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Sample records for barley introgression lines

  1. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines

    KAUST Repository

    Honsdorf, Nora

    2014-05-13

    Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old) wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r = 0.98) between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars. © 2014 Honsdorf et al.

  2. Detection of nitrogen deficiency QTL in juvenile wild barley introgression lines growing in a hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Astrid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this report we studied the genetic regulation of juvenile development of wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs under two contrasting hydroponic nitrogen (N supplies. Ten shoot and root related traits were examined among 42 S42ILs and the recurrent parent ‘Scarlett’. The traits included tiller number, leaf number, plant height, leaf and root length, leaf to root length ratio, shoots and root dry weight, shoot to root weight ratio, and chlorophyll content. Our aims were (1 to test the suitability of a hydroponic system for early detection of favourable S42ILs, (2 to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the examined traits, (3 to identify favourable wild barley alleles that improve trait performances in regard to N treatment and, finally, (4 to validate the identified QTL through comparison with previously reported QTL originating from the same parental cross. Results The phenotypic data were analysed in a mixed model association study to detect QTL. The post-hoc Dunnett test identified 28 S42ILs that revealed significant (P Hsp effects for tiller number, leaf number, leaf length, plant height and leaf to root ratio on the long arm of chromosome 7H. These QTL correspond to QTL for ears per plant and plant height that were previously detected in field trials conducted with the same S42ILs or with the S42 population. Conclusion Our results suggest that the QTL we identified under hydroponic N cultivation partly correspond to QTL detected in field experiments. Due to this finding, screening of plants in early developmental stages grown in a hydroponic system may be a fast and cost effective method for early QTL detection and marker-assisted allelic selection, potentially speeding up elite barley breeding programs.

  3. Rph22: mapping of a novel leaf rust resistance gene introgressed from the non-host Hordeum bulbosum L. into cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnston, P.A.; Niks, R.E.; Meiyalaghan, V.; Blanchet, E.; Pickering, R.

    2013-01-01

    A resistance gene (Rph22) to barley leaf rust caused by Puccinia hordei was introgressed from the non-host species Hordeum bulbosum into cultivated barley. The H. bulbosum introgression in line ‘182Q20’ was located to chromosome 2HL using genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH). Using molecular markers

  4. [Nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility and the state of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA regions in alloplasmic recombinant and introgressive lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Trubacheva, N V; Sinyavskaya, M G; Devyatkina, E P; Kravtsova, L A

    2014-10-01

    Alloplasmic lines combining alien nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes are convenient models for studying the mechanisms of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility/incompatibility. In the.present study, we have investigated the correlation between the characters and state of mitochondrial (mt) and chloroplast (cp) DNA regions in alloplasmic recombinant common wheat lines with barley cytoplasm characterized by partial or total fertility. Fertility restoration in the studied lines (Hordeum vulgare)-Triticum aestivum is determined by different ratios of the genetic material of common wheat variety Pyrotrix 28, which is a fertility restorer in the cytoplasm of barley, and varietySaratovskaya 29, which is a fixer of sterility. In partially fertile lines with nuclear genomes dominated by the genetic material of Saratovskaya 29, plant growth and development are suppressed. In these lines we have identified the barley homoplasmy of cpDNA regions infA and rpoB and the heteroplasmy of the 18S/5S mt repeat and the cpDNA ycf5 region. Nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in lines with reduced fertility (the genetic material of Pyrotrix 28 predominates in their nuclear genomes) is associated with restoration of normal plant growth and development and the changes in thestate of the studied cpDNA and mtDNA regions towards the wheat type. Thus, in fertile lines, the cpDNA regions (infA, rpoB) and the 18S/5S mt repeat were identified in the homoplasmic wheat state; though the cpDNAycf5 region was in the heteroplasmic state, it was dominated by the wheat type of the copies. The nuclearicytoplasmic compatibility is not broken as a result of introgression of the alien genetic material into the nuclear genome of one of the fertile lines; the plants of introgressive lines are fertile and normally developed, and the states of the cpDNA and mtDNA regions correspond to their states in fertile recombinant lines.

  5. Development and Identification of Introgression Lines from Cross of Oryza sativa and Oryza minuta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Si-bin; WEI Yu; LI Xiao-qiong; LIU Kai-qiang; HUANG Feng-kuan; CHEN Cai-hong; GAO Guo-qing

    2013-01-01

    Introgression line population is effectively used in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs),identifying favorable genes,discovering hidden genetic variation,evaluating the action or interaction of QTLs in multiple conditions and providing the favorable experimental materials for plant breeding and genetic research.In this study,an advanced backcross and consecutive selfing strategy was used to develop introgression lines (ILs),which derived from an accession of Oryza minuta (accession No.101133) with BBCC genome,as the donor,and an elite indica cultivar IR24 (O.sativa),as the recipient.Introgression segments from O.minuta were screened using 164 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in the genome of each IL.Introgressed segments carried by 131 ILs covered the whole O.sativa genome.The average number of homozygous O.minuta segments per introgression line was about 9.99.The average length of introgressed segments was approximate 14.78 cM,and about 79.64%of these segments had sizes less than 20 cM.In the genome of each introgression line,the O.minuta chromosomal segments harbored chromosomal fragments of O.sativa ranging from 1.15% to 27.6%,with an overall average of 8.57%.At each locus,the ratio of substitution of O.minuta alleles had a range of 1.5%-25.2%,with an average of 8.3% Based on the evaluation of the phenotype of these ILs,a wide range of alterations in morphological and yield-related traits were found.After inoculation,ILs 41,11 and 7 showed high resistance to bacterial blight,brown planthopper and whitebacked planthopper,respectively.These O.minuta-O.sativa ILs will serve as genetic materials for identifying and using favorable genes from O.minuta.

  6. Analysis of Introgressed Segments in Near-isogenic Lines for F1 Pollen Sterility in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-tao; ZENG Rui-zhen; ZHANG Ze-min; Akshay TALUKDAR; ZHANG Gui-quan

    2003-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-eight microsatellite markers showing polymorphism among parents were used to survey the introgressed segments in the 50 near-isogenic lines of F1 pollen sterility. Two hundred and sixty introgressed segments were detected in 50 near-isogenic lines, each carrying 5.2 introgressed segments on an average. Among the 260 segments, one hundred carrying F1 pollen sterility loci concentrated on the region of F1 pollen sterility genes, and the remaining one hundred and sixty without F1 pollen sterility loci distributed randomly over 12 chromosomes. Both the average number and length of the introgressed segments decreased along with the increase of backcross generations. The number of introgressed segments was less than four and the length was less than 20 cM in the near-isogenic lines after backcrossing for four or more times.

  7. Cytogenetic and Molecular Characterization of B-Genome Introgression Lines of Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Inderpreet; Mason, Annaliese S.; Banga, Shashi; Bharti, Sakshi; Kaur, Beerpal; Gurung, Allison Mary; Salisbury, Phillip Anthony; Batley, Jacqueline; Banga, Surinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus introgression lines (ILs), having B-genome segments from B. carinata, were assessed genetically for extent of introgression and phenotypically for siliqua shatter resistance. Introgression lines had 7–9% higher DNA content, were meiotically stable, and had almost normal pollen fertility/seed set. Segment introgressions were confirmed by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization (fl-GISH), SSR analyses, and SNP studies. Genotyping with 48 B-genome specific SSRs detected substitutions from B3, B4, B6, and B7 chromosomes on 39 of the 69 ILs whereas SNP genotyping detected a total of 23 B-segments (≥3 Mb) from B4, B6, and B7 introgressed into 10 of the 19 (C1, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C9, A3, A9, A10) chromosomes in 17 ILs. The size of substitutions varied from 3.0 Mb on chromosome A9 (IL59) to 42.44 Mb on chromosome C2 (IL54), ranging from 7 to 83% of the recipient chromosome. Average siliqua strength in ILs was observed to be higher than that of B. napus parents (2.2–6.0 vs. 1.9–4.0 mJ) while siliqua strength in some of the lines was almost equal to that of the donor parent B. carinata (6.0 vs.7.2 mJ). These ILs, with large chunks of substituted B-genome, can prove to be a useful prebreeding resource for germplasm enhancement in B. napus, especially for siliqua shatter resistance. PMID:27821632

  8. Development of Oryza rufipogon and O. sativa Introgression Lines and Assessment for Yield-related Quantitative Trait Loci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lubin Tan; Fengxia Liu; Wei Xue; Guijuan Wang; Sheng Ye; Zuofeng Zhu; Yongcai Fu; Xiangkun Wang; Chuanqing Sun

    2007-01-01

    Introgression lines population was effectively used in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs), identifying favorable genes, discovering hidden genetic variation, evaluating the action or interaction of QTLs in multiple conditions and providing the favorable experimental materials for plant breeding and genetic research. In this study, an advanced backcross and consecutive selfing strategy was used to develop introgression lines (ILs), which derived from an accession of Oryza rufipogon Griff, collected from Yuanjiang County, Yunnan Province of China, as the donor, and an elite indica cultivar Teqing (O. sativa L.), as the recipient. Introgression segments from O. rufipogon were screened using 179 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers in the genome of each IL. Introgressed segments carried by the introgression lines population contained 120 ILs covering the whole O. rufipogon genome. The mean number of homozygous O. rufipogon segments per introgression line was about 3.88. The average length of introgressed segments was approximate 25.5 cM, and about 20.8% of these segments had sizes less than 10 cM. The genome of each IL harbored the chromosomal fragments of O. rufipogon ranging from 0.54% to 23.7%, with an overall average of 5.79%. At each locus, the ratio of substitution of O. rufipogon alleles had a range of 1.67-9.33, with an average of 5.50. A wide range of alterations in morphological and yield-related traits were also found in the introgression lines population. Using single-point analysis, a total of 37 putative QTLs for yield and yield components were detected at two sites with 7%-20% explaining the phenotypic variance. Nineteen QTLs (51.4%) were detected at both sites, and the alleles from O. rufipogon at fifteen loci (40.5%) improved the yield and yield components in the Teqing background. These O. rufipogon-O. sativa introgression lines will serve as genetic materials for identifying and using favorable genes from common wild rice.

  9. A new genomic library of melon introgression lines in a cantaloupe genetic background for dissecting desirable agronomical traits

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Genomic libraries of introgression lines (ILs) consist of collections of homozygous lines with a single chromosomal introgression from a donor genotype in a common, usually elite, genetic background, representing the whole donor genome in the full collection. Currently, the only available melon IL collection was generated using Piel de sapo (var. inodorus) as the recurrent background. ILs are not available in genetic backgrounds representing other important market class cultivars, ...

  10. Development, identification and utilization of introgression lines using Chinese endemic and synthetic wheat as donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqing Gu; Bo Wei; Renchun Fan; Xu Jia; Xianping Wang; Xiangqi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome segmental introgression lines (ILs) are an effective way to utilize germplasm resources in crops. To improve agronomic traits of wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum) Shi 4185, four sets of ILs were developed. The donors were Chinese endemic subspecies accessions Yunnan wheat (T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense) YN3, Tibetan semi-wild wheat (T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum) XZ-ZM19450, and Xinjiang wheat (T. aestivum ssp. petropavlovskyi) XJ5, and synthetic wheat HC-XM1620 derived from a cross between T. durum acc. D67.2/P66.270 with Aegilops tauschii acc. 218. Totals of 356, 366, 445 and 457 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were polymorphic between Shi 4185 and YN3, XZ-ZM19450, XJ5 and HC-XM1620, respectively. In total, 991 ILs were identified, including 300 derived from YN3, covering 95%of the genome of Shi 4185, 218 from XZ-ZM19450 (79%), 279 from XJ5 (97%), and 194 from HC-ZX1620 (84%). The sizes and locations of each introgression were determined from a consensus SSR linkage map. Using the ILs, 11 putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for plant height (PH), spike length (SL) and grain number per spike (GNS). Comparative analyses of 24 elite ILs with the parents revealed that the four donor parents could be important resources to improve wheat SL and GNS. Our work offers a case for utilizing endemic landraces for QTL mapping and improvement of wheat cultivars using introgression lines.

  11. RESPONSE OF SUB1 INTROGRESSION LINES OF RICE TO VARIOUS FLOODING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhistira Nugraha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two types of floods can be happen in rice crops, i.e. flash floods and  stagnant floods. Flash floods cause complete submergence for up to 2 weeks, while stagnant floods (SF could partially submerge part of rice  plant. To overcome yield loss due to the floods, introgression of SUB1 gene, known as a gene suppressing cell elongation and carbohydrate  metabolism, to rice genotype can increase plant tolerance to complete submergence for 10 days or more. The study aimed to evaluate the response of 18 rice genotypes, including the recently developed sixth pair SUB1 near isogenic lines (NILs of mega-rice varieties (Swarna, Sambha Mahsuri, IR64, TDK1, BR11, and CR1009, to various flooding conditions. The rice genotypes were planted at field ponds at Los Banos, Philippines, in the wet season (WS of 2009. The treatments were 15 days  submergence, SF, SF follows submergence and normal conditions. Each treatment was arranged in completely randomized block design with threereplications. The results showed that the SUB1 introgression rice lines had higher survival compared to the non-SUB1 and did not much elongate their shoots during submergence. Nevertheless, under SF the rice genotypes should elongates their shoots to allow restoring contact with the air. SF and SF follows submergence decreased the panicle number, grainnumber per panicle and panicle fertility. Consequently, the yield declined. It suggests that sensitive genotypes are mostly sourcelimited during grain filling. The SUB1 introgression lines had higher chlorophyll concentration and less depletion in soluble sugar and starch after submergence. Under SF, soluble sugar and starch contents between the SUB1 NILs and  non-SUB1 lines were not significantly different. Introgression of the SUB1 into high-yielding varieties improved submergence tolerance without affecting yield potential. The study indicates that introgression of the SUB1 into taller type rice varieties should be done to compensate

  12. Development and characterization of Brassica juncea – fruticulosa introgression lines exhibiting resistance to mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt

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    Atri Chhaya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustard aphid is a major pest of Brassica oilseeds. No source for aphid resistance is presently available in Brassica juncea . A wild crucifer, Brassica fruticulosa is known to be resistant to mustard aphid. An artificially synthesized amphiploid, AD-4 (B. fruticulosa × B. rapa var. brown sarson was developed for use as a bridge species to transfer fruticulosa resistance to B. juncea. Using the selfed backcross we could select a large number of lines with resistance to mustard aphid. This paper reports cytogenetic stability of introgression lines, molecular evidence for alien introgression and their reaction to mustard aphid infestation. Results Majority of introgression lines had expected euploid chromosome number(2n= 36, showed normal meiosis and high pollen grain fertility. Well-distributed and transferable simple-sequence repeats (SSR markers for all the 18 B. juncea chromosomes helped to characterize introgression events. Average proportions of recipient and donor genome in the substitution lines were 49.72 and 35.06%, respectively. Minimum alien parent genome presence (27.29% was observed in the introgression line, Ad3K-280 . Introgressed genotypes also varied for their resistance responses to mustard aphid infestations under artificial release conditions for two continuous seasons. Some of the test genotypes showed consistent resistant reaction. Conclusions B.juncea-fruticulosa introgression set may prove to be a very powerful breeding tool for aphid resistance related QTL/gene discovery and fine mapping of the desired genes/QTLs to facilitate marker assisted transfer of identified gene(s for mustard aphid resistance in the background of commercial mustard genotypes.

  13. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica

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    Lulu Xie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH, we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2,031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest.

  14. Evaluation of the introgressed lines and screening for elite germplasm in Gossypium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Chaoyou; DU Xiongming; MA Zhiying

    2006-01-01

    In this research, 155 cotton introgressed lines from interspecific hybridization have been collected for the purpose of evaluating the effects of enhancement of new upland cotton germplasm by interspecific hybridization, screening for elite germplasm and improving cotton breeding. Through identification of various agricultural traits, we found that different wild cotton species had different capacities in terms of fiber quality, disease resistance, tolerance of abiotic stress, pest resistance and so on. SSR molecular marker technology has been used to detect the exotic genetic elements in interspecific hybrids, and 25 SSR specific loci that can be classified into two groups were found among 15 pairs of SSR primers. Results also showed that 8 exotic germplasm (Gossypium barbadense, G. arboreum and G. thurberi, etc) had genetic transmission toward upland cotton. A strategy of screening elite germplasm with exotic genes based on the molecular marker-assisted breeding techniques was suggested, and 18 lines with high-quality fiber and 4 lines with resistance to Fusanrium wilt and Verticillium wilt have been obtained.

  15. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a novel dwarf wheat line with introgressed Thinopyrum ponticum chromatin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guiling Chen; Q I Zheng; Yinguang Bao; Shubing Liu; Honggang Wang; Xingfeng Li

    2012-03-01

    Novel dwarfing germplasms and dwarfing genes are valuable for the wheat breeding. A novel semi-dwarf line, 31505-1, with reduced height compared with its common wheat parent, was derived from a cross between common wheat and Thinopyrum ponticum. Cytological studies demonstrated that 31505-1 contained 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis showed that 31505-1 had no large Th. ponticum chromosome fragments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results revealed the absence of a pAs1 hybridization band on 2DL chromosome of 31505-1. Two SSR markers (Xwmc41 and Xcfd168) and two STS markers (Xmag4059 and Xmag3596), which were located on 2D chromosome, amplified unique bands of Th. Ponticum in 31505-1. These revealed presence of an introgressed Th. ponticum segment in 2DL chromosome of dwarf line 31505-1, although the alien segment could not be detected by GISH.

  16. Genetic dissection of tetraploid cotton resistant to Verticillium wilt using interspecific chromosome segment introgression lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Wang; Zhiyuan; Ning; Ling; Lin; Hong; Chen; Hongxian; Mei; Jun; Zhao; Bingliang; Liu; Xin; Zhang; Wangzhen; Guo; Tianzhen; Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium wilt(caused by the pathogen Verticillium dahliae) is of high concern for cotton producers and consumers. The major strategy for controlling this disease is the development of resistant cotton(Gossypium spp.) cultivars. We used interspecific chromosome segment introgression lines(CSILs) to identify quantitative trait loci(QTL) associated with resistance to Verticillium wilt in cotton grown in greenhouse and inoculated with three defoliating V. dahliae isolates. A total of 42 QTL, including 23 with resistance-increasing and 19 with resistancedecreasing, influenced host resistance against the three isolates. These QTL were identified and mapped on 18 chromosomes(chromosomes A1, A3, A4, A5, A7, A8, A9, A12, A13, D1, D2,D3, D4, D5, D7, D8, D11, and D12), with LOD values ranging from 3.00 to 9.29. Among the positive QTL with resistance-increasing effect, 21 conferred resistance to only one V. dahliae isolate, suggesting that resistance to V. dahliae conferred by most QTL is pathogen isolate-specific. The At subgenome of cotton had greater effect on resistance to Verticillium wilt than the Dt subgenome. We conclude that pyramiding different resistant QTL could be used to breed cotton cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance to Verticillium wilt.

  17. IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF A GENE FOR RICE SLENDER KERNEL USING Oryza glumaepatula INTROGRESSION LINES

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    Sobrizal Sobrizal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available World demand for superior rice grain quality tends to increase. One of the  criteria of appearance quality of rice grain is grain shape. Rice consumers  exhibit wide preferences for grain shape, but most Indonesian rice consumers prefer long and slender grain. The objectives of this study were to identify and map a gene for rice slender kernel trait using Oryza  glumaepatula introgression lines with O. sativa cv. Taichung 65 genetic background. A segregation analysis of BC4F2 population derived from backcrosses of a donor parent O. glumaepatula into a recurrent parent Taichung 65 showed that the slender kernel was controlled by a single recessive gene. This new identified gene was designated as sk1 (slender kernel 1. Moreover, based on the RFLP analyses using 14 RFLP markers located on chromosomes 2, 8, 9, and 10 in which the O. glumaepatula chromosomal segments were retained in BC4F2 population, the sk1 was located between RFLP markers C679 and C560 on the long arm of chromosome 2, with map distances of 2.8 and 1.5 cM, respectively. The wild rice O. glumaepatula carried a recessive allele for slender kernel. This allele may be useful in breeding of rice with slender kernel types. In addition, the development of plant materials and RFLP map associated with slender kernel in this study is the preliminary works in the effort to isolate this important grain shape gene.

  18. [Development of commercially valuable traits in hexaploid triticale lines with Aegilops introgressions as dependent on the genome composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonina, I G; Orlovskaia, O A; Tereshchenko, O Yu; Koren', L V; Khotyleva, L V; Shumnyĭ, V K; Salina, E A

    2011-04-01

    Introgressive hybridization is an efficient means to improve the genetic diversity of cultivated cereals, including triticale. To identify the triticale lines with Aegilops introgressions, genotyping was carried out with ten lines obtained by crossing hexaploid triticale with genome-substitution forms of the common wheat cultivar Avrora: Avrolata (AABBUU), Avrodes (AABBSS), and Avrotika (AABBTT). The genome composition of the triticale lines was studied by in situ hybridization, and recombination events involving Aegilops and/or common wheat chromosomes were assumed for nine out of the ten lines. Translocations involving rye chromosomes were not observed. Substitutions for rye chromosomes were detected in two lines resulting from crosses with Avrolata. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with Ae. umbellulata DNA and molecular genetic analysis showed that chromosome 1R was substituted with Ae. umbellulata chromosome 1U in one of the lines and that 2R(2U) substitution took place in the other line. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the Spelt 1 and pSc119.2 probes revealed a translocation from Ae. speltoides to the long arm of chromosome 1B in one of the two lines resulting from crosses with Avrodes and a translocation in the long arm of chromosome 7B in the other line. In addition, the pSc119.2 probe revealed chromosome 1B rearrangements in four lines resulting from crosses with Avrolata and in a line resulting from crosses with Avrotika. The lines were tested for main productivity parameters. A negative effect on all productivity parameters was demonstrated for Ae. umbellulata chromosome 2U. The overwinter survival in all of the lines was similar to or even higher than in the original triticale cultivars. A substantial increase in winter resistance as compared with the parental cultivar was observed for the line carrying the T7BS-7SL translocation. The line with the 1R(1U) chromosome substitution seemed promising for the baking properties of triticale.

  19. Mapping Heterotic Loci for Yield and Agronomic Traits Using Chromosome Segment Introgression Lines in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Guo; Yuping Guo; Jun Ma; Fang Wang; Mizhen Sun; Lijuan Gui; Jiajia Zhou

    2013-01-01

    In the present study,a set of chromosome segment introgression lines (CSILs) using Gossypium hirsutum L.TM-1 as the recipient parent and G.barbadense Hai7124 as the donor parent were used to explore the genetic basis of heterosis for interspecific hybrids.Two sets of F1 populations individually derived from CSlLs crossing with both parents were configured to investigate heterotic loci (HL) and substitution effect loci (SL).A total of 58 HL and 39 SL were identified in 3 years.One stable HL,hLP-A4-3,could be detected in all 3 years.Three HLs,hBS-A8-1,hLP-D6-1,and hSI-D7-11,could be detected in 2 years.Four SLs,sBS-D7-1,sLP-A8-1,sLP-D7-1,and sLP-D12-1,could be detected in 2 years.HL and SL tended to be distributed in some HL-rich chromosome segments with close positions.Compared with QTL detected in a former study,HL showed little overlap with QTL,indicating that trait phenotype and heterosis might be controlled by different sets of loci.All three forms of genetic effects (partial-,full-,over-dominant) were identified,while the over-dominant effect made the main contribution to heterosis.These results may help lay the foundation for clarifying the heredity mechanism of heterosis in cotton.

  20. Genomic Rearrangement in Endogenous Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons of Rice Lines Introgressed by Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye SHEN; Xiu-Yun LIN; Xiao-Hui SHAN; Chun-Jing LIN; Fang-Pu HAN; Jin-Song PANG; Bao LIU

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic introgression of alien DNA may impose a genomic stress to the recipient genome.Herein, we report that apparent de novo genomic rearrangements in 10 of 13 selected endogenous, low-copy, and potentially active long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occurred in one or more of threerice lines studied that were introgressed by wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.). For nine retrotransposons inwhich both the reverse-transcriptase (RT) region and the LTR region were available, largely concordantrearrangements occurred at both regions in five elements and at the RT region only in the remaining fourelements. A marked proportion of the genomic changes was shared by two or all three introgression linesthat were derived from a single F1 plant. This indicates that most of the genomic changes occurred at earlydevelopmental stages of the F1 somatic cells, which then gave rise to germline cells, and, hence, ensuredinheritance of the changes to later generations. Possible causes and potential implications of the introgres-sion-induced genomic rearrangements in LTR retrotransposons are discussed in the context of plant ge-nome evolution and breeding.

  1. Alien DNA introgression and wheat DNA rearrangements in a stable wheat line derived from the early generation of distant hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lianquan; LIU Dengcai; YAN Zehong; ZHENG Youliang

    2005-01-01

    Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.

  2. Development of upland rice introgression lines and identification of QTLs for basal root thickness under different water regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junzhou Li; Deping Wang; Yan Xie a; Hongliang Zhang; Guanglong Hu; Jinjie Li; Anyong Dai; Lifeng Liu; Zichao Li

    2011-01-01

    Introgression lines (ILs) are valuable materials for identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs),evaluating genetic interactions,and marker assisted breeding.A set of 430 ILs (BC5F3) containing segments from upland tropical japonica cultivar IRAT109 in a lowland temperate japonica cultivar Yuefu background were developed.One hundred and seventy-six polymorphic markers were used to identify introgressed segments.No segment from IRAT 109 was found in 160 lines.Introgressed segments of the other 270 lines covered 99.1% of the donor genome.The mean number of introgressed donor segments per individual was 3.3 with an average length of 14.4 cM.QTL analysis was conducted on basal root thickness (BRT) of the 270 ILs grown under irrigated lowland,upland and hydroponic conditions.A total of 22 QTLs affecting BRT were identified,six QTLs (qBRT3.1,qBRT3.2,qBRT6.1,qBRT8.2,qBRT9.1,and qBRT9.2) were consistently expressed under at least two environments (location and water regime),and qBRT7.2 was a new BRT QTL identified under lowland conditions.IL255 containing qBRT9.1 showed an increase of 10.09% and 7.07% BRT over cultivar Yuefu when grown under upland and lowland conditions,respectively.Using a population of 304 F2:3 lines derived from the cross IL255 × Yuefu,qBRT9.1 was validated and mapped to a 1.2 cM interval between RM24271 and RM566.The presence of qBRT9.1 explained 12% of BRT variation.The results provide upland rice ILs and BRT QTLs for analyzing the genetic basis of drought resistance,detecting favorable genes from upland rice,and rice drought resistance breeding.

  3. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  4. Use of advanced recombinant lines to study the impact and potential of mutations affecting starch synthesis in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Thomas P; Fahy, Brendan; Leigh, Fiona; Howell, Phil; Powell, Wayne; Greenland, Andy; Trafford, Kay; Smith, Alison M

    2014-03-01

    The effects on barley starch and grain properties of four starch synthesis mutations were studied during the introgression of the mutations from diverse backgrounds into an elite variety. The lys5f (ADPglucose transporter), wax (granule-bound starch synthase), isa1 (debranching enzyme isoamylase 1) and sex6 (starch synthase IIa) mutations were introgressed into NFC Tipple to give mutant and wild-type BC2F4 families with different genomic contributions of the donor parent. Comparison of starch and grain properties between the donor parents, the BC2F4 families and NFC Tipple allowed the effects of the mutations to be distinguished from genetic background effects. The wax and sex6 mutations had marked effects on starch properties regardless of genetic background. The sex6 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but the wax mutation did not. The lys5 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but exceptionally high β-glucan contents. The isa1 mutation promotes synthesis of soluble α-glucan (phytoglycogen). Its introgression into NFC Tipple increased grain weight and total α-glucan content relative to the donor parent, but reduced the ratio of phytoglycogen to starch. This study shows that introgression of mutations into a common, commercial background provides new insights that could not be gained from the donor parent.

  5. Genetic Variation of Functional Components in Grains of Improved Barley Lines from Four Continents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen ZENG; Xiaoying PU; Jing ZHANG; Juan DU; Ganggang GUO; Tao YANG; ChunyanZHAO; Shuming YANG; Dawei ZHAO; Junjie TANG; Ping JIA

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to analyze functional components in improved barley grains. [Method] Genetic variations of functional components in grains among 629 barley improved lines from four continents were determined with DU640-type ul- traviolet spectrophotometry (BECKMAN). [Result] The contents (mg/100 g) of total flavones and GABA in grains of Asian barley lines (123.09_+29.56, 9.49_+4.34) were significantly higher than that of American barley lines (103.85_22.33, 7.38_+3.59), while no significant difference was observed between Asia/Americas and Europe (115.47_+11.41, 9.66-+3.98) and Australia (104.20-+4.76, 8.83-+3.41); furthermore, there was no significant difference of resistant starch content (%) in barley grains among four continents [Asia (1.63_+1.44), America (1.54_+1.13), Europe (1.20+0.85) and Aus- tralia (0.27_+0.26)]. The contents (%) of resistant starch in grains of two-rowed barley (ssp. Hordeurn distichon Koern., 1.45_+1.20) was significantly lower than that of poly- rowed barley (ssp. Hordeum vulgare Orlov., 1.95_+1.24). On the contrary, the content of total flavones in two-rowed lines (111.43_+27.79 mg/100 g) wa, s significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (102.15_+14.95 mg/100 g), and the content of GABA in two-rowed lines (8.55+_3.73 mg/100 g) was also significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (5.96_+3.95 mg/100 g). There was the most significant correlation between GABA content and resistant starch (-0.21)/total flavones content (0.12 , P〈0.01, n=-629). There were great genotype differences among the functional compo- nents in barley grains. The coefficient of variation (78.60%) and range (0-9.29%) of resistant starch (1.56_+1.22%) were relatively large, including 11 high-resistant starch lines above 5%; the coefficient of variation (49.00%) and range (0-30.67 mg/100g) of GABA (8.00-

  6. Generation of a multi-locus chicken introgression line to study the effects of genetic interactions on metabolic phenotypes in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronica eEk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most biological traits are regulated by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. By intercrossing divergent lines, it is possible to identify individual and interacting QTL involved in the genetic architecture of these traits. When the loci have been mapped, alternative strategies are needed for fine-mapping and studying the individual and interactive effects of the QTL in detail. We have previously identified, replicated and fine-mapped a four-locus QTL network that determines nearly half of the eight-fold difference in body-weight at 56 days of age between two divergently selected chicken lines. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first generation of a three-locus QTL introgression line in chickens to further study the effect of three of the interacting loci in this network on metabolic phenotypes. Recurrent marker assisted backcrossing was used to simultaneously transfer QTL alleles from the low-weight selected line into the high-weight selected line. Three generations of backcrossing and one generation of intercrossing resulted in an introgression line where all three introgressed QTL and several unlinked and linked control-loci were segregating at nearly expected allele frequencies. We show that marker-based sexing is an efficient method for sexing breeding populations and how intensive selection can be applied using artificial insemination to generate large half-sib families. Based on our empirical observations, we provide recommendations for future introgression-line breeding experiments. In the future, use of this confirmed introgression line will facilitate detailed studies of the effects of genetic interactions on complex traits.

  7. Genotype × Environment Interactions of Yield Traits in Backcross Introgression Lines Derived from Oryza sativa cv. Swarna/Oryza nivara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Divya; Subrahmanyam, Desiraju; Badri, Jyothi; Raju, Addanki Krishnam; Rao, Yadavalli Venkateswara; Beerelli, Kavitha; Mesapogu, Sukumar; Surapaneni, Malathi; Ponnuswamy, Revathi; Padmavathi, G.; Babu, V. Ravindra; Neelamraju, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Advanced backcross introgression lines (BILs) developed from crosses of Oryza sativa var. Swarna/O. nivara accessions were grown and evaluated for yield and related traits. Trials were conducted for consecutive three seasons in field conditions in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on yield traits under irrigated conditions were analyzed using the Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI), Genotype and Genotype × Environment Interaction (GGE) and modified rank-sum statistic (YSi) for yield stability. BILs viz., G3 (14S) and G6 (166S) showed yield stability across the seasons along with high mean yield performance. G3 is early in flowering with high yield and has good grain quality and medium height, hence could be recommended for most of the irrigated locations. G6 is a late duration genotype, with strong culm strength, high grain number and panicle weight. G6 has higher yield and stability than Swarna but has Swarna grain type. Among the varieties tested DRRDhan 40 and recurrent parent Swarna showed stability for yield traits across the seasons. The component traits thousand grain weight, panicle weight, panicle length, grain number and plant height explained highest genotypic percentage over environment and interaction factors and can be prioritized to dissect stable QTLs/ genes. These lines were genotyped using microsatellite markers covering the entire rice genome and also using a set of markers linked to previously reported yield QTLs. It was observed that wild derived lines with more than 70% of recurrent parent genome were stable and showed enhanced yield levels compared to genotypes with higher donor genome introgressions.

  8. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION (MAS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF BARLEY AND WHEAT LINES WITH REQUESTED TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hudcovicová

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers closely linked to interesting genes enable early, proper and fast detection of plant individuals with desired allele during backcross breeding, what can make plant breeding faster and cheaper. We are focused on molecular breeding of barley and wheat lines for disease resistance and some important quality traits. As acceptors of interesting genes we use especially elite Slovak and Czech cultivars and lines. After five backcross generations with the help of MAS new created lines carrying markers linked to desired genes undergo resistance, agronomic and technological tests. In breeding of winter barley for resistance to BaYMV/BaMMV viruses we use codominant STS and SSR markers linked to rym4 and rym11 resistance genes. Cultivar Romanze has been used as a donor of rym4 gene and landrace Russia57 as gene rym11 donor. In spring barley we are focused on transfer of Yd2 gene from landraces Shannon and Sutter resistant to BYDV by use of dominant ASPCR marker. We are also working on transfer of effective leaf rust resistance genes Lr19, Lr24 derived from Thinopyrum ponticum and gene Lr35 from Aegilops speltoides into hexaploid wheat by use of dominant STS and SCAR markers. Near isogenic lines with these genes are used in gene pyramiding to develop a single line with all three genes. By use of protein markers we develop near isogenic wheat lines for higher sedimentation values, higher dough strength and better breadmaking quality. These are lines with new combination of HMW glutenin subunits (21*, 7+8, 5+10 as well as wheat lines with new unknown HMW-GS and with new HMW-GS pair.

  9. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of Brassica nigra introgression lines from somatic hybridization: a resource for cauliflower improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixiang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower ‘Korso’ (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome and black mustard ‘G1/1’ (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome. However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits and physiological (black rot/club root resistance characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from ‘Korso’. Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms analysis identified the presence of ‘G1/1’ DNA segments (average 7.5%. Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1% was significantly higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%, and the presence of fragments specific to B. carinata (BBCC 2n = 34 were common (average 15.5%. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4% was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%. Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.

  10. Molecular, physicochemical and rheological characteristics of introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum lines with wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Langner, Monika; Wiśniewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Michał; Błaszczyk, Lidia

    2013-07-26

    Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement.

  11. Molecular, Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum Lines with Wheat 1D/1A Chromosome Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Błaszczyk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax, and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement.

  12. Characterization of QTL for unique agronomic traits of new-plant-type rice varieties using introgression lines of IR64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analiza G. Tagle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the yield potential of an elite indica rice cultivar, an introgression (BC3-derived line of IR64, YTH288, was developed using a new-plant-type cultivar, IR66215-44-2-3, as a donor parent. YTH288 has agronomically valuable characteristics such as large panicles, few unproductive tillers, and large leaves inherited from NPT. To identify the genetic basis of these traits, we used 167 F2 plants derived from a cross between IR64 and YTH288 to conduct QTL analysis for five agronomic traits: days to heading (DTH, culm length (CL, flag leaf length (FLL, flag leaf width (FLW, and filled spikelet number per panicle (FSN. Six putative QTL were detected: four on chromosome 4 (for CL, FLL, FLW, and FSN and two on chromosome 2 (for DTH and FLL. All QTL with the IR66215-44-2-3 allele, except that for FLL on chromosome 2, had positive effects on each trait. To confirm the effects of these putative QTL, we developed NILs with the IR64 genetic background by marker-assisted selection. We observed significant differences in several agronomic traits between IR64 and NILs that carried these QTL on chromosomes 2 and 4. Additionally, four IR64-NILs carrying chromosomal segments derived from different NPT varieties on the long arm of chromosome 4 exhibited similar pleiotropic effects for unique agronomic traits. These NILs can be used as research materials for studying each trait and as breeding materials for yield improvement of indica rice cultivars. Abbreviations NPT, new plant type; QTL, quantitative trait loci (locus; GF, grain fertility; DTH, days to heading; CL, culm length; PL, panicle length; LL, leaf length; FLL, flag leaf length; LW, leaf width; FLW, flag leaf width; FSN, filled spikelet number per panicle; TSN, total spikelet number per panicle; PN, panicle number per plant; IRRI, International Rice Research Institute; NIL, near-isogenic line; IL, introgression line; SSR, simple sequence repeat; PCR, polymerase chain reaction

  13. Identification for Heat Tolerance in Backcross Recombinant Lines and Screening of Backcross Introgression Lines with Heat Tolerance at Milky Stage in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Jiang-lin; ZHANG Hong-yu; SHAO Xue-lian; ZHONG Ping-an; HUANG Ying-jin

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at breeding new rice germplasms with similar genome but significantly differed in heat tolerance during the grain filling stage.A total of 791 BC1F8 backcross recombinant lines,derived from the cross of Xieqingzao B / N22∥Xieqingzao B,were used as materials.Each rice line was separated evenly into two groups,and the heat tolerance of all rice lines were evaluated at natural high temperature in fields.The rice lines with heat tolerant index higher than 90% or lower than 40% were selected to compare the phenotypic characters and further identify heat tolerance at the early milky stage in a phytotron.Rice lines with similar phenotypic characters but significantly differed in heat tolerance at the milky stage were analyzed by 887 simple sequence repeat markers that were evenly distributed on the 12 rice chromosomes.In the result,12 (6 pairs) rice lines with similar phenotypic characters but significantly differed in heat tolerance at the milky stage were obtained.Molecular marker analysis indicated that the genomic polymorphism between 703T and 704S was the smallest in the 6 pairs of rice lines,with only 16 polymorphic sites,including 22 different alleles.The application of these two backcross introgression rice lines for future study on the mechanisms of heat tolerance in rice at the milky stage will be theoretically beneficial in reducing the interference caused by genetic differences from experimental materials.

  14. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudata introgression line in wheat and its genetic association with leaf rust resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PUNEET INDER TOOR; SATINDER KAUR; MITALY BANSAL; BHARAT YADAV; PARVEEN CHHUNEJA

    2016-12-01

    A pair of stripe rust and leaf rust resistance genes was introgressed from Aegilops caudata, a nonprogenitor diploid species with the CC genome, to cultivated wheat. Inheritance and genetic mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in backcrossrecombinant inbred line (BC-RIL) population derived from the cross of a wheat–Ae. caudata introgression line (IL) T291-2(pau16060) with wheat cv. PBW343 is reported here. Segregation of BC-RILs for stripe rust resistance depicted a single major gene conditioning adult plant resistance (APR) with stripe rust reaction varying from TR-20MS in resistant RILs signifying the presence of some minor genes as well. Genetic association with leaf rust resistance revealed that two genes are located at a recombination distance of 13%. IL T291-2 had earlier been reported to carry introgressions on wheat chromosomes 2D, 3D, 4D, 5D, 6D and 7D. Genetic mapping indicated the introgression of stripe rust resistance gene on wheat chromosome 5DS in the region carrying leaf rust resistance gene LrAc, but as an independent introgression. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence-tagged site (STS) markers designed from the survey sequence data of 5DS enriched the target region harbouring stripe and leaf rust resistance genes. Stripe rust resistance locus, temporarily designated as YrAc, mapped at the distal most end of 5DS linked with a group of four colocated SSRs and two resistance gene analogue (RGA)-STS markers at a distanceof 5.3 cM. LrAc mapped at a distance of 9.0 cM from the YrAc and at 2.8 cM from RGA-STS marker Ta5DS_2737450, YrAc and LrAc appear to be the candidate genes for marker-assisted enrichment of the wheat gene pool for rust resistance.

  15. Comparison of frequency distributions of doubled haploid and single seed descent lines in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, T M; Reinbergs, E; Park, S J

    1982-09-01

    Both doubled haploid (DH) and single seed descent (SSD) methods were used to derive homozygous lines from two crosses of barley. The frequency distributions of grain yield, heading date, and plant height of the DH and SSD lines were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov twosample test and Wald-Wolfowitz runs test. It was found that the DH lines distributed in the same manner as the SSD lines with respect to the three characters. The results indicated that although the SSD method had more opportunity for recombination than the DH method, it did not produce a sample of recombinants which differed significantly from the DH sample; thus both methods were equally efficient for use in deriving homozygous lines from F1 hybrids in a relatively short time.

  16. A common genetic determinism for sensitivities to soil water deficit and evaporative demand: meta-analysis of quantitative trait Loci and introgression lines of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcker, Claude; Sadok, Walid; Dignat, Grégoire; Renault, Morgan; Salvi, Silvio; Charcosset, Alain; Tardieu, François

    2011-10-01

    Evaporative demand and soil water deficit equally contribute to water stress and to its effect on plant growth. We have compared the genetic architectures of the sensitivities of maize (Zea mays) leaf elongation rate with evaporative demand and soil water deficit. The former was measured via the response to leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit in well-watered plants, the latter via the response to soil water potential in the absence of evaporative demand. Genetic analyses of each sensitivity were performed over 21 independent experiments with (1) three mapping populations, with temperate or tropical materials, (2) one population resulting from the introgression of a tropical drought-tolerant line in a temperate line, and (3) two introgression libraries genetically independent from mapping populations. A very large genetic variability was observed for both sensitivities. Some lines maintained leaf elongation at very high evaporative demand or water deficit, while others stopped elongation in mild conditions. A complex architecture arose from analyses of mapping populations, with 19 major meta-quantitative trait loci involving strong effects and/or more than one mapping population. A total of 68% of those quantitative trait loci affected sensitivities to both evaporative demand and soil water deficit. In introgressed lines, 73% of the tested genomic regions affected both sensitivities. To our knowledge, this study is the first genetic demonstration that hydraulic processes, which drive the response to evaporative demand, also have a large contribution to the genetic variability of plant growth under water deficit in a large range of genetic material.

  17. Analysis of variability, heritability, and interrelationships among grain yield and related characters in barley advanced lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to improve pure lines for low input agricultural areas of the semi-arid region of Iran and similar environmental conditions. Forty barley pure lines provided from ICARDA along with three check cultivars were evaluated under rain-fed conditions in a semi-arid region of Iran during two years (2011-2013. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications to estimate genetic variation and heritability for agro-morphological traits. The highest values of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were observed for the number of grains per spike followed by peduncle length, early vigor and grain yield. The broad heritability estimates ranged from 24% for grain yield to 96% for the number of grains per spike. The highest and lowest expected genetic advance, observed for days to physiological maturity and the number of grains per spike, respectively. Results of stepwise regression and path analysis showed that hectoliter grain weight and thousand grain weight exhibited the highest direct effects on grain yield, respectively. Comparisons between the pure lines and check cultivars indicated that out of 40 pure lines, 27 lines had a higher grain yield. Also, the pure lines No. 29, 13, 9 and 33 were identified as the superior lines for semi-arid environmental conditions. Our results indicate that check cultivars could be improved by selecting for pure lines with taller peduncle and the number of grains per spike, but with heavier grains. Therefore, these lines can be used as genetic material to broaden the genetic basis of barley breeding programs all over the world.

  18. Initial development of a set of introgression lines from Solanum peruvianum PI 126944 into tomato:exploitation of resistance to viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Rodríguez, Olga; Herraiz García, Francisco Javier; Corella, S.; Lolli Rodríguez, María Iciar Di; Soler Aleixandre, Salvador; Díez Niclós, Mª José Teresa De Jesús; Pérez De Castro, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), among other diseases, has been reported in Solanum peruvianum PI 126944. Introgression lines (ILs) from S. peruvianum PI 126944 into the genetic background of cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum) are being developed. Several generations were derived from three interspecific hybrids previously obtained.A lot of crosses and embryo rescue were required until the third backcross, due to the high degree of ...

  19. Introgression of resistance to pathogens in common bean lines with the aid of molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Campos Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to incorporate resistance to the anthracnose and angular leaf spot pathogens in the common bean lines BRSMG Talismã, VC8 and VC9, crosses were made between these lines and the line Rudá-R, donor of the alleles Phg1, Co-4, Co-10, which confer resistance to Pseudocercospora griseola and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. After the crosses, the backcross populations were obtained, and the RC1F1 plants were inoculated with race 65 of C. lindemuthianum. The resistant plants were genotyped with the markers SCARH13, SCARY20 and SCARF10, linked to the alleles Phg1, Co-4 and Co-10, respectively. Based on the molecular data, 44 plants were selected. The progenies originating from multiplication of these plants were evaluated over three seasons for grain yield, plant architecture and grain aspects. Based on these considerations and molecular data, 13 promising progenies were selected for developing inbreds.

  20. QTL analysis for Malt Quality in DH Lines of Barley (Steptoe × Morex grown in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bahman Sadeghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the quantitative variability of malting quality-related traits and to determine the genomic locations which control these traits, an experiment was conducted using one hundred fifty double haploid (DH lines of barley and their two parents ‛Steptoe’ & ‛Morex’. Protein content (% was measured using Kjeldahl method, diastatic power calculated with Lintner formula, Malt extract was measured for each by special weight achieved and based on Malt Berix Charts. Transgressive segregation in both directions was observed for all traits. Genetic map is fairly saturated and comprising 327 RFLP markers with a total length of 1226.3cM with an average marker spacing of 3.75cM. Seventeen QTLs by LOD≤2(LRS≤9.21 controlling different studied traits were identified for all studied traits. Total phenotypic variance explained by these QTLs varies from 23.2 to 45.05%. Highest LOD scores were obtained for QTL’s controlling diastatic power (Qdip3Ha on chromosome 3H, and lowest LOD scores were obtained for QTL’s controlling seed yield per plant (Qsyp1Hb on chromosome 1H. Therefore gain through marker-assisted selection (MAS in this population would be limited and some of the “Steptoe× Morex” population was developed with the intention of isolating and advancing barley lines for release to the malting quality.

  1. Introgression of leginsulin, a cysteine-rich protein, and high-protein trait from an Asian soybean plant introduction genotype into a North American experimental soybean line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kim, Won-Seok; Oehrle, Nathan W; Alaswad, Alaa A; Baxter, Ivan; Wiebold, William J; Nelson, Randall L

    2015-03-25

    Soybean is an important protein source for both humans and animals. However, soybean proteins are relatively poor in the sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Improving the content of endogenous proteins rich in sulfur-containing amino acids could enhance the nutritive value of soybean meal. Leginsulin, a cysteine-rich peptide, predominantly accumulates in Asian soybean accessions but not in most North American cultivars. By screening diverse soybean accessions from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection, we were able to identify one plant introduction, PI 427138, as a high-protein line with relatively high amounts of both elemental sulfur and leginsulin. We introgressed these desirable traits from PI 427138 into an experimental line with the aim of improving the overall protein content and quality of seed proteins. Biochemical characterization of inbred progenies from the cross of LD00-3309 with PI 427138 grown at six locations revealed stable ingression of high protein, high elemental sulfur, and high leginsulin accumulation. Comparison of soybean seed proteins resolved by high-resolution 2-D gel electrophoresis in combination with Delta2D image analysis software revealed preferential accumulation of a few glycinin subunits contributed to the increased protein content in the introgressed lines. Amino acid analysis revealed that even though the leginsulin introgressed lines had higher protein, leginsulin, and elemental sulfur, the overall concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids was not significantly altered when compared with the parental lines. The experimental soybean lines developed during this study (Leg-3, Leg-7, and Leg-8) lack A5, A4, and B3 glycinin subunits and could be utilized in breeding programs to develop high-quality tofu cultivars.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.

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    Lei Fang

    Full Text Available Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes, and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes, etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Tian, Ruiping; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Li, Xinghe; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs) that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes), and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes), etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

  4. Breeding Potential of Introgression Lines Developed from Interspecific Crossing between Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense: Heterosis, Combining Ability and Genetic Effects.

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    Jinfa Zhang

    Full Text Available Upland cotton (Gossypium hirstum L., which produces more than 95% of the world natural cotton fibers, has a narrow genetic base which hinders progress in cotton breeding. Introducing germplasm from exotic sources especially from another cultivated tetraploid G. barbadense L. can broaden the genetic base of Upland cotton. However, the breeding potential of introgression lines (ILs in Upland cotton with G. barbadense germplasm integration has not been well addressed. This study involved six ILs developed from an interspecific crossing and backcrossing between Upland cotton and G. barbadense and represented one of the first studies to investigate breeding potentials of a set of ILs using a full diallel analysis. High mid-parent heterosis was detected in several hybrids between ILs and a commercial cultivar, which also out-yielded the high-yielding cultivar parent in F1, F2 and F3 generations. A further analysis indicated that general ability (GCA variance was predominant for all the traits, while specific combining ability (SCA variance was either non-existent or much lower than GCA. The estimated GCA effects and predicted additive effects for parents in each trait were positively correlated (at P<0.01. Furthermore, GCA and additive effects for each trait were also positively correlated among generations (at P<0.05, suggesting that F2 and F3 generations can be used as a proxy to F1 in analyzing combining abilities and estimating genetic parameters. In addition, differences between reciprocal crosses in F1 and F2 were not significant for yield, yield components and fiber quality traits. But maternal effects appeared to be present for seed oil and protein contents in F3. This study identified introgression lines as good general combiners for yield and fiber quality improvement and hybrids with high heterotic vigor in yield, and therefore provided useful information for further utilization of introgression lines in cotton breeding.

  5. Dissection of genetic overlap of salt tolerance QTLs at the seedling and tillering stages using backcross introgression lines in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG JinPing; XU JianLong; LI ZhiKang; SUN Yong; WANG Yun; YANG Jing; LI Fang; ZHOU YongLi; ZHU LingHua; Reys JESSICA; Fotokian MOHAMMADHOSEIN

    2008-01-01

    QTLs for salt-tolerance (ST) related traits at the seedling and tillering stages were identified using 99 BC2F8 introgression lines (IL) derived from a cross between IR64 (indica) as a recurrent parent and Bi-nam (japonica) from Iran as the donor parent. Thirteen QTLs affecting survival days of seedlings (SDS), score of salt toxicity of leaves (SST), shoot K+ concentration (SKC) and shoot Na+ concentration (SNC) at the seedling stage and 22 QTLs underlying fresh weight of shoots (FW), tiller number per plant (TN) and plant height (PH) at the tillering stage were identified. Most QTLs detected at the tillering stage showed obvious differential expression to salt stress and were classified into three types based on their differential behaviors. Type Ⅰ included 11 QTLs which were expressed only under the non-stress condition. Type Ⅱ included five QTLs expressed in the control and the salt stress conditions, and three of them (QPh5, QPh8 and QTn9) had similar quantity and the same direction of gene effect, suggesting their expression was less influenced by salt stress. Type Ⅲ included six QTLs which were detectable only under salt stress, suggesting that these QTLs were apparently induced by the stress. Thirteen QTLs affecting trait difference or trait stability of Ils between the stress and non-stress conditions were identified and the Binam alleles at all loci except QPh4, QTn2 and QFw2a decreased trait difference. The three QTLs less influenced by the stress and 13 QTLs affecting trait stability were considered as ST QTLs which contributed to ST. Comparing the distribution of QTLs detected at the seedling and tillering stages, most (69%) of them were genetically independent. Only four were the same or adjacent regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 8 and 11 harboring ST QTLs detected at the two stages, suggesting that partial genetic overlap of ST across the two stages occurs. It is likely, therefore, to develop ST rice variety for both stages by pyramiding of ST QTLs

  6. Chromosomal location and comparative genomics analysis of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm51 in a putative wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum introgression line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Haixian; Li, Guangrong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xin; Guo, Huijuan; Gong, Wenping; Jia, Juqing; Qiao, Linyi; Ren, Yongkang; Yang, Zujun; Chang, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum introgression line CH7086 was shown to possess powdery mildew resistance possibly originating from Th. ponticum. Genomic in situ hybridization and molecular characterization of the alien introgression failed to identify alien chromatin. To study the genetics of resistance, CH7086 was crossed with susceptible genotypes. Segregation in F2 populations and F2:3 lines tested with Chinese Bgt race E09 under controlled conditions indicated that CH7086 carries a single dominant gene for powdery mildew resistance. Fourteen SSR and EST-PCR markers linked with the locus were identified. The genetic distances between the locus and the two flanking markers were 1.5 and 3.2 cM, respectively. Based on the locations of the markers by nullisomic-tetrasomic and deletion lines of 'Chinese Spring', the resistance gene was located in deletion bin 2BL-0.89-1.00. Conserved orthologous marker analysis indicated that the genomic region flanking the resistance gene has a high level of collinearity to that of rice chromosome 4 and Brachypodium chromosome 5. Both resistance specificities and tests of allelism suggested the resistance gene in CH7086 was different from previously reported powdery mildew resistance genes on 2BL, and the gene was provisionally designated PmCH86. Molecular analysis of PmCH86 compared with other genes for resistance to Bgt in the 2BL-0.89-1.00 region suggested that PmCH86 may be a new PM resistance gene, and it was therefore designated as Pm51. The closely linked flanking markers could be useful in exploiting this putative wheat-Thinopyrum translocation line for rapid transfer of Pm51 to wheat breeding programs.

  7. Lack of Genotype and Phenotype Correlation in a Rice T-DNA Tagged Line Is Likely Caused by Introgression in the Seed Source.

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    Fu-Jin Wei

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa is one of the most important crops in the world. Several rice insertional mutant libraries are publicly available for systematic analysis of gene functions. However, the tagging efficiency of these mutant resources-the relationship between genotype and phenotype-is very low. We used whole-genome sequencing to analyze a T-DNA-tagged transformant from the Taiwan Rice Insertional Mutants (TRIM resource. The phenomics records for M0028590, one of the TRIM lines, revealed three phenotypes-wild type, large grains, and tillering dwarf-in the 12 T1 plants. Using the sequencing data for 7 plants from three generations of this specific line, we demonstrate that introgression from an indica rice variety might occur in one generation before the seed was used for callus generation and transformation of this line. In addition, the large-grain trait came from the GS3 gene of the introgressed region and the tillering dwarf phenotype came from a single nucleotide change in the D17 gene that occurred during the callus induction to regeneration of the transformant. As well, another regenerant showed completely heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms across the whole genome. In addition to the known sequence changes such as T-DNA integration, single nucleotide polymorphism, insertion, deletion, chromosome rearrangement and doubling, spontaneous outcrossing occurred in the rice field may also explain some mutated traits in a tagged mutant population. Thus, the co-segregation of an integration event and the phenotype should be checked when using these mutant populations.

  8. Physiological basis of genetic variation in leaf photosynthesis among rice (Oryza sativa L.) introgression lines under drought and well-watered conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junfei; Yin, Xinyou; Stomph, Tjeerd-Jan; Wang, Huaqi; Struik, Paul C

    2012-09-01

    To understand the physiological basis of genetic variation and resulting quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for photosynthesis in a rice (Oryza sativa L.) introgression line population, 13 lines were studied under drought and well-watered conditions, at flowering and grain filling. Simultaneous gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were conducted at various levels of incident irradiance and ambient CO(2) to estimate parameters of a model that dissects photosynthesis into stomatal conductance (g(s)), mesophyll conductance (g(m)), electron transport capacity (J(max)), and Rubisco carboxylation capacity (V(cmax)). Significant genetic variation in these parameters was found, although drought and leaf age accounted for larger proportions of the total variation. Genetic variation in light-saturated photosynthesis and transpiration efficiency (TE) were mainly associated with variation in g(s) and g(m). One previously mapped major QTL of photosynthesis was associated with variation in g(s) and g(m), but also in J(max) and V(cmax) at flowering. Thus, g(s) and g(m), which were demonstrated in the literature to be responsible for environmental variation in photosynthesis, were found also to be associated with genetic variation in photosynthesis. Furthermore, relationships between these parameters and leaf nitrogen or dry matter per unit area, which were previously found across environmental treatments, were shown to be valid for variation across genotypes. Finally, the extent to which photosynthesis rate and TE can be improved was evaluated. Virtual ideotypes were estimated to have 17.0% higher photosynthesis and 25.1% higher TE compared with the best genotype investigated. This analysis using introgression lines highlights possibilities of improving both photosynthesis and TE within the same genetic background.

  9. Identification of a protein which differs in lines of barley resistant or susceptible to Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, S.P.; Somerville, S.C. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    As yet no resistance genes or gene products have been isolated from a plant. We wish to isolate the Ml-a gene which encodes resistance by barley to Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, the causal agent of the powdery mildew disease. We have utilized near isogenic barley lines, resistant and susceptible to E. g. hordei, race CR3 to provide a homogenous background for examination of protein differences related to resistance. To enrich for epidermal tissue, the site of infection, proteins from {sup 35}S labelled coleoptiles were analyzed by 2D-PAGE. Two major protein differences were observed, one of which is a polymorphism identified by a higher molecular weight form in the susceptible line, with the lower molecular weight form appearing in the resistant line. A partially susceptible mutant line derived from the resistant line shows a 63% reduction in the level of the resistant form of the polypeptide. A likely conclusion from these results is that we have identified the Ml-a gene product. Further characterization of the polymorphic protein and its gene will lead to an understanding of gene-for-gene related resistance processes.

  10. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

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    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain', and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  11. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  12. Development and GBS-genotyping of introgression lines (ILs) using two wild species of rice, O. meridionalis and O. rufipogon, in a common recurrent parent, O. sativa cv. Curinga

    OpenAIRE

    Arbelaez, Juan D.; Moreno, Laura T.; Singh, Namrata; Tung, Chih-wei; Maron, Lyza G; Ospina, Yolima; Martinez, César P.; Grenier, Cécile; Lorieux, Mathias; McCouch, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of interspecific introgression lines (ILs) in a common recurrent parent were developed for use in pre-breeding and QTL mapping. The ILs were derived from crosses between cv Curinga, a tropical japonica upland cultivar, and two different wild donors, Oryza meridionalis Ng. accession (W2112) and Oryza rufipogon Griff. accession (IRGC 105491). The lines were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and SSRs. The 32 Curinga/O. meridionalis ILs contain 76.73 % of the donor ge...

  13. Effectiveness of the Ty-3 Introgression for Conferring Resistance in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Tomato to Bipartite Begomoviruses in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of begomovirus-incited diseases on tomatoes in Guatemala continues to be a challenge and there continues to be a need to better understand the genetics of resistance to begomoviruses. In this study, the resistant line, Gh13, was crossed with the susceptible line, HUJ-VF, that lacked the ...

  14. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm.

  15. Registration of LP1-2581, LP1-2163H, LP3-1159, and LP640-1304 low phytate spring barley germplasm lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA-ARS) has developed and released four low-phytate spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm lines: LP1-2581 (Reg. No._____, PI 658245), LP1-2163H (Reg. No._____, PI 658248 ), LP3-1159 (Reg. No._____, PI 658247), and LP640-1304 (...

  16. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt, is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68–0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  17. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liyuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xin; Jia, Juqing; Yang, Huizhen; Zhan, Haixian; Qiao, Linyi; Guo, Huijuan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-07-28

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68-0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  18. Genetic background effects on QTL and QTL × environment interaction for yield and its component traits as revealed by reciprocal introgression lines in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqian; Wang; Yunlong; Pang; Jian; Zhang; Qiang; Zhang; Yonghong; Tao; Bo; Feng; Tianqing; Zheng; Jianlong; Xu; Zhikang; Li

    2014-01-01

    QTLs for quantitative traits are influenced by genetic background(GB) and environment.Identification of QTL with GB independency and environmental stability is prerequisite for effective marker-assisted selection(MAS). In this study, QTLs and QTL × environment interactions affecting grain yield per plant(GY) and its component traits, filled grain number per panicle(FGN), panicle number per plant(PN) and 1000-grain weight(TGW) across six environments were dissected using two sets of reciprocal introgression lines(ILs) derived from the cross Lemont × Teqing and SNP genotypic data. ANOVA indicated that the differences among genotypes and environments within each set of ILs were highly significant for all traits. A total of 72 distinct QTLs for GY and its component traits including 15 for GY, 25 for FGN, 18 for PN, and 29 for TGW were detected over the six environments. Most QTLs(87.4%) showed significant QTL × environment interactions(QEIs) and appeared to be more or less environment-specific. Among 72 QTLs, 15(20.8%) QTLs and 12(16.7%) QEIs were commonly identified in both backgrounds, indicating QTL especially QEI for yield and its component traits had strong GB effects. Four QTL regions affecting GY and its component traits, including S1269707–S4288071, S16661497–S17511092, and S35861863–S36341768 on chromosome 3, and S4134205–S7643153 on chromosome 5, were detected in both backgrounds and coincided with cloned genes for yield-related traits. These regions can be the targeted in rice breeding for high yield potential through MAS. Application of QTL main effects and their environmental interaction effects in MAS was discussed in detail.

  19. Using chromosome introgression lines to map quantitative trait loci for photosynthesis parameters in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under drought and well-watered field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junfei; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Wang, Huaqi

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis is fundamental to biomass production, but sensitive to drought. To understand the genetics of leaf photosynthesis, especially under drought, upland rice cv. Haogelao, lowland rice cv. Shennong265, and 94 of their introgression lines (ILs) were studied at flowering and grain filling under drought and well-watered field conditions. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were conducted to evaluate eight photosynthetic traits. Since these traits are very sensitive to fluctuations in microclimate during measurements under field conditions, observations were adjusted for microclimatic differences through both a statistical covariant model and a physiological approach. Both approaches identified leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference as the variable influencing the traits most. Using the simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map for the IL population, 1-3 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected per trait-stage-treatment combination, which explained between 7.0% and 30.4% of the phenotypic variance of each trait. The clustered QTLs near marker RM410 (the interval from 57.3 cM to 68.4 cM on chromosome 9) were consistent over both development stages and both drought and well-watered conditions. This QTL consistency was verified by a greenhouse experiment under a controlled environment. The alleles from the upland rice at this interval had positive effects on net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), and the maximum efficiency of light-adapted open PSII. However, the allele of another main QTL from upland rice was associated with increased drought sensitivity of photosynthesis. These results could potentially be used in breeding programmes through marker-assisted selection to improve drought tolerance and photosynthesis simultaneously.

  20. Analysis of T-DNA/Host-Plant DNA Junction Sequences in Single-Copy Transgenic Barley Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne G. Bartlett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing across the junction between an integrated transfer DNA (T-DNA and a host plant genome provides two important pieces of information. The junctions themselves provide information regarding the proportion of T-DNA which has integrated into the host plant genome, whilst the transgene flanking sequences can be used to study the local genetic environment of the integrated transgene. In addition, this information is important in the safety assessment of GM crops and essential for GM traceability. In this study, a detailed analysis was carried out on the right-border T-DNA junction sequences of single-copy independent transgenic barley lines. T-DNA truncations at the right-border were found to be relatively common and affected 33.3% of the lines. In addition, 14.3% of lines had rearranged construct sequence after the right border break-point. An in depth analysis of the host-plant flanking sequences revealed that a significant proportion of the T-DNAs integrated into or close to known repetitive elements. However, this integration into repetitive DNA did not have a negative effect on transgene expression.

  1. Development and GBS-genotyping of introgression lines (ILs) using two wild species of rice, O. meridionalis and O. rufipogon, in a common recurrent parent, O. sativa cv. Curinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelaez, Juan D; Moreno, Laura T; Singh, Namrata; Tung, Chih-Wei; Maron, Lyza G; Ospina, Yolima; Martinez, César P; Grenier, Cécile; Lorieux, Mathias; McCouch, Susan

    Two populations of interspecific introgression lines (ILs) in a common recurrent parent were developed for use in pre-breeding and QTL mapping. The ILs were derived from crosses between cv Curinga, a tropical japonica upland cultivar, and two different wild donors, Oryza meridionalis Ng. accession (W2112) and Oryza rufipogon Griff. accession (IRGC 105491). The lines were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and SSRs. The 32 Curinga/O. meridionalis ILs contain 76.73 % of the donor genome in individual introgressed segments, and each line has an average of 94.9 % recurrent parent genome. The 48 Curinga/O. rufipogon ILs collectively contain 97.6 % of the donor genome with an average of 89.9 % recurrent parent genome per line. To confirm that these populations were segregating for traits of interest, they were phenotyped for pericarp color in the greenhouse and for four agronomic traits-days to flowering, plant height, number of tillers, and number of panicles-in an upland field environment. Seeds from these IL libraries and the accompanying GBS datasets are publicly available and represent valuable genetic resources for exploring the genetics and breeding potential of rice wild relatives.

  2. Cytological and SSR Analysis on Cold-tolerant Gene Introgression Lines from Dongxiang Wild Rice%东乡野生稻耐冷渐渗系的细胞学观察及SSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹娟芳; 罗向东; 邓晓娟; 戴亮芳; 胡标林; 张帆涛; 谢建坤

    2012-01-01

    Two previously identified strong cold-tolerant introgression lines of IL5243 and IL5335 from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff. ) were used to investigate the meiosis behavior,chromosome recombination and the molecular evidence of alien genes introgression. The results showed that the rate of pollen mother cells (PMC) with normal meiotic behavior in the IL5243 and IL5335 was to 89. 93% and 90. 22% .respectively. And they finally formed the normal mature pollen;The rates of pollen germination in vitro were (83. 03±2. 82)% and (81. 96±1. 73)%,respectively. There were no significant differences between the cold-tolerant introgression lines and their parents. However,at meiosis I, the low frequency of abnormal chromosome behavior was observed in IL5243 and lL5335,such as univalent,8-shape bivalent, multivalent and some PMCs (3. 95%~5. 15%) exist lagging chromosomes at anaphase I and so on, which suggested that there were genetic exchange and recombination between cultivated rice and common wild rice. In addition, the high frequency of double nucleoli was observed at pachytene in the two cold tolerance introgression lines (IL5335 and IL5243 were 38. 9% and 27. 0% .respectively) .while their parents only had one nucleolus. Through SSR markers and structure analysis, we further confirmed that introgression of some Dongxiang wild rice DNA fragments in the strong cold resistance introgression lines through chromosome exchange and recombination between the cultivated rice and the wild rice. These results laid a foundation for further excavating and using this rice cold-tolerant gene in the future.%以前期鉴定筛选的2个东乡野生稻强耐冷渐渗系(IL5243和IL5335)为试材,研究其减数分裂时期的染色体行为特征及外源基因的渗入分子证据.结果表明:(1)IL5243和IL5335中正常减数分裂的花粉母细胞分别达89.93%和90.22%,最终形成正常的成熟花粉粒,花粉离体萌发率分别为(83.03±2.82)%和(81.96±1

  3. Alien Introgression in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Molnár-Láng, M.; Ceoloni, C; Doležel, J

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the latest advancements in the field of alien introgression in wheat. The discovery and wide application of molecular genetic techniques including molecular markers, in situ hybridization, and genomics has led to a surge in interspecific and intergeneric hybridization in recent decades. The work begins with the taxonomy of cereals, especially of those species which are potential gene sources for wheat improvement. The text then goes on to cover.

  4. Stability of transgene expression, field performance and recombination breeding of transformed barley lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, H.; Jensen, L.G.; Wong, O.T.;

    2001-01-01

    originated from three independent primary transformants obtained by the biolistic method with three plasmids containing respectively, the bar gene, the uidA gene and the gene for a protein-engineered heat-stable (1,3-1,4)-beta -glucanase. Three production levels of recombinant beta -glucanase were identified...... in homozygous transgenic T-3 plants, and these remained constant over a 3-year period. In micro-malting experiments, the heat-stable enzyme reached levels of up to 1.4 mug.mg(-1) protein and survived kiln drying at levels of 70-100%. In the field trials of 1997 and 1998 the transgenic lines had a reduced 1000...

  5. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    conditions continue to be key to discovering the roles of individual protein forms and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation. Activity-based proteomics, particularly in combination with new gene editing technologies, has great potential to elucidate the network of enzymes in barley...

  6. Mapping of QTLs for Drought Tolerance During Seedling Stage Using Introgression Line Populations in Tomato%利用渐渗系群体初步定位番茄苗期耐旱QTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 宋燕; 李君明

    2011-01-01

    利用来自耐旱野生番茄资源Solanum lycopersicoides LA2951和Solanum pennellii LA0716的渐渗系(introgression line,IL)群体,对野生种可能存在的苗期耐旱位点进行了初步定位。从LA2951群体定位了牡)T-l-3、cpT-l-6和qDT-I-123个QTLs,它们分别位于染色体3、6和12上;利用LA0716群体定位了qDr-p-1、qDT-p-2a、qDT-2b、qDT-p-3、qDT-p-4、qDT-p-5、qDT-p-8、qDT-p-9、qDT-p-10a、qDT-p-20b和qDT-p-12 11个QTLs,它们分别位于染色体1、2、3、4、5、8、9、10和12上。利用番茄高密度遗传图谱分析表明,上述2个群体位于第12染色体上的QTL可能等位,qDT-p-9可能与前人从野生种Solanum pimpinellifolium LA0722鉴定的位于第9染色体上芽期耐旱的QTL等位。%In this paper, two introgression line (IL) populations respectively derived from the wild species Solanum lycopersicoides LA2951 and S. pennellii LA0716 were used to map the possible loci for drought tolerance during the seedling stage. The results showed that 3 QTLs (qDT-I-3, qDT-l-6 and qDT-l-12) located on chromosome 3, 6 and 12 were identified from S. lycopersicoides LA2951 introgression line population and 11 QTLs (qDT-p-1, qDT-p-2a, qDT-p-2b, qDT-p-3, qDT-p-4, qDT-p-5, qDT-p-8, qDT-p-9, qDT-p-lOa, qDT-p-lOb and qDT-p-12 ) located on chromosome 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10 and 12 from S. pennellii LA0716 population. Based on the high density tomato linkage map, QTL located on chromosome 12 might be co-localized from the above two IL populations and QTL qDT-p-9 might be co-localized with a previously identified QTL conferring drought tolerance during seed germination from S. pimpinellifolium LA0722 on chromosome 9.

  7. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise...

  8. 东乡野生稻渐渗系中外源DNA的遗传与序列变化%Heredity and Sequence Changes of Alien DNA in Introgression Lines from Dongxiang Wild Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴亮芳; 唐甸深; 赵俊; 邓小娟; 罗向东; 温秀芳; 谢建坤

    2014-01-01

    本研究以东乡野生稻耐冷渐渗系IL5243和IL5335及其双亲为试验材料,利用139对SSR引物和35对AFLP引物分析东乡野生稻DNA在两耐冷渐渗系中的遗传与DNA序列变化特征,探讨基因组结构和序列变化对外源基因渐渗的作用及影响。SSR和AFLP的分析结果表明,BC1F10的耐冷渐渗系对双亲基因组的继承趋于稳定、纯合,绝大多数条带(85.15%~90.77%)与受体亲本协青早B一致,4.33%~7.17%的东乡野生稻外源DNA条带已成功导入渐渗系中。DNA测序及BLAST序列比对结果表明,被导入的外源DNA序列具有抗逆、抗病或其他生物学功能,但两耐冷渐渗系在遗传继承双亲遗传物质的同时,还呈现一些基于基因组DNA序列变化的非孟德尔式变异,包括亲本序列丢失和新序列出现以及碱基的颠换或转换,这些序列变异不仅可发生在非编码区的重复序列中,也可发生在功能基因序列中。研究结果表明东乡野生稻DNA渐渗诱发受体基因组产生广泛的变异,对拓宽栽培种遗传变异具有重要意义。%In the present study, a total of 139 pair of microsatellite (SSR) primers and 35 pair of amplified frag-ment length polymorphism (AFLP) primers were used to investigate the heredity and DNA sequence changes of Dongxiang wild rice DNA in cold tolerance introgression lines (ILs) (IL5243 and IL5335) and their parents. And meanwhile, the effect of genome structure variation and DNA sequence changes on the alien genes introgression was also discussed. The results of SSR and AFLP showed that most of sequences and loci inherited from their parents were basically stabilized and homozygous. The ILs possessed 85.15%~90.77%and 4.33%~7.17%homo-zygous bands from cultivated rice‘Xieqingzao B’and Dongxiang wild rice, respectively. DNA sequence and BLAST analysis indicated that many alien DNA sequence from Dongxiang wild rice have the abiotic stress resistance, diseases resistance

  9. Evaluation and Bulked Segregant Analysis of Major Yield QTL qtl12.1 Introgressed into Indigenous Elite Line for Low Water Availability under Water Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Manikanda BOOPATHI; Gat SWAPNASHRI; P.KAVITHA; S.SATHISH; R.NITHYA; Wickneswari RATNAM; Arvind KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Near isogenic lines carrying large-effect QTL (qtl12.1),which has a consistent influence on grain yield under upland drought stress conditions in a wide range of environments,were evaluated under water stress in the fields.The line which gave higher yield under drought was crossed with a local elite line,PMK3,and forwarded to F2:3 generation.Significant variation was found among the F2:3 lines for agronomic traits under water stress in the fields.Low to high broad sense heritability (H) for investigated traits was also found.Water stress indicators such as leaf rolling and leaf drying were negatively correlated with plant height,biomass and grain yield under stress.Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was performed with the markers in the vicinity of qtl12.1,and RM27933 was found to be segregated perfectly well in individual components of drought resistant and drought susceptible bulks which were bulked based on yield under water stress among F2:3 lines.Hence,this simple and breeder friendly marker,RM27933,may be useful as a potentially valuable candidate marker for the transfer of the QTL qtl12.1 in the regional breeding program.Bioinformatic analysis of the DNA sequence of the qtl12.1 region was also done to identify and analyze positional candidate genes associated with this QTL and to ascertain the putative molecular basis of qtl12.1.

  10. Identification of Wheat-Barley 2H Alien Substitution Lines%小麦-大麦2H异代换系的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原亚萍; 陈孝; 肖世和; A.K.M.R.ISLAM; 辛志勇

    2003-01-01

    通过基因组原位杂交、重双端体测交及RFLP分析,解析了来自小麦品种"中国春"(Triticum aestivumL.cv."Chinese Spring"(CS))×大麦品种"Betzes"(Hordeum vulgare L.cv."Betzes")杂种后代15份材料的遗传组成,鉴定出6个二体异代换系;对与"中国春"重双端体DDT2A、DDT2B及DDT2D测交的F1代花粉母细胞减数分裂中期染色体构型进行观察,同时以小麦第二部分同源群短臂探针psr131进行RFLP分析,鉴定出一套遗传稳定的小麦-大麦2H二体异代换系2H(A)、2H(B)和2H(D).小麦第二部分同源群短臂探针psr131可作为追踪大麦2H染色体的RFLP标记.从代换系的生长势及其他农艺性状看,大麦2H染色体对小麦染色体2B和2D的补偿作用较好.通过考种观察到携带大麦α淀粉酶抑制蛋白基因的2H染色体导入小麦后,淀粉品质发生了改变,外观品质由原来"中国春"的半粉质转变为代换系的半角质.%The genetic constitution of fifteen materials derived from the cross wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. "Chinese Spring") × barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. "Betzes") was analyzed, and six disomic aliensubstitution lines were screened by GISH. The chromosome configurations in pollen mother cells atmeiotic metaphase Ⅰ (PMCs M I ) of F1 from each disomic substitution line respectively crossed withdouble ditelocentric lines 2A, 2B and 2D of "Chinese Spring" were observed, and a set of wheat-barleydisomic alien substitution lines 2H(A), 2H(B) and 2H(D) were obtained. The RFLP analysis with the probepsr131 on the short arm of wheat homeologous group 2 combining with four restriction enzymes werecarried out. The results indicated that the probe psr131 could be used as molecular marker to tag thebarley chromosome 2H. The barley chromosome 2H had good genetic compensation ability for wheatchromosomes 2B and 2D in vitality and other agronomic characters. The result of testing seed was thatthe wheat appearance starch quality had been changed

  11. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  12. Brewing with fractionated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Donkelaar, van, CC René

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley.  The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how ba...

  13. A novel major gene on chromosome 6H for resistance of barley against the barley yellow dwarf virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Habekuss, A.; Bekele, B.; Ordon, F.

    2004-01-01

    In a mapping population derived from the Ethiopian barley line L94 x Vada, natural infection by barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) occurred. While line L94 hardly showed symptoms, Vada was severely affected. The 103 recombinant inbred lines segregated bimodally. The major gene responsible for this res

  14. Alien genes introgression and development of alien monosomic addition lines from a threatened species, Allium roylei Stearn, to Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hoa Q; Yoshimatsu, Yasuyuki; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-05-01

    To produce alien monosomic addition lines (AMALs) of Allium cepa (genomes CC, 2n = 2x = 16) carrying extrachromosomes from Allium roylei (RR, 2n = 2x = 16), reciprocal backcrossing of allotriploids (2n = 24, CCR) with diploids (2n = 16, CC) and selfing of a single allotriploid were carried out. The chromosome numbers in the BC(2)F(1) and BC(1)F(2) progenies ranged from 16 to 32. Forty-eight plants were recorded to possess 2n = 17 among a total of 169 plants in observation. Through the analyses of isozymes, expressed sequence tag (EST) markers, and karyotypes, all eight possible types of A. cepa-A. roylei monosomic addition lines (CC+1R-CC+8R) could be identified. Seven types of representative AMALs (without CC+2R) were used for the GISH analysis of somatic chromosomes. Except for CC+6R, all AMALs showed an entire (unrecombined) extrachromosome from A. roylei in the integral diploid background of A. cepa. A single recombination between A. cepa and A. roylei was observed on the extrachromosome in the remaining type. All alloplasmic AMALs possessing A. roylei cytoplasm showed high or complete pollen sterility. Only the autoplasmic CC+4R with A. cepa cytoplasm possessed relatively high pollen fertility. The bulbs of CC+4R displayed the distinct ovoid shape that discriminates them from spherical or oval ones in other AMALs. Downy mildew screening in the field showed higher resistance in A. roylei, a hypo-allotriploid (CCR-nR, 2n = 23), and an allotriploid (CCR, 2n = 24). Meanwhile, no complete resistance was found in some AMALs examined. This was the first trial toward the establishment of a complete set of A. cepa-A. roylei monosomic additions.

  15. Analysis on Genomic Structure Changes and Diversity of Introgression Lines in Dongxiang Wild Rice ( O.rufipogon Griff.)%东乡野生稻渐渗系基因组结构变化及多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓娟; 罗向东; 谢建坤; 万勇; 胡标林; 曹娟芳; 戴亮芳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of the study was to make research on genomic structure variation and variety analysis of Dongxiang wild rice. [Method] Introgression groups of BC1F6 were based on donor of O. Rufipogon Griff. And receptor of O. Sativa sp. Indica Kato. . Strains of 239 in the group were analyzed on Polymorphism with the help of 25 couples of SSR primers distributed in 12 pairs of chromosomes. [Result] Gene fragments of 0. Rufipogon Griff, were found penetrated in the 25 microsatellite sites and most of the groups kept the parents of Xieqinzao B or DNA sequence of 0. Rufipogon Griff. . The average rate of recurrent homozygous bands was 78. 13% in the Ils, but the highest was 94. 98% (amplified by primer RM131) and the lowest was 60. 25% ( RM171 ). The average rate of donor homozygous bands was 13. 37% , but the highest was 32. 64% (RM171) and the lowest was 2.93% ( RM1095 ). There were numerous heterozygous sites in the population and the average heterozygosis rate was 5.62% , while the highest was 10.04% (RM401). Moreover, we found that there were some parental fragments lost and some novel fragments which were not detected in either parent in BC1 F6 population. The average rate of lost bands was 2. 88% , while the highest was 13.39% (RM311) and the lowest was 0 (RM401). The average rate of new bands was 1%. The average of Nei's gene diversity (He) and Shannons Information index (I) were 0. 276 and 0.457 respectively in high generation of introgression lines. [Conclusion] The study demonstrated that distant hybridization led to extensive genetic and epigenetic variations in high generation of introgression lines, which expanded the base of genetic variation and laid an important foundation for rice improvement and germplasm innovation.%[目的]研究东乡野生稻渐渗系基因组结构变化及对其进行多样性分析.[方法]以东乡野生稻(O.rufipogon Grif,供体)和栽培稻协青早B(O.sativa sp.indica Kato.,受体)构建的BC1F6渐渗群体为研

  16. 小偃麦新种质CH7102抗条锈病特性的遗传分析%Inheritance of Stripe Rust Resistance in Thinopyrum ponticum-derived Wheat Introgression Line CH7102

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 畅志坚; 李欣; 张晓军; 詹海仙; 郭慧娟

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the response to Chinese stripe rust races, the origin and inheritance mode of resistance gene in a new Thinopyrum ponticum-derived wheat introgression line CH7102. Seedlings of Th. ponticum (accession R431), CH7102 and its resistant parent partial amphiploid 'Xiaoyan 7430' as well as all wheat parents were evaluated in the greenhouse using CYR31 and CYR32, the most widely virulent and predominant pathotypes in China. CH7102 was crossed respectively to susceptible cultivars 'Taichung 29' and ' Mianyang 11' and the lines containing known resistance genes, and the resulting segregating populations F2, F3 and BCi were used for genetic analysis of stripe rust response and allelism tests of resistance gene in CH7102. When inoculated with race CYR32 at the adult plant stage, F, plants from both crosses showed infection types (IT) similar to the resistant parent, indicating that resistance was dominant. The segregation ratios in the F2 and BCi populations and F3 lines were consistent with those expected for segregation at a single locus. When tested with the same race at the seedling stage, the segregation for resistant and susceptible showed a good fit with a 15:1 ratio in all F2 populations from crossing CH7102 with five lines containing known resistance genes. The stripe rust resistance in wheat-alien introgression line CH7102 was controlled by a single dominant gene, presumably having been transferred from T. ponticum. Based on the result from allelism tests, the resistance gene in CH7102 was different from the known effective resistance genes Yr5, YrlO, Yrl5 Yr24l Yr26 and Yr41, and is possibly a new gene for resistance to stripe rust.%对衍生于普通小麦与八倍体小偃麦‘小偃7430’杂种后代的抗条锈病新种质CH7102进行抗性鉴定和遗传分析,明确其抗性来源及其遗传方式.采用条锈菌流行小种CYR31、CYR32对CH7102及其亲本进行苗期抗性评价;对CH7102分别与感病品种和已知

  17. Screening for spontaneous virulent mutants of erysiphe-graminis-f-sp-hordei on barley hordeum-vulgare lines with resistance genes ml-a-1 ml-a-6 ml-a-12 and ml-g

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, J.; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1985-01-01

    Seedlings of 4 barley lines with powdery mildew resistance genes Ml-al, Ml-a6, Mla12 or Ml-g were inoculated with powdery mildew culture CR3 which is avirulent to the 4 host lines. Inoculation density was 1.2 infectious conidia/mm2, and in total 50 million conidia were screened for the occurrence...... 2 .times. 10-8. A reconstruction experiment showed that the density of avirulent inoculum did not reduce the survival rate of rare virulent genotypes....

  18. Resolution by recombination: breaking up Solanum pennellii introgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseekh, Saleh; Ofner, Itai; Pleban, Tzili; Tripodi, Pasquale; Di Dato, Francesco; Cammareri, Maria; Mohammad, Ayed; Grandillo, Silvana; Fernie, Alisdair R; Zamir, Dani

    2013-10-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) genetics retains an important role in the study of biological and agronomic processes; however, its genetic resolution is often comparatively low. Community-based strategies are thus required to address this issue. Here we detail such a strategy wherein the widely used Solanum pennellii introgression lines (ILs) in the genetic background of the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are broken up into molecular marker-defined sublines as a community resource for map-based cloning.

  19. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  1. Impact of the Coffea canephora gene introgression on beverage quality of C. arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, B; Guyot, B; Anthony, F; Lashermes, P

    2003-08-01

    Lines of Coffea arabica derived from the Timor Hybrid (hybrid between C. arabica and C. canephora) are resistant to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) and to the nematode Meloidogyne exigua. The introgression of C. canephora resistance genes is suspected of causing a drop in beverage quality. Coffee samples from pure lines, compared in a Trial 1, and from F1 hybrids and parental lines from a half-diallel trial in a Trial 2, were studied for beverage quality, chemical composition and amount of introgressed genetic material. Chemical analyses (caffeine, chlorogenic acids, fat, trigonelline, sucrose) were carried out with near-infrared spectrometry by reflectance of green coffee. The number of amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers introgressed from the Timor Hybrid varied from 1 to 37 for the lines studied. There were significant differences between lines for all of the biochemical compounds analysed and for the acidity and the overall standard of the beverage. Two lines (T17927, T17924) were significantly poorer than the controls for sucrose and beverage acidity. T17924 also had more chlorogenic acids and was poorer for the overall standard. However, two highly introgressed lines, T17934 and T17931 (25 and 30 AFLP markers, respectively), did not differ from the non-introgressed controls. There were no correlations between the number of AFLP markers and the chemical contents or beverage attributes. Significant correlations were found between the performance of the parents and their general combining ability for beverage quality. It was concluded that it should be possible to find lines with both the desired resistance genes and good beverage quality. Selection can avoid accompanying the introgression of resistance genes with a drop in beverage quality.

  2. High resolution mapping of Dense spike-ar (dsp.ar) to the genetic centromere of barley chromosome 7H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Druka, Arnis; Franckowiak, Jerome; Morgante, Michele; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

    2012-02-01

    Spike density in barley is under the control of several major genes, as documented previously by genetic analysis of a number of morphological mutants. One such class of mutants affects the rachis internode length leading to dense or compact spikes and the underlying genes were designated dense spike (dsp). We previously delimited two introgressed genomic segments on chromosome 3H (21 SNP loci, 35.5 cM) and 7H (17 SNP loci, 20.34 cM) in BW265, a BC(7)F(3) nearly isogenic line (NIL) of cv. Bowman as potentially containing the dense spike mutant locus dsp.ar, by genotyping 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in both BW265 and its recurrent parent. Here, the gene was allocated by high-resolution bi-parental mapping to a 0.37 cM interval between markers SC57808 (Hv_SPL14)-CAPSK06413 residing on the short and long arm at the genetic centromere of chromosome 7H, respectively. This region putatively contains more than 800 genes as deduced by comparison with the collinear regions of barley, rice, sorghum and Brachypodium, Classical map-based isolation of the gene dsp.ar thus will be complicated due to the infavorable relationship of genetic to physical distances at the target locus.

  3. Interaction between powdery mildew and barley with ¤mlo5¤ mildew resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Østergård, Hanne

    1998-01-01

    Powdery mildew infection of barley with the mlo5 barley powdery mildew resistance gene was examined, using near-isogenic barley lines, with and without mlo5 resistance, and two near-isogenic powdery mildew isolates, HL3/5 and GE3 with high (virulent) or low (avirulent) penetration efficiency...

  4. 东乡野生稻基因渐渗系中逆转座子逆转录酶序列的克隆及表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of Retrotransposon Reverse Transcriptase in Introgression Lines from Dongxiang Wild Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅玲; 罗向东; 张帆涛; 戴亮芳; 胡标林; 谢建坤

    2013-01-01

    We used the cold-tolerance introgression lines IL5335 and IL5243 from Oryza sativa cv. 'Xieqingzao B' crossed with Dongxiang wild rice (O. rufipogon) and their parents to examine our cloned 75 highly heterogeneous sequences of Ty1 -copia retrotransposon reverse transcriptase (RT). Cluster and alignment analyses revealed 7 families for these RT sequences: 65 RT sequences were in families 6 and 7, with similarity from 44.9% to 99.3%. Families 1-5 contained only 10 RT sequences; 8 came from introgression lines. As compared with their parents, in introgression lines, the similarity of RT sequences ranged from 29.2% to 52.8%, and some RT sequences showed deletion or insertion mutation. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the expression of houba, osr15 and osr17 RT sequences in IL5335 and IL5243 was 1.50 to 5.07 times higher than in the parents. Thus, the structure and expression of RT sequences in IL5335 and IL5243 changed during introgressive hybridization. These results provide useful information for further investigation of epigenetic phenomenon induced by alien gene introgression.%以东乡野生稻(Oryza rufipogon)耐冷渐渗系IL5335、IL5243及其双亲为试材,克隆到75条存在高度异质性的Ty1-copia类逆转座子逆转录酶序列,经聚类分析将这些逆转录酶序列分为7个家族;家族6和7含有65条逆转录酶序列,序列间的相似性为44.9%-99.3%;家族1-5仅含10条逆转录酶序列,其中8条来源于耐冷渐渗系,它们与亲本的序列相似性为29.2%-52.8%,分析发现这些序列曾发生缺失或插入突变.实时荧光定量PCR检测结果显示,IL5335和IL5243中的houba、osr15及osr17逆转录酶的表达量均远高于受体亲本(表达量增加1.50-5.07倍),表明渐渗杂交诱发改变了IL5335和IL5243中逆转录酶序列的结构及其表达活性.该结果为今后水稻表观遗传学研究及外源优异基因利用奠定了基础.

  5. Parapatric genetic introgression and phenotypic assimilation: testing conditions for introgression between Hercules beetles (Dynastes, Dynastinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Pan

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and consequences of genetic introgression between species have been intensively debated. I used Hercules beetles as examples to test for conditions that may be associated with the occurrence of introgression. RADseq data were used to reconstruct the species tree and history of introgression between Hercules beetles. Image data from museum specimens were used to investigate the phenotypic similarity of two adaptive traits between species from two distinct climatic realms (Nearctic vs. Neotropical). Genetic introgression was identified between Hercules beetles living in geographic proximity (parapatric). Phylogenetic relatedness and phenotypic similarity did not predict nor preclude genetic introgression between species. Phenotypic assimilation in body coloration was evident between distantly related Hercules beetles codistributed in Central America, where directional introgression was also statistically supported from the putative donor to receiver lineages. The number of introgressed loci was significantly higher between species with than without phenotypic similarity. I discuss the implications of recent studies on adaptive genetic introgression by providing supporting evidence from the Hercules beetle system.

  6. 利用类番茄茄LA2951渐渗系群体鉴定番茄抗晚疫病QTL%Identification of QTLs Conferring Resistance to Late Blight in Solanum lycopersicoides LA2951 Introgression Line Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春芝; 刘磊; 孙玉燕; 周龙溪; 杨宇红; 谢丙炎; 李君明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective ] The objective of this study is to explore the potential loci for resistance to late blight of introgression line (IL) population derived from a nightshade related species Solanum lycopersicoides LA2951. [Method] Detached-leaflet assay (DLA) was used for the artificial inoculation. The abaxial surface of each leaflet was inoculated with a drop of 10 uL sporangial suspension (2x104sporangiums/mL), and the inoculated leaves were incubated at 19'C with 70%-100% relative humidity. Lesion size (LS) of the leaf and disease incidence (DI) were measured 6 d after inoculation. [Result] The resistance of this wild species was controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL). In total, 5 QTLs {Rpiqlb, Rpiq2b, Rpiq4b, Rpiq8a, Rpiqll) were identified after inoculation with race T,^, which significantly reduced LS, and 3 QTLs (Rpiqla, Rpiqla, Rpiq8b) were indentified which clearly reduced DI. However, only 2 QTLs (Rpiq4a and RpiqS) reducing DI were indentified after inoculation with more virulent race T1,2,4-It proved that QTLs derived from LA2951 showed a clear race-specific resistance. Based on tomato high density genetic linkage map, all QTLs detected in this paper were co-localized with those previously identified in other tomato wild species. In addition, 2 susceptibility QTLs (Spiq4 and SpiqlO) increasing DI were identified after inoculation with both race T1,2 and race T1,2,4 which were located at the end of short arm of chromosome 4 and chromosome 10, respectively. [Conclusion] Ten resistance QTLs and 2 susceptibility QTLs were identified, and they presented a race-specific behavior. The results obtained in this paper provided atheoretical basis for breeding of late blight resistance in tomato.%[目的]利用来自番茄近缘野生种类番茄茄(Solanum Iycopersicoides)LA2951的渐渗系群体,挖掘LA2951中潜在的抗晚疫病基因.[方法]采用离体叶片接种法,每片小叶背面接种10 μL菌液(2×104孢子囊/mL),在温度19℃和相对湿度70

  7. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to bread wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amandeep Kaur Riar; Satinder Kaur; H. S. Dhaliwal; Kuldeep Singh; Parveen Chhuneja

    2012-08-01

    Rusts are the most important biotic constraints limiting wheat productivity worldwide. Deployment of cultivars with broad spectrum rust resistance is the only environmentally viable option to combat these diseases. Identification and introgression of novel sources of resistance is a continuous process to combat the ever evolving pathogens. The germplasm of nonprogenitor Aegilops species with substantial amount of variability has been exploited to a limited extent. In the present investigation introgression, inheritance and molecular mapping of a leaf rust resistance gene of Ae. caudata (CC) acc. pau3556 in cultivated wheat were undertaken. An F2 population derived from the cross of Triticum aestivum cv.WL711 – Ae. caudata introgression line T291-2 with wheat cultivar PBW343 segregated for a single dominant leaf rust resistance gene at the seedling and adult plant stages. Progeny testing in F3 confirmed the introgression of a single gene for leaf rust resistance. Bulked segregant analysis using polymorphic D-genome-specific SSR markers and the cosegregation of the 5DS anchored markers (Xcfd18, Xcfd78, Xfd81 and Xcfd189) with the rust resistance in the F2 population mapped the leaf rust resistance gene (LrAC) on the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D. Genetic complementation and the linked molecular markers revealed that LrAC is a novel homoeoallele of an orthologue Lr57 already introgressed from the 5M chromosome of Ae. geniculata on 5DS of wheat.

  8. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...... of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  9. Yield-related salinity tolerance traits identified in a nested association mapping (NAM) population of wild barley

    KAUST Repository

    Saade, Stephanie

    2016-09-02

    Producing sufficient food for nine billion people by 2050 will be constrained by soil salinity, especially in irrigated systems. To improve crop yield, greater understanding of the genetic control of traits contributing to salinity tolerance in the field is needed. Here, we exploit natural variation in exotic germplasm by taking a genome-wide association approach to a new nested association mapping population of barley called HEB-25. The large population (1,336 genotypes) allowed cross-validation of loci, which, along with two years of phenotypic data collected from plants irrigated with fresh and saline water, improved statistical power. We dissect the genetic architecture of flowering time under high salinity and we present genes putatively affecting this trait and salinity tolerance. In addition, we identify a locus on chromosome 2H where, under saline conditions, lines homozygous for the wild allele yielded 30% more than did lines homozygous for the Barke allele. Introgressing this wild allele into elite cultivars could markedly improve yield under saline conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Genetic dissection of maize phenology using an intraspecific introgression library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguineti Maria C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collections of nearly isogenic lines where each line carries a delimited portion of a donor source genome into a common recipient genetic background are known as introgression libraries and have already shown to be instrumental for the dissection of quantitative traits. By means of marker-assisted backcrossing, we have produced an introgression library using the extremely early-flowering maize (Zea mays L. variety Gaspé Flint and the elite line B73 as donor and recipient genotypes, respectively, and utilized this collection to investigate the genetic basis of flowering time and related traits of adaptive and agronomic importance in maize. Results The collection includes 75 lines with an average Gaspé Flint introgression length of 43.1 cM. The collection was evaluated for flowering time, internode length, number of ears, number of nodes (phytomeres, number of nodes above the ear, number and proportion of nodes below the ear and plant height. Five QTLs for flowering time were mapped, all corresponding to major QTLs for number of nodes. Three additional QTLs for number of nodes were mapped. Besides flowering time, the QTLs for number of nodes drove phenotypic variation for plant height and number of nodes below and above the top ear, but not for internode length. A number of apparently Mendelian-inherited phenotypes were also observed. Conclusions While the inheritance of flowering time was dominated by the well-known QTL Vgt1, a number of other important flowering time QTLs were identified and, thanks to the type of plant material here utilized, immediately isogenized and made available for fine mapping. At each flowering time QTL, early flowering correlated with fewer vegetative phytomeres, indicating the latter as a key developmental strategy to adapt the maize crop from the original tropical environment to the northern border of the temperate zone (southern Canada, where Gaspé Flint was originally cultivated. Because of

  11. Barley peroxidase isozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

  12. Retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four low-phytate, hulled lines, M2 422 (now referred to as barley lpa1-1), M2 635 (now referred to as barley lpa3-1), M2 955 and M2 1070 (now referred to as barley lpa2-1), and a "hulless" version of M2 422, were evaluated in a chick feeding experiment. The diets were provided in meal form, with the...

  13. Development and characterization of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum as a source of donor alleles in a Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, I; Corey, A; Filichkin, T; Hayes, P M; Vales, M I; Kling, J; Riera-Lizarazu, O; Sato, K; Powell, W; Waugh, R

    2003-12-01

    The ancestor of barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) may be a source of novel alleles for crop improvement. We developed a set of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using an accession of H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum (Caesarea 26-24, from Israel) as the donor and Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare 'Harrington' (the North American malting quality standard) as the recurrent parent via two backcrosses to the recurrent parent, followed by six generations of selfing. Here we report (i) the genomic architecture of the RCSLs, as inferred by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and (ii) the effects of H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum genome segment introgressions in terms of three classes of phenotypes: inflorescence yield components, malting quality traits, and domestication traits. Significant differences among the RCSLs were detected for all phenotypes measured. The phenotypic effects of the introgressions were assessed using association analysis, and these were referenced to quantitative trait loci (QTL) reported in the literature. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, despite its overall inferior phenotype, contributed some favorable alleles for agronomic and malting quality traits. In most cases, the introgression of the ancestral genome resulted in a loss of desirable phenotypes in the cultivated parent. Although disappointing from a plant breeding perspective, this finding may prove to be a useful tool for gene discovery.

  14. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana;

    2016-01-01

    family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C......C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi...... silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7 % reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS...

  15. Malting barley BRS Borema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclydes Minella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Borema is an early maturing, two-rowed spring barley registered in 2003 for commercial production inSouthern Brazil, bred by Embrapa Trigo. It combines good yield potential with superior malting quality and a reasonable levelof disease (net blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust resistance. It is well-adapted to all major production regions of maltingbarley in Brazil.

  16. Introgressive hybridization in a trophically polymorphic cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, C Darrin; García-de-León, Francisco J

    2013-11-01

    Trophically polymorphic species could represent lineages that are rapidly diverging along an ecological axis or could phenotypically mark the collapse of species through introgressive hybridization. We investigated patterns of introgression between the trophically polymorphic cichlid fish Herichthys minckleyi and its relative H. cyanoguttatus using a combination of population genetics and species tree analyses. We first examined the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes within the alternative H. minckleyi pharyngeal jaw morphotypes that are endemic to the small desert valley of Cuatro Ciénegas. We recovered two clusters of mitochondrial haplotypes. The first contained a number of slightly differentiated cytochrome b (cytb) haplotypes that showed some phylogeographic signal and were present in both jaw morphotypes. The other haplotype was monomorphic, highly differentiated from the other cluster, present in equal frequencies in the morphotypes, and identical to H. cyanoguttatus haplotypes found outside Cuatro Ciénegas. Then, we investigated whether H. minckleyi individuals with the H. cyanoguttatus cytb were more evolutionarily similar to H. cyanoguttatus or other H. minckleyi using a species tree analysis of 84 nuclear loci. Both H. minckleyi pharyngeal morphotypes, regardless of their cytb haplotype, were quite distinct from H. cyanoguttatus. However, hybridization could be blurring subdivision within H. minckleyi as the alternative jaw morphotypes were not genetically distinct from one another. Accounting for introgression from H. cyanoguttatus will be essential to understand the evolution of the trophically polymorphic cichlid H. minckleyi.

  17. Assessment of the Seedling Reactions of Some Hulless Barley Genotypes to Drechslera teres f. maculata

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlegiz, Emine Tuba; KARAKAYA, Aziz; Celik Oguz, Arzu; MERT, Zafer; Sayim, İsmail; Ergun, Namuk; Aydogan, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The seedling reactions of three barley cultivars, one hulless barley cultivar, two candidate hulless barley lines and nine hulless barley genotypes were determined under greenhouse conditions to ten isolates of Drechslera teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of net blotch. Isolates were obtained from Ankara, Çankırı, Eskişehir, Kayseri, Konya and Şanlıurfa provinces. The reactions of the cultivars and hulless cultivar ranged between suscepible-resistant. The reactions of the hulle...

  18. Early changes in protein expression of barley following inoculation with erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, S.P.; Somerville, S.C. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei is an obligate pathogen of barley causing the powdery mildew disease. Resistance to this disease is the product of a highly specific interaction between barley lines with specific resistance alleles and pathogen races carrying complementary avirulence alleles. Using congenic barley lines which differ at the M1-a disease reaction locus, we hope to define the early molecular events of this interaction. Accordingly, resistant and susceptible barley seedlings were labelled with {sup 35}S-methionine and examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis at two hour intervals following inoculation. Infection related changes were observed with both isolines during the four to twelve hour time period. Additional differences existed constitutively between the barley lines. These differences have been quantified. Further characterization of these proteins will yield useful markers for events preceding or coinciding with cytological responses any may lead to identification and cloning of the M1-a gene.

  19. Introgression molecular analysis of a leaf rust resistance gene from Coffea liberica into C. arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, N S; Marques, D V; Varzea, V M P; Silva, M C; Combes, M C; Lashermes, P

    2004-10-01

    Leaf rust caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix is the most devastating disease of arabica coffee ( Coffea arabica). Therefore, developing leaf rust-resistant varieties has been a breeding objective of the highest priority in many countries. The purpose of the present work was to gain insight into the mechanism of introgression into C. arabica of a leaf rust resistance gene from C. liberica (i.e. S(H)3 resistance factor) and to identify associated molecular markers. An F(2) progeny (i.e. 101 individuals) derived from a cross between Matari, an arabica accession and liberica-introgressed line S.288, was evaluated for resistance against three different races of H. vastatrix. The progeny segregated for the S(H)3 gene in a 3:1 ratio, as expected for a single dominant gene. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of a population subset using 80 different primer combinations revealed that at least half of the total polymorphism observed in the population is associated with introgression of C. liberica chromosome fragments. Furthermore, 15 primer combinations generating candidate marker bands associated with the S(H)3 resistance gene were used to analyse the whole F(2) population. A total of 34 marker bands originating from S.288 and attributable to introgression were scored. None exhibited segregation distortion. Linkage analysis revealed only three distinct introgressed fragments corresponding to a total length of 52.8 cM. Twenty-one markers were strongly associated (LOD score >14) with the S(H)3 gene and were grouped together in a single linkage group of 6.3 cM. The results are discussed in relation to the efficient use of genetic resources in arabica breeding.

  20. A method for rapid and simultaneous mapping of genetic loci and introgression sizes in nematode species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cheung; Bi, Yu; Yin, Da; Zhao, Zhongying

    2012-01-01

    Caenorhabditis briggsae is emerging as an attractive model organism not only in studying comparative biology against C. elegans, but also in developing novel experimentation avenues. In particular, recent identification of a new Caenorhabditis species, C. sp.9 with which it can mate and produce viable progeny provides an opportunity for studying the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities (HI) between the two. Mapping of a specific HI locus demands repeated backcrossing to get hold of the specific genomic region underlying an observed phenotype. To facilitate mapping of HI loci between C. briggsae and C. sp.9, an efficient mapping method and a genetic map ideally consisting of dominant markers are required for systematic introgression of genomic fragments between the two species. We developed a fast and cost-effective method for high throughput mapping of dominant loci with resolution up to 1 million bps in C. briggsae. The method takes advantage of the introgression between C. briggsae and C. sp.9 followed by PCR genotyping using C. briggsae specific primers. Importantly, the mapping results can not only serve as an effective way for estimating the chromosomal position of a genetic locus in C. briggsae, but also provides size information for the introgression fragment in an otherwise C. sp.9 background. In addition, it also helps generate introgression line as a side-product that is invaluable for the subsequent mapping of HI loci. The method will greatly facilitate the construction of a genetic map consisting of dominant markers and pave the way for systematic isolation of HI loci between C. briggsae and C. sp.9 which has so far not been attempted between nematode species. The method is designed for mapping of a dominant allele, but can be easily adapted for mapping of any other type of alleles in any other species if introgression between a sister species pair is feasible.

  1. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B;

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  2. Compositional equivalence of barleys differing only in low and normal phytate levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent breeding advances have led to the development of several barley lines with reduced levels of phytate. One of them was further developed and released as a hulless low phytate cultivar (Clearwater). Because barley oil contains high levels of tocotrienols and other functional lipids, we conduc...

  3. Localization to Chromosomes of Structural Genes for the Major Protease Inhibitors of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Bjørn, S.E.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Wheat-barley chromosome addition lines were compared by isoelectric focusing of protein extracts to identify chromosomes carrying loci for the major immunochemically distinct protease inhibitors of barley grains. Structural genes for the following inhibitors were localized: an inhibitor of both...

  4. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...

  5. A promising low beta-glucan barley mutation of m351 for better bioethanol production use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol is an important liquid fuel complement. Barley is an alternative raw material for ethanol production and its byproduct is a nutritious feed. The barley m351mutant line, which has a mutation for low beta-glucan content, was tested for its ethanol production efficiency and feed fraction qua...

  6. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.

    1986-01-01

    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...

  7. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    ) and five antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines. Considering the amounts of soluble and protein-bound aspartate-derived amino acids together with the analysis of key enzymes of aspartate metabolic pathway, we suggest that the C-hordein suppression did not only alter the metabolism of at least one......The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition......, with increased lysine, methionine and threonine contents. The objective of the study was to investigate the possible changes in the regulation of key enzymes of the aspartate metabolic pathway and the contents of aspartate-derived amino acids in the nontransgenic line (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golden Promise...

  8. 大麦雄性不育的遗传研究%Genetic Study on Barley Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 刘志萍; 包海柱

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research the genetic mechanism of barley male sterility, and provide the theoretical reference for breeding strong heterosis hybrid of barley. [Method] Fertility segregation phenomenon, morphological characteristics and main agronomic characters of male sterility character of 4 kinds of barley male sterility materials 2001-17, 2001-37, 2001-84 and 2001-116 and their derived lines were observed and researched. [Result] Barley male sterility existed genetic phenomenon of single dominant nuclear gene caused by environmental stimulation, its sterility controlled by MS, the sterile genotype was MSms. There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility which was controlled by cytoplasmic male sterile gene S and nuclear gene rr, and its genotype was S(rr), this male sterility belonged to CMS type sterility. Temperature had no effect on fertility. [Conclusion] There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility, this result played a positively promoting role in barley practical production.

  9. Cisgenic Barley with Improved Phytase Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops...... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  10. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The cisgenesis concept implies that plants are transformed only with their own genetic materials or genetic materials from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. We used a barley...... phytase gene (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during grain filling to evaluate the cisgenesis concept in barley. The marker gene elimination method was used to obtain marker-free plant lines. Here, the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders to allow unlinked integration...... of the two genes. We analysed the transformants for co-transformation efficiency, increased phytase activities in the grain, integration of the kanamycin resistance gene of the vector-backbone and segregation between the HvPAPhy_a insert and the hygromycin resistance gene. The frequencies of the four...

  11. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops...... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  12. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  13. The Genetic Cost of Neanderthal Introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kelley; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2-4% of genetic material in human populations outside Africa is derived from Neanderthals who interbred with anatomically modern humans. Recent studies have shown that this Neanderthal DNA is depleted around functional genomic regions; this has been suggested to be a consequence of harmful epistatic interactions between human and Neanderthal alleles. However, using published estimates of Neanderthal inbreeding and the distribution of mutational fitness effects, we infer that Neanderthals had at least 40% lower fitness than humans on average; this increased load predicts the reduction in Neanderthal introgression around genes without the need to invoke epistasis. We also predict a residual Neanderthal mutational load in non-Africans, leading to a fitness reduction of at least 0.5%. This effect of Neanderthal admixture has been left out of previous debate on mutation load differences between Africans and non-Africans. We also show that if many deleterious mutations are recessive, the Neanderthal admixture fraction could increase over time due to the protective effect of Neanderthal haplotypes against deleterious alleles that arose recently in the human population. This might partially explain why so many organisms retain gene flow from other species and appear to derive adaptive benefits from introgression.

  14. Analysis on Genomic Structure Changes and Diversity of Introgression Lines in Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.)%东乡野生稻渐渗系基因组结构变化及多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓娟; 罗向东; 谢建坤; 万勇; 胡标林; 曹娟芳; 戴亮芳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of the study was to make research on genomic struc- ture variation and variety analysis of Dongxiang wild rice. [Method] Introgression groups of BC1F6 were based on donor of Oryza rufipogon Griff. and receptor of O. sativa sp. indica Kate. Strains of 239 in the group were analyzed on Polymor- phism with the help of 25 couples of SSR primers distributed in 12 pairs of chromo- somes. [Result] Gene fragments of O. rufipogon Griff. were found penetrated in the 25 microsatellite sites and most of the groups kept the parents of Xieqinzao B or DNA sequence of O. rufipogon Griff. The average rate of recurrent homozygous bands was 78.13% in the ILs, but the highest was 94.98% (amplified by primer RM131) and the lowest was 60.25% (RM171). The average rate of donor homozy- gous bands was 13.37%, but the highest was 32.64% (RM171) and the lowest was 2.93% (RM1095). There were numerous heterozygous sites in the population and the average heterozygosis rate was 5.62%, while the highest was 10.04%(RM401). Moreover, we found some parental fragments were lost and some novel fragments were not detected in either parent in BC1F6 population. The average rate of lost bands was 2.88%, while the highest was 13.39% (RM311) and the lowest was 0 (RM401). The average rate of new bands was 1%. The average of Nei's gene di- versity (He) and Shannon's Information index (I) were 0.276 and 0.457 respectively in high generation of introgression lines. [Conclusion] The study demonstrated that distant hybridization led to extensive genetic and epigenetic variations in high gener- ation of introgression lines, which expanded the base of genetic variation and laid an important foundation for rice improvement and germplasm innovation.%[目的】研究东乡野生稻渐渗系基因组结构变化及对其进行多样性分析。[方法]以东乡野生稻(O.rufipogonGriff.,供体)和栽培稻协青早B(O.sativasp.indicaKato.

  15. Wild Barley,Hordeum spontaneum,a Genetic Resource for Crop Improvement in Cold and Arid Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eviatar; Nevo

    2008-01-01

    Food security in cold and arid regions in the world is threatened by stressful and unpredictable environments.The sus-tainable and economically viable solution for increasing stability of food productivity in cold and arid regions is genetic improvement of crops towards high resistance to abiotic stresses,mainly cold and drought resistance.It is often empha-sized that crop genetic improvement lies in exploiting the gene pools of the wild relatives of the crop plant.Wild barley,H.spontaneum,the progenitor of cultivated barley,is a selfing annual grass of predominantly Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian distribution that penetrates into desert environments where it maintains stable populations.Wild barley is also found in cold regions,such as in Tibet.The adaptation of wild barley to the arid region in Israel and Jordan,and the cold region in Tibet has accumulated rich genetic diversities for drought,salt,and cold resistances in wild barley,which is the genetic resource for barley and other crop improvement in arid and cold regions.These genetic diversities are revealed by allozymes,DNA-based molecular markers,and morphological and physiological traits of wild barley plants.Quantita-tive trait loci(QTLs) related to drought resistance were identified in wild barley via the QTL mapping approach.Drought resistance genes such as dehydrins,hsdr4,and eibi1 were identified in wild barley based on the candidate gene approach,gene differential expression approach,and molecular genetic approach,respectively.Genetics and genomics of wild bar-ley cold resistance have not been exploited yet,remaining a huge treasure for future crop improvement of cold resistance.Advanced backcross QTL analysis,the introgression libraries based on wild barley as donors,a QTL approach based on wide crosses using wild barley,and positional cloning of natural QTLs will play prevailing roles to help us understand the molecular control of cold and drought tolerance.Integration of QTL information into a

  16. 黄瓜染色体片段导入系的构建与遗传评价%Construction and genetic evaluation of chromosome segment introgression lines in cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建磊; 娄群峰; 钱春桃; 万红建; 周晓慧; 陈劲枫

    2011-01-01

    The cultivated cucumber( Cucumis sativus L. ,2n = 14) Beijingjieton with comprehensive good traits and precious rare wild sour cucumber( Cucumis hystrix Chakr. ,2n =24)carrying a variety of resistance traits were used as receptor parent and donor parent respectively in the present study. Chromosome segment iutrogression lines(CSILs) were developed on the basis of interspeeific allotetraploid by multiple generational backcrossing and selfing, combined with SSR marker-assisted selection (MAS), with the genetic background of Beijingjietou. By evaluating of the number, distribution, segment size and coverage rate, it showed that the 38 donor segments of CSILs existed unevenly in the seven chromosomes. Their lengths were between 1.1 -14.9 cM, the average length was 5.3 cM, the total length was 201.9 cM and the coverage rate in the cucumber genome was 23.5%.%以综合性状优良的栽培黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.,2n=14)北京截头为受休亲本,以携带有多种抗性性状的黄瓜珍稀野牛种酸黄瓜(Cucumis hystrix Chakr.,2n=24)为供体亲本,在本实验室前期获得种间杂交异源叫倍体的基础上,通过多代回交和自交,结合SSR标记辅助选择构建了以北京截头为遗传背景的黄瓜野生种染色体片段导入系,并对其导入片段的数日、分布、大小和覆盖率等进行了评价.结果表明:该导入系群体携带的38个供体片段不均匀地分布于黄瓜7条染色体上,其长度介于1.1~14.9 cM,平均长度为5.3 cM,总长度为201.9 cM,在黄瓜基因组上的覆盖率为23.5%.

  17. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  18. Uzu mutation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reduces the leaf unrolling response to brassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Chono, Makiko; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-05-01

    A sensitive method to examine the brassinolide (BL) response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using dark-grown leaf segments was established based on the known method for wheat. BL responses of 53 dwarf isogenic lines of barley were examined, and two lines were found having a uzu gene that doesn't respond significantly. These results indicate that uzu dwarfism may be caused by the non-responding character to BL.

  19. Evolutionary analyses of non-genealogical bonds produced by introgressive descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapteste, Eric; Lopez, Philippe; Bouchard, Frédéric; Baquero, Fernando; McInerney, James O; Burian, Richard M

    2012-11-06

    All evolutionary biologists are familiar with evolutionary units that evolve by vertical descent in a tree-like fashion in single lineages. However, many other kinds of processes contribute to evolutionary diversity. In vertical descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit is propagated by replication inside its own lineage. In what we call introgressive descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit propagates into different host structures and is replicated within these host structures. Thus, introgressive descent generates a variety of evolutionary units and leaves recognizable patterns in resemblance networks. We characterize six kinds of evolutionary units, of which five involve mosaic lineages generated by introgressive descent. To facilitate detection of these units in resemblance networks, we introduce terminology based on two notions, P3s (subgraphs of three nodes: A, B, and C) and mosaic P3s, and suggest an apparatus for systematic detection of introgressive descent. Mosaic P3s correspond to a distinct type of evolutionary bond that is orthogonal to the bonds of kinship and genealogy usually examined by evolutionary biologists. We argue that recognition of these evolutionary bonds stimulates radical rethinking of key questions in evolutionary biology (e.g., the relations among evolutionary players in very early phases of evolutionary history, the origin and emergence of novelties, and the production of new lineages). This line of research will expand the study of biological complexity beyond the usual genealogical bonds, revealing additional sources of biodiversity. It provides an important step to a more realistic pluralist treatment of evolutionary complexity.

  20. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  1. Adaptive introgression across species boundaries in Heliconius butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pardo-Diaz

    Full Text Available It is widely documented that hybridisation occurs between many closely related species, but the importance of introgression in adaptive evolution remains unclear, especially in animals. Here, we have examined the role of introgressive hybridisation in transferring adaptations between mimetic Heliconius butterflies, taking advantage of the recent identification of a gene regulating red wing patterns in this genus. By sequencing regions both linked and unlinked to the red colour locus, we found a region that displays an almost perfect genotype by phenotype association across four species, H. melpomene, H. cydno, H. timareta, and H. heurippa. This particular segment is located 70 kb downstream of the red colour specification gene optix, and coalescent analysis indicates repeated introgression of adaptive alleles from H. melpomene into the H. cydno species clade. Our analytical methods complement recent genome scale data for the same region and suggest adaptive introgression has a crucial role in generating adaptive wing colour diversity in this group of butterflies.

  2. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  3. Assessment and introduction of quantitative resistance to Fusarium head blight in elite spring barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkmeyer, A; Götz, M; Hu, L; Asam, S; Rychlik, M; Hausladen, H; Hess, M; Hückelhoven, R

    2013-12-01

    Breeding for resistance is a key task to control Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of small cereals leading to economic losses and grain contamination with mycotoxins harmful for humans and animals. In the present work, FHB resistance of the six-rowed spring barley 'Chevron' to FHB in Germany was compared with those of adapted German spring barley cultivars. Both under natural infection conditions and after spray inoculation with conidia of Fusarium culmorum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. avenaceum under field conditions, Chevron showed a high level of quantitative resistance to the infection and contamination of grain with diverse mycotoxins. This indicates that Chevron is not only a little susceptible to deoxynivalenol-producing Fusarium spp. but also to Fusarium spp. producing type A trichothecenes and enniatins. Monitoring the initial infection course of F. culmorum on barley lemma tissue by confocal laser-scanning microscopy provided evidence that FHB resistance of Chevron is partially mediated by a preformed penetration resistance, because direct penetration of floral tissue by F. culmorum was observed rarely on Chevron but was common on susceptible genotypes. Alternatively, F. culmorum penetrated Chevron lemma tissue via stomata, which was unusual for susceptible genotypes. We generated double-haploid barley populations segregating for the major FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Qrgz-2H-8 of Chevron. Subsequently, we characterized these populations by spray inoculation with conidia of F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides. This suggested that Qrgz-2H-8 was functional in the genetic background of European elite barley cultivars. However, the degree of achieved resistance was very low when compared with quantitative resistance of the QTL donor Chevron, and the introgression of Qrgz-2H-8 was not sufficient to mediate the cellular resistance phenotype of Chevron in the European backgrounds.

  4. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...... strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research....

  5. Gene Targeting Without DSB Induction Is Inefficient in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Mihaly; Steinbiss, Hans-Henning; Reiss, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Double strand-break (DSB) induction allowed efficient gene targeting in barley (Hordeum vulgare), but little is known about efficiencies in its absence. To obtain such data, an assay system based on the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene was established, a target gene which had been used previously in rice and Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of recombinases RAD51 and RAD54 had been shown to improve gene targeting in A. thaliana and positive-negative (P-N) selection allows the routine production of targeted mutants without DSB induction in rice. We implemented these approaches in barley and analysed gene targeting with the ALS gene in wild type and RAD51 and RAD54 transgenic lines. In addition, P-N selection was tested. In contrast to the high gene targeting efficiencies obtained in the absence of DSB induction in A. thaliana or rice, not one single gene targeting event was obtained in barley. These data suggest that gene targeting efficiencies are very low in barley and can substantially differ between different plants, even at the same target locus. They also suggest that the amount of labour and time would become unreasonably high to use these methods as a tool in routine applications. This is particularly true since DSB induction offers efficient alternatives. Barley, unlike rice and A. thaliana has a large, complex genome, suggesting that genome size or complexity could be the reason for the low efficiencies. We discuss to what extent transformation methods, genome size or genome complexity could contribute to the striking differences in the gene targeting efficiencies between barley, rice and A. thaliana.

  6. The Strength of Selection against Neanderthal Introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Ivan; Aeschbacher, Simon; Coop, Graham

    2016-11-01

    Hybridization between humans and Neanderthals has resulted in a low level of Neanderthal ancestry scattered across the genomes of many modern-day humans. After hybridization, on average, selection appears to have removed Neanderthal alleles from the human population. Quantifying the strength and causes of this selection against Neanderthal ancestry is key to understanding our relationship to Neanderthals and, more broadly, how populations remain distinct after secondary contact. Here, we develop a novel method for estimating the genome-wide average strength of selection and the density of selected sites using estimates of Neanderthal allele frequency along the genomes of modern-day humans. We confirm that East Asians had somewhat higher initial levels of Neanderthal ancestry than Europeans even after accounting for selection. We find that the bulk of purifying selection against Neanderthal ancestry is best understood as acting on many weakly deleterious alleles. We propose that the majority of these alleles were effectively neutral-and segregating at high frequency-in Neanderthals, but became selected against after entering human populations of much larger effective size. While individually of small effect, these alleles potentially imposed a heavy genetic load on the early-generation human-Neanderthal hybrids. This work suggests that differences in effective population size may play a far more important role in shaping levels of introgression than previously thought.

  7. Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Shunji; Harano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Seiji; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Watari, Yasuhiko; Saito, Osamu; Tokuda, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Locusta migratoria feeds on various Poaceae plants but barley. Barley genes related to feeding deterrence may be useful for developing novel resistant crops. We investigated the effects of barley cultivar Betzes, wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), and six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H-7H) on locomotor activity, feeding behavior, survival and development of L. migratoria nymphs. Locomotor activity was similar in nymphs kept with wheat and 2H-7H in an actograph, whereas it was generally high in those kept with barely. No-choice and choice feeding tests suggested that barley genes related to inhibition of feeding by L. migratoria are located on barley chromosomes 5H and 6H and those related to the palatability of plants on chromosomes 2H, 5H and 6H. Rearing experiments suggested the presence of barley genes negatively affecting the survival and growth of locust nymphs on chromosomes 5H and 2H, respectively, and the effects are phase-dependent.

  8. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in landrace populations of barley in Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; O'Sullivan, Donal; Brown, Anthony H D; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Multilocus digenic linkage disequilibria (LD) and their population structure were investigated in eleven landrace populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) in Sardinia, using 134 dominant simple-sequence amplified polymorphism markers. The analysis of molecular variance for these markers indicated that the populations were partially differentiated (F(ST) = 0.18), and clustered into three geographic areas. Consistent with this population pattern, STRUCTURE analysis allocated individuals from a bulk of all populations into four genetic groups, and these groups also showed geographic patterns. In agreement with other molecular studies in barley, the general level of LD was low (13% of locus pairs, with P landrace populations, but that epistatic homogenising or diversifying selection was also present. Notably, the variance of the disequilibrium component was relatively high, which implies caution in the pooling of barley lines for association studies. Finally, we compared the analyses of multilocus structure in barley landrace populations with parallel analyses in both composite crosses of barley on the one hand and in natural populations of wild barley on the other. Neither of these serves as suitable mimics of landraces in barley, which require their own study. Overall, the results suggest that these populations can be exploited for LD mapping if population structure is controlled.

  9. Mating, hybridisation and introgression in Lasius ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Have, Tom; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    Recent reviews have shown that hybridisation among ant species is likely to be more common than previously appreci-ated, but that documented cases of introgression remain rare. After molecular phylogenetic work had shown that Euro-pean Lasius niger (LINNAEUS, 1758) and L. psammophilus SEIFERT, 1992...... (formerly L. alienus (FOERSTER, 1850)) are unlikely to be very closely related, we decided to analyse an old data set confirming the conclusion by PEARSON (1983) that these two ants can indeed form viable hybrids. We show that signatures of introgression can be detected in a Danish site...... sympatrically. This would imply that multiple accessible field sites are available to study the molecular details of hybridisation and in-trogression between two ant species that have variable degrees of sympatry throughout their distributional ranges...

  10. Introgression of High Yield Genes from Lycopersicon hirsutum acc. LA1777 Using CAPS Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong; WANG Xiao-xuan; SONG Ming; GAO Jian-chang; GUO Yan-mei; ZHU De-wei; DAI Shan-shu; DU Yong-chen

    2007-01-01

    The idea behind this study is to show that using high yield genes from a wild tomato can enrich tomato breeding resources and accelerate tomato breeding programs. In this study, the near-isogenic line TA1229 containing a 24-cM introgression at the bottom of chromosome 1 from Lycopersicon acc. LA1777, affects several higher yield traits. The TA1229 × 9706 BC1population was analyzed by marker-assisted selection and the traits of the population were evaluated. Twenty-three recombinant individuals that carried a shorter segment than TA1229 were obtained. Among them, 16 lines with the chromosome 1 recombinant segment can increase tomato yield and a QTL affecting yield was found between TG53 and TG158. Sixteen recombinant lines are useful to improve the tomato variety.

  11. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  12. Comparative Transmission Genetics of Introgressed Chromatin in Gossypium Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAGHMARE Vijay N; RONG Jun-kang; ROGERS Carl J; BOWERS John E; PATERSON Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    @@ Wild relatives and un-adapted germplasm of crop species harbors several adaptive traits.Introgression of genes for economic and adaptive traits brings in novel genetic variation into the gene pools of many crops including cotton.We compared patterns of introgression into polyploid Gossypium hirsuture from its sister G.tomentosum,and from G.barbadense representing a different clade tracing to the same polyploidization.Advanced-generation populations,resulting from recurrent backcrossing to G.hirsutum,show a paucity of G.tomentosum alleles and severe deficiencies of homozygotes.

  13. Screening for disease resistance in barley cultivars against Bipolaris sorokiniana using callus culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Ramesh; Sen, Devyani; Prasad, K D; Singh, A K; Bashyal, B M; Prasad, L C; Joshi, A K

    2008-04-01

    Screening for resistant barley genotypes in response to fungal toxin of Bipolaris sorokiniana was assessed on standing barley plants as well as in selected callus lines of the same. For the standing lines tested, those manifesting chlorosis in response to toxin infiltration showed a significantly slower disease progress as compared to the necrotic lines. Also, necrosis in the callus tissues of the susceptible cultivar in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of the crude toxin was significantly higher than in the callus tissues of the chlorotic lines studied. Similar host response to the toxin in in vitro and field situations open up the possibility of screening barley cultivars for resistance to spot blotch using callus culture as against classical methods of screening in order to increase accuracy and save time and space.

  14. Rapid and targeted introgression of genes into popular wheat cultivars using marker-assisted background selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpinder S Randhawa

    Full Text Available A marker-assisted background selection (MABS-based gene introgression approach in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was optimized, where 97% or more of a recurrent parent genome (RPG can be recovered in just two backcross (BC generations. A four-step MABS method was developed based on 'Plabsim' computer simulations and wheat genome structure information. During empirical optimization of this method, double recombinants around the target gene were selected in a step-wise fashion during the two BC cycles followed by selection for recurrent parent genotype on non-carrier chromosomes. The average spacing between carrier chromosome markers was <4 cM. For non-carrier chromosome markers that flanked each of the 48 wheat gene-rich regions, this distance was approximately 12 cM. Employed to introgress seedling stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance gene Yr15 into the spring wheat cultivar 'Zak', marker analysis of 2,187 backcross-derived progeny resulted in the recovery of a BC(2F(2ratio3 plant with 97% of the recurrent parent genome. In contrast, only 82% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in phenotypically selected BC(4F(7 plants developed without MABS. Field evaluation results from 17 locations indicated that the MABS-derived line was either equal or superior to the recurrent parent for the tested agronomic characteristics. Based on these results, MABS is recommended as a strategy for rapidly introgressing a targeted gene into a wheat genotype in just two backcross generations while recovering 97% or more of the recurrent parent genotype.

  15. Introgression of opaque2 into Waxy Maize Causes Extensive Biochemical and Proteomic Changes in Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zhou

    Full Text Available Waxy maize is prevalently grown in China and other countries due to the excellent characters and economic value. However, its low content of lysine can't meet the nutritional requirements of humans and livestock. In the present study, we introgressed the opaque2 (o2 allele into waxy maize line Zhao OP-6/O2O2 by using marker-assisted selection (MAS technique and successfully improved the lysine content and quality of waxy maize. Transcript abundance analysis indicated that the wx1 expression levels had no difference between Zhao OP-6/o2o2 and Zhao OP-6/O2O2. However, Zhao OP-6/o2o2 was characterized by a phenotype of hard and vitreous kernels and accumulation of protein bodies at smaller size (one third of that of parents but in larger numbers. Biochemical analyses showed that Zhao OP-6/o2o2 had 16.7% less free amino acids than Zhao OP-6/O2O2, especially those derived from glycolytic intermediates, but its content of lysine was increased by 51.6% (0.47% vs. 0.31%. The content of amylopectin was 98.5% in Zhao OP-6/o2o2, significantly higher than that in Zhao OP-6/O2O2 (97.7%. Proteomic analyses indicated that o2 introgression not only decreased the accumulation of various zein proteins except for 27-kDa γ-zein, but also affected other endosperm proteins related to amino acid biosynthesis, starch-protein balance, stress response and signal transduction. This study gives us an intriguing insight into the metabolism changes in endosperm of waxy maize introgressed with opaque2.

  16. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring i...

  17. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  18. Introgression browser: high-throughput whole-genome SNP visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves Aflitos, S.; Sanchez-Perez, G.; de Ridder, D.; Fransz, P.; Schranz, M.E.; de Jong, H.; Peters, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding by introgressive hybridization is a pivotal strategy to broaden the genetic basis of crops. Usually, the desired traits are monitored in consecutive crossing generations by marker-assisted selection, but their analyses fail in chromosome regions where crossover recombinants are rare or not

  19. Introgression Browser: High throughput whole-genome SNP visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aflitos, S.A.; Aflitos, S.A.; Sanchez Perez, G.F.; Ridder, de D.; Fransz, P.; Schranz, M.E.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Peters, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding by introgressive hybridization is a pivotal strategy to broaden the genetic basis of crops. Usually, the desired traits are monitored in consecutive crossing generations by marker-assisted selection, but their analyses fail in chromosome regions where crossover recombinants are rare or not

  20. Genome scans reveal candidate domestication and improvement genes in cultivated sunflower, as well as post-domestication introgression with wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baute, Gregory J; Kane, Nolan C; Grassa, Christopher J; Lai, Zhao; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-04-01

    The development of modern crops typically involves both selection and hybridization, but to date most studies have focused on the former. In the present study, we explore how both processes, and their interactions, have molded the genome of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus), a globally important oilseed. To identify genes targeted by selection during the domestication and improvement of sunflower, and to detect post-domestication hybridization with wild species, we analyzed transcriptome sequences of 80 genotypes, including wild, landrace, and modern lines of H. annuus, as well as two cross-compatible wild relatives, Helianthus argophyllus and Helianthus petiolaris. Outlier analyses identified 122 and 15 candidate genes associated with domestication and improvement, respectively. As in several previous studies, genes putatively involved in oil biosynthesis were the most extreme outliers. Additionally, several promising associations were observed with previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs), such as branching. Admixture analyses revealed that all the modern cultivar genomes we examined contained one or more introgressions from wild populations, with every chromosome having evidence of introgression in at least one modern line. Cumulatively, introgressions cover c. 10% of the cultivated sunflower genome. Surprisingly, introgressions do not avoid candidate domestication genes, probably because of the reintroduction of branching.

  1. Reintroduction of a Homocysteine Level-Associated Allele into East Asians by Neanderthal Introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ya; Ding, Qiliang; He, Yungang; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present an analysis of Neanderthal introgression at the dipeptidase 1 gene, DPEP1. A Neanderthal origin for the putative introgressive haplotypes was demonstrated using an established three-step approach. This introgression was under positive natural selection, reached a frequency of >50%, and introduced a homocysteine level- and pigmentation-associated allele (rs460879-T) into East Asians. However, the same allele was also found in non-East Asians, but not from Neanderthal introgression. It is likely that rs460879-T was lost in East Asians and was reintroduced subsequently through Neanderthal introgression. Our findings suggest that Neanderthal introgression could reintroduce an important previously existing allele into populations where the allele had been lost. This study sheds new light on understanding the contribution of Neanderthal introgression to the adaptation of non-Africans.

  2. Barley genotypic β-glucan variation combined with enzymatic modifications direct its potential as a natural ingredient in a high fiber extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette S.; Meier, Sebastian; Jensen, Morten G.

    2017-01-01

    β-Glucan was extracted from eight different barley genotypes varying in β-glucan content and molecular structure using Termamyl® SC (T), Attenuzyme® (A) and Attenuzyme® Flex (AF) amylolytic enzymes in combinations. Extracts from barley lines Lys5f, KVL408, KVL1104 and CDC Fibar exceeded 4 g β-glu...

  3. Introgression browser: high-throughput whole-genome SNP visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflitos, Saulo Alves; Sanchez-Perez, Gabino; de Ridder, Dick; Fransz, Paul; Schranz, Michael E; de Jong, Hans; Peters, Sander A

    2015-04-01

    Breeding by introgressive hybridization is a pivotal strategy to broaden the genetic basis of crops. Usually, the desired traits are monitored in consecutive crossing generations by marker-assisted selection, but their analyses fail in chromosome regions where crossover recombinants are rare or not viable. Here, we present the Introgression Browser (iBrowser), a bioinformatics tool aimed at visualizing introgressions at nucleotide or SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) accuracy. The software selects homozygous SNPs from Variant Call Format (VCF) information and filters out heterozygous SNPs, multi-nucleotide polymorphisms (MNPs) and insertion-deletions (InDels). For data analysis iBrowser makes use of sliding windows, but if needed it can generate any desired fragmentation pattern through General Feature Format (GFF) information. In an example of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions we visualize SNP patterns and elucidate both position and boundaries of the introgressions. We also show that our tool is capable of identifying alien DNA in a panel of the closely related S. pimpinellifolium by examining phylogenetic relationships of the introgressed segments in tomato. In a third example, we demonstrate the power of the iBrowser in a panel of 597 Arabidopsis accessions, detecting the boundaries of a SNP-free region around a polymorphic 1.17 Mbp inverted segment on the short arm of chromosome 4. The architecture and functionality of iBrowser makes the software appropriate for a broad set of analyses including SNP mining, genome structure analysis, and pedigree analysis. Its functionality, together with the capability to process large data sets and efficient visualization of sequence variation, makes iBrowser a valuable breeding tool.

  4. Perennial aneuploidy as a potential material for gene introgression between maize and Zea perennis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jie; TANG Qi-lin; YANG Xiu-yan; CHENG Ming-jun; LÜ Gui-hua; WANG Pei; WU Yuan-qi; ZHENG Ming-min; ZHOU Shu-feng; RONG Ting-zhao

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization, which al ows for gene lfow between crops, is dififcult between maize and Zea perennis. In this study, we aim to initiate and study gene lfow between maize and Z. perennis via a special aneuploid plant (MDT) derived from an interspeciifc hybrid of the two species. The chromosome constitution and morphological characters of MDT as wel as certain backcross progenies were examined. Results from genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) indicate that aneuploid MDT consisted of nine maize chromosomes and 30 Z. perennis chromosomes. The backcross progenies of MDT×maize displayed signiifcant diversity of vegetative and ear morphology;several unusual plants with speciifc chromosome constitution were founded in its progenies. Some special perennial progeny with several maize chromosomes were obtained by backcrossing MDT with Z. perennis, and the ifrst whole chromosome introgression from maize to Z. perennis was detected in this study. With this novel material and method, a number of maize-tetraploid teosinte addition or substitution lines can be generated for further study, which has great signiifcance to maize and Z. perennis genetic research, especial y for promoting introgression and transferring desirable traits.

  5. Cultivar-Based Introgression Mapping Reveals Wild Species-Derived Pm-0, the Major Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus in Squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, William L; LaPlant, Kyle E; Bell, Duane C; Jahn, Molly M; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection.

  6. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight...... into these aspects four experiments were set up; (1) a mapping experiment aiming at identifying QTL’s controlling disease levels under field conditions was conducted in two winterbarley populations. (2) a toxin assay testing the parental lines used in the mapping populations for response to Rubellin D was developed....... (3) microarray analysis of transcriptional response in barley to inoculation with R. collo-cygni was carried out, and finally the (4) population genetic structure of R. collo-cygni was assessed by AFLP and gene sequencing. Based on these experiments interaction was compared to the interactions of C...

  7. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribut...

  8. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribut...

  9. Induction of beta-1,3-glucanase in barley in response to infection by fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutidamrongphan, W; Andersen, J B; Mackinnon, G; Manners, J M; Simpson, R S; Scott, K J

    1991-05-01

    The sequence of a partial cDNA clone corresponding to an mRNA induced in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) by infection with fungal pathogens matched almost perfectly with that of a cDNA clone coding for beta-1,-3-glucanase isolated from the scutellum of barley. Western blot analysis of intercellular proteins from near-isogenic barley lines inoculated with the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) showed a strong induction of glucanase in all inoculated lines but was most pronounced in two resistant lines. These data were confirmed by beta-1,3-glucanase assays. The barley cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to detect mRNAs in barley, wheat (Triticum aestivum), rice (oryza sativus), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which are induced by infection with the necrotrophic pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. These results demonstrate that activation of beta-1,3-glucanase genes may be a general response of cereals to infection by fungal pathogens.

  10. Cisgenic barley for animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Service and Sejet Plant Breeding based on the Cisgenesis concept. Cisgenesis implies that the plants are transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material and that the final Cisgenic plants have to be free of any foreign genes. The Cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction...... of extra gene copies of a particular gene whereby a particular trait can be accentuated. Transgenic crops generated by the Cisgenesis concept are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. In our part of the project we are focusing on barley phytases as candidate genes...... using a genomic barley lambda library. The clone has been inserted into a Cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. T0-plants show...

  11. Introgression versus immigration in hybridizing high-dispersal echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Fiona M; Addison, Jason A; Hart, Michael W

    2007-10-01

    Phylogeographic studies designed to estimate rates and patterns of genetic differentiation within species often reveal unexpected and graphically striking cases of allele or haplotype sharing between species (introgression) via hybridization and backcrossing. Does introgression between species significantly influence population genetic structure relative to more conventional sources of differentiation (drift) and similarity (dispersal) among populations within species? Here we use mtDNA sequences from four species in two genera of sea urchins and sea stars to quantify the relative magnitude of gene flow across oceans and across species boundaries in the context of the trans-Arctic interchange of marine organisms between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. In spite of the much smaller distances between sympatric congeners, rates of gene flow between sympatric species via heterospecific gamete interactions were small and significantly lower than gene flow across oceans via dispersal of planktonic larvae. We conclude that, in these cases at least, larvae are more effective than gametes as vectors of gene flow.

  12. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the pre

  13. Issues surrounding health claims for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Nancy P; Rhymer, Camille R

    2008-06-01

    Government-approved health claims support dietary intervention as a safe and practical approach to improving consumer health and provide industry with regulatory guidelines for food product labels. Claims already allowed in the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands for reducing cholesterol through consumption of oat or barley soluble fiber provide a basis for review, but each country may have different criteria for assessing clinical evidence for a physiological effect. For example, the FDA-approved barley health claim was based on a petition that included 39 animal model studies and 11 human clinical trials. Since then, more studies have been published, but with few exceptions, clinical data continue to demonstrate that the consumption of barley products is effective for lowering total and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to fully understand the mechanism of cholesterol reduction and the role of beta-glucan molecular weight, viscosity, and solubility. In an assessment of the physiological efficacy of a dietary intervention, consideration should also be given to the potential impact of physical and thermal food-processing treatments and genotypic variation in the barley source. New barley cultivars have been generated specifically for food use, possessing increased beta-glucan, desirable starch composition profiles, and improved milling/processing traits. These advances in barley production, coupled with the establishment of a government-regulated health claim for barley beta-glucan, will stimulate new processing opportunities for barley foods and provide consumers with reliable, healthy food choices.

  14. Genetic and phenotypic consequences of introgression between humans and Neanderthals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Strong evidence for introgression of Neanderthal genes into parts of the modern human gene pool has recently emerged. The evidence indicates that some populations of modern humans have received infusions of genes from two different groups of Neanderthals. One of these Neanderthal groups lived in the Middle East and Central Europe and the other group (the Denisovans) is known to have lived in Central Asia and was probably more widespread. This review examines two questions. First, how were these introgressions detected and what does the genetic evidence tell us about their nature and extent? We will see that an unknown but possibly large fraction of the entire Neanderthal gene complement may have survived in modern humans. Even though each modern European and Asian carries only a few percent of genes that can be traced back to Neanderthals, different individuals carry different subgroups of these introgressed genes. Second, what is the likelihood that this Neanderthal genetic legacy has had phenotypic effects on modern humans? We examine evidence for and against the possibility that some of the surviving fragments of Neanderthal genomes have been preserved by natural selection, and we explore the ways in which more evidence bearing on this question will become available in the future.

  15. An introgressed wing pattern acts as a mating cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Angela P; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Enciso-Romero, Juan; Muñoz, Astrid; Jiggins, Chris D; Salazar, Camilo; Linares, Mauricio

    2015-06-01

    Heliconius butterflies provide good examples of both homoploid hybrid speciation and ecological speciation. In particular, examples of adaptive introgression have been detected among the subspecies of Heliconius timareta, which acquired red color pattern elements from H. melpomene. We tested whether the introgression of red wing pattern elements into H. timareta florencia might also be associated with incipient reproductive isolation (RI) from its close relative, H. timareta subsp. nov., found in the eastern Andes. No choice experiments show a 50% reduction in mating between females of H. t. subsp. nov. and males of H .t. florencia, but not in the reciprocal direction. In choice experiments using wing models, males of H. timareta subsp. nov. approach and court red phenotypes less than their own, whereas males of H. t. florencia prefer models with a red phenotype. Intrinsic postzygotic isolation was not detected in crosses between these H. timareta races. These results suggest that a color pattern trait gained by introgression is triggering RI between H. timareta subsp. nov. and H. t. florencia.

  16. Enzymatic fingerprinting of arabinoxylan and β-glucan in triticale, barley and tritordeum grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, A; Saulnier, L; Aman, P; Andersson, R

    2012-10-15

    Enzymatic fingerprinting of arabinoxylan (AX) and β-glucan using endo-xylanase and lichenase, respectively, helps determine the structural heterogeneity between different cereals and within genotypes of the same cereal. This study characterised the structural features of AX and β-glucan in whole grains of eight triticale cultivars grown at two locations, 20 barley cultivars/lines with wide variation in composition and morphology and five tritordeum breeding lines. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in clear clustering of these cereals. In general, barley and tritordeum had a higher relative proportion of highly branched arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) than triticale. Subsequent analysis of triticale revealed two clusters based on growing region along principal component (PC) 1, while PC2 explained the genetic variability and was based on mono-substitution and di-substitution in AX fragments. PCA of β-glucan features separated the three cereals based on β-glucan content. The molar ratio of trisaccharide to tetrasaccharide was 2.5-3.4 in triticale, 2.3-3.3 in barley and 2.8-3.4 in tritordeum. Barley showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.86) between β-glucan content and relative proportion of trisaccharide. The results show that structural features of AX and β-glucan vary between and within triticale, barley and tritordeum grains which might be important determinants of end-use quality of grains.

  17. The Effect of Homoeologous Meiotic Pairing in Tetraploid Hordeum bulbosum L. × H. vulgare L. Hybrids on Alien Introgressions in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Margret; Pendinen, Galina

    2016-01-01

    The pairing behaviour of the individual chromosome arms of Hordeum vulgare (Hv) with their homoeologous arms of H. bulbosum (Hb) at metaphase I of meiosis in tetraploid Hb × Hv hybrids and the frequencies of recombined Hv chromosome arms in selfed offspring were studied on differentially visualized chromosomes after fluorescent in situ hybridisation. The frequencies of paired Hv-Hb arms in the F2 and F3 hybrids were correlated with the frequencies of recombined Hv chromosomes in progenies. Self-generation of hybrids, the number of Hv and Hb chromosomes, and the number of recombined Hv chromosomes of the hybrids strongly influenced the Hv-Hb pairing frequency in meiosis. Within the offspring of F2 and F3 hybrids both Hv plants and hybrids were detected. In contrast, all progenies of the F4 hybrid were hybrids which exhibited centromere misdivisions. The highest frequencies of homoeologous pairing in hybrids and most recombinants were obtained for the barley chromosome 1HL. Recombinants for 4HL, 5HS, 6HS, and 7HS were rarely found. Meiotic pairing and recombinants involving chromosome 1HS were never observed. The results of this study demonstrate that fertile tetraploid interspecific hybrids with a high intergenomic pairing at meiosis are valuable basic material for introgression breeding in barley.

  18. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  19. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  20. Population structure of barley landrace populations and gene-flow with modern varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Elisa; Bitocchi, Elena; Rau, Domenico; Nanni, Laura; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Giardini, Alessandro; Rodriguez, Monica; Attene, Giovanna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Landraces are heterogeneous plant varieties that are reproduced by farmers as populations that are subject to both artificial and natural selection. Landraces are distinguished by farmers due to their specific traits, and different farmers often grow different populations of the same landrace. We used simple sequence repeats (SSRs) to analyse 12 barley landrace populations from Sardinia from two collections spanning 10 years. We analysed the population structure, and compared the population diversity of the landraces that were collected at field level (population). We used a representative pool of barley varieties for diversity comparisons and to analyse the effects of gene flow from modern varieties. We found that the Sardinian landraces are a distinct gene pool from those of both two-row and six-row barley varieties. There is also a low, but significant, mean level and population-dependent level of introgression from the modern varieties into the Sardinian landraces. Moreover, we show that the Sardinian landraces have the same level of gene diversity as the representative sample of modern commercial varieties grown in Italy in the last decades, even within population level. Thus, these populations represent crucial sources of germplasm that will be useful for crop improvement and for population genomics studies and association mapping, to identify genes, loci and genome regions responsible for adaptive variations. Our data also suggest that landraces are a source of valuable germplasm for sustainable agriculture in the context of future climate change, and that in-situ conservation strategies based on farmer use can preserve the genetic identity of landraces while allowing adaptation to local environments.

  1. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pecchioni, N.

    2013-01-01

    The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT) population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 sit

  2. Quantitative trait locus analysis of nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindu, G.A.; Tang, J.; Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was conducted on data generated from two pot experiments carried out in 2005 (using four nitrogen rates) and 2008 (with three rates) with AFLP markers and 94 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the

  3. New starch phenotypes produced by TILLING in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sparla

    Full Text Available Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1, GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I, LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1, SSI (Starch Synthase I, SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa. Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications.

  4. Improving the nutritional quality of the barley and wheat grain storage proteins by antisense technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Lange, Mette; Aaslo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Prolamins are the predominant storage proteins in barley and wheat grains, accounting for 50 to 80% of total seed protein. However, the prolamins are not optimal feed for monogastric animals as they have a low content of certain essential amino acids such as lysine, threonine and tryptophan...... gliadins) are also available from Germany and UK. We have grown them under different N regimes (high, medium and low N) in semi-field conditions. Previously five different antisense C-hordein lines of barley have been characterized in our laboratory. The analyses revealed that the lysine, threonine...

  5. Interaction of barley powdery mildew effector candidate CSEP0055 with the defence protein PR17c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Pedersen, Carsten; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J;

    2012-01-01

    A large number of effector candidates have been identified recently in powdery mildew fungi. However, their roles and how they perform their functions remain unresolved. In this study, we made use of host-induced gene silencing and confirmed that the secreted barley powdery mildew effector...... with PR17c was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses. Down-regulation and over-expression of PR17c in epidermal cells of barley confirmed that this protein is important for penetration resistance against the powdery mildew fungus. In line with this, PR17c was found...

  6. Introgression of A- and B-genome of tetraploid triticale chromatin into tetraploid rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, H; Kwiatek, M; Kulak-Książczyk, S; Apolinarska, B

    2013-11-01

    An improvement of rye is one of the mainstream goals of current breeding. Our study is concerned with the introduction of the tetraploid triticale (ABRR) into the 4x rye (RRRR) using classical methods of distant crossing. One hundred fifty BC1F9 hybrid plants [(4x rye × 4x triticales) × 4x rye] obtained from a backcrossing program were studied. The major aim of this work was to verify the presence of an introgressed A- and B- genome chromatin of triticale in a collection of the 4x rye-tiritcale hybrids and to determine their chromosome compositions. In the present study, karyotypes of the previously reported BC1F2s and BC1F3s were compared with that of the BC1F9 generation as obtained after several subsequent open pollinations. The genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) allowed us to identify 133 introgression forms in which chromosome numbers ranged between 26 and 32. Using four DNA probes (5S rDNA, 25S rDNA, pSc119.2 and pAs1), the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was carried out to facilitate an exact chromosome identification in the hybrid plants. The combination of the multi-colour GISH with the repetitive DNA FISH singled out five types of translocated chromosomes: 2A.2R, 4A.4R, 5A.5R, 5B.5R and 7A.7R among the examined BC1F9s. The reported translocation lines could serve as valuable sources of wheat chromatin suitable for further improvements of rye.

  7. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  8. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  9. A Japanese powdery mildew isolate with exceptionally large infection efficience on Mlo-resistant barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Jensen, H.P.; Østergård, Hanne

    1995-01-01

    A Japanese field isolate (Race I) of Erysiphe graminis f,sp. hordei was tested on 17 barley lines carrying the mlo powdery mildew resistance gene. Race I produced many successful infections with infection type larger than or equal to 2 on six lines (M66, MC20, SR1, SR7, Atem and Totem). On the re......A Japanese field isolate (Race I) of Erysiphe graminis f,sp. hordei was tested on 17 barley lines carrying the mlo powdery mildew resistance gene. Race I produced many successful infections with infection type larger than or equal to 2 on six lines (M66, MC20, SR1, SR7, Atem and Totem...

  10. Genetic Introgression and the Survival of Florida Panther Kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Nichols, James D; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2010-11-01

    Estimates of survival for the young of a species are critical for population models. These models can often be improved by determining the effects of management actions and population abundance on this demographic parameter. We used multiple sources of data collected during 1982-2008 and a live recapture-dead recovery modeling framework to estimate and model survival of Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) kittens (age 0 - 1 year). Overall, annual survival of Florida panther kittens was 0.323 ± 0.071 (SE), which was lower than estimates used in previous population models. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released into occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression program to restore genetic variability. We found that kitten survival generally increased with degree of admixture: F(1) admixed and backcrossed to Texas kittens survived better than canonical Florida panther and backcrossed to canonical kittens. Average heterozygosity positively influenced kitten and older panther survival, whereas index of panther abundance negatively influenced kitten survival. Our results provide strong evidence for the positive population-level impact of genetic introgression on Florida panthers. Our approach to integrate data from multiple sources was effective at improving robustness as well as precision of estimates of Florida panther kitten survival, and can be useful in estimating vital rates for other elusive species with sparse data.

  11. Genetic introgression and the survival of Florida panther kittens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Onorato, David P.; Nichols, James D.; Johnson, Warren E.; Roelke, Melody E.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K.

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of survival for the young of a species are critical for population models. These models can often be improved by determining the effects of management actions and population abundance on this demographic parameter. We used multiple sources of data collected during 1982–2008 and a live-recapture dead-recovery modeling framework to estimate and model survival of Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) kittens (age 0–1 year). Overall, annual survival of Florida panther kittens was 0.323 ± 0.071 (SE), which was lower than estimates used in previous population models. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released into occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression program to restore genetic variability. We found that kitten survival generally increased with degree of admixture: F1 admixed and backcrossed to Texas kittens survived better than canonical Florida panther and backcrossed to canonical kittens. Average heterozygosity positively influenced kitten and older panther survival, whereas index of panther abundance negatively influenced kitten survival. Our results provide strong evidence for the positive population-level impact of genetic introgression on Florida panthers. Our approach to integrate data from multiple sources was effective at improving robustness as well as precision of estimates of Florida panther kitten survival, and can be useful in estimating vital rates for other elusive species with sparse data.

  12. Discordant introgression in a rapidly expanding hybrid swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica L.; Blum, Mike J.; Walters, David M.; Porter, Brady A.; Burkhead, Noel; Freeman, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The erosion of species boundaries can involve rapid evolutionary change. Consequently, many aspects of the process remain poorly understood, including the formation, expansion, and evolution of hybrid swarms. Biological invasions involving hybridization present exceptional opportunities to study the erosion of species boundaries because timelines of interactions and outcomes are frequently well known. Here, we examined clinal variation across codominant and maternally inherited genetic markers as well as phenotypic traits to characterize the expansion and evolution of a hybrid swarm between native Cyprinella venusta and invasive Cyprinella lutrensis minnows. Discordant introgression of phenotype, microsatellite multilocus genotype, and mtDNA haplotype indicates that the observable expansion of the C. venusta x C. lutrensis hybrid swarm is a false invasion front. Both parental and hybrid individuals closely resembling C. lutrensis are numerically dominant in the expansion wake, indicating that the non-native parental phenotype may be selectively favored. These findings show that cryptic introgression can extend beyond the phenotypic boundaries of hybrid swarms and that hybrid swarms likely expand more rapidly than can be documented from phenotypic variation alone. Similarly, dominance of a single parental phenotype following an introduction event may lead to instances of species erosion being mistaken for species displacement without hybridization.

  13. Enhancing the aluminium tolerance of barley by expressing the citrate transporter genes SbMATE and FRD3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Pereira, Jorge F; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Ryan, Peter R

    2014-06-01

    Malate and citrate efflux from root apices is a mechanism of Al(3+) tolerance in many plant species. Citrate efflux is facilitated by members of the MATE (multidrug and toxic compound exudation) family localized to the plasma membrane of root cells. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is among the most Al(3+)-sensitive cereal species but the small genotypic variation in tolerance that is present is correlated with citrate efflux via a MATE transporter named HvAACT1. This study used a biotechnological approach to increase the Al(3+) tolerance of barley by transforming it with two MATE genes that encode citrate transporters: SbMATE is the major Al(3+)-tolerance gene from sorghum whereas FRD3 is involved with Fe nutrition in Arabidopsis. Independent transgenic and null T3 lines were generated for both transgenes. Lines expressing SbMATE showed Al(3+)-activated citrate efflux from root apices and greater tolerance to Al(3+) toxicity than nulls in hydroponic and short-term soil trials. Transgenic lines expressing FRD3 exhibited similar phenotypes except citrate release from roots occurred constitutively. The Al(3+) tolerance of these lines was compared with previously generated transgenic barley lines overexpressing the endogenous HvAACT1 gene and the TaALMT1 gene from wheat. Barley lines expressing TaALMT1 showed significantly greater Al(3+) tolerance than all lines expressing MATE genes. This study highlights the relative efficacy of different organic anion transport proteins for increasing the Al(3+) tolerance of an important crop species.

  14. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  15. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...

  16. An HMM-based comparative genomic framework for detecting introgression in eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One outcome of interspecific hybridization and subsequent effects of evolutionary forces is introgression, which is the integration of genetic material from one species into the genome of an individual in another species. The evolution of several groups of eukaryotic species has involved hybridization, and cases of adaptation through introgression have been already established. In this work, we report on PhyloNet-HMM-a new comparative genomic framework for detecting introgression in genomes. PhyloNet-HMM combines phylogenetic networks with hidden Markov models (HMMs to simultaneously capture the (potentially reticulate evolutionary history of the genomes and dependencies within genomes. A novel aspect of our work is that it also accounts for incomplete lineage sorting and dependence across loci. Application of our model to variation data from chromosome 7 in the mouse (Mus musculus domesticus genome detected a recently reported adaptive introgression event involving the rodent poison resistance gene Vkorc1, in addition to other newly detected introgressed genomic regions. Based on our analysis, it is estimated that about 9% of all sites within chromosome 7 are of introgressive origin (these cover about 13 Mbp of chromosome 7, and over 300 genes. Further, our model detected no introgression in a negative control data set. We also found that our model accurately detected introgression and other evolutionary processes from synthetic data sets simulated under the coalescent model with recombination, isolation, and migration. Our work provides a powerful framework for systematic analysis of introgression while simultaneously accounting for dependence across sites, point mutations, recombination, and ancestral polymorphism.

  17. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  18. Evaluation of Barley as Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Köten

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley, as animal feed, raw material for malting and human food, constitute an important part among cereal sources in the world. Majority of barley that produced both in Turkey and other countries of the world, is being used as animal feed. Poor baking quality, taste and appearance of barley restricted its use in human nutrition. However, recently high protein, fiber, especially β-glucan and high starch content appeal to food industry. Many scientific researches established that β-glucan, a soluble fiber, has an effect in healing coronary-hearth diseases, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level, preventing obesity. Being a healthy cereal that can be used in various purposes, and an additive in many food products, barley is considered a very promising cereal, and research to increase possibilities of its use in human nutrition is being increased. In the literature, there has been researches on making noodles, bulgur, kavut (roasted cereal, breakfast cereals. In this study the researches relating to evaluation of barley, importance of which is increased every day, as human food was reviewed.

  19. Introgression of mitochondrial DNA among lineages in a hybridogenetic ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, Hugo; Aron, Serge

    2015-02-01

    We report a remarkable pattern of incongruence between nuclear and mitochondrial variations in a social insect, the desert ant Cataglyphis hispanica. This species reproduces by social hybridogenesis. In all populations, two distinct genetic lineages coexist; non-reproductive workers develop from hybrid crosses between the lineages, whereas reproductive offspring (males and new queens) are typically produced asexually by parthenogenesis. Genetic analyses based on nuclear markers revealed that the two lineages remain highly differentiated despite constant hybridization for worker production. Here, we show that, in contrast with nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) does not recover the two lineages as monophyletic. Rather, mitochondrial haplotypes cluster according to their geographical origin. We argue that this cytonuclear incongruence stems from introgression of mtDNA among lineages, and review the mechanisms likely to explain this pattern under social hybridogenesis.

  20. Development of DNA markers associated with beer foam stability for barley breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Ichikawa, Seiichiro; Ito, Kazutoshi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Traits conferring brewing quality are important objectives in malting barley breeding. Beer foam stability is one of the more difficult traits to evaluate due to the requirement for a relatively large amount of grain to be malted and then the experimental costs for subsequent brewing trials. Consequently, foam stability tends to be evaluated with only advanced lines in the final stages of the breeding process. To simplify the evaluation and selection for this trait, efficient DNA makers were developed in this study. Previous studies have suggested that the level of both of the foam-associated proteins Z4 and Z7 were possible factors that influenced beer foam stability. To confirm the relationship between levels of these proteins in beer and foam stability, 24 beer samples prepared from malt made from 10 barley cultivars, were examined. Regression analyses suggested that beer proteins Z4 and Z7 could be positive and negative markers for beer foam stability, respectively. To develop DNA markers associated with contents of proteins Z4 and Z7 in barley grain, nucleotide sequence polymorphisms in barley cultivars in the upstream region of the translation initiation codon, where the promoter region might be located were compared. As a result, 5 and 23 nucleotide sequence polymorphisms were detected in protein Z4 and protein Z7, respectively. By using these polymorphisms, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers were developed. The CAPS markers for proteins Z4 and Z7 were applied to classify the barley grain content of 23 barley cultivars into two protein Z4 (pZ4-H and pZ4-L) and three protein Z7 (the pZ7-H, pZ7-L and pZ7-L2) haplotypes, respectively. Barley cultivars with pZ4-H showed significantly higher levels of protein Z4 in grain, and those with pZ7-L and pZ7-L2 showed significantly lower levels of protein Z7 in grain. Beer foam stability in the cultivars with pZ4-H and pZ7-L was significantly higher than that with pZ4-L and pZ7-H, respectively. Our

  1. A semidwarf phenotype of barley uzu results from a nucleotide substitution in the gene encoding a putative brassinosteroid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Saisho, Daisuke; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Takatsuto, Suguru; Hoshino, Tsuguhiro; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-11-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles throughout plant growth and development. Despite the importance of clarifying the mechanism of BR-related growth regulation in cereal crops, BR-related cereal mutants have been identified only in rice (Oryza sativa). We previously found that semidwarf barley (Hordeum vulgare) accessions carrying the "uzu" gene, called "uzu" barley in Japan, are non-responding for brassinolide (BL). We then performed chemical and molecular analyses to clarify the mechanisms of uzu dwarfism using isogenic line pairs of uzu gene. The response of the uzu line to BL was significantly lower than that of its corresponding normal line. Measurement of BRs showed that the uzu line accumulates BRs, similar to known BR-insensitive mutants. The marker synteny of rice and barley chromosomes suggests that the uzu gene may be homologous to rice D61, a rice homolog of Arabidopsis BR-insensitive 1 (BRI1), encoding a BR-receptor protein. A barley homolog of BRI1, HvBRI1, was isolated by using degenerate primers. A comparison of HvBRI1 sequences in uzu and normal barley varieties showed that the uzu phenotype is correlated with a single nucleotide substitution. This substitution results in an amino acid change at a highly conserved residue in the kinase domain of the BR-receptor protein. These results may indicate that uzu dwarfism is caused by the missense mutation in HvBRI1. The uzu gene is being introduced into all hull-less barley cultivars in Japan as an effective dwarf gene for practical use, and this is the first report about an agronomically important mutation related to BRs.

  2. An LRR/malectin receptor-like kinase mediates resistance to non-adapted and adapted powdery mildew fungi in barley and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaraman Rajaraman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for required for nonhost resistance 8 encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates nonhost resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating nonhost resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  3. An LRR/Malectin Receptor-Like Kinase Mediates Resistance to Non-adapted and Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungi in Barley and Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Stefanato, Francesca L; Gordon, Anna; Ereful, Nelzo; Caldararu, Octav F; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Kumlehn, Jochen; Boyd, Lesley A; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for Required for non-host resistance 8) encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates non-host resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating non-host resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  4. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  5. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of a New Wheat Line YW443 with Resistance to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus%抗黄矮病小麦新品系YW443的分子细胞遗传学鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增艳; 辛志勇; 陈孝; 林志珊; 徐惠君; 马有志; 钱幼亭

    2000-01-01

    A new wheat line YW443 with BYDV resistance and good traits was developed from the combination of PP9-1/Shan7859//Fengkang 8. The wheat line YW443was identified by BYDV resistance analysis, genomic in situ hybridization(GISH), RFLP and RAPD analysis. The results indicated as follows: (1) YW443 was resistant to GPV and GAV strains of BYDV; (2) YW443 is a homozygous wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium translocation line with a pair of BYDV resistance genes; (3) The 7StL segment of Th. Intermedium carring BYDV resistance gene was transferred onto the distal end of the wheat chromosome 7D long arm, the line YW443 was 7DS.7DL-7StL translocation; (4) A RAPD marker OPR19-900 could detect the DNA of Th.intermedium 7StL in L1 and L1 derivatives including translocation lines YW443, YW642 etc. The markers may be used as a selecting marker for the BYDV resistance breeding program.%以小麦-中间偃麦草二体附加系L1衍生抗病系PP9-1为抗源,与小麦推广品种陕7859、丰抗8号杂交并自交,在F6代中选到农艺性状优良的高抗黄矮病小麦新品系YW443。对YW443及其亲本进行抗病性鉴定。结果表明:YW443高抗大麦黄矮病毒GPV、GAV株系。利用基因组原位杂交、RFLP分析和RAPD分析,研究YW443的遗传构成及其抗病基因染色体归属。结果表明:YW443(2n=42)的遗传构成为40条(20对)小麦染色体和2条(1对)小麦-中间偃麦草易位染色体,易位的中间偃麦草染色体片段较小,属St基因组,小麦染色体7D长臂末端片段被中间偃麦草染色体7St长臂末端片段取代,小麦新品系YW443为小麦中间偃麦草DS.7DL-7StL易位系,其抗病基因位于7StL末端。筛选出的特异RAPD标记OPR19-900,能检测出L1及其衍生抗病系的中间偃麦草染色体7StL片段,可作为鉴定抗黄矮病易位系的1个标记。

  6. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...

  7. Chromosomal loci associated with endosperm hardness in a malting barley cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra K; Panozzo, J F; Ford, R; Eckermann, P; Moody, D; Lehmensiek, A; Appels, R

    2011-01-01

    A breeding objective for the malting barley industry is to produce lines with softer, plumper grain containing moderate protein content (9-12%) as they are more likely to imbibe water readily and contain more starch per grain, which in turn produces higher levels of malt extract. In a malting barley mapping population, 'Arapiles' × 'Franklin', the most significant and robust quantitative trait locus (QTL) for endosperm hardness was observed on the short arm of chromosome 1H, across three environments over two growing seasons. This accounted for 22.6% (Horsham 2000), 26.8% (Esperance 2001), and 12.0% (Tarranyurk 2001) of the genetic variance and significantly increased endosperm hardness by 2.06-3.03 SKCS hardness units. Interestingly, Arapiles and Franklin do not vary in Ha locus alleles. Therefore, this region, near the centromere on chromosome 1H, may be of great importance when aiming to manipulate endosperm hardness and malting quality. Interestingly, this region, close to the centromere on chromosome 1H, in our study, aligns with the region of the genome that includes the HvCslF9 and the HvGlb1 genes. Potentially, one or both of these genes could be considered to be candidate genes that influence endosperm hardness in the barley grain. Additional QTLs for endosperm hardness were detected on chromosomes 2H, 3H, 6H and 7H, confirming that the hardness trait in barley is complex and multigenic, similar to many malting quality traits of interest.

  8. Propagule pressure and stream characteristics influence introgression: Cutthroat and rainbow trout in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S.N.; Olson, J.R.; Kershner, J.L.; Corbett, P.

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between introduced and native salmonids threaten the continued persistence of many inland cutthroat trout species. Environmental models have been developed to predict the spread of introgression, but few studies have assessed the role of propagule pressure. We used an extensive set of fish stocking records and geographic information system (GIS) data to produce a spatially explicit index of potential propagule pressure exerted by introduced rainbow trout in the Upper Kootenay River, British Columbia, Canada. We then used logistic regression and the information-theoretic approach to test the ability of a set of environmental and spatial variables to predict the level of introgression between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. Introgression was assessed using between four and seven co-dominant, diagnostic nuclear markers at 45 sites in 31 different streams. The best model for predicting introgression included our GIS propagule pressure index and an environmental variable that accounted for the biogeoclimatic zone of the site (r2 = 0.62). This model was 1.4 times more likely to explain introgression than the next-best model, which consisted of only the propagule pressure index variable. We created a composite model based on the model-averaged results of the seven top models that included environmental, spatial, and propagule pressure variables. The propagule pressure index had the highest importance weight (0.995) of all variables tested and was negatively related to sites with no introgression. This study used an index of propagule pressure and demonstrated that propagule pressure had the greatest influence on the level of introgression between a native and introduced trout in a human-induced hybrid zone. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Mapping of a new gene for brown planthopper resistance in cultivated rice introgressed from Oryza eichingeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wild rice species is an important source of useful genes for cultivated rice improvement. Some accessions of Oryza eichingeri (2n = 24, CC) from Africa confer strong resistance to brown planthopper (BPH), whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) and bacterial blight (BB). In the present study, restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) analysis were performed on disomic backcross plants between Oryza sativa (2n = 24, AA) and O. eichingeri in order to identify the presenee of O. eichingeri segments and further to localize BPH-resistant gene. In the introgression lines, 1-6O. eichingeri segments were detected on rice chromosomes 1, 2, 6, or/and 10. The dominant BPH resistant gene, tentatively named Bph13(t), was mapped to chromosome 2, being 6.1 and 5.5 cM away from two microsatellite markers RM240 and RM250, respectively. The transfer and localization of this gene from O. eichingeri will contribute to the improvement of BPH resistance in cultivated rice.``

  10. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    , the molecular mechanisms of barley defense to Fusarium graminearum at the early infection stage were studied. Antibodies against barley β-amylases were shown to be the markers for infection at proteome level and for selection of the time for proteome analysis before extensive degradation caused by the fungus...... proteases which could be responsible for proteolysis of β-amylases in the infected barley. In Chapter 4, the in vitro secretome of F. graminearum on the 2-D gels in the presence of substrates of barley or wheat grain was studied. Totally 69 unique fungal proteins identified were mainly cell....... In addition, sharper increase in fungal biomass was observed in barley than in wheat and fungal induced proteolytic fragments of - amylases were only observed in barley not in wheat. Furthermore, a barley PR17 protein and a fungal hypothetical protein were expressed in E. coli and purified in Chapter 5...

  11. Thermal properties of barley starch and its relation to starch characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källman, Anna; Vamadevan, Varatharajan; Bertoft, Eric; Koch, Kristine; Seetharaman, Koushik; Åman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2015-11-01

    Amylopectin fine structure and starch gelatinization and retrogradation were studied in 10 different barley cultivars/breeding lines. Clusters and building blocks were isolated from the amylopectin by α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and their structure was characterized. Gelatinization was studied at a starch:water ratio of 1:3, and retrogradation was studied on gelatinized starch at starch:water ratio of 1:2, by differential scanning calorimetry. Three barley cultivars/breeding lines possessed the amo1 mutation, and they all had a lower molar proportion of chains of DP ≥38 and more of large building blocks. The amo1 mutation also resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature and a broader temperature interval during gelatinization. Overall, small clusters with a dense structure resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature while retrogradation was promoted by short chains in the amylopectin and many large building blocks.

  12. Quantitative trait loci affecting growth-related traits in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) grown under different levels of nutrient supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elberse, I.A.M.; Vanhala, T.K.; Turin, J.H.B.; Stam, P.; Van Damme, J.M.M.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity of relative growth rate (RGR), its components and associated morphological traits was studied in relation to nutrient limitation. In all, 140 F3 lines from a cross, made between two Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) accessions sampled in Israel, were subject

  13. Genetic mapping of wild introgressions into cultivated peanut: a way toward enlarging the genetic basis of a recent allotetraploid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaszmann Jean-Christophe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is widely used as a food and cash crop around the world. It is considered to be an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 40 originated from a single hybridization event between two wild diploids. The most probable hypothesis gave A. duranensis as the wild donor of the A genome and A. ipaënsis as the wild donor of the B genome. A low level of molecular polymorphism is found in cultivated germplasm and up to date few genetic linkage maps have been published. The utilization of wild germplasm in breeding programs has received little attention due to the reproductive barriers between wild and cultivated species and to the technical difficulties encountered in making large number of crosses. We report here the development of a SSR based genetic map and the analysis of genome-wide segment introgressions into the background of a cultivated variety through the utilization of a synthetic amphidiploid between A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis. Results Two hundred ninety eight (298 loci were mapped in 21 linkage groups (LGs, spanning a total map distance of 1843.7 cM with an average distance of 6.1 cM between adjacent markers. The level of polymorphism observed between the parent of the amphidiploid and the cultivated variety is consistent with A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis being the most probable donor of the A and B genomes respectively. The synteny analysis between the A and B genomes revealed an overall good collinearity of the homeologous LGs. The comparison with the diploid and tetraploid maps shed new light on the evolutionary forces that contributed to the divergence of the A and B genome species and raised the question of the classification of the B genome species. Structural modifications such as chromosomal segment inversions and a major translocation event prior to the tetraploidisation of the cultivated species were revealed. Marker assisted selection of BC1F1 and then BC2F1 lines carrying the desirable donor

  14. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. I: Banding Pattern Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Twenty barley (Hordeum vulgare) lines studied had a common basic chromosome banding pattern. Most bands ranged from medium to very small in size. The most conspicuous banding occurred at or near the centromeres, in the proximal, intercalary parts of most chromosome arms and beside the secondary c...... 7. Seventeen differently banded karyotypes were found. Some banding pattern polymorphisms can be used in cytological and cytogenetic studies....

  15. Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, van E.

    1993-01-01

    Research ObjectivesBarley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation i

  16. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  17. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  18. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite barley breeding germplasm from the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao ZHOU; Gary MUEHLBAUER; Brian STEFFENSON

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated barley is known to have a complex population structure and extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD).To conduct robust association mapping (AM) studies of economically important traits in US barley breeding germplasm,population structure and LD decay were examined in a complete panel of US barley breeding germplasm (3840 lines) genotyped with 3072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Nine subpopulations (sp1-sp9) were identified by the program STRUCTURE and subsequently confirmed by principle component analysis (PCA).Out of the nine subpopulations,seven were very similar to the respective subpopulations identified by Hamblin et al.(2010)which were based on half of the germplasm and half of the SN P markers,but two subpopulations were found to be new.One subpopulation was dominated by six-rowed spring lines from Utah State University (UT) and the other was composed of six-rowed spring lines from multiple breeding programs (USDA-ARS Aberdeen (AB),Busch Agricultural Resources Inc.(BA),UT,and Washington State University (WA)).LD was found to decay across a range from 4.0 to 19.8 cM.This result indicates that the germplasm genotyped with 3072 SNPs would be robust for mapping and possibly identifying the causal polymorphisms contributing to disease resistance and perhaps other traits.

  19. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition......The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary...... silencing cassette for HvAgl97, alpha-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the alpha-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing...

  20. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the major crops cultivated worldwide and constitutes an important basis for animal feed. However, the production is facing a number of challenges that will be accentuated in the years to come, in particular restrictions on the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In order to improve t...... the N use efficiency in barley, we are developing a new generation of genetically modified plants based on the concept of cisgenesis. In this approach, plants are transformed only with their own genetic material. The genes encoding the cytosolic isoform of the glutamine synthetase (GS1...... into the pGreenII binary vector. The genes have been inserted into barley by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene for selection of transformed lines on hygromycin. In this system, the resistance gene is placed on the helper plasmid pSoup allowing for separate...

  1. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE OLD AND NEW BARLEY VARIETIES ON THE BASIS OF HORDEIN POLYMORPHISM WITH RESPECT TO QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tomka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current registered barley varieties are classified according to their biological and economic characters meeting the growing conditions. Varieties are characterized using molecular markers on the level of protein and DNA. Using starch gel electrophoresis we studied the frequency of hordein alleles, which are potential markers of economically important traits of 30 barley varieties. Among the 26 alleles detected in two main loci (Hrd A, Hrd B, we identified 7 potential markers (A3, A12, A23, B8, B17, B19, B47 with the frequency ranged from 1.18% to 12.14%. Number of these alleles differs over the years and together with number of lines per variety has decreasing tendency. On the basis of the detected alleles we are able to predict malting quality parameters and resistance to most common barley pathogens.

  2. Introgression of Gene for Non-Pollen Type Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterility to Thai Rice Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANEE Sreewongchai; WEERACHAI Matthayatthaworn; CHALERMPOL Phumichai; PRAPA Sripichitt

    2014-01-01

    For the two-line hybrid rice system, pol en sterility is regulated by recessive gene that responds to temperature. The recessive gene controlling thermo-sensitive genetic male sterility (TGMS) is expressed when the plants are grown in conditions with higher or lower critical temperatures. To transfer tgms gene(s) control ing TGMS to Thai rice cultivars by backcross breeding method, a male sterile line was used as a donor parent while Thai rice cultivars ChaiNat 1, PathumThani 1, and SuphanBuri 1 were used as recurrent parents. The BC2F2 lines were developed from backcrossing and selfing. Moreover, the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for identifying tgms gene and the linked marker was used for assisting selection in backcrossing. The identification lines were confirmed by pol en observation. The results showed the success of introgression of the tgms gene into Thai rice cultivars. These lines will be tested for combining ability and used as female parent in hybrid rice production in Thailand.

  3. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus.

  4. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  5. Interspecific hybridization and mitochondrial introgression in invasive carcinus shore crabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Darling

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization plays an important role in facilitating adaptive evolutionary change. More specifically, recent studies have demonstrated that hybridization may dramatically influence the establishment, spread, and impact of invasive populations. In Japan, previous genetic evidence for the presence of two non-native congeners, the European green crab Carcinus maenas and the Mediterranean green crab C. aestuarii, has raised questions regarding the possibility of hybridization between these sister species. Here I present analysis based on both nuclear microsatellites and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI gene which unambiguously argues for a hybrid origin of Japanese Carcinus. Despite the presence of mitochondrial lineages derived from both C. maenas and C. aestuarii, the Japanese population is panmictic at nuclear loci and has achieved cytonuclear equilibrium throughout the sampled range in Japan. Furthermore, analysis of admixture at nuclear loci indicates dramatic introgression of the C. maenas mitochondrial genome into a predominantly C. aestuarii nuclear background. These patterns, along with inferences drawn from the observational record, argue for a hybridization event pre-dating the arrival of Carcinus in Japan. The clarification of both invasion history and evolutionary history afforded by genetic analysis provides information that may be critically important to future studies aimed at assessing risks posed by invasive Carcinus populations to Japan and the surrounding region.

  6. Introgression of Helicoverpa armigera Resistance from Cajanus acutifolius-a Wild Relative from Secondary Gene Pool of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R. Jadhav

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to introgress Helicoverpa armigera resistance from wild relative Cajanus acutifolius into pigeonpea, (Cajanus cajan L., an important grain legume in South Asia, East Africa and the West Indies. Pigeonpea grain yields on farmer’s fields are quite low, largely because of damage by insect pests, of which legume pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is the important pest worldwide. Pod borer has developed high levels of resistance to chemical insecticides. Currently, there are no cultivars of pigeonpea with high levels of resistance to H. armigera. Therefore, there is a need to identify and introgress resistance genes from the wild relatives of this crop. Wild relative of pigeonpea, Cajanus acutifolius (ICPW 15613 and the interspecific derivatives C. acutifolius x C. cajan have shown resistance to H. armigera. The results showed that all the test lines and C. acutifolius had high levels of flavonoids such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin and rutin in the flowers and buds, which may have resulted in less damage due to H. armigera larvae. Most of the test lines had more than 15.00 g of seed weight (100 seed weight and beige seed color. These lines can be used for pigeonpea improvement for resistance to H. armigera.

  7. Diversification of primary gene pool through introgression of resistance to foliar diseases from synthetic amphidiploids to cultivated groundnut(Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varsha; Kumari; M.V.C.Gowda; Vinod; Tasiwal; Manish; K.Pandey; Ramesh; S.Bhat; Nalini; Mallikarjuna; Hari; D.Upadhyaya; Rajeev; K.Varshney

    2014-01-01

    Groundnut(Arachis hypogaea L.)is widely grown and consumed around the world and is considered to have originated from a single hybridization event between two wild diploids.The utilization of wild germplasm in breeding programs has been restricted by reproductive barriers between wild and cultivated species and technical difficulties in making large numbers of crosses.Efforts to overcome these hurdles have resulted in the development of synthetic amphidiploids,namely ISATGR 278-18(Arachis duranesis×Arachis batizocoi)and ISATGR 5B(Arachis magna×A.batizocoi),which possess several desirable traits,including resistance to foliar diseases that generally cause huge yield losses annually in groundnut growing areas of Asia,America,and Africa.With an objective to improve foliar disease resistance,the primary gene pool was diversified by introgressing foliar disease resistance in five cultivated genotypes(ICGV 91114,ICGS 76,ICGV 91278,JL 24,and DH 86)from synthetic amphidiploids using a backcross breeding approach.Several introgression lines with resistance to two foliar diseases(rust and late leaf spot)were identified with levels of resistance equal to the donors.These backcross derived lines have shown a wide range of variation for several morphological and agronomic traits.These lines,after further evaluation and selection,can serve as donors in future breeding programs aimed atdeveloping improved cultivars with desirable agronomic traits,high resilience to biotic/abiotic stresses and a broadened genetic base.

  8. Diversification of primary gene pool through introgression of resistance to foliar diseases from synthetic amphidiploids to cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Kumari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. is widely grown and consumed around the world and is considered to have originated from a single hybridization event between two wild diploids. The utilization of wild germplasm in breeding programs has been restricted by reproductive barriers between wild and cultivated species and technical difficulties in making large numbers of crosses. Efforts to overcome these hurdles have resulted in the development of synthetic amphidiploids, namely ISATGR 278-18 (Arachis duranesis × Arachis batizocoi and ISATGR 5B (Arachis magna × A. batizocoi, which possess several desirable traits, including resistance to foliar diseases that generally cause huge yield losses annually in groundnut growing areas of Asia, America, and Africa. With an objective to improve foliar disease resistance, the primary gene pool was diversified by introgressing foliar disease resistance in five cultivated genotypes (ICGV 91114, ICGS 76, ICGV 91278, JL 24, and DH 86 from synthetic amphidiploids using a backcross breeding approach. Several introgression lines with resistance to two foliar diseases (rust and late leaf spot were identified with levels of resistance equal to the donors. These backcross derived lines have shown a wide range of variation for several morphological and agronomic traits. These lines, after further evaluation and selection, can serve as donors in future breeding programs aimed at developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic traits, high resilience to biotic/abiotic stresses and a broadened genetic base.

  9. Reticulate Speciation and Barriers to Introgression in the Anopheles gambiae Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Riehle, Michelle M; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Gneme, Awa; Sagnon, N'Fale; Vernick, Kenneth D; Nielsen, Rasmus; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2015-11-28

    Speciation as a process remains a central focus of evolutionary biology, but our understanding of the genomic architecture and prevalence of speciation in the face of gene flow remains incomplete. The Anopheles gambiae species complex of malaria mosquitoes is a radiation of ecologically diverse taxa. This complex is well-suited for testing for evidence of a speciation continuum and genomic barriers to introgression because its members exhibit partially overlapping geographic distributions as well as varying levels of divergence and reproductive isolation. We sequenced 20 genomes from wild A. gambiae s.s., Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles arabiensis, and compared these with 12 genomes from the "GOUNDRY" subgroup of A. gambiae s.l. Amidst a backdrop of strong reproductive isolation, we find strong evidence for a speciation continuum with introgression of autosomal chromosomal regions among species and subgroups. The X chromosome, however, is strongly differentiated among all taxa, pointing to a disproportionately large effect of X chromosome genes in driving speciation among anophelines. Strikingly, we find that autosomal introgression has occurred from contemporary hybridization between A. gambiae and A. arabiensis despite strong divergence (∼5× higher than autosomal divergence) and isolation on the X chromosome. In addition to the X, we find strong evidence that lowly recombining autosomal regions, especially pericentromeric regions, serve as barriers to introgression secondarily to the X. We show that speciation with gene flow results in genomic mosaicism of divergence and introgression. Such a reticulate gene pool connecting vector taxa across the speciation continuum has important implications for malaria control efforts.

  10. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  11. Impact of Pre-Anthesis Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants Grown under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria I. Al-Ajlouni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought at pre-anthesis stages can influence barley growth and results in yield losses. Therefore, it is important to understand how drought at pre-anthesis can affect different traits associated with yield reduction in barley. The objective of this study was to understand the relevance of the genetic background of major flowering time genes in barley plants subjected to pre-anthesis drought and its impact on yield and yield components. A glasshouse experiment using a Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted to investigate the effect of drought and its timing on yield and yield components on eleven barley genotypes, which were selected to represent genetic diversity of major flowering time genes (PPDH1, PPDH2, HvVrn1, HvVrn2 and HvVrn3. Barley plants were exposed to three water regimes, non-stressed and stressed, which was applied at two pre-anthesis growth stages, tillering (SS and stem elongation (SE. Results identified differences among genotypes in all measured traits. Grain yield, grain number and "thousand kernel weight" were reduced in all genotypes due to drought, irrespective of the growth stage. Early flowering genotypes had better performance as reflected in higher yield compared with late flowering genotypes. Results verified the fundamental importance of early flowering to improve productivity in response to pre-anthesis drought. The results of this study can help in selecting barley lines for future breeding purposes with improved resilience to drought conditions in Mediterranean environments.

  12. Genetic diversity among wild and cultivated barley as revealed by RFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Østergård, H.; Giese, H.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic variability of cultivated and wild barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare and spontaneum, respectively, was assessed by RFLP analysis. The material consisted of 13 European varietes, single-plant offspring lines of eight land races from Ethiopia and Nepal, and five accessions of ssp....... spontaneum from Israel, Iran and Turkey. Seventeen out of twenty-one studied cDNA and gDNA probes distributed across all seven barley chromosomes revealed polymorphism when DNA was digested with one of four restriction enzymes. A tree based on genetic distances using frequencies of RFLP banding patterns...... an intermediate level. The proportion of gene diversity residing among,geographical groups (F-ST) varied from 0.19 to 0.94 (average 0.54) per RFLP pattern, indicating large diversification between geographical groups....

  13. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news......: fighting crystalline starch energy deposits in the cell. Trends in Plant Science Vol. 15, 4:236-240 Hebelstrup, K. H., Christiansen, M. W., Carciofi, M., Tauris, B., Brinch-Pedersen, H., Bach Holm, P. (2010). UCE: A uracil excision (USER™)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals. Plant Methods 6:15...

  14. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news......: fighting crystalline starch energy deposits in the cell. Trends in Plant Science Vol. 15, 4:236-240 Hebelstrup, K. H., Christiansen, M. W., Carciofi, M., Tauris, B., Brinch-Pedersen, H., Bach Holm, P. (2010). UCE: A uracil excision (USER™)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals. Plant Methods 6:15...

  15. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate...... the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral...

  16. Changes of Limiting Dextrinase in Germinating Process of Malting Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiu-mei; LI Fen; WANG Hong-zhen; WANG Xing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five different species of barley, the foot layer analytic method was used to examine the activity and heat-resistance of the limiting dextrinase. The study was conducted on the dynamic changes of several types of the dextrinase in barley germinating process, the effect of temperature on the dextrinase and the divergence of dextrinase in different barley variety. The probability of the dextrinase that as reference index is used for screening and evaluating beer barley was discussed. The importance of dextrinase in brewing and its significant function was also discussed.

  17. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  18. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  19. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  20. 基于染色体片段导入系发掘抗玉米丝黑穗病主效QTL%Identification of Major QTL for Head Smut Resistance Based on Donor Chromosome Segment Introgression Line and Linkage Disequilibrium Analysis in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉海莲; 翁建峰; 吕香玲; 王振华; 谢传晓; 张世煌; 李新海

    2012-01-01

    选用抗玉米丝黑穗病自交系Mo17和SH15为供体,与受体感病自交系黄早四和昌7-2构建回交群体(BC3F1\\BC4F2),通过田间人工接种玉米丝黑穗病原菌鉴定抗病性表现,评价群体抗病性.研究结果显示黄早四×(黄早四×Mo17)BC4F2群体发病率明显高于BC3F1群体;两个BC4F2黄早四×(黄早四×Mo17)和昌7-2×(昌7-2×SH15)群体的发病率差异较大.采用SSR标记分析抗病株的供体染色体导入片段,发现随着回交次数的增多,导入片段数量减少,但不同回交群体中供体导入片段数目明显不同.通过连锁不平衡分析,在染色体2.09和3.04区段发掘和验证2个抗玉米丝黑穗病主效QTL,连锁标记分别为umc2077和phio53或bnlg1965.本文研究结果为抗丝黑穗病基因精细定位和分子聚合育种提供了信息和材料.%Mo17 and SH15,two head smut resistant inbred lines as donor parents were chosen to produce BC3 F1 and BC4F2 populations of Huangzao4 × ( Huangzao4 × Mo17) and Chang7-2 × ( Chang7-2 × SH15 ) with two susceptible inbred lines Huangzao4 and Chang7-2 as recurrent parents,respectively. These populations were evaluated for head smut resistance with artificial inoculation under field condition. The disease incidence for BC4F2 populations of Huangzao4 × ( Huangzao4 × Mo17)was higher than that of BC3F1 population. The disease incidence was found different for the BC4F2 populations of Huangzao4 × ( Huangzao4 × Mo17) and Chang7-2 × ( Chang7-2 × SH15 ). The resistant individuals were genotyped by SSR markers on maize bins 2. 09 and 3. 04. The number of donor introgrssion segments in BC4F2 resistant plants was becoming less than that in BC3F1 ,and also varied between populations. Using linkage disequilibrium analysis, two major QTL for head smut resistance were identified, which are on bin 2.09 and bin 3. 04, linked with umc2077 and phio53 \\bnlgl965 Respectively. The results obtained provided both useful genetic information and

  1. The role of alpha-glucosidase in germinating barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

    2011-02-01

    The importance of α-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an α-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, α-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the α-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process.

  2. Development and characterization of a new barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-resistant wheat germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂道泰; 贾旭; 胡适全; 朱立煌; 胡含; 胡含; 周广和; 钱幼亭; 庄家骏

    1996-01-01

    A barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-resistant line HG295 was selected from a cross between cv. 77-5433 and Zhong 5 after extensive investigation in field, greenhouse and ELISA. Cytological analysis revealed that it was an euploid line and genetically stable. The existence of alien DNA in HG295 was identified by RAPD and Southern hybridization analyses showed that the alien DNAs came from Zhong 5 or Th. intermedium. The differences of BYDV resistance between L1 and HG295 are discussed.

  3. Overexpression of cytokinin dehydrogenase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise fundamentally affects morphology and fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Mrízová

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereal crops grown worldwide. It has numerous applications, but its utility could potentially be extended by genetically manipulating its hormonal balances. To explore some of this potential we identified gene families of cytokinin dehydrogenases (CKX and isopentenyl transferases, enzymes that respectively irreversibly degrade and synthesize cytokinin (CK plant hormones, in the raw sequenced barley genome. We then examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns by immunostaining and qPCR. Two CKX-specific antibodies, anti-HvCKX1 and anti-HvCKX9, predominantly detect proteins in the aleurone layer of maturing grains and leaf vasculature, respectively. In addition, two selected CKX genes were used for stable, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the barley cultivar Golden Promise. The results show that constitutive overexpression of CKX causes morphological changes in barley plants and prevents their transition to flowering. In all independent transgenic lines roots proliferated more rapidly and root-to-shoot ratios were higher than in wild-type plants. Only one transgenic line, overexpressing CKX under the control of a promoter from a phosphate transporter gene, which is expressed more strongly in root tissue than in aerial parts, yielded progeny. Analysis of several T1-generation plants indicates that plants tend to compensate for effects of the transgene and restore CK homeostasis later during development. Depleted CK levels during early phases of development are restored by down-regulation of endogenous CKX genes and reinforced de novo biosynthesis of CKs.

  4. The NAC transcription factors of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael; Holm, Preben Bach; Gregersen, Per L.

    2011-01-01

    ). From these data we have identified not only putative regulators of leaf senescence (HvNAC005, HvNAC027 and HvNAC029), but also possible regulators of secondary wall synthesis (HvNAC033, HvNAC034 and HvNAC039), lateral root formation (HvNAC022) and seed development (HvNAC017, HvNAC018, HvNAC019 and Hv...... genes characterized so far have regulatory functions in a broad range of plant developmental processes and tolerances to both biotic and abiotic stresses. This makes the NAC family highly interesting target genes for plant researchers and breeders. As part of a larger project on the identification...... of Hordeum vulgare (barley) leaf senescence regulators, we have attempted to characterize for the first time all presently available barley NAC genes (HvNACs). By searching the NCBI barley EST database using the tBLASTn function, with all known NAC genes from Brachypodium and rice as input, in combination...

  5. Extensive introgression in a malaria vector species complex revealed by phylogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Michael C.; Pease, James B.; Steele, Aaron; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Jiang, Xiaofang; Hall, Andrew B.; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Kakani, Evdoxia; Mitchell, Sara N.; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Smith, Hilary A.; Love, R. Rebecca; Lawniczak, Mara K.; Slotman, Michel A.; Emrich, Scott J.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2015-01-01

    Introgressive hybridization is now recognized as a widespread phenomenon, but its role in evolution remains contested. Here we use newly available reference genome assemblies to investigate phylogenetic relationships and introgression in a medically important group of Afrotropical mosquito sibling species. We have identified the correct species branching order to resolve a contentious phylogeny, and show that lineages leading to the principal vectors of human malaria were among the first to split. Pervasive autosomal introgression between these malaria vectors means that only a small fraction of the genome, mainly on the X chromosome, has not crossed species boundaries. Our results suggest that traits enhancing vectorial capacity may be gained through interspecific gene flow, including between non-sister species. PMID:25431491

  6. Genome-wide SNP analysis reveals recent genetic introgression from domestic pigs into Northwest European wild boar populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, D.J.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Hooft, van W.F.; Herrero-Medrano, J.; Lutz, W.; Alexandri, P.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Wieren, van S.E.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2013-01-01

    Present-day genetic introgression from domestic pigs into European wild boar has been suggested in various studies. However, no hybrids have been identified beyond doubt mainly because available methods were unable to quantify the extent of introgression and rule out natural processes. Genetic intro

  7. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Hanne Cecilie

    Improving crop nitrogen (N) utilization efficiency (NUE) is of major importance in modern agriculture in order to reduce the amount of N fertilizer used for crop production. There is a high demand for development of crops which are able to produce high yields but with a concomitantly lower N...... fertilizer requirement. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) has been a major topic in plant nitrogen research for decades due to its central role in plant N metabolism. The cytosolic version of this enzyme (GS1) plays an important role in relation to primary N assimilation as well as in relation to N...... and wildtype control. However, when grown to maturity the differences between transgenic lines and wildtype were highly dependent on the growth conditions applied. The transgenic lines had a higher N utilization efficiency (NUtE) than wildtype control, but only when exposed to a mild N stress following...

  8. Introgression from domestic goat generated variation at the major histocompatibility complex of Alpine ibex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Grossen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex. At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2, Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8% to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection.

  9. Specific down-regulation of spermatogenesis genes targeted by 22G RNAs in hybrid sterile males associated with an X-Chromosome introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runsheng; Ren, Xiaoliang; Bi, Yu; Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; Hsieh, Chia-Ling; Young, Amanda; Zhang, Zhihong; Lin, Tingting; Zhao, Yanmei; Miao, Long; Sarkies, Peter; Zhao, Zhongying

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid incompatibility (HI) prevents gene flow between species, thus lying at the heart of speciation genetics. One of the most common HIs is male sterility. Two superficially contradictory observations exist for hybrid male sterility. First, an introgression on the X Chromosome is more likely to produce male sterility than on autosome (so-called large-X theory); second, spermatogenesis genes are enriched on the autosomes but depleted on the X Chromosome (demasculinization of X Chromosome). Analysis of gene expression in Drosophila hybrids suggests a genetic interaction between the X Chromosome and autosomes that is essential for male fertility. However, the prevalence of such an interaction and its underlying mechanism remain largely unknown. Here we examine the interaction in nematode species by contrasting the expression of both coding genes and transposable elements (TEs) between hybrid sterile males and its parental nematode males. We use two lines of hybrid sterile males, each carrying an independent introgression fragment from Caenorhabditis briggsae X Chromosome in an otherwise Caenorhabditis nigoni background, which demonstrate similar defects in spermatogenesis. We observe a similar pattern of down-regulated genes that are specific for spermatogenesis between the two hybrids. Importantly, the down-regulated genes caused by the X Chromosome introgressions show a significant enrichment on the autosomes, supporting an epistatic interaction between the X Chromosome and autosomes. We investigate the underlying mechanism of the interaction by measuring small RNAs and find that a subset of 22G RNAs specifically targeting the down-regulated spermatogenesis genes is significantly up-regulated in hybrids, suggesting that perturbation of small RNA-mediated regulation may contribute to the X-autosome interaction.

  10. Molecular analysis of point mutations in a barley genome exposed to MNU and gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurowska, Marzena, E-mail: mkurowsk@us.edu.pl [Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia, Jagiellonska 28, 40-032 Katowice (Poland); Labocha-Pawlowska, Anna; Gnizda, Dominika; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona [Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia, Jagiellonska 28, 40-032 Katowice (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    We present studies aimed at determining the types and frequencies of mutations induced in the barley genome after treatment with chemical (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, MNU) and physical (gamma rays) mutagens. We created M{sub 2} populations of a doubled haploid line and used them for the analysis of mutations in targeted DNA sequences and over an entire barley genome using TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique, respectively. Based on the TILLING analysis of the total DNA sequence of 4,537,117 bp in the MNU population, the average mutation density was estimated as 1/504 kb. Only one nucleotide change was found after an analysis of 3,207,444 bp derived from the highest dose of gamma rays applied. MNU was clearly a more efficient mutagen than gamma rays in inducing point mutations in barley. The majority (63.6%) of the MNU-induced nucleotide changes were transitions, with a similar number of G > A and C > T substitutions. The similar share of G > A and C > T transitions indicates a lack of bias in the repair of O{sup 6}-methylguanine lesions between DNA strands. There was, however, a strong specificity of the nucleotide surrounding the O{sup 6}-meG at the -1 position. Purines formed 81% of nucleotides observed at the -1 site. Scanning the barley genome with AFLP markers revealed ca. a three times higher level of AFLP polymorphism in MNU-treated as compared to the gamma-irradiated population. In order to check whether AFLP markers can really scan the whole barley genome for mutagen-induced polymorphism, 114 different AFLP products, were cloned and sequenced. 94% of bands were heterogenic, with some bands containing up to 8 different amplicons. The polymorphic AFLP products were characterised in terms of their similarity to the records deposited in a GenBank database. The types of sequences present in the polymorphic bands reflected the organisation of the barley genome.

  11. Molecular analysis of point mutations in a barley genome exposed to MNU and gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowska, Marzena; Labocha-Pawłowska, Anna; Gnizda, Dominika; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    We present studies aimed at determining the types and frequencies of mutations induced in the barley genome after treatment with chemical (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, MNU) and physical (gamma rays) mutagens. We created M(2) populations of a doubled haploid line and used them for the analysis of mutations in targeted DNA sequences and over an entire barley genome using TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique, respectively. Based on the TILLING analysis of the total DNA sequence of 4,537,117bp in the MNU population, the average mutation density was estimated as 1/504kb. Only one nucleotide change was found after an analysis of 3,207,444bp derived from the highest dose of gamma rays applied. MNU was clearly a more efficient mutagen than gamma rays in inducing point mutations in barley. The majority (63.6%) of the MNU-induced nucleotide changes were transitions, with a similar number of G>A and C>T substitutions. The similar share of G>A and C>T transitions indicates a lack of bias in the repair of O(6)-methylguanine lesions between DNA strands. There was, however, a strong specificity of the nucleotide surrounding the O(6)-meG at the -1 position. Purines formed 81% of nucleotides observed at the -1 site. Scanning the barley genome with AFLP markers revealed ca. a three times higher level of AFLP polymorphism in MNU-treated as compared to the gamma-irradiated population. In order to check whether AFLP markers can really scan the whole barley genome for mutagen-induced polymorphism, 114 different AFLP products, were cloned and sequenced. 94% of bands were heterogenic, with some bands containing up to 8 different amplicons. The polymorphic AFLP products were characterised in terms of their similarity to the records deposited in a GenBank database. The types of sequences present in the polymorphic bands reflected the organisation of the barley genome.

  12. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a pre

  13. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  14. Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...

  15. Use of advanced recombinant lines to study the impact and potential of mutations affecting starch synthesis in barley☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Thomas P.; Fahy, Brendan; Leigh, Fiona; Howell, Phil; Powell, Wayne; Greenland, Andy; Trafford, Kay; Smith, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects on barley starch and grain properties of four starch synthesis mutations were studied during the introgression of the mutations from diverse backgrounds into an elite variety. The lys5f (ADPglucose transporter), wax (granule-bound starch synthase), isa1 (debranching enzyme isoamylase 1) and sex6 (starch synthase IIa) mutations were introgressed into NFC Tipple to give mutant and wild-type BC2F4 families with different genomic contributions of the donor parent. Comparison of starch and grain properties between the donor parents, the BC2F4 families and NFC Tipple allowed the effects of the mutations to be distinguished from genetic background effects. The wax and sex6 mutations had marked effects on starch properties regardless of genetic background. The sex6 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but the wax mutation did not. The lys5 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but exceptionally high β-glucan contents. The isa1 mutation promotes synthesis of soluble α-glucan (phytoglycogen). Its introgression into NFC Tipple increased grain weight and total α-glucan content relative to the donor parent, but reduced the ratio of phytoglycogen to starch. This study shows that introgression of mutations into a common, commercial background provides new insights that could not be gained from the donor parent. PMID:24748716

  16. Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus and the Frequency of Triploids and Aneuploids in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1973-01-01

    BSMV infection caused a pronounced increase in the frequency of triploid and aneuploid seeds in eleven barley varieties, but with considerable variation in frequency among varieties. In some of the varieties triploids exceeded three per cent. In virus-free material a few triploids were found in m...

  17. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine;

    2007-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vecto...... inoculation, although large parts of the insert had been lost from the virus vector. The instability of the insert, observed consistently throughout our experiments, offers an explanation for the transient nature of silencing when using BSMV as a VIGS vector.......Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...... for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the resulting...

  18. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four hom...

  19. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  20. Inhibitory properties of cysteine protease pro-peptides from barley confer resistance to spider mite feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Estrella Santamaria

    Full Text Available C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari. The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems.

  1. Inhibitory properties of cysteine protease pro-peptides from barley confer resistance to spider mite feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, M Estrella; Arnaiz, Ana; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari). The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors) revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems.

  2. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed.

  3. Current and historical hybridization with differential introgression among three species of cyprinid fishes (genus Cyprinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Richard E; Vedala, Krishna C; Crowl, Tessa M; Ritterhouse, Lauren L

    2011-05-01

    Hybridization is common among freshwater fishes, particular among the Cyprinidae. We used two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene to characterize hybridization among two species pairs of Cyprinella in southwestern North America. Genalogical patterns revealed that C. lutrensis and C. venusta are currently hybridizing in several localities producing apparent F(1), F(2) and backcross generations, yet there was no evidence for introgression outside of local hybrid zones. Alternatively, mitochondrial haplotypes from C. lutrensis appear to have introgressed into a C. lepida population in the Nueces River completely replacing the native C. lepida haplotype. There was no evidence of introgression of nuclear DNA and there does not appear to be ongoing hybridization. The population of C. lepida from the nearby Frio River exhibits no evidence of hybridization with C. lutrensis. Thus, contact between C. lutrensis and C. venusta results in the formation of localized hybrid swarms, while contact between C. lutrensis and C. lepida has resulted in complete mitochondrial introgression in the Nueces River or no apparent hybridization in the Frio River. The three different outcomes of contact between these species illustrate the variable nature of interspecific reproductive interactions and provide an excellent system in which to better understand the factors influencing hybridization among freshwater fishes.

  4. Introgression of Gossypium klotzschianum Genome into Cultivated Cotton,G.hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xin-lian; ZHANG Xiang-gui; YANG Yu-wen; CAO Zhi-bin; NI Wan-chao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Exotic Gossypium germplasm is a rich source of useful agronomic traits for improvement programs of cultivated cotton.Efficient use of genetic variation available in the wild relatives depends on the ability to identify and introgress desirable DNA segments from wild species into cultivated cotton.

  5. Chromosome engineering for alien gene introgression in wheat: Progress and prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome engineering is a useful strategy for introgression of desirable genes from wild relatives into cultivated wheat. However, it has been a challenge to transfer a small amount of alien chromatin containing the gene of interest from one genome to another non-homologous genome through classic...

  6. A matter of genes? Possible consequences of genetic introgression from domestic forms in two problematic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scandura, Massimo; Canu, Antonio; Bassi, Elena;

    Invasive or problematic species are in some cases exposed to introgressive hybridization with domestic conspecifics. Under such circumstances, the gene pool of natural populations risks to be altered by the acquisition of new alleles that were artificially selected during domestication and breed ...

  7. Genetic analysis of hybridization and introgression between wild mongoose and brown lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nievergelt Caroline M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid zones generally represent areas of secondary contact after speciation. The nature of the interaction between genes of individuals in a hybrid zone is of interest in the study of evolutionary processes. In this study, data from nuclear microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to genetically characterize hybridization between wild mongoose lemurs (Eulemur mongoz and brown lemurs (E. fulvus at Anjamena in west Madagascar. Results Two segments of mtDNA have been sequenced and 12 microsatellite loci screened in 162 brown lemurs and mongoose lemurs. Among the mongoose lemur population at Anjamena, we identified two F1 hybrids (one also having the mtDNA haplotype of E. fulvus and six other individuals with putative introgressed alleles in their genotype. Principal component analysis groups both hybrids as intermediate between E. mongoz and E. fulvus and admixture analyses revealed an admixed genotype for both animals. Paternity testing proved one F1 hybrid to be fertile. Of the eight brown lemurs genotyped, all have either putative introgressed microsatellite alleles and/or the mtDNA haplotype of E. mongoz. Conclusion Introgression is bidirectional for the two species, with an indication that it is more frequent in brown lemurs than in mongoose lemurs. We conclude that this hybridization occurs because mongoose lemurs have expanded their range relatively recently. Introgressive hybridization may play an important role in the unique lemur radiation, as has already been shown in other rapidly evolving animals.

  8. Repeated unidirectional introgression towards Populus balsamifera in contact zones of exotic and native poplars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, S.L.; Lamothe, M.; Meirmans, P.G.; Périnet, P.; Isabel, N.

    2010-01-01

    As the evolutionary significance of hybridization is largely dictated by its extent beyond the first generation, we broadly surveyed patterns of introgression across a sympatric zone of two native poplars (Populus balsamifera, Populus deltoides) in Quebec, Canada within which European exotic Populus

  9. Genetic and epigenetic changes in somatic hybrid introgression lines between wheat and tall wheatgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how did these variations happened was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays ...

  10. Identification of Introgressed Lines by the SSR Markers and Agronomic Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; LIU Xiao-jie; SUN Jun-ling; DU Xiong-ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ The wild cotton cultivars and species have abundant genetic polymorphisms,and they possess lots of excellent genes,such as drought resistance,insect resistance,fine and strong fiber,and so on.So cotton breeding experts have widely carried out interspecific hybridization and obtained more than 20 types of advanced generation hybrids with good quality and stable traits between wild resources and upland cotton.

  11. The Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) introgression lines for allelic diversity and new germplasm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) has developed a genus wide model system for the study of rice that will ultimately provide a complete understanding of the genus. The purpose of this project is to capitalize on the strengths of the Arizona Genomics Institute (AGI), OMAP participants and the r...

  12. Sources of stem rust resistance in wheat-alien introgression lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat and the novel highly virulent race of TTKSK and its lineage are threatening wheat production worldwide. The objective of the study was to identify new sources of resistance in wheat-alien introgre...

  13. Combined mass spectrometric and chromatographic methods for in-depth analysis of phenolic secondary metabolites in barley leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecka, Anna; Sawikowska, Aneta; Krajewski, Paweł; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Structural analysis via HPLC-ESI-MSn, UPLC-HESI-MS/MS and NMR reported 152 phenolic secondary metabolites in spring barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L.). Flavonoids with various patterns of glycosylation and acylation, as well as hydroxycinnamic acid glycosides, esters and amides, were identified in methanolic extracts from leaves of nine varieties of barley originating from different regions of the world. Hordatines derivatives, flavones acylated directly on the aglycone, and hydroxyferulic acid derivatives deserve special attention. Preparative chromatography enabled characterization of a number of compounds at trace levels with the 6-C-[6″-O-glycosyl]-glycosides and the 6-C-[2″,6″-di-O-glycosides]-glucoside structure of flavones. Derivatives of flavonols, quercetin and isorhamnetin were observed only in Syrian varieties. The ultra performance liquid chromatography profiles of UV-absorbing secondary metabolites were used for chemotaxonomic comparison between nine varieties of barley from different climatic conditions. The hierarchical clustering of bred lines from the Fertile Crescent and European and American varieties indicates a great diversity of chemical phenotypes within barley species.

  14. Expression of a barley cystatin gene in maize enhances resistance against phytophagous mites by altering their cysteine-proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Laura; Martinez, Manuel; Ramessar, Koreen; Cambra, Inés; Castañera, Pedro; Ortego, Felix; Díaz, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Phytocystatins are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases from plants putatively involved in plant defence based on their capability of inhibit heterologous enzymes. We have previously characterised the whole cystatin gene family members from barley (HvCPI-1 to HvCPI-13). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of barley cystatins on two phytophagous spider mites, Tetranychus urticae and Brevipalpus chilensis. The determination of proteolytic activity profile in both mite species showed the presence of the cysteine-proteases, putative targets of cystatins, among other enzymatic activities. All barley cystatins, except HvCPI-1 and HvCPI-7, inhibited in vitro mite cathepsin L- and/or cathepsin B-like activities, HvCPI-6 being the strongest inhibitor for both mite species. Transgenic maize plants expressing HvCPI-6 protein were generated and the functional integrity of the cystatin transgene was confirmed by in vitro inhibitory effect observed against T. urticae and B. chilensis protein extracts. Feeding experiments impaired on transgenic lines performed with T. urticae impaired mite development and reproductive performance. Besides, a significant reduction of cathepsin L-like and/or cathepsin B-like activities was observed when the spider mite fed on maize plants expressing HvCPI-6 cystatin. These findings reveal the potential of barley cystatins as acaricide proteins to protect plants against two important mite pests.

  15. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development....

  16. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide;

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  17. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  18. Introgression of transgenic crop alleles: Its evolutionary impacts on conserving genetic diversity of crop wild relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Rong LU

    2013-01-01

    Effective conservation of crop wild relative (CWR) species is essential for the sustainable use and genetic improvement of crop varieties,which offers greater opportunities for world food security,particularly in modem agroecosystems where CWR diversity is under severe threat.Factors such as habitat fragmentation,human disturbances,global climate change,and invasion of harmful alien species have been identified to be responsible for losses and threats to CWR diversity.However,a neglected factor,gene introgression from domesticated species through repeated outcrossing,may have a significant impact on CWR diversity.Introgression can influence genetic diversity and evolutionary processes of CWR populations through effects such as demographic swarming,genetic assimilation,and selective sweep.When largely enhancing or reducing fitness of wild plants,the introgression of crop genes will impose more significant genetic and evolutionary impacts on CWR populations,leading to undesired consequences for conserved CWR populations and species.This situation is particularly true when genetically engineered (GE) crops are deployed for commercial cultivation.It is argued that a GE crop usually contains transgenes with strong natural selection advantages,and such transgenes introgressed into CWR populations may have strong impacts on their genetic diversity and evolutionary processes,threatening their conservation.This article reviews the challenge of crop-wild gene flow,and particularly transgene introgression from GE crops,for the in situ conservation of wild relative species.The design of effective management strategies for conserving CWR species under the scenario of extensive cultivation of GE crops is also discussed.

  19. Localization of introduced genes on the chromosomes of transgenic barley, wheat and triticale by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Zimny, J.; Becker, D.

    1997-01-01

    transformant showed a totally different integration pattern. Southern analysis confirmed that the inserted genes were segregating independently, resulting in different integration patterns among the progeny lines. The application of the FISH technique for the analysis of transgenic plants is discussed.......Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we localized introduced genes on metaphase chromosomes of barley, wheat, and triticale transformed by microprojectile bombardment of microspores and scutellar tissue with the pDB1 plasmid containing the uidA and bar genes. Thirteen integration sites...... of single-copy integrations. There was a slight tendency towards the localization of transgenes in distal chromosome regions. Using the GAA-satellite sequence for chromosome banding, the chromosomes containing the inserted genes were identified in most cases. Two barley lines derived from the same...

  20. A high-density consensus map of barley to compare the distribution of QTLs for partial resistance to Puccinia hordei and of defence gene homologues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcel, T.C.; Varshney, R.K.; Barbieri, M.; Jafary, H.; Kock, de M.J.D.; Graner, A.; Niks, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    A consensus map of barley was constructed based on three reference doubled haploid (DH) populations and three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Several sets of microsatellites were used as bridge markers in the integration of those populations previously genotyped with RFLP or with AFLP mar

  1. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  2. Constitutive expression of a barley Fe phytosiderophore transporter increases alkaline soil tolerance and results in iron partitioning between vegetative and storage tissues under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Ana M. Pelacho; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Cereals have evolved chelation systems to mobilize insoluble iron in the soil, but in rice this process is rather inefficient, making the crop highly susceptible to alkaline soils. We therefore engineered rice to express the barley iron-phytosiderophore transporter (HvYS1), which enables barley plants to take up iron from alkaline soils. A representative transgenic rice line was grown in standard (pH 5.5) or alkaline soil (pH 8.5) to evaluate alkaline tolerance and iron mobilizati...

  3. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  5. Introgression of tomato chromosomes into the potato genome: an analysis through molecular marker and in situ hybridisation techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderé, F.G.

    1998-01-01

    Transfer of alien chromosomes and genes across intergeneric boundaries can be useful not only for the introgression of desirable characters but also for fundamental genetic studies. The successful demonstration of hybridisation of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) and tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) t

  6. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  7. Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

    2010-11-24

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid.

  8. Adaptive introgression in animals: examples and comparison to new mutation and standing variation as sources of adaptive variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2013-09-01

    Adaptive genetic variation has been thought to originate primarily from either new mutation or standing variation. Another potential source of adaptive variation is adaptive variants from other (donor) species that are introgressed into the (recipient) species, termed adaptive introgression. Here, the various attributes of these three potential sources of adaptive variation are compared. For example, the rate of adaptive change is generally thought to be faster from standing variation, slower from mutation and potentially intermediate from adaptive introgression. Additionally, the higher initial frequency of adaptive variation from standing variation and lower initial frequency from mutation might result in a higher probability of fixation of the adaptive variants for standing variation. Adaptive variation from introgression might have higher initial frequency than new adaptive mutations but lower than that from standing variation, again making the impact of adaptive introgression variation potentially intermediate. Adaptive introgressive variants might have multiple changes within a gene and affect multiple loci, an advantage also potentially found for adaptive standing variation but not for new adaptive mutants. The processes that might produce a common variant in two taxa, convergence, trans-species polymorphism from incomplete lineage sorting or from balancing selection and adaptive introgression, are also compared. Finally, potential examples of adaptive introgression in animals, including balancing selection for multiple alleles for major histocompatibility complex (MHC), S and csd genes, pesticide resistance in mice, black colour in wolves and white colour in coyotes, Neanderthal or Denisovan ancestry in humans, mimicry genes in Heliconius butterflies, beak traits in Darwin's finches, yellow skin in chickens and non-native ancestry in an endangered native salamander, are examined.

  9. Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid between B. rapa and Orychophragmus violaceus by rapid chromosome evolution and introgression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chuan-Yuan Xu; Rui-Hongwan-Yan; Zai-Yun Li

    2007-12-01

    Many novel lines were established from an intergeneric mixoploid between Brassica rapa ($2n = 20$) and Orychophragmus violaceus ($2n = 24$) through successive selections for fertility and viability. Pedigrees of individual F2 plants were advanced to the 10th generation by selfing. Their breeding habit was self-compatible and different from the self-incompatibility of their female parent B. rapa, and these lines were reproductively isolated to different degrees from B. rapa and B. napus. The lines with high productivity showed not only a wide spectrum of phenotypes but also obvious variations in fatty acid profiles of seed oil and glucosinolate contents in seed meal. These lines had $2n = 36$, 37, 38, 39 and 40, with $2n = 38$ being most frequent (64.56%), and no intact O. violaceus chromosomes were detected by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses revealed a high extent of variation in genomic compositions across all the lines. O. violaceus-specific bands, deleted bands in B. rapa and novel bands for two parents were detected in these lines, with novel bands being the most frequent. The morphological and genetic divergence of these novel types derived from a single hybrid is probably due to rapid chromosomal evolution and introgression, and provides new genetic resources for rapeseed breeding.

  10. Selection efficiencies for improving drought/salt tolerances and yield using introgression breeding in rice(Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; Wang; Lubiao; Zhang; Afif; Nafisah; Linghua; Zhu; Jianlong; Xu; Zhikang; Li

    2013-01-01

    The backcross(BC) breeding strategy has been increasingly used for developing high yielding varieties with improved abiotic stress tolerances in rice. In this study, 189Huang-Hua-Zhan(HHZ) introgression lines(ILs) developed from three different selection schemes were evaluated for yield related traits under drought stress and non-stress conditions in the target and off-season winter nursery environments to assess the selection efficiency of BC breeding for improving different complex traits, and led us to five important results. The first result indicated that the primary target traits should be selected first in the target environments(TEs) in order to achieve the maximum genetic gain. Secondly, BC breeding for drought tolerance(DT) in rice was almost equally effective by strong phenotypic selection in the main target environments and in the winter-season of Hainan.Thirdly, exploiting genetic diversity in the subspecific gene pools is of great importance for future genetic improvement of complex traits in rice. Fourthly, considerable genetic gain can be effectively achieved by selection for secondary target traits among the ILs with the primary traits. Finally, the developed ILs provide useful materials for future genetic/genomic dissection and molecular breeding of complex traits.

  11. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... for variations in storage protein and AA composition. These cultivars were selected based on their higher protein contents (11.8–17.6%). The results obtained indicated that substantial variation not only in the distribution of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins...

  12. Genotype by environment interaction of quantitative traits: a case study in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fuping; Xu, Shizhong

    2012-07-01

    Genotype by environment interaction is a phenomenon that a better genotype in one environment may perform poorly in another environment. When the genotype refers to a quantitative trait locus (QTL), this phenomenon is called QTL by environment interaction, denoted by Q×E. Using a recently developed new Bayesian method and genome-wide marker information, we estimated and tested QTL main effects and Q×E interactions for a well-known barley dataset produced by the North American Barley Genome Mapping Project. This dataset contained seven quantitative traits collected from 145 doubled-haploid (DH) lines evaluated in multiple environments, which derived from a cross between two Canadian two-row barley lines, Harrington and TR306. Numerous main effects and Q×E interaction effects have been detected for all seven quantitative traits. However, main effects seem to be more important than the Q×E interaction effects for all seven traits examined. The number of main effects detected varied from 26 for the maturity trait to 75 for the heading trait, with an average of 61.86. The heading trait has the most detected effects, with a total of 98 (75 main, 29 Q×E). Among the 98 effects, 6 loci had both the main and Q×E effects. Among the total number of detected loci, on average, 78.5% of the loci show the main effects whereas 34.9% of the loci show Q×E interactions. Overall, we detected many loci with either the main or the Q×E effects, and the main effects appear to be more important than the Q×E interaction effects for all the seven traits. This means that most detected loci have a constant effect across environments. Another discovery from this analysis is that Q×E interaction occurs independently, regardless whether the locus has main effects.

  13. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  14. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  15. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  16. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...... for estimating a linkage map; it involves (1) transformation by the Kosambi mapping function of the available recombination percentages to additive map distances, (2) calculations of a set of map distances from the transformed recombination percentages by a maximum likelihood method in which all the available...... data are utilized jointly, and (3) omission of inconsistent data and determination of the most likely order of the loci. This procedure was applied to the 42 recombination percentages available for the 13 “mapped” loci. Due to inconsistencies 14 of the recombination percentages and, therefore, two...

  17. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  18. Adaptation and possible ancient interspecies introgression in pigs identified by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Huashui; Fang, Xiaodong; Yang, Bin; Huang, Zhiyong; Chen, Hao; Mao, Likai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Lu; Cui, Leilei; He, Weiming; Yang, Jie; Yao, Xiaoming; Zhou, Lisheng; Han, Lijuan; Li, Jing; Sun, Silong; Xie, Xianhua; Lai, Boxian; Su, Ying; Lu, Yao; Yang, Hui; Huang, Tao; Deng, Wenjiang; Nielsen, Rasmus; Ren, Jun; Huang, Lusheng

    2015-03-01

    Domestic pigs have evolved genetic adaptations to their local environmental conditions, such as cold and hot climates. We sequenced the genomes of 69 pigs from 15 geographically divergent locations in China and detected 41 million variants, of which 21 million were absent from the dbSNP database. In a genome-wide scan, we identified a set of loci that likely have a role in regional adaptations to high- and low-latitude environments within China. Intriguingly, we found an exceptionally large (14-Mb) region with a low recombination rate on the X chromosome that appears to have two distinct haplotypes in the high- and low-latitude populations, possibly underlying their adaptation to cold and hot environments, respectively. Surprisingly, the adaptive sweep in the high-latitude regions has acted on DNA that might have been introgressed from an extinct Sus species. Our findings provide new insights into the evolutionary history of pigs and the role of introgression in adaptation.

  19. The effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from different qualities of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Hansen, Preben Bøje;

    Barley sorting is an important step for picking up grain of desired quality. Whilst brewing with 100% sorted barley (picked high quality) has become realistic with the addition of exogenous enzymes, the effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from un-sorted barley (mixed) and sorted...... filterability, the Ondea® Pro treatment resulted in significantly lower turbidity and smaller particle size compared to Cellic® CTec2; however, this effect was observed in sorted and un-sorted barley but not in sorted-out barley. Consequently the un-sorted barley demonstrated great potential in brewing process...

  20. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    of reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49......: Reconstituted barley had higher soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and lower phytate P (0.93 g/ kg DM) compared with dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM, respectively). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed increased P absorption (52%) and decreased P excretion in feces (21%) (P

  1. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  2. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  3. Male mating strategy and the introgression of a growth hormone transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valosaari, Kata-Riina; Aikio, Sami; Kaitala, Veijo

    2008-11-01

    Escaped transgenic organisms (GMO's) may threaten the populations of their wild relatives if able to hybridize with each other. The introgression of a growth enhancement transgene into a wild Atlantic salmon population may be affected by the transgene's effects not only on fitness parameters, but also on mating behaviour. Large anadromous GMO males are most preferred in mating, but a transgene can also give the large sneakers a reproductive advantage over the smaller wild individuals. With a simulation model, we studied whether the increase in the proportion and mating success of sneakers in transgenic and hybrid genotypes could facilitate the introgression of a transgene into wild population after the release of GMOs. The model combines population dynamics and Mendelian inheritance of a transgenic trait. We found that the introgression of the transgene is strongly affected by the greater mating preference of large GMO males. Furthermore, the difference in reproductive success between the anadromous versus sneaker strategy defines how much GMO's have to be preferred to be able to invade. These results emphasize the importance of detailed knowledge of reproductive systems and the effect of a transgene on the phenotype and behaviour of GMOs when assessing the consequences of their release or escape to the wild.

  4. The elusive nature of adaptive mitochondrial DNA evolution of an arctic lineage prone to frequent introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Ferreira, José; Vilela, Joana; Fonseca, Miguel M; da Fonseca, Rute R; Boursot, Pierre; Alves, Paulo C

    2014-04-01

    Mitochondria play a fundamental role in cellular metabolism, being responsible for most of the energy production of the cell in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for key components of this process, but its direct role in adaptation remains far from understood. Hares (Lepus spp.) are privileged models to study the impact of natural selection on mitogenomic evolution because 1) species are adapted to contrasting environments, including arctic, with different metabolic pressures, and 2) mtDNA introgression from arctic into temperate species is widespread. Here, we analyzed the sequences of 11 complete mitogenomes (ten newly obtained) of hares of temperate and arctic origins (including two of arctic origin introgressed into temperate species). The analysis of patterns of codon substitutions along the reconstructed phylogeny showed evidence for positive selection in several codons in genes of the OXPHOS complexes, most notably affecting the arctic lineage. However, using theoretical models, no predictable effect of these differences was found on the structure and physicochemical properties of the encoded proteins, suggesting that the focus of selection may lie on complex interactions with nuclear encoded peptides. Also, a cloverleaf structure was detected in the control region only from the arctic mtDNA lineage, which may influence mtDNA replication and transcription. These results suggest that adaptation impacted the evolution of hare mtDNA and may have influenced the occurrence and consequences of the many reported cases of massive mtDNA introgression. However, the origin of adaptation remains elusive.

  5. Heterogeneous genome divergence, differential introgression, and the origin and structure of hybrid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard G; Larson, Erica L

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones have been promoted as windows on the evolutionary process and as laboratories for studying divergence and speciation. Patterns of divergence between hybridizing species can now be characterized on a genomewide scale, and recent genome scans have focused on the presence of 'islands' of divergence. Patterns of heterogeneous genomic divergence may reflect differential introgression following secondary contact and provide insights into which genome regions contribute to local adaptation, hybrid unfitness and positive assortative mating. However, heterogeneous genome divergence can also arise in the absence of any gene flow, as a result of variation in selection and recombination across the genome. We suggest that to understand hybrid zone origins and dynamics, it is essential to distinguish between genome regions that are divergent between pure parental populations and regions that show restricted introgression where these populations interact in hybrid zones. The latter, more so than the former, reveal the likely genetic architecture of reproductive isolation. Mosaic hybrid zones, because of their complex structure and multiple contacts, are particularly good subjects for distinguishing primary intergradation from secondary contact. Comparisons among independent hybrid zones or transects that involve the 'same' species pair can also help to distinguish between divergence with gene flow and secondary contact. However, data from replicate hybrid zones or replicate transects do not reveal consistent patterns; in a few cases, patterns of introgression are similar across independent transects, but for many taxa, there is distinct lack of concordance, presumably due to variation in environmental context and/or variation in the genetics of the interacting populations.

  6. Can alternative mating tactics facilitate introgression across a hybrid zone by circumventing female choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, K A; Hudson, C M; Lougheed, S C

    2017-02-01

    Reproductive barriers and divergence in species' mate recognition systems underlie major models of speciation. However, hybridization between divergent species is common, and classic mechanisms to explain permeable reproductive barriers rarely consider how an individual may attain reproductive success. Alternative mating tactics (AMTs) exist in various forms across animal taxa. Such tactics may allow poorer quality individuals to gain mating opportunities and facilitate introgression either through asymmetrical positive selection or by circumventing female choice altogether in areas of secondary contact. One such tactic is satellite behaviour in frogs, where silent males perch near advertisers in an attempt to intercept females. To test whether such satellite male tactics are context-dependent and favoured by hybrids, we genotyped and quantified the morphology of 80 male spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) individuals involved in caller-satellite associations from a secondary contact zone between two intraspecific mitochondrial lineages. Irrespective of population, satellite behaviour was best predicted by size but not body condition. Within the contact zone, pure individuals showed a significantly greater probability of being active callers, whereas hybrids of one lineage were more likely to adopt the satellite tactic. We suggest that satellite behaviour in P. crucifer promotes introgression, breaks down reproductive isolating barriers and contributes to asymmetrical introgression in this secondary contact zone. AMTs may thus be an underexplored but important alternative to oft-discussed causes of genetic discordance found in hybrid zones.

  7. Big thistle eats the little thistle: does unidirectional introgressive hybridization endanger the conservation of Onopordum hinojense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balao, Francisco; Casimiro-Soriguer, Ramón; García-Castaño, Juan Luis; Terrab, Anass; Talavera, Salvador

    2015-04-01

    Hybridization is known to have a creative role in plant evolution. However, it can also have negative effects on parental species. Onopordum is a large genus whose species frequently hybridize. In the Southwest Iberian Peninsula, the rare O. hinojense co-occurs with the widely distributed O. nervosum, and hybrids between these two taxa have been described as O. × onubense. In this study we determine the extinction risk in a hybrid zone, both for hybrids and parentals, using analyses of morphological and cytogenetic traits as well as genetic markers and demographic models. To investigate the introgression process we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, Bayesian analyses and genome scan methods. Morphology, genome size and molecular markers confirmed homoploid hybridization and also indicated unidirectional backcrossing of F₁ hybrids with O. nervosum, which is likely to swamp O. hinojense, the parental with lower pollen size and a very low fruit set (8%). Genome scan methods revealed several loci significantly deviating from neutrality. Finally, our demographic modeling indicated that the higher fitness of O. nervosum threats the survival of O. hinojense by demographic swamping. Our study provides strong new evidence for a scenario of rapid extinction by unidirectional introgression and demographic swamping. The multifaceted approach used here sheds new light on the role of introgression in plant extinctions.

  8. Extensive unidirectional introgression between two salamander lineages of ancient divergence and its evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrelli, Daniele; Bisconti, Roberta; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression, contrary to previous beliefs, are now considered to be widespread processes even among animal species. Nonetheless, the range of their possible outcomes and roles in moulding biodiversity patterns are still far from being fully appraised. Here we investigated the pattern of hybridization and introgression between Salamandrina perspicillata and S. terdigitata, two salamanders endemic to the Italian peninsula. Using a set of diagnostic or differentiated genetic markers (9 nuclear and 1 mitochondrial), we documented extensive unidirectional introgression of S. terdigitata alleles into the S. perspicillata gene pool in central Italy, indicating that barriers against hybridization were permeable when they came into secondary contact, and despite their ancient divergence. Nonetheless, purebred S. terdigitata, as well as F1, F2, and backcrosses were not found within the hybrid zone. Moreover, Bayesian analyses of population structure identified admixed populations belonging to a differentiated gene pool with respect to both parental populations. Overall, the observed genetic structure, together with their geographic pattern of distribution, suggests that Salamandrina populations in central Italy could have entered a distinct evolutionary pathway. How far they have gone along this pathway will deserve future investigation. PMID:25269625

  9. Introgressing Subgenome Components from Brassica rapa and B. carinata to B. juncea for Broadening Its Genetic Base and Exploring Intersubgenomic Heterosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zili; Wang, Meng; Chang, Shihao; Wu, Chao; Liu, Peifa; Meng, Jinling; Zou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea (AjAjBjBj), is an allotetraploid that arose from two diploid species, B. rapa (ArAr) and B. nigra (BnBn). It is an old oilseed crop with unique favorable traits, but the genetic improvement on this species is limited. We developed an approach to broaden its genetic base within several generations by intensive selection. The Ar subgenome from the Asian oil crop B. rapa (ArAr) and the Bc subgenome from the African oil crop B. carinata (BcBcCcCc) were combined in a synthesized allohexaploid (ArArBcBcCcCc), which was crossed with traditional B. juncea to generate pentaploid F1 hybrids (ArAjBcBjCc), with subsequent self-pollination to obtain newly synthesized B. juncea (Ar/jAr/jBc/jBc/j). After intensive cytological screening and phenotypic selection of fertility and agronomic traits, a population of new-type B. juncea was obtained and was found to be genetically stable at the F6 generation. The new-type B. juncea possesses good fertility and rich genetic diversity and is distinctly divergent but not isolated from traditional B. juncea, as revealed by population genetic analysis with molecular markers. More than half of its genome was modified, showing exotic introgression and novel variation. In addition to the improvement in some traits of the new-type B. juncea lines, a considerable potential for heterosis was observed in inter-subgenomic hybrids between new-type B. juncea lines and traditional B. juncea accessions. The new-type B. juncea exhibited a stable chromosome number and a novel genome composition through multiple generations, providing insight into how to significantly broaden the genetic base of crops with subgenome introgression from their related species and the potential of exploring inter-subgenomic heterosis for hybrid breeding. PMID:27909440

  10. Introgressing subgenome components from Brassica rapa and B. carinata to B. juncea for broadening its genetic base and exploring intersubgenomic heterosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea (AjAjBjBj, is an allotetraploid that arose from two diploid species, B. rapa (ArAr and B. nigra (BnBn. It is an old oilseed crop with unique favorable traits, but the genetic improvement on this species is limited. We developed an approach to broaden its genetic base within several generations by intensive selection. The Ar subgenome from the Asian oil crop B. rapa (ArAr and the Bc subgenome from the African oil crop B. carinata (BcBcCcCc were combined in a synthesized allohexaploid (ArArBcBcCcCc, which was crossed with traditional B. juncea to generate pentaploid F1 hybrids (ArAjBcBjCc, with subsequent self-pollination to obtain newly synthesized B. juncea (Ar/jAr/jBc/jBc/j. After intensive cytological screening and phenotypic selection of fertility and agronomic traits, a population of new-type B. juncea was obtained and was found to be genetically stable at the F6 generation. The new-type B. juncea possesses good fertility and rich genetic diversity and is distinctly divergent but not isolated from traditional B. juncea, as revealed by population genetic analysis with molecular markers. More than half of its genome was modified, showing exotic introgression and novel variation. In addition to the improvement in some traits of the new-type B. juncea lines, a considerable potential for heterosis was observed in inter-subgenomic hybrids between new-type B. juncea lines and traditional B. juncea accessions. The new-type B. juncea exhibited a stable chromosome number and a novel genome composition through multiple generations, providing insight into how to significantly broaden the genetic base of crops with subgenome introgression from their related species and the potential of exploring inter-subgenomic heterosis for hybrid breeding.

  11. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    , barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvZIP7 was investigated for its functions in Zn transport. The functions of HvZIP7 in planta were studied using in situ hybridization and transient analysis of subcellular localization with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Transgenic barley lines overexpressing HvZIP7......Summary: High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report...... were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs...

  12. The effect of water deficit on the activity of hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzymes in two barley genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Bandurska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two barley (Hordeum vulgare L. genotypes, the cv. Aramir and line R567, were subjected to water deficit by immersing their root systems in polyethylene glycol solution of osmotic potential -1.0 MPa. The stress caused a decline in the leaf-relative-water content (RWC and affected membrane damage in both the genotypes. A higher decline in RWC and a higher membrane injury index was observed in R567 in comparison to 'Aramir'. Water deficit induced an increase in the activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPO and catalse (CAT. A higher increase of CAT than GPO peroxidase activity has been noted in both the genotypes. The results. together with our earlier reports (Bandurska et al. 1997 show that detoxification of hydrogen peroxide under water stress conditions in those two barley genotypes was associated with the action of GPO and CAT, and that the latter was more involved in that process.

  13. Bioethanol production using genetically modified and mutant wheat and barley straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Engineering; East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (CN). State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering; Liu, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Chen, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zemetra, R.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (US). Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences

    2011-01-15

    To improve the performance of wheat and barley straws as feedstocks for ethanol biorefining, the genetic modifications of down regulating Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and low phytic acid mutation have been introduced into wheat and barley respectively. In this study, total 252 straw samples with different genetic background and location were collected from the field experiment based on a randomized complete block design. The fiber analysis (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) indicated that there were no significant differences between modified and wild type straw lines in terms of straw compositions. However, the difference did exist among straw lines on fiber utilization. 16 straw samples were further selected to conduct diluted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The data indicated that the phytic acid mutant and transgenic straws have changed the fiber structure, which significantly influences their hydrolysibility. These results may lead to a possible solution of mutant or genetic modified plant species that is capable to increase the hydrolysibility of biomass without changing their compositions and sacrificing their agronomy performance. (author)

  14. The development of lettuce backcross inbred lines (BILs) for exploitation of the Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, M.J.W.; Lindhout, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Backcross inbred lines (BILs) were developed in which chromosome segments of Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) were introgressed into L. sativa (lettuce). These lines were developed by four to five backcrosses and one generation of selfing. The first three generations of backcrossing were random. Marke

  15. Competition and Facilitation in Hairy Vetch-Barley Intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Tosti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercrops between legumes and non-legumes are widely used for fodder production and as cover crops, but little quantitative data are available on competition between species in the mixture. The objective of the present study was to assess the interaction between hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown as pure crops or intercrops with different proportions of seed rates at sowing. A 4-year field study was conducted using hairy vetch and barley as pure stands at full sowing density and as intercrops at different proportions of their own full seed rate according to the replacement principle. Interaction between species was evaluated on the basis of Land Equivalent Ratio (LER, Relative Neighbour Effect (RNE and Aggressivity (A calculated on biomass and nitrogen (N accumulation. The N accumulation of the mixed crops increased linearly with the legume proportion in the mixture. The mixtures were more efficient than the pure crops in terms of N use (LER > 1. Partial LER values indicated that the barley component benefited from the presence of the legume, while the hairy vetch partial LER decreased with increasing barley proportion in the mixture. The competitive response in terms of biomass accumulation was high for both species when their density in the mixture was high. Concerning N accumulation, barley benefited from an asymmetric interspecific facilitation while the vetch behaviour was similar to that observed for biomass accumulation. Barley dominance progressively increased reaching a maximum just before the last sampling date. At the last sampling date the competitive ability of hairy vetch showed a considerable increase in all mixtures (A ≈ 0. These findings indicate that the use of mixtures between hairy vetch and barley allows an increase in the use efficiency of N resource with respect to pure crops. Barley is the dominant component of the mixture and the hairy vetch is able to cope with the cereal

  16. Genome patterns of selection and introgression of haplotypes in natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus.

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    Fabian Staubach

    Full Text Available General parameters of selection, such as the frequency and strength of positive selection in natural populations or the role of introgression, are still insufficiently understood. The house mouse (Mus musculus is a particularly well-suited model system to approach such questions, since it has a defined history of splits into subspecies and populations and since extensive genome information is available. We have used high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typing arrays to assess genomic patterns of positive selection and introgression of alleles in two natural populations of each of the subspecies M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus. Applying different statistical procedures, we find a large number of regions subject to apparent selective sweeps, indicating frequent positive selection on rare alleles or novel mutations. Genes in the regions include well-studied imprinted loci (e.g. Plagl1/Zac1, homologues of human genes involved in adaptations (e.g. alpha-amylase genes or in genetic diseases (e.g. Huntingtin and Parkin. Haplotype matching between the two subspecies reveals a large number of haplotypes that show patterns of introgression from specific populations of the respective other subspecies, with at least 10% of the genome being affected by partial or full introgression. Using neutral simulations for comparison, we find that the size and the fraction of introgressed haplotypes are not compatible with a pure migration or incomplete lineage sorting model. Hence, it appears that introgressed haplotypes can rise in frequency due to positive selection and thus can contribute to the adaptive genomic landscape of natural populations. Our data support the notion that natural genomes are subject to complex adaptive processes, including the introgression of haplotypes from other differentiated populations or species at a larger scale than previously assumed for animals. This implies that some of the admixture found in inbred strains of mice

  17. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  18. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  19. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  20. Products based on a high fiber barley genotype, but not on common barley or oats, lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, H G; Granfeldt, Y E; Björck, I M

    1996-02-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to cereal products made from common barley, oats or a barley genotype containing elevated levels of beta-glucans were evaluated in nine healthy subjects. Porridges were made from commercial Swedish whole-meal barley or oat flours, and a mixed whole-meal porridge using the high fiber barley genotype and commercial Swedish common barley (50:50). Also studied were two types of flour-based bread products composed of high fiber barley and common barley in ratios of 50:50 or 80:20, respectively. The common oat and barley porridges produced postprandial glucose and insulin responses similar to the white wheat bread reference, suggesting that the naturally occurring dietary fiber in these whole-meal flours has no impact on the glucose tolerance. In contrast, all high fiber barley products induced significantly lower responses than did the reference product, with the glycemic and insulin indices ranging from 57 to 72 or 42 to 72%, respectively. It is concluded that "lente" products of high sensory quality can be prepared from a barley genotype with an elevated content of soluble dietary fiber. The glycemic index of these products compares favorably with that of products made from common cereals, suggesting their use as a potential component of diets for patients with diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and for individuals predisposed to metabolic disease.

  1. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  2. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  3. Frequent introgressions from diploid species contribute to the adaptation of the tetraploid Shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ting-Shen; Wu, Qiong; Hou, Xing-Hui; Li, Zi-Wen; Zou, Yu-Pan; Ge, Song; Guo, Ya-Long

    2015-03-01

    Adaptation is the most important ability for organisms to survive in diverse habitats. Animals have the option to escape from stressful environments, but plants do not. In plants, polyploids consist of about 30%-70% angiosperms and 95% ferns, of which some are important crops such as cotton and wheat. How polyploid plants adapt to various habitats has been a fundamental question remained largely unanswered. The tetraploid Shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) is one of the most successful plants on earth and has been distributed across the world, thus being an ideal model system for studying the adaptation of polyploids. We found that there are frequent introgressions from congeneric diploids to Shepherd's purse. Ecological niche modeling suggests that ecological differentiation is evident between the introgressed and non-introgressed C. bursa-pastoris, and the introgressions are a source of adaptation. This result links an evolutionary process to the adaptation of polyploids, and sheds light on the breeding strategy of polyploids as well. We conclude that frequent introgressions from congeneric diploids contributed to the acquisition of adequate genetic variations, thereby allowing C. bursa-pastoris to adapt to various habitats across the world. Our results highlight how a polyploid could have successfully established after it originated.

  4. Genetic introgression of ethylene-suppressed transgenic tomatoes with higher-polyamines trait overcomes many unintended effects due to reduced ethylene on the primary metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly P Sobolev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene regulates a myriad physiological and biochemical processes in ripening fruits and is accepted as the ripening hormone for the climacteric fruits. However, its effects on metabolome and resulting fruit quality are not yet fully understood, particularly when some of the ripening-associated biochemical changes are independent of ethylene action. We have generated a homozygous transgenic tomato genotype (2AS-AS that exhibits reduced ethylene production as a result of impaired expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 2 gene by its antisense RNA and had a longer shelf life. Double transgenic hybrid (2AS-AS x 579HO developed through a genetic cross between 2AS-AS and 579HO (Mehta et al., 2002 lines resulted in significantly higher ethylene production than either the WT or 2AS-AS fruit. To determine the effects of reduced ethylene and introgression of higher polyamines’ trait, the metabolic profiles of ripening fruits from WT (556AZ, 2AS-AS, and 2AS-AS x 579HO lines were determined using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The levels of Glu, Asp, AMP, Adenosine, Nucl1 and Nucl2 increased during ripening of the WT fruit. The increases in Glu, Asp, and AMP levels were attenuated in 2AS-AS fruit but recovered in the double hybrid with higher ethylene and polyamine levels. The ripening-associated decreases in Ala, Tyr, Val, Ile, Phe, malate and myo-inositol levels in the 2AS-AS line were not reversed in the double hybrid line suggesting a developmental/ripening regulated accumulation of these metabolites independent of ethylene. Significant increases in the levels of fumarate, formate, choline, Nucl1 and Nucl2 at most stages of ripening fruit were found in the double transgenic line due to introgression with higher-polyamines trait. Taken together these results show that the ripening-associated metabolic changes are both ethylene dependent and independent, and that the fruit metabolome is under the control of multiple regulators, including

  5. The Inheritance of the Pheromone Sensory System in Two Helicoverpa Species: Dominance of H. armigera and Possible Introgression from H. assulta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Dong, Jun-Feng; Wu, Han; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization of sympatric closely related species may sometimes lead to introgression and speciation. The sister species Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta both use (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal as sex pheromone components but in reversed ratios. Female H. armigera and male H. assulta could hybridize and produce fertile male hybrids, which can then backcross with females of the two parent species to get backcross lines in the laboratory. In this study, we compared the olfactory responses to pheromone compounds in the periphery and in the antennal lobes (ALs) of males of the two species, as well as of their hybrids and backcrosses. Single-sensillum recordings were carried out to explore characteristics of male-specific sensilla on the antennae, and in vivo calcium imaging combined with digital 3D-reconstruction was used to describe what happens in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of the AL. The results show that the population ratio of the two male-specific types of olfactory sensory neurons responding to two sex pheromone components are controlled by a major gene, and that the allele of H. armigera is dominant. Consistently, the study of the representative areas activated by sex pheromone components in the ALs further support the dominance of H. armigera. However, the topological structure of the MGC in the hybrid was similar but not identical to that in H. armigera. All subtypes of male-specific sensilla identified in the two species were found in the male hybrids and backcrosses. Moreover, two new subtypes with broader response spectra (the expanded A subtype and the expanded C subtype) emerged in the hybrids. Based on the inheritance pattern of the pheromone sensory system, we predict that when hybridization of female H. armigera and male H. assulta occurs in the field, male hybrids would readily backcross with female H. armigera, and introgression might occur from H. assulta into H. armigera through repeated backcrossing. PMID:28119570

  6. Study on the introgression of beef breeds in Canchim cattle using single nucleotide polymorphism markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Seleguim Chud, Tatiane Cristina; Bernardes, Priscila Arrigucci; Santos, Daniel Jordan de Abreu; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; de Alencar, Maurício Mello; Mudadu, Maurício de Alvarenga; Zanella, Ricardo; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa; Li, Changxi; Schenkel, Flavio Schramm; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of introgression of breeds in the Canchim (CA: 62.5% Charolais—37.5% Zebu) and MA genetic group (MA: 65.6% Charolais—34.4% Zebu) cattle using genomic information on Charolais (CH), Nelore (NE), and Indubrasil (IB) breeds. The number of animals used was 395 (CA and MA), 763 (NE), 338 (CH), and 37 (IB). The Bovine50SNP BeadChip from Illumina panel was used to estimate the levels of introgression of breeds considering the Maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and Single Regression method. After genotype quality control, 32,308 SNPs were considered in the analysis. Furthermore, three thresholds to prune out SNPs in linkage disequilibrium higher than 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 were considered, resulting in 15,286, 7,652, and 1,582 SNPs, respectively. For k = 2, the proportion of taurine and indicine varied from the expected proportion based on pedigree for all methods studied. For k = 3, the Regression method was able to differentiate the animals in three main clusters assigned to each purebred breed, showing more reasonable according to its biological viewpoint. Analyzing the data considering k = 2 seems to be more appropriate for Canchim-MA animals due to its biological interpretation. The usage of 32,308 SNPs in the analyses resulted in similar findings between the estimated and expected breed proportions. Using the Regression approach, a contribution of Indubrasil was observed in Canchim-MA when k = 3 was considered. Genetic parameter estimation could account for this breed composition information as a source of variation in order to improve the accuracy of genetic models. Our findings may help assemble appropriate reference populations for genomic prediction for Canchim-MA in order to improve prediction accuracy. Using the information on the level of introgression in each individual could also be useful in breeding or crossing design to improve individual heterosis in crossbred cattle. PMID:28182737

  7. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni;

    2014-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) production is an efficient tool in barley breeding, but efficiency of DH methods is not consistent. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the effect of n-butanol application on DH barley plant production efficiency. Five elite cultivars of barley and thirteen breeding...... crosses with different microspore embryogenesis capacities were selected for n-butanol application in anther and isolated microspore cultures. Application of 0.1 % n-butanol after a mannitol stress treatment in anther culture significantly increased the number of embryos (up to almost twice) and green...... plants (from 1.7 to 3 times) in three low-responding cultivars: Albacete, Astoria and Majestic. No significant differences on microspore embryogenesis efficiency were observed in medium and high responding cultivars. The application of n-butanol treatment to isolated microspores from cold treated spikes...

  8. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.;

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... insight into the substrate binding by describing residues defining 9 subsites, namely -7 through +2. These structures support that the pseudotetrasaccharide inhibitor acarbose is hydrolyzed by the active enzymes. Moreover, sugar binding was observed to the starch granule-binding site previously determined...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  9. Factors underlying restricted crossover localization in barley meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, James D; Osman, Kim; Jones, Gareth H; Franklin, F Chris H

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic recombination results in the formation of cytological structures known as chiasmata at the sites of genetic crossovers (COs). The formation of at least one chiasma/CO between homologous chromosome pairs is essential for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division as well as for generating genetic variation. Although DNA double-strand breaks, which initiate recombination, are widely distributed along the chromosomes, this is not necessarily reflected in the chiasma distribution. In many species there is a tendency for chiasmata to be distributed in favored regions along the chromosomes, whereas in others, such as barley and some other grasses, chiasma localization is extremely pronounced. Localization of chiasma to the distal regions of barley chromosomes restricts the genetic variation available to breeders. Studies reviewed herein are beginning to provide an explanation for chiasma localization in barley. Moreover, they suggest a potential route to manipulating chiasma distribution that could be of value to plant breeders.

  10. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz Hensel

    Full Text Available Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4 signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER retention signal (SEKDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up to 1.2 g/kg dry weight of recombinant protein (GFP, deposited in small roundish compartments assumed to be ER-derived protein bodies. The molecular farming potential of the system was tested by generating doubled haploid transgenic lines engineered to synthesize the anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody 2G12 with up to 160 μg recombinant protein per g grain. The recombinant protein was deposited at the periphery of protein bodies in the form of a mixture of various N-glycans (notably those lacking terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues, consistent with their vacuolar localization. Inspection of protein-A purified antibodies using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that their equilibrium and kinetic rate constants were comparable to those associated with recombinant 2G12 synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  11. Stress-inducible expression of barley Hva1 gene in transgenic mulberry displays enhanced tolerance against drought, salinity and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checker, Vibha G; Chhibbar, Anju K; Khurana, Paramjit

    2012-10-01

    Coping with different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses is the foundation of sustainable agriculture. Although conventional breeding and marker-assisted selection are being employed in mulberry (Morus indica L.) to develop better varieties, nonetheless the longer time periods required for these approaches necessitates the use of precise biotechnological approaches for sustainable agriculture. In an attempt to improve stress tolerance of mulberry, an important plant of the sericulture industry, an encoding late embryogenesis abundant gene from barley (HVA1) was introduced into mulberry plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic mulberry with barley Hva1 under a constitutive promoter actin1 was shown to enhance drought and salinity tolerance. Here, we report that overexpression of barley Hva1 also confers cold tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Further, barley Hva1 gene under control of a stress-inducible promoter rd29A can effectively negate growth retardation under non-stress conditions and confer stress tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Transgenic lines display normal morphology to enhanced growth and an increased tolerance against drought, salt and cold conditions as measured by free proline, membrane stability index and PSII activity. Protein accumulation was detected under stress conditions confirming inductive expression of HVA1 in transgenics. Investigations to assess stress tolerance of these plants under field conditions revealed an overall better performance than the non-transgenic plants. Enhanced expression of stress responsive genes such as Mi dnaJ and Mi 2-cysperoxidin suggests that Hva1 can regulate downstream genes associated with providing abiotic stress tolerance. The investigation of transgenic lines presented here demonstrates the acquisition of tolerance against drought, salt and cold stress in plants overexpressing barley Hva1, indicating that Arabidopsis rd29A promoter can function in mulberry.

  12. The USDA barley core collection: genetic diversity, population structure, and potential for genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Muñoz-Amatriaín

    Full Text Available New sources of genetic diversity must be incorporated into plant breeding programs if they are to continue increasing grain yield and quality, and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Germplasm collections provide a source of genetic and phenotypic diversity, but characterization of these resources is required to increase their utility for breeding programs. We used a barley SNP iSelect platform with 7,842 SNPs to genotype 2,417 barley accessions sampled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection of 33,176 accessions. Most of the accessions in this core collection are categorized as landraces or cultivars/breeding lines and were obtained from more than 100 countries. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified five major subpopulations within the core collection, mainly differentiated by geographical origin and spike row number (an inflorescence architecture trait. Different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD were found across the barley genome and many regions of high LD contained traits involved in domestication and breeding selection. The genotype data were used to define 'mini-core' sets of accessions capturing the majority of the allelic diversity present in the core collection. These 'mini-core' sets can be used for evaluating traits that are difficult or expensive to score. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS of 'hull cover', 'spike row number', and 'heading date' demonstrate the utility of the core collection for locating genetic factors determining important phenotypes. The GWAS results were referenced to a new barley consensus map containing 5,665 SNPs. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and high-density SNP genotyping are effective tools for plant breeders interested in accessing genetic diversity in large germplasm collections.

  13. Modern elite rice varieties of the 'Green Revolution' have retained a large introgression from wild rice around the Pi33 rice blast resistance locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballini, Elsa; Berruyer, Romain; Morel, Jean-Benoît; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Nottéghem, Jean-Loup; Tharreau, Didier

    2007-01-01

    During the breeding process of cultivated crops, resistance genes to pests and diseases are commonly introgressed from wild species. The size of these introgressions is predicted by theoretical models but has rarely been measured in cultivated varieties. By combining resistance tests with isogenic strains, genotyping and sequencing of different rice accessions, it was shown that, in the elite rice variety IR64, the resistance conferring allele of the rice blast resistance gene Pi33 was introgressed from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon (accession IRGC101508). Further characterization of this introgression revealed a large introgression at this locus in IR64 and the related variety IR36. The introgressed fragment represents approximately half of the short arm of rice chromosome 8. This is the first report of a large introgression in a cultivated variety of rice. Such a large introgression is likely to have been maintained during backcrossing only if a selection pressure was exerted on this genomic region. The possible traits that were selected are discussed.

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  15. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore...... the opportunity to give a forecast of the taste of the bread, as the AA composition is known to control certain aspects of the taste. We uses a MSE approach on a time of flight instrument coupled to a UPLC and in gel digestion to identify and characterize the different D-hordeins responsible for baking quality...

  17. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by solubil......Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained...

  18. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  19. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Guang; Veljanoski, Filip; Wang, Gang; Shabala, Sergey; Zhou, Meixue; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis), and molecular techniques (RT-PCR and qPCR) to investigate stomatal behavior and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterization of stomatal behavior of a large number of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant cultivar CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture under 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive cultivar Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield under salt treatment. Phenotypic characterization and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to higher barley grain yield in the field.

  20. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 2 HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological and molecular techniques (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis, and gene expression to investigate stomatal behaviour and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterisation of stomatal behaviour of large numbers of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we have found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture in 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield in salt treatment. Phenotypic characterisation and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to high barley grain yield in the field.

  1. The effect of Bt-transgene introgression on plant growth and reproduction in wild Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Bo; Darmency, Henry; Stewart, C Neal; Wei, Wei; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative plant growth and reproduction of insect-resistant and susceptible plants following the introgression of an insect-resistance Bt-transgene from Brassica napus, oilseed rape, to wild Brassica juncea. The second backcrossed generation (BC2) from a single backcross family was grown in pure and mixed stands of Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic siblings under two insect treatments. Various proportions of Bt-transgenic plants were employed in mixed stands to study the interaction between resistant and susceptible plants. In the pure stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants performed better than non-transgenic plants with or without insect treatments. In mixed stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants produced fewer seeds than their non-Bt counterparts at low proportions of Bt-transgenic BC2 plants in the absence of insects. Reproductive allocation of non-transgenic plants marginally increased with increasing proportions of Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure, which resulted in increased total biomass and seed production per stand. The results showed that the growth of non-transgenic plants was protected by Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure. The Bt-transgene might not be advantageous in mixed stands of backcrossed hybrids; thus transgene introgression would not be facilitated when herbivorous insects are not present. However, a relatively large initial population of Bt-transgenic plants might result in transgene persistence when target herbivores are present.

  2. Introgression and susceptibility to disease in a wild population of rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currens, K.P.; Hemmingsen, A.R.; French, R.A.; Buchanan, D.V.; Schreck, C.B.; Li, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    We examined susceptibility of wild rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Metolius River, a tributary of the Deschutes River, Oregon, to genetic introgression and ceratomyxosis as a result of stocking nonnative hatchery rainbow trout. Ceratomyxa shasta, an enzootic myxosporean parasite that can be lethal to nonnative hatchery rainbow trout, might have been limiting the interbreeding of hatchery and wild rainbow trout in the river. However, rainbow trout from the Metolius River had allozyme frequencies intermediate between those of wild and hatchery fish at LDH-B2* and sSOD-1*, two diagnostic genetic loci that allow the inland subspecies of rainbow trout to be distinguished from hatchery strains of coastal origin. They also had notable frequencies of ADA-1*85, an allele documented in hatchery rainbow trout but rarely seen in wild populations. We also found that rainbow trout in the Metolius River averaged 138.9 scales in the lateral series, intermediate between the counts for 9 coastal or nonnative hatchery populations, which always had fewer than 140 scales, and 10 inland populations, which always had more than 140 scales. Disease challenges revealed that rainbow trout from the Metolius River had much greater susceptibility to C. shasta than rainbow trout from the Deschutes River, which have genetic resistance to the lethal disease. Based on these data, we concluded that introgression with nonnative hatchery rainbow trout has reduced the abilities of wild rainbow trout in the Metolius River to survive when conditions for ceratomyxosis infection occur.

  3. Identification of Mutant Genes and Introgressed Tiger Salamander DNA in the Laboratory Axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, M Ryan; Vaughn-Wolfe, Jennifer; Elias, Alexandra; Kump, D Kevin; Kendall, Katharina Denise; Timoshevskaya, Nataliya; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir; Perry, Dustin W; Smith, Jeramiah J; Spiewak, Jessica E; Parichy, David M; Voss, S Randal

    2017-12-01

    The molecular genetic toolkit of the Mexican axolotl, a classic model organism, has matured to the point where it is now possible to identify genes for mutant phenotypes. We used a positional cloning-candidate gene approach to identify molecular bases for two historic axolotl pigment phenotypes: white and albino. White (d/d) mutants have defects in pigment cell morphogenesis and differentiation, whereas albino (a/a) mutants lack melanin. We identified in white mutants a transcriptional defect in endothelin 3 (edn3), encoding a peptide factor that promotes pigment cell migration and differentiation in other vertebrates. Transgenic restoration of Edn3 expression rescued the homozygous white mutant phenotype. We mapped the albino locus to tyrosinase (tyr) and identified polymorphisms shared between the albino allele (tyr (a) ) and tyr alleles in a Minnesota population of tiger salamanders from which the albino trait was introgressed. tyr (a) has a 142 bp deletion and similar engineered alleles recapitulated the albino phenotype. Finally, we show that historical introgression of tyr (a) significantly altered genomic composition of the laboratory axolotl, yielding a distinct, hybrid strain of ambystomatid salamander. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying genes for traits in the laboratory Mexican axolotl.

  4. Altitude adaptation in Tibetans caused by introgression of Denisovan-like DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Sánchez, Emilia; Jin, Xin; Asan; Bianba, Zhuoma; Peter, Benjamin M; Vinckenbosch, Nicolas; Liang, Yu; Yi, Xin; He, Mingze; Somel, Mehmet; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Bo; Ou, Xiaohua; Huasang; Luosang, Jiangbai; Cuo, Zha Xi Ping; Li, Kui; Gao, Guoyi; Yin, Ye; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuqing; Xu, Xun; Yang, Huanming; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-08-14

    As modern humans migrated out of Africa, they encountered many new environmental conditions, including greater temperature extremes, different pathogens and higher altitudes. These diverse environments are likely to have acted as agents of natural selection and to have led to local adaptations. One of the most celebrated examples in humans is the adaptation of Tibetans to the hypoxic environment of the high-altitude Tibetan plateau. A hypoxia pathway gene, EPAS1, was previously identified as having the most extreme signature of positive selection in Tibetans, and was shown to be associated with differences in haemoglobin concentration at high altitude. Re-sequencing the region around EPAS1 in 40 Tibetan and 40 Han individuals, we find that this gene has a highly unusual haplotype structure that can only be convincingly explained by introgression of DNA from Denisovan or Denisovan-related individuals into humans. Scanning a larger set of worldwide populations, we find that the selected haplotype is only found in Denisovans and in Tibetans, and at very low frequency among Han Chinese. Furthermore, the length of the haplotype, and the fact that it is not found in any other populations, makes it unlikely that the haplotype sharing between Tibetans and Denisovans was caused by incomplete ancestral lineage sorting rather than introgression. Our findings illustrate that admixture with other hominin species has provided genetic variation that helped humans to adapt to new environments.

  5. Introgression of mitochondrial DNA promoted by natural selection in the Japanese pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus abramus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ji; Mao, Xiuguang; Sun, Haijian; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Hua, Panyu

    2014-12-01

    Introgression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) between closely related taxa can be promoted by either neutral processes or natural selection. Since mitochondrial gene-encoded proteins play critical roles in oxidative metabolism, mtDNA genes are commonly considered to experience strong selective constraint. However, metabolic requirements vary across climatic and ecological gradients, thus modifying potential selective pressures acting on mtDNA genes. Here we conducted tests to detect adaptive evolution occurring in two mtDNA genes (Cytb and ND5) in individuals of Japanese pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus abramus) across the mainland of China and Hainan Island. Nuclear DNA markers identified two clades in both the mainland and Hainan Island populations, whereas each of these regions had a specific mtDNA clade. This cyto-nuclear discordance is most likely caused by introgression of the mtDNA by ruling out two other alternative scenarios (incomplete lineage sorting and sex-biased gene flow). Although population-based analyses revealed purifying selection acting on Cytb and neutrality in ND5, multiple nonsynonymous substitutions in both Cytb and ND5 were suggested to have been caused by positive selection by a divergence-based analysis. Our study supports the view that molecular adaptation can occur at genes under strong purifying selection if nonsynonymous substitutions cause radical changes in the physicochemical properties of amino acids.

  6. Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Nancy B; Flores, Jose J; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R

    2012-06-01

    Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will prevent progeny dispersal, thus preventing introgression. Motivated by a prior study where we found maize x teosinte hybrid fruits naturally dispersed under field conditions, we tested whether hybrid cobs hold their fruits as tightly as maize cobs. We found the force required to detach hybrid fruits was substantially and significantly less than that for maize. Consequently, we expect that introgression of transgenes from maize into teosinte in Mexico should occur largely unimpeded by the hybrid cob.La mazorca o elote híbrido de maíz x teocintle no impide la introgresión de genes transgénicos provenientes del cultivo. La introgresión entre el maíz cultivado y el maíz silvestre, o teocintle, es un componente importante en la evaluación ambiental relacionada con los riesgos de la introducción de genes transgénicos. La posibilidad de introgresión entre el maíz domesticado y el teocintle ha sido un tema controversial, en particular en México, donde maíz y teocintle coexisten. El maíz es compatible con el teocintle y la hibridización espontánea ocurre entre ellos. Algunos científicos han planteado como hipótesis que al cruzar el maíz con teocintle, la estructura interna de la infrutescencia que sujeta los frutos conocida como la mazorca de maíz o el elote, impide la dispersión de la progenie evitando que la introgresión ocurra. Los resultados de un estudio previo evidencian la dispersión de los frutos híbridos del maíz x teocintle en condiciones naturales

  7. Suppression of resistance to Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei conferred by the mlo5 barley powdery mildew resistance gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Carver, T.L.W.; Zeyen, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    . Additional suppression of mlo5 penetration resistance against the avirulent E. graminis isolate was achieved by using DDG, mannose, or glucose in combination with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase inhibitor alpha-aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP). A mlo virulent isolate of E. graminis was also tested...... phenolic compound synthesis, but that phenolics are not responsible for the primary mechanism of mlo5 penetration resistance. Sequestration of phosphate ions caused by complexing with DDG or mannose may lower the energy available for penetration resistance in these barley lines, obviating both inherent...

  8. Localization of the Laevigatum powdery mildew resistance gene to barley chromosome 2 by the use of RFLP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.; Holm-Jensen, A.G.; Jensen, H.P.;

    1993-01-01

    The powdery mildew disease resistance gene Ml(La) was found to belong to a locus on barely chromosome 2. We suggest that this locus be designated MlLa. Linkage analysis was carried out on 72 chromosome-doubled, spring-type progeny lines from a cross between the winter var 'Vogelsanger Gold' and t......' and the spring var 'Alf'. A map of chromosome 2 spanning 119 cM and flanked by two peroxidase gene loci was constructed. In addition to the Laevigatum resistance locus the map includes nine RFLP markers, the two peroxidase gene loci and the six-row locus in barley....

  9. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...

  10. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  11. Evaluation of a malting barley quality assessment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuijsen, H.J. van; Douma, A.C.; Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1998-01-01

    New malting barley varieties are annually tested for their malting and brewing potential according to a field trial set-up combined with quality evaluation on pilot scale. To assess the effects of trial year and location on quality evaluation data, a data base consisting of quality data from Dutch m

  12. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptid...

  13. Radiation hybrid map of barley chromosome 3H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assembly of the barley genome is complicated by its large size (5.1 Gb) and proportion of repetitive elements (84%). This process is facilitated by high resolution maps for aligning BAC contigs along chromosomes. Available genetic maps; however, do not provide accurate information on the physical po...

  14. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  15. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly...

  16. Reclamation of Sodic-Saline Soils. Barley Crop Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at assessing the salinity and sodicity effects of two soil types submitted to correction on barley crop. The two soils, contained in cylindrical pots (0.40 m in size and 0.60 m h supplied with a bottom valve for the collection of drainage water and located under shed to prevent the leaching action of rainfall, were clay-textured and saline and sodic-saline at barley seeding, as they had been cultivated for 4 consecutive years with different herbaceous species irrigated with 9 types of brackish water. In 2002-2003 the 2 salinized and sodium-affected soils (ECe and ESP ranging respectively from 5.84-20.27 dSm-1 to 2.83-11.19%, submitted to correction, were cultivated with barley cv Micuccio, and irrigated with fresh water (ECw = 0.5 dS m-1 and SAR = 0.45 whenever 30% of the maximum soil available moisture was lost by evapotranspiration. Barley was shown to be a salt-tolerant species and did not experience any salt stress when grown in soils with an initial ECe up to 11 dS m-1. When it was grown in more saline soils (initial ECe of about 20 dS m-1, despite the correction, it showed a reduction in shoot biomass and kernel yield by 26% and 36% respectively, as compared to less saline soils.

  17. Microgeographic Edaphic Differentiation in Hordein Polymorphisms of Wild Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevo, E.; Beiles, A.; Storch, N.

    1983-01-01

    and topography. Likewise, significant correlations were found between hordein phenotypes and allozyme types detected in a previous study. Our results suggest that at least part of the hordein polymorphisms in wild barley is adaptive and selected by soil and topographic differences over very short distances....

  18. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  19. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  20. Durum wheat and barley productivity in saline-drought environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Mastrorilli, M.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Lahmer, F.Z.; Hamdy, A.; Oweis, T.

    2009-01-01

    In two Successive years, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum Desf.) and barley (Hodeum vulgare L.) were tested in a factorial salinity-drought experiment, combining three levels of salinity and two levels of drought. The two drought treatments were obtained by applying irrigation water when the pre-dawn

  1. Characterization of Gibberellin Receptor Mutants of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter M.Chandler; Carol A.Harding; Anthony R.Ashton; Mark D.Mulcair; Nicholas E.Dixon; Lewis N.Mander

    2008-01-01

    The sequence of Gidl (a gene for a gibberellin (GA) receptor from rice) was used to identify a putative orthoIogue from barley.This was expressed in E.coil,and produced a protein that was able to bind GA in vitro with both structural specificity and saturability.Its potential role in GA responses was investigated using barley mutants with reduced GA sensitivity (gsel mutants).Sixteen different gsel mutants each carried a unique nucleotide substitution in this sequence.In all but one case,these changes resulted in single amino acid substitutions,and,for the remaining mutant,a substitution in the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA is proposed to interfere with translation initiation.There was perfect linkage in segregating populations between new mutant alleles and the gsel phenotype,leading to the conclusion that the putative GID1 GA receptor sequence in barley corresponds to the Gsel locus.Determination of endogenous GA contents in one of the mutants revealed enhanced accumulation of bioactive GA1,and a deficit of C20 GA precursors.All of the gsel mutants had reduced sensitivity to exogenous GA3,and to AC94377 (a GA analogue) at concentrations that are normally 'saturating',but,at much higher concentrations,there was often a considerable response.The comparison between barley and rice mutants reveals interesting differences between these two cereal species in GA hormonal physiology.

  2. Expression of lipoxygenase isoenzymes in developing barley grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, N.F.; Mechelen, J.R. van

    1997-01-01

    Expression of lipoxygenase was studied in whole developing barley grains from 5 days after flowering (DAF) to full maturity. Lipoxygenase showed two distinct peaks of activity. The first peak of activity occurred in the early stages of grain development from 5 until 20 DAF, whereas the second peak o

  3. Biotic stress in barley: disease problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated over a wider geographic range than almost any other major crop species. It can be found growing from the tropics to the high latitudes and from the seacoast to the highest arable mountaintops. On marginal lands where alkaline soils, drought, or cold summer t...

  4. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  5. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  6. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  7. Spatial aggregation of pathotypes of barley powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Aggregation in the distribution of pathotypes of Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei, the barley powdery mildew pathogen, was investigated in field plots of 'Golden Promise', 'Proctor' and 'Tyra'. 'Golden Promise' and 'Proctor' have no effective mildew resistance alleles, whereas 'Tyra' has Mla1, which...

  8. Dormant barley aleurone shows heterogeneity and a specific cytodifferentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurink, R.C.; Bakhuizen, R.; Libbenga, K.R.; Boulanger, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to gibberellic acid, aleurone layers isolated from dormant barley (Hordeum distichum L. cv. Triumph) kernels produced significantly less alpha-amylase than aleurones from non-dormant kernels. Light microscopical investigations using the dye acridine orange as well as electron microscopic

  9. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  10. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Songbo; Tan, Cong; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling). Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%), intron retention (32%-34%) and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21%) were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  11. A major barley allergen associated with baker's asthma disease is a glycosylated monomeric inhibitor of insect alpha-amylase: cDNA cloning and chromosomal location of the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, M; Sanchez-Monge, R; Gomez, L; Salcedo, G; Carbonero, P

    1992-11-01

    A 14.5 kDa barley endosperm protein that is a major allergen in baker's asthma disease, as previously shown by both in vitro (IgE binding) and in vivo tests, has been identified as a glycosylated monomeric member of the multigene family of inhibitors of alpha-amylase/trypsin from cereals. A cDNA encoding this allergen (renamed BMAI-1) has been isolated and characterized. The deduced sequence for the mature protein, which is 132 residues long, is identical in its N-terminal end to the 20 amino acid partial sequence previously determined from the purified allergen, and fully confirms that it is a member of the multigene family of cereal inhibitors. Southern-blot analysis of wheat/barley addition lines using the insert in the BMAI-1 cDNA clone as a probe, has led to the location of the allergen gene (Iam1) in barley chromosome 2, while another related member of this protein family, the barley dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1 gene (Iad1) has been located in chromosome 6. Iam1 is the first member of this inhibitor family in cereals to be assigned to chromosome group 2, thus extending the dispersion of genes in the family to five out of the seven homology groups of chromosomes in wheat and barley (chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7).

  12. Cellular approaches to agricultural genetics. Progress report, December 1, 1975--November 30, 1976. [Potatoes, barley, tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The intent of this project is to define conditions for the in vitro culture and subsequent regeneration into whole plants of somatic cells of important crop species. Work during this year has focused upon defining the role of several variables in regeneration of cultures derived primarily from potatoes, barley and long term tobacco cultures. Specific variables which were examined included source of the initial explant for in vitro culture, effects of various hormones (primarily 2,4-D and ABA), effects of alterations of the basic mineral salts medium, effects of various physical shocks and effects of selection and subculture of callus approximating a desired morphological type. Further research is focused on defining the response of plant cells to a range of mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic agents. Initial work in this area has developed and characterized a haploid cell line of tobacco capable of responding quantitatively to these agents.

  13. Fine mapping of the Bsr1 barley stripe mosaic virus resistance gene in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cui

    Full Text Available The ND18 strain of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV infects several lines of Brachypodium distachyon, a recently developed model system for genomics research in cereals. Among the inbred lines tested, Bd3-1 is highly resistant at 20 to 25 °C, whereas Bd21 is susceptible and infection results in an intense mosaic phenotype accompanied by high levels of replicating virus. We generated an F(6:7 recombinant inbred line (RIL population from a cross between Bd3-1 and Bd21 and used the RILs, and an F(2 population of a second Bd21 × Bd3-1 cross to evaluate the inheritance of resistance. The results indicate that resistance segregates as expected for a single dominant gene, which we have designated Barley stripe mosaic virus resistance 1 (Bsr1. We constructed a genetic linkage map of the RIL population using SNP markers to map this gene to within 705 Kb of the distal end of the top of chromosome 3. Additional CAPS and Indel markers were used to fine map Bsr1 to a 23 Kb interval containing five putative genes. Our study demonstrates the power of using RILs to rapidly map the genetic determinants of BSMV resistance in Brachypodium. Moreover, the RILs and their associated genetic map, when combined with the complete genomic sequence of Brachypodium, provide new resources for genetic analyses of many other traits.

  14. Transcriptome Comparative Profiling of Barley eibi1 Mutant Reveals Pleiotropic Effects of HvABCG31 Gene on Cuticle Biogenesis and Stress Responsive Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eviatar Nevo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley eibi1 mutant with HvABCG31 gene mutation has low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. To better understand how such a mutant plant survives, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. The leaf transcriptomes between the near-isogenic lines eibi1 and the wild type were compared using the 22-k Barley1 Affymetrix microarray. We found that the pleiotropic effect of the single gene HvABCG31 mutation was linked to the co-regulation of metabolic processes and stress-related system. The cuticle development involved cytochrome P450 family members and fatty acid metabolism pathways were significantly up-regulated by the HvABCG31 mutation, which might be anticipated to reduce the levels of cutin monomers or wax and display conspicuous cuticle defects. The candidate genes for responses to stress were induced by eibi1 mutant through activating the jasmonate pathway. The down-regulation of co-expressed enzyme genes responsible for DNA methylation and histone deacetylation also suggested that HvABCG31 mutation may affect the epigenetic regulation for barley development. Comparison of transcriptomic profiling of barley under biotic and abiotic stresses revealed that the functions of HvABCG31 gene to high-water loss rate might be different from other osmotic stresses of gene mutations in barley. The transcriptional profiling of the HvABCG31 mutation provided candidate genes for further investigation of the physiological and developmental changes caused by the mutant.

  15. Asymmetric Introgression in the Horticultural Living Fossil Cycas Sect. Asiorientales Using a Genome-Wide Scanning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shong Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct.

  16. Genetics of hybrid inviability and sterility in Drosophila: dissection of introgression of D. simulans genes in D. melanogaster genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Karr, Timothy L; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-03-01

    Interspecific crosses between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans usually produce sterile unisexual hybrids. The barrier preventing genetic analysis of hybrid inviability and sterility has been taken away by the discovery of a D. simulans strain which produces fertile female hybrids. D. simulans genes in the cytological locations of 21A1 to 22C1-23B1 and 30F3-31C5 to 36A2-7 have been introgressed into the D. melanogaster genetic background by consecutive backcrosses. Flies heterozygous for the introgression are fertile, while homozygotes are sterile both in females and males. The genes responsible for the sterility have been mapped in the introgression. The male sterility is caused by the synergistic effect of multiple genes, while the female sterility genes have been localized to a 170 kb region (32D2 to 32E4) containing 20 open reading frames. Thus, the female sterility might be attributed to a single gene with a large effect. We have also found that the Lethal hybrid rescue mutation which prevents the inviability of male hybrids from the cross of D. melanogaster females and D. simulans males cannot rescue those carrying the introgression, suggesting that D. simulans genes maybe non-functional in this hybrid genotype. The genes responsible for the inviability have not been separated from the female sterility genes by recombination.

  17. Genomic diversity and introgression in O. sativa reveal the impact of domestication and breeding on the rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The domestication of Asian rice (Oryza sativa was a complex process punctuated by episodes of introgressive hybridization among and between subpopulations. Deep genetic divergence between the two main varietal groups (Indica and Japonica suggests domestication from at least two distinct wild populations. However, genetic uniformity surrounding key domestication genes across divergent subpopulations suggests cultural exchange of genetic material among ancient farmers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we utilize a novel 1,536 SNP panel genotyped across 395 diverse accessions of O. sativa to study genome-wide patterns of polymorphism, to characterize population structure, and to infer the introgression history of domesticated Asian rice. Our population structure analyses support the existence of five major subpopulations (indica, aus, tropical japonica, temperate japonica and GroupV consistent with previous analyses. Our introgression analysis shows that most accessions exhibit some degree of admixture, with many individuals within a population sharing the same introgressed segment due to artificial selection. Admixture mapping and association analysis of amylose content and grain length illustrate the potential for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits in domesticated plant populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genes in these regions control a myriad of traits including plant stature, blast resistance, and amylose content. These analyses highlight the power of population genomics in agricultural systems to identify functionally important regions of the genome and to decipher the role of human-directed breeding in refashioning the genomes of a domesticated species.

  18. A model for population growth of laboratory animals subjected to marker-assisted introgression : how many animals do we need?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudande, O.D.; Thomson, P.C.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides methods for calculating the mean and variance of the number of animals with the desired genotype in each backcross generation for a marker-assisted introgression experiment. The ultimate goal is to produce animals which are homozygous for the desired loci. The methods have been d

  19. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  20. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  1. Attempted compensation for linkage drag affecting agronomic characteristics of durum wheat 1AS/1DL translocation lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield reduction due to linkage drag caused by introgression of alien chromatin is a major problem for incorporating new genes into durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). Here we report attempts to improve yield of 1AS•1AL-1DL translocation lines of durum wheat that had previously been rep...

  2. Towards systems genetic analyses in barley: Integration of phenotypic, expression and genotype data into GeneNetwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druka Arnis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A typical genetical genomics experiment results in four separate data sets; genotype, gene expression, higher-order phenotypic data and metadata that describe the protocols, processing and the array platform. Used in concert, these data sets provide the opportunity to perform genetic analysis at a systems level. Their predictive power is largely determined by the gene expression dataset where tens of millions of data points can be generated using currently available mRNA profiling technologies. Such large, multidimensional data sets often have value beyond that extracted during their initial analysis and interpretation, particularly if conducted on widely distributed reference genetic materials. Besides quality and scale, access to the data is of primary importance as accessibility potentially allows the extraction of considerable added value from the same primary dataset by the wider research community. Although the number of genetical genomics experiments in different plant species is rapidly increasing, none to date has been presented in a form that allows quick and efficient on-line testing for possible associations between genes, loci and traits of interest by an entire research community. Description Using a reference population of 150 recombinant doubled haploid barley lines we generated novel phenotypic, mRNA abundance and SNP-based genotyping data sets, added them to a considerable volume of legacy trait data and entered them into the GeneNetwork http://www.genenetwork.org. GeneNetwork is a unified on-line analytical environment that enables the user to test genetic hypotheses about how component traits, such as mRNA abundance, may interact to condition more complex biological phenotypes (higher-order traits. Here we describe these barley data sets and demonstrate some of the functionalities GeneNetwork provides as an easily accessible and integrated analytical environment for exploring them. Conclusion By

  3. Development of Insect-Resistant Hybrid Rice by Introgressing the Bt Gene from Bt Rice Huahui 1 into II-32A/B, a Widely Used Cytogenic Male Sterile System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yun-song; HUANG Hai-qing; XU Meng-yun; WANG Liang-chao; ZHANG Xiao-bo; ZHANG Ji-wen; TU Ju-min

    2014-01-01

    Huahui 1 is an elite transgenic male sterile restorer line of wild rice abortive-type that expresses a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)δ-endotoxin and provides effective and economic control of lepidopteran insects. To exploit Huahui 1 to develop a new Bt rice, the insertion site of the Bt gene was determined by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). Bt was located in the promoter region of LOC.Os10g10360, approximately 5.35 Mb from the telomere of the short arm of chromosome 10. For the ifrst time, a Bt cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) system was developed by introgressing Bt from Huahui 1. The recipient CMS system used consisted of Indonesia paddy rice-type II-32B (maintainer line) and II-32A (male sterile line). Marker-assisted selection was used to increase selection efifciency in the backcrossing program. In BC5F1, the Bt plant 85015-8 was selected for further analyses, as it had the highest SSR marker homozygosity. In addition, the linkage drag of the foreign Bt gene in 85015-8 was minimized to 8.01-11.46 Mb. The foreign Bt gene was then delivered from 85015-8 into II-32A. The resultant Bt II-32A and Bt II-32B lines were both resistant to lepidopteran in ifeld trials, and agronomic traits were not disturbed. The maintainability of II-32B, and the male sterility and general combining ability of II-32A, were not affected by the Bt introgression. This study demonstrates a simple and fast approach to develop Bt hybrid rice.

  4. Hybridization between subspecies of waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) in zones of overlap with limited introgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline D; Simonsen, Bo T; Kat, Pieter W;

    2006-01-01

    disequilibrium and maximum-likelihood estimates of genetic drift suggested that admixture between subspecies is a recent event. The fact that introgression is limited between subspecies could be caused by chromosomal differences, hindering gene flow between common and defassa waterbuck....... of range overlap in East Africa, where phenotypically intermediate populations occur. Variation in 478 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region and 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to describe the genetic structure and phylogeographical pattern of the species, and to assess...... if the intermediate populations are the results of hybridization. In total, 186 individuals from 11 localities were analysed. A high degree of genetic differentiation was found between subspecies, although this was most evident from the microsatellite data. Hybridization was suggested in the phenotypically...

  5. Determination of ergosterol levels in barley and malt varieties in the Czech Republic via HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicková, Lenka; Gadas, David; Havlová, Pavla; Havel, Josef

    2008-06-11

    Ergosterol is considered to be a suitable indicator of mold infestation in barley and malt. In this study ergosterol levels in different varieties of barley and malt produced in the Czech Republic were determined. A modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was statistically processed, validated (Effivalidation program), and applied to 124 samples of barley and malt. Ergosterol was isolated by extraction and saponification, and the quantification was performed using HPLC with diode array detection. The content of ergosterol ranged between the limit of detection (LOD) and 36.3 mg/kg in barley and between the LOD and 131.1 mg/kg in malt. Ergosterol is presumably connected with metabolites generated when barley grain is attacked by pathogens, and such barley often shows a high overfoaming (gushing) value. However, it was found that the content of ergosterol does not correlate with the degree of beer gushing.

  6. Evidence for X-linked introgression between molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae from Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K S; Townson, H

    2012-06-01

    The M and S molecular forms of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) are morphologically identical incipient species in which reproductive isolation is incomplete, enabling low-level gene flow between forms. In an attempt to find differences between the M and S forms, sequence variation was studied at loci along the X chromosome in adult female An. gambiae from Angola. A high proportion of M form specimens from Angola (79% of the 456 X chromosomes sampled) were found to contain a 16-bp insertion in intron 4 of the X-linked GPRCCK1 locus, relative to the AgamP3 release of the An. gambiae PEST genome sequence. The insertion was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in Angolan M form populations. The same insertion was found in all S form specimens examined, regardless of where in Africa they were sampled, but was absent from a sample of M form specimens collected in Ghana, Bioko and Mali. In M form specimens from Angola, there was an association between alleles at the GPRCCK1 locus and those at a microsatellite locus, AGXH678, close to the centromere of the X chromosome, with significant linkage disequilibrium between loci separated by 0.472 Mbp (P < 0.033). We show that the insertion results from introgression from the S form into the M form, rather than from the retention of an ancestral character. Gene flow from the S to M form could allow genes of adaptive value to be transferred, including those conferring insecticide resistance and others influencing ecology and behaviour, and thus malaria transmission and control. We discuss factors that may have led to this introgression event.

  7. Species-specific markers provide molecular genetic evidence for natural introgression of bullhead catfishes in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béres, Beatrix; Kánainé Sipos, Dóra; Müller, Tamás; Staszny, Ádám; Farkas, Milán; Bakos, Katalin; Urbányi, Béla

    2017-01-01

    Since three bullhead catfish species were introduced to Europe in the late 19th century, they have spread to most European countries. In Hungary, the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) was more widespread in the 1970s–1980s, but the black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) has gradually supplanted since their second introduction in 1980. The introgressive hybridization of the two species has been presumed based on morphological examinations, but it has not previously been supported by genetic evidence. In this study, 11 different Hungarian habitats were screened with a new species-specific nuclear genetic, duplex PCR based, marker system to distinguish the introduced catfish species, Ameiurus nebulosus, Ameiurus melas, and Ameiurus natalis, as well as the hybrids of the first two. More than 460 specimens were analyzed using the above markers and additional mitochondrial sequence analyses were also conducted on >25% of the individuals from each habitat sampled. The results showed that only 7.9% of the specimens from two habitats belonged to Ameiurus nebulosus, and 92.1% were classified as Ameiurus melas of all habitats, whereas the presence of Ameiurus natalis was not detected. Two specimens (>0.4%) showed the presence of both nuclear genomes and they were identified as hybrids of Ameiurus melas and Ameiurus nebulosus. An additional two individuals showed contradicting results from the nuclear and mitochondrial assays as a sign of a possible footprint of introgressive hybridization that might have happened two or more generations before. Surprisingly, the level of hybridization was much smaller than expected based on the analyses of the North American continent’s indigenous stock from the hybrid zones. This phenomenon has been observed in several invasive fish species and it is regarded as an added level of complexity in the management of their rapid adaptation. PMID:28265489

  8. Population structure of honey bees in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary) confirms introgression from surrounding subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péntek-Zakar, Erika; Oleksa, Andrzej; Borowik, Tomasz; Kusza, Szilvia

    2015-12-01

    Carniolan honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica) are considered as an indigenous subspecies in Hungary adapted to most of the ecological and climatic conditions in this area. However, during the last decades Hungarian beekeepers have recognized morphological signs of the Italian honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica). As the natural distribution of the honey bee subspecies can be affected by the importation of honey bee queens or by natural gene flow, we aimed at determining the genetic structure and characteristics of the local honey bee population using molecular markers. All together, 48 Hungarian and 84 foreign (Italian, Polish, Spanish, Liberian) pupae and/or workers were used for mitochondrial DNA analysis. Additionally, 53 sequences corresponding to 10 subspecies and the Buckfast hybrid were downloaded from GenBank. For the nuclear analysis, 236 Hungarian and 106 foreign honey bees were genotyped using nine microsatellites. Heterozygosity values, population-specific alleles, FST values, principal coordinate analysis, assignment tests, structure analysis, and dendrograms were calculated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity values showed moderate values. We found that one haplotype (H9) was dominant in Hungary. The presence of the black honey bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) was negligible, but a few individuals resembling other subspecies were identified. We proved that the Hungarian honey bee population is nearly homogeneous but also demonstrated introgression from the foreign subspecies. Both mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses corroborated the observations of the beekeepers. Molecular analyses suggested that Carniolan honey bee in Hungary is slightly affected by Italian and black honey bee introgression. Genetic differences were detected between Polish and Hungarian Carniolan honey bee populations, suggesting the existence of at least two different gene pools within A. m. carnica.

  9. Recurrent rearrangement during adaptive evolution in an interspecific yeast hybrid suggests a model for rapid introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dunn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome rearrangements are associated with eukaryotic evolutionary processes ranging from tumorigenesis to speciation. Rearrangements are especially common following interspecific hybridization, and some of these could be expected to have strong selective value. To test this expectation we created de novo interspecific yeast hybrids between two diverged but largely syntenic Saccharomyces species, S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum, then experimentally evolved them under continuous ammonium limitation. We discovered that a characteristic interspecific genome rearrangement arose multiple times in independently evolved populations. We uncovered nine different breakpoints, all occurring in a narrow ~1-kb region of chromosome 14, and all producing an "interspecific fusion junction" within the MEP2 gene coding sequence, such that the 5' portion derives from S. cerevisiae and the 3' portion derives from S. uvarum. In most cases the rearrangements altered both chromosomes, resulting in what can be considered to be an introgression of a several-kb region of S. uvarum into an otherwise intact S. cerevisiae chromosome 14, while the homeologous S. uvarum chromosome 14 experienced an interspecific reciprocal translocation at the same breakpoint within MEP2, yielding a chimaeric chromosome; these events result in the presence in the cell of two MEP2 fusion genes having identical breakpoints. Given that MEP2 encodes for a high-affinity ammonium permease, that MEP2 fusion genes arise repeatedly under ammonium-limitation, and that three independent evolved isolates carrying MEP2 fusion genes are each more fit than their common ancestor, the novel MEP2 fusion genes are very likely adaptive under ammonium limitation. Our results suggest that, when homoploid hybrids form, the admixture of two genomes enables swift and otherwise unavailable evolutionary innovations. Furthermore, the architecture of the MEP2 rearrangement suggests a model for rapid introgression, a

  10. Introgressive hybridization as a promoter of genome reshuffling in natural homoploid fish hybrids (Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C S A; Aboim, M A; Ráb, P; Collares-Pereira, M J

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and speciation by introgressive hybridization is currently one of the major challenges in evolutionary biology. Here, the analysis of hybridization between two pairs of Iberian Leuciscinae provided new data on independent hybrid zones involving Achondrostoma oligolepis (AOL) and Pseudochondrostoma duriense (PDU), and confirmed the occurrence of hybrids between AOL and Pseudochondrostoma polylepis (PPO). A multilevel survey combining morphological, genetic and cytogenomic markers on a vast population screening successfully sorted the selected fishes as admixed. Results were similar in both AOL × PDU and AOL × PPO systems. Overall, hybrid morphotypes, cytogenomic data and genetic profiling indicated preferential backcrossing and suggested AOL as a major genomic contributor. Moreover, results implied AOL as more permissive to introgression than PDU or PPO. Although PDU- and PPO-like individuals appeared more resilient to genome modifications, AOL appeared to be more involved and affected by the ongoing hybridization events, as chromosomal translocations were only found in AOL-like individuals. All hybrids analysed evidenced extensive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymorphism that was not found in parental species, but usually seen falling within the range of possible parental combinations. Yet, transgressive phenotypes that cannot be explained by normal recombination, including more rDNA clusters than expected or the occurrence of syntenic rDNAs, were also detected. Present results proved rapid genomic evolution providing the genetic novelty for species to persist. In addition, although the ultimate consequences of such apparently extensive and recurrent events remain unknown, modern genome-wide methodologies are of great promise towards answering questions concerning the causes, dynamics and impacts of hybridization.

  11. QTL mapping identifies candidate alleles involved in adaptive introgression and range expansion in a wild sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Kenneth D.; Broman, Karl W.; Kane, Nolan C.; Hovick, Stephen M.; Randell, Rebecca A.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2014-01-01

    The wild North American sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. debilis are participants in one of the earliest identified examples of adaptive trait introgression, and the exchange is hypothesized to have triggered a range expansion in H. annuus. However, the genetic basis of the adaptive exchange has not been examined. Here, we combine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with field measurements of fitness to identify candidate H. debilis QTL alleles likely to have introgressed into H. annuus to form the natural hybrid lineage H. a. texanus. Two 500-individual BC1 mapping populations were grown in central Texas, genotyped for 384 SNP markers, and then phenotyped in the field for two fitness and 22 herbivore resistance, ecophysiological, phenological, and architectural traits. We identified a total of 110 QTL, including at least one QTL for 22 of the 24 traits. Over 75% of traits exhibited at least one H. debilis QTL allele that would shift the trait in the direction of the wild hybrid H. a. texanus. We identified three chromosomal regions where H. debilis alleles increased both female and male components of fitness; these regions are expected to be strongly favored in the wild. QTL for a number of other ecophysiological, phenological, and architectural traits co-localized with these three regions and are candidates for the actual traits driving adaptive shifts. G × E interactions played a modest role, with 17% of the QTL showing potentially divergent phenotypic effects between the two field sites. The candidate adaptive chromosomal regions identified here serve as explicit hypotheses for how the genetic architecture of the hybrid lineage came into existence. PMID:25522096

  12. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  13. Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) for Improving Manganese Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lizhi

    and the interaction between latent Mn deficiency and light stress in maize plants. The obtained results showed that latent Mn deficiency decreased the utilization of photosynthetically active light, inhibited the ability to perform photosynthetic state transitions and the response of net photosynthetic CO2......Manganese (Mn) deficiency is a nutritional problem, causing significant reductions in crop yields and in severe cases resulting in complete loss of crops during winter time. Different plant species and genotypes within the same species vary in their tolerance with respect to growth in soils...... with low Mn availability, a phenomenon referred to as Mn efficiency. Iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1), known to be correlated with Mn uptake capacity and Mn efficiency in barley, was characterized using barley RNAi lines. The obtained results showed that HvIRT1 was involved in uptake and root...

  14. Antisense downregulation of the barley limit dextrinase inhibitor modulates starch granule size distribution, starch composition and amylopectin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Yvonne; Coates, Steve; Bryce, James H; Morris, Peter C

    2004-08-01

    The barley protein limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI), structurally related to the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family, is an inhibitor of the starch debranching enzyme limit dextrinase (LD). In order to investigate the function of LDI, and the consequences for starch metabolism of reduced LDI activity, transgenic barley plants designed to downregulate LDI by antisense were generated. Homozygous antisense lines with reduced LDI protein level and activity were analysed and found to have enhanced free LD activity in both developing and germinating grains. In addition the antisense lines showed unpredicted pleiotropic effects on numerous enzyme activities, for example, alpha- and beta-amylases and starch synthases. Analysis of the starch showed much reduced numbers of the small B-type starch granules, as well as reduced amylose relative to amylopectin levels and reduced total starch. The chain length distribution of the amylopectin was modified with less of the longer chains (>25 units) and enhanced number of medium chains (10-15 units). These results suggest an important role for LDI and LD during starch synthesis as well as during starch breakdown.

  15. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol.

  16. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  17. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  18. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated barley and wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    pretreatment conditions; hot water extraction and acid- or water impregnation followed by steam explosion showed there were slight differences between the effect of pretreatment conditions in relation to the overall yield from enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest glucose concentration was found for barley straw...... subjected to acid impregnation followed by steam explosion; however when the glucose concentration was related to the glucose potential in the substrates, the highest yield was obtained with hot water extracted. Analysis of the supernatants from the pretreatments by mass spectrometry showed that the water...... feeding strategy to increase the substrate loading in the hydrolysis reaction. The substrate for the enzymatic hydrolysis was primarily steam pretreated wheat and barley straw since these substrates were the primary feedstocks for the Babilafuente Bioethanol process. The initial work showed...

  20. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.; Noguera, O.R.;

    2004-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise is no longer widely used for malting, but is amenable to transformation and is therefore a valuable experimental cultivar. Its characteristics include high salt tolerance, however it is also susceptible to several fungal pathogens. Proteome....... Eleven of these were identified by mass spectrometric peptide mass mapping, including an abundant chitinase implicated in defence against fungal pathogens and a small heat-shock protein. To enable a comparison with transgenic seed protein patterns, differences in spot patterns between field...... with extra nitrogen. Finally, the fate of transgene products in barley seeds was followed. Spots containing two green fluorescent protein constructs and the herbicide resistance marker phosphinothricin acetyltransferase were observed in 2D-gel patterns of transgenic seeds and identified by mass spectrometry...

  1. Effect of ozone pretreatment on hydrogen production from barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangning; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Upreti, Simant

    2013-09-01

    Application of ozone technology to lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored with a barley straw. Ozone pretreatment effectively degraded the straw lignin and increased reducing sugar yield. A simultaneous enzyme hydrolysis and dark fermentation experiment was conducted using a mixed anaerobic consortium together with saccharification enzymes. Both untreated and ozonated samples produced hydrogen. Compared to the untreated group, hydrogen produced by the groups ozonated for 15, 30, 45 and 90 min increased 99%, 133%, 166% and 94%, respectively. Some inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed with the samples ozonated for 90 min, and the inhibition was on the fermentative microorganisms, not the saccharification enzymes. These results demonstrate that production of biohydrogen from barley straw, a lignocellulosic biomass, can be significantly enhanced by ozone pretreatment.

  2. In vitro fermentation of ten cultivars of barley silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Infascelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation characteristics of whole-crop barley silages from ten different cultivars were evaluated by the in vitro gas production technique. The organic matter degradability of barley silage (62.9% in average was comparable to those reported in our previous trials for oat (59.7% and sorghum silages (65.5%; while the maximum gas production rate (5.38 ml/h in average was slightly lower respect to oat (6.71 ml/h and sorghum silage (6.74 ml/h. The mean nutritive value (4.00 MJ/kg DM calculated on the basis of both chemical composition and in vitro fermentation data was comparable to that (4.16 MJ/kg DM obtained in our previous research performed on corn silage, from crop sowed in the same area.

  3. Pollen grain of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. - pattern of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen development in barley follows the general pattern established for other species of Poaceae: 1 microspore division occurs at the vacuolate microspore stage with polarly located nucleus; 2 microspore mitosis is immediately followed by phragmoplast and cell plate formation; 3 in consequence or unequal microspore division, the generative cell, at first attached to the pollen wall, is separated from the vegetative cell by a callosic wall; 4 during the postmitotic two-cell stage of development, the vegetative nucleus migrates to the aperture pole and is followed by the generative cell that is detached and free of callose wall. In this position the generative cell divides into two sperm cells. These data do not confirm the interpretation of pollen grain development in barley given by Cass and Karas in Can. J. Bot. 53: 1051-1062, 1975.

  4. Barley grain enrichement with essential elements by agronomic biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grain is rich in mineral nutrients, but their bioavailability to humans depends on antinutrients that restrain bioavailability and promoters that promote bioavailability. The aim of this study was to examine composition of barley grain, including phytate and phenolics as antinutrients, carotenoids and glutathione as promoters and mineral elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Si, Zn and Mn influenced by various non-standard foliar fertilizers (Zircon, Chitosan, Siliplant, Propikonazole, including some hormonal growth-stimulators (Epin Extra, Benzyladenine, as potential biofortification measure. Chitosan increased glutathione concentration in grain. Unfavorable meteorological conditions were partly mitigated by application of Benzyladenine and Siliplant, reflected through increased potential bioavailability of P, Mg, Ca and Fe. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31037

  5. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  6. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  7. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegård, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species.

  8. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation.

  9. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

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    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

  10. Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Wynse S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (≤ 5 ppm in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON, and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201 were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare. DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation.

  11. Effects of ethylene on root elongation in barley and rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, A.; Hall, M.A.; Crossett, R.N.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of rice and barley to growth inhibition by ethylene. The mechanism of growth inhibition was investigated at the cellular level and a detailed comparison was made between the responses of the two species. The following measurements were made on intact plants in short (up to 200 minutes), medium (up to 3 days) or long (up to 10 days) experiments: the rate of extension growth of main root axes; the final cell length and number of elongating cells produced; and the extensibility of the apical growing region. Results indicate that the effects of ethylene on the elongation of roots of rice and barley plants are different. In barley there is a rapid inhibition of root extension which persists with prolonged exposure to the gas but with little effect on the production of growing cells. However, rice roots exhibit no rapid growth inhibition response, but a reduction does occur after prolonged exposure. Low concentrations promote extension rice roots. The inhibition of root growth is reflected in a reduced extensibility of the apical growing region.

  12. Nitrate Uptake into Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Glass, Anthony D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence is presented that chlorate is an extremely good analog for nitrate during nitrate uptake by intact barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Fergus) roots. The depletion of ClO3− or NO3− from uptake media over 2 to 6 hours by seedlings was found to be dependent on combined NO3− plus ClO3− concentrations, and total anion uptake was equivalent at different NO3−/ClO3− ratios. After loading barley seedlings with 36ClO3− for 6 hours, kinetic parameters were derived from the analysis of efflux of [36Cl] chlorate into unlabeled solution. On the basis of this analysis, the half times for exchange for the cytoplasmic and vacuolar phases were 17 minutes and 20 hours, respectively. Data pooled from a number of different experiments were used to calculate kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for 36ClO3− influx into barley roots at different external ClO3−/NO3− ratios, using short (10 minutes) influx times. There appeared to be no discrimination by the root cells between ClO3− and NO3−. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the interaction between nitrate and chlorate were characteristic of competitive inhibition at low nitrate concentrations (0-0.5 mm). At higher concentrations, in the range of >1 mm, similar interactions between these ions were evident. PMID:16662478

  13. The Metabolic Signature of Biomass Formation in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mohammad R; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Usadel, Björn; Junker, Björn; Schreiber, Falk; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-09-01

    The network analysis of genome-wide transcriptome responses, metabolic signatures and enzymes' relationship to biomass formation has been studied in a diverse panel of 12 barley accessions during vegetative and reproductive stages. The primary metabolites and enzymes involved in central metabolism that determine the accumulation of shoot biomass at the vegetative stage of barley development are primarily being linked to sucrose accumulation and sucrose synthase activity. Interestingly, the metabolic and enzyme links which are strongly associated with biomass accumulation during reproductive stages are related to starch accumulation and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citrate, malate, trans-aconitate and isocitrate. Additional significant associations were also found for UDP glucose, ATP and the amino acids isoleucine, valine, glutamate and histidine during the reproductive stage. A network analysis resulted in a combined identification of metabolite and enzyme signatures indicative for grain weight accumulation that was correlated with the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a rate-limiting enzyme involved in starch biosynthesis, and with that of alanine amino transferase involved in the synthesis of storage proteins. We propose that the mechanism related to vegetative and reproductive biomass formation vs. seed biomass formation is being linked to distinct fluxes regulating sucrose, starch, sugars and amino acids as central resources. These distinct biomarkers can be used to engineer biomass production and grain weight in barley.

  14. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  15. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  16. Pysicochemical properties of Tibetan hull-less barley starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Gong, Lingxiao; Zhang, Ying; Jane, Jay-lin

    2016-02-10

    Objectives of this study were to (1) determine the starch physicochemical properties of two commercial Tibetan hull-less barley varieties, Beiqing (BQ) and Kangqing (KQ); and (2) understand the relationship between unique properties of the starches, their structures, and impacts of growing conditions. The BQ barleys were grown at a location with lower temperature and less rainfall compared with the KQ barleys. The BQ starches showed significantly lower onset-gelatinization temperature (54.1-54.9 °C), larger gelatinization-temperature range (9.4-10.6 °C), and higher peak-viscosities (138.9-153.9RVU) than the KQ starches (55.1-56.1 °C, 7.4-8.8 °C, and 63.4-64.7RVU, respectively). After a treatment with 2% sodium-dodecyl-sulphate solution, the KQ starches showed substantially greater increases in peak viscosities than the BQ starches. Annealing of starch and enhanced amylose-lipid complex formation, resulting from higher growing temperature during the development of the KQ starches, likely contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties between the BQ and KQ starches.

  17. Screening of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsvali, Alireza; Farzaneh, Vahid; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Zare, Zahra; Karami, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel. S.

    2016-10-01

    An understanding of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt is necessary for the appropriate design of equipment for the handling, shipping, dehydration, grading, sorting and warehousing of this strategic crop. Malting is a complex biotechnological process that includes steeping; germination and finally, the dehydration of cereal grains under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this investigation, the biophysical properties of barley malt were predicted using two models of artificial neural networks as well as response surface methodology. Stepping time and germination time were selected as the independent variables and 1 000 kernel weight, kernel density and terminal velocity were selected as the dependent variables (responses). The obtained outcomes showed that the artificial neural network model, with a logarithmic sigmoid activation function, presents more precise results than the response surface model in the prediction of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of produced barley malt. This model presented the best result with 8 nodes in the hidden layer and significant correlation coefficient values of 0.783, 0.767 and 0.991 were obtained for responses one thousand kernel weight, kernel density, and terminal velocity, respectively. The outcomes indicated that this novel technique could be successfully applied in quantitative and qualitative monitoring within the malting process.

  18. Fitness impact and stability of a transgene conferring resistance to dengue-2 virus following introgression into a genetically diverse Aedes aegypti strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W E Franz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, we reported a mariner (Mos1-transformed Aedes aegypti line, Carb77, which was highly resistant to dengue-2 virus (DENV2. Carb77 mosquitoes expressed a DENV2-specific inverted-repeat (IR RNA in midgut epithelial cells after ingesting an infectious bloodmeal. The IR-RNA formed double-stranded DENV2-derived RNA, initiating an intracellular antiviral RNA interference (RNAi response. However, Carb77 mosquitoes stopped expressing the IR-RNA after 17 generations in culture and lost their DENV2-refractory phenotype. In the current study, we generated new transgenic lines having the identical transgene as Carb77. One of these lines, Carb109M, has been genetically stable and refractory to DENV2 for >33 generations. Southern blot analysis identified two transgene integration sites in Carb109M. Northern blot analysis detected abundant, transient expression of the IR-RNA 24 h after a bloodmeal. Carb109M mosquitoes were refractory to different DENV2 genotypes but not to other DENV serotypes. To further test fitness and stability, we introgressed the Carb109M transgene into a genetically diverse laboratory strain (GDLS by backcrossing for five generations and selecting individuals expressing the transgene's EGFP marker in each generation. Comparison of transgene stability in replicate backcross 5 (BC5 lines versus BC1 control lines demonstrated that backcrossing dramatically increased transgene stability. We subjected six BC5 lines to five generations of selection based on EGFP marker expression to increase the frequency of the transgene prior to final family selection. Comparison of the observed transgene frequencies in the six replicate lines relative to expectations from Fisher's selection model demonstrated lingering fitness costs associated with either the transgene or linked deleterious genes. Although minimal fitness loss (relative to GDLS was manifest in the final family selection stage, we were able to select homozygotes for the transgene in

  19. Genomic and functional approaches reveal a case of adaptive introgression from Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) in P. trichocarpa (black cottonwood).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Gonzalez, Adriana; Hefer, Charles A; Christe, Camille; Corea, Oliver; Lexer, Christian; Cronk, Quentin C B; Douglas, Carl J

    2016-06-01

    Natural hybrid zones in forest trees provide systems to study the transfer of adaptive genetic variation by introgression. Previous landscape genomic studies in Populus trichocarpa, a keystone tree species, indicated genomic footprints of admixture with its sister species Populus balsamifera and identified candidate genes for local adaptation. Here, we explored the patterns of introgression and signals of local adaptation in P. trichocarpa and P. balsamifera, employing genome resequencing data from three chromosomes in pure species and admixed individuals from wild populations. Local ancestry analysis in admixed P. trichocarpa revealed a telomeric region in chromosome 15 with P. balsamifera ancestry, containing several candidate genes for local adaptation. Genomic analyses revealed signals of selection in certain genes in this region (e.g. PRR5, COMT1), and functional analyses based on gene expression variation and correlations with adaptive phenotypes suggest distinct functions of the introgressed alleles. In contrast, a block of genes in chromosome 12 paralogous to the introgressed region showed no signs of introgression or signatures of selection. We hypothesize that the introgressed region in chromosome 15 has introduced modular or cassette-like variation into P. trichocarpa. These linked adaptive mutations are associated with a block of genes in chromosome 15 that appear to have undergone neo- or subfunctionalization relative to paralogs in a duplicated region on chromosome 12 that show no signatures of adaptive variation. The association between P. balsamifera introgressed alleles with the expression of adaptive traits in P. trichocarpa supports the hypothesis that this is a case of adaptive introgression in an ecologically important foundation species.

  20. [Development and study of spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko with introgression of genetic material from synthetic hexaploid Triticum timopheevii zhuk. x Aegilops tauschii Coss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikova, L I; Belan, I A; Badaeva, E D; Posseeva, L P; Shepelev, S S; Shumny, V K; Pershina, L A

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic hexaploids are bridges for transferring new genes that determine resistance to stress factors from wild-type species to bread wheat. In the present work, the method of developing the spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko and the results of its study are described. This variety was obtained using one of the immune lines produced earlier via the hybridization of the spring bread wheat variety Saratovskaya 29 with the synthetic hexaploid T. timopheevii Zhuk. x Ae. tauschii Coss. The C-staining of chromosomes in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety revealed substitutions of 2B and 6B chromosomes by the homeologous chromosomes of the G genome of T. timopheevii and the substitution of chromosome 1D by an orthologous chromosome ofAe. tauschii. It was found that this variety is characterized by resistance to leaf and stem rust, powdery mildew, and loose smut as well as by high grain and bread-making qualities. The role of the alien genetic material introgressed into the bread-wheat genome in the expression of adaptive and economically valuable traits in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety is discussed.

  1. QTL underlying iron and zinc toxicity tolerances at seedling stage revealed by two sets of reciprocal introgression populations of rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are two trace elements that are essential for rice. But they are toxic at higher concentrations, leading to severe rice yield losses especially in acid soils and inland valleys. In this study, two reciprocal introgression line (IL populations sharing the same parents were used with high-density SNP bin markers to identify QTL tolerant to iron and zinc toxicities. The results indicated that the japonica variety 02,428 had stronger tolerance to iron and zinc toxicities than the indica variety Minghui 63. Nine and ten QTL contributing to iron and zinc toxicity tolerances, respectively, were identified in the two IL populations. The favorable alleles of most QTL came from 02,428. Among them, qFRRDW2, qZRRDW3, and qFRSDW11 appeared to be independent of genetic background. The region C11S49–C11S60 on chromosome 11 harbored QTL affecting multiple iron and zinc toxicity tolerance-related traits, indicating partial genetic overlap between the two toxicity tolerances. Our results provide essential information and materials for developing excellent rice cultivars with iron and/or zinc tolerance by marker-assisted selection (MAS.

  2. A large-scale introgression of genomic components of Brassica rapa into B. napus by the bridge of hexaploid derived from hybridization between B. napus and B. oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinfei; Mei, Jiaqin; Zhang, Yongjing; Li, Jiana; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun; Qian, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Brassica rapa (AA) has been used to widen the genetic basis of B. napus (AACC), which is a new but important oilseed crop worldwide. In the present study, we have proposed a strategy to develop new type B. napus carrying genomic components of B. rapa by crossing B. rapa with hexaploid (AACCCC) derived from B. napus and B. oleracea (CC). The hexaploid exhibited large flowers and high frequency of normal chromosome segregation, resulting in good seed set (average of 4.48 and 12.53 seeds per pod by self and open pollination, respectively) and high pollen fertility (average of 87.05 %). It was easy to develop new type B. napus by crossing the hexaploid with 142 lines of B. rapa from three ecotype groups, with the average crossability of 9.24 seeds per pod. The genetic variation of new type B. napus was diverse from that of current B. napus, especially in the A subgenome, revealed by genome-specific simple sequence repeat markers. Our data suggest that the strategy proposed here is a large-scale and highly efficient method to introgress genomic components of B. rapa into B. napus.

  3. Life history traits and phenotypic selection among sunflower crop-wild hybrids and their wild counterpart: implications for crop allele introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Matthew A; Alexander, Helen M; Jason Emry, D; Mercer, Kristin L

    2015-06-01

    Hybridization produces strong evolutionary forces. In hybrid zones, selection can differentially occur on traits and selection intensities may differ among hybrid generations. Understanding these dynamics in crop-wild hybrid zones can clarify crop-like traits likely to introgress into wild populations and the particular hybrid generations through which introgression proceeds. In a field experiment with four crop-wild hybrid Helianthus annuus (sunflower) cross types, we measured growth and life history traits and performed phenotypic selection analysis on early season traits to ascertain the likelihood, and routes, of crop allele introgression into wild sunflower populations. All cross types overwintered, emerged in the spring, and survived until flowering, indicating no early life history barriers to crop allele introgression. While selection indirectly favored earlier seedling emergence and taller early season seedlings, direct selection only favored greater early season leaf length. Further, there was cross type variation in the intensity of selection operating on leaf length. Thus, introgression of multiple early season crop-like traits, due to direct selection for greater early season leaf length, should not be impeded by any cross type and may proceed at different rates among generations. In sum, alleles underlying early season sunflower crop-like traits are likely to introgress into wild sunflower populations.

  4. Influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of normal and waxy barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Avi; Annor, George; Vamadevan, Varatharajan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, molecular composition, crystallinity, and gelatinization properties of normal barley starch (NBS) and waxy barley starch (WBS) granules from plants cultivated in a greenhouse under normal diurnal (16h light...... that normal barley starch is less influenced by the diurnal photosynthetic lighting regime than amylose-free barley starch suggesting a role of amylose to prevent structural disorder and increase starch granule robustness against environmental cues....

  5. Neanderthal introgression at chromosome 3p21.31 was under positive natural selection in East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qiliang; Hu, Ya; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Jiucun; Jin, Li

    2014-03-01

    Studies of the Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes demonstrate archaic hominin introgression in Eurasians. Here, we present evidence of Neanderthal introgression within the chromosome 3p21.31 region, occurring with a high frequency in East Asians (ranging from 49.4% to 66.5%) and at a low frequency in Europeans. We also detected a signal of strong positive selection in this region only in East Asians. Our data indicate that likely candidate targets of selection include rs12488302-T and its associated alleles--among which four are nonsynonymous, including rs35455589-G in HYAL2, a gene related to the cellular response to ultraviolet-B irradiation. Furthermore, suggestive evidence supports latitude-dependent selection, implicating a role of ultraviolet-B. Interestingly, the distribution of rs35455589-G suggests that this allele was lost during the exodus of ancestors of modern Eurasians from Africa and reintroduced to Eurasians from Neanderthals.

  6. Introgression evidence and phylogenetic relationships among three (ParaMisgurnus species as revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovlić I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of (ParaMisgurnus genera is still debated. We therefore used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, Paramisgurnus dabryanus and Misgurnus fossilis. Differing phylogenetic signals from mitochondrial and nuclear marker data suggest an introgression event in the history of M. anguillicaudatus and M. mohoity. No substantial genetic evidence was found that Paramisgurnus dabryanus should be classified as a separate genus.

  7. Large-scale asymmetric introgression of cytoplasmic DNA reveals Holocene range displacement in a North American boreal pine complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Julie; Yeh, Francis C; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-08-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) are two North American boreal hard pines that hybridize in their zone of contact in western Canada. The main objective of this study was to characterize their patterns of introgression resulting from past and recent gene flow, using cytoplasmic markers having maternal or paternal inheritance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was assessed in allopatric populations of each species and in stands from the current zone of contact containing morphological hybrids. Cluster analyses were used to identify genetic discontinuities among groups of populations. A canonical analysis was also conducted to detect putative associations among cytoplasmic DNA variation, tree morphology, and site ecological features. MtDNA introgression was extensive and asymmetric: it was detected in P. banksiana populations from the hybrid zone and from allopatric areas, but not in P. contorta populations. Very weak cpDNA introgression was observed, and only in P. banksiana populations. The mtDNA introgression pattern indicated that central Canada was first colonized by migrants from a P. contorta glacial population located west of the Rocky Mountains, before being replaced by P. banksiana migrating westward during the Holocene. In contrast, extensive pollen gene flow would have erased the cpDNA traces of this ancient presence of P. contorta. Additional evidence for this process was provided by the results of canonical analysis, which indicated that the current cpDNA background of trees reflected recent pollen gene flow from the surrounding dominant species rather than historical events that took place during the postglacial colonization.

  8. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  9. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Mercer

    Full Text Available Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking

  10. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  11. A haplotype at STAT2 Introgressed from neanderthals and serves as a candidate of positive selection in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Fernando L; Watkins, Joseph C; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-08-10

    Signals of archaic admixture have been identified through comparisons of the draft Neanderthal and Denisova genomes with those of living humans. Studies of individual loci contributing to these genome-wide average signals are required for characterization of the introgression process and investigation of whether archaic variants conferred an adaptive advantage to the ancestors of contemporary human populations. However, no definitive case of adaptive introgression has yet been described. Here we provide a DNA sequence analysis of the innate immune gene STAT2 and show that a haplotype carried by many Eurasians (but not sub-Saharan Africans) has a sequence that closely matches that of the Neanderthal STAT2. This haplotype, referred to as N, was discovered through a resequencing survey of the entire coding region of STAT2 in a global sample of 90 individuals. Analyses of publicly available complete genome sequence data show that haplotype N shares a recent common ancestor with the Neanderthal sequence (~80 thousand years ago) and is found throughout Eurasia at an average frequency of ~5%. Interestingly, N is found in Melanesian populations at ~10-fold higher frequency (~54%) than in Eurasian populations. A neutrality test that controls for demography rejects the hypothesis that a variant of N rose to high frequency in Melanesia by genetic drift alone. Although we are not able to pinpoint the precise target of positive selection, we identify nonsynonymous mutations in ERBB3, ESYT1, and STAT2-all of which are part of the same 250 kb introgressive haplotype-as good candidates.

  12. Speciation in Passerina buntings: introgression patterns of sex-linked loci identify a candidate gene region for reproductive isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Matthew D; Brumfield, Robb T

    2009-03-01

    Sex-chromosomes are thought to play an important role in speciation, but few studies of non-model organisms have investigated the relative influence of multiple sex-linked markers on reproductive isolation. We collected 222 individuals along a geographical transect spanning the hybrid zone between Passerina amoena and P. cyanea (Aves: Cardinalidae). Using maximum-likelihood cline fitting methods, we estimated locus-specific introgression rates for 10 z-linked markers. Although the cline width estimates ranged from 2.8 to 584 km, eight of 10 loci had cline widths between 224 and 271 km. We also used coalescent-based estimates of locus-specific divergence times between P. amoena and P. cyanea to test a recently proposed hypothesis of an inverse relationship between divergence time and cline width but did not find a significant association. The narrow width (2.8 km) of the cline estimated from the VLDLR9 locus indicates strong selection retarding introgression of alleles at this locus across the hybrid zone. Interestingly, a mutation in the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) gene, in which VLDLR9 is an intron, is known to reduce the egg-laying ability of some chickens, suggesting a possible link between this gene region and reproductive isolation between P. amoena and P. cyanea. These results underscore the importance of sampling multiple loci to investigate introgression patterns across a chromosome or genome and support previous findings of the importance of sex-linked genes in speciation.

  13. Introgression of wing pattern alleles and speciation via homoploid hybridization in Heliconius butterflies: a review of evidence from the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Andrew V Z

    2013-02-01

    The diverse Müllerian mimetic wing patterns of neotropical Heliconius (Nymphalidae) have been proposed to be not only aposematic signals to potential predators, but also intra- and interspecific recognition signals that allow the butterflies to maintain their specific identities, and which perhaps drive the process of speciation, as well. Adaptive features under differential selection that also serve as cues for assortative mating have been referred to as 'magic traits', which can drive ecological speciation. Such traits are expected to exhibit allelic differentiation between closely related species with ongoing gene flow, whereas unlinked neutral traits are expected to be homogenized to a greater degree by introgression. However, recent evidence suggests that interspecific hybridization among Heliconius butterflies may have resulted in adaptive introgression of these very same traits across species boundaries, and in the evolution of new species by homoploid hybrid speciation. The theory and data supporting various aspects of the apparent paradox of 'magic trait' introgression are reviewed, with emphasis on population genomic comparisons of Heliconius melpomene and its close relatives.

  14. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a costeffective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chrom...

  15. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is needed on the effects of management practices on dryland malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) yields and quality. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland malt barley and pea yields, grain characterist...

  16. Malt barley yield and quality affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the comparison of management practices on malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and quality in irrigated and non-irrigated cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on malt barley yield and quality in a sandy loam s...

  17. Influence of alkali catalyst on product yield and properties via hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Z.; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Barley straw was successfully converted to bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction at temperature of 280 e400 C using an alkali catalyst (K2CO3) in our previous work, and the maximum bio-crude yield was obtained at 300 C. This paper extends previous work on studying liquefaction behavior of barley...

  18. Integration of weed management and tillage practices in spring barley production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring barley can be used to diversify and intensify winter wheat-based production systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, but the response of barley to conservation tillage systems, which are needed to reduce the risk of soil erosion, is not well documented. The objective of this study was to descri...

  19. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  20. Transformation of Barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) by Agrobacterium tumefasciens Infection of In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of in vitro cultured barley ovules is an attractive alternative to well-established barley transformation methods of immature embryos. The ovule culture system can be used for transformation with and without selection and has successfully been used to transform...

  1. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly...

  2. Determinants of barley grain yield in a wide range of Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Li Destri Nicosia, O.; Akar, T.; Grando, S.; Al-Yassin, A.; Benkelkacim, A.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pechionni, N.

    2011-01-01

    Barley grain yield in rainfed Mediterranean regions can be largely influenced by terminal drought events. In this study the ecophysiological performance of the ‘Nure’ (winter) × ‘Tremois’ (spring) barley mapping population (118 Doubled Haploids, DHs) was evaluated in a multi-environment trial of eig

  3. Dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production using Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the fermentability test to investigate the feasibility of applying various dilute acids in the pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production. At a fixed acid loading of 1% (w/w dry matter) 28-32% of barley straw was converted to soluble m

  4. A comparison of energy use and productivity of wheat and barley (case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Ziaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of energy productivity of different crops can be used as an effective tool to prioritize crops planting in each area. This study was conducted in order to compare wheat and barley farms of Sistan and Baluchestan province in Iran in relation to various aspects of energy consumption at 2009. 100 wheat and 100 barley fields were selected randomly from main 11 cities in the studied region. Input data and yield of wheat and barley fields were collected in the form of questionnaires in a face-to-face interview. Results showed that total energy inputs of wheat and barley fields were 32492.97 and 25655.81 MJ ha−1, respectively. Total energy outputs for wheat and barley fields were 48517.24 and 49800.87 MJ ha−1, respectively. Based on these results the amount of energy use efficiency for wheat and barley fields were 1.49 and 1.94, respectively, and the amount of energy productivity for mentioned fields were 0.056 and 0.066. The share of renewable energy as one of the sustainability indexes of agricultural systems was 19.60 for wheat and 14.60 for barley fields. Therefore, it seems that barley production is more efficient from various aspects of energy consumption rather than wheat in the studied region.

  5. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  6. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  7. Immunomodulatory properties of oat and barley β-glucan populations on bone marrow derived dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosch, Christiane; Meijerink, Marjolein; Delahaije, Roy J.B.M.; Taverne, Nico; Gruppen, Harry; Wells, Jerry M.; Schols, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Specific structures of oat and barley β(1,3)(1,4)-glucans induced different in vitro immunomodulatory effects in bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from TLR2/4 knock out mice. All barley β-glucan fractions induced larger amounts of cytokines in BMDCs than their oat equivalents. The particula

  8. How Specific is Non-Hypersensitive Host and Nonhost Resistance of Barley to Rust and Mildew Fungi?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niks R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Full nonhost resistance can be deifned as immunity, displayed by an entire plant species against all genotypes of a plant pathogen. Interesting biological questions are, whether the genes responsible for the nonhost status of a plant species have a general or a specific effectiveness to heterologous (“nonhost”) pathogens? Is the nonhost resistance to pathogens of plant species that are related to the nonhost based onR-genes or on other types of genes?We study this question in barley (Hordeum vulgareL.), which is a near-nonhost to several rusts (Puccinia) of cereals and grasses. By crosses and selection we accumulated susceptibility and developed an experimental line, SusPtrit, with high susceptibility to at least nine different heterologous rust taxa such as the wheat andAgropyron leaf rusts (P. triticina andP. persistens, respectively). At the microscopic level there is also some variation among barley accessions in the degree that the heterologous wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminisf.sp.tritici) is able to form haustoria in epidermal cells. So, also the genetics of the variation in level of nonhost resistance to heterologous mildew fungi can be studied in barley. Our data obtained on mapping populations involving three regular nonhost-immune accessions (Vada, Cebada Capa and Golden Promise) suggest that nonhost resistance is the joined effect of multiple, quantitative genes (QTLs) and very occasionally a major gene (R-gene?) is involved. Most QTLs have effect to only one or two heterologous rusts, but some have a wider spectrum. This was conifrmed in a set of QTL-NILs. Those QTL-NILs are used to ifne-map the effective genes. In some cases, a QTL region with effectiveness to several heterologous rusts might be a cluster of genes with a more narrow spectrum of effectiveness. Our evidence suggests that nonhost resistance in barley to rust and powdery mildew fungi of related Gramineae is not due toR-genes, but to pathogen species-speciifc quantitative

  9. Development of Chromosomal Segment Substitution Lines from a Backcross Recombinant Inbred Population of Interspecific Rice Cross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; Hafeez Ur Rahman BUGHIO; CHEN Da-zhou; LIU Guang-jie; ZHENG Kang-le; ZHUANG Jie-yun

    2006-01-01

    A backcross recombinant inbred line population consisting of 202 lines was developed from Xieqingzao B//Xieqingzao B Dongxiang wild rice. The population was assayed with DNA markers and phenotyped on planthopper resistance and yield traits. A linkage map consisting of 119 DNA markers and spanned for 1188 cM over the 12 rice chromosomes was constructed. Thirty-two chromosomal segment substitution lines were selected based on the percentage of Xieqingzao B allele at marker loci. These lines are of great potential for gene mapping and alien gene introgression.

  10. The Effects of Both Recent and Long-Term Selection and Genetic Drift Are Readily Evident in North American Barley Breeding Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Poets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley was introduced to North America ∼400 yr ago but adaptation to modern production environments is more recent. Comparisons of allele frequencies among growth habits and spike (inflorescence types in North America indicate that significant genetic differentiation has accumulated in a relatively short evolutionary time span. Allele frequency differentiation is greatest among barley with two-row vs. six-row spikes, followed by spring vs. winter growth habit. Large changes in allele frequency among breeding programs suggest a major contribution of genetic drift and linked selection on genetic variation. Despite this, comparisons of 3613 modern North American cultivated barley breeding lines that differ for spike-type and growth habit permit the discovery of 142 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP outliers putatively linked to targets of selection. For example, SNPs within the Cbf4, Ppd-H1, and Vrn-H1 loci, which have previously been associated with agronomically adaptive phenotypes, are identified as outliers. Analysis of extended haplotype sharing identifies genomic regions shared within and among breeding populations, suggestive of a number of genomic regions subject to recent selection. Finally, we are able to identify recent bouts of gene flow between breeding populations that could point to the sharing of agronomically adaptive variation. These results are supported by pedigrees and breeders’ understanding of germplasm sharing.

  11. Influence of NaCl-Induced Salinity and Cd Toxicity on Respiration Activity and Cd Availability to Barley Plants in Farmyard Manure-Amended Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel R. A. Usman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cd availability and toxicity as affected by NaCl-induced salinity and farmyard manure addition. The Cd availability and toxicity were investigated in greenhouse pot and incubation experiments were conducted on a calcareous loamy sand soil contaminated with Cd (0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mg kg−1 of soil and amended with two rates of 0.0 and 30 g farmyard manure (FYM kg−1. Barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L. were sown in pots and irrigated with water containing different levels of salinity (0, 30, 60, and 120 mM NaCl. The results revealed that the DTPA-extractable Cd and its content in barley plant shoots tended to increase in line as Cd was applied and salt levels increased. Elevated decreases in the soil basal respiration with increased Cd applied and NaCl-induced salinity were found. However, applying FYM significantly reduced Cd availability and increased plant growth and soil respiration activity. The results clearly showed that adding farmyard manure as soil organic amendment decreased the availability of Cd to barley plants and mitigated the toxicity of both Cd and salinity to soil microbial activity.

  12. Effects of processing technologies combined with cell wall degrading enzymes on in vitro degradability of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, S; Pustjens, A M; Schols, H A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2012-12-01

    Effects of processing technologies and cell wall degrading enzymes on in vitro degradation of barley were tested in a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement: 5 technologies (unprocessed, wet-milling, extrusion, autoclaving, and acid-autoclaving), with or without enzymes. Upper gastrointestinal tract digestion (Boisen incubation) and large intestinal fermentation (gas production technique) were simulated in duplicate. All technologies increased digestion of DM (13 to 43% units) and starch (22 to 51% units) during Boisen incubation, compared with the unprocessed control (P starch (≈ 20% units), and CP (≈ 10% units) in unprocessed and autoclaved barley (P starch present in the Boisen residues. In conclusion, wet-milling, extrusion, and acid-autoclaving improved in vitro starch and CP digestion in barley, which is related to the cell wall matrix disruption. Addition of xylanases and β-glucanases improved in vitro starch and CP digestion only in unprocessed barley or barley poorly affected by processing.

  13. Efficacy of imidacloprid for control of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, C; Blodgett, S L; Johnson, G D

    2000-02-01

    The toxicity of imidacloprid to the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), was measured under laboratory and field conditions. Insect mortality and plant damage were determined from artificial and natural infestations of O. melanopus applied to various growth stages of barley. All rates of imidacloprid formulated and applied as a seed treatment caused >90% mortality to cereal leaf beetle larvae when barley was infested with eggs at the 4-leaf stage, but were ineffective when barley was infested with eggs at the early tillering or flag-leaf stages of barley. This window of susceptibility influenced results obtained in field trials where peak larval emergence did not occur until the early tillering stage of barley. The resulting mortality in plants from treated seeds never exceeded 40% in the field. Foliar imidacloprid, however, caused >90% mortality in the field, and may be another option in the management of the cereal leaf beetle.

  14. The use of the ph1b mutant to induce recombination between the chromosomes of wheat and barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Calderón, María C.; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Intensive breeding has led to a narrowing in the genetic base of our major crops. In wheat, access to the extensive gene pool residing in its many and varied relatives (some cultivated, others wild) is hampered by the block on recombination imposed by the Ph1 (Pairing homoeologous 1) gene. Here, the ph1b mutant has been exploited to induced allosyndesis between wheat chromosomes and those of both Hordeum vulgare (cultivated barley) and H. chilense (a wild barley). A number of single chromosome Hordeum sp. substitution and addition lines in wheat were crossed and backcrossed to the ph1b mutant to produce plants in which pairing between the wheat and the non-wheat chromosomes was not suppressed by the presence of Ph1. Genomic in situ hybridization was applied to almost 500 BC1F2 progeny as a screen for allosyndetic recombinants. Chromosome rearrangements were detected affecting H. chilense chromosomes 4Hch, 5Hch, 6Hch, and 7Hch and H. vulgare chromosomes 4Hv, 6Hv, and 7Hv. Two of these were clearly the product of a recombination event involving chromosome 4Hch and a wheat chromosome. PMID:25852713

  15. Sockeye salmon repatriation leads to population re-establishment and rapid introgression with native kokanee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Andrew J; Russello, Michael A

    2016-12-01

    Re-establishing salmonid populations to areas historically occupied has the substantial potential for conservation gains; however, such interventions also risk negatively impacting native resident stocks. Here, we assessed the success of the hatchery-assisted reintroduction of anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) into Skaha Lake, British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated the genetic consequences for native kokanee, a freshwater-obligate ecotype, using single nucleotide polymorphism genotypic data collected from the reference samples of spawning Okanagan River sockeye and Skaha Lake kokanee presockeye reintroduction, along with annual trawl survey and angler-caught samples obtained over an eight-year period. Significant differentiation was detected between sockeye and kokanee reference samples, with >99% stock assignment. Low proportions of sockeye and hybrids were detected within 2008 and 2010 age-0 trawl samples; however, by 2012, 28% were sockeye, rising to 41% in 2014. The number of hybrids detected rose proportionally with the increase in sockeye and exhibited an intermediate phenotype. Our results indicate that the reintroduction of anadromous sockeye to Skaha Lake is succeeding, with large numbers returning to spawn. However, hybridization with native kokanee is of concern due to the potential for demographic or genetic swamping, with ongoing genetic monitoring necessary to assess the long-term effects of introgression and to support interactive fisheries management.

  16. Interspecific introgression in cetaceans: DNA markers reveal post-F1 status of a pilot whale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miralles

    Full Text Available Visual species identification of cetacean strandings is difficult, especially when dead specimens are degraded and/or species are morphologically similar. The two recognised pilot whale species (Globicephala melas and Globicephala macrorhynchus are sympatric in the North Atlantic Ocean. These species are very similar in external appearance and their morphometric characteristics partially overlap; thus visual identification is not always reliable. Genetic species identification ensures correct identification of specimens. Here we have employed one mitochondrial (D-Loop region and eight nuclear loci (microsatellites as genetic markers to identify six stranded pilot whales found in Galicia (Northwest Spain, one of them of ambiguous phenotype. DNA analyses yielded positive amplification of all loci and enabled species identification. Nuclear microsatellite DNA genotypes revealed mixed ancestry for one individual, identified as a post-F1 interspecific hybrid employing two different Bayesian methods. From the mitochondrial sequence the maternal species was Globicephala melas. This is the first hybrid documented between Globicephala melas and G. macrorhynchus, and the first post-F1 hybrid genetically identified between cetaceans, revealing interspecific genetic introgression in marine mammals. We propose to add nuclear loci to genetic databases for cetacean species identification in order to detect hybrid individuals.

  17. Genetic diversity and elite gene introgression reveal the japonica rice breeding in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dan; WANG Jia-yu; WANG Xiao-xue; YANG Xian-li; SUN Jian; CHEN Wen-fu

    2015-01-01

    Abundant genetic diversity and rational population structure of germplasm beneift crop breeding greatly. To investigate genetic variation among geographical y diverse set of japonica germplasm, we analyzed 233 japonica rice cultivars col-lected from Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces of China, which were released from 1970 to 2011 by using 62 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 8 functional gene tags related to yield. A total of 195 al eles (Na) were detected with an average of 3.61 per locus, indicating a low level of genetic diversity level among al individuals. The genetic diversity of the cultivars from Jilin Province was the highest among the three geographic distribution zones. Moreover, the genetic diversity was increased slightly with the released period of cultivars from 1970 to 2011. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that genetic differentiation was more diverse within the populations than that among the populations. The neighbor-joining (NJ) tree indicated that cultivar clusters based on geographic distribution represented three independent groups, among which the cluster of cultivars from Heilongjiang is distinctly different to the cluster of cultivars from Liaoning. For the examined functional genes, two or three al elic variations for each were detected, except for IPA1 and GW2, and most of elite genes had been introgressed in modern japonica rice varieties. These results provide a valuable evaluation for genetic backgrounds of current japonica rice and wil be used directly for japonica rice breeding in future.

  18. Mitochondrial introgression via ancient hybridization, and systematics of the Australian endemic pygopodid gecko genus Delma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Ian G; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 1500 species of geckos found across six continents, few remain as unfamiliar as the pygopodids - Family Pygopodidae (Gray, 1845). These gekkotans are limited to Australia (44 species) and New Guinea (2 species), but have diverged extensively into the most ecologically diverse limbless radiation save Serpentes. Current phylogenetic understanding of the family has relied almost exclusively on two works, which have produced and synthesized an immense amount of morphological, geographical, and molecular data. However, current interspecific relationships within the largest genus Delma Gray 1831 are based chiefly upon data from two mitochondrial loci (16s, ND2). Here, we reevaluate the interspecific relationships within the genus Delma using two mitochondrial and four nuclear loci (RAG1, MXRA5, MOS, DYNLL1), and identify points of strong conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial genomic data. We address mito-nuclear discordance, and remedy this conflict by recognizing several points of mitochondrial introgression as the result of ancient hybridization events. Owing to the legacy value and intraspecific informativeness, we suggest the continued use of ND2 as a phylogenetic marker. Results identify strong support for species groups, but relationships among these clades, and the placement of several enigmatic taxa remain uncertain. We suggest a more careful review of Delma australis and the 'northwest Australia' clade. Accurately assessing and addressing species richness and relationships within this endemic Australian Gekkotan genus is relevant for understanding patterns of squamate speciation across the region.

  19. Genetic Analysis of Kernel Traits in Maize-Teosinte Introgression Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengbin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed traits have been targeted by human selection during the domestication of crop species as a way to increase the caloric and nutritional content of food during the transition from hunter-gather to early farming societies. The primary seed trait under selection was likely seed size/weight as it is most directly related to overall grain yield. Additional seed traits involved in seed shape may have also contributed to larger grain. Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays kernel weight has increased more than 10-fold in the 9000 years since domestication from its wild ancestor, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis. In order to study how size and shape affect kernel weight, we analyzed kernel morphometric traits in a set of 10 maize-teosinte introgression populations using digital imaging software. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for kernel area and length with moderate allelic effects that colocalize with kernel weight QTL. Several genomic regions with strong effects during maize domestication were detected, and a genetic framework for kernel traits was characterized by complex pleiotropic interactions. Our results both confirm prior reports of kernel domestication loci and identify previously uncharacterized QTL with a range of allelic effects, enabling future research into the genetic basis of these traits.

  20. Adaptive introgression as a resource for management and genetic conservation in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jill A; Miller, Joshua M

    2016-02-01

    Current rates of climate change require organisms to respond through migration, phenotypic plasticity, or genetic changes via adaptation. We focused on questions regarding species' and populations' ability to respond to climate change through adaptation. Specifically, the role adaptive introgression, movement of genetic material from the genome of 1 species into the genome of another through repeated interbreeding, may play in increasing species' ability to respond to a changing climate. Such interspecific gene flow may mediate extinction risk or consequences of limited adaptive potential that result from standing genetic variation and mutation alone, enabling a quicker demographic recovery in response to changing environments. Despite the near dismissal of the potential benefits of hybridization by conservation practitioners, we examined a number of case studies across different taxa that suggest gene flow between sympatric or parapatric sister species or within species that exhibit strong ecotypic differentiation may represent an underutilized management option to conserve evolutionary potential in a changing environment. This will be particularly true where advanced-generation hybrids exhibit adaptive traits outside the parental phenotypic range, a phenomenon known as transgressive segregation. The ideas presented in this essay are meant to provoke discussion regarding how we maintain evolutionary potential, the conservation value of natural hybrid zones, and consideration of their important role in adaptation to climate.

  1. Genetic Analysis of Kernel Traits in Maize-Teosinte Introgression Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengbin; Garcia, Arturo; McMullen, Michael D; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A

    2016-08-09

    Seed traits have been targeted by human selection during the domestication of crop species as a way to increase the caloric and nutritional content of food during the transition from hunter-gather to early farming societies. The primary seed trait under selection was likely seed size/weight as it is most directly related to overall grain yield. Additional seed traits involved in seed shape may have also contributed to larger grain. Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) kernel weight has increased more than 10-fold in the 9000 years since domestication from its wild ancestor, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis). In order to study how size and shape affect kernel weight, we analyzed kernel morphometric traits in a set of 10 maize-teosinte introgression populations using digital imaging software. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for kernel area and length with moderate allelic effects that colocalize with kernel weight QTL. Several genomic regions with strong effects during maize domestication were detected, and a genetic framework for kernel traits was characterized by complex pleiotropic interactions. Our results both confirm prior reports of kernel domestication loci and identify previously uncharacterized QTL with a range of allelic effects, enabling future research into the genetic basis of these traits.

  2. Genomics and introgression: discovery and mapping of thousands of species-diagnostic SNPs using RAD sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K; Hether, Tyler D; Kovach, Ryan P.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Amish, Stephen J.; Boyer, Matthew C.; O’Rourke, Sean M.; Miller, Michael R.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Hohenlohe, Paul A.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Invasive hybridization and introgression pose a serious threat to the persistence of many native species. Understanding the effects of hybridization on native populations (e.g., fitness consequences) requires numerous species-diagnostic loci distributed genome-wide. Here we used RAD sequencing to discover thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are diagnostic between rainbow trout (RBT, Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world’s most widely introduced fish, and native westslope cutthroat trout (WCT, O. clarkii lewisi) in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. We advanced previous work that identified 4,914 species-diagnostic loci by using longer sequence reads (100 bp vs. 60 bp) and a larger set of individuals (n = 84). We sequenced RAD libraries for individuals from diverse sampling sources, including native populations of WCT and hatchery broodstocks of WCT and RBT. We also took advantage of a newly released reference genome assembly for RBT to align our RAD loci. In total, we discovered 16,788 putatively diagnostic SNPs, 10,267 of which we mapped to anchored chromosome locations on the RBT genome. A small portion of previously discovered putative diagnostic loci (325 of 4,914) were no longer diagnostic (i.e., fixed between species) based on our wider survey of non-hybridized RBT and WCT individuals. Our study suggests that RAD loci mapped to a draft genome assembly could provide the marker density required to identify genes and chromosomal regions influencing selection in admixed populations of conservation concern and evolutionary interest.

  3. Effects of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. treatment on nutrient composition and ruminal fermentability of barley straw, barley rootless, and a mixture of the two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Soto-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and its derivatives, ranks fourth in cereal production worldwide, and the Pleurotus species are among the most efficient types of lignocellulolytic white-rot fungi. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the degradation of barley straw and barley rootless with an inoculum of Pleurotus to improve their nutritional availability as a food source for ruminants. Two experiments were conducted; the first was to determine the effects of inoculation of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. (PS in barley straw (BS, barley rootless (BR, and a 75% BS and 25% BR mixture (M. The second experiment was to evaluate the same substrates in vitro ruminal fermentation. Barley rootless had better organic matter (OM degradability than BS after 24 h incubation with PS. The protein content in BR was higher than in BS (P < 0.01. Enzyme activities had the highest concentration from the start of fermentation, and in vitro dry matter (DM degradability in BS and BR increased after 8 and 24 d fermentation, respectively (P < 0.05. Propionic acid concentration was enhanced after 16 d fermentation in BR (P < 0.5. The use of BS combined with BR exhibited better fermentation; this result provides relevant information for integrating BR with other substrates and improving the use of straw, which can be more nutritionally available for feeding ruminants.

  4. Long-term reconstitution with water of dry barley before feeding increases phosphorus digestibility in pigs1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    compared to dry stored barley on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P in pigs. Dry barley (12% moisture; total P, 3.3 g/kg DM; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions...... numerically more soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and less phytate P (0.93 g/kg DM) than dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed an increase in P absorption (54%, P

  5. Transcriptional Responses to Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid in Barley Aleurone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kegui Chen; Yong-Qiang Charles An

    2006-01-01

    Cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to investigate giberrellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined the mRNA accumulation of over 22 000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than a threefold change in response to GA treatment, whereas 206 genes had a more than threefold change in response to ABA treatment. Interestingly, approximately 2.5-fold more genes were up-regulated than downregulated by ABA. Eighty-three genes were differentially regulated by both GA and ABA. Most of the genes were subject to antagonistic regulation by ABA and GA, particularly for genes related to seed maturation and germination, such as genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and storage mobilization enzymes. This supports the antagonistic roles of GA and ABA in seed maturation and seed germination.Interestingly, we observed that a significant percentage of the genes were coordinately regulated by both GA and ABA. Some GA-responsive genes encoded proteins involved in ethylene, jasmonate, brassinosteroid and auxin metabolic and signaling transduction pathways, suggesting their potential interaction with the GA response. We also identified a group of transcription factor genes, such as MYB and Homeobox genes, that were differentially regulated by GA. In addition, a number of GA- and/or ABA-responsive genes encoded components potentially involved in GA and ABA signal transduction pathway. Overall, the present study provides a comprehensive and global view of transcript expression accompanying the GA and ABA response in barley aleurone and identifies a group of genes with potential regulatory functions in GA- and ABA-signaling pathways for future functional validation.

  6. Comparison of Thinopyrum intermedium derivatives carrying barley yellow dwarf virus resistance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Navarrete, L; Tourton, E; Mechanicos, A A; Larkin, P J

    2009-06-01

    Resistance to both barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV) has been demonstrated in wheat genetic stocks with Thinopyrum intermedium chromatin. A number of resistance-bearing translocations have been reported on chromosome arm 7DL from two independent Th. intermedium sources; one source is the addition line L1 and the other is the spontaneous substitution line P29. Another source of resistance in wheat cytogenetic stocks is available as a 2Ai(2D) substitution line. We used a set of 38 molecular markers and the available deletion stocks to compare the size of the 7DL translocations more comprehensively than has been done previously. We also compared the efficacy of BYDV resistance of the various genetic stocks both before and after transfer to a common genetic background. TC14 was confirmed as carrying the smallest translocation, replacing about 20% of the distal end of 7DL. TC5 and TC10 had 90% of the chromosome arm replaced by Th. intermedium chromatin; the proximal 10% corresponded to wheat chromatin. YW642 appeared to have the whole 7DL replaced by Th. intermedium chromatin, as confirmed by the co-dominant marker cfd68 mapping on the bin nearest the centromere. Translocation line P961341 had bins 3, 7, and 8 replaced by Th. intermedium chromatin, making this the second smallest translocation with BYDV and CYDV resistance. The translocation sizes reported here differ from some of the previous estimates. The translocated Th. intermedium segments appeared to be bigger than the replaced wheat 7DL fragments. All the resistances derived from the L1 and P29 group 7 chromosomes and the 2Ai#2 chromosome were effective in reducing the number of infected plants and the mean virus titre, regardless of the background. Some evidence is discussed suggesting the long arm of the Th. intermedium group 7 chromosome 7Ai#1 carries two resistances, the distal Bdv2 and a proximal second gene.

  7. Leaf senescence and nutrient remobilisation in barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, P L; Holm, P B; Krupinska, K

    2008-01-01

    Extensive studies have been undertaken on senescence processes in barley and wheat and their importance for the nitrogen use efficiency of these crop plants. During the senescence processes, proteins are degraded and nutrients are re-mobilised from senescing leaves to other organs, especially...... in degradative, metabolic and regulatory processes that could be used in future strategies aimed at modifying the senescence process. The breeding of crops for characters related to senescence processes, e.g. higher yields and better nutrient use efficiency, is complex. Such breeding has to cope with the dilemma...

  8. Modelling phytate degradation kinetics in soaked wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, A B; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    for describing the phytate degradation profiles of the soaked wheat and barley. The in vitro results showed that heat-treatment of the cereals increased the F0 and reduced the K although the plant phytase activity was reduced. This was possible due to induced structural changes of the grain that increased...... the contact between phytate and plant phytases. The lack of effect of additions of Phytase 1 or Phytase 2 on the phytate degradation in the cereals was possible due to a poor access of the microbial phytases to phytate. Therefore, more knowledge is needed about processing technologies that increase the access...... of plant and microbial phytases to phytate in the grains....

  9. The plasma membrane proteome of germinating barley embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.;

    2009-01-01

    with amphiphilicity and low abundance of membrane proteins. A fraction enriched in plasma membranes was prepared from embryos dissected from 18 h germinated barley seeds using aqueous two-phase partitioning. Reversed-phase chromatography on C-4 resin performed in micro-spin columns with stepwise elution by 2-propanol...... was used to reduce soluble protein contamination and enrich for hydrophobic proteins. Sixty-one proteins in 14 SDS-PAGE bands were identified by LC-MS/MS and database searches. The identifications provide new insight into the plasma membrane functions in seed germination....

  10. A potential role of flag leaf potassium in conferring tolerance to drought-induced leaf senescence in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A. Hosseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Terminal drought stress decreases crop yields by inducing abscisic acid (ABA and premature leaf senescence. As potassium (K is known to interfere with ABA homeostasis we addressed the question whether there is genetic variability regarding the role of K nutrition in ABA homeostasis and drought tolerance. To compare their response to drought stress, two barley lines contrasting in drought-induced leaf senescence were grown in a pot experiment under high and low K supply for the analysis of flag leaves from the same developmental stage. Relative to the drought-sensitive line LPR, the line HPR retained more K in its flag leaves under low K supply and showed delayed flag leaf senescence under terminal drought stress. High K retention was further associated with a higher leaf water status, a higher concentration of starch and other primary carbon metabolites. With regard to ABA homeostasis, HPR accumulated less ABA but higher levels of the ABA degradation products phaseic acid and dehydro-phaseic acid. Under K deficiency this went along with higher transcript levels of ABA8’-HYDROXYLASE, encoding a key enzyme in ABA degradation. The present study provides evidence for a positive impact of the K nutritional status on ABA homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism under drought stress. We conclude that genotypes with a high K nutritional status in the flag leaf show superior drought tolerance by promoting ABA degradation but attenuating starch degradation which delays flag leaf senescence. Flag leaf K levels may thus represent a useful trait for the selection of drought-tolerant barley cultivars.

  11. Further molecular evidence for the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    106 accessions of Tibetan wild barley, including 50 accessions of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum(HS), 27 accessions of the six-rowed bottle-shaped wild barley H. lagunculiforme(HL) and 29 accessions of the six-rowed wild barley H. agriocrithon(HA) that separately represent different agrigeographical regions of Tibet, were used to study the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation using SSR markers selected from seven barley linkage groups. 229 allelic variants were identified with an average of 7.6 alleles/locus. The average of total number of alleles per locus in HA(6.4) is much higher than that in HS(3.9) and HL(3.4). The genetic diversity and its standard deviation among the three subspecies were in the order of HS>HL>HA. Very significant genetic differentiation was observed among the three subspecies of wild barley. Comparisons of the results from this and previous studies showed a strong Oriental-Occidental differentiation of barley, and that Shannan region of Tibet might be the center of origin of the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley, thus supporting not only the hypothesis of a mono-phyletic origin of cultivated barley but also the proposition that the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley.

  12. TILLING in the two-rowed barley cultivar 'Barke' reveals preferred sites of functional diversity in the gene HvHox1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komatsuda Takao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic importance of cereals such as barley, and the demand for improved yield and quality require a better understanding of the genetic components that modulate biologically and commercially relevant traits. While Arabidopsis thaliana is the premiere model plant system, the spectrum of its traits cannot address all of the fundamental questions of crop plant development. Unlike Arabidopsis, barley is both a crop and a model system for scientific research, and it is increasingly being used for genetic and molecular investigations into the conserved biological processes of cereals. A common challenge in genetic studies in plants with large genomes arises from the very time-consuming work of associating mutant phenotypes with gene sequence information, especially if insertion mutagenesis is not routine, as in barley. Reverse genetics based on chemical mutagenesis represents the best solution to this obstacle. Findings In barley, we generated a new TILLING (Targeting Local Lesions IN Genomes resource comprising 10,279 M2 mutants in the two-rowed malting cultivar 'Barke,' which has been used in the generation of other genomic resources in barley (~150,000 ESTs, DH mapping population. The value of this new resource was tested using selected candidate genes. An average frequency of approximately one mutation per 0.5 Mb was determined by screening ten fragments of six different genes. The ethyl methanesulphonate (EMSmutagenesis efficiency was studied by recording and relating the mutagenesis-dependent effects found in the three mutant generations (M1-M3. A detailed analysis was performed for the homeodomain-leucine-zipper (HD-ZIP gene HvHox1. Thirty-one mutations were identified by screening a 1,270-bp fragment in 7,348 M2 lines. Three of the newly identified mutants exhibited either a six-rowed or an intermedium-spike phenotype, and one mutant displayed a significantly altered spikelet morphology compared to that of the 'Barke

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  14. Effect of supplementation with barley and calcium hydroxide on intake of Mediterranean shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Skobic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Maquis plant communities are one of the most varied vegetation types in the Mediterranean region and an important habitat for wild and domestic herbivores. Although the majority of these shrubs are nutritious, the secondary compounds are main impediments that reduce their forage value. In five experiments we determined the effect of supplementing goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley, and barley alone on intake of five dominant shrubs (Quercus ilex, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Viburnum tinus and Pistacia lentiscus of the Mediterranean maquis community. The combination of calcium hydroxide plus barley and barley alone increased utilization of all five investigated Mediterranean shrubs; therewith that intake of Arbutus unedo and Viburnum tinus was not statistically significant. Supplemented goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley or barley alone could be effective in controlling secondary compounds-rich Mediterranean shrubs where their abundance threatens biodiversity. This control can be facilitated by browsing dominant Mediterranean shrubs, which has been shown to be effective in managing Mediterranean maquis density. Calcium hydroxide and barley (energy enhance use of secondary compounds-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of plant species in the Mediterranean maquis plant community.

  15. Homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid and barley seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, B; Koning, G; Lok, K Him

    2003-07-01

    The potentisation process by which homeopathic preparations are produced raises the concern that these medicines have placebo effects only, since they theoretically no longer contain active molecules of the diluted substance. Plant models offer a method of examining the efficacy of homeopathically prepared solutions. This study examined the effects of homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid (HGA3) on the germination performance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds. The effect of HGA3 (4-200 cH) on seed germination rate and seedling development was compared to that of the most commonly used form of gibberellic acid (GA3), 0.5 g l(-1), and control (distilled water). The extent and type of response was dependent on the vigour level of the seedlot. Treating seeds from three vigour groups in HGA3 consistently resulted in larger seedlings. High-vigour seeds treated with HGA3 4, 30 and 200 cH germinated faster, and roots of medium-vigour seedlots treated in HGA3 15 cH were longer. Biphasic effects of HGA3 were also demonstrated. As a plant model, germinating barley seeds successfully demonstrated the ability of HGA3 to produce a biological response.

  16. How barley growing conditions and its output change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Erdélyi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that climate change has started. It is very important to make effort in developing impact analyses and adaptation strategies. First we were investigated how theproduction risk of winter barley is changing with time using the E,V efficiency criterion. Based on the regional yearly production data of the crop, we can conclude that beside other non-climatic effects, the changing climate has considerable impact on crops yield; its variability is increasing with the variability of meteorological parameters. We have used production data from 1951 to nowadays. Next, using comparison analyses for climate scenarios, we predict what we can expect in the future. For detecting the reasons of risk increase in the past, and forecasting the potential main points of future risk we have analysed statistically whether the climate needs of winter barley will be satisfied ornot in its important periods of growing. Frequency calculations were made based on the daily meteorological data. The situation doesn’t show big change, but It is no doubt that the anomalies of the indicators have been becoming more and more frequent. The morefrequent the extreme weather events are, the more we can be convinced of uncertainty.

  17. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  18. Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus.

  19. Barley β-glucans extraction and partial characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberger-Bayer, Valéria M; de Francisco, Alicia; Chan, Aline; Oro, Tatiana; Ogliari, Paulo J; Barreto, Pedro L M

    2014-07-01

    Barley is rarely used in the food industry, even though it is a main source of β-glucans, which have important health benefits and a technological role in food. This work evaluated the humid extraction of barley β-glucans and partially characterized them. The extraction was studied using surface response methodology with both temperature and pH as variables. The extracted β-glucans were characterized by chemical and rheological analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effect on extraction of linear and quadratic terms of pH and temperature corresponding to the regression model was significant, and we obtained a maximum concentration of 53.4% at pH 7.56 and temperature 45.5°C, with protein and mainly starch contamination. The extracted β-glucans presented a higher apparent viscosity than the commercial ones, the behavior of the commercial and extracted samples can be described as Newtonian and pseudoplastic, respectively. The results of infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were characteristic of commercial β-glucans, indicating that this method is efficient for extracting β-glucans.

  20. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedas, Pai Rosager; Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark

    2014-01-01

    8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi......-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed...... in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts...

  1. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  2. Response of barley aleurone layers to abscisic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, D.T.H.; Varner, J.E.

    1976-02-01

    Cordycepin, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone cells, does not inhibit the gibberellic acid-enhanced ..cap alpha..-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1.) synthesis in barley aleurone layers if it is added 12 hours or more after the addition of the hormone. However, the accumulation of ..cap alpha..-amylase activity after 12 hours of gibberellic acid can be decreased by abscisic acid. The accumulation of ..cap alpha..-amylase activity is sustained or quickly restored when cordycepin is added simultaneously or some time after abscisic acid, indicating that the response of aleurone layers to abscisic acid depends on the continuous synthesis of a short lived RNA. By analysis of the newly synthesized proteins by gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecylsulfate, it was observed that the synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylase is decreased in the presence of abscisic acid while the synthesis of most of the other proteins remains unchanged. From the rate of resumption of ..cap alpha..-amylase production in the presence of cordycepin and abscisic acid, it appears that abscisic acid does not have a measurable effect on the stability of ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA.

  3. Obtained transgenic wheat expressing pac1 mediated by Agrobacterium is resistant against Barley yellow dwarf virus-GPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Fei; ZHENG Yinying; ZHANG Wenwei; XIAO Hong; LI Shifang; CHENG Zhuomin

    2006-01-01

    In fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), pac1 gene was cloned with 99.3% nucleotide sequence similarity with published pac1 in GenBank. In pET-5α expression system, the expression product of cloned pac1 in E. coli showed activity to degrade the double-strand RNA. Harboring the binary vector pBI121, which contains pac1 gene, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 was used to transform the wheat immature embryos precultured 7―10 d. After preregeneration, regeneration and selection culture stage, totally 41 G418 resistant plants were obtained, in which 25 lines were proved to integrate with transgene and express transgene normally by PCR, Dot blot, RT-PCR and ELISA detection. Antivirus test carried out on 25 positive lines with high dose of Barley yellow dwarf virus-GPV revealed that 12 lines had resistance to BVDV-GPV in low level, another 12 lines had resistance to BVDV- GPV in middle level, and 1 line showed resistance to BVDV-GPV in high level. However, both low and middle level of resistance plants showed no symptoms when infected by viruses at low dose, which suggested the dose-dependent effect of the resistance mediated by pac1 to BYDV-GPV.

  4. Analysis on Interaction between Genotype of Four Main Flavonoids of Barley Grain and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YANG; Chengli DUAN; Yawen ZENG; Juan DU; Shuming YANG; Xiaoying PU; Shengchao YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the interaction between genotype of flavonoids of barley grain and environment, to increase the flavonoid content of barley grain in cultivation and breeding. [Method] In this study, the content of cate- chin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol of barley grain planted in Kunming, Qujing and Baoshan were determined by HPLC, and the genotype, environment, genotype- environment interaction of the flavonoid content of barley grain were analyzed. [Result] According to the experimental results, the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction variance of catechin and kaempferol contents show the same trend: genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance, envi- ronmental variance and G × E interaction variance of quercetin and total flavonoid contents show the same trend: genetype variation 〉 G × E interaction variation 〉 environmental variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance and environmental variance of myricetin content both reach a extremely sig- nificant level, while the G × E interaction variance reaches a significant level, showing an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation; the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction vari- ance of total flavonoid content show an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation. Among different barley varieties, Ziguang- mangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai in Qujing, Kunming and Baoshan have relatively high content of quercetin, while other barley varieties barely contain any quercetin. The grains of Ziguangmangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai are purple, while the grains of other barley varieties are yellow. [Conclusion] Four main flavonoids and the total flavonoids of barley grain are mainly under genetic control and

  5. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  6. Introgression of ivermectin resistance genes into a susceptible Haemonchus contortus strain by multiple backcrossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Elizabeth; Sargison, Neil; Whitelaw, Fiona; Jackson, Frank; Morrison, Alison; Bartley, David Jon; Gilleard, John Stuart

    2012-02-01

    Anthelmintic drug resistance in livestock parasites is already widespread and in recent years there has been an increasing level of anthelmintic drug selection pressure applied to parasitic nematode populations in humans leading to concerns regarding the emergence of resistance. However, most parasitic nematodes, particularly those of humans, are difficult experimental subjects making mechanistic studies of drug resistance extremely difficult. The small ruminant parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus is a more amenable model system to study many aspects of parasite biology and investigate the basic mechanisms and genetics of anthelmintic drug resistance. Here we report the successful introgression of ivermectin resistance genes from two independent ivermectin resistant strains, MHco4(WRS) and MHco10(CAVR), into the susceptible genome reference strain MHco3(ISE) using a backcrossing approach. A panel of microsatellite markers were used to monitor the procedure. We demonstrated that after four rounds of backcrossing, worms that were phenotypically resistant to ivermectin had a similar genetic background to the susceptible reference strain based on the bulk genotyping with 18 microsatellite loci and individual genotyping with a sub-panel of 9 microsatellite loci. In addition, a single marker, Hcms8a20, showed evidence of genetic linkage to an ivermectin resistance-conferring locus providing a starting point for more detailed studies of this genomic region to identify the causal mutation(s). This work presents a novel genetic approach to study anthelmintic resistance and provides a "proof-of-concept" of the use of forward genetics in an important model strongylid parasite of relevance to human hookworms. The resulting strains provide valuable resources for candidate gene studies, whole genome approaches and for further genetic analysis to identify ivermectin resistance loci.

  7. Introgression of ivermectin resistance genes into a susceptible Haemonchus contortus strain by multiple backcrossing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Redman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic drug resistance in livestock parasites is already widespread and in recent years there has been an increasing level of anthelmintic drug selection pressure applied to parasitic nematode populations in humans leading to concerns regarding the emergence of resistance. However, most parasitic nematodes, particularly those of humans, are difficult experimental subjects making mechanistic studies of drug resistance extremely difficult. The small ruminant parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus is a more amenable model system to study many aspects of parasite biology and investigate the basic mechanisms and genetics of anthelmintic drug resistance. Here we report the successful introgression of ivermectin resistance genes from two independent ivermectin resistant strains, MHco4(WRS and MHco10(CAVR, into the susceptible genome reference strain MHco3(ISE using a backcrossing approach. A panel of microsatellite markers were used to monitor the procedure. We demonstrated that after four rounds of backcrossing, worms that were phenotypically resistant to ivermectin had a similar genetic background to the susceptible reference strain based on the bulk genotyping with 18 microsatellite loci and individual genotyping with a sub-panel of 9 microsatellite loci. In addition, a single marker, Hcms8a20, showed evidence of genetic linkage to an ivermectin resistance-conferring locus providing a starting point for more detailed studies of this genomic region to identify the causal mutation(s. This work presents a novel genetic approach to study anthelmintic resistance and provides a "proof-of-concept" of the use of forward genetics in an important model strongylid parasite of relevance to human hookworms. The resulting strains provide valuable resources for candidate gene studies, whole genome approaches and for further genetic analysis to identify ivermectin resistance loci.

  8. Variability and performance evaluation of introgressed Nigerian dura x Deli dura oil palm progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, A; Rafii, M Y; Mohd Din, A; Kushairi, A; Norziha, A; Rajanaidu, N; Latif, M A; Malek, M A

    2014-04-03

    Twelve introgressed oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies of Nigerian dura x Deli dura were evaluated for bunch yield, yield attributes, bunch quality components and vegetative characters at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, in Keratong, Pahang, Malaysia. Analysis of variance revealed significant to highly significant genotypic differences, indicating sufficient genetic variability among the progenies for bunch yield and its attributes, vegetative characters and bunch quality components, except fruit to bunch ratio. Fresh fruit bunch yield ranged from 167 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1) in PK1330 to 212 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1) in PK1351, with a mean yield of 192 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1). Among the progeny, PK1313 had the highest oil to bunch ratio (19.36%), due to its high mesocarp to fruit ratio, fruit to bunch ratio and low shell to fruit ratio. Among the progenies, PK1313 produced the highest oil yield of 31.4 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1), due to a high mesocarp to fruit ratio (61.2%) and a low shell to fruit ratio (30.7%), coupled with high fruit to bunch ratio (65.6%). PK1330 was found promising for selection, as it had desirable vegetative characters, including smaller petiole cross section (27.15 cm2), short rachis length (4.83 m), short palm height (1.85 m), and the lowest leaf number (164.6), as these vegetative characters are prerequisites for selecting palms for high density planting and high yield per hectare. The genetic variability among the progenies was found to be high, indicating ample scope for further breeding, followed by selection.

  9. Genetic structure, introgression, and a narrow hybrid zone between northern and California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowclough, G F; Groth, J G; Mertz, L A; Gutiérrez, R J

    2005-04-01

    The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is a threatened subspecies and the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is a subspecies of special concern in the western United States. Concern for their continued viability has arisen because of habitat loss caused by timber harvesting. The taxonomic status of the northern subspecies has been the subject of continuing controversy. We investigated the phylogeographical and population genetic structure of northern and California spotted owls with special reference to their region of contact. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences confirmed the existence of two well-differentiated lineages connected by a narrow hybrid zone in a region of low population density in north central California. Maximum-likelihood estimates indicated bidirectional gene flow between the lineages but limited introgression outside the region of contact. The lengths of both the mtDNA hybrid zone and the reduced density patch were similar and slightly exceeded estimates of natal dispersal distances. This suggests that the two subspecies were in secondary contact in a hybrid zone trapped by a population density trough. Consequently, the zone of interaction is expected to be geographically stable. We discovered a third, rare clade of haplotypes, which we interpreted to be a result of incomplete lineage sorting; those haplotypes result in a paraphyletic northern spotted owl with respect to the California spotted owl. A congeneric species, the barred owl (Strix varia), occasionally hybridizes with spotted owls; our results indicated an upper bound for the frequency of barred owl mtDNA haplotypes in northern spotted owl populations of 3%.

  10. Biotesting of radioactively contaminated forest soils using barley-based bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel’nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Findings from radioactivity and phytotoxicity study are presented for soils from nine study-sites of the Klintsovsky Forestry located in the Bryansk region that were radioactively contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. According to the bioassay based on barley as test-species, stimulating effect of the soils analyzed is revealed for biological indexes of the length of barley roots and sprouts. From data on 137Cs specific activities in soils and plant biomass, the migration potential of radionuclide in the "soil-plant" system is assessed as a transfer factor. With correlation analysis, an impact of 137Cs in soil on the biological characteristics of barley is estimated.

  11. Effect of pulsed electric field on the germination of barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Dejmek, Petr; Panarese, Valentina;

    2012-01-01

    This study explores metabolic responses of germinating barley seeds upon the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Malting barley seeds were steeped in aerated water for 24 h and PEF-treated at varying voltages (0 (control), 110, 160, 240, 320, 400 and 480 V). The seeds were then allowed...... to finish germination in saturated air. It is shown that exposure of germinating barley to PEF affects radicle emergence without significantly affecting the seeds’ gross metabolic activity, as quantified by isothermal calorimetry. An exploration of protein 2-DE profiles of both the embryo and the starchy...

  12. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...... site cysteines and by removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. A cDNA clone of the barley key cysteine endoprotease...

  13. Heterologous expression and purification of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    The mobilization of protein during germination of barley seeds is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction...... of the active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. The barley key cysteine protease, endoprotease...

  14. Distinct developmental defense activations in barley embryos identified by transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, ME; Lok, F; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    analyses of > 22,000 genes, which together with measurements of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid during embryo development provide new information on the initiation in the developing barley embryo of at least two distinct types of developmental defense activation (DDA). Early DDA is characterized by the up......-regulation of several PR genes is notable. Throughout barley embryo development, there are no indications of an increased biosynthesis of either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Collectively, the results help explain how the proposed DDA enables protection of the developing barley embryo and grain for purposes...

  15. Effects of the Lycopersicon chmielewskii sucrose accumulator gene (sucr) on fruit yield and quality parameters following introgression into tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetelat, R T; Deverna, J W; Bennett, A B

    1995-07-01

    A gene controlling fruit sucrose accumulation, sucr, was introgressed from the wild tomato species Lycopersicon chmielewskii into the genetic background of a hexose-accumulating cultivated tomato, L. esculentum. During introgression, the size of the L. chmielewskii chromosomal segment containing sucr was reduced by selection for recombination between RFLP markers for the sucr gene and flanking loci. The effects of sucr on soluble solids content, fruit size, yield and other fruit parameters were studied in the genetic background of the processing tomato cultivar 'Huntl00'. In a segregating BC5F2 generation, the smallest introgression containing sucr-associated markers was necessary and sufficient to confer high-level sucrose accumulation, the effects of which were completely recessive. Fruit of sucr/sucr genotypes were smaller than those of +/sucr or +/+ genotypes at all stages of development. The timing of sugar accumulation and total sugar concentration were unaffected by sugar composition. No differences in total fruit biomass (fresh weight of red and green fruit) at harvest were observed between the genotypes, and sucrose accumulators produced greater numbers of fruit than hexose accumulators in one family. However, the proportion of ripe fruit at harvest, and hence yield of ripe fruit, as well as average ripe fruit weight and seed set were reduced in sucr/sucr genotypes. Sucrose accumulation was also associated with increased soluble solids content, consistency, serum viscosity, predicted paste yield and acidity, and decreased color rating. In the first backcross to L. chmielewskii, hexose accumulators (+/sucr) had larger fruit than sucrose accumulators (sucr/sucr), while no difference in soluble solids was detected.

  16. Reduced SNP panels for genetic identification and introgression analysis in the dark honey bee (Apis mellifera mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Irene; Henriques, Dora; Johnston, J Spencer; Chávez-Galarza, Julio; Kryger, Per; Pinto, M Alice

    2015-01-01

    Beekeeping activities, especially queen trading, have shaped the distribution of honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies in Europe, and have resulted in extensive introductions of two eastern European C-lineage subspecies (A. m. ligustica and A. m. carnica) into the native range of the M-lineage A. m. mellifera subspecies in Western Europe. As a consequence, replacement and gene flow between native and commercial populations have occurred at varying levels across western European populations. Genetic identification and introgression analysis using molecular markers is an important tool for management and conservation of honey bee subspecies. Previous studies have monitored introgression by using microsatellite, PCR-RFLP markers and most recently, high density assays using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. While the latter are almost prohibitively expensive, the information gained to date can be exploited to create a reduced panel containing the most ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) for those purposes with very little loss of information. The objective of this study was to design reduced panels of AIMs to verify the origin of A. m. mellifera individuals and to provide accurate estimates of the level of C-lineage introgression into their genome. The discriminant power of the SNPs using a variety of metrics and approaches including the Weir & Cockerham's FST, an FST-based outlier test, Delta, informativeness (In), and PCA was evaluated. This study shows that reduced AIMs panels assign individuals to the correct origin and calculates the admixture level with a high degree of accuracy. These panels provide an essential tool in Europe for genetic stock identification and estimation of admixture levels which can assist management strategies and monitor honey bee conservation programs.

  17. The geography of introgression in a patchy environment and the thorn in the side of ecological speciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas BIERNE; Pierre-Alexandre GAGNAIRE; Patrice DAVID

    2013-01-01

    When incompletely isolated taxa coexist in a patchy environment (e.g.mosaic hybrid zones,host-race complexes),patterns of variation may differ between selected traits/genes and neutral markers.While the genetic structure of selected traits/loci tends to coincide with habitat variables (producing Genetic-Environment Association or GEA),genetic differentiation at neutral loci unlinked to any selected locus rather depends on geographic connectivity at a large scale (e.g.IsolationBy-Distance or IBD),although these loci often display GEA at a small scale.This discrepancy has been repeatedly taken as evidence for parallel primary divergence driven by local adaptation.We argue that this interpretation needs to be addressed more thoroughly by considering the altemative hypothesis that speciation was initiated in allopatry and secondary introgression has subsequently erased the signal of past differentiation at neutral loci.We present a model of neutral introgression after secondary contact in a mosaic hybrid zone,which describes how GEAs dissipate with time and how neutral variation self-organizes according to the environmental and geographic structures.We show that although neutral loci can be affected by environmental selection,they are often more affected by history and connectivity:the neutral structure retains the initial geographic separation more than it correlates with the environment during the colonization and introgression phases,and then converges to a migration-drift balance,the most frequent outcome of which is GEA at a local scale but IBD at a large scale.This is the exact pattern usually attributed to parallel ecological speciation.Introgression is heterogeneous in space and depends on the landscape structure (e.g.it is faster in small patches,which are more impacted by immigration).Furthermore,there is no directionality in the association and it is possible to observe reversed GEAs between distant regions.We argue that the history of differentiation should

  18. Interrelation of exposure and exposure rate in germinating seeds of barley and its concurrence with dose-rate theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottino, P.J.; Sparrow, A.H.; Schwemmer, S.S.; Thompson, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    Germinating seeds of barley were irradiated with /sup 137/Cs gamma rays at various combinations of total exposure (400-3200 R) and exposure rate (30-24,000 R/hr). Seedling height was measured 5 days after the initiation of irradiation and the various levels of growth inhibition produced by each combination of treatments were determined. The results obtained ranged from no effect on growth to 100 percent growth inhibition. Growth inhibition curves based on both total exposure and exposure rate were constructed. The exposures required to produce 20 and 35 percent growth inhibition at each exposure rate were determined, 35 percent growth inhibition being the highest level that could be determined over the entire range of rates used (20 percent growth inhibition was used for comparative purposes). For both levels of growth inhibition, as exposure rate increased (or, concomitantly, as exposure time decreased), the total exposure required to produce the end point decreased (effectiveness increased) as a straight line relationship on a double logarithmic plot between 30 and 1500 R/hr (0.03 to 0.3 hr exposure time). Above 1500 R/hr, further increases in exposure rate (or decreases in exposure time) increased the total exposure required for a given effect, i.e., effectiveness decreased. Conversion of exposure rate to exposure time demonstrates this point of change in effectiveness to occur well within one mitotic cycle. These results are discussed with regard to current dose-rate theory and are at least partially consistent therewith. A straight-line dependency of the exposure rate producing maximum growth inhibition on total exposure is shown. The point at which the combinations of exposure and exposure rate for 35 percent growth inhibition occurs is restricted to barley and may differ for other species. This may depend on chromosome size or DNA content and/or the mitotic cycle time characteristic of a species. (auth)

  19. Effect of wide variation of the Waxy gene on starch properties in hull-less barley from Qinghai-Tibet plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao; Pan, Zhifen; Deng, Guangbing; Long, Hai; Li, Zhongyi; Deng, Xiaoqing; Liang, JunJun; Tang, Yawei; Zeng, Xingquan; Tashi, Nyima; Yu, Maoqun

    2014-11-26

    Granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSS I) plays an important role in the synthesis of amylose and in the determination of starch properties in barley grains. Genomic DNAs for the Waxy gene encoding GBSS I protein were sequenced from 34 barley accessions or lines from Qinghai-Tibet plateau in China, to identify Waxy gene nucleotide variations and study the roles of polymorphic sites of the Waxy gene on expression levels of Waxy transcripts and GBSS I proteins and on resulting starch properties. A total of 116 DNA polymorphic sites were identified within the barley Waxy gene, which divided the studied accessions into 11 haplotypes. Among 33 nucleotide polymorphic sites in coding regions, 5 SNPs in three exons were found to play different roles on the expression level of the Waxy transcript and the GBSS I protein and on the amylose content and starch properties. One SNP G(3935)-to-T substitution in the 10th exon in the accession Z999 (HP II-2) caused a high expression level of the Waxy transcript and the GBSS I protein and the amylose free phenotype. The other SNP alteration was a C(2453)-to-T in the fifth exon in the accession Z1191 (HP I-5), which drastically reduced the expression level of the Waxy transcript and the GBSS I protein and, finally, produced the amylose free phenotype. Three SNPs in the seventh exon in the accession Z1337 (HP I-6) did not significantly change the level of Waxy transcript, the GBSS I protein, and starch properties, except obviously reducing the breakdown value of starch viscosity and extending the peak time. A total of 84 DNA polymorphic sites were found in the noncoding regions. A 403 bp deletion at 5'UTR in the accession Z1979 (HP I-3) had low transcript level, low GBSS I protein level, and low amylose content due to the deletion of cis-acting DNA regulatory elements. A 191 bp insertion and a 15 bp insertion in the first intron and second exons, respectively, may be closely related to a higher transcript level of the Waxy gene and

  20. The genetic integrity of the ex situ population of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is seriously threatened by introgression from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzenberger, Kathrin A; Hochkirch, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the genetic diversity and relatedness of zoo populations are crucial for implementing successful breeding programmes. The European wildcat, Felis s. silvestris, is subject to intensive conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction. We here present the first systematic genetic analysis of the captive population of Felis s. silvestris in comparison with a natural wild population. We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequencing to assess genetic diversity, structure and integrity of the ex situ population. Our results show that the ex situ population of the European wildcat is highly structured and that it has a higher genetic diversity than the studied wild population. Some genetic clusters matched the breeding lines of certain zoos or groups of zoos that often exchanged individuals. Two mitochondrial haplotype groups were detected in the in situ populations, one of which was closely related to the most common haplotype found in domestic cats, suggesting past introgression in the wild. Although native haplotypes were also found in the captive population, the majority (68%) of captive individuals shared a common mtDNA haplotype with the domestic cat (Felis s. catus). Only six captive individuals (7.7%) were assigned as wildcats in the STRUCTURE analysis (at K = 2), two of which had domestic cat mtDNA haplotypes and only two captive individuals were assigned as purebred wildcats by NewHybrids. These results suggest that the high genetic diversity of the captive population has been caused by admixture with domestic cats. Therefore, the captive population cannot be recommended for further breeding and reintroduction.

  1. The genetic integrity of the ex situ population of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris is seriously threatened by introgression from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin A Witzenberger

    Full Text Available Studies on the genetic diversity and relatedness of zoo populations are crucial for implementing successful breeding programmes. The European wildcat, Felis s. silvestris, is subject to intensive conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction. We here present the first systematic genetic analysis of the captive population of Felis s. silvestris in comparison with a natural wild population. We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequencing to assess genetic diversity, structure and integrity of the ex situ population. Our results show that the ex situ population of the European wildcat is highly structured and that it has a higher genetic diversity than the studied wild population. Some genetic clusters matched the breeding lines of certain zoos or groups of zoos that often exchanged individuals. Two mitochondrial haplotype groups were detected in the in situ populations, one of which was closely related to the most common haplotype found in domestic cats, suggesting past introgression in the wild. Although native haplotypes were also found in the captive population, the majority (68% of captive individuals shared a common mtDNA haplotype with the domestic cat (Felis s. catus. Only six captive individuals (7.7% were assigned as wildcats in the STRUCTURE analysis (at K = 2, two of which had domestic cat mtDNA haplotypes and only two captive individuals were assigned as purebred wildcats by NewHybrids. These results suggest that the high genetic diversity of the captive population has been caused by admixture with domestic cats. Therefore, the captive population cannot be recommended for further breeding and reintroduction.

  2. Linkage relationships among multiple QTL for horticultural traits and late blight (P. infestans) resistance on chromosome 5 introgressed from wild tomato Solanum habrochaites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, J Erron; Johnson, Emily B; St Clair, Dina A

    2013-12-09

    When the allele of a wild species at a quantitative trait locus (QTL) conferring a desirable trait is introduced into cultivated species, undesirable effects on other traits may occur. These negative phenotypic effects may result from the presence of wild alleles at other closely linked loci that are transferred along with the desired QTL allele (i.e., linkage drag) and/or from pleiotropic effects of the desired allele. Previously, a QTL for resistance to Phytophthora infestans on chromosome 5 of Solanum habrochaites was mapped and introgressed into cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum). Near-isogenic lines (NILs) were generated and used for fine-mapping of this resistance QTL, which revealed coincident or linked QTL with undesirable effects on yield, maturity, fruit size, and plant architecture traits. Subsequent higher-resolution mapping with chromosome 5 sub-NILs revealed the presence of multiple P. infestans resistance QTL within this 12.3 cM region. In our present study, these sub-NILs were also evaluated for 17 horticultural traits, including yield, maturity, fruit size and shape, fruit quality, and plant architecture traits in replicated field experiments over the course of two years. Each previously detected single horticultural trait QTL fractionated into two or more QTL. A total of 41 QTL were detected across all traits, with ∼30% exhibiting significant QTL × environment interactions. Colocation of QTL for multiple traits suggests either pleiotropy or tightly linked genes control these traits. The complex genetic architecture of horticultural and P. infestans resistance trait QTL within this S. habrochaites region of chromosome 5 presents challenges and opportunities for breeding efforts in cultivated tomato.

  3. Barley Brassinosteroid Mutants Provide an Insight into Phytohormonal Homeostasis in Plant Reaction to Drought Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszka, Damian; Janeczko, Anna; Dziurka, Michal; Pociecha, Ewa; Oklestkova, Jana; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroid phytohormones, which regulate various processes of morphogenesis and physiology—from seed development to regulation of flowering and senescence. An accumulating body of evidence indicates that BRs take part in regulation of physiological reactions to various stress conditions, including drought. Many of the physiological functions of BRs are regulated by a complicated, and not fully elucidated network of interactions with metabolic pathways of other phytohormones. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize phytohormonal homeostasis in barley (Hordeum vulgare) in reaction to drought and validate role of BRs in regulation of this process. Material of this study included the barley cultivar “Bowman” and five Near-Isogenic Lines (NILs) representing characterized semi-dwarf mutants of several genes encoding enzymes participating in BR biosynthesis and signaling. Analysis of endogenous BRs concentrations in these NILs confirmed that their phenotypes result from abnormalities in BR metabolism. In general, concentrations of 18 compounds, representing various classes of phytohormones, including brassinosteroids, auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid were analyzed under control and drought conditions in the “Bowman” cultivar and the BR-deficient NILs. Drought induced a significant increase in accumulation of the biologically active form of BRs—castasterone in all analyzed genotypes. Another biologically active form of BRs—24-epi-brassinolide—was identified in one, BR-insensitive NIL under normal condition, but its accumulation was drought-induced in all analyzed genotypes. Analysis of concentration profiles of several compounds representing gibberellins allowed an insight into the BR-dependent regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis. The concentration of the gibberellic acid GA7 was significantly lower in all NILs when compared with the “Bowman” cultivar

  4. The interactive effects of transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 with various HMW-GS combinations on dough quality by introgression of exogenous subunits into an elite Chinese Wheat variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiang; Li, Yin; Zhao, Shasha; Zhang, Jian; Lei, Qian; Meng, Dandan; Ma, Fengyun; Hu, Wei; Chen, Mingjie; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Seed storage proteins in wheat endosperm, particularly high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), are primary determinants of dough properties, and affect both end-use quality and grain utilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). In order to investigate the interactive effects between the transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 subunit with different HMW-GS on dough quality traits, we developed a set of 8 introgression lines (ILs) overexpressing the transgenic HMW-glutenin subunit 1Ax1 by introgression of this transgene from transgenic line B102-1-2/1 into an elite Chinese wheat variety Chuanmai107 (C107), using conventional crossing and backcrossing breeding technique. The donor C107 strain lacks 1Ax1 but contains the HMW-GS pairs 1Dx2+1Dy12 and 1Bx7+1By9. The resultant ILs showed robust and stable expression of 1Ax1 even after five generations of self-pollination, and crossing/backcrossing three times. In addition, overexpression of 1Ax1 was compensated by the endogenous gluten proteins. All ILs exhibited superior agronomic performance when compared to the transgenic parent line, B102-1-2/1. Mixograph results demonstrated that overexpressed 1Ax1 significantly improved dough strength, resistance to extension and over-mixing tolerance, in the targeted wheat cultivar C107. Further, comparisons among the ILs showed the interactive effects of endogenous subunits on dough properties when 1Ax1 was overexpressed: subunit pair 17+18 contributed to increased over-mixing tolerance of the dough; expression of the Glu-D1 allele maintained an appropriate balance between x-type and y-type subunits and thereby improved dough quality. It is consistent with ILs C4 (HMW-GS are 1, 17+18, 2+12) had the highest gluten index and Zeleny sedimentation value. This study demonstrates that wheat quality could be improved by using transgenic wheat overexpressing HMW-GS and the feasibility of using such transgenic lines in wheat quality breeding programs.

  5. Extensive mitochondrial introgression in North American Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) from the American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus) with little nuclear DNA impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, J-M; Sonsthagen, S; Dove, C; Crochet, P-A

    2014-03-01

    Recent genetic studies have shown that introgression rates among loci may greatly vary according to their location in the genome. In particular, several cases of mito-nuclear discordances have been reported for a wide range of organisms. In the present study, we examine the causes of discordance between mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA introgression detected in North American populations of the Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), a Holarctic species, from the Nearctic North American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus). Our results show that extensive unidirectional mtDNA introgression from Larus smithsonianus into Larus marinus in North America cannot be explained by ancestral polymorphism but most likely results from ancient hybridization events occurring when Larus marinus invaded the North America. Conversely, our nuclear DNA results based on 12 microsatellites detected very little introgression from Larus smithsonianus into North American Larus marinus. We discuss these results in the framework of demographic and selective mechanisms that have been postulated to explain mito-nuclear discrepancies. We were unable to demonstrate selection as the main cause of mito-nuclear introgression discordance but cannot dismiss the possible role of selection in the observed pattern. Among demographic explanations, only drift in small populations and bias in mate choice in an invasive context may explain our results. As it is often difficult to demonstrate that selection may be the main factor driving the introgression of mitochondrial DNA in natural populations, we advocate that evaluating alternative demographic neutral hypotheses may help to indirectly support or reject hypotheses invoking selective processes.

  6. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  7. Differentially Expressed Genes between Two Barley Cultivars Contrasting in Drought Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.G. Guo; M. Baum; R.H. Li; S. Grando; R.K. Varshney; J. Valkoun; S. Ceccarelli; A. Grane

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing and stabilizing barley productivity in dry areas. A number of genes have been described that respond to drought at the transcriptional level (Seki et al., 2002; Cheong et al.,2003).

  8. The effect of hydrolyzed Spirulina by malted barley on forced swimming test in ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyung; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Lee, Ju-Young; Go, Hoyeon; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min; Um, Jae-Young

    2008-11-01

    Spirulina is a true puree of a filamentous, spiral-shaped blue alga and exerts the useful properties as a source of many biochemicals. This study investigated the antidepressant-like effect of hydrolyzed Spirulina by malted barley on the forced swimming test in mice. After the forced swimming test, we examined the levels of several blood biochemical parameters in mice. The effect of the hydrolyzed Spirulina by malted barley-treated group for 2 weeks on the immobility time was significantly reduced in comparison with the control group (p Spirulina by malted barley-treated group compared with the control group (p Spirulina by malted barley might be a candidate among antidepressant agents.

  9. Environmental impacts of barley cultivation under current and future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Saxe, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of spring barley cultivation in Denmark under current (year 2010) and future (year 2050) climatic conditions. Therefore, a Life Cycle Assessment was carried out for the production of 1 kg of spring barley in Denmark, at farm gate....... Both under 2010 and 2050 climatic conditions, four subscenarios were modelled, based on a combination of two soil types and two climates. Included in the assessment were seed production, soil preparation, fertilization, pesticide application, and harvest. When processes in the life cycle resulted in co...... categories, except human and freshwater eco-toxicity, are higher when the barley is produced under climatic circumstances representative for 2050. Comparison of the 2010 and 2050 climatic scenarios indicates that a predicted decrease in barley yields under the 2050 climatic conditions is the main driver...

  10. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  11. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4–5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4–2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1–5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01–0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) ...

  12. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids...

  13. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...... was obtained.The absence of cluster sharing allows the recognition in the barley plant of 8 mutually exclusive mutant sectors which never had a mutant cluster in common. The anatomical analysis proves that the barley embryo contains at least 6 separate shoot meristems or prospective shoot meristems, which...... will constitute mutually exclusive mutant sectors in the plant. The combined genetical and anatomical analysis reveals that in large seeds there are always 9 meristems leading to 9 mutually exclusive mutant sectors. Up to 7 additional meristems leading to mutually exclusive mutant sectors can be present...

  14. Exploring options for managing strategies for pea-barley intercropping using a modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Launay, M.; Brisson, N.; Satger, S.;

    2009-01-01

    A modeling study was carried out into pea–barley intercropping in northern Europe. The two objectives were (a) to compare pea–barley intercropping to sole cropping in terms of grain and nitrogen yield amounts and stability, and (b) to explore options for managing pea–barley intercropping systems...... Kingdom and France), and using 10 years of weather records. A preliminary stage evaluated the STICS intercrop model's ability to predict grain and nitrogen yields of the two species, using a 2-year dataset from trials conducted at the three sites. The work was carried out in two phases, (a) the model......) intercropping made better use of environmental resources as regards yield amount and stability than sole cropping, with a noticeable site effect, (2) pea growth in intercrops was strongly linked to soil moisture, and barley yield was determined by nitrogen uptake and light interception due to its height...

  15. THE MALT EXTRACT, RELATIVE EXTRACT AND DIASTATIC POWER AS A VARIETAL CHARACTERISTIC OF MALTING BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Dráb

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality of barley depends on genetic and agro-ekological factors. Chemical composition of malting barley and its technological parameters are very important for malting and brewing, due to this fact the quality of barley must be strictly evaluated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of variety, locality and year of production on the 5 technological parameters of malt: extract, relative extract at 45 °C, Kolbach index, diastatic power and friability. It was found out that the barley variety significantly influenced the following parameters: extract, relative extract and diastatic power. The growing locality weakly influenced qualitative parameters i.e. Kolbach index and relative extract at 45°C. The study confirmed the most significant impact of the year on the Kolbach index and friability.

  16. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, H K; Mosenthin, R; Rosenfelder, Pia

    2016-01-01

    To determine chemical composition, physical characteristics and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and amino acids (AA) in eight current hulled barley genotypes, an experiment with growing pigs has been conducted. These genotypes included Yool, Campanile, Lomerit, Travira, Anisette...

  17. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  18. Identification of thioredoxin target disulfides in proteins released from barley aleurone layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, J.; Yang, Fen

    2010-01-01

    Thioredoxins are ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including DNA synthesis, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. In cereal seeds thioredoxins are proposed to facilitate the germination process by reducing disulfide bonds in storage proteins and other...... targets in the starchy endosperm. Here we have applied a thiol-specific labeling approach to identify specific disulfide targets of barley thioredoxin in proteins released from barley aleurone layers incubated in buffer containing gibberellic acid....

  19. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Background In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. Results In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong doubl...

  20. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS...... classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes....... Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results...