Final report. Uebertragungsversuche, licht- und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen zur Pruefung der ursaechlichen Beteiligung von Prokaryonten (MLO, RLO) an den neuartigen Waldschaeden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, H.

    1989-01-01

    The now terminated research project was to clarify if procaryotes are a causal part of the novel damage to forests. For this extensive microscopic analyses on differently damaged spruce trees and several silver firs from the forest damage areas in the Fichtelgebirge and Bayerischer Wald mountains were made. Beyond this it was attempted to transfer possible phytopathogenic agents from damaged forest trees to healthy young trees of the same kind by pruning. In addition it was attempted to transfer with the aid of parasitic plants of the species Cuscuta possibly occurring mycoplasms of trees suffering from acute yellowing to the test plant Catharanthus roseus, the most suitable for this. Additional tests served to transfer defined MLO from Catharanthus onto healthy seedlings of diverse deciduous and coniferous trees to determine if forest trees are susceptible to the mycoplasmoses common in Germany. (orig./MG).

  4. Comparisons on Yield and Nutrition of Barley Grass for Different Varieties%不同品种大麦苗产量及营养差异比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋英; 陈剑锋

    2011-01-01

    对福建省选育的、生产上正在种植利用的5个大麦品种的麦苗产量及其3种营养含量进行比较试验分析,结果显示:不同大麦品种多次收割的麦苗产量,以及叶片中的叶绿素、蛋白质含量和SOD酶活性等,都存在明显差异。福大麦1号除了叶绿素含量比闽麦02稍低外,麦苗产量、蛋白质含量和SOD活性都比其它4个品种优越。试验认为,进行大麦品种筛选对于麦苗产品生产开发是必要的。%The comparative experiment was made for analyzing the differences of barley grass yield and its nutrition contents between 5 barley varieties which bred and just used in Fujian Province.The results indicated that the yield of grass,the contents of chlorophyll and protein,and the activity of SOD were different among the tested barley varieties,among which the grass yield,protein content and SOD activity showed obviously higher in Fudamai No.1 than in other 4 varieties,and only the chlorophyll content was lower in Fudamai No.1 than in Minmai 02.This experiment suggested that it is necessary to conduct variety screening for developing barley grass product.

  5. Uptake, distribution, and turnover rates of selenium in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K X; Clausen, J

    1994-03-01

    The present communication elucidates initially the topographic distribution of selenium in barley grains. Then by the fluorimetric method the uptake of selenium (selenite) in 8-16 d old germinating barley was estimated. Finally by means of 75Se the anabolic and catabolic rates (turnover) of 75Se (selenite) was compared. The distribution of selenium in barley was evaluated after micro-dissection of barley grains. In dried grains the highest concentration was found in husk and pericarp with about 0.6 ppm Se. Then followed Scutellum with 0.4 and 0.3 ppm in embryon. The aleurone layer, embryonic leaves, and initial root did only have 0.2 ppm Se. In order to know more about the uptake and distribution of selenium in 8-d-old barley, the plants were cultivated for a further 8 d in the culture medium with variation in selenite concentration. In roots and leaves, the uptake did not arrive at saturation during the period studied since the dose-response curve increased up to 0.34 mM selenite in the medium, whereas the selenium levels were about 200 ppm in roots and 30 ppm in leaves. However, the uptake was linear, with concentration during 8 d of cultivation up to 0.84 microM selenite for grain and stem. At higher concentrations the dose-response curve diminished its slope. At 0.34 mM selenite the concentration in grain increased to 6.87 ppm and in the stem to 8.13 ppm. The uptake, distribution, and catabolic rate of selenium components in germinating barley were further evaluated by exposing the plants to 0.0492 microCi 75Se (12.6 microM selenite) for up to 4 d. Then the plants were moved to a selenium deficient medium for further 4 d. Then finally the medium was supplemented with high doses of cold selenite (0.126 mM selenite) for further 4 d. The first third period made it possible to estimate the rate of uptake. It was highest in roots (313 fmol/h/mg dw), i.e., about 10 times those of grains, stems, and leaves. The intermediate period where the barley was transferred to a

  6. Increase and improvement of protein content of cereals and legumes. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of nuclear techniques for seed protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding was studied on barley (variety Athenais) and Italian drurum wheat (variety Capeiti). Gamma radiation and fast neutrons were used. The intention is to use high protein lines of barley and wheat in crosses with the high-yielding varieties grown in Cyprus, in order to develop new varieties with high seed protein, without reducing grain yield. The work on forage legumes was limited to the screening of varieties of forage vetches and medics, as part of the programme on improving dryland forage crops. Tables indicate the relative performance of M6-lines of Attiki barley (1977-79) and of M4 Athenais barley (1978-79). A list of 8 publications by the author, some of them jointly with A. della, is given, relating to the project

  7. A genome-wide association study of malting quality across eight U.S. barley breeding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study leverages the breeding data of 1,862 breeding lines evaluated in 97 field trials for genome-wide association study of malting quality traits in barley. The breeding lines were six-row and two-row barley advanced breeding lines from eight barley breeding populations established at six pub...

  8. Effects of UV-B on activities of enzymes of secondary phenolic metabolism in barley primary leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown in a glasshouse with 13.56 or 8.84 kJ m−2: biologically effective UV-B (280–320 nm: UV-BBE) simulating levels predicted to occur with 25 or 5% ozone depletion at 40°N latitude, with UV-A (320–400 mm), or with no supplemental irradiation. Activities of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5). chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CFI, EC 5.5.1.6) and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) were determined from the 5th through the 30th day after planting. PAL regulates diversion of L-phenylalanine into precursors for secondary phenolics. CFI regulates an early step of flavonoid biosynthesis, and peroxidase activates phenolic precursors for cross-linking and rigidifying cell walls. At all ages UV-B decreased soluble protein leaf−1 but had little effect on fresh weight or CFI activity. Exposure to UV-B decreased peroxidase activity only slightly in early growth stages but decreased it about 40% by day 30. PAL activity was highest 5 days after planting under all treatments, decreased thereafter, and was not detectable in control plants after day 10. UV-B prolonged PAL activity through day 15 in plants given the highest level of UV-B. This UV-B prolongation of PAL activity is correlated with, and is a likely underlying mechanism to explain, the UV-B- enhanced accumulation of flavonoids and ferulic acid in barley primary leaves. The results are discussed in terms of barley leaf adaptation to UV-B as developmental response dependent on conditions of plant growth. (author)

  9. Genetic Characterization of Resistance to Wheat Stem Rust Race TTKSK in Landrace and Wild Barley Accessions Identifies the rpg4/Rpg5 Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Bullo Erena; Smith, Kevin P; Brueggeman, Robert S; Steffenson, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    resides at or very near the rpg4/Rpg5 locus. Phenotype evaluations of the six barley accessions with wheat stem rust race QCCJ revealed resistant infection types (ITs) at a low incubation temperature and susceptible ITs at a high incubation temperature, similar to Q21861, which carries the temperature-sensitive gene rpg4. The accessions also exhibited low ITs against the rye stem rust isolate 92-MN-90, suggesting that they also carry Rpg5. This result was confirmed through molecular analysis, which revealed that all six barley accessions contain the serine threonine protein kinase domain that confers Rpg5 resistance. These results indicate that cultivated barley is extremely vulnerable to African stem rust races such as TTKSK because even these diverse selections of landrace and wild barley accessions carry only one locus for resistance. PMID:25084303

  10. Nitrogen metabolism of young barley plants as affected by NaCl - salinity and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a solution culture experiment with 31 days old barley plants (var. Miura) the influence of NaCl-salinization (80 mM) and KCl addition (5 and 10 mM) on the uptake and turnover of labelled nitrogen (15NH415NO3) was studied. Labelled N was applied for 24h at the end of a 20 days salinization period. Salinization impaired growth and incorporation of labelled N into the protein fraction paralleled by accumulation of labelled inorganic N. All salt effects were much more pronounced in the shoots than in the roots. Potassium addition enhanced N uptake (total 15N-content) and incorporation into protein, reduced the accumulation of inorganic N and improved the growth of salinized plants. The presented data support the point of view that impairment of protein (enzyme) metabolism is an important aspect of salt stress which is probably induced by the disturbance of the K/Na balance of the tissues under saline conditions. (Auth.)

  11. Agronomic effects of a reciprocal translocation in a widely grown Spanish barley variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré, A.; Visioni, A.; Lacasa-Benito, I.; Cistué, L.; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    A large spontaneous reciprocal translocation is present in a widely grown Spanish barley cv. ‘Albacete’. It has been hypothesized that high popularity of ‘Albacete’ with farmers, particularly in semi-arid areas where barley is grown under rainfed conditions, may be due to the presence of this transl

  12. Genetic characterization of a reciprocal translocation present in a widely grown barley variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré, A.; Cuadrado, A.; Lacasa-Benito, I.; Cistué, L.; Schubert, I.; Comadran, J.; Jansen, J.; Romagosa, I.

    2012-01-01

    Artificially induced translocation stocks have been used to physically map the barley genome; however, natural translocations are extremely uncommon in cultivated genotypes. Albacete is a barley variety widely grown in recent decades in Spain and carrying a reciprocal translocation which obviously d

  13. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  14. USE OF BARLEY OZONIZED GRAIN AND PROBIOTICS FOR INCREASING BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temiraev R. B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents experimental data indicating that for the optimization of biological and food processing meat value at risk of aflatoxicosis in feeding chicken-broilers with barley-wheat and sunflower type one should include hullless barley grain at exposure of ozone of 3.0 hour complex with Bifidumbacterinum probiotics

  15. Comparison of Pretreatment Strategies for Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Barley Straw to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicellulose, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomeri...

  16. Molecular mapping of greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) resistance gene Rsg1 in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is an extremely damaging aphid pest of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x =14 L.) particularly in the southern Great Plains of the US. The simply inherited, dominant resistance gene Rsg1 is presented in all greenbug-resistant US barley cultivars, includi...

  17. Effect of pulsed electric field on the germination of barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Dejmek, Petr; Panarese, Valentina;

    2012-01-01

    This study explores metabolic responses of germinating barley seeds upon the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Malting barley seeds were steeped in aerated water for 24 h and PEF-treated at varying voltages (0 (control), 110, 160, 240, 320, 400 and 480 V). The seeds were then allowed...

  18. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  19. Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group GAG-1, the common pathogen of wheat, barley and sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Isuluies of Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group GAG-1 were obtained from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and on barley culms and from diseased sugar beet seedlings. Isolates of R. cerealis were collected from a fields with crop rotation experiments: sugar beet-spring wheat-winter barley. In pathogenicity tests isolates of R. cerealis from sugar beet seedlings and from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and barley were pathogenic to these crops. Isolates of R. cerealis from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and barley caused severe damping-ofTof sugar beet. Isolates of R. cerealis from sugar beet seedlings also caused symptoms of sharp eyespot on wheat and barley. None of the wheat and barley isolates of R. cerealis tested caused root-rot on wheat or barley seedlings. Isolates of R. cerealis obtained from diseased plants of wheat, barley and sugar beet were similar in morphology of cultures and anastomosed with GAG-1 tester isolate. The relatinoship between anastomosis. colony characters, growth rate, hyphal diameter and pathogenicity of AG-4. AG-2-2 and AG-5 isolates obtained together with R. cerealis from diseased plants were also investigated.

  20. Dietary citrus pulp improves protein stability in lamb meat stored under aerobic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gravador, Rufielyn S.; Jongberg, Sisse; Andersen, Mogens L.; Luciano, Giuseppe; Priolo, Alessandro; Lund, Marianne N.

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of dried citrus pulp on proteins in lamb meat, when used as a replacement of concentrate in the feed, was studied using meat from 26 male Comisana lambs. The lambs of age 90 days had been grouped randomly to receive one of the three dietary treatments: (1) commercial concentrate with 60% barley (Control, n = 8), (2) concentrate with 35% barley and 24% citrus pulp (Cp24, n = 9), or (3) concentrate with 23% barley and 35% citrus pulp (Cp35, n = 9). Slices from the longis...

  1. Feeding rolled barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulated energy status and innate immunity in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Dunn, S M; Ametaj, B N

    2010-11-01

    Feeding dairy cows large proportions of cereal grain is commonly associated with rumen acidosis, activation of innate immunity, and perturbation of intermediary metabolism. We previously showed that steeping barley grain in 0.5% lactic acid (LA) decreased the rate of starch degradation, lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis, modulated rumen fermentation profile, and increased milk fat content in dairy cows. This study sought to investigate whether feeding of LA-treated barley grain would affect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as innate immunity. Eight rumen-fistulated late-lactation (approximately 217 d in milk, DIM) Holstein cows were randomly assigned, in a 2 × 2 crossover design, to 1 of the 2 dietary treatments consisting of 27% (dry matter basis) rolled barley grain steeped for 48 h in an equal volume (wt/vol) of tap water (CTR) or 0.5% LA (TRT). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, with the first 11 d for diet adaptation. Blood and rumen samples were collected on d 12, 15, 17, and 21 of the experimental period before the morning feeding to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment on preprandial day-to-day variation of plasma and rumen variables. To establish the effect of treatment on diurnal variation of plasma variables, blood samples were collected on the last day of each period at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12h after the morning feeding (i.e., 0800 h). Results of the day-to-day study showed that cows fed the TRT diet had greater overall preprandial concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, and insulin, and a lower concentration of haptoglobin in plasma. Diurnal data indicated lower concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and a tendency for greater plasma lactate in cows fed the TRT diet. A treatment by time interaction was observed for glucose, lactate, insulin, haptoglobin, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, suggesting a role for both the processing of grain and the time of sampling on those variables. No effect of diet on

  2. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd;

    2012-01-01

    . Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1, and...... decreased with 300 kg N ha−1. Net photosynthetic rate (P N) and the amount of accumulated dry matter distributed into grains showed the same response to N application as grain yield. Grain protein content increased with increasing N application rates. Moreover, based on further analysis of these results...... yield and quality of malting barley in China farmers are recommended to fertilize with 150–209 kg N ha−1....

  3. Elevated phosphorus impedes manganese acquisition by barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Skytte, Kristian; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of manganese (Mn) deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P) status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure and P-fertilizers. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Addition of a pulse of KH(2)PO(4) rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn-P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn(2+) had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu, and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels. PMID:22639592

  4. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part I. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during ripening of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was followed in ripening wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne seeds. In the investigated ontogenesis period the content in the seeds of total and acid-soluble phosphorus doubled. The phosphorus of free phytin and phytin that bound with proteins increased to the end of maturation. In dormant seeds the contribution of phosphorus bound with phytin was 62-70 per cent of total P. As the seeds ripened, the content of inorganic and nucleotides-P decreased, while that of saccharides-P and their metabolites started to decrease from the moment of wax ripeness. Later RNA-P and DNA-P level decreased only slight.ly and that of lipids-P markedly. Phosphoproteid content diminished at the beginning of ripening and further remained at almost the same level. Wheat, barley and rye seed exhibited similar dynamics of metabolically active (nucleotides, saccharide-P esters and their metabolites, functional (nucleic acids and structural (phospholipids phosphorus compounds. Accumulation of storage forms (phytin of phosphorus was higher in wheat and successively lower in rye and barley.

  5. Feeding diets based on barley or triticale during fattening of high-meat PIC pigs: Effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turyk Zofia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare performance, carcass and meat quality parameters in high-meat fattening hybride PIC pigs fed barley or triticale based diets. Sixty, 12 week old weaner piglets of similar mean body weight (30 kg ± 0.4 were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each, and assigned to one of the two dietary treatment groups designated as group B (fed bar ley based diets and group T (fed triticale based diets. The pigs fed T based diets showed 8% higher growth rate (p<0.05 at 11% lower feed conversion ratio. Post slaughter parameters in pigs fed triticale based diets were more desirable than in those fed barley based diets. T fed pigs had higher loin eye area and smaller suet weight (p<0.01. Dressing percentage, carcass length, fleshiness, back fat thickness, dry matter, crude ash, crude protein and ether extract and pH of meat were similar in both groups. Meat from T fed pigs had slightly darker colour of m. semimembranosus, and higher water holding capacity of m. longisimus lumborum (p<0.05. Feeding triticale based diets to PIC pigs has beneficial effects on performance and characteristics carcass. Triticale could totally replace barley in rations for fattening high meat PIC swine.

  6. Peroxidase isoenzymes in germinating barley seeds and in seminal roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stroński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Roots and germinating seeds of summer barley of the cv. Alsa, Antałek, Cebeco 7161, Lubuski, Skrzeszowicki and Union were found to differ in the number of peroxidase isoenzymes. In the germinating seeds from 5 to 8 isoenzymes were found whereas in the two-week-old roots – from 10 to 14 isoenzymes. Four isoenzymes in germinating seeds and eight isoenzymes in seminal roots appeared in all the cultivars tested. The cultivars differed also in the relative activity of the isoenzymes in the tested organs.

  7. Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

  8. Effects of irradiation on spring barley and sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presoaked barley seeds were irradiated with 60-500 R of 300 kV X-rays at a dose rate of 600 R/h. The seeds were sown in plastic containers and grown at 200C in a climatic chamber. A significant increase was observed in all investigated parameters except for the plant length till 250 R. Irradiation of presoaked seeds of sugar beet with 1,000-8,000 R resulted in an increase of root weight and sugar yield after 1,000 R. The irradiation of dry seeds, however, did not cause any stimulation. (MG/AK)

  9. Further molecular evidence for the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    106 accessions of Tibetan wild barley, including 50 accessions of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum(HS), 27 accessions of the six-rowed bottle-shaped wild barley H. lagunculiforme(HL) and 29 accessions of the six-rowed wild barley H. agriocrithon(HA) that separately represent different agrigeographical regions of Tibet, were used to study the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation using SSR markers selected from seven barley linkage groups. 229 allelic variants were identified with an average of 7.6 alleles/locus. The average of total number of alleles per locus in HA(6.4) is much higher than that in HS(3.9) and HL(3.4). The genetic diversity and its standard deviation among the three subspecies were in the order of HS>HL>HA. Very significant genetic differentiation was observed among the three subspecies of wild barley. Comparisons of the results from this and previous studies showed a strong Oriental-Occidental differentiation of barley, and that Shannan region of Tibet might be the center of origin of the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley, thus supporting not only the hypothesis of a mono-phyletic origin of cultivated barley but also the proposition that the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley.

  10. Characterization of microRNAs and their targets in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) using deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pingchuan; Bian, Jianxin; Yue, Hong; Feng, Kewei; Wang, Mengxing; Du, Xianghong; Weining, Song; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a negative regulatory role in various developmental and metabolic processes of plants. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum), as the progenitor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare), has served as a valuable germplasm resource for barley genetic improvement. To survey miRNAs in wild barley, we sequenced the small RNA library prepared from wild barley using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 70 known miRNAs and 18 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that all of the miRNAs identified in wild barley contained the highly conserved hairpin sequences found in barley cultivars. MiRNA target predictions showed that 12 out of 52 miRNA families were predicted to target transcription factors, including 8 highly conserved miRNA families in plants and 4 wheat-barley conserved miRNA families. In addition to transcription factors, other predicted target genes were involved in diverse physiological and metabolic processes and stress defense. Our study for the first time reported the large-scale investigation of small RNAs in wild barley, which will provide essential information for understanding the regulatory role of miRNAs in wild barley and also shed light on future practical utilization of miRNAs for barley improvement. PMID:27100818

  11. DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stracke Silke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping is receiving considerable attention in plant genetics for its potential to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL, validate candidate genes, and identify alleles of interest. In the present study association mapping in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is investigated by associating DNA polymorphisms with variation in grain quality traits, plant height, and flowering time to gain further understanding of gene functions involved in the control of these traits. We focused on the four loci BLZ1, BLZ2, BPBF and HvGAMYB that play a role in the regulation of B-hordein expression, the major fraction of the barley storage protein. The association was tested in a collection of 224 spring barley accessions using a two-stage mixed model approach. Results Within the sequenced fragments of four candidate genes we observed different levels of nucleotide diversity. The effect of selection on the candidate genes was tested by Tajima's D which revealed significant values for BLZ1, BLZ2, and BPBF in the subset of two-rowed barleys. Pair-wise LD estimates between the detected SNPs within each candidate gene revealed different intra-genic linkage patterns. On the basis of a more extensive examination of genomic regions surrounding the four candidate genes we found a sharp decrease of LD (r2 Significant marker-trait associations between SNP sites within BLZ1 and flowering time, BPBF and crude protein content and BPBF and starch content were detected. Most haplotypes occurred at frequencies BPBF was associated to crude protein content and starch content, BLZ2 showed association to thousand-grain weight and BLZ1 was found to be associated with flowering time and plant height. Conclusions Differences in nucleotide diversity and LD pattern within the candidate genes BLZ1, BLZ2, BPBF, and HvGAMYB reflect the impact of selection on the nucleotide sequence of the four candidate loci. Despite significant associations, the analysed candidate

  12. Ingestion of oats and barley in patients with celiac disease mobilizes cross-reactive T cells activated by avenin peptides and immuno-dominant hordein peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Melinda Y; Tye-Din, Jason A; Stewart, Jessica A; Schmitz, Frederike; Dudek, Nadine L; Hanchapola, Iresha; Purcell, Anthony W; Anderson, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a common CD4(+) T cell mediated enteropathy driven by gluten in wheat, rye, and barley. Whilst clinical feeding studies generally support the safety of oats ingestion in CD, the avenin protein from oats can stimulate intestinal gluten-reactive T cells isolated from some CD patients in vitro. Our objective was to establish whether ingestion of oats or other grains toxic in CD stimulate an avenin-specific T cell response in vivo. We fed participants a meal of oats (100 g/day over 3 days) to measure the in vivo polyclonal avenin-specific T cell responses to peptides contained within comprehensive avenin peptide libraries in 73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients. Grain cross-reactivity was investigated using oral challenge with wheat, barley, and rye. Avenin-specific responses were observed in 6/73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients (8%), against four closely related peptides. Oral barley challenge efficiently induced cross-reactive avenin/hordein-specific T cells in most CD patients, whereas wheat or rye challenge did not. In vitro, immunogenic avenin peptides were susceptible to digestive endopeptidases and showed weak HLA-DQ2.5 binding stability. Our findings indicate that CD patients possess T cells capable of responding to immuno-dominant hordein epitopes and homologous avenin peptides ex vivo, but the frequency and consistency of these T cells in blood is substantially higher after oral challenge with barley compared to oats. The low rates of T cell activation after a substantial oats challenge (100 g/d) suggests that doses of oats commonly consumed are insufficient to cause clinical relapse, and supports the safety of oats demonstrated in long-term feeding studies. PMID:25457306

  13. 大麦雄性不育的遗传研究%Genetic Study on Barley Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 刘志萍; 包海柱

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research the genetic mechanism of barley male sterility, and provide the theoretical reference for breeding strong heterosis hybrid of barley. [Method] Fertility segregation phenomenon, morphological characteristics and main agronomic characters of male sterility character of 4 kinds of barley male sterility materials 2001-17, 2001-37, 2001-84 and 2001-116 and their derived lines were observed and researched. [Result] Barley male sterility existed genetic phenomenon of single dominant nuclear gene caused by environmental stimulation, its sterility controlled by MS, the sterile genotype was MSms. There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility which was controlled by cytoplasmic male sterile gene S and nuclear gene rr, and its genotype was S(rr), this male sterility belonged to CMS type sterility. Temperature had no effect on fertility. [Conclusion] There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility, this result played a positively promoting role in barley practical production.

  14. Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity coefficients was conducted and the 40 varieties were classified into two groups. Seven malting barley varieties from China fell into the same subgroup. It was found that the genetic diversity within the Chinese malting barley varieties was narrower than that in other barley germplasm sources, suggesting the importance and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from different origins for malting barley breeding in China. PMID:20872987

  15. Sequence elements controlling expression of Barley stripe mosaic virus subgenomic RNAs in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) contains three positive-sense, single-stranded genomic RNAs, designated α, β, and γ, that encode seven major proteins and one minor translational readthrough protein. Three proteins (αa, βa, and γa) are translated directly from the genomic RNAs and the remaining proteins encoded on RNAβ and RNAγ are expressed via three subgenomic messenger RNAs (sgRNAs). sgRNAβ1 directs synthesis of the triple gene block 1 (TGB1) protein. The TGB2 protein, the TGB2' minor translational readthrough protein, and the TGB3 protein are expressed from sgRNAβ2, which is present in considerably lower abundance than sgRNAβ1. A third sgRNA, sgRNAγ, is required for expression of the γb protein. We have used deletion analyses and site-specific mutations to define the boundaries of promoter regions that are critical for expression of the BSMV sgRNAs in infected protoplasts. The results reveal that the sgRNAβ1 promoter encompasses positions -29 to -2 relative to its transcription start site and is adjacent to a cis-acting element required for RNAβ replication that maps from -107 to -74 relative to the sgRNAβ1 start site. The core sgRNAβ2 promoter includes residues -32 to -17 relative to the sgRNAβ2 transcriptional start site, although maximal activity requires an upstream hexanucleotide sequence residing from positions -64 to -59. The sgRNAγ promoter maps from -21 to +2 relative to its transcription start site and therefore partially overlaps the γa gene. The sgRNAβ1, β2, and γ promoters also differ substantially in sequence, but have similarities to the putative homologous promoters of other Hordeiviruses. These differences are postulated to affect competition for the viral polymerase, coordination of the temporal expression and abundance of the TGB proteins, and constitutive expression of the γb protein

  16. Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Metabolic Changes in Barley Seed Embryo during Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhenguo; Marsolais, Frédéric; Bykova, Natalia V; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2016-01-01

    The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATP/ADP ratios, reduction levels of ascorbate and glutathione, expression of the genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism of NO and activities of the enzymes involved in fermentation and in metabolism of NO and ROS were studied in the embryos of germinating seeds of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars differing in dormancy level. The level of NO production continuously increased after imbibition while the level of nitrosylated SH-groups in proteins increased. This corresponded to the decrease of free SH-groups in proteins. At early stage of germination (0-48 h post imbibition) the genes encoding class 1 phytoglobin (the protein scavenging NO) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (scavenging S-nitrosoglutathione) were markedly expressed. More dormant cultivar exhibited lower ATP/ADP and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratios and lower lactate and alcohol dehydrogenase activities, while the production of NO and nitrosylation of proteins was higher as compared to the non-dormant cultivar. The obtained data indicate that at the onset of germination NO is actively generated causing nitrosylation of SH-groups and a switch from respiration to fermentation. After radicle protrusion the metabolism changes in a more reducing type as recorded by ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione and ascorbate. The turnover of NO by the scavenging systems (phytoglobin, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase and interaction with ROS) might contribute to the maintenance of redox and energy balance of germinating seeds and lead to alleviation of dormancy. PMID:26909088

  17. Transgenic barley overexpressing a cytokinin dehydrogenase gene shows greater tolerance to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospíšilová, Hana; Jiskrová, Eva; Vojta, Petr; Mrízová, Katarína; Kokáš, Filip; Čudejková, Mária Majeská; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Plíhal, Ondřej; Klimešová, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Dzurová, Lenka; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Together with auxins, cytokinins are the main plant hormones involved in many different physiological processes. Given this knowledge, cytokinin levels can be manipulated by genetic modification in order to improve agronomic parameters of cereals in relation to, for example, morphology, yield, and tolerance to various stresses. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise was transformed using the cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCKX1) under the control of mild root-specific β-glucosidase promoter from maize. Increased cytokinin degradation activity was observed positively to affect the number and length of lateral roots. The impact on morphology depended upon the recombinant protein's subcellular compartmentation. While assumed cytosolic and vacuolar targeting of AtCKX1 had negligible effect on shoot growth, secretion of AtCKX1 protein to the apoplast had a negative effect on development of the aerial part and yield. Upon the application of severe drought stress, all transgenic genotypes maintained higher water content and showed better growth and yield parameters during revitalization. Higher tolerance to drought stress was most caused by altered root morphology resulting in better dehydration avoidance. PMID:26773738

  18. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  19. Influence of caffeine on fractionated irradiation in wheat and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractionated irradiation is one of the important methods studying repair of radiation damage. Some authors reported that caffeine, a repair inhibitor, had no effects on fractionated irradiation in human cell, animal cell and Vicia faba. And they concluded that caffeine inhibited the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD), but did not inhibit the repair of sub-lethal damage (SLD). In this study, the effect of caffeine on the repair of PLD and SLD were reexamined in wheat and barley systems. The germinating seeds of wheat of barley were pre-irradiation treated 3 h with 5 x 10-3 mol/L caffeine, then they were irradiated by single or fractionated X-ray doses. The results showed that after caffeine treatment the effect of fractionated irradiation was disappeared. In this case, caffeine not only inhibited the repair of PLD but also inhibited the repair SLD. In previous fracttionated radiation experiments, the repairs during interval were discussed in detail, but the repairs after whole irradiation were neglected. According to the resuls of this experiment and some early reported about fractionated irradiation, the repair efficiency during interval and the repair function after whole irradiation were discussed

  20. Variability and inheritance of the tillering in barley hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Milomirka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Productive tillering is a very important trait which influences the degree of barley lodging resistance. Five dive-gent genotypes of two-rowed winter barley (Vada, Đerdap, NS-293, Jagodinac and Sladoran have been selected for diallel crossing in order to study the mode of inheritance, the gene effect and the components genetic variance for the productive tillering in F1 and F2 generation. The test of the significance of the generations' mean values related to the parental average was used for inheritance mode determinations (KRALJEVIC-BALALIC et al., 1991 and the genetic variance components and regression VrWr analysis from diallel crossings were made using the method of MATHER and JINKS (1971. The variability of the investigated trait differed. The cross combination Đerdap x Jagodinac had the highest coefficient of variance (39.78%. Different modes of inheritance (partial dominance, dominance and over dominance and partial dominance were found in the F1 and F2 generation, respectively. The genetic variance components, average degree of dominance and regression line indicated partial dominance in the inheritance of tillering. The range of the obtained values of heritability for the tillering was found to be very wide (0.02-0.47. The cross combinations Đerdap x Jagodinac and Vada x Đerdap were selected for future breeding.