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Sample records for barley introgression lines

  1. Detection of nitrogen deficiency QTL in juvenile wild barley introgression lines growing in a hydroponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann Astrid; Maurer Andreas; Pillen Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In this report we studied the genetic regulation of juvenile development of wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) under two contrasting hydroponic nitrogen (N) supplies. Ten shoot and root related traits were examined among 42 S42ILs and the recurrent parent ‘Scarlett’. The traits included tiller number, leaf number, plant height, leaf and root length, leaf to root length ratio, shoots and root dry weight, shoot to root weight ratio, and chlorophyll content. Our aims we...

  2. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Honsdorf

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r=0.98 between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars.

  3. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines

    KAUST Repository

    Honsdorf, Nora

    2014-05-13

    Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old) wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r = 0.98) between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars. © 2014 Honsdorf et al.

  4. Detection of nitrogen deficiency QTL in juvenile wild barley introgression lines growing in a hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Astrid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this report we studied the genetic regulation of juvenile development of wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs under two contrasting hydroponic nitrogen (N supplies. Ten shoot and root related traits were examined among 42 S42ILs and the recurrent parent ‘Scarlett’. The traits included tiller number, leaf number, plant height, leaf and root length, leaf to root length ratio, shoots and root dry weight, shoot to root weight ratio, and chlorophyll content. Our aims were (1 to test the suitability of a hydroponic system for early detection of favourable S42ILs, (2 to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the examined traits, (3 to identify favourable wild barley alleles that improve trait performances in regard to N treatment and, finally, (4 to validate the identified QTL through comparison with previously reported QTL originating from the same parental cross. Results The phenotypic data were analysed in a mixed model association study to detect QTL. The post-hoc Dunnett test identified 28 S42ILs that revealed significant (P Hsp effects for tiller number, leaf number, leaf length, plant height and leaf to root ratio on the long arm of chromosome 7H. These QTL correspond to QTL for ears per plant and plant height that were previously detected in field trials conducted with the same S42ILs or with the S42 population. Conclusion Our results suggest that the QTL we identified under hydroponic N cultivation partly correspond to QTL detected in field experiments. Due to this finding, screening of plants in early developmental stages grown in a hydroponic system may be a fast and cost effective method for early QTL detection and marker-assisted allelic selection, potentially speeding up elite barley breeding programs.

  5. Barley mutant line with high protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding was initiated in 1969 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, aiming at developing high yielding barley lines having also high protein or lysine content. The final results were reported at the FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting at Nicosia in 1980. At that time some lines were superior to their mother line in grain yield, protein content or protein yield. However, high yield is essential for feed-barley as there is no premium price for protein content or quality. In the experiments reported earlier, the mean grain yield of mutant M-Att-73-337-1 was 3202 kg/ha, 9.9% higher than the mother variety 'Attiki'. The Kjeldahl protein content was 12.7% for the mutant line and 13.4% for the mother variety. The mutant line was further evaluated in field trials (11 m2 plots and 6 replications) during 1983-88, along with other promising material from the breeding programme. The mutant line outyielded its mother variety by 9.7% in grain yield and 16% in straw yield. These increases are apparently the result of increased 1000-grain weight and a higher number of culms per m2. Protein content of the mutant line was slightly lower, but its protein yield was 5.5% higher. The yield of the mutant line over 16 trials during 1983-88 was also 4% higher than the yield of the main commercially grown variety Athenais

  6. Addition of Manas barley chromosome arms to the hexaploid wheat genome

    OpenAIRE

    Türkösi, Edina; Cseh, András; Darkó, Éva; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultivated barley belongs to the tertiary genepool of hexaploid wheat. Genes of interest can be transferred from barley into wheat through wide hybridization. The application of wheat-barley introgression lines could provide an excellent tool for the transfer of earliness, favourable amino acid composition, biotic stress resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, or good tillering ability into wheat. Results A set of 10 wheat-barley ditelosomic addition lines (2HS, 2HL, 3HS, 3HL, 4HS, 4...

  7. Analysis of Introgressed Segments in Near-isogenic Lines for F1 Pollen Sterility in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-tao; ZENG Rui-zhen; ZHANG Ze-min; Akshay TALUKDAR; ZHANG Gui-quan

    2003-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-eight microsatellite markers showing polymorphism among parents were used to survey the introgressed segments in the 50 near-isogenic lines of F1 pollen sterility. Two hundred and sixty introgressed segments were detected in 50 near-isogenic lines, each carrying 5.2 introgressed segments on an average. Among the 260 segments, one hundred carrying F1 pollen sterility loci concentrated on the region of F1 pollen sterility genes, and the remaining one hundred and sixty without F1 pollen sterility loci distributed randomly over 12 chromosomes. Both the average number and length of the introgressed segments decreased along with the increase of backcross generations. The number of introgressed segments was less than four and the length was less than 20 cM in the near-isogenic lines after backcrossing for four or more times.

  8. Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Somatic Hybrid Introgression Lines Between Wheat and Tall Wheatgrass

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuwei; Li, Fei; Kong, Lina; Sun, Yang; Qin, Lumin; Chen, Suiyun; Cui, Haifeng; Huang, Yinghua; Xia, Guangmin

    2015-01-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how these variations occurred was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays and DNA profiling techniques to characterize six genetically stable somatic introgression lines. Karyotyping results show the six lines similar to their wheat parent, but GISH analysis identified the pr...

  9. Development of Oryza rufipogon and O. sativa Introgression Lines and Assessment for Yield-related Quantitative Trait Loci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lubin Tan; Fengxia Liu; Wei Xue; Guijuan Wang; Sheng Ye; Zuofeng Zhu; Yongcai Fu; Xiangkun Wang; Chuanqing Sun

    2007-01-01

    Introgression lines population was effectively used in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs), identifying favorable genes, discovering hidden genetic variation, evaluating the action or interaction of QTLs in multiple conditions and providing the favorable experimental materials for plant breeding and genetic research. In this study, an advanced backcross and consecutive selfing strategy was used to develop introgression lines (ILs), which derived from an accession of Oryza rufipogon Griff, collected from Yuanjiang County, Yunnan Province of China, as the donor, and an elite indica cultivar Teqing (O. sativa L.), as the recipient. Introgression segments from O. rufipogon were screened using 179 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers in the genome of each IL. Introgressed segments carried by the introgression lines population contained 120 ILs covering the whole O. rufipogon genome. The mean number of homozygous O. rufipogon segments per introgression line was about 3.88. The average length of introgressed segments was approximate 25.5 cM, and about 20.8% of these segments had sizes less than 10 cM. The genome of each IL harbored the chromosomal fragments of O. rufipogon ranging from 0.54% to 23.7%, with an overall average of 5.79%. At each locus, the ratio of substitution of O. rufipogon alleles had a range of 1.67-9.33, with an average of 5.50. A wide range of alterations in morphological and yield-related traits were also found in the introgression lines population. Using single-point analysis, a total of 37 putative QTLs for yield and yield components were detected at two sites with 7%-20% explaining the phenotypic variance. Nineteen QTLs (51.4%) were detected at both sites, and the alleles from O. rufipogon at fifteen loci (40.5%) improved the yield and yield components in the Teqing background. These O. rufipogon-O. sativa introgression lines will serve as genetic materials for identifying and using favorable genes from common wild rice.

  10. Genetic and epigenetic changes in somatic hybrid introgression lines between wheat and tall wheatgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuwei; Li, Fei; Kong, Lina; Sun, Yang; Qin, Lumin; Chen, Suiyun; Cui, Haifeng; Huang, Yinghua; Xia, Guangmin

    2015-04-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how these variations occurred was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays and DNA profiling techniques to characterize six genetically stable somatic introgression lines. Karyotyping results show the six lines similar to their wheat parent, but GISH analysis identified the presence of a number of short introgressed tall wheatgrass chromatin segments. DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences, including sequences deletions, altered regulation of gene expression, changed patterns of cytosine methylation, and the reactivation of retrotransposons. Phenotypic variations appear to result from altered repetitive sequences combined with the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and/or retrotransposon transposition. The extent of genetic and epigenetic variation due to the maintenance of parent wheat cells in tissue culture was assessed and shown to be considerably lower than had been induced in the introgression lines. Asymmetric somatic hybridization provides appropriate material to explore the nature of the genetic and epigenetic variations induced by genomic shock. PMID:25670745

  11. Development, identification and utilization of introgression lines using Chinese endemic and synthetic wheat as donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqing Gu; Bo Wei; Renchun Fan; Xu Jia; Xianping Wang; Xiangqi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome segmental introgression lines (ILs) are an effective way to utilize germplasm resources in crops. To improve agronomic traits of wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum) Shi 4185, four sets of ILs were developed. The donors were Chinese endemic subspecies accessions Yunnan wheat (T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense) YN3, Tibetan semi-wild wheat (T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum) XZ-ZM19450, and Xinjiang wheat (T. aestivum ssp. petropavlovskyi) XJ5, and synthetic wheat HC-XM1620 derived from a cross between T. durum acc. D67.2/P66.270 with Aegilops tauschii acc. 218. Totals of 356, 366, 445 and 457 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were polymorphic between Shi 4185 and YN3, XZ-ZM19450, XJ5 and HC-XM1620, respectively. In total, 991 ILs were identified, including 300 derived from YN3, covering 95%of the genome of Shi 4185, 218 from XZ-ZM19450 (79%), 279 from XJ5 (97%), and 194 from HC-ZX1620 (84%). The sizes and locations of each introgression were determined from a consensus SSR linkage map. Using the ILs, 11 putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for plant height (PH), spike length (SL) and grain number per spike (GNS). Comparative analyses of 24 elite ILs with the parents revealed that the four donor parents could be important resources to improve wheat SL and GNS. Our work offers a case for utilizing endemic landraces for QTL mapping and improvement of wheat cultivars using introgression lines.

  12. Identification of enzyme activity quantitative trait loci in a Solanum lycopersicum x Solanum pennellii introgression line population

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhauser, Marie-Caroline; Steinhauser, Dirk; Gibon, Yves; Bolger, Marie; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Usadel, Björn; Zamir, Dani; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Activities of 28 enzymes from central carbon metabolism were measured in pericarp tissue of ripe tomato fruits from field trials with an introgression line (IL) population generated by introgressing segments of the genome of the wild relative Solanum pennellii (LA0716) into the modern tomato cultivar Solanum lycopersicum M82. Enzyme activities were determined using a robotized platform in optimized conditions, where the activities largely reflect the level of the corresponding proteins. Two e...

  13. Development and characterization of Brassica juncea – fruticulosa introgression lines exhibiting resistance to mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atri Chhaya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustard aphid is a major pest of Brassica oilseeds. No source for aphid resistance is presently available in Brassica juncea . A wild crucifer, Brassica fruticulosa is known to be resistant to mustard aphid. An artificially synthesized amphiploid, AD-4 (B. fruticulosa × B. rapa var. brown sarson was developed for use as a bridge species to transfer fruticulosa resistance to B. juncea. Using the selfed backcross we could select a large number of lines with resistance to mustard aphid. This paper reports cytogenetic stability of introgression lines, molecular evidence for alien introgression and their reaction to mustard aphid infestation. Results Majority of introgression lines had expected euploid chromosome number(2n= 36, showed normal meiosis and high pollen grain fertility. Well-distributed and transferable simple-sequence repeats (SSR markers for all the 18 B. juncea chromosomes helped to characterize introgression events. Average proportions of recipient and donor genome in the substitution lines were 49.72 and 35.06%, respectively. Minimum alien parent genome presence (27.29% was observed in the introgression line, Ad3K-280 . Introgressed genotypes also varied for their resistance responses to mustard aphid infestations under artificial release conditions for two continuous seasons. Some of the test genotypes showed consistent resistant reaction. Conclusions B.juncea-fruticulosa introgression set may prove to be a very powerful breeding tool for aphid resistance related QTL/gene discovery and fine mapping of the desired genes/QTLs to facilitate marker assisted transfer of identified gene(s for mustard aphid resistance in the background of commercial mustard genotypes.

  14. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lulu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Qian, Wei; Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH), we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest. PMID:27597857

  15. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a novel dwarf wheat line with introgressed Thinopyrum ponticum chromatin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guiling Chen; Q I Zheng; Yinguang Bao; Shubing Liu; Honggang Wang; Xingfeng Li

    2012-03-01

    Novel dwarfing germplasms and dwarfing genes are valuable for the wheat breeding. A novel semi-dwarf line, 31505-1, with reduced height compared with its common wheat parent, was derived from a cross between common wheat and Thinopyrum ponticum. Cytological studies demonstrated that 31505-1 contained 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis showed that 31505-1 had no large Th. ponticum chromosome fragments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results revealed the absence of a pAs1 hybridization band on 2DL chromosome of 31505-1. Two SSR markers (Xwmc41 and Xcfd168) and two STS markers (Xmag4059 and Xmag3596), which were located on 2D chromosome, amplified unique bands of Th. Ponticum in 31505-1. These revealed presence of an introgressed Th. ponticum segment in 2DL chromosome of dwarf line 31505-1, although the alien segment could not be detected by GISH.

  16. Exploring New Alleles Involved in Tomato Fruit Quality in an Introgression Line Library of Solanum pimpinellifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes, Walter; López-Casado, Gloria; García-Martínez, Santiago; Alonso, Aranzazu; Rubio, Fernando; Ruiz, Juan J; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Granell, Antonio; Monforte, Antonio J

    2016-01-01

    We have studied a genomic library of introgression lines from the Solanum pimpinellifolium accession TO-937 into the genetic background of the "Moneymaker" cultivar in order to evaluate the accession's breeding potential. Overall, no deleterious phenotypes were observed, and the plants and fruits were phenotypically very similar to those of "Moneymaker," which confirms the feasibility of translating the current results into elite breeding programs. We identified chromosomal regions associated with traits that were both vegetative (plant vigor, trichome density) and fruit-related (morphology, organoleptic quality, color). A trichome-density locus was mapped on chromosome 10 that had not previously been associated with insect resistance, which indicates that the increment of trichomes by itself does not confer resistance. A large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified for fruit weight. Interestingly, fruit weight QTLs on chromosomes 1 and 10 showed a magnitude effect similar to that of QTLs previously defined as important in domestication and diversification. Low variability was observed for fruit-shape-related traits. We were, however, able to identify a QTL for shoulder height, although the effects were quite low, thus demonstrating the suitability of the current population for QTL detection. Regarding organoleptic traits, consistent QTLs were detected for soluble solid content (SSC). Interestingly, QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 9 increased SSC but did not affect fruit weight, making them quite promising for introduction in modern cultivars. Three ILs with introgressions on chromosomes 1, 2, and 10 increased the internal fruit color, making them candidates for increasing the color of modern cultivars. Comparing the QTL detection between this IL population and a recombinant inbred line population from the same cross, we found that QTL stability across generations depended on the trait, as it was very high for fruit weight but low for organoleptic

  17. Production of antihypertensive peptides by enzymatic zein hydrolysate from maize-zea mays ssp. mexicana introgression line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teosintes are essential gene reservoir for maize breeding improvement, among which Zea mays ssp. mexicana has many valuable traits deserved to be transferred into maize genetic background. In this study, one maize-teosinte introgression line SD00100 was selected from the population of Zea mays ssp. mexicana as wild parent. This introgression line manifested the outstanding agricultural traits similar to maize parent Ye 515 and alien genetic material was identified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). To produce bioactive peptides with potent angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, zein extracted from endosperm meal was then undergone enzymatic hydrolysis with thermolysin and the hydrolysate was then filtered through a 3 kDa cut-off membrane. ACE inhibitory activity of permeate from Ye 515 and SD00100 was evaluated by RP-HPLC. The IC50 values of the peptides obtained from maize parent and the introgression line were 96.9 micro g/ml and 22.9 micro g/ml, respectively, with significant difference between them. Our results showed that an outstanding inbred maize line was obtained for production of antihypertensive peptides as well as for further development of functional food. (author)

  18. Mapping of fiber quality QTLs reveals useful variation and footprints of cotton domestication using introgression lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Wen; Zhu, Xie-Fei; Feng, Liu-Chun; Gao, Xiang; Yang, Biao; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Zhou, Bao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Fiber quality improvement is a driving force for further cotton domestication and breeding. Here, QTLs for fiber quality were mapped in 115 introgression lines (ILs) first developed from two intraspecific populations of cultivated and feral cotton landraces. A total of 60 QTLs were found, which explained 2.03-16.85% of the phenotypic variance found in fiber quality traits. A total of 36 markers were associated with five fiber traits, 33 of which were found to be associated with QTLs in multiple environments. In addition, nine pairs of common QTLs were identified; namely, one pair of QTLs for fiber elongation, three pairs for fiber length, three pairs for fiber strength and two pairs for micronaire (qMICs). All common QTLs had additive effects in the same direction in both IL populations. We also found five QTL clusters, allowing cotton breeders to focus their efforts on regions of QTLs with the highest percentages of phenotypic variance. Our results also reveal footprints of domestication; for example, fourteen QTLs with positive effects were found to have remained in modern cultivars during domestication, and two negative qMICs that had never been reported before were found, suggesting that the qMICs regions may be eliminated during artificial selection. PMID:27549323

  19. Genetic Dissection of Low Phosphorus Tolerance Related Traits Using Selected Introgression Lines in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Chao; PANG Yun-long; GAO Yong-ming; SHI Ying-yao; REN Jie; ZHAO Xiu-qin; DING Zai-song; ZHANG Jing; WANG Chao; ZHANGJun-wei; Charles Augustino JOSEPH; ZHANG Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To dissect the genetic basis of low phosphorus tolerance (LPT), 114 BC2F4 introgression lines (ILs) were developed from Shuhui 527 and Minghui 86 (recurrent parents), and Yetuozai (donor parent). The progenies were tested for 11 quantitative traits under three treatments including normal fertilization in normal soil (as control), normal fertilization in barren soil and low phosphorus stress in barren soil in Langfang, Hebei Province, China. Moreover, the ILs were investigated at the seedling stage using nutrient solution culture method in greenhouse in Beijing, China. A total of 49 main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying yield related traits were identified in Langfang, and their contributions to phenotypic variations ranged from 6.7% to 16.5%. Among them, 25 (51.0%) QTLs had favorable alleles from donor parent. A total of 48 main-effect QTLs were identified for LPT-related traits in Beijing, and their contributions to phenotypic variations ranged from 7.7% to 16.6%. Among them, 21 (43.8%) QTLs had favorable alleles from donor parent. About 79.6% of the QTLs can be detected repeatedly under two or more treatments, especially QTLs associated with spikelet number per panicle, spikelet fertility and 1000-grain weight, displaying consistent phenotypic effects. Among all the detected QTLs, eight QTLs were simultaneously identified under low phosphorus stress across two environments. These results can provide useful information for the genetic dissection of LPT in rice.

  20. Alien DNA introgression and wheat DNA rearrangements in a stable wheat line derived from the early generation of distant hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Lianquan; LIU; Dengcai; YAN; Zehong; ZHENG; Youlia

    2005-01-01

    Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.

  1. Genomic Rearrangement in Endogenous Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons of Rice Lines Introgressed by Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye SHEN; Xiu-Yun LIN; Xiao-Hui SHAN; Chun-Jing LIN; Fang-Pu HAN; Jin-Song PANG; Bao LIU

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic introgression of alien DNA may impose a genomic stress to the recipient genome.Herein, we report that apparent de novo genomic rearrangements in 10 of 13 selected endogenous, low-copy, and potentially active long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occurred in one or more of threerice lines studied that were introgressed by wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.). For nine retrotransposons inwhich both the reverse-transcriptase (RT) region and the LTR region were available, largely concordantrearrangements occurred at both regions in five elements and at the RT region only in the remaining fourelements. A marked proportion of the genomic changes was shared by two or all three introgression linesthat were derived from a single F1 plant. This indicates that most of the genomic changes occurred at earlydevelopmental stages of the F1 somatic cells, which then gave rise to germline cells, and, hence, ensuredinheritance of the changes to later generations. Possible causes and potential implications of the introgres-sion-induced genomic rearrangements in LTR retrotransposons are discussed in the context of plant ge-nome evolution and breeding.

  2. Development of upland rice introgression lines and identification of QTLs for basal root thickness under different water regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junzhou Li; Deping Wang; Yan Xie a; Hongliang Zhang; Guanglong Hu; Jinjie Li; Anyong Dai; Lifeng Liu; Zichao Li

    2011-01-01

    Introgression lines (ILs) are valuable materials for identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs),evaluating genetic interactions,and marker assisted breeding.A set of 430 ILs (BC5F3) containing segments from upland tropical japonica cultivar IRAT109 in a lowland temperate japonica cultivar Yuefu background were developed.One hundred and seventy-six polymorphic markers were used to identify introgressed segments.No segment from IRAT 109 was found in 160 lines.Introgressed segments of the other 270 lines covered 99.1% of the donor genome.The mean number of introgressed donor segments per individual was 3.3 with an average length of 14.4 cM.QTL analysis was conducted on basal root thickness (BRT) of the 270 ILs grown under irrigated lowland,upland and hydroponic conditions.A total of 22 QTLs affecting BRT were identified,six QTLs (qBRT3.1,qBRT3.2,qBRT6.1,qBRT8.2,qBRT9.1,and qBRT9.2) were consistently expressed under at least two environments (location and water regime),and qBRT7.2 was a new BRT QTL identified under lowland conditions.IL255 containing qBRT9.1 showed an increase of 10.09% and 7.07% BRT over cultivar Yuefu when grown under upland and lowland conditions,respectively.Using a population of 304 F2:3 lines derived from the cross IL255 × Yuefu,qBRT9.1 was validated and mapped to a 1.2 cM interval between RM24271 and RM566.The presence of qBRT9.1 explained 12% of BRT variation.The results provide upland rice ILs and BRT QTLs for analyzing the genetic basis of drought resistance,detecting favorable genes from upland rice,and rice drought resistance breeding.

  3. Generation of a multi-locus chicken introgression line to study the effects of genetic interactions on metabolic phenotypes in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronica eEk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most biological traits are regulated by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. By intercrossing divergent lines, it is possible to identify individual and interacting QTL involved in the genetic architecture of these traits. When the loci have been mapped, alternative strategies are needed for fine-mapping and studying the individual and interactive effects of the QTL in detail. We have previously identified, replicated and fine-mapped a four-locus QTL network that determines nearly half of the eight-fold difference in body-weight at 56 days of age between two divergently selected chicken lines. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first generation of a three-locus QTL introgression line in chickens to further study the effect of three of the interacting loci in this network on metabolic phenotypes. Recurrent marker assisted backcrossing was used to simultaneously transfer QTL alleles from the low-weight selected line into the high-weight selected line. Three generations of backcrossing and one generation of intercrossing resulted in an introgression line where all three introgressed QTL and several unlinked and linked control-loci were segregating at nearly expected allele frequencies. We show that marker-based sexing is an efficient method for sexing breeding populations and how intensive selection can be applied using artificial insemination to generate large half-sib families. Based on our empirical observations, we provide recommendations for future introgression-line breeding experiments. In the future, use of this confirmed introgression line will facilitate detailed studies of the effects of genetic interactions on complex traits.

  4. Generation of novel high quality HMW-GS genes in two introgression lines of Triticum aestivum/Agropyron elongatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Fanguo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS have been proved to be mostly correlated with the processing quality of common wheat (Triticum aestivum. But wheat cultivars have limited number of high quality HMW-GS. However, novel HMW-GS were found to be present in many wheat asymmetric somatic hybrid introgression lines of common wheat/Agropyron elongatum. Results To exploit how these new subunits were generated, we isolated HMW-GS genes from two sib hybrid lines (II-12 and 11-4-6 and compared them with those from their parents. The result shows that two genes of hybrid (H11-3-3 and H11-4-3 are directly introgressed from the donor parent Agropyron elongatum; one hybrid gene (H1Dx5 comes from point mutation of a parental wheat gene (1Dx2.1; two other hybrid genes (H1By8 and H1By16 are likely resulting from unequal crossover or slippage of a parental wheat gene (1By9.1; and the sixth novel hybrid gene (H1Dy12 may come from recombination between two parental genes. Conclusion Therefore, we demonstrate that novel HMW-GS genes can be rapidly created through asymmetric somatic hybridization in a manner similar with the evolution mechanism of these genes supposed before. We also described gene shuffling as a new mechanism of novel HMW-GS gene formation in hybrids. The results suggest that asymmetric somatic hybridization is an important approach for widening HMW-GS genebank of wheat quality improvement.

  5. Determination of root/shoot characters in barley mutant and improved lines at early stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried to determine root/shoot traits in barley mutants, their wild types and improved lines selected from the crosses among the wild types and mutants. Barley mutants were selected for above-ground characters and two groups of genetic material were grown in two different experiments in coca-peat in the greenhouse and in sand culture in outdoor conditions, respectively. The longest root length, root dry weight, shoot length, shoot dry weight, and root/shoot dry weight ratios were measured at an early stage in both experiments. There were statistically significant differences among genotypes for the longest root length and shoot length in barley mutant and improved lines. Orthogonal contrasts were used to compare subgroups for the characters showing significant F values. A mutant, M-Q-54, selected from Quantum for tallness, high biomass, and ABA insensitivity and early heading mutants from Kaya and improved lines derived from early heading mutants were superior for root length and shoot length compared to the other genotypes. Specifically early heading lines with longer roots should be useful for direct and indirect use in breeding programs aiming at improving drought tolerance. (author)

  6. Characterization of QTL for unique agronomic traits of new-plant-type rice varieties using introgression lines of IR64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analiza G. Tagle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the yield potential of an elite indica rice cultivar, an introgression (BC3-derived line of IR64, YTH288, was developed using a new-plant-type cultivar, IR66215-44-2-3, as a donor parent. YTH288 has agronomically valuable characteristics such as large panicles, few unproductive tillers, and large leaves inherited from NPT. To identify the genetic basis of these traits, we used 167 F2 plants derived from a cross between IR64 and YTH288 to conduct QTL analysis for five agronomic traits: days to heading (DTH, culm length (CL, flag leaf length (FLL, flag leaf width (FLW, and filled spikelet number per panicle (FSN. Six putative QTL were detected: four on chromosome 4 (for CL, FLL, FLW, and FSN and two on chromosome 2 (for DTH and FLL. All QTL with the IR66215-44-2-3 allele, except that for FLL on chromosome 2, had positive effects on each trait. To confirm the effects of these putative QTL, we developed NILs with the IR64 genetic background by marker-assisted selection. We observed significant differences in several agronomic traits between IR64 and NILs that carried these QTL on chromosomes 2 and 4. Additionally, four IR64-NILs carrying chromosomal segments derived from different NPT varieties on the long arm of chromosome 4 exhibited similar pleiotropic effects for unique agronomic traits. These NILs can be used as research materials for studying each trait and as breeding materials for yield improvement of indica rice cultivars. Abbreviations NPT, new plant type; QTL, quantitative trait loci (locus; GF, grain fertility; DTH, days to heading; CL, culm length; PL, panicle length; LL, leaf length; FLL, flag leaf length; LW, leaf width; FLW, flag leaf width; FSN, filled spikelet number per panicle; TSN, total spikelet number per panicle; PN, panicle number per plant; IRRI, International Rice Research Institute; NIL, near-isogenic line; IL, introgression line; SSR, simple sequence repeat; PCR, polymerase chain reaction

  7. Identification for Heat Tolerance in Backcross Recombinant Lines and Screening of Backcross Introgression Lines with Heat Tolerance at Milky Stage in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Jiang-lin; ZHANG Hong-yu; SHAO Xue-lian; ZHONG Ping-an; HUANG Ying-jin

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at breeding new rice germplasms with similar genome but significantly differed in heat tolerance during the grain filling stage.A total of 791 BC1F8 backcross recombinant lines,derived from the cross of Xieqingzao B / N22∥Xieqingzao B,were used as materials.Each rice line was separated evenly into two groups,and the heat tolerance of all rice lines were evaluated at natural high temperature in fields.The rice lines with heat tolerant index higher than 90% or lower than 40% were selected to compare the phenotypic characters and further identify heat tolerance at the early milky stage in a phytotron.Rice lines with similar phenotypic characters but significantly differed in heat tolerance at the milky stage were analyzed by 887 simple sequence repeat markers that were evenly distributed on the 12 rice chromosomes.In the result,12 (6 pairs) rice lines with similar phenotypic characters but significantly differed in heat tolerance at the milky stage were obtained.Molecular marker analysis indicated that the genomic polymorphism between 703T and 704S was the smallest in the 6 pairs of rice lines,with only 16 polymorphic sites,including 22 different alleles.The application of these two backcross introgression rice lines for future study on the mechanisms of heat tolerance in rice at the milky stage will be theoretically beneficial in reducing the interference caused by genetic differences from experimental materials.

  8. Introgression of FHB Resistance from Alien Species-Derived Lines into Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have produced and collected over 300 wheat lines derived from the crosses of wheat with wild species related to wheat. Evaluation of these lines for reaction to Fusarium head blight (FHB) identified 74 lines with resistance comparable to “Sumai 3” in two greenhouse seasons. Most of the resistan...

  9. The construction of a Solanum habrochaites LYC4 introgression line population and the identification of QTLs for resistance to Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Finkers, H.J.; Heusden, van, S.; Meijer-Dekens, R.G.; Kan, van, H.J.; Maris, P.C.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). Partial resistance to this fungus has been identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as Solanum habrochaites LYC4. In a previous F-2 mapping study, three QTLs conferring resistance to B. cinerea (Rbcq1, Rbcq2 and Rbcq4a) were identified. As it was probable that this study had not identified all QTLs involved in resistance we developed an introgression line (IL) population (n = 30), each containing a ...

  10. Characterization of health-related compounds in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) lines derived from introgression of allied species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Giuseppe; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Fibiani, Marta; D'Alessandro, Antonietta; Francese, Gianluca; Toppino, Laura; Cavallanti, Federica; Acciarri, Nazzareno; Lo Scalzo, Roberto

    2010-07-14

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the levels of either the nutraceutical and health-promoting compounds or the antioxidant properties of innovative eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes tolerant and/or resistant to fungi, derived from conventional and non-conventional breeding methodologies (i.e., sexual interspecific hybridization, interspecific protoplast electrofusion, androgenesis, and backcross cycles) in comparison with their allied and cultivated parents. Chemical measures of soluble refractometric residue (SRR), glycoalkaloids (solamargine and solasonine), chlorogenic acid (CA), delphinidin 3-rutinoside (D3R), total phenols (TP), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity, antiradical activity on superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical were carried out in raw fruit and peel of 57 eggplant advanced introgression lines (ILs), of three eggplant recurrent genotypes and of three allied species during 2005 and 2006. The majority of the ILs, obtained after several backcross cycles, showed positive characteristics with respect to the allied parents such as good levels of SRR, CA, D3R, TP, PPO activity, the scavenging activity against superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical and, in particular, significantly (p

  11. Using SSR Markers For Assessment Genetic Diversity And Detection Drought Escape Candidate Genes In Barley Lines (Hordeum Vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gougerdchi Vahideh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of genetic diversity using molecular markers is one of the primary and important steps in breeding programs. In this study, genetic diversity of 52 barley lines evaluated using 68 SSR primer pairs and 47 primer pairs produced clear and polymorphic banding pattern. In general, 153 polymorphic alleles detected. The number of observed polymorphic alleles varied from 2 to 9, with an average of 3.26 alleles per locus. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC ranged from 0.07 to 0.81, with an average of 0.45. In this research, SSR markers differentiated the studied lines efficiently. Using cluster analysis, studied barley lines divided into two groups. Genetic diversity was relatively corresponding with geographical origins, because the lines related to a country somewhat diverged from each other. Two-rowed Iranian and Chinese barleys classified in one subgroup. Also, most six-rowed barleys classified in one subgroup. Association mapping analysis was used to identify candidate genes for drought escape in barley lines and 16 informative markers were identified after which confirmation in other tests could be suitable for marker assisted breeding drought escape.

  12. Generation of novel high quality HMW-GS genes in two introgression lines of Triticum aestivum/Agropyron elongatum

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Fanguo; Zhao Shuangyi; Liu Shuwei; Xia Guangmin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) have been proved to be mostly correlated with the processing quality of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). But wheat cultivars have limited number of high quality HMW-GS. However, novel HMW-GS were found to be present in many wheat asymmetric somatic hybrid introgression lines of common wheat/Agropyron elongatum. Results To exploit how these new subunits were generated, we isolated HMW-GS genes from two sib hybrid lines (II-1...

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fang

    Full Text Available Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes, and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes, etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

  14. Proteomic comparison reveals the contribution of chloroplast to salt tolerance of a wheat introgression line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Lv, Hongjun; Zhao, Mingming; Li, Yongchao; Qi, Yueying; Peng, Zhenying; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mengcheng

    2016-01-01

    We previously bred a salt tolerant wheat cv. SR3 with bread wheat cv. JN177 as the parent via asymmetric somatic hybridization, and found that the tolerance is partially attributed to the superior photosynthesis capacity. Here, we compared the proteomes of two cultivars to unravel the basis of superior photosynthesis capacity. In the maps of two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), there were 26 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), including 18 cultivar-based and 8 stress-responsive ones. 21 of 26 DEPs were identified and classified into four categories, including photosynthesis, photosynthesis system stability, linolenic acid metabolism, and protein synthesis in chloroplast. The chloroplast localization of some DEPs confirmed that the identified DEPs function in the chloroplast. The overexpression of a DEP enhanced salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In line with these data, it is concluded that the contribution of chloroplast to high salinity tolerance of wheat cv. SR3 appears to include higher photosynthesis efficiency by promoting system protection and ROS clearance, stronger production of phytohormone JA by enhancing metabolism activity, and modulating the in chloroplast synthesis of proteins. PMID:27562633

  15. Identification of Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines of Gossypium barbadense Introgressed in G. hirsutum and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping for Fiber Quality and Yield Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Huanchen; Gong, Wankui; Tan, Yunna; Liu, Aiying; Song, Weiwu; Li, Junwen; Deng, Zhuying; Kong, Linglei; Gong, Juwu; Shang, Haihong; Chen, Tingting; Ge, Qun; Shi, Yuzhen; Yuan, Youlu

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome segment substitution lines MBI9804, MBI9855, MBI9752, and MBI9134, which were obtained by advanced backcrossing and continuously inbreeding from an interspecific cross between CCRI36, a cultivar of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) as the recurrent parent, and Hai1, a cultivar of sea island cotton (G. barbadense) as the donor parent, were used to construct a multiple parent population of (MBI9804×MBI9855)×(MBI9752×MBI9134). The segregating generations of double-crossed F1 and F2 and F2:3 were used to map the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fiber quality and yield-related traits. The recovery rate of the recurrent parent CCRI36 in the four parental lines was from 94.3%-96.9%. Each of the parental lines harbored 12-20 introgressed segments from Hai1across 21 chromosomes. The number of introgressed segments ranged from 1 to 27 for the individuals in the three generations, mostly from 9 to 18, which represented a genetic length of between 126 cM and 246 cM. A total of 24 QTLs controlling fiber quality and 11 QTLs controlling yield traits were detected using the three segregating generations. These QTLs were distributed across 11 chromosomes and could collectively explain 1.78%-20.27% of the observed phenotypic variations. Sixteen QTLs were consistently detected in two or more generations, four of them were for fiber yield traits and 12 were for fiber quality traits. One introgressed segment could significantly reduce both lint percentage and fiber micronaire. This study provides useful information for gene cloning and marker-assisted breeding for excellent fiber quality. PMID:27603312

  16. The construction of a Solanum habrochaites LYC4 introgression line population and the identification of QTLs for resistance to Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). Partial resistance to this fungus has been identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as Solanum habrochaites LYC4. In a previous F2 mapping study, three QTLs conferring resistance to B. cinerea (Rbcq1, Rbcq2 and Rbcq4a) were identified. As it was probable that this study had not identified all QTLs involved in resistance we developed an introgression line (IL) population (n = 30), each containing a S...

  17. Dissection of genetic overlap of salt tolerance QTLs at the seedling and tillering stages using backcross introgression lines in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG JinPing; XU JianLong; LI ZhiKang; SUN Yong; WANG Yun; YANG Jing; LI Fang; ZHOU YongLi; ZHU LingHua; Reys JESSICA; Fotokian MOHAMMADHOSEIN

    2008-01-01

    QTLs for salt-tolerance (ST) related traits at the seedling and tillering stages were identified using 99 BC2F8 introgression lines (IL) derived from a cross between IR64 (indica) as a recurrent parent and Bi-nam (japonica) from Iran as the donor parent. Thirteen QTLs affecting survival days of seedlings (SDS), score of salt toxicity of leaves (SST), shoot K+ concentration (SKC) and shoot Na+ concentration (SNC) at the seedling stage and 22 QTLs underlying fresh weight of shoots (FW), tiller number per plant (TN) and plant height (PH) at the tillering stage were identified. Most QTLs detected at the tillering stage showed obvious differential expression to salt stress and were classified into three types based on their differential behaviors. Type Ⅰ included 11 QTLs which were expressed only under the non-stress condition. Type Ⅱ included five QTLs expressed in the control and the salt stress conditions, and three of them (QPh5, QPh8 and QTn9) had similar quantity and the same direction of gene effect, suggesting their expression was less influenced by salt stress. Type Ⅲ included six QTLs which were detectable only under salt stress, suggesting that these QTLs were apparently induced by the stress. Thirteen QTLs affecting trait difference or trait stability of Ils between the stress and non-stress conditions were identified and the Binam alleles at all loci except QPh4, QTn2 and QFw2a decreased trait difference. The three QTLs less influenced by the stress and 13 QTLs affecting trait stability were considered as ST QTLs which contributed to ST. Comparing the distribution of QTLs detected at the seedling and tillering stages, most (69%) of them were genetically independent. Only four were the same or adjacent regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 8 and 11 harboring ST QTLs detected at the two stages, suggesting that partial genetic overlap of ST across the two stages occurs. It is likely, therefore, to develop ST rice variety for both stages by pyramiding of ST QTLs

  18. Dissection of genetic overlap of salt tolerance QTLs at the seedling and tillering stages using backcross introgression lines in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    QTLs for salt-tolerance(ST)related traits at the seedling and tillering stages were identified using 99 BC2F8 introgression lines(IL)derived from a cross between IR64(indica)as a recurrent parent and Binam(japonica)from Iran as the donor parent.Thirteen QTLs affecting survival days of seedlings(SDS), score of salt toxicity of leaves(SST),shoot K + concentration(SKC)and shoot Na + concentration(SNC) at the seedling stage and 22 QTLs underlying fresh weight of shoots(FW),tiller number per plant(TN) and plant height(PH)at the tillering stage were identified.Most QTLs detected at the tillering stage showed obvious differential expression to salt stress and were classified into three types based on their differential behaviors.Type I included 11 QTLs which were expressed only under the non-stress condition.Type II included five QTLs expressed in the control and the salt stress conditions,and three of them(QPh5,QPh8 and QTn9)had similar quantity and the same direction of gene effect,suggesting their expression was less influenced by salt stress.Type III included six QTLs which were detectable only under salt stress,suggesting that these QTLs were apparently induced by the stress.Thirteen QTLs affecting trait difference or trait stability of ILs between the stress and non-stress conditions were identified and the Binam alleles at all loci except QPh4,QTn2 and QFw2a decreased trait difference.The three QTLs less influenced by the stress and 13 QTLs affecting trait stability were considered as ST QTLs which contributed to ST.Comparing the distribution of QTLs detected at the seedling and tillering stages,most(69%)of them were genetically independent.Only four were the same or adjacent regions on chromosomes 1,2,8 and 11 harboring ST QTLs detected at the two stages,suggesting that partial genetic overlap of ST across the two stages occurs.It is likely,therefore,to develop ST rice variety for both stages by pyramiding of ST QTLs of different stages or selection against the

  19. Identification of a Rice stripe necrosis virus resistance locus and yield component QTLs using Oryza sativa × O. glaberrima introgression lines

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    Prado Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing new population types based on interspecific introgressions has been suggested by several authors to facilitate the discovery of novel allelic sources for traits of agronomic importance. Chromosome segment substitution lines from interspecific crosses represent a powerful and useful genetic resource for QTL detection and breeding programs. Results We built a set of 64 chromosome segment substitution lines carrying contiguous chromosomal segments of African rice Oryza glaberrima MG12 (acc. IRGC103544 in the genetic background of Oryza sativa ssp. tropical japonica (cv. Caiapó. Well-distributed simple-sequence repeats markers were used to characterize the introgression events. Average size of the substituted chromosomal segments in the substitution lines was about 10 cM and covered the whole donor genome, except for small regions on chromosome 2 and 4. Proportions of recurrent and donor genome in the substitution lines were 87.59% and 7.64%, respectively. The remaining 4.78% corresponded to heterozygotes and missing data. Strong segregation distortion was found on chromosomes 3 and 6, indicating the presence of interspecific sterility genes. To illustrate the advantages and the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL detection using substitution lines, a QTL detection was performed for scored traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for several traits measured in the population. Fourteen QTLs for plant height, tiller number per plant, panicle length, sterility percentage, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were located on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9. Furthermore, a highly significant QTL controlling resistance to the Rice stripe necrosis virus was located between SSR markers RM202-RM26406 (44.5-44.8 cM on chromosome 11. Conclusions Development and phenotyping of CSSL libraries with entire genome coverage represents a useful strategy for QTL discovery. Mapping of the RSNV locus represents the first identification

  20. Molecular characterization of LMW-GS genes from a somatic hybrid introgression line Ⅱ-12 between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron elongatum in relation to quick evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to exploit the evolution and find novel low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit(LMW-GS)for improvement of common wheat quality,thirteen variants from a somatic hybrid introgression line Ⅱ-12 between Triticum aestivum cv.Jinan 177(JN177)and Agropyron elongatum were characterized via genomic PCR.Four clones were pseudogenes because they contained an internal stop codon.The remaining nine variants contained intact open reading frames(ORFs).Sequence alignment indicates that the proteins deduced from the nine ORFs have similar primary structure with LMW-GS cloned from its parents previously.However,they have some unique modifications in the structures.For example,EU292737 contains not only an extra Cys residue in the C-terminal domain but also a long repetitive domain.Both EU159511 and EU292738 start their first Cys residue in the N-terminal repetitive domain,but not in the N-conserved domain traditionally.These structural alterations may have positive contributions to wheat flour quality.The results of phylogeny showed that most LMW-GS variances from Ⅱ-12 were homologous to those from parent JN 177 and other wheat lines.The reason for quick evolution of LMW-GS in Ⅱ-12 was discussed.

  1. Marker-free transgenic (MFT) near-isogenic introgression lines (NIILs) of 'golden' indica rice (cv. IR64) with accumulation of provitamin A in the endosperm tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisakh, Niranjan; Rehana, Sayda; Rai, Mayank; Oliva, Norman; Tan, Jing; Mackill, David J; Khush, Gurdev S; Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan K

    2006-07-01

    We have developed near-isogenic introgression lines (NIILs) of an elite indica rice cultivar (IR64) with the genes for beta-carotene biosynthesis from dihaploid (DH) derivatives of golden japonica rice (cv. T309). A careful analysis of the DH lines indicated the integration of the genes of interest [phytoene synthase (psy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI)] and the selectable marker gene (hygromycin phosphotransferase, hph) in two unlinked loci. During subsequent crossing, progenies could be obtained carrying only the locus with psy and crtI, which was segregated independently from the locus containing the hph gene during meiotic segregation. The NIILs (BC(2)F(2)) showed maximum similarity with the recurrent parent cultivar IR64. Further, progenies of two NIILs were devoid of any fragments beyond the left or right border, including the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) antibiotic resistance gene of the transformation vector. Spectrophotometric readings showed the accumulation of up to 1.06 microg total carotenoids, including beta-carotene, in 1 g of the endosperm. The accumulation of beta-carotene was also evident from the clearly visible yellow colour of the polished seeds. PMID:17177811

  2. Differential gene expression in nearly isogenic lines with QTL for partial resistance to Puccinia hordei in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Thierry C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The barley-Puccinia hordei (barley leaf rust pathosystem is a model for investigating partial disease resistance in crop plants and genetic mapping of phenotypic resistance has identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL for partial resistance. Reciprocal QTL-specific near-isogenic lines (QTL-NILs have been developed that combine two QTL, Rphq2 and Rphq3, the largest effects detected in a recombinant-inbred-line (RIL population derived from a cross between the super-susceptible line L94 and partially-resistant line Vada. The molecular mechanism underpinning partial resistance in these QTL-NILs is unknown. Results An Agilent custom microarray consisting of 15,000 probes derived from barley consensus EST sequences was used to investigate genome-wide and QTL-specific differential expression of genes 18 hours post-inoculation (hpi with Puccinia hordei. A total of 1,410 genes were identified as being significantly differentially expressed across the genome, of which 55 were accounted for by the genetic differences defined by QTL-NILs at Rphq2 and Rphq3. These genes were predominantly located at the QTL regions and are, therefore, positional candidates. One gene, encoding the transcriptional repressor Ethylene-Responsive Element Binding Factor 4 (HvERF4 was located outside the QTL at 71 cM on chromosome 1H, within a previously detected eQTL hotspot for defence response. The results indicate that Rphq2 or Rphq3 contains a trans-eQTL that modulates expression of HvERF4. We speculate that HvERF4 functions as an intermediate that conveys the response signal from a gene(s contained within Rphq2 or Rphq3 to a host of down-stream defense responsive genes. Our results also reveal that barley lines with extreme or intermediate partial resistance phenotypes exhibit a profound similarity in their spectrum of Ph-responsive genes and that hormone-related signalling pathways are actively involved in response to Puccinia hordei. Conclusions

  3. Molecular Marker Development and Linkage Analysis in Three Low Phytic Acid Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mutant Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytate is the primary form of phosphorus found in mature cereal grain. This form of phosphorus is not available to monogastric animals due to a lack of the enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several barley low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have been identified that contain substantial decreases...

  4. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm. PMID:27245423

  5. Genetics of the induced and natural phenotypic variation in cultivated barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bowman series of nearly isogenic lines (NILs) developed by Prof. J. Franckowiak contain almost all of the classically described morphological mutations in barley. The unique feature of the collection is that the original mutated donor plants have all been backcrossed into a single recurrent parent, the cultivar Bowman (generally to > BC4F3). We applied a 1536-plex SNP genotyping platform developed as part of a transatlantic collaboration (BBSRC/RERAD funded AGOUEB and USDA funded Barley CAP projects) to characterise the introgressed segments containing the mutated alleles in about 1000 of the Bowman NILs. In parallel, to facilitate rapid forward genetics-based gene isolation, we generated high density barley genetic linkage map by integrating recently developed eQTL mapping data in the barley SNP-based genetic linkage map. The SNP map was constructed by genotyping three different bi-parental DH populations with 4600 SNP markers. The integrated barley map was then anchored to the rice genome sequence. We have also developed about 200 F2 populations representing 40 different genes and alleles from the phenotypic classes such as awn development, grain size, spikelet density and the lateral spikelet development. We will present an update of the strategy and our initial results. (author)

  6. Brachypodium distachyon line Bd3-1 resistance is elicited by the barley stripe mosaic virus triple gene block 1 movement protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.Y.; Yan, L.J.; Gorter, F.A.; Kim, B.Y.T.; Cui, Y.; Hu, Y.; Yuan, C.; Grindheim, J.; Ganesan, U.; Liu, Z.Y.; Han, C.G.; Yu, J.L.; Li, D.W.; Jackson, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus North Dakota 18 (ND18), Beijing (BJ), Xinjiang (Xi), Type (TY) and CV21 strains are unable to infect the Brachypodium distachyon Bd3-1 inbred line, which harbours a resistance gene designated Bsr1, but the Norwich (NW) strain is virulent on Bd3-1. Analysis of ND18 and NW g

  7. Analysis of T-DNA/Host-Plant DNA Junction Sequences in Single-Copy Transgenic Barley Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne G. Bartlett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing across the junction between an integrated transfer DNA (T-DNA and a host plant genome provides two important pieces of information. The junctions themselves provide information regarding the proportion of T-DNA which has integrated into the host plant genome, whilst the transgene flanking sequences can be used to study the local genetic environment of the integrated transgene. In addition, this information is important in the safety assessment of GM crops and essential for GM traceability. In this study, a detailed analysis was carried out on the right-border T-DNA junction sequences of single-copy independent transgenic barley lines. T-DNA truncations at the right-border were found to be relatively common and affected 33.3% of the lines. In addition, 14.3% of lines had rearranged construct sequence after the right border break-point. An in depth analysis of the host-plant flanking sequences revealed that a significant proportion of the T-DNAs integrated into or close to known repetitive elements. However, this integration into repetitive DNA did not have a negative effect on transgene expression.

  8. Transferability and polymorphism of barley EST-SSR markers used for phylogenetic analysis in Hordeum chilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorado Gabriel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hordeum chilense, a native South American diploid wild barley, is a potential source of useful genes for cereal breeding. The use of this wild species to increase genetic variation in cereals will be greatly facilitated by marker-assisted selection. Different economically feasible approaches have been undertaken for this wild species with limited direct agricultural use in a search for suitable and cost-effective markers. The availability of Expressed Sequence Tags (EST derived microsatellites or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers, commonly called as EST-SSRs, for barley (Hordeum vulgare represents a promising source to increase the number of genetic markers available for the H. chilense genome. Results All of the 82 barley EST-derived SSR primer pairs tested for transferability to H. chilense amplified products of correct size from this species. Of these 82 barley EST-SSRs, 21 (26% showed polymorphism among H. chilense lines. Identified polymorphic markers were used to test the transferability and polymorphism in other Poaceae family species with the aim of establishing H. chilense phylogenetic relationships. Triticum aestivum-H. chilense addition lines allowed us to determine the chromosomal localizations of EST-SSR markers and confirm conservation of the linkage group. Conclusion From the present study a set of 21 polymorphic EST-SSR markers have been identified to be useful for diversity analysis of H. chilense, related wild barleys like H. murinum, and for wheat marker-assisted introgression breeding. Across-genera transferability of the barley EST-SSR markers has allowed phylogenetic inference within the Triticeae complex.

  9. Influence of laser light on leaf area and parameters of photosynthetic activity in DH lines of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Garczyński S.; Rybiński W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial material for performed studies was constituted by hull and hull-less DH lines of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The kernels were irradiated with helium-neon laser (He-Ne) in red light spectrum and at the wavelength of 632 nm. Plants obtained in greenhouse conditions were analyzed for blade area and their photosynthetic activity in flag and penultimate leaves (photosynthetic and transpiration rate, photosynthetic gas efficiency). The results indicated a biostimulation effect o...

  10. Breeding for Drought Tolerance in Barley Following Hybridization between a High Yielding Mutant Line and Local Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out in 2001/2002, 2002/2003, 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 winter seasons at the experimental station of Nuclear Research Center, Inshas. The objective was to select barley plants tolerant to drought. The first growing season was devoted to perform manual crossing between a high yielding mutant line namely mutant 7 (Mut. 7) and the two local varieties Giza 124and Giza 126 in order to combine in one genotype the high yield potential of Mut. 7 and the drought tolerance present in Giza 124 or Giza 126. Obtained hybrid seeds were sown in the second and third growing seasons under non-stressed conditions to raise F1 and F2 plant populations, respectively. All F2 plants were screened to identify and select individuals with high yielding ability. In the fourth growing season, seeds of each F2 selected plant were sown as a single plant progeny under non-stress (control), stress 1 and stress 2 conditions. At harvest, data on yield and its attributes were recorded for all the F3 progenies derived from Mut. 7 x Giza 124 or Mut .7 x Giza 126. Results indicated that drought caused marked reductions in grain yield and most studies traits, especially in str.2 environment. Phenotypic coefficient correlation between yield and its components indicated that harvest index and biological yield were strongly correlated with grain yield / plant.

  11. A comparative study of some barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) lines and mutants under local environmental condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yield, 1000 grain weight and other agronomical traits were studied under the rain fed condition. Nineteen pure lines (doubled haploid) and mutants and two controls were grown in the field. Net blotch resistance in 150 (Dh), mutants, and their parental genotype were used to determine their resistance level against three strains of net bloch. Differences were found among the genotypes. Five lines (Dh) and mutants resistant to net blotch with good agronomic performance were selected for further investigation. (author)

  12. Development of salt tolerant high yielding barley lines via crossing between a mutant induced by EMS and a local cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In winter season of 2002/2003, a high yielding barley mutant line and a local variety were hybridized to obtain in one genotype the salt tolerance of the local variety and the high yield potential of the induced mutant. The obtained hybrid grains were planted in 2003/2004 growing season under normal field irrigation conditions to raise F1 population, which was grown in 2004/2005 season to advance F2 generation under saline conditions at El-Fayoum experimental agriculture station belonging to the Nuclear Research Center. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between grain yield and its effective traits were estimated for F2 plant population. Results revealed that the characters most strongly correlated with grain yield were found to be number of spikes and biological yield/plant. Therefore, these couple traits were used as a selection criterion to screen F2 plant population in order to detect high yielding variants under salinity conditions. As a result, a considerable number of outstanding individual plants were selected from the large F2 population and their grains were planted in 2005/2006 winter season to raise F3 progeny rows. Superior plants from superior rows were selected and carried forward to the next winter season of 2006/2007 as F4 single plant progenies along with the two parental genotypes and a suitable check. Obtained results indicated that mean values of yield and most of its components for the tested progeny lines were significantly (P= 0.1) surpassed averages of the original parents and the check as well. (author)

  13. Stability of transgene expression, field performance and recombination breeding of transformed barley lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, H.; Jensen, L.G.; Wong, O.T.; Kohl, E.; Ullrich, S.E.; Cochran, J.; Kannangara, C.G.; Wettstein, D. von

    2001-01-01

    transgenic lines yielded approximately 6 t.ha(-1) and Golden Promise 7.7 t.ha(-1). Cross-breeding was carried out to transfer the transgene into a more suitable genetic background. Crosses of the semi-dwarf ari-e mutant Golden Promise gave rise to the four morphological phenotypes nutans, high erect, erect...

  14. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... recent progress in barley germination research and discuss the factors to be considered when designing 'omics' experiments and interpreting the results. These factors include the structural and functional relationships between the various tissues of the barley caryopsis and the timing of the events...

  15. Screening for spontaneous virulent mutants of erysiphe-graminis-f-sp-hordei on barley hordeum-vulgare lines with resistance genes ml-a-1 ml-a-6 ml-a-12 and ml-g

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, J.; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1985-01-01

    Seedlings of 4 barley lines with powdery mildew resistance genes Ml-al, Ml-a6, Mla12 or Ml-g were inoculated with powdery mildew culture CR3 which is avirulent to the 4 host lines. Inoculation density was 1.2 infectious conidia/mm2, and in total 50 million conidia were screened for the occurrence...

  16. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Secale Africanum Introgression Wheat Lines for Resistance to Stripe Rust%抗条锈小麦-非洲黑麦渐渗系的分子细胞学鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾举庆; 郭红媛; 李倩冉; 董娟; 杨武德; 杨足君

    2012-01-01

    Secale africanum shows short plant height, cross pollination and excellent resistance to wheat diseases. It is thus essential to study its potential value for wheat improvement. In this study, molecular cytogenetic methods were used to evaluate Secale africanum introgression wheat lines and materials for developing stripe rust resistance substitution and translocation lines were found, which offered good genetic stocks for further utilizing the S. africaum chro-matin in the wheat breeding by chromosome manipulation.%非洲黑麦(Secale a fricanum Stapf)具有矮杆、异花授粉、抗多种小麦病害等优异性状,在小麦可持续性抗病遗传育种中具有重要作用.利用分子细胞生物学的方法对小麦与非洲黑麦育成的渐渗系材料进行鉴定,发现了抗条锈病的新的代换系和易位系材料,为进一步在小麦染色体工程育种中开展非洲黑麦基因资源的利用提供很好的遗传材料.

  17. Second harmonic generation microscopy investigation of the crystalline ultrastructure of three barley starch lines affected by hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Cicek, Richard; Tokarz, Danielle; Steup, Martin; Tetlow, Ian J.; Emes, Michael J.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas; Barzda, Virginijus

    2015-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is employed to study changes in crystalline organization due to altered gene expression and hydration in barley starch granules. SHG intensity and susceptibility ratio values (R’SHG) are obtained using reduced Stokes-Mueller polarimetric microscopy. The maximum R’SHG values occur at moderate moisture indicating the narrowest orientation distribution of nonlinear dipoles from the cylindrical axis of glucan helices. The maximum SHG i...

  18. 中国大麦育成品种(系)的遗传多样性%Genetic Diversity Among Barley Varieties (Lines) Bred in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 强小林; 黄静; 张笑; 谭爱女; 赵纯钦; 陈静

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the genetic variation level of Chinese barley varieties (lines) bred over recent years, the genetic diversity among 73 barley accessions from different growth regions were analyzed by 25 SSR markers on different locations of 7 linkage groups. 2-6 alleles of each SSR locus were detected with an average of 3.92 alleles/locus. The variation of polymorphism information content (PIC) of each SSR marker ranged between 0.252 and 0.780 with an average of 0.569, showing a relative high detection ability of genetic polymorphism by SSR markers. The genetic similarity coefficient (GS) of malting barley varieties (lines) from different regions varied from 0.661 to 0.767 with an average of 0.714, and GS of hulless barley varieties (lines) in Tibet plateau varied from 0.533 to 0.925 with an average of 0.699. 42 accessions of malting barley could be classified into 2 major groups at the level of GS 0.671, and 31 accessions of hulless barley could be classified into 5 groups at the level of GS 0.618. Majority of clusters/subclusters were found to contain accessions from the same geographic origins, showing a certain level of relationship between clustering and variety origin. In this study, SSR markers with high polymorphism were used to assess the genetic diversity of Chinese barley cultivars (lines). A poor genetic diversity still existed among these varieties (lines) and their genetic basis was rather narrow, which provided important reference for the selection and utilization of parental genotype in barley breeding project. Fig 3, Tab 2, Ref 22%为了解我国大麦育成品种(系)的遗传基础现状,利用位于大麦7个连锁群上不同位置的25对SSR引物对来自国内不同区域的大麦推广和新育成品种(系)的遗传多样性及其亲缘关系进行分析.结果表明,25对SSR引物在73个大麦品种间均有多态性扩增,每一对引物检测到的等位基因数目在2-6之间,平均为3.92个SSR引物的多态

  19. Second harmonic generation microscopy investigation of the crystalline ultrastructure of three barley starch lines affected by hydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cicek, Richard; Tokarz, Danielle; Steup, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    maximum R’SHG values occur at moderate moisture indicating the narrowest orientation distribution of nonlinear dipoles from the cylindrical axis of glucan helices. The maximum SHG intensity occurs at the highest moisture and amylopectin content. These results support the hypothesis that SHG is caused by......Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is employed to study changes in crystalline organization due to altered gene expression and hydration in barley starch granules. SHG intensity and susceptibility ratio values (R’SHG) are obtained using reduced Stokes-Mueller polarimetric microscopy. The...

  20. Evaluation and Bulked Segregant Analysis of Major Yield QTL qtl12.1 Introgressed into Indigenous Elite Line for Low Water Availability under Water Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Manikanda BOOPATHI; Gat SWAPNASHRI; P.KAVITHA; S.SATHISH; R.NITHYA; Wickneswari RATNAM; Arvind KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Near isogenic lines carrying large-effect QTL (qtl12.1),which has a consistent influence on grain yield under upland drought stress conditions in a wide range of environments,were evaluated under water stress in the fields.The line which gave higher yield under drought was crossed with a local elite line,PMK3,and forwarded to F2:3 generation.Significant variation was found among the F2:3 lines for agronomic traits under water stress in the fields.Low to high broad sense heritability (H) for investigated traits was also found.Water stress indicators such as leaf rolling and leaf drying were negatively correlated with plant height,biomass and grain yield under stress.Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was performed with the markers in the vicinity of qtl12.1,and RM27933 was found to be segregated perfectly well in individual components of drought resistant and drought susceptible bulks which were bulked based on yield under water stress among F2:3 lines.Hence,this simple and breeder friendly marker,RM27933,may be useful as a potentially valuable candidate marker for the transfer of the QTL qtl12.1 in the regional breeding program.Bioinformatic analysis of the DNA sequence of the qtl12.1 region was also done to identify and analyze positional candidate genes associated with this QTL and to ascertain the putative molecular basis of qtl12.1.

  1. Influence of laser light on leaf area and parameters of photosynthetic activity in DH lines of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garczyński S.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The initial material for performed studies was constituted by hull and hull-less DH lines of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. The kernels were irradiated with helium-neon laser (He-Ne in red light spectrum and at the wavelength of 632 nm. Plants obtained in greenhouse conditions were analyzed for blade area and their photosynthetic activity in flag and penultimate leaves (photosynthetic and transpiration rate, photosynthetic gas efficiency. The results indicated a biostimulation effect of laser light, causing an increase of blade area of flag and penultimate leaves. This effect was higher for flag leaves, and exposure to 180 min of irradiation was more effective as compared to 60 min. The reaction observed depended on the kind of DH lines analyzed, and two of them – R63N/14 and R58N/91 increased their blade area more effectively than others. Simultaneously, photo- synthetic and transpiration rate decreased in dependence on time of irradiation and the kind of DH lines used. On the other hand, gas exchange efficiency defined as photosynthetic coefficient of water use (CO2 assimilation / H2O transpiration increased for all DH lines and laser light exposure as compared to control.

  2. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of alien introgressions with gene Fhb3 for resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance was identified in the alien species Leymus racemosus, and wheat-Leymus introgression lines with FHB resistance were reported previously. Detailed molecular cytogenetic analysis of alien introgressions T01, T09, and T14 and the mapping of Fhb3, a new gene for FHB...

  3. Use of an Induced Barley Mutant in Cross-Breeding Program for Developing New Lines Under Saline Water and Soil Conditions at Ras-Sudr Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These field experiments were carried out during six successive winter seasons at Ras-Sudr coastal experimental station belonging to the Nuclear Research Center. The objective was to obtain high yielding barley lines with enhanced tolerance to salinity stress. Thus, crossing between a high yielding mutant line and a local cultivar was performed with a view to combine in one genotype the salt tolerance of the local cultivar and the high productivity of the mutant. The hybrid grains were then sown to raise F1 cross population, which was grown to advance F2 population under saline water and soil conditions at Ras-Sudr location. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between yield and its components were estimated to determine the most important traits that associated with grain yield. On this basis, F2 populations were screened to identify and select high yielding variants. The selections were grown in F3 as plant - progeny rows. Superior plants from superior rows were picked out and grown as F4 single plant progenies. At maturity, all derived progeny lines were screened and the outstanding ones showing high mean productivity were selected and subjected to progeny testing in F5 generation for confirmation. (author)

  4. [Cytogenetic analysis of alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with unstable fertility and viability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaeva, E D; Pershina, L A; Bil'danova, L L

    2006-02-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis was performed with four alloplasmic recombinant (Hordeum vulgare)-Triticum aestivum lines differing in morphological traits, number of seeds per spike, and seed plumpness. None of the lines displayed introgression of the barley genetic material: the karyotypes included only common wheat chromosomes. Two lines, 79(B) and 79(D), were cytogenetically stable. Plants of lines 79(A) and 79(C) displayed a high frequency of unbalanced chromosome aberrations, including dicentric and polycentric chromosomes, terminal deletions varying in size, acentric fragments, and multiple unidentifiable translocations. Previous studies of the mitochondrial genome showed that the two cytologically unstable lines, which were also unstable in fertility and viability, are characterized by heteroplasmy at the mitochondrial 18S-5S locus (simultaneous presence of barley and wheat fragments). Stable lines 79(B) and 79(D) with normal fertility contained only wheat mitochondrial markers. It was assumed that the substantial instability of the nuclear genome in lines 79(C) and 79(A) was a result of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility and was associated with heteroplasmy, while elimination or considerable reduction of barley material in the mitochondrial genome stabilized the nuclear genome of lines 79(B) and 79(D). In turn, the instability of the nuclear genome was responsible for a decrease in viability and fertility of plants. PMID:16583704

  5. Selection strategies for the development of maize introgression populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Herzog

    Full Text Available Introgression libraries are valuable resources for QTL detection and breeding, but their development is costly and time-consuming. Selection strategies for the development of introgression populations with a limited number of individuals and high-throughput (HT marker assays are required. The objectives of our simulation study were to design and compare selection strategies for the development of maize introgression populations of 100 lines with population sizes of 360-720 individuals per generation for different DH and S2 crossing schemes. Pre-selection for complete donor chromosomes or donor chromosome halves reduced the number of simultaneous backcross programs. The investigated crossing and selection schemes differed considerably with respect to their suitability to create introgression populations with clearly separated, evenly distributed target donor chromosome segments. DH crossing schemes were superior to S2 crossing schemes, mainly due to complete homozygosity, which greatly reduced the total number of disjunct genome segments in the introgression populations. The S2 crossing schemes were more flexible with respect to selection and provided economic alternatives to DH crossing schemes. For the DH crossing schemes, increasing population sizes gradually over backcross generations was advantageous as it reduced the total number of required HT assays compared to constant population sizes. For the S2 crossing schemes, large population sizes in the final backcross generation facilitated selection for the target segments in the final backcross generation and reduced fixation of large donor chromosome segments. The suggested crossing and selection schemes can help to make the genetic diversity of exotic germplasm available for enhancing the genetic variation of narrow-based breeding populations of crops.

  6. Barley metallothioneins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjørring, Jan Kofod

    2012-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the prot...... storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations....... proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and...

  7. Development of Salt-Tolerant High-Yielding Barley Lines via Crossing Between a Mutant Induced by EMS and a Local Cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the winter season of 2002/2003, a high-yielding barley mutant line and a local variety were hybridized to obtain the salt tolerance of the local variety and the high yield potential of the induced mutant in one genotype. The obtained hybrid grains were planted in the 2003/2004 growing season under normal field irrigation conditions to raise F1 population, which was grown in the 2004/2005 season to advance F2 generation under saline conditions at El-Fayoum experimental agriculture station belonging to the Nuclear Research Center. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between grain yield and its effective traits were estimated for F2 plant population. Results revealed that the characters most strongly correlated with grain yield were found to be number of spikes and biological yield/plant. Therefore, these couple traits were used as a selection criterion to screen F2 plant population in order to detect high yielding variants under salinity conditions. As a result, a considerable number of outstanding individual plants was selected from the large F2 population and their grains were planted in 2005/2006 winter season to raise F3 progeny rows. Superior plants from superior rows were selected and carried forward to the next winter season of 2006/2007 as F4 single plant progenies along with the two parental genotypes and a suitable check. Obtained results indicated that mean values of yield and most of its components for the tested progeny lines were significantly (P=0.1) surpassed averages of the original parents and the check as well. (author)

  8. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  9. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  10. A genome-wide association study of malting quality across eight U.S. barley breeding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study leverages the breeding data of 1,862 breeding lines evaluated in 97 field trials for genome-wide association study of malting quality traits in barley. The breeding lines were six-row and two-row barley advanced breeding lines from eight barley breeding populations established at six pub...

  11. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  12. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to bread wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amandeep Kaur Riar; Satinder Kaur; H. S. Dhaliwal; Kuldeep Singh; Parveen Chhuneja

    2012-08-01

    Rusts are the most important biotic constraints limiting wheat productivity worldwide. Deployment of cultivars with broad spectrum rust resistance is the only environmentally viable option to combat these diseases. Identification and introgression of novel sources of resistance is a continuous process to combat the ever evolving pathogens. The germplasm of nonprogenitor Aegilops species with substantial amount of variability has been exploited to a limited extent. In the present investigation introgression, inheritance and molecular mapping of a leaf rust resistance gene of Ae. caudata (CC) acc. pau3556 in cultivated wheat were undertaken. An F2 population derived from the cross of Triticum aestivum cv.WL711 – Ae. caudata introgression line T291-2 with wheat cultivar PBW343 segregated for a single dominant leaf rust resistance gene at the seedling and adult plant stages. Progeny testing in F3 confirmed the introgression of a single gene for leaf rust resistance. Bulked segregant analysis using polymorphic D-genome-specific SSR markers and the cosegregation of the 5DS anchored markers (Xcfd18, Xcfd78, Xfd81 and Xcfd189) with the rust resistance in the F2 population mapped the leaf rust resistance gene (LrAC) on the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D. Genetic complementation and the linked molecular markers revealed that LrAC is a novel homoeoallele of an orthologue Lr57 already introgressed from the 5M chromosome of Ae. geniculata on 5DS of wheat.

  13. Modification of barley mutants differing in heading time by changing the genetic background. Line x tester analysis for yield and yield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutations play an important role in generating genetically different germplasm, since they provide unselected variability for breeders. They can change all the important characters of a crop plant in the desired direction. In the event of unwanted simultaneous changes, it has been well documented that modification is possible by changing the genetic background of the mutant. In this study, an attempt was made to modify barley mutants differing in heading date in changed genetic backgrounds, including the original parents of the mutants. 4 refs, 3 tabs

  14. Genomic contributions in livestock gene introgression programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hospital Frédéric

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The composition of the genome after introgression of a marker gene from a donor to a recipient breed was studied using analytical and simulation methods. Theoretical predictions of proportional genomic contributions, including donor linkage drag, from ancestors used at each generation of crossing after an introgression programme agreed closely with simulated results. The obligate drag, the donor genome surrounding the target locus that cannot be removed by subsequent selection, was also studied. It was shown that the number of backcross generations and the length of the chromosome affected proportional genomic contributions to the carrier chromosomes. Population structure had no significant effect on ancestral contributions and linkage drag but it did have an effect on the obligate drag whereby larger offspring groups resulted in smaller obligate drag. The implications for an introgression programme of the number of backcross generations, the population structure and the carrier chromosome length are discussed. The equations derived describing contributions to the genome from individuals from a given generation provide a framework to predict the genomic composition of a population after the introgression of a favourable donor allele. These ancestral contributions can be assigned a value and therefore allow the prediction of genetic lag.

  15. Introgression of chromosome 3Ns from Psathyrostachys huashanica into wheat specifying resistance to stripe rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Houyang; Wang, Yi; Fedak, George; Cao, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiqin; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Xu, Lili; Zheng, Youliang; Zhou, Yonghong

    2011-01-01

    Wheat stripe rust is a destructive disease in the cool and humid wheat-growing areas of the world. Finding diverse sources of stripe rust resistance is critical for increasing genetic diversity of resistance for wheat breeding programs. Stripe rust resistance was identified in the alien species Psathyrostachys huashanica, and a wheat-P. huashanica amphiploid line (PHW-SA) with stripe rust resistance was reported previously. In this study, a P. huashanica 3Ns monosomic addition line (PW11) with superior resistance to stripe rust was developed, which was derived from the cross between PHW-SA and wheat J-11. We evaluated the alien introgressions PW11-2, PW11-5 and PW11-8 which were derived from line PW11 for reaction to new Pst race CYR32, and used molecular and cytogenetic tools to characterize these lines. The introgressions were remarkably resistant to CYR32, suggesting that the resistance to stripe rust of the introgressions thus was controlled by gene(s) located on P. huashanica chromosome 3Ns. All derived lines were cytologically stable in term of meiotic chromosome behavior. Two 3Ns chromosomes of P. huashanica were detected in the disomic addition line PW11-2. Chromosomes 1B of substitution line PW11-5 had been replaced by a pair of P. huashanica 3Ns chromosomes. In PW11-8, a small terminal segment from P. huashanica chromosome arm 3NsS was translocated to the terminal region of wheat chromosomes 3BL. Thus, this translocated chromosome is designated T3BL-3NsS. These conclusions were further confirmed by SSR analyses. Two 3Ns-specific markers Xgwm181 and Xgwm161 will be useful to rapidly identify and trace the translocated fragments. These introgressions, which had significant characteristics of resistance to stripe rust, could be utilized as novel germplasms for wheat breeding. PMID:21760909

  16. Localisation of genes for resistance against ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤hordei¤ and ¤Puccinia graminis¤ in a cross between a barley cultivar and a wild barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ ssp. ¤spontaneum¤) line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, G.; Madsen, L.H.; Jaiser, H.; Stougaard, J.; Herz, M.; Mohler, V.; Jahoor, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley...

  17. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  18. Nuclear introgression without mitochondrial introgression in two turtle species exhibiting sex-specific trophic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sarah M; Muehlbauer, Laura K; Freedberg, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Despite the presence of reproductive barriers between species, interspecific gene introgression has been documented in a range of natural systems. Comparing patterns of genetic introgression in biparental versus matrilineal markers can potentially reveal sex-specific barriers to interspecific gene flow. Hybridization has been documented in the freshwater turtles Graptemys geographica and G. pseudogeographica, whose ranges are largely sympatric. Morphological differentiation between the species is restricted to females, with female G. geographica possessing large heads and jaws compared to the narrow heads of G. pseudogeographica females. If hybrid females are morphologically intermediate, they may be less successful at exploiting parental feeding niches, thereby limiting the introgression of maternally inherited, but not biparental, molecular markers. We paired sequence data with stable isotope analysis and examined sex-specific genetic introgression and trophic differentiation in sympatric populations of G. geographica and G. pseudogeographica. We observed introgression from G. pseudogeographica into G. geographica at three nuclear loci, but not at the mitochondrial locus. Analysis of ∂(15)N and ∂(13)C was consistent with species differences in trophic positioning in females, but not males. These results suggest that ecological divergence in females may reduce the opportunity for gene flow in this system. PMID:27252833

  19. Evaluation of the Resistance of Barley Varieties (Lines) toFusarium Head Blight and Responses of Isolated Microspores to Deoxynivalenol Stress%大麦赤霉病抗性种质的挖掘及其小孢子对DON毒素胁迫培养的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高润红; 郭桂梅; 何婷; 陈志伟; 徐红卫; 李颖波; 刘成洪; 陆瑞菊; 黄剑华

    2015-01-01

    TheFusariumhead blight (FHB) resistance of different barley varieties (lines) were investigated by single lforet injection. The results showed that there were signiifcant differences among barley varieties (lines) for FHB resistance, which could be categorized into four groups: highly resistant, moderately resistant, moder-ately susceptible and highly susceptible. Responses of barley isolated microspores cultured by deoxynivalenol (DON) treatment were further investigated. The relative callus yields from isolated microspores of barley vari-eties (lines) with different levels of FHB resistance were obviously different. When cultured in induction medi-um supplemented by 5 mg·L-1 DON, highly resistant line had the highest yield, followed by moderately resis-tant line, and highly susceptible had the lowest yield. These results suggested that the response of cultured microspores to DON stress had correlation with FHB resistance.%采用单花滴注法将禾谷镰刀菌分生孢子接种42份大麦品种(系),对其赤霉病菌的抗性进行评价,并利用DON毒素对抗性不同大麦的小孢子进行离体胁迫培养。结果表明,供试品种(系)对赤霉病抗性存在明显差异,可将其划分为高抗、中抗、中感和重感四种类型。在5 mg·L-1 DON毒素的胁迫下,抗性不同的大麦小孢子的愈伤组织相对产量为高抗>中抗>高感,表明供试品种小孢子水平的耐DON毒素能力与植株水平的抗赤霉病能力之间存在一定的联系。

  20. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...... irregular and showed no distinct melting enthalpy and very weak X-ray scattering. Hyperphosphorylated barley starch was achieved by endosperm specific overexpression of the potato glucan water dikinase1 (StGWD1). The content of phosphate esters in this starch was tenfold higher than the control lines...

  1. Advances in the use of mutation induction for genetic improvement of barley and native grains in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds of two varieties were treated with several doses of gamma rays and sodium azide. Seeds of a quinoa (Chenopodium) variety were treated with three doses of gamma rays. Yield trials were conducted also for doubled haploid lines of barley derived from earlier mutagenic treatments. Some promising new barley mutant lines were identified in the yield trials. The results from the Chenopodium trials facilitate the determination of the optimum dose of gamma rays for the PRQ-22 variety. (author)

  2. The project of mutation breeding in barley (first report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley is a second main crop with the production of 7 million tons per year and 3,5 million hectare cultivation area in Turkey. Because of wateer deficiency, cereals cultivated in Central Anatolian region. Barley is well adapted to dry farming system besides it is basic food for animal husbandry and main raw material for brewery industry. the main problems in barley production are drought disease epidemic and increasing salinity gradually. Main purposes of our project is to increase resistance and tolerence to this stress factors. In order to reach to our aim we have been using mutation breeding techniques and conventional breeding methods. This Project has been started with irradiation of barley seeds with different gamma ray doses. After that resistant and tolerant mutant has been selected most of these mutanys have resistance and tolerance to different disease and stress conditions. During the selection procedure, hydroponics and tissue culture techniques have been applied to improve the selection efficiency. Up to now, promising barley mutant lines 71 that have earliness (30 days) than parents and because of that reason that escape from drought period. Disease tests of our mutant lines have been conducted under controlled conditions and tolerant lines have been determined under the high the high epidemic conditions. Salt tolerance studies have been applied under hydroponics conditions and salt tolerant mutant have been determined under 180-200mMolNaCl concentration. All mutant lines are carried out to preliminary yield trials for their evaluation

  3. 2012 North Dakota Transgenic Barley FHB Nursery Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2012 North Dakota transgenic field trials consisted of 23 barley lines, tested in three misted and three non-misted replicates. Plots were sown on May 9, 2012 in hill plots with 10 seed per hill spaced at 30 cm, and all plots were inoculated using the grain spawn method at heading. Lines include...

  4. Comparative Studies on Callose Formation in Powdery Mildew Compatible and Incompatible Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Lilholt, Ulla

    1984-01-01

    Callose formation in barley mutants, lines and varieties with different genes for resistance to powdery mildew in seven different loci was compared. Only barley with resistance genes in the ml-o locus showed so early a callose formation passing off at such a high rate that it prevented fungal pen...

  5. Spectrum of Resistance Conferred by ml-o Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1977-01-01

    Ten barley mutants and five Ethiopian barley lines representing 11 independently arisen powdery mildew resistance genes in the ml-o locus were tested at the seedling stage to cultures of the powdery mildew fungus from Europe, Israel, USA. Canada, and Japan. They were resistant with infection type 0...

  6. 大麦雄性不育的遗传研究%Genetic Study on Barley Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 刘志萍; 包海柱

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research the genetic mechanism of barley male sterility, and provide the theoretical reference for breeding strong heterosis hybrid of barley. [Method] Fertility segregation phenomenon, morphological characteristics and main agronomic characters of male sterility character of 4 kinds of barley male sterility materials 2001-17, 2001-37, 2001-84 and 2001-116 and their derived lines were observed and researched. [Result] Barley male sterility existed genetic phenomenon of single dominant nuclear gene caused by environmental stimulation, its sterility controlled by MS, the sterile genotype was MSms. There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility which was controlled by cytoplasmic male sterile gene S and nuclear gene rr, and its genotype was S(rr), this male sterility belonged to CMS type sterility. Temperature had no effect on fertility. [Conclusion] There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility, this result played a positively promoting role in barley practical production.

  7. Introgression and pyramiding into common bean market class fabada of genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and potyvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, J. J.; Campa, Ana; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Giráldez, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Anthracnose and bean common mosaic (BCM) are considered major diseases in common bean crop causing severe yield losses worldwide. This work describes the introgression and pyramiding of genes conferring genetic resistance to BCM and anthracnose local races into line A25, a bean genotype classified as market class fabada. Resistant plants were selected using resistance tests or combining resistance tests and marker-assisted selection. Lines A252, A321, A493, Sanilac BC6-Are, and BRB130 were us...

  8. HVP10 (V-PPase, A CANDIDATE GENE FOR HvNax3 CONTROLLING SODIUM EXCLUSION AND SALINITY TOLERANCE IN BARLEY: MAPPING, SEQUENCE ANALYSIS AND GENE EXPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavrukov Yuri

    2012-08-01

    . The HVP10 gene may be related to differences in the promoter region. To clone the promoter of the HVP10, a barley BAC clone library (cv. Morex was screened using the HVP10-specific primers to identify positive clones. Sequencing of one positive BAC clone (0262-H05 has allowed primers to be designed approximately 2 – 2.5 kb upstream of the start codon of the HVP10, so that the promoter from both Barque-73 and CPI-71284 can be isolated. In combining these data, we expect to obtain a complete picture of the sequence and functional differences in the HVP10 gene between the two parents, lines from AB-QTL population and in the segregating progenies in the response to salt stress. This will help us to better understand the sequence structure and role of the favourable allele of the HVP10 gene originating from wild barley, H. spontaneum, with an introgression of the gene into commercial cultivated barley for improvement of salinity tolerance.

  9. Albinism in barley androgenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Makowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Androgenesis is highly useful for plant breeding, significantly reducing breeding cycle times, as well as in a wide range of biological research. However, for widespread use this process must be efficient. Despite several decades of research on the phenomenon of androgenesis, many processes involved are obscure and there is much to be understood about androgenesis. One of the problems inherent in androgenesis, and reducing its efficiency, is albinism. This article reviews albinism in barley a...

  10. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  11. Wild Barley,Hordeum spontaneum,a Genetic Resource for Crop Improvement in Cold and Arid Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eviatar; Nevo

    2008-01-01

    Food security in cold and arid regions in the world is threatened by stressful and unpredictable environments.The sus-tainable and economically viable solution for increasing stability of food productivity in cold and arid regions is genetic improvement of crops towards high resistance to abiotic stresses,mainly cold and drought resistance.It is often empha-sized that crop genetic improvement lies in exploiting the gene pools of the wild relatives of the crop plant.Wild barley,H.spontaneum,the progenitor of cultivated barley,is a selfing annual grass of predominantly Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian distribution that penetrates into desert environments where it maintains stable populations.Wild barley is also found in cold regions,such as in Tibet.The adaptation of wild barley to the arid region in Israel and Jordan,and the cold region in Tibet has accumulated rich genetic diversities for drought,salt,and cold resistances in wild barley,which is the genetic resource for barley and other crop improvement in arid and cold regions.These genetic diversities are revealed by allozymes,DNA-based molecular markers,and morphological and physiological traits of wild barley plants.Quantita-tive trait loci(QTLs) related to drought resistance were identified in wild barley via the QTL mapping approach.Drought resistance genes such as dehydrins,hsdr4,and eibi1 were identified in wild barley based on the candidate gene approach,gene differential expression approach,and molecular genetic approach,respectively.Genetics and genomics of wild bar-ley cold resistance have not been exploited yet,remaining a huge treasure for future crop improvement of cold resistance.Advanced backcross QTL analysis,the introgression libraries based on wild barley as donors,a QTL approach based on wide crosses using wild barley,and positional cloning of natural QTLs will play prevailing roles to help us understand the molecular control of cold and drought tolerance.Integration of QTL information into a

  12. Characterization of new allele influencing flowering time in bread wheat introgressed from Triticum militinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Jakobson, Irena; Reis, Diana; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk; Abrouk, Michael; Doležel, Jaroslav; Järve, Kadri; Valárik, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Flowering time variation was identified within a mapping population of doubled haploid lines developed from a cross between the introgressive line 8.1 and spring bread wheat cv. Tähti. The line 8.1 carried introgressions from tetraploid Triticum militinae in the cv. Tähti genetic background on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 4A, 5A, 7A, 1B and 5B. The most significant QTL for the flowering time variation was identified within the introgressed region on chromosome 5A and its largest effect was associated with the VRN-A1 locus, accounting for up to 70% of phenotypic variance. The allele of T. militinae origin was designated as VRN-A1f-like. The effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele was verified in two other mapping populations. QTL analysis identified that in cv. Tähti and cv. Mooni genetic background, VRN-A1f-like allele incurred a delay of 1.9-18.6 days in flowering time, depending on growing conditions. Sequence comparison of the VRN-A1f-like and VRN-A1a alleles from the parental lines of the mapping populations revealed major mutations in the promoter region as well as in the first intron, including insertion of a MITE element and a large deletion. The sequence variation allowed construction of specific diagnostic PCR markers for VRN-A1f-like allele determination. Identification and quantification of the effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele offers a useful tool for wheat breeding and for studying fine-scale regulation of flowering pathways in wheat. PMID:26899284

  13. A molecular cytogenetic analysis of introgression in Alstroemeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kamstra, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a molecular cytogenetic investigation of the process of introgression in Alstroemeria . The aim of this study was to transfer chromosomes or genes from one Alstroemeria species into another. For this, two distantly related species, A. aurea and A. inodora , were hybridized and the resulting hybrids were further backcrossed with the species A. inodora . To monitor the process of introgression accurately it was necessary to identify the individual chromosome...

  14. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  15. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly...

  16. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

  17. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  18. Improvement of quinoa and barley through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main cropping problems in the Bolivian highlands are the long growing period of barley, high degree of environmental influence on the performance of quinoa, and low soil moisture at sowing time, leading to low germination rate and poor stands, and frost or chilling damages. The program aimed to establish protocols for induction of mutations with X rays and chemical mutagens (NaN3, MNH, EMS) in quinoa, barley, native forage species and forest plants and to obtain mutant lines, especially in barley and quinoa; and to establish callus regeneration in quinoa and micropropagation of kenua (Polilepis). The project is still in its study stages, hence further evaluations are needed before firm conclusions are drawn. (author)

  19. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise' and...... 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high...... crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri .times. H. brevisubulatum) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 27-30) and (H. jubatum .times. H. lechleri) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 20-22). The first combination...

  20. Molecular and ecological signs of mitochondrial adaptation: consequences for introgression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratyński, Z; Melo-Ferreira, J; Alves, P C; Berto, S; Koskela, E; Pentikäinen, O T; Tarroso, P; Ylilauri, M; Mappes, T

    2014-10-01

    The evolution of the mitochondrial genome and its potential adaptive impact still generates vital debates. Even if mitochondria have a crucial functional role, as they are the main cellular energy suppliers, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression is common in nature, introducing variation in populations upon which selection may act. Here we evaluated whether the evolution of mtDNA in a rodent species affected by mtDNA introgression is explained by neutral expectations alone. Variation in one mitochondrial and six nuclear markers in Myodes glareolus voles was examined, including populations that show mtDNA introgression from its close relative, Myodes rutilus. In addition, we modelled protein structures of the mtDNA marker (cytochrome b) and estimated the environmental envelopes of mitotypes. We found that massive mtDNA introgression occurred without any trace of introgression in the analysed nuclear genes. The results show that the native glareolus mtDNA evolved under past positive selection, suggesting that mtDNA in this system has selective relevance. The environmental models indicate that the rutilus mitotype inhabits colder and drier habitats than the glareolus one that can result from local adaptation or from the geographic context of introgression. Finally, homology models of the cytochrome b protein revealed a substitution in rutilus mtDNA in the vicinity of the catalytic fraction, suggesting that differences between mitotypes may result in functional changes. These results suggest that the evolution of mtDNA in Myodes may have functional, ecological and adaptive significance. This work opens perspective onto future experimental tests of the role of natural selection in mtDNA introgression in this system. PMID:24690754

  1. Characterization and mapping of cryptic alien introgression from Aegilops geniculata with new leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr57 and Yr40 in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are important foliar diseases of wheat worldwide. Leaf rust and stripe rust resistant introgression lines were developed by induced homoeologous chromosome pairing between wheat chromosome 5D and 5Mg of Aegilops geniculata (UgMg). Characterization of rust resistant BC2F5 a...

  2. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B; Stölen, O

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  3. Powerful methods for detecting introgressed regions from population genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Benjamin K; Pease, James B; Besansky, Nora J; Hahn, Matthew W

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the types and functions of genes that are able to cross species boundaries-and those that are not-is an important step in understanding the forces maintaining species as largely independent lineages across the remainder of the genome. With large next-generation sequencing data sets we are now able to ask whether introgression has occurred across the genome, and multiple methods have been proposed to detect the signature of such events. Here, we introduce a new summary statistic that can be used to test for introgression, RNDmin , that makes use of the minimum pairwise sequence distance between two population samples relative to divergence to an outgroup. We find that our method offers a modest increase in power over other, related tests, but that all such tests have high power to detect introgressed loci when migration is recent and strong. RNDmin is robust to variation in the mutation rate, and remains reliable even when estimates of the divergence time between sister species are inaccurate. We apply RNDmin to population genomic data from the African mosquitoes Anopheles quadriannulatus and A. arabiensis, identifying three novel candidate regions for introgression. Interestingly, one of the introgressed loci is on the X chromosome, but outside of an inversion separating these two species. Our results suggest that significant, but rare, sharing of alleles is occurring between species that diverged more than 1 million years ago, and that application of these methods to additional systems are likely to reveal similar results. PMID:26945783

  4. SOMACLONAL VARIABILITY AND BARLEY BREEDING ON RESISTANCE TO ALUMINUM

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Shirokikh; S.Yu. Ogorodnikova; O.N. Shupletsova; I.N. Shchennikova

    2011-01-01

    In barley callus culture on acid selective media with aluminum the authors selected the resistant lines, from which the regenerated plants were obtained. During a growing on acid sod-podzol soil the seed progeny of regenerated lines was compared with initial varieties on biochemical parameters, on determinants of productivity and yield. It was revealed, that hereditable in regenerated progeny the determinants of somaclonal variability can be used for creation of high productive and resistant ...

  5. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana;

    2016-01-01

    C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi...... family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C...

  6. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.; Bothmer, R. von

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...... explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  7. Cereal bioengineering: amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were engineered by transgenic methods. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch branching enzymes (SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI) by a chimeric hairpin...... demonstrates for the first time a way for production of pure amylose in plants with limited yield loss. In a different barley line endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0 and T1) of...... the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom where phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation by endogenous enzymes. Together this work shows two new strategies for in planta starch bioengineering of cereals...

  8. Introgression of mitochondrial DNA among Myodes voles: consequences for energetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratyński Zbyszek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introgression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is among the most frequently described cases of reticulate evolution. The tendency of mtDNA to cross interspecific barriers is somewhat counter-intuitive considering the key function of enzymes that it encodes in the oxidative-phosphorylation process, which could give rise to hybrid dysfunction. How mtDNA reticulation affects the evolution of metabolic functions is, however, uncertain. Here we investigated how morpho-physiological traits vary in natural populations of a common rodent (the bank vole, Myodes glareolus and whether this variation could be associated with mtDNA introgression. First, we confirmed that M. glareolus harbour mtDNA introgressed from M. rutilus by analyzing mtDNA (cytochrome b, 954 bp and nuclear DNA (four markers; 2333 bp in total sequence variation and reconstructing loci phylogenies among six natural populations in Finland. We then studied geographic variation in body size and basal metabolic rate (BMR among the populations of M. glareolus and tested its relationship with mtDNA type. Results Myodes glareolus and its arctic neighbour, M. rutilus, are reciprocally monophyletic at the analyzed nuclear DNA loci. In contrast, the two northernmost populations of M. glareolus have a fixed mitotype that is shared with M. rutilus, likely due to introgressive hybridization. The analyses of phenotypic traits revealed that the body mass and whole-body, but not mass corrected, BMR are significantly reduced in M. glareolus females from northern Finland that also have the introgressed mitotype. Restricting the analysis to the single population where the mitotypes coexist, the association of mtDNA type with whole-body BMR remained but those with mass corrected BMR and body mass did not. Mitochondrial sequence variation in the introgressed haplotypes is compatible with demographic growth of the populations, but may also be a result of positive selection. Conclusion Our

  9. Comparative Transmission Genetics of Introgressed Chromatin in Gossypium Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAGHMARE Vijay N; RONG Jun-kang; ROGERS Carl J; BOWERS John E; PATERSON Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    @@ Wild relatives and un-adapted germplasm of crop species harbors several adaptive traits.Introgression of genes for economic and adaptive traits brings in novel genetic variation into the gene pools of many crops including cotton.We compared patterns of introgression into polyploid Gossypium hirsuture from its sister G.tomentosum,and from G.barbadense representing a different clade tracing to the same polyploidization.Advanced-generation populations,resulting from recurrent backcrossing to G.hirsutum,show a paucity of G.tomentosum alleles and severe deficiencies of homozygotes.

  10. Rapid and targeted introgression of genes into popular wheat cultivars using marker-assisted background selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpinder S Randhawa

    Full Text Available A marker-assisted background selection (MABS-based gene introgression approach in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was optimized, where 97% or more of a recurrent parent genome (RPG can be recovered in just two backcross (BC generations. A four-step MABS method was developed based on 'Plabsim' computer simulations and wheat genome structure information. During empirical optimization of this method, double recombinants around the target gene were selected in a step-wise fashion during the two BC cycles followed by selection for recurrent parent genotype on non-carrier chromosomes. The average spacing between carrier chromosome markers was <4 cM. For non-carrier chromosome markers that flanked each of the 48 wheat gene-rich regions, this distance was approximately 12 cM. Employed to introgress seedling stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance gene Yr15 into the spring wheat cultivar 'Zak', marker analysis of 2,187 backcross-derived progeny resulted in the recovery of a BC(2F(2ratio3 plant with 97% of the recurrent parent genome. In contrast, only 82% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in phenotypically selected BC(4F(7 plants developed without MABS. Field evaluation results from 17 locations indicated that the MABS-derived line was either equal or superior to the recurrent parent for the tested agronomic characteristics. Based on these results, MABS is recommended as a strategy for rapidly introgressing a targeted gene into a wheat genotype in just two backcross generations while recovering 97% or more of the recurrent parent genotype.

  11. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  12. Genetically engineered stem rust resistance in barley using the Rpg1 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Henriette; Rostoks, Nils; Brueggeman, Robert; Steffenson, Brian; von Wettstein, Diter; Kleinhofs, Andris

    2002-01-01

    The stem-rust-susceptible barley cv. Golden Promise was transformed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of immature zygotic embryos with the Rpg1 genomic clone of cv. Morex containing a 520-bp 5′ promoter region, 4,919-bp gene region, and 547-bp 3′ nontranscribed sequence. Representatives of 42 transgenic barley lines obtained were characterized for their seedling infection response to pathotype Pgt-MCC of the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Golden Promise was converte...

  13. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.

    1986-01-01

    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...... penetration attempts. This number increased as the degree of resistance increased, i.e. the ESH frequency decreased. The penetration stage also invariably proved to be the limiting stage, where the largest proportion of fungal propagules was stopped....

  14. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Francia; Alessandro Tondelli; Fulvia Rizza; Franz W. Badeck; Thomas, William T. B.; Fred van Eeuwijk; Ignacio Romagosa; A. Michele Stanca; Nicola Pecchioni

    2013-01-01

    The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT) population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 site-year combination). Agrometeorological variables have been recorded and calculated at each site too. Four main periods of barley development were considered, vegetative, reproductive early and lat...

  15. Quantitative trait loci for agronomic traits in an elite barley population for Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Elsayed; Casas Cendoya, Ana María; Gracia Gimeno, María Pilar; Molina-Cano, José Luis; Moralejo, Marian; Cattivelli, Luigi; William T.B. Thomas; Igartua Arregui, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Advances in plant breeding through marker-assisted selection (MAS) are only possible when genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) can contribute to the improvement of elite germplasm. A population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed for one of the best crosses of the Spanish National Barley Breeding Program, between two six-row winter barley cultivars Orria and Plaisant. The objective of this study was to identify favourable QTLs for agronomic traits in this population, which may...

  16. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  17. Genome scans reveal candidate domestication and improvement genes in cultivated sunflower, as well as post-domestication introgression with wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baute, Gregory J; Kane, Nolan C; Grassa, Christopher J; Lai, Zhao; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-04-01

    The development of modern crops typically involves both selection and hybridization, but to date most studies have focused on the former. In the present study, we explore how both processes, and their interactions, have molded the genome of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus), a globally important oilseed. To identify genes targeted by selection during the domestication and improvement of sunflower, and to detect post-domestication hybridization with wild species, we analyzed transcriptome sequences of 80 genotypes, including wild, landrace, and modern lines of H. annuus, as well as two cross-compatible wild relatives, Helianthus argophyllus and Helianthus petiolaris. Outlier analyses identified 122 and 15 candidate genes associated with domestication and improvement, respectively. As in several previous studies, genes putatively involved in oil biosynthesis were the most extreme outliers. Additionally, several promising associations were observed with previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs), such as branching. Admixture analyses revealed that all the modern cultivar genomes we examined contained one or more introgressions from wild populations, with every chromosome having evidence of introgression in at least one modern line. Cumulatively, introgressions cover c. 10% of the cultivated sunflower genome. Surprisingly, introgressions do not avoid candidate domestication genes, probably because of the reintroduction of branching. PMID:25641359

  18. Mutation breeding of barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has special value as a food for people living in the Andes mountain area of Peru. It is also the basic raw material for the malting industry. The factors limiting barley production in Peru are mainly diseases, low soil fertility, low rainfall, drought, frost and hail. Improved varieties should have the capability to overcome most of the factors limiting production. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to apply appropriate methods in mutation induction, and crossing and selection. The mutation induction methods are used to improve well adapted varieties and lines. The barley variety Buenavista is suited to the Altiplano conditions. Because of its spikes, it can withstand hail damage better than other varieties. Naked barley is appreciated very much as a different type of food by people living in the highlands. Based on these facts, a mutation breeding programme was initiated to search for naked kernels and other interesting mutants in the Buenavista variety. The mutagenic agents applied were: gamma rays at 20 and 30 krad (200 and 300 Gy); EMS at 0.05 M and 0.1 M; and sodium azide at 0.001 and 0.004 M. The M1 populations were planted in Callejon de Huaylas at 2700 m of elevation. The M2 generation was grown at La Molina on the campus of the University at 200 m of elevation. The total number of plants in the M2 was 187,574. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations ranged from 1.13% to 5.94%. The highest doses of mutagens resulted in a higher number of chlorophyll mutations, while in the case of naked kernels selected from the bulked seeds of each treatment, the lower dose gave the higher number. The frequency of mutants with naked kernels ranged from 0.07% to 0.12%. The main goal of obtaining naked kernel mutants was achieved. At the applied treatments gamma rays were more effective as a mutagenic agent for this purpose than EMS or sodium azide. (author). 4 refs, 5 tabs

  19. Introgression browser: high-throughput whole-genome SNP visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Alves Aflitos; G. Sanchez-Perez; D. de Ridder; P. Fransz; M.E. Schranz; H. de Jong; S.A. Peters

    2015-01-01

    Breeding by introgressive hybridization is a pivotal strategy to broaden the genetic basis of crops. Usually, the desired traits are monitored in consecutive crossing generations by marker-assisted selection, but their analyses fail in chromosome regions where crossover recombinants are rare or not

  20. A molecular cytogenetic analysis of introgression in Alstroemeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a molecular cytogenetic investigation of the process of introgression in Alstroemeria . The aim of this study was to transfer chromosomes or genes from one Alstroemeria species into another. For this, two distantly related species, A. aurea and A. inodora , were

  1. Alien Introgression for FHB Resistance in Wheat - Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over one thousand accessions of wheat relatives at different ploidy levels and wheat-alien species derivatives with varied chromosome constitutions were evaluated for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance. FHB resistance identified from the relatives and derivatives were introgressed into adapted br...

  2. 小麦新抗源CH7103抗条锈基因的遗传及其与已知基因的关系%Inheritance of Stripe Rust Resistance Gene in Wheat Line CH7103 Introgressed from Thinopyrum ponticum and Its Allelism with Known Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白云; 李欣; 张丛卓; 张晓军; 詹海仙; 畅志坚

    2011-01-01

    line CH7103 revealed that a single dominant gene was responsible for the adult resistance to CYR32. The allelism tests in the four F2 populations demonstrated that the stripe rust resistance gene in CH7103 was likely different from the known resistance gene Yr5, Yrl0, Yr15 or Yr41. The cytological observation showed that the somatic chromosome number of CH7103 and its F1 hybrids involving T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring and Taichang29 were 2n=42, and their most pollen mother cell had a regular pairing of 2n=21 Ⅱ at meiosis, suggesting that this resistant line was cytologically a stable cryptic alien introgression with being largely identical to the chromosome constitution of bread wheat.

  3. Perennial aneuploidy as a potential material for gene introgression between maize and Zea perennis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jie; TANG Qi-lin; YANG Xiu-yan; CHENG Ming-jun; LÜ Gui-hua; WANG Pei; WU Yuan-qi; ZHENG Ming-min; ZHOU Shu-feng; RONG Ting-zhao

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization, which al ows for gene lfow between crops, is dififcult between maize and Zea perennis. In this study, we aim to initiate and study gene lfow between maize and Z. perennis via a special aneuploid plant (MDT) derived from an interspeciifc hybrid of the two species. The chromosome constitution and morphological characters of MDT as wel as certain backcross progenies were examined. Results from genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) indicate that aneuploid MDT consisted of nine maize chromosomes and 30 Z. perennis chromosomes. The backcross progenies of MDT×maize displayed signiifcant diversity of vegetative and ear morphology;several unusual plants with speciifc chromosome constitution were founded in its progenies. Some special perennial progeny with several maize chromosomes were obtained by backcrossing MDT with Z. perennis, and the ifrst whole chromosome introgression from maize to Z. perennis was detected in this study. With this novel material and method, a number of maize-tetraploid teosinte addition or substitution lines can be generated for further study, which has great signiifcance to maize and Z. perennis genetic research, especial y for promoting introgression and transferring desirable traits.

  4. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. PMID:25775930

  5. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  6. Improving the nutritional quality of the barley and wheat grain storage proteins by antisense technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Lange, Mette; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    genetic modification with antisense or the more drastic RNAi suppression technology and study the change in protein pattern under different environmental conditions. We have five antisense and 12 RNAi C-hordein lines of barley (RNAi lines are under characterisation) and wheat RNAi lines (gamma and alpha...... result, a considerable amount of research is focused on improving the quality and quantity of seed storage protein both by traditional plant breeding and by modern genetic engineering technology. In our research program we are trying to enrich the nutritional quality of barley and wheat grains using...... plan to construct wheat omega RNAi lines using RNAi technology. The cloning of the omega gliadin from wheat is in progress. Finally, the agronomic properties and nutritional values of the genetically modified barley and wheat will be evaluated. References Hansen, M., Lange, M., Friis, M., Dionisio. G...

  7. Introgression and pyramiding into common bean market class fabada of genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and potyvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Juan José; Campa, Ana; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Giraldez, Ramón

    2012-03-01

    Anthracnose and bean common mosaic (BCM) are considered major diseases in common bean crop causing severe yield losses worldwide. This work describes the introgression and pyramiding of genes conferring genetic resistance to BCM and anthracnose local races into line A25, a bean genotype classified as market class fabada. Resistant plants were selected using resistance tests or combining resistance tests and marker-assisted selection. Lines A252, A321, A493, Sanilac BC6-Are, and BRB130 were used as resistance sources. Resistance genes to anthracnose (Co-2 ( C ), Co-2 ( A252 ) and Co-3/9) and/or BCM (I and bc-3) were introgressed in line A25 through six parallel backcrossing programs, and six breeding lines showing a fabada seed phenotype were obtained after six backcross generations: line A1258 from A252; A1231 from A321; A1220 from A493; A1183 and A1878 from Sanilac BC6-Are; and line A2418 from BRB130. Pyramiding of different genes were developed using the pedigree method from a single cross between lines obtained in the introgression step: line A1699 (derived from cross A1258 × A1220), A2438 (A1220 × A1183), A2806 (A1878 × A2418), and A3308 (A1699 × A2806). A characterization based on eight morpho-agronomic traits revealed a limited differentiation among the obtained breeding lines and the recurrent line A25. However, using a set of seven molecular markers linked to the loci used in the breeding programs it was possible to differentiate the 11 fabada lines. Considering the genetic control of the resistance in resistant donor lines, the observed segregations in the last backcrossing generation, the reaction against the pathogens, and the expression of the molecular markers it was also possible to infer the genotype conferring resistance in the ten fabada breeding lines obtained. As a result of these breeding programs, genetic resistance to three anthracnose races controlled by genes included in clusters Co-2 and Co-3/9, and genetic resistance to BCM controlled

  8. Genomewide introgressive hybridization patterns in wild Atlantic salmon influenced by inadvertent gene flow from hatchery releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozerov, M Y; Gross, R; Bruneaux, M; Vähä, J-P; Burimski, O; Pukk, L; Vasemägi, A

    2016-03-01

    Many salmonid fish populations are threatened by genetic homogenization, primarily due to introgressive hybridization with hatchery-reared conspecifics. By applying genomewide analysis using two molecular marker types (1986 SNPs and 17 microsatellites), we assessed the genetic impacts of inadvertent gene flow via straying from hatchery releases on wild populations of Atlantic salmon in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, over 16 years (1996-2012). Both microsatellites and SNPs revealed congruent population genetic structuring, indicating that introgression changed the genetic make-up of wild populations by increasing genetic diversity and reducing genetic divergence. However, the degree of genetic introgression varied among studied populations, being higher in the eastern part and lower in the western part of Estonia, which most likely reflects the history of past stocking activities. Using kernel smoothing and permutation testing, we detected considerable heterogeneity in introgression patterns across the genome, with a large number of regions exhibiting nonrandom introgression widely dispersed across the genome. We also observed substantial variation in nonrandom introgression patterns within populations, as the majority of genomic regions showing elevated or reduced introgression were not consistently detected among temporal samples. This suggests that recombination, selection and stochastic processes may contribute to complex nonrandom introgression patterns. Our results suggest that (i) some genomic regions in Atlantic salmon are more vulnerable to introgressive hybridization, while others show greater resistance to unidirectional gene flow; and (ii) the hybridization of previously separated populations leads to complex and dynamic nonrandom introgression patterns that most likely have functional consequences for indigenous populations. PMID:26840557

  9. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  10. Research on mutant barley population under biotic and abiotic stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley is one of the most important cereal with 8,5 million tons production, 3,5 million hectares of sowing area in Turkey which is also one of the gene centres of barley. Barley is grown in every regions of Turkey where climatic conditions are available for the crop. But barley is the predominant crop in the driest land areas throughout the Anatolian plateau. Winters on that plateau are especially severe. Summers are hot and dry with temperatures above 30 degree C. Annual precipitation averages about 300 to 400 millimeters and rains mainly in winter. Because of all of these prerequisite conditions, winter barley dominates in Turkey, which indirectly refers to water economy. According to the above mentioned reasons the objectives of this investigation were: 1) Improvement of drought resistance, loading resistance and high yielding barley varieties by mutation breeding in Central Anatolian Region. 2) Determination and selection of abiotic stress such as salt resistance In our barley mutation breeding programme under Central Anatolian conditions well adapted Tokak 157/37 variety has been used. We applied 250 Gy-300 Gy gamma ray doses . Selection began at M2 generation. Agronomical characters including earliness, straw length, lodging resistance and disease resistance are monitored in the field and greenhouse. Mutant lines have been tested for salt resistance in the hydrophonic culture which contains 180 mMol and 220 mMol NaCl concentrations. Preliminary yield trial and advanced yield trial are started after M4 generations. In M6 generation, we had some desirable lines those are 25-30 days earlier than its parents, so these lines escape from drought period. Some lines that have grown in the hydrophonic cultures, contains 180mMol NaCl still surviving.

  11. Reproductive isolation and introgression between sympatric Mimulus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Amanda M; Sweigart, Andrea L

    2016-06-01

    Incompletely isolated species provide an opportunity to investigate the genetic mechanisms and evolutionary forces that maintain distinct species in the face of ongoing gene flow. Here, we use field surveys and reduced representation sequencing to characterize the patterns of reproductive isolation, admixture and genomic divergence between populations of the outcrossing wildflower Mimulus guttatus and selfing M. nasutus. Focusing on a single site where these two species have come into secondary contact, we find that phenological isolation is strong, although incomplete, and is likely driven by divergence in response to photoperiod. In contrast to previous field studies, which have suggested that F1 -hybrid formation might be rare, we discover patterns of genomic variation consistent with ongoing introgression. Strikingly, admixed individuals vary continuously from highly admixed to nearly pure M. guttatus, demonstrating ongoing hybridization and asymmetric introgression from M. nasutus into M. guttatus. Patterns of admixture and divergence across the genome show that levels of introgression are more variable than expected by chance. Some genomic regions show a reduced introgression, including one region that overlaps a critical photoperiod QTL, whereas other regions show elevated levels of interspecific gene flow. In addition, we observe a genome-wide negative relationship between absolute divergence and the local recombination rate, potentially indicating natural selection against M. nasutus ancestry in M. guttatus genetic backgrounds. Together, our results suggest that Mimulus speciation is both ongoing and dynamic and that a combination of divergence in phenology and mating system, as well as selection against interspecific alleles, likely maintains these sympatric species. PMID:27038381

  12. Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Kays, Roland; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf-derived alleles have penetrated into Southern US coyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far-reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds. PMID:27106273

  13. A mutant homeobox gene created six-rowed spike in barley domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased seed production has been a common goal during the domestication of cereal crops. Early cultivators of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) selected a phenotype with a six-rowed spike that stably produced three times the usual grain number during domestication. We isolated the SIX-ROWED SPIKE 1 (Vrs1) from barley by chromosome walking. We discovered that Vrs1 encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper I-class protein (HD-ZIP I), a potential transcription factor. RNA in situ hybridization revealed that the Vrs1 is expressed only in lateral spikelet primordia. Sequencing alleles of 54 six-rowed mutant lines revealed a single amino acid substitution in 22 lines, creation of a new stop codon in 12 lines, a nucleotide substitution in the conserved splicing site in 3 lines, a frameshift mutation by a deletion in 5 lines, complete deletion of the gene region in 7 lines, and no DNA changes throughout the coding region with no gene expression detected in the remaining 5 lines. We found three haplotypes among six-rowed barley revealing loss-of-function mutation of the homeobox gene Vrs1. We found that two of them independently originated from two different type two-rowed barleys, but origin of the remaining one six-rowed allele remained unclear. (author)

  14. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero; Michael J. Edney

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four cl...

  15. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    hydroxynitrile glucosides can act as carbohydrate and nitrogen storage compounds and as reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching compounds. A positive correlation between the hydroxynitrile glucoside content in barley and susceptibility toward the barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, Bgh...... to regulate defense related genes in maize. Barley plants that are gene-silenced in the first step of hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis have been generated to further investigate these results. It appears that hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley have a dual role; up to a certain level Bgh profits...

  16. The barley protein project at Svaloev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important findings of the barley protein improvement project at Svaloev are reported. Linkage analyses have shown that in Hiproly the lysine factor is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. The results, so far, indicate that during favourable conditions the best high lysine barleys yield 95-100% of the standard variety Mona. However, when the growing conditions are unfavourable, high lysine barleys suffer more. Encouraging results were obtained from feeding experiments on pigs and it is anticipated that using available high-lysine barley, the protein supplementation can be reduced by 35%. (author)

  17. Possibilities of direct introgression from Brassica napus to B. juncea and indirect introgression from B. napus to related Brassicaceae through B. juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Mai; Ohsawa, Ryo; Tabei, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    The impact of genetically modified canola (Brassica napus) on biodiversity has been examined since its initial stage of commercialization. Various research groups have extensively investigated crossability and introgression among species of Brassicaceae. B. rapa and B. juncea are ranked first and second as the recipients of cross-pollination and introgression from B. napus, respectively. Crossability between B. napus and B. rapa has been examined, specifically in terms of introgression from B. napus to B. rapa, which is mainly considered a weed in America and European countries. On the other hand, knowledge on introgression from B. napus to B. juncea is insufficient, although B. juncea is recognized as the main Brassicaceae weed species in Asia. It is therefore essential to gather information regarding the direct introgression of B. napus into B. juncea and indirect introgression of B. napus into other species of Brassicaceae through B. juncea to evaluate the influence of genetically modified canola on biodiversity. We review information on crossability and introgression between B. juncea and other related Brassicaseae in this report. PMID:24987292

  18. Lipid transfer proteins of barley

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žídková, Jitka; Matejková, M.; Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Žídek, L.; Sikorová, K.; Nálezková, M.; Chmelík, Josef; Sklenář, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 51. ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics /6./. 29.03.2007-31.03.2007, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : protein separation * barley * MALDI-TOF/TOF MS-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  19. Mutational Events in a Homeobox Gene Vrs1 that Created a Six-Rowed Spike in Barley Domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early cultivators of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) selected a phenotype with a six-rowed spike that stably produced three times the usual grain number during domestication. SIX-ROWED SPIKE 1 (Vrs1) isolated from barley encoded a homeodomain leucine zipper I-class protein (HD-ZIP I), a potential transcription factor. Vrs1 is expressed only in lateral spikelet primordia of the early developmental stage. Fifty-four six-rowed mutant lines showed mutational events at the vrs1 gene except for five mutant lines, which suggested mutational events at the regulatory regions of Vrs1. We found three haplotypes among six-rowed barley revealing loss-of-function mutation of the homeobox gene Vrs1, while another allele showed no DNA changes throughout the coding region of the Vrs1 gene indicating another origin of the six-rowed barley. (author)

  20. Improvement of barley for drought tolerance by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley (cultivar Ardhaoui) is a traditional cereal adapted to the agroclimatic and abiotic stresses of South Tunisia. It is used by local communities as the food plant and source of proteins for animals. It is a heterogeneous mixtures of land races and represent the adapted natural germplasm which needs to be improved in yield, quality and tolerance to stress (especially drought). Irradiation technique is used in this work for the selection of barley lines tolerant to drought. Building on the obtained results, the technique will be used to develop barley lines matching specific environments prevailing in the south of Tunisia. The obtained mutants are characterized by the increased of grain yield and water use efficiency through a greater tolerance to drought. On the level of the physiological behavior, the mutants are more efficient regarding the values of rate of photosynthesis A, the stomatic conductance gs, the rate of transpiration E, chlorophyl rate and the internal CO2 concentration Ci. The content of proline shows that this amino acid is strongly concentrated at the irradiated lines. The analysis of nutritional behavior shows that the content of (Ca+Mg) in irradiated lines decreases by increasing the stress. The phosphorus content was also assigned by the water stress. On the contrary, the potassium content increases with the intensity of stress. Under water deficit, the growth parameter, the grain production and the number of spike and tillers are significantly reduced for the control (the reduction reached 42 to 50%). This reduction does not exceed 25% for the irradiated lines. The availability of these improved mutant seeds can contribute to increase food security for the local population. (author)

  1. Associated field mycobiota on malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf; Svendsen, Anne; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    1996-01-01

    composition of field mycobiota compared with the pesticide-free barley. The determining factor on the mycobiota was the location. The dominant species on barley was Alternaria infectoria Simmons. The most frequent Fusarium species detected were F. tricinctum (Corda) Sacc. and F. avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. Results...... implied an interaction between Alternaria and Fusarium on the surface of the kernels....

  2. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  3. Healthier cereal products: breadmaking with barley flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya Romero, Carolina; Novillo, Carmen; Rodríguez Badiola, Guillermo; Callejo González, Maria Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Promote consumption of barley breads, in order to improve intake of fibre and healthenhancing components: Instrumental evaluation of breads. Sensory consumer evaluation of breads. Bread-making performances of flours. Instrumental evaluation of barley substituted wheat Dough.

  4. Barley metallothioneins differ in ontogenetic pattern and response to metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Pedas, Pai;

    2014-01-01

    pollination. However, among the MT grain transcripts MT2c was the most abundant, whereas MT4 was the least abundant. Excess Cu up-regulated three out of the six MTs expressed in leaves of young barley plants. In contrast, most MTs were down-regulated by excess Zn or Cd. Zn starvation led to up-regulation of......, the root-specific gene MT1b1 was 1000-fold up-regulated. Immunolocalizations provided the first evidence for accumulation of MT1a and MT2a proteins in planta, with correlation to transcript levels. In developing grains, MT2a and MT4 expression increased 4- and 300-fold over a 28-day-period after...... MT1a, whereas Cu starvation up-regulated MT2a, which has two copper-responsive elements in the promoter. Arabidopsis lines constitutively overexpressing barley MT2a showed increased sensitivity to excess Cd and Zn but no Cu-induced response. We suggest that barley MTs are differentially involved in...

  5. Differential rates of phenotypic introgression are associated with male behavioral responses to multiple signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Emma I; Baldassarre, Daniel T; Webster, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    Sexual selection on multiple signals may lead to differential rates of signal introgression across hybrid zones if some signals contribute to reproductive isolation but others facilitate gene flow. Competition among males is one powerful form of sexual selection, but male behavioral responses to multiple traits have not been considered in a system where traits have introgressed differentially. Using playbacks, mounts, and a reciprocal experimental design, we tested the hypothesis that male responses to song and plumage in two subspecies of red-backed fairy-wren (Malurus melanocephalus) explain patterns of differential signal introgression (song has not introgressed, whereas plumage color has introgressed asymmetrically). We found that males of both subspecies discriminated symmetrically between subspecies' songs at a long range, but at a close range, we found that aggression was equal for both subspecies' plumage and songs. Taken together, our results suggest that male behavioral responses hinder the introgression of song, but allow for the observed asymmetrical introgression of plumage. Our results highlight how behavioral responses are a key component of signal evolution when recently divergent taxa come together, and how differential responses to multiple signals may lead to differential signal introgression and novel trait combinations. PMID:26292844

  6. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  7. Fungal growth during malting of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated and identified in two samples of winter two-row barley (SSK3 and SSK6 harvested in 2003, Kragujevac location, during micromalting. Fungi were isolated and identified in barley before the micromalting, after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of steeping, the first day and after the germination after kilning and after malt degermination. The total fungi count was followed in both barley samples, during the mentioned phases. The total count of fungi was also determined in the steeping water, and the isolation and identification was performed after the steeping process. Change of the total count of fungi during barley micromalting was exponentional. During barley micromalting nine fungi genera were isolated: Phoma, Alternaria, Fusarium aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Aureobasidium and Mucor. The most frequent genera were: Phoma, Alternaria and Fusarium. In water for steeping, five genera were identified: Geotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma Cladosporium and Mucor. The most frequent genera was Phoma.

  8. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during......Barley is a major cereal crop grown mainly for feed and malting. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has been used to analyse barley proteins for over 20 years and more recently, mass spectrometry was applied. In the absence of a genome sequence, barley gene and EST sequences combined with...... grain filling, maturation, germination and radicle elongation. Cultivar comparisons and genetic mapping of polymorphic protein spots in doubled haploid populations provide a means to link the genome to the proteome and identify proteins that can influence grain quality. Many proteins appear in multiple...

  9. In vitro culture in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Mitochondrial introgression and complex biogeographic history of the genus Picea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jin-Hua; Shen, Ting-Ting; Liu, Wen-Juan; Wang, Pei-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-12-01

    Biogeographic history of plants is much more complex in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere due to that both the Bering and the North Atlantic land bridges contributed to floristic exchanges in the Cenozoic, which led to hybridization between congeneric species from different continents. It would be interesting to know how intercontinental gene flow and introgression have affected plant phylogenetic reconstruction and biogeographic inference. In this study, we reinvestigated the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of Picea, a main component of the Northern Hemisphere forest with many species that originated from recent radiation, using two chloroplast (cp), one mitochondrial (mt) and three single-copy nuclear gene markers. The generated gene trees are topologically highly discordant and the geographically closely related species generally show a close affinity of mtDNA rather than cp- or nuclear DNA, suggesting that inter- and intra-continental gene flow and mtDNA introgression might have occurred commonly. However, all gene trees resolved Picea breweriana as the basal-most lineage, which, together with fossil evidence, supports the North American origin hypothesis for the genus. Both dispersal and vicariance have played important roles in the evolution of Picea, and the Bering Land Bridge could have mediated the "North America to Eurasia" dispersal at least two times during the Miocene and Pliocene. Our study again demonstrates the importance of applying data from three genomes for a clear understanding of evolutionary histories in the pine family. Any markers from a single genome alone will not reveal a clear picture of the phylogenetic relationships among closely related congeneric species. In particular, mtDNA markers should be cautiously used, considering that introgression of the maternally inherited mtDNA with a lower rate of gene flow (by seeds) could have occurred much more frequently than that of the paternally inherited cpDNA with

  11. Introgression and rapid species turnover in sympatric damselflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero-Rivera Adolfo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying contemporary hybridization increases our understanding of introgression, adaptation and, ultimately, speciation. The sister species Ischnura elegans and I. graellsii (Odonata: Coenagrionidae are ecologically, morphologically and genetically similar and hybridize. Recently, I. elegans has colonized northern Spain, creating a broad sympatric region with I. graellsii. Here, we review the distribution of both species in Iberia and evaluate the degree of introgression of I. graellsii into I. elegans using six microsatellite markers (442 individuals from 26 populations and five mitochondrial genes in sympatric and allopatric localities. Furthermore, we quantify the effect of hybridization on the frequencies of the genetically controlled colour polymorphism in females of both species. Results In a principal component analysis of the microsatellite data, the first two principal components summarised almost half (41% of the total genetic variation. The first axis revealed a clear separation of I. graellsii and I. elegans populations, while the second axis separated I. elegans populations. Admixture analyses showed extensive hybridization and introgression in I. elegans populations, consistent with I. elegans backcrosses and occasional F1-hybrids, suggesting hybridization is on-going. More specifically, approximately 58% of the 166 Spanish I. elegans individuals were assigned to the I. elegans backcross category, whereas not a single of those individuals was assigned to the backcross with I. graellsii. The mitochondrial genes held little genetic variation, and the most common haplotype was shared by the two species. Conclusions The results suggest rapid species turnover in sympatric regions in favour of I. elegans, corroborating previous findings that I. graellsii suffers a mating disadvantage in sympatry with I. elegans. Examination of morph frequency dynamics indicates that hybridization is likely to have important

  12. Introgression of genetic material from Zea mays ssp. Mexicana into cultivated maize was facilitated by tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zea mays ssp. mexicana, a wild relative of cultivated maize (Z. mays ssp. mays), is a useful gene resource for maize breeding. In this study, two populations were generated by conventional breeding scheme (population I) or tissue culture regime (population II), respectively, to introgress genetic material of Z. mays ssp. mexicana into maize. Karyotype analysis showed that the arm ratios of 10 pairs of chromosomes in parent maize Ye515 and derivative lines from 2 different populations with 26% and 38% chromosome variation frequencies, respectively. Alien chromatin was detected in the root tip cells of progeny plants through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). There were 3.3 chromosomes carrying alien chromatin on average in population I and 6.5 in population II. The hybridization signals were located mainly at the terminal or sub terminal regions of the chromosomes and the sizes were notably variant among lines. Based on those results, it is concluded that the introgression of genetic material from Z. mays ssp. mexicana into cultivated maize was facilitated by tissue culture, and subsequently some excellent materials for maize breeding were created. (author)

  13. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  14. Using a set of TeQing-into-Lemont chromosome segment substitution lines for fine mapping QTL: Case studies on sheath blight resistance, spreading culm, and mesocotyl elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of backcross introgression lines containing portions of the TeQing genome now introgressed into a Lemont genetic background allows us to fine map rice QTL, and measure their breeding value within U.S. rice genetic and field environments....

  15. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring in...

  16. Genetic structure and ecogeographical adaptation in wild barley (Hordeum chilense Roemer et Schultes as revealed by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourdille Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-allelic microsatellite markers have become the markers of choice for the determination of genetic structure in plants. Synteny across cereals has allowed the cross-species and cross-genera transferability of SSR markers, which constitute a valuable and cost-effective tool for the genetic analysis and marker-assisted introgression of wild related species. Hordeum chilense is one of the wild relatives with a high potential for cereal breeding, due to its high crossability (both interspecies and intergenera and polymorphism for adaptation traits. In order to analyze the genetic structure and ecogeographical adaptation of this wild species, it is necessary to increase the number of polymorphic markers currently available for the species. In this work, the possibility of using syntenic wheat SSRs as a new source of markers for this purpose has been explored. Results From the 98 wheat EST-SSR markers tested for transferability and polymorphism in the wild barley genome, 53 primer pairs (54.0% gave cross-species transferability and 20 primer pairs (20.4% showed polymorphism. The latter were used for further analysis in the H. chilense germplasm. The H. chilense-Triticum aestivum addition lines were used to test the chromosomal location of the new polymorphic microsatellite markers. The genetic structure and diversity was investigated in a collection of 94 H. chilense accessions, using a set of 49 SSR markers distributed across the seven chromosomes. Microsatellite markers showed a total of 351 alleles over all loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 27, with a mean of 7.2 alleles per locus and a mean Polymorphic Information Content (PIC of 0.5. Conclusions According to the results, the germplasm can be divided into two groups, with morphological and ecophysiological characteristics being key determinants of the population structure. Geographic and ecological structuring was also revealed in the analyzed

  17. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  18. Genetic Introgression and the Survival of Florida Panther Kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Nichols, James D; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2010-11-01

    Estimates of survival for the young of a species are critical for population models. These models can often be improved by determining the effects of management actions and population abundance on this demographic parameter. We used multiple sources of data collected during 1982-2008 and a live recapture-dead recovery modeling framework to estimate and model survival of Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) kittens (age 0 - 1 year). Overall, annual survival of Florida panther kittens was 0.323 ± 0.071 (SE), which was lower than estimates used in previous population models. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released into occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression program to restore genetic variability. We found that kitten survival generally increased with degree of admixture: F(1) admixed and backcrossed to Texas kittens survived better than canonical Florida panther and backcrossed to canonical kittens. Average heterozygosity positively influenced kitten and older panther survival, whereas index of panther abundance negatively influenced kitten survival. Our results provide strong evidence for the positive population-level impact of genetic introgression on Florida panthers. Our approach to integrate data from multiple sources was effective at improving robustness as well as precision of estimates of Florida panther kitten survival, and can be useful in estimating vital rates for other elusive species with sparse data. PMID:21113436

  19. The gene Sr33, an ortholog of barley Mla genes, encodes resistance to wheat stem rust race Ug99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyannan, Sambasivam; Moore, John; Ayliffe, Michael; Bansal, Urmil; Wang, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Deal, Karin; Luo, Mingcheng; Kong, Xiuying; Bariana, Harbans; Mago, Rohit; McIntosh, Robert; Dodds, Peter; Dvorak, Jan; Lagudah, Evans

    2013-08-16

    Wheat stem rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, afflicts bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). New virulent races collectively referred to as "Ug99" have emerged, which threaten global wheat production. The wheat gene Sr33, introgressed from the wild relative Aegilops tauschii into bread wheat, confers resistance to diverse stem rust races, including the Ug99 race group. We cloned Sr33, which encodes a coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat protein. Sr33 is orthologous to the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mla mildew resistance genes that confer resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. The wheat Sr33 gene functions independently of RAR1, SGT1, and HSP90 chaperones. Haplotype analysis from diverse collections of Ae. tauschii placed the origin of Sr33 resistance near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. PMID:23811228

  20. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  1. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  2. Development and validation of cross-transferable and polymorphic DNA markers for detecting alien genome introgression in Oryza sativa from Oryza brachyantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Soham; Bose, Lotan K; Ray, Joshitha; Ngangkham, Umakanta; Katara, Jawahar L; Samantaray, Sanghamitra; Behera, Lambodar; Anumalla, Mahender; Singh, Onkar N; Chen, Meingsheng; Wing, Rod A; Mohapatra, Trilochan

    2016-08-01

    African wild rice Oryza brachyantha (FF), a distant relative of cultivated rice Oryza sativa (AA), carries genes for pests and disease resistance. Molecular marker assisted alien gene introgression from this wild species to its domesticated counterpart is largely impeded due to the scarce availability of cross-transferable and polymorphic molecular markers that can clearly distinguish these two species. Availability of the whole genome sequence (WGS) of both the species provides a unique opportunity to develop markers, which are cross-transferable. We observed poor cross-transferability (~0.75 %) of O. sativa specific sequence tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers to O. brachyantha. By utilizing the genome sequence information, we developed a set of 45 low cost PCR based co-dominant polymorphic markers (STS and CAPS). These markers were found cross-transferrable (84.78 %) between the two species and could distinguish them from each other and thus allowed tracing alien genome introgression. Finally, we validated a Monosomic Alien Addition Line (MAAL) carrying chromosome 1 of O. brachyantha in O. sativa background using these markers, as a proof of concept. Hence, in this study, we have identified a set molecular marker (comprising of STMS, STS and CAPS) that are capable of detecting alien genome introgression from O. brachyantha to O. sativa. PMID:27299359

  3. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  4. Molecular Variability in Barley Structural Mutants Produced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to survey gamma ray induced genetic variation in a set of 13 originally produced structural barley (H. vulgare L.) mutants from cv. Freya; including 8 single translocation lines, 3 double translocation lines and 2 multiple reconstructed karyotypes. Both marker systems contributed to the evaluation of the radiation induced DNA alterations and revealed in general 0.49% polymorphisms in the studied genotypes. AFLPs were observed with 3 out of 10 PstI/MseI primer combinations. Transmissible microsatellite instability at loci with perfect (AT)n repeats located in the introns of the rubisco activase and waxy was documented in three mutant lines. The results emphasize that in addition to point mutations, small indels (2bp) form the major group of the gamma induced DNA alterations. (author)

  5. Radiostimulation of protein synthesis in barley seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds were irradiated with 10 gy of gamma-radiation and protein synthesis was measured in terms of incorporation of (3H) leucine at varying periods after the onset of germination. It is found that the process of translation of long-life mRNA is accentuated by about 20 percent in the irradiated barley seeds during the first hour of germination as compared to the corresponding appropriate control. (author)

  6. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  7. Research on mutant barley population under biotic and abiotic stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley is one of the most important cereals with 8.5 million tons production, 3.5 million hectares of sowing area and 2.2 ton/ha yield in Turkey which is also one of the gene centres of barley. Barley is grown in every regions of Turkey where climatic conditions are available for the crop. But barley is the predominant crop in the driest land areas throughout the Anatolian plateau. Winters on that plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of -30 deg C can occur in the mountainous areas in the east, and snow may lie on the ground 120 days of the year. In the west, winter temperatures average below 1 deg C. Summers are hot and dry with temperatures above 30 deg C. Annual precipitation averages about 300 to 400 milimeters and rains mainly in winter. Because of all of these prerequisite conditions, winter barley dominates in Turkey, which indirectly refers to water economy. According to the above mentioned reasons the objectives of this investigation were: a) Improvement of drought resistance, lodding resistance and high yielding barley varieties by mutation breeding in Central Anatolian Region. b ) Determination and selection of abiotic stress such as salt resistance and biotic stress such as net blotch (Drestera teress). In our barley mutation breeding programme under Central Anatolian conditions well adapted Tokak 157/37 variety has been used. We applied 50, 150, 250 Gy gamma ray doses. Selection began at M2 generation. Agronomical characters including earliness, straw length, lodging resistance and disease resistance are monitored in the field and greenhouse. Mutant lines have been tested for salt resistance in the hydrophonic culture which contains 180 mMol and 220 mMol NaCl concentrations. Biotic stress characters such as net blotch, (Drechslera teres) resistance are tested in the greenhouse. Some parameters have been obtained after harvest. Preliminary yield trial and advanced yield trial are started after M4 generations. In M6 generation, we had some

  8. Dissection and cytological mapping of barley chromosome 2H in the genetic background of common wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Giri Prasad; Nasuda, Shuhei; Endo, Takashi R.

    2011-01-01

    We used gametocidal (Gc) chromosomes 2C and 3C[SAT] to dissect barley 2H added to common wheat. The Gc chromosome induces chromosomal breakage resulting in chromosomal aberrations in the progeny of the 2H addition line of common wheat carrying the monosomic Gc chromosome. We conducted in situ hybridization to select plants carrying structurally rearranged aberrant 2H chromosomes and characterized them by sequential C-banding and in situ hybridization. We established 66 dissection lines of com...

  9. Introgressive hybridization as a promoter of genome reshuffling in natural homoploid fish hybrids (Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pereira, C. S.; Aboim, M. A.; Ráb, Petr; Collares-Pereira, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 3 (2014), s. 343-350. ISSN 0018-067X Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : comparative genome hybridization * hybrid zones * introgression Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.805, year: 2014

  10. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed...... tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...

  11. Genetic Introgression and Species Boundary of Two Geographically Overlapping Pine Species Revealed by Molecular Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Defang; Xia, Tao; Yan, Maomao; Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine tre...

  12. Assessing Introgression betweenEuropean Wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris) and Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus)

    OpenAIRE

    Nussberger, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Introgression is an important issue in evolutionarybiology. It is defined as the flow of genes between taxa through hybridization beyond the first generation. Introduced genes of a closely related taxon may serve as raw material for rapid adaptive evolutionary change. On the other hand, introgression could lead to reduced fitness in hybrids, i.e. outbreeding depression, if the newly mixed traits are maladapted to the environment or if, on the genomiclevel, co-adapted gene complexes are di...

  13. Detectings low introgression of invasive alleles in an extensively restocked game bird

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Donoso, Inés; Huisman, J.; Echegaray, J.; Puigcerver Oliván, Manuel; Rodríguez Teijeiro, José Domingo; Hailer, F.; Vilà i Arbonès, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Interbreeding of two species in the wild implies introgression of alleles from one species into the other only when admixed individuals survive and successfully backcross with the parental species. Consequently, estimating the proportion of first generation hybrids in a population may not inform about the evolutionary impact of hybridization. Samples obtained over a long time span may offer a more accurate view of the spreading of introgressed alleles in a species" gene pool. Common quail (Co...

  14. Use of recurrent irradiation in plant breeding of quantitative characters of barley and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work was applied recurrent irradiation by gamma radiation of cobalt 60 in different doses to barley and wheat seeds in order to generate genetic variation and facilitating the selection of quantitative characters. The first part of this work was realized without making any selection and the second one by means of selection toward the greatest number of tassel spikelets. The experimental evaluation of irradiated materials without selection indicated that in high doses it was obtained a best expression of the character and that this was greater increasing the generations of irradiation excepting the MI generation as in barley as wheat. According to the experimental evaluation, the selected lines of irradiated material of barley was greater yield that the original variety, but this did not occur with the wheat, because of the grain size of the selected lines was more little. The posterior selection for following increasing the spikelets number for tassel has been effective and in the barley the advances were greater than in the wheat. (Author). 4 refs, 5 figs

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci and Inter-Organ Partitioning for Essential Metal and Toxic Analogue Accumulation in Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Reuscher, Stefan; Kolter, Andreas; Hoffmann, Astrid; Pillen, Klaus; Krämer, Ute

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of both essential nutrients and chemically similar toxic analogues accumulated in cereal grains have a major impact on the nutritional quality and safety of crops. Naturally occurring genetic diversity can be exploited for the breeding of improved varieties through introgression lines (ILs). In this study, multi-element analysis was conducted on vegetative leaves, senesced flag leaves and mature grains of a set of 54 ILs of the wild ancestral Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum...

  16. Mapping of a new gene for brown planthopper resistance in cultivated rice introgressed from Oryza eichingeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wild rice species is an important source of useful genes for cultivated rice improvement. Some accessions of Oryza eichingeri (2n = 24, CC) from Africa confer strong resistance to brown planthopper (BPH), whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) and bacterial blight (BB). In the present study, restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) analysis were performed on disomic backcross plants between Oryza sativa (2n = 24, AA) and O. eichingeri in order to identify the presenee of O. eichingeri segments and further to localize BPH-resistant gene. In the introgression lines, 1-6O. eichingeri segments were detected on rice chromosomes 1, 2, 6, or/and 10. The dominant BPH resistant gene, tentatively named Bph13(t), was mapped to chromosome 2, being 6.1 and 5.5 cM away from two microsatellite markers RM240 and RM250, respectively. The transfer and localization of this gene from O. eichingeri will contribute to the improvement of BPH resistance in cultivated rice.``

  17. Elevated phosphorus impedes manganese acquisition by barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Skytte, Kristian; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of manganese (Mn) deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P) status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure and P-fertilizers. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Addition of a pulse of KH(2)PO(4) rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn-P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn(2+) had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu, and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels. PMID:22639592

  18. Progressive introgression between ¤Brassica napus¤ (oilseed rape) and ¤B-rapa¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Siegismund, H.R.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2003-01-01

    We have earlier shown extensive introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and B. rapa in a weedy population using AFLP markers specific for the nuclear genomes. In order to describe the progress of this introgression, we examined 117 offspring from 12 maternal plants from the introgressed...... maternal plants. It seemed that B. rapa most often functioned as the maternal plant in the introgression process and that the amount of oilseed rape DNA was highly diminished in the offspring compared to their introgressed maternal plants. However, our analysis of plants from the weedy population indicated...... that introgression can lead to both (1) exchange of chloroplast DNA between species producing B. rapa-like plants with B. napus chloroplasts and (2) incorporation of B. napus C-genome DNA into the B. rapa genome. Therefore, we question whether it can be regarded as containment to position transgenes in...

  19. Approaches to improving the nutritional quality of barley seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The poor nutritional quality of barley grain is determined by the low level of lysine in the prolamin storage proteins (hordein). These account for between 35 to 50% of the total grain nitrogen, depending on the nutritional status of the plant. There is a reduced proportion of hordein in mutant high lysine lines but these also have reduced synthesis of storage carbohydrates and hence low yields. Three strategies for improvement are discussed. Increases in the lysine content of hordein may be difficult to achieve because of the presence of complex families of structural genes. It would also be necessary to insert a large number of additional lysine residues. Two more promising approaches are to increase the level of expression of genes coding for lysine-rich globulin storage proteins and to increase the pool of free lysine by selecting mutant lines with relaxed feedback regulation of lysine synthesis. (author)

  20. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni; Valles, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) production is an efficient tool in barley breeding, but efficiency of DH methods is not consistent. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the effect of n-butanol application on DH barley plant production efficiency. Five elite cultivars of barley and thirteen breeding...

  1. Fitness of Crop-Wild Hybrid Sunflower under Competitive Conditions: Implications for Crop-to-Wild Introgression

    OpenAIRE

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D. Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A.; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test thi...

  2. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  3. Spontaneous mutation frequencies in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Estimation of the spontaneous mutation frequency requires screening of very large populations and has therefore rarely been carried out in higher plants. A study on inter-allelic recombination in the ml-o locus allowed to collect some data on spontaneous chlorophyll mutants. 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. 25 plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among a total of 470129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7±0.6x10-4). If these data are pooled with others from similar materials the resulting estimate is 1.6x10-4 in about 1,43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 6.3x10-4 per diploid genome. Assuming that the number of loci that can give rise to chlorophyll mutants is in the order of 500, the spontaneous mutation rate would be in the order of 6x10-7 per locus and haploid genome per generation. (author)

  4. Genetic Diversity of Ganpi Series Beer Barley Varieties(Lines) and Imported Varieties by SSR%甘啤系列啤酒大麦品种(系)与国外引进品种间遗传多样性的SSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振华; 漆燕玲; 蒋玮

    2009-01-01

    The genetic relationship among 35 beer barley varieties, including 10 Gansu and 25 foreign varieties were investigated by SSR. The results showed that among the 49 pairs of SSR primers used, 32 pairs of SSR primers detected polymorphisms. Clustering analysis showed that the range of between genetic similarity coefficient (GS) located in between 0.0500~0.6667. At the level of 0.26 GS, these varieties could be clustered into 4 groups, the majority of Ganpi series varieties (lines) were located in the same group, indicated that the genetic basis was rather narrow. The imported varieties had relatively wide range, indicated that their genetic basis is more extensive.%为了解甘啤系列啤酒大麦品种(系)与国外引进品种间的遗传关系,利用SSR标记技术对10个甘啤系列啤酒大麦品种(系)和25个国外引进品种的遗传背景进行了遗传多样性分析.结果表明,所用49对SSR引物中,有32对有多态性.这些品种遗传相似系数(GS)的分布范围较小,处于0.0500~0.6667之间.通过聚类分析,在GS值为0.26的水平上,这些品种被聚为4大类,大多数甘啤系列品种(系)分在同一类中,表明其遗传距离较近,遗传基础较狭窄;国外引进品种的分布范围相对较宽,表明其遗传基础较广泛.

  5. Barley germplasm conservation and resources. Chapter 7 in barley: improvement, production, and uses. Blackwell Publishing, ED.S.E. Ullrich

    Science.gov (United States)

    The history and current status of barley germplasm preservation activities is presented on a global scale and specifically for the United States. Total of barley germplasm holdings at 47 major barley collections (those with more than 500 accessions) worldwide is approximately 402,000 accessions. I...

  6. Introgression of Gene for Non-Pollen Type Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterility to Thai Rice Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANEE Sreewongchai; WEERACHAI Matthayatthaworn; CHALERMPOL Phumichai; PRAPA Sripichitt

    2014-01-01

    For the two-line hybrid rice system, pol en sterility is regulated by recessive gene that responds to temperature. The recessive gene controlling thermo-sensitive genetic male sterility (TGMS) is expressed when the plants are grown in conditions with higher or lower critical temperatures. To transfer tgms gene(s) control ing TGMS to Thai rice cultivars by backcross breeding method, a male sterile line was used as a donor parent while Thai rice cultivars ChaiNat 1, PathumThani 1, and SuphanBuri 1 were used as recurrent parents. The BC2F2 lines were developed from backcrossing and selfing. Moreover, the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for identifying tgms gene and the linked marker was used for assisting selection in backcrossing. The identification lines were confirmed by pol en observation. The results showed the success of introgression of the tgms gene into Thai rice cultivars. These lines will be tested for combining ability and used as female parent in hybrid rice production in Thailand.

  7. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  8. Variability and inheritance of the tillering in barley hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Milomirka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Productive tillering is a very important trait which influences the degree of barley lodging resistance. Five dive-gent genotypes of two-rowed winter barley (Vada, Đerdap, NS-293, Jagodinac and Sladoran have been selected for diallel crossing in order to study the mode of inheritance, the gene effect and the components genetic variance for the productive tillering in F1 and F2 generation. The test of the significance of the generations' mean values related to the parental average was used for inheritance mode determinations (KRALJEVIC-BALALIC et al., 1991 and the genetic variance components and regression VrWr analysis from diallel crossings were made using the method of MATHER and JINKS (1971. The variability of the investigated trait differed. The cross combination Đerdap x Jagodinac had the highest coefficient of variance (39.78%. Different modes of inheritance (partial dominance, dominance and over dominance and partial dominance were found in the F1 and F2 generation, respectively. The genetic variance components, average degree of dominance and regression line indicated partial dominance in the inheritance of tillering. The range of the obtained values of heritability for the tillering was found to be very wide (0.02-0.47. The cross combinations Đerdap x Jagodinac and Vada x Đerdap were selected for future breeding.

  9. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

  10. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes. PMID:26527793

  11. Endogenous hormone levels affect the regeneration ability of callus derived from different organs in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C; Yamane, Miki; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Hordeum vulgare (barley) is an important agricultural crop worldwide. A simple and efficient transformation system is needed to analyze the functions of barley genes and generate lines with improved agronomic traits. Currently, Golden Promise and Igri are the most amenable barley cultivars for stable transformation. Here we evaluated the regeneration ratios and endogenous hormone levels of calli derived from various malting barley cultivars, including Golden Promise, Haruna Nijo, and Morex. We harvested samples not only from immature embryos, but also from different explants of juvenile plants, cotyledons, coleoptiles, and roots. The callus properties differed among genotypes and explant types. Calli derived from the immature embryos of Golden Promise, which showed the highest ratio of regeneration of green shoots, had the highest contents of indoleacetic acid, trans-zeatin, and cis-zeatin. By contrast, calli derived from the cotyledons of Morex and the immature embryos of Haruna Nijo had elevated levels of salicylic acid and abscisic acid, respectively. We thus propose that the former phytohormones are positively associated with the regeneration ability of callus but the later phytohormones are negatively associated. PMID:26735586

  12. Assesment of amylose and amylopectin variability in barley germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley grain is composed of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. The present study was conducted to investigate the variability for amylose and amylopectin content in different accessions of wild and cultivated barley from different regions. Our results showed that apparent amylose content ranged from 14.1 to 35.8 percentage, 5.7 to 26.8 percentage and 13.9 to 36.2 percentage for wild barley, barley landraces and varieties, respectively. The highest range for amylopectin content was observed in barley landraces from 33.7 to 81.7 percentage with the highest mean average value and the lowest range from 39.9 to 63.7 percentage with 52.5 percentage mean average value was observed in wild barley for amylopectin content. Furthermore, we found that out of 157 accessions, 52 had an average content of amylose (20-30 percentage), whereas six accessions had more than 30 percentage of amylose content. Our results indicated that the wild barley and barley varieties had considerable variation for amylose and amylopectin ratio compared to barley landraces, which not only provided some useful information about the difference in the amount of amylose and amylopectin content among these barley accessions, but also offered some prospects of using selected germplasm for barley quality improvement in respect of preferred amylose and amylopectin content. (author)

  13. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the...... physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars for...

  14. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Bowra, Steve

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the...... physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars for...

  15. Fast neutron mutagenesis in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to conduct a deletion mutant analysis of the barley genome, seeds of cultivar 'Steptoe' were irradiated in 1992 with two doses of fast neutrons, 3.5 Gy and 4.0 Gy at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf SNIF facility by Dr. H. Brunner. M1 seeds were grown at Pullman, Washington, USA in the field. Approximately 500 M2 spikes were picked from each treatment and the remainder harvested in bulk. Mutation rates were determined on 1000 bulk M2 seedlings (chlorophyll deficient) and 500 M2 head rows (chlorophyll deficient and morphological) per treatment. Chlorophyll-deficient mutations were observed at a frequency of 8.1% and 9.4% on M1 spike basis and 2.2% and 2.6% on M2 seedling basis for the 3.5 and 4.0 Gy treatments, respectively. Total mutations observed in the field were 19.0% and 20.8% on M1 spike basis for the two treatments. Approximately 2,500 M2 seedlings were assayed for nitrate reductasedeficient mutants and 12,000 M2 seeds screened for waxy mutants. Although several putative mutants were identified, none have been confirmed to date. The mutation frequencies observed are similar for both treatments and appear to be approximately the same as what we have previously observed with γ-radiation treatments. The absence of nitrate reductase-deficient and waxy mutants is most likely due to the small population size screened. The morphological mutants recovered include dwarfs, sterile, necrotic, glossy, elongated outer glume, winter type and some very interesting floral mutants such as multi-ovary and branched inflorescence. Mutants affecting functions of genes for which cloned DNA segments are available will be sought in order to identify specific molecular changes that have been induced by fast neutron radiation. (author)

  16. The effect of irradiating barley seeds (Hordeum Vulgare) on plantlet growth and net blotch resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds of two cultivars (Smash and Thibaut) and one line (74-F-6) with water contents adjusted between 12.8 and 13.3%, were irradiated with various doses (1-sup 1 sup 6 sup 0 Gy) of sup 6 sup 0 Co γ rays. Doses of 1-sup 4 sup 0 Gy favored an increases length of the first leaf. In general, doses of 15 and sup 2 sup 0 Gy decreased barley susceptibility to Drechrlera teres f. maculata by 25 and 21%, respectively. This reduction was a function of the line or cultivar used. The best response was obtained with cv. Smash. Seedling growth stimulation and host susceptibility to D. teres were significantly correlated (r= -0.68). The stimulatory effect of γ rays on growth could be used at low levels, to provide adequate field resistance to net blotch caused by D. teres f. maculata. (author). 28 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Resistance to Stem Rust Pathotype TTKSK Maps to the Rgp4/Rpg5 Complex of Chromosome 5H of Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) pathotype TTKSK (original isolate synonym Ug99) is a serious threat to both wheat and barley production worldwide because of its wide virulence on many cultivars and rapid spread from eastern Africa. Line Q21861 is one of the most resistant bar...

  18. Localising QTLs for leaf rust resistance and agronomic traits in barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kicherer, S.; Backes, G.; Walther, U.; Jahoor, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Hordeum vulgare accession 'HOR 1063' was crossed with the barley cultivar Krona, and 220 doubled haploid lines were produced based on this cross. A molecular map was constructed based on RFLP markers. Field trials were performed over 2 years and at two locations. In field trials, resistance t...

  19. Investigation of the somaclonal and mutagen induced variability in barley by the application of protein and DNA markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is one of the most important crop species for Bulgaria. The characterisation of the genetic pool is of great necessity for the Bulgarian barley breeding programme which is directed toward improving quantitative and qualitative traits. Molecular markers [protein, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)] have been applied to characterise the Bulgarian barley cultivars and their regenerants. The changes in DNA loci coding for 26S, 5.8S and 18S rRNA repeats, C hordein locus and mitochondrial DNA organisation have been investigated. The potential for ribosomal DNA length polymorphism in Bulgarian barley cultivars appear to be limited to three different repeat lengths (10.2, 9.5 and 9.0kb) and three plant rDNA phenotypes. Polymorphism was not observed in ribosomal DNA repeat units in somaclonal variants. Variation concerning C hordein electrophoretic pattern was observed in one line from cultivar Jubiley. Analysis of the HorI locus reveals RFLPs in sequences coding for C hordeins in this line. Mitochondrial molecular markers are convenient for detection of DNA polymorphisms in the variant germplasm as well as for the somaclonal variants derived from it. Two lines from Ruen revealed polymorphic bands after hybridisation with mitochondrial DNA probe. RAPD assays have been carried out by using 20 different 10-mer primers. Heritable polymorphism in several tissue culture derived (TCD) lines was observed. RAPD assay is a sensitive and representative approach to distinguish the variability created by tissue culture and mutagenesis

  20. Genetic introgression and species boundary of two geographically overlapping pine species revealed by molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Defang; Xia, Tao; Yan, Maomao; Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine trees along an elevation gradient in Anhui Province, China and analyzed these samples using EST-SSR markers. The molecular data revealed that direct gene flow between the two species was fairly low, and that the majority of gene introgression was intermediated by backcrossing. On the basis of empirical observation, the on-site distribution of pines was divided into a P. massoniana zone, a hybrid zone, and a P. hwangshanensis zone. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the existence of a distinct species boundary between the two pine species. The genetic boundary of the hybrid zone, on the other hand, was indistinct owing to intensive backcrossing with parental species. Compared with P. massoniana, P. hwangshanensis was found to backcross with the hybrids more intensively, consistent with the observation that morphological and anatomical characteristics of trees in the contact zone were biased towards P. hwangshanensis. The introgression ability of amplified alleles varied across species, with some being completely blocked from interspecific introgression. Our study has provided a living example to help explain the persistence of adjacently distributed species coexisting with their interfertile hybrids. PMID:24977711

  1. Genetic introgression and species boundary of two geographically overlapping pine species revealed by molecular markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defang Zhang

    Full Text Available Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine trees along an elevation gradient in Anhui Province, China and analyzed these samples using EST-SSR markers. The molecular data revealed that direct gene flow between the two species was fairly low, and that the majority of gene introgression was intermediated by backcrossing. On the basis of empirical observation, the on-site distribution of pines was divided into a P. massoniana zone, a hybrid zone, and a P. hwangshanensis zone. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the existence of a distinct species boundary between the two pine species. The genetic boundary of the hybrid zone, on the other hand, was indistinct owing to intensive backcrossing with parental species. Compared with P. massoniana, P. hwangshanensis was found to backcross with the hybrids more intensively, consistent with the observation that morphological and anatomical characteristics of trees in the contact zone were biased towards P. hwangshanensis. The introgression ability of amplified alleles varied across species, with some being completely blocked from interspecific introgression. Our study has provided a living example to help explain the persistence of adjacently distributed species coexisting with their interfertile hybrids.

  2. Reticulate evolutionary history and extensive introgression in mosquito species revealed by phylogenetic network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dingqiao; Yu, Yun; Hahn, Matthew W; Nakhleh, Luay

    2016-06-01

    The role of hybridization and subsequent introgression has been demonstrated in an increasing number of species. Recently, Fontaine et al. (Science, 347, 2015, 1258524) conducted a phylogenomic analysis of six members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Their analysis revealed a reticulate evolutionary history and pointed to extensive introgression on all four autosomal arms. The study further highlighted the complex evolutionary signals that the co-occurrence of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and introgression can give rise to in phylogenomic analyses. While tree-based methodologies were used in the study, phylogenetic networks provide a more natural model to capture reticulate evolutionary histories. In this work, we reanalyse the Anopheles data using a recently devised framework that combines the multispecies coalescent with phylogenetic networks. This framework allows us to capture ILS and introgression simultaneously, and forms the basis for statistical methods for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories. The new analysis reveals a phylogenetic network with multiple hybridization events, some of which differ from those reported in the original study. To elucidate the extent and patterns of introgression across the genome, we devise a new method that quantifies the use of reticulation branches in the phylogenetic network by each genomic region. Applying the method to the mosquito data set reveals the evolutionary history of all the chromosomes. This study highlights the utility of 'network thinking' and the new insights it can uncover, in particular in phylogenomic analyses of large data sets with extensive gene tree incongruence. PMID:26808290

  3. Cell membrane stability in two barley genotypes under water stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Bandurska; Halina Gniazdowska-Skoczek

    2014-01-01

    The effect of water stress induced in vitro by polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) and under drought stress on cell membrane stability was examined in two barley genotypes, the cultivar Aramir and line R567. The injury of cell membranes was markely influenced by leaf age, leaf position on the stem, and the degree of drought stress. The differences in percentage of injury to cell membrane between these genotypes were also found. The cv. Aramir exhibited a lower percentage injury value as compared t...

  4. Water deficit-induced membrane injury and oxidative stress in two barley genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Bandurska; Jolanta Floryszak-Wieczorek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the effect of water deficit on membrane injuries, superoxide radical generation and lipid peroxidation in the leaves of two barley genotypes. Six-day-old seedlings of the cv. Aramir and line R567 were used in the experiments. According to our earlier work these genotypes significantly differ in the level of membrane injuries under water deficit conditions. Water stress was applied directly to leaves or to roots. The stress caused considerable membrane ...

  5. Investigations on the relative biologic effectiveness of fast neutrons in barley and maize after dry seed irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spring barley cultivar Elsa and the inbred maize line S-144 were used. Seeds having 12% moisture were irradiated with 4 doses of γ-rays and fast neutrons. The relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) was determined in regard to germination, sterility and chlorophyll mutation frequency. RBE-values for barley varied within the range of 15 to 31 for the individual criteria, while for maize the range was 4 to 14 respectively. It was established that with the rise in fast neutron irradiation doses RBE diminishes. (author)

  6. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  7. Damage resistance and microstructure of barley kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velikanov L.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Relations between mechanical properties, damage susceptibility and microstructure of five Polish cultivars of barley were examined. Brabender Hardness test, Instron measurements, PSI, PRI, and glassiness were used to characterise mechanical properties. The structure analysis was carried out with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microscopy. Mechanical properties of grain were related to barley cultivar. Grain of cultivars with glassy endosperm were characterised by higher mechanical resistance than those with floury endosperm. Particle size distribution of the extracted starch granules, as determined by digital image analysis, did not correlate with the mechanical properties of barley grains. Generally speaking, the number of damaged kernels correlated with the fracture resistance and was related both to the direction of compression force and water content of grain. Compression along the axis of kernel thickness always resulted in a high number of damaged creases. When water content was high no damaged to the crease zone and a low number of internal damage was characteristic of kernels compressed along the width axis. It was observed that barley endosperm cracked inside cells, while the spaces between cell walls remained unfractured.

  8. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Vincze, Éva; Holm, Preben Bach

    2010-01-01

    barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  9. Induced micromutations in barley for protein content and quality in low-rainfall areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two high-yielding barley varieties were treated with mutagenic agents at three doses and the results were evaluated in M5-M7 in replicated trials at different locations. The aim was to select mutants with small changes in crude protein content and DBC without depression of yield. Lines with 0.5 to 1.0 percentage points higher crude protein content and 1.0 to 2.0mg higher DBC per 800mg flour than the control were selected. In all except one selected line there was a yield depression, which, however, was very small in certain lines. It appears that it is possible to increase the protein content slightly without decreasing the yield, thereby achieving a higher protein yield per unit area. Least significant differences detected in replicated trials at single locations varied with location from 0.51 to 1.73 percentage points for crude protein content and from 1.64 to 2.00mg for DBC. Trials at more than one location enable smaller differences to be detected. Variations in grain yield of three barley and one wheat varieties induced by changes in the environment were positively correlated with protein content (r ranged from 0.78 to 0.95), while in four other wheat varieties the correlation was not significant. It is suggested that in the case of barley varieties the increase in non-protein dry matter acted as a stimulus for a proportionally higher increase in nitrogen uptake. (author)

  10. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    , with an apparent shift towards abiotic stress responses. Finally the population genetic study based on low distances between populations samples in Denmark and Scotland and high genotypic diversity gave indications of a pathogen with a high evolutionary potential. Altogether, this points to a plant......Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight...... into these aspects four experiments were set up; (1) a mapping experiment aiming at identifying QTL’s controlling disease levels under field conditions was conducted in two winterbarley populations. (2) a toxin assay testing the parental lines used in the mapping populations for response to Rubellin D...

  11. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus. PMID:25752426

  12. Composition and nutritional quality of barley protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lysine concentration in barley seed protein is known to depend on both genetical and environmental factors. We investigated whether the differences in lysine concentration as well as the differences in nutritional quality between various barley cultivars could be accounted for by the protein composition of the hordein fraction. Hordein, the low lysine storage protein in barley seed, is classified in A, B and C hordeins with decreasing lysine content. The Riso high lysine mutants are characterized by decreased amounts of at least one of the three fractions. With increasing N-fertilization the content of the C hordeins in particular is elevated disproportionally more than the total N-content, resulting in overall decreasing lysine concentrations. Rat-feeding experiments did not displace any significant difference between the protein digestibility in the mutants and in the parent varieties. The biological value (BV) averaged 77 for field-grown normal-lysine barley against 90 for the high lysine mutant 1508. A marked negative correlation between BV and percentage N in the seed was found for both Bomi and mutant 1508. A marked negative correlation between BV and percentage N in the seed was found for both Bomi and mutant 1508. In Bomi this could be explained by the variation in lysine concentration whereas the sulphur-containing amino acids probably are limiting in mutant 1508. Provided that lysine is the first limiting amino acid, the nutritional quality of barley seed protein is closely related to the content of B- and C-hordeins. When this is not the case, as in mutant 1508, other unidentified proteins or groups of proteins become of importance. (author)

  13. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  14. Does genetic introgression improve female reproductive performance? A test on the endangered Florida panther.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Bolker, Benjamin M; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2012-01-01

    Genetic introgression has been suggested as a management tool for mitigating detrimental effects of inbreeding depression, but the role of introgression in species conservation has been controversial, partly because population-level impacts of genetic introgressions are not well understood. Concerns about potential inbreeding depression in the endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) led to the release of eight female Texas pumas (P. c. stanleyana) into the Florida panther population in 1995. We used long-term reproductive data (1995-2008) collected from 61 female Florida panthers to estimate and model reproduction probability (probability of producing a litter) and litter size, and to investigate the influence of intentional genetic introgression on these parameters. Overall, 6-month probability of reproduction (±1SE) was 0.232 ± 0.021 and average litter size was 2.60 ± 0.09. Although F(1) admixed females had a lower reproduction probability than females with other ancestries, this was most likely because kittens born to F(1) females survive better; consequently, these females are unavailable for breeding until kittens are independent. There was no evidence for the effect of ancestry on litter size or of heterozygosity on probability of reproduction or litter size. In contrast, earlier studies have shown that genetic introgression positively affected Florida panther survival. Our results, along with those of earlier studies, clearly suggest that genetic introgression can have differential effects on components of fitness and highlight the importance of examining multiple demographic parameters when evaluating the effects of management actions. PMID:21805300

  15. Introgression from domestic goat generated variation at the major histocompatibility complex of Alpine ibex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Grossen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex. At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2, Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8% to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection.

  16. Mapping the genomic architecture of adaptive traits with interspecific introgressive origin: a coalescent-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejase, Hussein A; Liu, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of eukaryotes including human and Neandertal, mice, and butterflies have highlighted the major role that interspecific introgression has played in adaptive trait evolution. A common question arises in each case: what is the genomic architecture of the introgressed traits? One common approach that can be used to address this question is association mapping, which looks for genotypic markers that have significant statistical association with a trait. It is well understood that sample relatedness can be a confounding factor in association mapping studies if not properly accounted for. Introgression and other evolutionary processes (e.g., incomplete lineage sorting) typically introduce variation among local genealogies, which can also differ from global sample structure measured across all genomic loci. In contrast, state-of-the-art association mapping methods assume fixed sample relatedness across the genome, which can lead to spurious inference. We therefore propose a new association mapping method called Coal-Map, which uses coalescent-based models to capture local genealogical variation alongside global sample structure. Using simulated and empirical data reflecting a range of evolutionary scenarios, we compare the performance of Coal-Map against EIGENSTRAT, a leading association mapping method in terms of its popularity, power, and type I error control. Our empirical data makes use of hundreds of mouse genomes for which adaptive interspecific introgression has recently been described. We found that Coal-Map's performance is comparable or better than EIGENSTRAT in terms of statistical power and false positive rate. Coal-Map's performance advantage was greatest on model conditions that most closely resembled empirically observed scenarios of adaptive introgression. These conditions had: (1) causal SNPs contained in one or a few introgressed genomic loci and (2) varying rates of gene flow - from high rates to very low rates where incomplete lineage

  17. Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackay Ian J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of population sub-structure. A major genotypic division within barley is that between winter- and spring-sown varieties, which differ in their requirement for vernalization to promote subsequent flowering. To date, all attempts to validate association genetics in barley by identifying major flowering time loci that control vernalization requirement (VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 have failed. Here, we validate the use of association genetics in barley by identifying VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, despite their prominent role in determining population sub-structure. Results By taking barley as a typical inbreeding crop, and seasonal growth habit as a major partitioning phenotype, we develop an association mapping approach which successfully identifies VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, the underlying loci largely responsible for this agronomic division. We find a combination of Structured Association followed by Genomic Control to correct for population structure and inflation of the test statistic, resolved significant associations only with VRN-H1 and the VRN-H2 candidate genes, as well as two genes closely linked to VRN-H1 (HvCSFs1 and HvPHYC. Conclusion We show that, after employing appropriate statistical methods to correct for population sub-structure, the genome-wide partitioning effect of allelic status at VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 does not result in the high levels of spurious association expected to occur in highly structured samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both VRN-H1 and the candidate VRN-H2 genes can be identified using association mapping

  18. Molecular mapping of a recessive gene for resistance to stripe rust in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, G P; Chen, X M

    2006-08-01

    Barley stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, is one of the most important barley (Hordeum vulgare) diseases in the United States. The disease is best controlled using resistant cultivars. Barley genotype Grannenlose Zweizeilige (GZ) has a recessive gene (rpsGZ) that is effective against all races of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei identified so far in the USA. To develop a molecular map for mapping the gene, F(8 )recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from the Steptoe X GZ cross through single-seed descent. Seedlings of the parents and RILs were evaluated for resistance to races PSH-14 and PSH-54 of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei under controlled greenhouse conditions. Genomic DNA was extracted from the parents and 182 F(8 )RILs and used for linkage analysis. The resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) technique was used to identify molecular markers for rpsGZ. A linkage group for the gene was constructed with 12 RGAP markers, of which two markers co-segregated with the resistance locus, and two markers were closely linked to the locus with a genetic distance of 0.9 and 2.0 cM, respectively. These four markers were present only in the susceptible parent. The closest marker to the resistance allele was 11.7 cM away. Analyses of two sets of barley chromosome addition lines of wheat with the two RGAP markers that were cosegregating with the susceptibility allele showed that rpsGZ and the markers were located on the long arm of barley chromosome 4H. Further, tests with four simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers confirmed the chromosomal location of the rpsGZ gene and also integrated the RGAP markers into the known SSR-based linkage map of barley. The closest SSR marker EBmac0679 had a genetic distance of 7.5 cM with the gene in the integrated linkage map constructed with the 12 RGAP markers and 4 SSR markers. The information on chromosomal location and molecular markers for rpsGZ should be useful for incorporating this gene into commercial

  19. Stress tolerance of transgenic barley accumulating the alfalfa aldose reductase in the cytoplasm and the chloroplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Bettina; Majer, Petra; Mihály, Róbert; Pauk, János; Horváth, Gábor V

    2016-09-01

    Barley represents one of the major crops grown worldwide; its genetic transformation provides an important tool for the improvement of crop quality and tolerance to environmental stress factors. Biotic and abiotic stresses produce reactive oxygen species in the plant cells that can directly oxidize the cellular components including lipid membranes; resulting in lipid peroxidation and subsequently the accumulation of reactive carbonyl compounds. In order to protect barley plants from the effects of stress-produced reactive carbonyls, an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was carried out using the Medicago sativa aldose reductase (MsALR) gene. In certain transgenic lines the produced MsALR enzyme was targeted to the chloroplasts to evaluate its protective effect in these organelles. The dual fluorescent protein-based method was used for the evaluation of tolerance of young seedlings to diverse stresses; our results demonstrated that this technique could be reliably applied for the detection of cellular stress in a variety of conditions. The chlorophyll and carotenoid content measurements also supported the results of the fluorescent protein-based method and the stress-protective effect of the MsALR enzyme. Targeting of MsALR into the chloroplast has also resulted in increased stress tolerance, similarly to the observed effect of the cytosolic MsALR accumulation. The results of the DsRed/GFP fluorescent protein-based method indicated that both the cytosol and chloroplast accumulation of MsALR can increase the abiotic stress tolerance of transgenic barley lines. PMID:27469099

  20. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  1. Impact of Pre-Anthesis Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants Grown under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria I. Al-Ajlouni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought at pre-anthesis stages can influence barley growth and results in yield losses. Therefore, it is important to understand how drought at pre-anthesis can affect different traits associated with yield reduction in barley. The objective of this study was to understand the relevance of the genetic background of major flowering time genes in barley plants subjected to pre-anthesis drought and its impact on yield and yield components. A glasshouse experiment using a Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted to investigate the effect of drought and its timing on yield and yield components on eleven barley genotypes, which were selected to represent genetic diversity of major flowering time genes (PPDH1, PPDH2, HvVrn1, HvVrn2 and HvVrn3. Barley plants were exposed to three water regimes, non-stressed and stressed, which was applied at two pre-anthesis growth stages, tillering (SS and stem elongation (SE. Results identified differences among genotypes in all measured traits. Grain yield, grain number and "thousand kernel weight" were reduced in all genotypes due to drought, irrespective of the growth stage. Early flowering genotypes had better performance as reflected in higher yield compared with late flowering genotypes. Results verified the fundamental importance of early flowering to improve productivity in response to pre-anthesis drought. The results of this study can help in selecting barley lines for future breeding purposes with improved resilience to drought conditions in Mediterranean environments.

  2. Dataset for transcriptional response of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to drought and subsequent re-watering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokáš, Filip; Vojta, Petr; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important species, which can be cultivated in environmentally adverse conditions due to its higher tolerance in contrast to other cereal crops. The draft of H. vulgare genome is available already for couple of years; however its functional annotation is still incomplete. All available databases were searched to expand current annotation. The improved annotation was used to describe processes and genes regulated in transgenic lines showing higher tolerance to drought in our associated article, doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2016.01.010 (Vojta et al., 2016) [1]. Here we present whole transcriptome response, using extended annotation, to severe drought stress and subsequent re-watering in wild-type barley plants in stem elongation phase of growth. Up- and down-regulated genes fall into distinct GO categories and these enriched by stress and revitalization are highlighted. Transcriptomic data were evaluated separately for root and aerial tissues. PMID:27331111

  3. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  4. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA re...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development.......The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...

  5. Genetic analysis of hybridization and introgression between wild mongoose and brown lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nievergelt Caroline M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid zones generally represent areas of secondary contact after speciation. The nature of the interaction between genes of individuals in a hybrid zone is of interest in the study of evolutionary processes. In this study, data from nuclear microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to genetically characterize hybridization between wild mongoose lemurs (Eulemur mongoz and brown lemurs (E. fulvus at Anjamena in west Madagascar. Results Two segments of mtDNA have been sequenced and 12 microsatellite loci screened in 162 brown lemurs and mongoose lemurs. Among the mongoose lemur population at Anjamena, we identified two F1 hybrids (one also having the mtDNA haplotype of E. fulvus and six other individuals with putative introgressed alleles in their genotype. Principal component analysis groups both hybrids as intermediate between E. mongoz and E. fulvus and admixture analyses revealed an admixed genotype for both animals. Paternity testing proved one F1 hybrid to be fertile. Of the eight brown lemurs genotyped, all have either putative introgressed microsatellite alleles and/or the mtDNA haplotype of E. mongoz. Conclusion Introgression is bidirectional for the two species, with an indication that it is more frequent in brown lemurs than in mongoose lemurs. We conclude that this hybridization occurs because mongoose lemurs have expanded their range relatively recently. Introgressive hybridization may play an important role in the unique lemur radiation, as has already been shown in other rapidly evolving animals.

  6. Chromosome engineering for alien gene introgression in wheat: Progress and prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome engineering is a useful strategy for introgression of desirable genes from wild relatives into cultivated wheat. However, it has been a challenge to transfer a small amount of alien chromatin containing the gene of interest from one genome to another non-homologous genome through classic...

  7. Genetic diversity enhanced by ancient introgression and secondary contact in East Pacific black mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettel, Alejandro; Dodd, Richard S; Afzal-Rafii, Zara; Tovilla-Hernández, Cristian

    2008-06-01

    Regional distribution of genetic diversity in widespread species may be influenced by hybridization with locally restricted, closely related species. Previous studies have shown that Central American East Pacific populations of the wide-ranged Avicennia germinans, the black mangrove, harbour higher genetic diversity than the rest of its range. Genetic diversity in this region might be enhanced by introgression with the locally restricted Avicennia bicolor. We tested the hypotheses of ancient hybridization using phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and intergenic chloroplast DNA; we also tested for current hybridization by population level analysis of nuclear microsatellites. Our results unveiled ancient ITS introgression between a northern Pacific Central American A. germinans lineage and A. bicolor. However, microsatellite data revealed contemporary isolation between the two species. Polymorphic ITS sequences from Costa Rica and Panama are consistent with a zone of admixture between the introgressant ITS A. germinans lineage and a southern Central American lineage of A. germinans. Interspecific introgression influenced lineage diversity and divergence at the nuclear ribosomal DNA; intraspecific population differentiation and secondary contact are more likely to have enhanced regional genetic diversity in Pacific Central American populations of the widespread A. germinans. PMID:18466233

  8. Introgression of Gossypium klotzschianum Genome into Cultivated Cotton,G.hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xin-lian; ZHANG Xiang-gui; YANG Yu-wen; CAO Zhi-bin; NI Wan-chao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Exotic Gossypium germplasm is a rich source of useful agronomic traits for improvement programs of cultivated cotton.Efficient use of genetic variation available in the wild relatives depends on the ability to identify and introgress desirable DNA segments from wild species into cultivated cotton.

  9. Differential introgression and reorganization of retrotransposons in hybrid zones between wild wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senerchia, Natacha; Felber, François; North, Béatrice; Sarr, Anouk; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Parisod, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The maintenance of species integrity despite pervasive hybridization is ruled by the interplay between reproductive barriers. Endogenous postzygotic isolation will shape the patterns of introgression in hybrid zones, leading to variable outcomes depending on the genetic mechanism involved. Here, we analysed experimental and natural hybrid populations of Aegilops geniculata and Aegilops triuncialis to examine the genetics of species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Because long-terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) showing differential evolutionary trajectories are probably to affect hybrid dysgenesis and reproductive isolation between these wild wheat species, we addressed the impact of LTR-RTs in shaping introgression between them. Experimental settings involving artificial sympatry and enforced crossings quantified strong, but incomplete reproductive isolation, and highlighted asymmetrical endogenous postzygotic isolation between the two species. Natural hybrid zones located in the northern Golan Heights were analysed using plastid DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) marking random sequences, and sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms (SSAP) tracking insertions from six LTR-RT families. This analysis demonstrated asymmetrical introgression and genome reorganization. In comparison with random sequences and quiescent LTR-RTs, those LTR-RTs predicted to be activated following conflicting interactions in hybrids revealed differential introgression across the hybrid zones. As also reported for synthetic F1 hybrids, such LTR-RTs were specifically reorganized in the genomes of viable hybrids, confirming that conflicts between selfish LTR-RTs may represent key incompatibilities shaping species boundaries and fostering long-term species integrity in the face of gene flow. PMID:26678573

  10. Revisiting a classic case of introgression: hybridization and gene flow in Californian sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gregory L; Baute, Gregory J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-06-01

    During invasion, colonizing species can hybridize with native species, potentially swamping out native genomes. However, theory predicts that introgression will often be biased into the invading species. Thus, empirical estimates of gene flow between native and invasive species are important to quantify the actual threat of hybridization with invasive species. One classic example of introgression occurs in California, where Helianthus bolanderi was thought to be a hybrid between the serpentine endemic Helianthus exilis and the congeneric invader Helianthus annuus. We used genotyping by sequencing to look for signals of introgression and population structure. We find that H. bolanderi and H. exilis form one genetic clade, with weak population structure that is associated with geographic location rather than soil composition and likely represent a single species, not two. Additionally, while our results confirmed early molecular analysis and failed to support the hybrid origin of H. bolanderi, we did find evidence for introgression mainly into the invader H. annuus, as predicted by theory. PMID:26840428

  11. Mating, hybridisation and introgression in Lasius ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Have, Tom; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    Recent reviews have shown that hybridisation among ant species is likely to be more common than previously appreci-ated, but that documented cases of introgression remain rare. After molecular phylogenetic work had shown that Euro-pean Lasius niger (LINNAEUS, 1758) and L. psammophilus SEIFERT, 1992...

  12. Microbial dynamics during barley tempeh fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xinmei

    2006-01-01

    Tempeh is a traditional staple food in Indonesia mainly made from soybeans. Barley tempeh has been developed by adapting the soybean tempeh process. During soybean tempeh fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporus is dominant. However, other fungi and bacteria also occur, which may influence tempeh quality or even constitute a health risk. Introduction of food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to tempeh fermentation may enhance tempeh nutritional and hygienic quality. The abilities of LAB a...

  13. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  14. Enhancement of methane production from barley waste

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Two different approaches were attempted to try and enhance methane production from an industrial waste composed of 100% barley, which results from production of instant coffee substitutes. In previous work, this waste was co-digested with an excess of activated sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant located in same industrial unit, resulting in a very poor methane yield (25LCH4(STP)/ kgVSinitial), and low reductions in total solids (31%) and in volatile solids (40%). Wh...

  15. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...... significantly decreased the Bgh haustorial formation rate, indicating their contribution to fungal pathogenesis. All these CSEPs were highly expressed during and after haustorial formation, suggesting that they play a role in virulence during the late infection processes. In addition, they all localized to the...... misfolding and aggregation. Through their chaperone activity, some sHsps contribute to pathogen defence by stabilizing intracellular proteins, including resistance and defence signalling proteins. In this study, we validated the chaperone activity of the barley Hsp16.9, which prevented the aggregation of...

  16. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine;

    2007-01-01

    for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the...... length influenced stability but not efficiency of VIGS. Silencing was transient in most cases; however, the decrease in PDS mRNA levels measured by qRT-PCR began earlier and lasted longer than the photobleaching. Occasionally, silencing persisted and could be transmitted through seed as well as via......Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...

  17. Introgression of transgenic crop alleles: Its evolutionary impacts on conserving genetic diversity of crop wild relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Rong LU

    2013-01-01

    Effective conservation of crop wild relative (CWR) species is essential for the sustainable use and genetic improvement of crop varieties,which offers greater opportunities for world food security,particularly in modem agroecosystems where CWR diversity is under severe threat.Factors such as habitat fragmentation,human disturbances,global climate change,and invasion of harmful alien species have been identified to be responsible for losses and threats to CWR diversity.However,a neglected factor,gene introgression from domesticated species through repeated outcrossing,may have a significant impact on CWR diversity.Introgression can influence genetic diversity and evolutionary processes of CWR populations through effects such as demographic swarming,genetic assimilation,and selective sweep.When largely enhancing or reducing fitness of wild plants,the introgression of crop genes will impose more significant genetic and evolutionary impacts on CWR populations,leading to undesired consequences for conserved CWR populations and species.This situation is particularly true when genetically engineered (GE) crops are deployed for commercial cultivation.It is argued that a GE crop usually contains transgenes with strong natural selection advantages,and such transgenes introgressed into CWR populations may have strong impacts on their genetic diversity and evolutionary processes,threatening their conservation.This article reviews the challenge of crop-wild gene flow,and particularly transgene introgression from GE crops,for the in situ conservation of wild relative species.The design of effective management strategies for conserving CWR species under the scenario of extensive cultivation of GE crops is also discussed.

  18. Effect Of Barley Fibres And Barley Intake On The Ileal Endogenous Nitrogen Losses In Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Leterme, Pascal; Souffrant, Wb.; Thewis, André

    2000-01-01

    Ileal endogenous N losses (ENL) were measured, using the 15N isotope dilution technique, in piglets (17 kg) fed different barley genotypes (naked, spring, winter with low/high beta-glucan content) or diets containing 330, 530, 730 or 930 g of a blend of barleys/kg diet. The apparent protein and amino acid digestibilities of the naked variety and the winter variety with a high beta-glucan content were, on average, significantly higher than those for the other two varieties. The ENL were invers...

  19. TILLING in two-rowed spring barley: mutation frequencies and phenotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) searches the genomes of mutagenized organisms for mutations in a chosen gene, and allows functional analysis in the context of the whole organism. Moreover, TILLING extends reverse genetics to mutation breeding, since it can generate large allelic series of economically interesting genes. As part of the GABI-TILL consortium (GABI II) we have established a TILLING platform for the two-rowed, malting barley cultivar 'Barke'. The population comprises 10,492 M2 plants, and the respective DNA was arranged in 8-fold two dimensional (2D)-pools for mutation screening. Mutations were detected by following the original TILLING procedure of Cel I based hetero-duplex analysis. By screening ten gene fragments for mutations in 7,348 M2 lines 81 mutations were identified, yielding an average mutation frequency of approximately 1 mutation per 0.5 Mb. Seventy-nine percent of these mutations were located in coding regions of the analysed gene fragments of which 45% represented missense alleles inducing a change of amino acid in the protein. Five percent of the mutations provided truncation mutations either by elimination of a splice junction or by insertion of a premature stop codon. For instance for the vrs1 gene (Komatsuda et al. 2007), which is the major factor that controls row-type morphology of the barley spike, thirty-one mutations were identified by screening a 1,270bp fragment. Three of the identified mutants either exhibited a 6-rowed or an intermediate phenotype. One mutant displayed a spikelet morphology that was significantly altered compared to 'Barke' wild-type. The barley TILLING activity is going to be extended into the GABI-Future program. Additionally, tests to improve mutation frequency in barley will be undertaken. Furthermore, attempts for generating an instantly homozygous TILLING-Population by Barley microspore culture mutagenesis are underway in co-operation with the group of Jochen Kumlehn (Co-PI GABI-FUTURE-TILL-Barley

  20. Molecular analysis of point mutations in a barley genome exposed to MNU and gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurowska, Marzena, E-mail: mkurowsk@us.edu.pl [Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia, Jagiellonska 28, 40-032 Katowice (Poland); Labocha-Pawlowska, Anna; Gnizda, Dominika; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona [Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia, Jagiellonska 28, 40-032 Katowice (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    We present studies aimed at determining the types and frequencies of mutations induced in the barley genome after treatment with chemical (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, MNU) and physical (gamma rays) mutagens. We created M{sub 2} populations of a doubled haploid line and used them for the analysis of mutations in targeted DNA sequences and over an entire barley genome using TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique, respectively. Based on the TILLING analysis of the total DNA sequence of 4,537,117 bp in the MNU population, the average mutation density was estimated as 1/504 kb. Only one nucleotide change was found after an analysis of 3,207,444 bp derived from the highest dose of gamma rays applied. MNU was clearly a more efficient mutagen than gamma rays in inducing point mutations in barley. The majority (63.6%) of the MNU-induced nucleotide changes were transitions, with a similar number of G > A and C > T substitutions. The similar share of G > A and C > T transitions indicates a lack of bias in the repair of O{sup 6}-methylguanine lesions between DNA strands. There was, however, a strong specificity of the nucleotide surrounding the O{sup 6}-meG at the -1 position. Purines formed 81% of nucleotides observed at the -1 site. Scanning the barley genome with AFLP markers revealed ca. a three times higher level of AFLP polymorphism in MNU-treated as compared to the gamma-irradiated population. In order to check whether AFLP markers can really scan the whole barley genome for mutagen-induced polymorphism, 114 different AFLP products, were cloned and sequenced. 94% of bands were heterogenic, with some bands containing up to 8 different amplicons. The polymorphic AFLP products were characterised in terms of their similarity to the records deposited in a GenBank database. The types of sequences present in the polymorphic bands reflected the organisation of the barley genome.

  1. Molecular analysis of point mutations in a barley genome exposed to MNU and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present studies aimed at determining the types and frequencies of mutations induced in the barley genome after treatment with chemical (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, MNU) and physical (gamma rays) mutagens. We created M2 populations of a doubled haploid line and used them for the analysis of mutations in targeted DNA sequences and over an entire barley genome using TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique, respectively. Based on the TILLING analysis of the total DNA sequence of 4,537,117 bp in the MNU population, the average mutation density was estimated as 1/504 kb. Only one nucleotide change was found after an analysis of 3,207,444 bp derived from the highest dose of gamma rays applied. MNU was clearly a more efficient mutagen than gamma rays in inducing point mutations in barley. The majority (63.6%) of the MNU-induced nucleotide changes were transitions, with a similar number of G > A and C > T substitutions. The similar share of G > A and C > T transitions indicates a lack of bias in the repair of O6-methylguanine lesions between DNA strands. There was, however, a strong specificity of the nucleotide surrounding the O6-meG at the −1 position. Purines formed 81% of nucleotides observed at the −1 site. Scanning the barley genome with AFLP markers revealed ca. a three times higher level of AFLP polymorphism in MNU-treated as compared to the gamma-irradiated population. In order to check whether AFLP markers can really scan the whole barley genome for mutagen-induced polymorphism, 114 different AFLP products, were cloned and sequenced. 94% of bands were heterogenic, with some bands containing up to 8 different amplicons. The polymorphic AFLP products were characterised in terms of their similarity to the records deposited in a GenBank database. The types of sequences present in the polymorphic bands reflected the organisation of the barley genome.

  2. Identification of Introgressed Lines by the SSR Markers and Agronomic Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; LIU Xiao-jie; SUN Jun-ling; DU Xiong-ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ The wild cotton cultivars and species have abundant genetic polymorphisms,and they possess lots of excellent genes,such as drought resistance,insect resistance,fine and strong fiber,and so on.So cotton breeding experts have widely carried out interspecific hybridization and obtained more than 20 types of advanced generation hybrids with good quality and stable traits between wild resources and upland cotton.

  3. Expression of Ethylene Biosynthesis Genes in Barley Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant hormone ethylene influences green plant regeneration rates from barley callus cultures. Our studies have focused on the effects of short treatments of an ethylene inhibitor or an ethylene precursor on green plant regeneration from two barley cultivars and the expression patterns of two eth...

  4. Production and cytogenetics of Brassica campestris-alboglabra chromosome addition lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B.Y.; Cheng, B.F.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke;

    1997-01-01

    Four different Brassica campestris-alboglabra monosomic addition lines (AA + 1 chromosome from C, 2n = 21) were obtained after consecutive backcrosses between resynthesized B. napus (AACC, 2n = 38) and the parental B. campestris (AA, 2n = 20) accession. The alien chromosomes of B. alboglabra (CC, 2...... occurred during the evolution of the two species. Intergenomic introgression was observed in the progenies of the addition lines. The introgression of an entire B. alboglabra marker synteny group into the B. campestris genome implied the possible occurrence of interspecific chromosomal substitution....

  5. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  6. A role for barley CRYPTOCHROME1 in light regulation of grain dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Jose M; Downie, A Bruce; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately regulate ABA content or how environmental signals (e.g., light and cold) might direct such expression in grains. Our previous studies indicated that light is a key environmental signal inhibiting germination in dormant grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Brachypodium distachyon and that this effect attenuates as after-ripening progresses further. We found that the blue component of the light spectrum inhibits completion of germination in barley by inducing the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and dampening expression of ABA 8'-hydroxylase, thus increasing ABA content in the grain. We have now created barley transgenic lines downregulating the genes encoding the blue light receptors CRYTOCHROME (CRY1) and CRY2. Our results demonstrate that CRY1 is the key receptor perceiving and transducing the blue light signal in dormant grains. PMID:24642944

  7. The International Barley Sequencing Consortium — At the Threshold of Efficient Access to the Barley Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequencing the genome of barley, an agriculturally and industrially important cereal crop and a useful diploid model for bread wheat, has become a realistic undertaking. Important steps have been initiated to improve genomics tools, build and anchor a physical map, develop a high-density genetic ma...

  8. Resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in Barley Is Associated with the Rpg5 Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter; Singh, Davinder; Fetch, Tom; Park, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In barley, gene Rpg5 was first identified for providing resistance to the rye stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis). A subsequent study determined that Rpg5 is required for rpg4-mediated resistance to the wheat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) including pathotype TTKSK ("Ug99"), which poses a major threat to global wheat and barley production. Based on the effectiveness of Rpg5 against P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis, we assessed whether it also conferred resistance to the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae). A barley F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced by crossing 'Q21861' (Rpg1 and Rpg5) with '73-G1' (Rpg1), which is susceptible to P. graminis f. sp. avenae, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, and some pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. Seedling tests were performed on the F8 RIL population using Australian pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae, and a putative somatic hybrid between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis known as the 'Scabrum' rust. Segregation in the responses to all rust isolates for the RILs was identical (50 resistant: 52 susceptible), and fitted a 1:1 ratio (X2=0.039, P=0.843), indicating that resistance to all isolates was monogenetically inherited. Screening of the RILs and the parental lines with perfect markers for the functional Rpg1 and Rpg5 resistance alleles indicated that Rpg1 was fixed, while Rpg5 was positive in all resistant lines and negative in all susceptible lines. This suggests that different formae speciales of P. graminis may share common effectors, and that the Rpg5 locus confers resistance to both P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis and the heterologous formae speciales of P. graminis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae. PMID:25870923

  9. Introgression of tomato chromosomes into the potato genome: an analysis through molecular marker and in situ hybridisation techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderé, F.G.

    1998-01-01

    Transfer of alien chromosomes and genes across intergeneric boundaries can be useful not only for the introgression of desirable characters but also for fundamental genetic studies. The successful demonstration of hybridisation of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) and tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) t

  10. Agronomic evaluation of barley mutants under semi-arid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutant line, Cyp M9, selected from a population of the barley variety Attiki treated with gamma rays, was evaluated against commercial varieties for the grain yield, yield components, and the protein content and yield in 15 trials. The grain yield of Cyp M9 was 14% higher than that of its mother variety, Attiki, and similar to those of the best commercial varieties, Athenais and Kantara. The protein yield of the mutant line (711 kg/ha) was higher than those of the commercial varieties. Regression analyses of the varietal grain yield and the environmental mean showed that the response of Cyp M9 to improved environmental conditions was greater than those of the commercial varieties. Furthermore, Cyp M9 showed a better response to higher rainfall conditions than Kantara. In general, the mutant Cyp M9 responded to environmental changes in the semi-arid environment in a manner similar to, or better than, those of the commercial varieties. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. An introgression on wheat chromosome 4DL in RL6077 (Thatcher*6/PI 250413) confers adult plant resistance to stripe rust and leaf rust (Lr67).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Colin W; Thomas, Julian B; McCallum, Brent D; Humphreys, D Gavin; DePauw, Ronald M; Hayden, Matthew J; Mago, Rohit; Schnippenkoetter, Wendelin; Spielmeyer, Wolfgang

    2010-10-01

    Adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust and stripe rust derived from the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line PI250413 was previously identified in RL6077 (=Thatcher*6/PI250413). The leaf rust resistance gene in RL6077 is phenotypically similar to Lr34 which is located on chromosome 7D. It was previously hypothesized that the gene in RL6077 could be Lr34 translocated to another chromosome. Hybrids between RL6077 and Thatcher and between RL6077 and 7DS and 7DL ditelocentric stocks were examined for first meiotic metaphase pairing. RL6077 formed chain quadrivalents and trivalents relative to Thatcher and Chinese Spring; however both 7D telocentrics paired only as heteromorphic bivalents and never with the multivalents. Thus, chromosome 7D is not involved in any translocation carried by RL6077. A genome-wide scan of SSR markers detected an introgression from chromosome 4D of PI250413 transferred to RL6077 through five cycles of backcrossing to Thatcher. Haplotype analysis of lines from crosses of Thatcher × RL6077 and RL6058 (Thatcher*6/PI58548) × RL6077 showed highly significant associations between introgressed markers (including SSR marker cfd71) and leaf rust resistance. In a separate RL6077-derived population, APR to stripe rust was also tightly linked with cfd71 on chromosome 4DL. An allele survey of linked SSR markers cfd71 and cfd23 on a set of 247 wheat lines from diverse origins indicated that these markers can be used to select for the donor segment in most wheat backgrounds. Comparison of RL6077 with Thatcher in field trials showed no effect of the APR gene on important agronomic or quality traits. Since no other known Lr genes exist on chromosome 4DL, the APR gene in RL6077 has been assigned the name Lr67. PMID:20552325

  12. Polycistronic artificial miRNA-mediated resistance to Wheat dwarf virus in barley is highly efficient at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, András; Tholt, Gergely; Ivanics, Milán; Várallyay, Éva; Jenes, Barnabás; Havelda, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Infection of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) strains on barley results in dwarf disease, imposing severe economic losses on crop production. As the natural resistance resources against this virus are limited, it is imperative to elaborate a biotechnological approach that will provide effective and safe immunity to a wide range of WDV strains. Because vector insect-mediated WDV infection occurs during cool periods in nature, it is important to identify a technology which is effective at lower temperature. In this study, we designed artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) using a barley miRNA precursor backbone, which target different conservative sequence elements of the WDV strains. Potential amiRNA sequences were selected to minimize the off-target effects and were tested in a transient sensor system in order to select the most effective constructs at low temperature. On the basis of the data obtained, a polycistronic amiRNA precursor construct (VirusBuster171) was built expressing three amiRNAs simultaneously. The construct was transformed into barley under the control of a constitutive promoter. The transgenic lines were kept at 12-15 °C to mimic autumn and spring conditions in which major WDV infection and accumulation take place. We were able to establish a stable barley transgenic line displaying resistance to insect-mediated WDV infection. Our study demonstrates that amiRNA technology can be an efficient tool for the introduction of highly efficient resistance in barley against a DNA virus belonging to the Geminiviridae family, and this resistance is effective at low temperature where the natural insect vector mediates the infection process. PMID:26136043

  13. Introgression of tomato chromosomes into the potato genome: an analysis through molecular marker and in situ hybridisation techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Calderé, F.G.

    1998-01-01

    Transfer of alien chromosomes and genes across intergeneric boundaries can be useful not only for the introgression of desirable characters but also for fundamental genetic studies. The successful demonstration of hybridisation of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) and tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) through protoplast fusion in 1978, created the potential for introgressing chromosomes and genes from one genus into the other. However, real prospects of adding tomato chromosomes into the potato g...

  14. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide;

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... polymerization DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  15. Analysis of Spring Barley Actual Evapotranspiration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Pohanková, Eva; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    Brno: Mendel university, 2013 - (Škarpa, P.; Ryant, P.; Cerkal, R.; Polák, O.; Kovárník, J.), s. 357-361 ISBN 978-80-7375-908-7. [MendelNet 2013. Mendelova univerzita v Brně (CZ), 20.11.2013-21.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MZe QJ1310123 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : reference evapotranspiration * Bowen ratio/energy balance method * crop coefficient * spring barley * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Selection efficiencies for improving drought/salt tolerances and yield using introgression breeding in rice(Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; Wang; Lubiao; Zhang; Afif; Nafisah; Linghua; Zhu; Jianlong; Xu; Zhikang; Li

    2013-01-01

    The backcross(BC) breeding strategy has been increasingly used for developing high yielding varieties with improved abiotic stress tolerances in rice. In this study, 189Huang-Hua-Zhan(HHZ) introgression lines(ILs) developed from three different selection schemes were evaluated for yield related traits under drought stress and non-stress conditions in the target and off-season winter nursery environments to assess the selection efficiency of BC breeding for improving different complex traits, and led us to five important results. The first result indicated that the primary target traits should be selected first in the target environments(TEs) in order to achieve the maximum genetic gain. Secondly, BC breeding for drought tolerance(DT) in rice was almost equally effective by strong phenotypic selection in the main target environments and in the winter-season of Hainan.Thirdly, exploiting genetic diversity in the subspecific gene pools is of great importance for future genetic improvement of complex traits in rice. Fourthly, considerable genetic gain can be effectively achieved by selection for secondary target traits among the ILs with the primary traits. Finally, the developed ILs provide useful materials for future genetic/genomic dissection and molecular breeding of complex traits.

  17. Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid between B. rapa and Orychophragmus violaceus by rapid chromosome evolution and introgression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chuan-Yuan Xu; Rui-Hongwan-Yan; Zai-Yun Li

    2007-12-01

    Many novel lines were established from an intergeneric mixoploid between Brassica rapa ($2n = 20$) and Orychophragmus violaceus ($2n = 24$) through successive selections for fertility and viability. Pedigrees of individual F2 plants were advanced to the 10th generation by selfing. Their breeding habit was self-compatible and different from the self-incompatibility of their female parent B. rapa, and these lines were reproductively isolated to different degrees from B. rapa and B. napus. The lines with high productivity showed not only a wide spectrum of phenotypes but also obvious variations in fatty acid profiles of seed oil and glucosinolate contents in seed meal. These lines had $2n = 36$, 37, 38, 39 and 40, with $2n = 38$ being most frequent (64.56%), and no intact O. violaceus chromosomes were detected by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses revealed a high extent of variation in genomic compositions across all the lines. O. violaceus-specific bands, deleted bands in B. rapa and novel bands for two parents were detected in these lines, with novel bands being the most frequent. The morphological and genetic divergence of these novel types derived from a single hybrid is probably due to rapid chromosomal evolution and introgression, and provides new genetic resources for rapeseed breeding.

  18. Y-chromosome evidence supports asymmetric dog introgression into eastern coyotes

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeldon, Tyler J; Rutledge, Linda Y; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N; Wilson, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization has played an important role in the evolutionary history of Canis species in eastern North America. Genetic evidence of coyote–dog hybridization based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is lacking compared to that based on autosomal markers. This discordance suggests dog introgression into coyotes has potentially been male biased, but this hypothesis has not been formally tested. Therefore, we investigated biparentally, maternally, and paternally inherited genetic markers in a sample ...

  19. Comparison of external genetic of Wareng and Kampung Chicken, observed from introgression rate and genetic variability

    OpenAIRE

    T Sartika; Wati, D. K.; H.S Iman Rahayu; S Iskandar

    2008-01-01

    Wareng and Kampung chicken are Indonesian native chicken that have good potential to be dual purpose chicken. Information on these chickens has not hast’n widely published so that their genetic potential is unknown. The purpose of this  research is to collect basic data of the external genetic characteristic from Wareng and Kampung chickens consisting feather color, feather pattern, feather feature, feather shine, shank color and comb shape; to identify rate of introgression imported breed (R...

  20. Assessing multilocus introgression patterns: a case study on the mouse X chromosome in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macholán, Miloš; Baird, S. J. E.; Dufková, Petra; Munclinger, P.; Vošlajerová Bímová, Barbora; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2011), s. 1428-1446. ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : genetic conflict * hybrid zone movement * sex biased introgression * mice * X chromosome Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.146, year: 2011

  1. Molecular Markers Allow to Remove Introgressed Genetic Background: A Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Amador; Miguel Ángel Toro; Jesús Fernández

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of genetically differentiated populations can be important for several reasons (whether for wild species or domestic breeds of economic interest). When those populations are introgressed by foreign individuals, methods to eliminate the exogenous alleles can be implemented to recover the native genetic background. This study used computer simulations to explore the usefulness of several molecular based diagnostic approaches to recover of a native population after suffering an i...

  2. How do introgression events shape the partitioning of diversity among breeds: a case study in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Grégoire; Danchin-Burge, Coralie; Palhiere, Isabelle; San Cristobal, Magali; Nedelec, Yann; Verrier, Etienne; Rognon, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background From domestication to the current pattern of differentiation, domestic species have been influenced by reticulate evolution with multiple events of migration, introgression, and isolation; this has resulted in a very large number of breeds. In order to manage these breeds and their genetic diversity, one must know the current genetic structure of the populations and the relationships among these. This paper presents the results of a genetic diversity analysis on an almost exhaustiv...

  3. Storage protein mutations identified in common wheat and barley accessions and utilization of those mutants in studies of crop properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of mutations in prolamines and glutelins encoding regions which lead to disappearance of whole block of components, the particular component of the block and changing in electrophoretic mobility have been identified as a result of screening of the number of common winter wheat varieties and lines as well as spring and winter barley varieties, which have been treated by both chemical and ionizing radiation mutagens. The importance of such type of plant material for fundamental and applied research is discussed. (author)

  4. Improvement of the nutritional quality of barley and spring wheat: A review of the FAO/SIDA/SAREC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the joint FAO/SIDA/SAREC project was to develop new varieties of barley and spring wheat adapted to conditions in developing countries and with increased protein and lysine contents of the grain. Six premier research institutes in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey co-operated in the project under the technical leadership of Svaloev AB, formerly the Swedish Seed Association, during the period 1974 to 1981. Barley lines having grain with high protein and high lysine contents derived from Hiproly, Risoe 1508 and B1 were used as donors and backcrossed at Svaloev into adapted breeding material provided by breeders in the participating countries. Backcrosses and other progenies selected for homozygosity of the lysine genes on the basis of their protein content and dye-binding capacity (DBC) were distributed to the participants who continued selection in their own environments. A similar programme was initiated for wheat, based largely on Atlas 66, Nap Hal and Rageni as donors of high protein and lysine, but the expression of high lysine was very weakly inherited and selection was abandoned in 1978. It has proved extremely difficult, and so far impossible, to find high yielding lines with desirable agronomic characters combined with increased protein and lysine contents. Evidence of positive improvement in protein production per unit area was obtained in both wheat and barley in India. Under the aegis of the project over 14,000 lines of wheat and nearly 21,000 lines of barley, which included around 6,000 mutant progenies, were screened for protein content and DBC values at Svaloev, but no new prospective donors were identified that were superior to those already available. Conclusions are drawn concerning the benefit of the project and suggestions are made for further action. (author)

  5. Differential transcriptomic responses to Fusarium graminearum infection in two barley quantitative trait loci associated with Fusarium head blight resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yadong; Li, Lin; Smith, Kevin P.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB), a major disease problem worldwide. Resistance to FHB is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL) of which two are located on barley chromosomes 2H bin8 and 6H bin7. The mechanisms of resistance mediated by FHB QTL are poorly defined. Results Near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying Chevron-derived resistant alleles for the two QTL were developed and exhibited FHB resistance in field trials. To understand the molecular responses ...

  6. Protein quality of induced high lysine mutants in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum, B O

    1978-01-01

    Evidence of high-lysine gene sources in barley derived from spontaneous and induced mutations has been presented. In addition barley sources considered to be "normal" also differ in lysine content. Changes in lysine concentrations invariable results in changes in other amino acids in barley protein. Protein fractions are altered in several mutant barleys and differ also in so called "normal barleys". The fractions in the normal barleys are probably more dependent upon environmental conditions than in mutant barleys. It is clearly demonstrated with chemical analyses and biological experiments with rats, poultry and pigs that high-lysine cultivars are superior in nutritive quality than their low-lysine isotypes. However, it appears that most of the lysine genotypes possess reduced grain weight and lower grain yield. This is of course unfortunate as an adequate supply of food appears to be the number one nutritional priority in the world today. This does not mean, however, that protein improvement would be of no practical value under conditions of marginal energy deprivation. The literature reviewed suggests that protein improvement would likely be of value under these conditions. PMID:727018

  7. Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of α-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, α-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat. PMID:25578157

  8. Simultaneous transfer, introgression, and genomic localization of genes for resistance to stem rust race TTKSK (Ug99) from Aegilops tauschii to wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Eric L; Rouse, Matthew N; Pumphrey, Michael O; Bowden, Robert L; Gill, Bikram S; Poland, Jesse A

    2013-05-01

    Wheat production is currently threatened by widely virulent races of the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, that are part of the TTKSK (also known as 'Ug99') race group. The diploid D genome donor species Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14, DD) is a readily accessible source of resistance to TTKSK and its derivatives that can be transferred to hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). To expedite transfer of TTKSK resistance from Ae. tauschii, a direct hybridization approach was undertaken that integrates gene transfer, mapping, and introgression into one process. Direct crossing of Ae. tauschii accessions with an elite wheat breeding line combines the steps of gene transfer and introgression while development of mapping populations during gene transfer enables the identification of closely linked markers. Direct crosses were made using TTKSK-resistant Ae. tauschii accessions TA1662 and PI 603225 as males and a stem rust-susceptible T. aestivum breeding line, KS05HW14, as a female. Embryo rescue enabled recovery of F1 (ABDD) plants that were backcrossed as females to the hexaploid recurrent parent. Stem rust-resistant BC1F1 plants from each Ae. tauschii donor source were used as males to generate BC2F1 mapping populations. Bulked segregant analysis of BC2F1 genotypes was performed using 70 SSR loci distributed across the D genome. Using this approach, stem rust resistance genes from both accessions were located on chromosome arm 1DS and mapped using SSR and EST-STS markers. An allelism test indicated the stem rust resistance gene transferred from PI 603225 is Sr33. Race specificity suggests the stem rust resistance gene transferred from TA1662 is unique and this gene has been temporarily designated SrTA1662. Stem rust resistance genes derived from TA1662 and PI 603225 have been made available with selectable molecular markers in genetic backgrounds suitable for stem rust resistance breeding. PMID:23377571

  9. Analysis of promoters in transgenic barley and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J; Pellegrineschi, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Advances in the genetic transformation of cereals have improved the prospects of using biotechnology for plant improvement, and a toolbox of promoters with defined specificities would be a valuable resource in controlling the expression of transgenes in desired tissues for both plant improvement and molecular farming. A number of promoters have been isolated from the important cereals (wheat, barley, rice and maize), and these promoters have been tested mostly in homologous cereal systems and, to a lesser extent, in heterologous cereal systems. The use of these promoters across the important cereals would add value to the utility of each promoter. In addition, promoters with less sequence homology, but with similar specificities, will be crucial in avoiding homology-based gene silencing when expressing more than one transgene in the same tissue. We have tested wheat and barley promoters in transgenic barley and wheat to determine whether their specificity is shared across these two species. The barley bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (Isa) promoter, specific to the pericarp in barley, failed to show any activity in wheat, whereas the wheat early-maturing (Em) promoter showed similar activity in wheat and barley. The wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin (HMW-Glu) and barley D-hordein (D-Hor) and B-hordein (B-Hor) storage protein promoters maintained endosperm-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in wheat and barley, respectively. Using gfp, we have demonstrated that the Isa and Em promoters can be used as strong promoters to direct transgenes in specific tissues of barley and wheat grain. Differential promoter activity across cereals expands and adds value to a promoter toolbox for utility in plant biotechnology. PMID:19175520

  10. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762

  11. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Francia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 site-year combination. Agrometeorological variables have been recorded and calculated at each site too. Four main periods of barley development were considered, vegetative, reproductive early and late grain filling phases, to dissect the effect on yield traits of the growth phases. Relationships between agrometeorological variables, grain yield (GY and its main components (GN and GW were also investigated by correlation. Results firstly gave a clear indication of the involvement of water consumption in determining GY and GW (r2=0.616, P=0.007 and r2=0.703, P=0.005, respectively calculated from sowing to the early grain filling period, while GN showed its highest correlation with the total photothermal quotient (PQ calculated for the same period (r2=0.646, P=0.013. With the only exception of total PQ calculated during the vegetative period, all significant correlations with GY were associated to water-dependent agrometeorological parameters. As a second result, the NT segregating population allowed us to weight the amount of interaction due to genotypes over environments or to environments in relation to genotypes by a GGE analysis; 47.67% of G+GE sum of squares was explained by the first two principal components. Then, the introduction of genomic information at major barley genes regulating the length of growth cycle allowed us to explain patterns of adaptation of different groups of NT lines according to the variants (alleles harbored at venalization (Vrn-H1 in combination with earliness (Eam6 genes. The superiority of the lines carrying the Nure allele at Eam6 was confirmed by factorial ANOVA testing the four possible haplotypes obtained combining

  12. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.;

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active...

  13. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control...... expressed in E. coli and purified in Chapter 5. The functional characterization of two proteins is undergoing. In Chapter 6, microarray data of F. graminearum during interaction with barley and wheat was analysed. The expression patterns of 11fungal genes in microarray analysis were different from q...

  14. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  15. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    OpenAIRE

    Ayed Sourour; Bouharb Ameni; Cherif Mejda

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel) through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours), on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours) and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours). Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germinat...

  16. Resistance against barley leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in West-European spring barley germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Niks, Rients; Walther, Ursula; Jaiser, Heidi; Martinez, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2000-01-01

    International audience The level and type of resistance against leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) was determined in modern spring barley germplasm. In field trials all over Europe most accessions were in some locations and years significantly less infected than the moderately resistant reference ,Grit'. Differentiating P. hordei isolates indicated that most accessions carried hypersensitivity (Rph) genes. A virulence survey indicated that among the known resistance genes, only Rph7 is still full...

  17. Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

    Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 μ Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (β -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of β -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No

  18. Whole transcriptome analysis of transgenic barley with altered cytokinin homeostasis and increased tolerance to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Petr; Kokáš, Filip; Husičková, Alexandra; Grúz, Jiří; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Marchetti, Cintia F; Jiskrová, Eva; Ježilová, Eliška; Mik, Václav; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Cytokinin plant hormones have been shown to play an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we expand upon the findings of Pospíšilová et al. [30] regarding preparation of novel transgenic barley lines overexpressing cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis under the control of mild root-specific promotor of maize β-glycosidase. These lines showed drought-tolerant phenotype mainly due to alteration of root architecture and stronger lignification of root tissue. A detailed transcriptomic analysis of roots of transgenic plants subjected to revitalization after drought stress revealed attenuated response through the HvHK3 cytokinin receptor and up-regulation of two transcription factors implicated in stress responses and abscisic acid sensitivity. Increased expression of several genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway as well as of genes encoding arogenate dehydratase/lyase participating in phenylalanine synthesis was found in roots during revitalization. Although more precursors of lignin synthesis were present in roots after drought stress, final lignin accumulation did not change compared to that in plants grown under optimal conditions. Changes in transcriptome indicated a higher auxin turnover in transgenic roots. The same analysis in leaves revealed that genes encoding putative enzymes responsible for production of jasmonates and other volatile compounds were up-regulated. Although transgenic barley leaves showed lower chlorophyll content and down-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis than did wild-type plants when cultivated under optimal conditions, they did show a tendency to return to initial photochemical activities faster than did wild-type leaves when re-watered after severe drought stress. In contrast to optimal conditions, comparative transcriptomic analysis of revitalized leaves displayed up-regulation of genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in photosynthesis, and especially

  19. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus

  20. Use of mutations in breeding short-stemmed forms of spring barley with high productivity ears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous studies of the world collection of spring barley revealed a correlation between the height of plant and the length and magnitude of the root system, tillering capacity and ear productivity. Use of dwarf forms of the type ''uzu'' and of some X ray induced mutants obtained from long-stemmed cultivars did not give expected results. Semi-dwarf and dwarf mutants obtained after treating the seeds of short-stemmed highly productive lines of the Diamant type with different chemomutagens (MNU, MES, etc.) were crossed with the aim to remove the said unfavourable correlations. Using complex hybridization of the productive lines selected with chemomutant MB2, a semi-dwarf line KM 1952 was obtained by the Cereal Research Institute in Kromeriz showing both a marked tillering capacity and a high productivite of ears. (author)

  1. Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of barley

    OpenAIRE

    H. Samarah, Nezar

    2005-01-01

    International audience Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Mediterranean regions undergoes drought stress during the grain-filling period. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of drought stress on grain growth and yield of barley. Plants were exposed to three drought treatments at the beginning of grain filling: (1) well-watered at 100% field capacity, (2) mild drought stress at 60% field capacity, and (3) severe drought stress at 20% field capacity until grain maturity....

  2. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    OpenAIRE

    Muavviz Ayvaz; Mesut Koyuncu; Avni Guven; FAGERSTEDT, KURT V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98) were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm) ...

  3. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  4. Volatile organic compounds released by barley roots attract wireworms

    OpenAIRE

    Barsics, Fanny; Fiers, Marie; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles and are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed in order to develop integrated management strategies. Our work consists in elucidating the role of barley root-emitted volatile organic compounds on the orientation behaviour of Agriotes sordidus wireworms. Using a dual choice olfactometer we have evaluated the attractiveness of a variety of baits ranging from barley roots themselves to isolated root...

  5. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones

  6. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  7. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  8. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [14C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  9. Induced High Lysine Mutants in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Køie, B.; Eggum, B. O.

    1974-01-01

    Screening of mutagenically treated materials by combined Kjeldahl nitrogen and dye-binding capacity determinations disclosed fourteen barley mutants, which have from a few to about 40 per cent more lysine in the protein and one mutant with 10 per cent less lysine in the protein than the parent...... variety. Comparisons of six high lysine mutants with the parent variety showed that grain yield and seed size of the mutants are reduced between 10 and 30 per cent. However, the most promising mutant had the lowest reduction in grain yield, and the absolute lysine yield of this mutant was some 30 per cent...... above that of the parent variety. Feeding tests with rats revealed substantial increases in the biological value of the high lysine mutant protein. Also the net protein utilization was improved but less so because of a somewhat reduced digestibility of the mutant protein....

  10. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Wanic; Magdalena Jastrzębska; Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale), when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley), when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full ...

  11. Introgression threatens the survival of the critically endangered freshwater crayfish Cherax tenuimanus (Decapoda: Parastacidae in the wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodagh Guildea

    Full Text Available Hybridization and genetic introgression following the introduction of exotic species can pose a significant threat to the survival of geographically restricted species. A remnant population of the critically endangered freshwater crayfish Cherax tenuimanus in the upper reaches of the Margaret River in southwestern Australia is under threat following the introduction and spread of its congener Cherax cainii. Here, we examine the extent of hybridization and introgression between the two species using twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci. Our study reveals there are three times more C. cainii than C. tenuimanus at our study site in the upper reaches of the Margaret River. There is also evidence of hybridization and introgression between C. tenuimanus and C. cainii at this site, with F1, F2 and backcrossed individuals identified. While interbreeding was confirmed in this study, our simulations suggest that the levels of introgression are much lower than would be expected under random mating, indicating partial reproductive barriers exist. Nevertheless, it is apparent that hybridization and introgression with C. cainii pose a serious threat to C. tenuimanus and their survival in the wild will require active adaptive management and continued genetic monitoring to evaluate management effectiveness.

  12. Introgression threatens the survival of the critically endangered freshwater crayfish Cherax tenuimanus (Decapoda: Parastacidae) in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guildea, Clodagh; Hitchen, Yvette; Duffy, Rodney; Dias, P Joana; Ledger, Jason M; Snow, Michael; Kennington, W Jason

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization and genetic introgression following the introduction of exotic species can pose a significant threat to the survival of geographically restricted species. A remnant population of the critically endangered freshwater crayfish Cherax tenuimanus in the upper reaches of the Margaret River in southwestern Australia is under threat following the introduction and spread of its congener Cherax cainii. Here, we examine the extent of hybridization and introgression between the two species using twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci. Our study reveals there are three times more C. cainii than C. tenuimanus at our study site in the upper reaches of the Margaret River. There is also evidence of hybridization and introgression between C. tenuimanus and C. cainii at this site, with F1, F2 and backcrossed individuals identified. While interbreeding was confirmed in this study, our simulations suggest that the levels of introgression are much lower than would be expected under random mating, indicating partial reproductive barriers exist. Nevertheless, it is apparent that hybridization and introgression with C. cainii pose a serious threat to C. tenuimanus and their survival in the wild will require active adaptive management and continued genetic monitoring to evaluate management effectiveness. PMID:25799102

  13. Comparison of barley stripe mosaic virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Elsayed E; Abdel Aleem, Engy E; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2008-01-01

    BSMV (barley stripe mosaic virus) particles were obtained in a pure state from infected host plant tissues of Hordeum vulgare. The three genomic parities (alpha, beta and gamma) were amplified by PCR using specific primers for each particle; each was cloned. Partial sequence of the alpha, beta and gamma segments was determined for the Egyptian isolate of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV AE1). Alignment of nucleotide sequences with that of other known strains of the virus, BSMV type strains (CV17, ND18 and China), and the generation of phylogenetic trees was performed. A low level of homology was detected comparing 467 bp of the a and 643 bp of the segments to that of the other strains, and thus BSMV alpha and beta segments were in separate clusters. However, 1154 bp of the gamma segments of BSMV AE1 showed a high level of homology especially to strain BSMV ND18, as they both formed a distinct cluster. Northern blotting of pure BSMV AE1 virus and H. vulgare-infected tissue were compared using an alpha ND18 specific probe. Western blotting using antibodies specific for the coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block 1 (TGB1) protein, which are both encoded by the beta ND18 segment, still indicated a high level of similarity between proteins produced by BSMV ND18 and AE1. We suggest that the BSMV AE1 isolate is a distinct strain of BSMV which reflects the genetic evolutionary divergence among BSMV strains and members of the Hordeivirus group. PMID:18533473

  14. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  15. Genetic introgression of ethylene-suppressed transgenic tomatoes with higher-polyamines trait overcomes many unintended effects due to reduced ethylene on the primary metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly P Sobolev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene regulates a myriad physiological and biochemical processes in ripening fruits and is accepted as the ripening hormone for the climacteric fruits. However, its effects on metabolome and resulting fruit quality are not yet fully understood, particularly when some of the ripening-associated biochemical changes are independent of ethylene action. We have generated a homozygous transgenic tomato genotype (2AS-AS that exhibits reduced ethylene production as a result of impaired expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 2 gene by its antisense RNA and had a longer shelf life. Double transgenic hybrid (2AS-AS x 579HO developed through a genetic cross between 2AS-AS and 579HO (Mehta et al., 2002 lines resulted in significantly higher ethylene production than either the WT or 2AS-AS fruit. To determine the effects of reduced ethylene and introgression of higher polyamines’ trait, the metabolic profiles of ripening fruits from WT (556AZ, 2AS-AS, and 2AS-AS x 579HO lines were determined using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The levels of Glu, Asp, AMP, Adenosine, Nucl1 and Nucl2 increased during ripening of the WT fruit. The increases in Glu, Asp, and AMP levels were attenuated in 2AS-AS fruit but recovered in the double hybrid with higher ethylene and polyamine levels. The ripening-associated decreases in Ala, Tyr, Val, Ile, Phe, malate and myo-inositol levels in the 2AS-AS line were not reversed in the double hybrid line suggesting a developmental/ripening regulated accumulation of these metabolites independent of ethylene. Significant increases in the levels of fumarate, formate, choline, Nucl1 and Nucl2 at most stages of ripening fruit were found in the double transgenic line due to introgression with higher-polyamines trait. Taken together these results show that the ripening-associated metabolic changes are both ethylene dependent and independent, and that the fruit metabolome is under the control of multiple regulators, including

  16. Effects of Single and Multifactor Treatments with Elevated Temperature, CO2 and Ozone on Oilseed Rape and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth;

    2011-01-01

    yield and biomass. Seed number increased by about 47 % in barley and by 26 % in oilseed rape, but in oilseed rape, the TSW was significantly decreased, possibly because of shortening of the seed filling period. Higher temperatures decreased yield and biomass significantly in both species. A......We investigated the effect of elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature on plant productivity and if these climate factors interacted with each other in multifactor treatments. The climate effects were studied in 14 different cultivars/lines of European spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Seven genotypes of each species were cultivated in six single- and multifactor treatments with ambient or elevated CO2 (385 ppm and 700 ppm), O3 (20 ppb and 60 ppb) and temperature (12/19 °C and 17/24 °C). Growth and production parameters were measured. Elevated CO2 increased...

  17. A short-cycle sunflower line derived from intergeneric hybridization Helianthus x Verbesina

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (H. annuus) introgression line HA-VERB, selected for its considerable earliness of blooming. Is described In this paper. The line has been developed after intergeneric hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus L. and Verbesina encelioldes (Cav) B. & H. var. exauriculata Rob. & Greenm. Plants are polycephalic (multiple branched), with reduced plant height. The agronomic and morphological characteristics of the line HA-VERB are reported. The developmen...

  18. Bioethanol production using genetically modified and mutant wheat and barley straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Engineering; East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (CN). State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering; Liu, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Chen, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zemetra, R.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (US). Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences

    2011-01-15

    To improve the performance of wheat and barley straws as feedstocks for ethanol biorefining, the genetic modifications of down regulating Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and low phytic acid mutation have been introduced into wheat and barley respectively. In this study, total 252 straw samples with different genetic background and location were collected from the field experiment based on a randomized complete block design. The fiber analysis (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) indicated that there were no significant differences between modified and wild type straw lines in terms of straw compositions. However, the difference did exist among straw lines on fiber utilization. 16 straw samples were further selected to conduct diluted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The data indicated that the phytic acid mutant and transgenic straws have changed the fiber structure, which significantly influences their hydrolysibility. These results may lead to a possible solution of mutant or genetic modified plant species that is capable to increase the hydrolysibility of biomass without changing their compositions and sacrificing their agronomy performance. (author)

  19. Artificial introgression of a large fragment around the Pi-ta rice blast resistance gene in backcross progenies and several elite rice cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study of the size of genomic introgressions should lead to a better understanding of linkage disequilibrium in crop breeding. Rice presents a unique opportunity to examine the size of introgressions because of the availability of abundant simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the present study, ...

  20. Competition and Facilitation in Hairy Vetch-Barley Intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Tosti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercrops between legumes and non-legumes are widely used for fodder production and as cover crops, but little quantitative data are available on competition between species in the mixture. The objective of the present study was to assess the interaction between hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown as pure crops or intercrops with different proportions of seed rates at sowing. A 4-year field study was conducted using hairy vetch and barley as pure stands at full sowing density and as intercrops at different proportions of their own full seed rate according to the replacement principle. Interaction between species was evaluated on the basis of Land Equivalent Ratio (LER, Relative Neighbour Effect (RNE and Aggressivity (A calculated on biomass and nitrogen (N accumulation. The N accumulation of the mixed crops increased linearly with the legume proportion in the mixture. The mixtures were more efficient than the pure crops in terms of N use (LER > 1. Partial LER values indicated that the barley component benefited from the presence of the legume, while the hairy vetch partial LER decreased with increasing barley proportion in the mixture. The competitive response in terms of biomass accumulation was high for both species when their density in the mixture was high. Concerning N accumulation, barley benefited from an asymmetric interspecific facilitation while the vetch behaviour was similar to that observed for biomass accumulation. Barley dominance progressively increased reaching a maximum just before the last sampling date. At the last sampling date the competitive ability of hairy vetch showed a considerable increase in all mixtures (A ≈ 0. These findings indicate that the use of mixtures between hairy vetch and barley allows an increase in the use efficiency of N resource with respect to pure crops. Barley is the dominant component of the mixture and the hairy vetch is able to cope with the cereal

  1. European flint landraces grown in situ reveal adaptive introgression from modern maize.

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    Elena Bitocchi

    Full Text Available We have investigated the role of selection in the determination of the detected levels of introgression from modern maize hybrid varieties into maize landraces still cultivated in situ in Italy. We exploited the availability of a historical collection of landraces undertaken before the introduction and widespread use of modern maize, to analyse genomic changes that have occurred in these maize landraces over 50 years of co-existence with hybrid varieties. We have combined a previously published SSR dataset (n=21 with an AFLP loci dataset (n=168 to provide higher resolution power and to obtain a more detailed picture. We show that selection pressures for adaptation have favoured new alleles introduced by migration from hybrids. This shows the potential for analysis of historical introgression even over this short period of 50 years, for an understanding of the evolution of the genome and for the identification of its functionally important regions. Moreover, this demonstrates that landraces grown in situ represent almost unique populations for use for such studies when the focus is on the domesticated plant. This is due to their adaptation, which has arisen from their dynamic evolution under a continuously changing agro-ecological environment, and their capture of new alleles from hybridisation. We have also identified loci for which selection has inhibited introgression from modern germplasm and has enhanced the distinction between landraces and modern maize. These loci indicate that selection acted in the past, during the formation of the flint and dent gene pools. In particular, the locus showing the strongest signals of selection is a Misfit transposable element. Finally, molecular characterisation of the same samples with two different molecular markers has allowed us to compare their performances. Although the genetic-diversity and population-structure analyses provide the same global qualitative pattern, which thus provides the same

  2. European flint landraces grown in situ reveal adaptive introgression from modern maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Rau, Domenico; Albertini, Emidio; Rodriguez, Monica; Veronesi, Fabio; Attene, Giovanna; Nanni, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the role of selection in the determination of the detected levels of introgression from modern maize hybrid varieties into maize landraces still cultivated in situ in Italy. We exploited the availability of a historical collection of landraces undertaken before the introduction and widespread use of modern maize, to analyse genomic changes that have occurred in these maize landraces over 50 years of co-existence with hybrid varieties. We have combined a previously published SSR dataset (n=21) with an AFLP loci dataset (n=168) to provide higher resolution power and to obtain a more detailed picture. We show that selection pressures for adaptation have favoured new alleles introduced by migration from hybrids. This shows the potential for analysis of historical introgression even over this short period of 50 years, for an understanding of the evolution of the genome and for the identification of its functionally important regions. Moreover, this demonstrates that landraces grown in situ represent almost unique populations for use for such studies when the focus is on the domesticated plant. This is due to their adaptation, which has arisen from their dynamic evolution under a continuously changing agro-ecological environment, and their capture of new alleles from hybridisation. We have also identified loci for which selection has inhibited introgression from modern germplasm and has enhanced the distinction between landraces and modern maize. These loci indicate that selection acted in the past, during the formation of the flint and dent gene pools. In particular, the locus showing the strongest signals of selection is a Misfit transposable element. Finally, molecular characterisation of the same samples with two different molecular markers has allowed us to compare their performances. Although the genetic-diversity and population-structure analyses provide the same global qualitative pattern, which thus provides the same inferences, there are

  3. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and M. sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Lindsay V; Stewart, J Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya;

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable h...... in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. These results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars....... high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites....... Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M...

  4. Molecular mapping of a non-host resistance gene YrpstY1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for resistance to wheat stripe rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xinxia; He, Zhonghu; Lu, Yaming; Wang, Zhenlin; Xia, Xianchun

    2010-10-01

    Cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered as a non-host or inappropriate host species for wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Most barley cultivars show a broad-spectrum resistance to wheat stripe rust. To determine the genes for resistance to wheat stripe rust in barley, a cross was made between a resistant barley line Y12 and a susceptible line Y16. The two parents, F(1) and 147 BC(1) plants were tested at seedling stage with Chinese prevalent race CYR32 of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici by artificial inoculation in greenhouse. The results indicated that Y12 possessed one dominant resistance gene to wheat stripe rust, designated YrpstY1 provisionally. A total of 388 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to map the resistance gene in Y12 using bulked segregant analysis. A linkage map, including nine SSR loci on chromosome 7H and YrpstY1, was constructed using the BC(1) population, indicating that the resistance gene YrpstY1 is located on chromosome 7H. It is potential to transfer the resistance gene into common wheat for stripe rust resistance. PMID:21039455

  5. Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Rosa Alicia; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and microsatellite loci scores for populations throughout the range of the three Amazilia species, as well as morphological and ecological data. Haplotype network, Bayesian phylogenetic and divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche divergence tests were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this Amazilia species complex. An isolation-with-migration coalescent model and Bayesian assignment analysis were assessed to determine historical introgression and current genetic admixture. mtDNA haplotypes were geographically unstructured, with haplotypes from disparate areas interdispersed on a shallow tree and an unresolved haplotype network. Assignment analysis of the nuclear genome (nuDNA) supported three genetic groups with signs of genetic admixture, corresponding to: (1) A. beryllina populations located west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; (2) A. cyanura populations between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression (Nuclear Central America); and (3) A. saucerottei populations southeast of the Nicaraguan Depression. Gene flow and divergence time estimates, and demographic and palaeodistribution patterns suggest an evolutionary history of introgression mediated by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. High levels of gene flow were indicated by mtDNA and asymmetrical isolation-with-migration, whereas the microsatellite analyses found evidence

  6. Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley. PMID:21932866

  7. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bi Fu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Twenty-five informative primer pairs were applied to screen all samples and 359 alleles were detected over seven barley chromosomes. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.004 to 0.708 and averaged 0.072. More than 24% or 7% SSR variation resided among accessions of 16 countries or two regions, respectively. Accessions from Israel and Jordan were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Lebanon and Greece were most differentiated. Four and five optimal clusters of accessions were obtained using STRUCTURE and BAPS programs and partitioned 16.3% and 20.3% SSR variations, respectively. The five optimal clusters varied in size from 15 to 104 and two clusters had only country-specific accessions. A genetic separation was detected between the accessions east and west of the Zagros Mountains only at the country, not the individual, level. These SSR patterns enhance our understanding of the wild barley gene pool, and are significant for conserving wild barley germplasm and exploring new sources of useful genes for barley improvement.

  8. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  9. Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

  10. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  11. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...

  12. Effect of Different Levels of Germinated Barley on Live Performance and Carcass Traits in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastar B

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of germinated barley (GB on live performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. The experiment lasted for 5 weeks starting from 7 days of age and ending at 42 days of age. Chicks (Ross 308 were fed six dietary treatments including a corn–soy diet (corn diet, a barley–soy diet (barley diet, a barley diet plus enzymes (enzyme barley diet, and 3 other diets in which GB was replaced with barley at levels of 33%, 66%, and 100% in the barley diet (33% GB diet, 66% GB diet, and GB diet, respectively. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. Results indicated that birds fed a barley diet had significantly lower performance than those fed other diets (P. Supplementing of the barley diet with β-glucanase enzyme as well as replacing GB with barley improved the performance of broilers. Birds fed a GB diet had a significantly higher carcass yield those fed other diets (P. The lowest abdominal fat percentage was observed in birds fed a barley diet or a corn diet. Thus, it is concluded that replacing GB with barley, especially at 33% level, is more effective than supplementing barley diets with β-glucanase enzyme in improving live performance of broiler chickens.

  13. Scarce events of mitochondrial introgression in Trypanosoma cruzi: new case with a Bolivian strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabé, Christian; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2012-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, presents a predominantly clonal structure that has been shaped by recombination events leading to six genetic groups (DTUs, discrete typing units, TcI-TcVI). Several conventional and unconventional genetic exchange events have been described, including hybridization and mitochondrial introgression, which is explored here among Bolivian and Peruvian strains belonging to TcI because recombination events have been previously suspected by means of the MLMT method (multilocus microsatellite typing). We analyzed the variation of one nuclear (Gpi) and one mitochondrial (Nd1) gene among 60 TcI strains and 15 reference strains belonging to the six DTUs. The results clearly showed that one strain isolated from Triatoma infestans in the Cochabamba department (Bolivia) presented a genotype TcI for Gpi and a mitochondrial Nd1 genotype common to the DTUs TcIII, IV, V, and VI; this can be interpreted as a mitochondrial introgression event between distant DTUs. These kinds of events, although probably scarce, may have played an important role in the adaptive evolution of the species. PMID:22982157

  14. Simulation of in situ Root Decomposition of Two Barley Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jing-gang; Duan Xue-jiao; Nooralla Juma

    2014-01-01

    Root C and root-released C are closely related to soil organic matter content and mechanistic simulation modeling has proven to be useful for studying root and soil organic C dynamics in plant-soil ecosystems. A computer model was designed in this study to simulate the dynamics of root C and root released C decomposition in situ and the dynamics of different forms of C in soil under two barley cultivars (Abee and Samson). The results showed that on the 15th day, about 48%of the total 14C fixed in roots was respired for Abee and 42%for Samson. This indicated that the turnover rate of root 14C of Abee was higher than that of Samson. The percentage of water-soluble organic 14C, active microbial 14C and stable 14C over the total fixed 14C were not different between two barley cultivars. From the analysis of the model for two barley cultivars, the total 14C transformed into different soil pools (excluding CO2-C and root C pools) for the two barley cultivars was similar (26%for Abee and 25%for Samson), but the difference of 14C remaining in soil between the two barley cultivars was mainly because of the difference of 14C remaining in roots which have not been yet decomposed. Some of the information which could not be measured in the laboratory conditions was obtained in this study.

  15. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  16. On the origin of Spanish two-rowed barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo, M; Romagosa, I; Salcedo, G; Sánchez-Monge, R; Molina-Cano, J L

    1994-02-01

    To investigate the phylogenetic origin of Spanish two-rowed barleys, we studied 44 accessions of old land-races both morphologically and biochemically to ascertain their similarity with 51 entries of old cultivars and land-races of widespread origin across Europe. They were also compared with 20 accessions of Hordeum spontaneum from the Mediterranean basin and other regions of its distribution range, 14 accessions of Moroccan cultivated six-rowed barley land-races, and different six-rowed Spanish and two-and six-rowed European cultivars. CM-(trypsin inhibitors and subunits of the barley tetrameric α-amylase inhibitor) proteins and hordeins, all of which are endosperm proteins, were used as biochemical markers. The appearance of separate clusters of the Spanish barleys in the numerical classifications for both protein systems as a result of the existence of characteristic gene combinations that do not exist in entries from other origins permitted us to postulate the existence of local ancestors for most of the Spanish two-rowed barleys studied, and, therefore, a possible in situ domestication. PMID:24190469

  17. Breeding of value added barley by mutation and protein engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has been bred for food, feed and beverages over the past 5000 years by selecting for spontaneous mutations and random hybrids. Crosses with defined parents (since the turn of the century) and induced mutations (since 1927) have provided variability in selecting for novel varieties. Genetic transformation of barley has been a routine procedure since 1994 and permits the introduction of tailored genes for adding quality values to the grain. It complements, but does not replace, existing efficient breeding methods. Radiation and chemically induced mutations, as well as genes introduced by transformation, have to be fitted into the genome, which may take 50 years of breeding effort and testing for agronomic and industrial performance. The mutation breeding strategy for proanthocyanidin free malt barley, which has led to the commercial varieties Caminant and NFC 8808, is presented. As an example of the breeding strategy to improve barley endosperm cell wall degradation, a description is given of the protein engineering of a (1-3, 1-4)-β-glucanase towards heat stability and the insertion of the gene encoding this enzyme by genetic transformation. It is expected that such barley varieties will extend the use of the grain for beverage and feed uses as well as for the production of renewable raw materials by malting and mashing processes. (author). 34 refs, 1 tab

  18. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: → The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. → Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. → Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. → Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  19. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Rosset Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC, with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs.

  1. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  2. Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Nancy B; Flores, Jose J; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R

    2012-06-01

    Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will prevent progeny dispersal, thus preventing introgression. Motivated by a prior study where we found maize x teosinte hybrid fruits naturally dispersed under field conditions, we tested whether hybrid cobs hold their fruits as tightly as maize cobs. We found the force required to detach hybrid fruits was substantially and significantly less than that for maize. Consequently, we expect that introgression of transgenes from maize into teosinte in Mexico should occur largely unimpeded by the hybrid cob.La mazorca o elote híbrido de maíz x teocintle no impide la introgresión de genes transgénicos provenientes del cultivo. La introgresión entre el maíz cultivado y el maíz silvestre, o teocintle, es un componente importante en la evaluación ambiental relacionada con los riesgos de la introducción de genes transgénicos. La posibilidad de introgresión entre el maíz domesticado y el teocintle ha sido un tema controversial, en particular en México, donde maíz y teocintle coexisten. El maíz es compatible con el teocintle y la hibridización espontánea ocurre entre ellos. Algunos científicos han planteado como hipótesis que al cruzar el maíz con teocintle, la estructura interna de la infrutescencia que sujeta los frutos conocida como la mazorca de maíz o el elote, impide la dispersión de la progenie evitando que la introgresión ocurra. Los resultados de un estudio previo evidencian la dispersión de los frutos híbridos del maíz x teocintle en condiciones naturales

  3. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  4. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  5. HvPap-1 C1A protease actively participates in barley proteolysis mediated by abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Gandullo, Jacinto; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Santamaria, M Estrella; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose D; Hensel, Goetz; Martinez, Manuel; Kumlehn, Jochen; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Protein breakdown and mobilization from old or stressed tissues to growing and sink organs are some of the metabolic features associated with abiotic/biotic stresses, essential for nutrient recycling. The massive degradation of proteins implies numerous proteolytic events in which cysteine-proteases are the most abundant key players. Analysing the role of barley C1A proteases in response to abiotic stresses is crucial due to their impact on plant growth and grain yield and quality. In this study, dark and nitrogen starvation treatments were selected to induce stress in barley. Results show that C1A proteases participate in the proteolytic processes triggered in leaves by both abiotic treatments, which strongly induce the expression of the HvPap-1 gene encoding a cathepsin F-like protease. Differences in biochemical parameters and C1A gene expression were found when comparing transgenic barley plants overexpressing or silencing the HvPap-1 gene and wild-type dark-treated leaves. These findings associated with morphological changes evidence a lifespan-delayed phenotype of HvPap-1 silenced lines. All these data elucidate on the role of this protease family in response to abiotic stresses and the potential of their biotechnological manipulation to control the timing of plant growth. PMID:27217548

  6. Development and identification of wheat-Ag. pulcherrimum addition line and substitution line with BYDV resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武东亮; 辛志勇; 陈孝; 徐惠君; 马有志; 张增艳

    1999-01-01

    Breeding materials derived from CPI113500, amphidiploid of T. turgidum×Ag. pulcherrimum with barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) resistance, were evaluated by using BYDV resistance test, morphology observation, cytogenetics analysis, aneuploid analysis, isozyme electrophoresis, in situ hybridization. Two new germplasms resistant to BYDV were obtained. They were T. aestivum-Ag, pulcherrimum disomic addition line 96S16-11, and T. aestivum-Ag, pulcherrimum disomic substitution line 96W14-9.

  7. Identification of drought-inducible genes and differentially expressed sequence tags in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Ayman A; Teulat-Merah, Béatrice; This, Dominique; Ozturk, Neslihan Z; Benscher, David; Sorrells, Mark E

    2004-11-01

    Drought limits cereal yields in several regions of the world and plant water status plays an important role in tolerance to drought. To investigate and understand the genetic and physiological basis of drought tolerance in barley, differentially expressed sequence tags (dESTs) and candidate genes for the drought response were mapped in a population of 167 F8 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between "Tadmor" (drought tolerant) and "Er/Apm" (adapted only to specific dry environments). One hundred sequenced probes from two cDNA libraries previously constructed from drought-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L., var. Tokak) plants and 12 candidate genes were surveyed for polymorphism, and 33 loci were added to a previously published map. Composite interval mapping was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with drought tolerance including leaf relative water content, leaf osmotic potential, osmotic potential at full turgor, water-soluble carbohydrate concentration, osmotic adjustment, and carbon isotope discrimination. A total of 68 QTLs with a limit of detection score > or =2.5 were detected for the traits evaluated under two water treatments and the two traits calculated from both treatments. The number of QTLs identified for each trait varied from one to 12, indicating that the genome contains multiple genes affecting different traits. Two candidate genes and ten differentially expressed sequences were associated with QTLs for drought tolerance traits. PMID:15517148

  8. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) Improvement by Mutation Induction in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase food availability and household incomes of families in the Andean region of Peru, a mutation induction method was applied to improve barley (Hordeum vulgare) and kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) cultivars. Barley cultivar Buenavista was treated with 200 and 300Gy inducing different kinds of mutations. Twenty promising mutant lines were selected and have been evaluated at the national trials. From them Mbv-Earlier, from 300Gy dose was selected and released in 2006 as a new cultivar denominated Centenario. This cultivar has a high yield potential (5,552 kg/ha), resistance to stripe rust (P. striiformis f sp hordei) and better food quality than the parental cultivar. Kiwicha traditional cultivar Seleccion Ancash treated with 400Gy , identified a higher yield mutant denominated Centenario Cultivar. At farmer location in the coast the yield has a variation of 3,500 to 5,500 kg/ha and in the highland from 2,500 to 3,700 kg/ha. The better yield potential, tolerance to Sclerotinia sp, color and size of its grains have contributed in the preference of Centenario over other commercial cultivars. (author)

  9. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz Hensel

    Full Text Available Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4 signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER retention signal (SEKDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up to 1.2 g/kg dry weight of recombinant protein (GFP, deposited in small roundish compartments assumed to be ER-derived protein bodies. The molecular farming potential of the system was tested by generating doubled haploid transgenic lines engineered to synthesize the anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody 2G12 with up to 160 μg recombinant protein per g grain. The recombinant protein was deposited at the periphery of protein bodies in the form of a mixture of various N-glycans (notably those lacking terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues, consistent with their vacuolar localization. Inspection of protein-A purified antibodies using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that their equilibrium and kinetic rate constants were comparable to those associated with recombinant 2G12 synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  10. A single locus is responsible for salinity tolerance in a Chinese landrace barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugen Xu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Salinity and waterlogging are two major abiotic stresses severely limiting barley production. The lack of a reliable screening method makes it very hard to improve the tolerance through breeding programs. METHODS: This work used 188 DH lines from a cross between a Chinese landrace variety, TX9425 (waterlogging and salinity tolerant, and a Japanese malting barley, Naso Nijo (waterlogging and salinity sensitive, to identify QTLs associated with the tolerance. RESULTS: Four QTLs were found for waterlogging tolerance. The salinity tolerance was evaluated with both a hydroponic system and in potting mixture. In the trial with potting mixture, only one major QTL was identified to associate with salinity tolerance. This QTL explained nearly 50% of the phenotypic variation, which makes it possible for further fine mapping and cloning of the gene. This QTL was also identified in the hydroponic experiment for different salt-related traits. The position of this QTL was located at a similar position to one of the major QTLs for waterlogging tolerance, indicating the possibility of similar mechanisms controlling both waterlogging and salinity tolerance. CONCLUSION: The markers associated with the QTL provided a unique opportunity in breeding programs for selection of salinity and waterlogging tolerance.

  11. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe;

    2011-01-01

    objective is to develop barley varieties with good baking properties. The poor leavening properties of barley can be attributed, at least partially, to the physical properties of the storage proteins. Studies based on small scaled baking trials and protein pattern analysed by SDS-PAGE on a large number of...... high protein barley cultivars suggested differences in baking quality and correlation between baking quality and D-hordeins. The amino acid composition was measures using the newly developed AccQ Tag Ultra Amino acid (AA) derivatisation system designed for the Acquity UPLC. Obtained results from the...... opportunity to give a forecast of the taste of the bread, as the AA composition is known to control certain aspects of the taste. We uses a MSE approach on a time of flight instrument coupled to a UPLC and in gel digestion to identify and characterize the different D-hordeins responsible for baking quality...

  12. Global analysis of the root hair morphogenesis transcriptome reveals new candidate genes involved in root hair formation in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Janiak, Agnieszka; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Szarejko, Iwona

    2010-09-01

    Root hairs are long tubular outgrowths of specialized root epidermal cells that play an important role in plant nutrition and water uptake. They are also an important model in studies of higher plant cell differentiation. In contrast to the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana, currently very little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of root hair formation in monocots, including major cereals. To elucidate candidate genes controlling this developmental process in barley, we took advantage of the recently established Affymetrix GeneChip Barley1 Genome Array to carry out global transcriptome analyses of hairless and root hair primordia-forming roots of two barely mutant lines. Expression profiling of the root-hairless mutant rhl1.a and its wild type parent variety 'Karat' revealed 10 genes potentially involved in the early step of root hair formation in barley. Differential expression of all identified genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The genes identified encode proteins associated with the cell wall and membranes, including one gene for xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, three for peroxidase enzymes and five for arabinogalactan protein, extensin, leucine-rich-repeat protein, phosphatidylinositol phosphatidylcholine transfer protein and a RhoGTPase GDP dissociation inhibitor, respectively. The molecular function of one gene is unknown at present. The expression levels of these genes were strongly reduced in roots of the root-hairless mutant rhl1.a compared to the parent variety, while expression of all 10 genes was similar in another mutant, i.e. rhp1.b, that has lost its ability to develop full root hairs but still forms hairs blocked at the primordium stage, and its wild type relative. This clearly indicates that the new genes identified are involved in the initiation of root hair morphogenesis in barley. PMID:20388575

  13. Recombination is suppressed in an alien introgression in peanut harboring Rma, a dominant root-knot nematode resistance gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rma, a dominant root-knot nematode resistance gene introduced into tetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea) from a synthetic allotetraploid donor (TxAG-6), has been widely deployed in modern cultivars. The genomic location and borders of the alien chromosome segment introgressed from TxAG-6 into NemaTAM...

  14. Whole-genome sequencing reveals small genomic regions of introgression in an introduced crater lake population of threespine stickleback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kohta; Miyagi, Ryutaro; Mori, Seiichi; Takahashi, Aya; Makino, Takashi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kitano, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species pose a major threat to biological diversity. Although introduced populations often experience population bottlenecks, some invasive species are thought to be originated from hybridization between multiple populations or species, which can contribute to the maintenance of high genetic diversity. Recent advances in genome sequencing enable us to trace the evolutionary history of invasive species even at whole-genome level and may help to identify the history of past hybridization that may be overlooked by traditional marker-based analysis. Here, we conducted whole-genome sequencing of eight threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) individuals, four from a recently introduced crater lake population and four of the putative source population. We found that both populations have several small genomic regions with high genetic diversity, which resulted from introgression from a closely related species (Gasterosteus nipponicus). The sizes of the regions were too small to be detected with traditional marker-based analysis or even some reduced-representation sequencing methods. Further amplicon sequencing revealed linkage disequilibrium around an introgression site, which suggests the possibility of selective sweep at the introgression site. Thus, interspecies introgression might predate introduction and increase genetic variation in the source population. Whole-genome sequencing of even a small number of individuals can therefore provide higher resolution inference of history of introduced populations. PMID:27069575

  15. The complex biogeography of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa: genetic evidence of introductions and Subspecific introgression in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard; Ortiz, Beatriz; Russell, Stephanie A; Ruiz Sánchez, Rebeca; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen with a history of economically damaging introductions of subspecies to regions where its other subspecies are native. Genetic evidence is presented demonstrating the introduction of two new taxa into Central America and their introgression into the native subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. The data are from 10 genetic outliers detected by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of isolates from Costa Rica. Six (five from oleander, one from coffee) defined a new sequence type (ST53) that carried alleles at six of the eight loci sequenced (five of the seven MLST loci) diagnostic of the South American subspecies Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca which causes two economically damaging plant diseases, citrus variegated chlorosis and coffee leaf scorch. The two remaining loci of ST53 carried alleles from what appears to be a new South American form of X. fastidiosa. Four isolates, classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, showed a low level of introgression of non-native DNA. One grapevine isolate showed introgression of an allele from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca while the other three (from citrus and coffee) showed introgression of an allele with similar ancestry to the alleles of unknown origin in ST53. The presence of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in Central America is troubling given its disease potential, and establishes another route for the introduction of this economically damaging subspecies into the US or elsewhere, a threat potentially compounded by the presence of a previously unknown form of X. fastidiosa. PMID:25379725

  16. Genomic diversity and introgression in O. sativa reveal the impact of domestication and breeding on the rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The domestication of Asian rice (Oryza sativa was a complex process punctuated by episodes of introgressive hybridization among and between subpopulations. Deep genetic divergence between the two main varietal groups (Indica and Japonica suggests domestication from at least two distinct wild populations. However, genetic uniformity surrounding key domestication genes across divergent subpopulations suggests cultural exchange of genetic material among ancient farmers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we utilize a novel 1,536 SNP panel genotyped across 395 diverse accessions of O. sativa to study genome-wide patterns of polymorphism, to characterize population structure, and to infer the introgression history of domesticated Asian rice. Our population structure analyses support the existence of five major subpopulations (indica, aus, tropical japonica, temperate japonica and GroupV consistent with previous analyses. Our introgression analysis shows that most accessions exhibit some degree of admixture, with many individuals within a population sharing the same introgressed segment due to artificial selection. Admixture mapping and association analysis of amylose content and grain length illustrate the potential for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits in domesticated plant populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genes in these regions control a myriad of traits including plant stature, blast resistance, and amylose content. These analyses highlight the power of population genomics in agricultural systems to identify functionally important regions of the genome and to decipher the role of human-directed breeding in refashioning the genomes of a domesticated species.

  17. Asymmetric Introgression in the Horticultural Living Fossil Cycas Sect. Asiorientales Using a Genome-Wide Scanning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shong Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct.

  18. THE VALUE OF PROTEIN IN FEED BARLEY FOR BEEF, DAIRY, AND SWINE FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    LaFrance, Jeffrey T.; Watts, Myles J.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of the protein content of feed barley on the costs of feeding beef, dairy cattle, and swine in Montana is evaluated. A model of least-cost feed rations is constructed to analyze the marginal value of additional protein content in feed barley. The results indicate that increasing the protein content of feed barley above 12% will not substantially increase the value of barley to feeders. This implies that the establishment and maintenance of a protein premium in the feed barley marke...

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  20. The experience of induction of mutation on barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on induced mutation of barley was started in 1978 under the Programme of Cereal Improvement. Barley was irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 Krad. Radiation doses of 18 and 21 Krad gave the highest frequency of albino and cloroticos mutants. Induced mutation is being carried out in different parts of the country to develop mutants having early germination property. These mutants will play an important role in the late cultivation in the mountain areas of Peru

  1. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by...... solubilization of the lamellae in phenol/acetic acid/8 M urea. Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein....

  2. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly......A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse...

  3. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by......, the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in...

  4. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba;

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  5. Development of Insect-Resistant Hybrid Rice by Introgressing the Bt Gene from Bt Rice Huahui 1 into II-32A/B, a Widely Used Cytogenic Male Sterile System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yun-song; HUANG Hai-qing; XU Meng-yun; WANG Liang-chao; ZHANG Xiao-bo; ZHANG Ji-wen; TU Ju-min

    2014-01-01

    Huahui 1 is an elite transgenic male sterile restorer line of wild rice abortive-type that expresses a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)δ-endotoxin and provides effective and economic control of lepidopteran insects. To exploit Huahui 1 to develop a new Bt rice, the insertion site of the Bt gene was determined by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). Bt was located in the promoter region of LOC.Os10g10360, approximately 5.35 Mb from the telomere of the short arm of chromosome 10. For the ifrst time, a Bt cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) system was developed by introgressing Bt from Huahui 1. The recipient CMS system used consisted of Indonesia paddy rice-type II-32B (maintainer line) and II-32A (male sterile line). Marker-assisted selection was used to increase selection efifciency in the backcrossing program. In BC5F1, the Bt plant 85015-8 was selected for further analyses, as it had the highest SSR marker homozygosity. In addition, the linkage drag of the foreign Bt gene in 85015-8 was minimized to 8.01-11.46 Mb. The foreign Bt gene was then delivered from 85015-8 into II-32A. The resultant Bt II-32A and Bt II-32B lines were both resistant to lepidopteran in ifeld trials, and agronomic traits were not disturbed. The maintainability of II-32B, and the male sterility and general combining ability of II-32A, were not affected by the Bt introgression. This study demonstrates a simple and fast approach to develop Bt hybrid rice.

  6. TOTAL IMPORTS AND IMPORT PATTERNS OF BARLEY INTO JAPAN: Implications of the 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Makus, Larry D.

    1990-01-01

    A two-stage budgeting procedure was employed to analyze (1) the Japanese import demand for barley and (2) allocation of Japanese barley imports between North America (Canada and the United States) and Australia. It was found that the import demand for barley was price inelastic and corn was a substitute for barley. Japanese barley imports were also influenced by size of the cattle herd and the number of cattle slaughtered. Price competition played a significant role in import allocation and b...

  7. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  8. AB-QTL analysis reveals new alleles associated to proline accumulation and leaf wilting under drought stress conditions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammed A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Land plants have evolved several measures to maintain their life against abiotic stresses. The accumulation of proline is the most generalized response of plants under drought, heat or salt stress conditions. It is known as an osmoprotectant which also acts as an instant source of energy during drought recovery process. But, both its role and genetic inheritance are poorly understood in agriculture crops. In the present work, advanced backcross quantitative trait locus (AB-QTL analysis was performed to elucidate genetic mechanisms controlling proline accumulation and leaf wilting in barley under drought stress conditions. Results The analysis revealed eight QTL associated to proline content (PC and leaf wilting (WS. QTL for PC were localized on chromosome 3H, 4H, 5H and 6H. The strongest QTL effect QPC.S42.5H was detected on chromosome 5H where drought inducible exotic allele was associated to increase PC by 54%. QTL effects QPC.S42.3H, QPC.S42.4H and QPC.S42.6H were responsible to heighten PC due to the preeminence of elite alleles over the exotic alleles which ranged from 26% to 43%. For WS, QTL have been localized on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H and 4H. Among these, QWS.S42.1H and QWS.S42.4H were associated to decrease in WS due to the introgression of exotic alleles. In addition, two digenic epistatic interaction effects were detected for WS where the additive effect of exotic alleles imparted a favorable increase in the trait value. Conclusions The present data represents a first report on whole-genome mapping of proline accumulation and leaf wilting in barley. The detected QTL are linked to new alleles from both cultivated and wild accessions which bring out an initial insight on the genetic inheritance of PC and WS. These QTL alleles are fixed in the isogenic background of Scarlett, which will allow for positional cloning of underlying genes and to develop drought resilient barley cultivars.

  9. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    homologues of each of the chromosomes. The aneuploid C2--seedlings were fairly equally distributed on hypo-and hyperploids, and on the seven chromosome groups. This suggests that a particular chromosome is lost or gained at random in gametes and embryos. The 11 C3--seedlings comprised seven true euploids......The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four......, one seedling with 2n=28 having an extra chromosome 6 and missing one chromosome 3, and three seedlings with 2n=29. The chromosomal composition of aneuploid C3--seedlings did not reflect that of their aneuploid C2--parents with respect to missing or extra chromosomes. Two hypohexaploid C2--seedlings...

  10. The elusive nature of adaptive mitochondrial DNA evolution of an Arctic lineage prone to frequent introgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Ferreira, Jose; Vilela, Joana; Fonseca, Miguel M.;

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria play a fundamental role in cellular metabolism, being responsible for most of the energy production of the cell in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for key components of this process, but its direct role in adaptation remains far from...... understood. Hares (Lepus spp.) are privileged models to study the impact of natural selection on mitogenomic evolution because 1) species are adapted to contrasting environments, including arctic, with different metabolic pressures, and 2) mtDNA introgression from arctic into temperate species is widespread...... lie on complex interactions with nuclear encoded peptides. Also, a cloverleaf structure was detected in the control region only from the arctic mtDNA lineage, which may influence mtDNA replication and transcription. These results suggest that adaptation impacted the evolution of hare mtDNA and may...

  11. Introgressive Hybridization and the Evolution of Lake-Adapted Catostomid Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Thomas E; Markle, Douglas F; Tranah, Greg J; Carson, Evan W; Wagman, David W; May, Bernard P

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization has been identified as a significant factor in the evolution of plants as groups of interbreeding species retain their phenotypic integrity despite gene exchange among forms. Recent studies have identified similar interactions in animals; however, the role of hybridization in the evolution of animals has been contested. Here we examine patterns of gene flow among four species of catostomid fishes from the Klamath and Rogue rivers using molecular and morphological traits. Catostomus rimiculus from the Rogue and Klamath basins represent a monophyletic group for nuclear and morphological traits; however, the Klamath form shares mtDNA lineages with other Klamath Basin species (C. snyderi, Chasmistes brevirostris, Deltistes luxatus). Within other Klamath Basin taxa, D. luxatus was largely fixed for alternate nuclear alleles relative to C. rimiculus, while Ch. brevirostris and C. snyderi exhibited a mixture of these alleles. Deltistes luxatus was the only Klamath Basin species that exhibited consistent covariation of nuclear and mitochondrial traits and was the primary source of mismatched mtDNA in Ch. brevirostris and C. snyderi, suggesting asymmetrical introgression into the latter species. In Upper Klamath Lake, D. luxatus spawning was more likely to overlap spatially and temporally with C. snyderi and Ch. brevirostris than either of those two with each other. The latter two species could not be distinguished with any molecular markers but were morphologically diagnosable in Upper Klamath Lake, where they were largely spatially and temporally segregated during spawning. We examine parallel evolution and syngameon hypotheses and conclude that observed patterns are most easily explained by introgressive hybridization among Klamath Basin catostomids. PMID:26959681

  12. Population structure of honey bees in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary) confirms introgression from surrounding subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péntek-Zakar, Erika; Oleksa, Andrzej; Borowik, Tomasz; Kusza, Szilvia

    2015-12-01

    Carniolan honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica) are considered as an indigenous subspecies in Hungary adapted to most of the ecological and climatic conditions in this area. However, during the last decades Hungarian beekeepers have recognized morphological signs of the Italian honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica). As the natural distribution of the honey bee subspecies can be affected by the importation of honey bee queens or by natural gene flow, we aimed at determining the genetic structure and characteristics of the local honey bee population using molecular markers. All together, 48 Hungarian and 84 foreign (Italian, Polish, Spanish, Liberian) pupae and/or workers were used for mitochondrial DNA analysis. Additionally, 53 sequences corresponding to 10 subspecies and the Buckfast hybrid were downloaded from GenBank. For the nuclear analysis, 236 Hungarian and 106 foreign honey bees were genotyped using nine microsatellites. Heterozygosity values, population-specific alleles, FST values, principal coordinate analysis, assignment tests, structure analysis, and dendrograms were calculated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity values showed moderate values. We found that one haplotype (H9) was dominant in Hungary. The presence of the black honey bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) was negligible, but a few individuals resembling other subspecies were identified. We proved that the Hungarian honey bee population is nearly homogeneous but also demonstrated introgression from the foreign subspecies. Both mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses corroborated the observations of the beekeepers. Molecular analyses suggested that Carniolan honey bee in Hungary is slightly affected by Italian and black honey bee introgression. Genetic differences were detected between Polish and Hungarian Carniolan honey bee populations, suggesting the existence of at least two different gene pools within A. m. carnica. PMID:27069597

  13. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager;

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the major crops cultivated worldwide and constitutes an important basis for animal feed. However, the production is facing a number of challenges that will be accentuated in the years to come, in particular restrictions on the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In order to improve the...... separate introductions of the gene of interest and the resistance gene for selection, respectively. The transgenic lines (T0), currently growing in greenhouse will be self pollinated and the molecular, physiological and agronomic characterization of subsequent generations will be undertaken....

  14. An evaluation of genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to map the Breviaristatum-e (ari-e) locus in cultivated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hui; Bayer, Micha; Druka, Arnis; Russell, Joanne R; Hackett, Christine A; Poland, Jesse; Ramsay, Luke; Hedley, Pete E; Waugh, Robbie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explored the use of genotyping by sequencing (GBS) on a recombinant inbred line population (GPMx) derived from a cross between the two-rowed barley cultivar ‘Golden Promise’ (ari-e.GP/Vrs1) and the six-rowed cultivar ‘Morex’ (Ari-e/vrs1) to map plant height. We identified three Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL), the first in a region encompassing the spike architecture gene Vrs1 on chromosome 2H, the second in an uncharacterised centromeric region on chromosome 3H, and the third in a ...

  15. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem around the world. During infection, trichothecene mycotoxins are produced and act as virulence factors, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. There are two types of tricho...

  16. Physiological tests for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological tests for characterizing drought tolerance in barley (H. vulgare L.) and durum wheat (T. durum L.) were evaluated. These tests involved: 1) germination in osmotic solution (-13 atm by d-mannitol); 2) thermal stress on seedlings (42 deg. C for 5 hours); 3) stability of the cellular membrane under osmotic stress (PEG 6000 at 43%). For both species genotypic variability which was associated with drought tolerance in the field was identified by the laboratory evaluation techniques. Based on these procedures, the two-row barley types were more drought tolerant than six-row types. In durum wheat, only some local populations and some varieties, bred in drought environments, showed high laboratory test values. Weak and not significant correlations were found between the physiological tests indicating that the genetic mechanisms which control these traits may be independent and process-specific. Yield trials, in barley, have been carried out in environments with drought conditions and the correlation between grain and physiological tests were significant. Of the three procedures evaluated in this study, the dry matter increase after a period of thermal stress and electrolyte leakage seemed to be most reliable and potentially useful for screening for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

  17. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisen Zhang

    Full Text Available Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling. Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%, intron retention (32%-34% and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21% were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  18. Modelling phytate degradation kinetics in soaked wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, A B; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    or Phytase 2 had no effect on the degradation of phytate. The F0 was greater in the heat-treated barley compared with the heat-treated wheat (0.19 vs. 0.14; P=0.02; Phytase 1). Heat-treatment of the cereals increased the F0 from 0.05 to 0.15 (P=0.0007; Phytase 2). The K was lower in the non-heat-treated...... wheat compared with the non-heat-treated barley (averaging 23.3 vs. 43.5 h), whereas K was higher in the wheat compared with the barley (averaging 12.3 vs. 11.1 h; P=0.02 and P=0.006; Phytase 1 and Phytase 2) when the cereals were heat-treated. In conclusion, the GMM function is a suitable model for......The objective of this study was to identify an appropriate mathematical function describing the in vitro phytate degradation profile of soaked wheat or barley (20 °C; 1 cereal: 2.75 water (w/w)) as affected by heat-treatment (stem pelleting at 90 °C) and phytase addition (Phytase 1: 0, 250, 500...

  19. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  20. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 400, subpart G. (b) Approved malting variety. A variety of barley specified as... and Drug Administration when determining concentrations of mycotoxins or other substances or... organization of the United States for substances or conditions, including mycotoxins, that are identified...

  1. Semidwarf, high yielding and high protein mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An induced mutations programme was undertaken in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with the primary objective of developing some semidwarf, short duration, high yielding types as most of the local cultivars grown in Meerut are tall statured with maturity period of 130-140 days. In recent years, the barley crop in this region, particularly at flowering/grain filling stages during February/March, has often been affected by unexpected rains accompanied by gusty winds, resulting in severe lodging of the crop and thereby reduction in crop yields. To combat this problem it is necessary to develop short statured types of barley, which can withstand lodging. If such types are associated with early maturity, that will be of greater help. Dry seeds of three local cultivars of barley 'K-169', 'K-272' and 'DL-281' were irradiated with gamma rays at 100; 200; 300 and 400 Gy. A number of morphological mutants for different plant characters like plant height (dwarfs and semidwarfs), maturity period (early and late maturing), spike density and size (lax panicled and erectoides), high tillering and chlorophyll deficiency (virescent) types were isolated from M2 mutated populations of the three varieties. Among these mutants, one semidwarf mutant (No. 3-20-5) of parent cultivar K-169 is of particular interest because of increased yield and significantly high protein content, besides the short stature

  2. Molecular analysis of genome instability in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable protocol for regenerating barley from seedling explants, including leaf bases with a complete apical meristem, has been developed at the Institute of Genetic Engineering. The system was established with Bulgarian barley cultivars (Ruen, Karnobat, Obzor and Yubilei) and reconstructed genotypes (K. Gecheff IG). Pretreatment of the mature embryos with a high concentration of 2.4D generated valuable and stable genetic deviations in the regenerants. The brewery cultivar Ruen was selected as the model genotype. It has been demonstrated that genetic variations, such as higher yield, earlier maturation and lower protein content, have been induced and maintained for 5 years. Comparative experiments, including treatment of barley mature seeds with 60Co gamma rays (10 and 20 krad) and sodium azide (1.10-3 M and 5 x 10-4 M), were also carried out. The results obtained showed that both treatments stimulated calusogenesis and regeneration of the plants. Molecular markers such as proteins, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were applied in studies on the mutagenic effects of 2.4D, gamma rays and sodium azide, and a combination threof, on the quality and quantity of the genetic diversification generated in tissue culture of the Bulgarian barley cultivars Ruen, Karnobat, Obzor and Yubilei and the reconstructed genotypes

  3. Protein composition of malting barley varieties required in brewing industry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Bobálová, Janette

    Berlin : Freie Universität Berlin, 2011. s. 354. [Proteomic Forum 2011. 03.04.2011-07.04.2011, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley * varieties * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  4. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an alpha-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the...

  5. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  6. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  7. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by...

  8. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  9. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a...

  10. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K;

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  11. Expression of Barley Endopeptidase B in Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Saarelainen, R.; Mantyla, A.; Nevalainen, H.; Suominen, P.

    1997-01-01

    The gene for barley endopeptidase B (EPB) has been expressed in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei from the cbh1 promoter. The EPB signal sequence allowed secretion of over 90% of the recombinant protein. Yields reached about 500 mg of immunoreactive protein per liter and exceeded values for any other protein derived from a higher eukaryotic organism produced in T. reesei.

  12. Significant decrease in yield under future climate conditions: Stability and production of 138 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, Gunter; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged;

    2015-01-01

    The response in production parameters to projected future levels of temperature, atmospheric carbondioxide ([CO2]), and ozone ([O3]) was investigated in 138 spring barley accessions. The comprehensive setof landraces, cultivars, and breeder-lines, were during their entire life cycle exposed to a...... two-factor treat-ment of combined elevated temperature (+5◦C day/night) and [CO2] (700 ppm), as well as single-factortreatments of elevated temperature (+5◦C day/night), [CO2] (700 ppm), and [O3] (100–150 ppb). Thecontrol treatment was equivalent to present average South Scandinavian climate...... (temperature: 19/12◦C(day/night), [CO2]: 385 ppm). Overall grain yield was found to decrease 29% in the two-factor treatmentwith concurrent elevation of [CO2] and temperature, and this response could not be predicted from theresults of treatments with elevated [CO2] and temperature as single factors, where...

  13. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation on barley's (Hordeum Vulgare L.) susceptibility to cochliobolus sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two barley genotypes (Tadmor, W12291), and one promising line selected in AECS (76) were exposed to 60 cobalt gamma radiation. The doses used were: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy. Susceptibility assessments were scored using a rating scale extending from 1 (highly resistant) to 5 (very susceptible) according to the percentage of infected area at subcrown interodes. In general, doses of 10, 15, 20 and 30 Gy increased the resistance to the pathogen Cochliobolus sativus by 56.29%, 58.29%, 54.57% and 49.71% respectively. The genotypes did not response similarly to the irradiation. The best response was obtained with c.v Tadmor. (author)

  14. Variability of yield structure and of physical traits determining lodging resistance in barley mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski P.

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the variability of yield structure traits and lodging resistance of 32 spring barley mutants. The mutants were obtained from the DH line HK-119 using a chemomutagen N-ni-troso-N-methylurea (MNLJ and helium-neon laser. The mutants were chosen in such a way that they represented a broad spectrum of plant height. The investigation allowed mutants with improved parameters of yield structure in comparison to the initial form HK-119 to be selected. The analysis of morphological and physical traits stem diameters, wall thickness and stem elasticity (Young's modulus made possible the relationship between these traits and lodging grade to be estimated. The lodging grade was assessed in field conditions on a 9 degree scale, where 1 means no lodging and 9 the highest degree of lodging. Mutants of different plant height, with desirable yield structure and improved lodging resistance, were identified.

  15. Fine mapping of the Bsr1 barley stripe mosaic virus resistance gene in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cui

    Full Text Available The ND18 strain of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV infects several lines of Brachypodium distachyon, a recently developed model system for genomics research in cereals. Among the inbred lines tested, Bd3-1 is highly resistant at 20 to 25 °C, whereas Bd21 is susceptible and infection results in an intense mosaic phenotype accompanied by high levels of replicating virus. We generated an F(6:7 recombinant inbred line (RIL population from a cross between Bd3-1 and Bd21 and used the RILs, and an F(2 population of a second Bd21 × Bd3-1 cross to evaluate the inheritance of resistance. The results indicate that resistance segregates as expected for a single dominant gene, which we have designated Barley stripe mosaic virus resistance 1 (Bsr1. We constructed a genetic linkage map of the RIL population using SNP markers to map this gene to within 705 Kb of the distal end of the top of chromosome 3. Additional CAPS and Indel markers were used to fine map Bsr1 to a 23 Kb interval containing five putative genes. Our study demonstrates the power of using RILs to rapidly map the genetic determinants of BSMV resistance in Brachypodium. Moreover, the RILs and their associated genetic map, when combined with the complete genomic sequence of Brachypodium, provide new resources for genetic analyses of many other traits.

  16. Identifying root system genes using induced mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root systems play an important role in plant growth and development. They absorb water and nutrients, anchor plant in the soil and affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Despite their importance, the progress in understanding the molecular processes underlying root development has been achieved only in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was accomplished through detailed analysis of root mutants with the use of advanced molecular, genomic and bioinformatic tools. Recently, similar studies performed with rice and maize root mutants have led to the identification of homologous and novel genes controlling root system formation in monocots. The collection of barley mutants with changes in root system development and morphology has been developed in our Department after mutagenic treatments of spring barley varieties with N-methyl N-nitosourea (MNU) and sodium azide. Among these mutants, the majority was characterized by seminal roots significantly shorter than roots of a parent variety throughout a whole vegetation period. Additionally, several mutants with root hairs impaired at different stages of development have been identified. These mutants have become the material of studies aimed at genetic and molecular dissection of seminal root and root hair formation in barley. The studies included the molecular mapping of genes responsible for mutant phenotype using DNA markers and root transcriptome analysis in the mutant/parent variety system. Using cDNA RDA approach, we have identified the HvEXPB1 gene encoding root specific beta expansin related to the root hair initiation in barley. We have also initiated the database search for barley sequences homologous to the known Arabodopsis, maize and rice genes. The identified homologous ESTs are now used for isolation of the complete coding sequences and gene function will be validated through identification of mutations related to the altered phenotype. This work was supported by the IAEA Research Contracts 12611 and 12849

  17. Life history traits and phenotypic selection among sunflower crop-wild hybrids and their wild counterpart: implications for crop allele introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Matthew A; Alexander, Helen M; Jason Emry, D; Mercer, Kristin L

    2015-06-01

    Hybridization produces strong evolutionary forces. In hybrid zones, selection can differentially occur on traits and selection intensities may differ among hybrid generations. Understanding these dynamics in crop-wild hybrid zones can clarify crop-like traits likely to introgress into wild populations and the particular hybrid generations through which introgression proceeds. In a field experiment with four crop-wild hybrid Helianthus annuus (sunflower) cross types, we measured growth and life history traits and performed phenotypic selection analysis on early season traits to ascertain the likelihood, and routes, of crop allele introgression into wild sunflower populations. All cross types overwintered, emerged in the spring, and survived until flowering, indicating no early life history barriers to crop allele introgression. While selection indirectly favored earlier seedling emergence and taller early season seedlings, direct selection only favored greater early season leaf length. Further, there was cross type variation in the intensity of selection operating on leaf length. Thus, introgression of multiple early season crop-like traits, due to direct selection for greater early season leaf length, should not be impeded by any cross type and may proceed at different rates among generations. In sum, alleles underlying early season sunflower crop-like traits are likely to introgress into wild sunflower populations. PMID:26029263

  18. Towards systems genetic analyses in barley: Integration of phenotypic, expression and genotype data into GeneNetwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druka Arnis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A typical genetical genomics experiment results in four separate data sets; genotype, gene expression, higher-order phenotypic data and metadata that describe the protocols, processing and the array platform. Used in concert, these data sets provide the opportunity to perform genetic analysis at a systems level. Their predictive power is largely determined by the gene expression dataset where tens of millions of data points can be generated using currently available mRNA profiling technologies. Such large, multidimensional data sets often have value beyond that extracted during their initial analysis and interpretation, particularly if conducted on widely distributed reference genetic materials. Besides quality and scale, access to the data is of primary importance as accessibility potentially allows the extraction of considerable added value from the same primary dataset by the wider research community. Although the number of genetical genomics experiments in different plant species is rapidly increasing, none to date has been presented in a form that allows quick and efficient on-line testing for possible associations between genes, loci and traits of interest by an entire research community. Description Using a reference population of 150 recombinant doubled haploid barley lines we generated novel phenotypic, mRNA abundance and SNP-based genotyping data sets, added them to a considerable volume of legacy trait data and entered them into the GeneNetwork http://www.genenetwork.org. GeneNetwork is a unified on-line analytical environment that enables the user to test genetic hypotheses about how component traits, such as mRNA abundance, may interact to condition more complex biological phenotypes (higher-order traits. Here we describe these barley data sets and demonstrate some of the functionalities GeneNetwork provides as an easily accessible and integrated analytical environment for exploring them. Conclusion By

  19. A flavonoid mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exhibits increased sensitivity to UV-B radiation in the primary leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present investigation was to define the role of soluble flavonoids as UV-B protectants in the primary leaf of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). For this purpose we used a mutant line (Ant 287) from the Carlsberg collection of proanthocyanidin-free barley containing only 7% of total extractable flavonoids in the primary leaf as compared to the mother variety (Hiege 550/75). Seven-day-old leaves from plants grown under high visible light with or without supplementary UV-B radiation were used for the determination of UV-B sensitivity. UV-B-induced changes were assessed from parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystem II, including initial and maximum fluorescence, apparent quantum yield, and photochemical and non-photochemical quenching. A quartz fibre-optic microprobe was used to evaluate the amount of potentially harmful UV-B (310 nm radiation) penetrating into the leaf as a direct consequence of flavonoid deficiency. Our data indicate an essential role of flavonoids in UV-B protection of barley primary leaves. In leaves of the mutant line grown under supplementary UV-B, an increase in 310nm radiation in the mesophyll and a strong decrease in the quantum yield of photosynthesis were observed as compared to the corresponding mother variety. Primary leaves of liege responded to supplementary UV-B radiation with a 30% increase in the major flavonoid saponarin and a 500% increase in the minor compound lutonarin. This is assumed to be an efficient protective response since no changes in variable chlorophyll fluorescence were apparent. In addition, a further reduction in UV-B penetration into the mesophyll was recorded in these leaves

  20. Unraveling the Wheat Stem Rust Infection Process on Barley Genotypes Through Relative qPCR and Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurn, J D; Dugyala, S; Borowicz, P; Brueggeman, R; Acevedo, M

    2015-05-01

    The infection process of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) is often observed as a mesothetic infection type at the seedling stages, and cultivars containing the same major resistance genes often show variation in the level of resistance provided against the same pathogen race or isolate. Thus, robust phenotyping data based on quantification of fungal DNA can improve the ability to elucidate host-pathogen interaction, especially at early time points of infection when disease symptoms are not yet evident. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of fungal DNA relative to host DNA in infected tissue, providing new insights about fungal development and host resistance during the infection process in this pathosystem. The stem rust susceptible 'Steptoe', resistant cultivars containing only Rpg1 ('Beacon', 'Morex', and 'Chevron'), and the resistant line Q21861 containing Rpg1 and the rpg4/Rpg5 complex were evaluated using the traditional 0-to-4 rating scale, fluorescence microscopy, and qPCR. Statistical differences (P<0.05) were observed in fungal development as early as 24 h postinoculation using the qPCR assay. Fungal development observed using fluorescence microscopy displayed the same hierarchal ordering observed using the qPCR assay. The fungal development occurring at 24 and 48 h postinoculation was vastly different than what was expected using the traditional disease phenotyping methodology; with Steptoe appearing more resistant than the barley lines harboring the known Rpg1 and rpg4/Rpg5 resistance complex. These data indicate potential early prehaustorial resistance contributions in a cultivar considered susceptible based on infection type. Moreover, the temporal differences in resistance suggest pre- and post-haustorial resistance mechanisms in the barley-wheat stem rust infection process, indicating potential host genotype contributions related to basal defense during

  1. Analysis of enzyme production by submerged culture of Aspergillus oryzae using whole barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Susumu; Kikuchi, Kaori; Matsumoto, Yuko; Sugimoto, Toshikazu; Shoji, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Masayuki

    2009-10-01

    We have reported on high enzyme production by submerged culture of Aspergillus kawachii using barley with the husk (whole barley). To elucidate the mechanism underlying this high enzyme production, we performed a detailed analysis. Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 was submerged-cultured using whole barley and milled whole barley. Enzyme production was analyzed in terms of changes in medium components and gene expression levels. When whole barley was used, high production of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase and high gene expression levels of these enzymes were observed. Low ammonium concentrations were maintained with nitrate ion uptake continuing into the late stage using whole barley. These findings suggest that the sustainability of nitrogen metabolism is related to high enzyme production, and that a mechanism other than that associated with the conventional amylase expression system is involved in this relationship. PMID:19809198

  2. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    Introduction: Cereals are normally stored dry at low moisture content (< 14%) to maintain grain quality. The hypothesis is that reconstitution of grain with water activates the endogenous enzymes and makes grain nutrients more soluble and digestible. The objective is to investigate the effect of...... reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49......: Reconstituted barley had higher soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and lower phytate P (0.93 g/ kg DM) compared with dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM, respectively). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed increased P absorption (52%) and decreased P excretion in feces (21%) (P<0.001). Reconstitution increased P...

  3. Large-scale asymmetric introgression of cytoplasmic DNA reveals Holocene range displacement in a North American boreal pine complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Julie; Yeh, Francis C; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-08-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) are two North American boreal hard pines that hybridize in their zone of contact in western Canada. The main objective of this study was to characterize their patterns of introgression resulting from past and recent gene flow, using cytoplasmic markers having maternal or paternal inheritance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was assessed in allopatric populations of each species and in stands from the current zone of contact containing morphological hybrids. Cluster analyses were used to identify genetic discontinuities among groups of populations. A canonical analysis was also conducted to detect putative associations among cytoplasmic DNA variation, tree morphology, and site ecological features. MtDNA introgression was extensive and asymmetric: it was detected in P. banksiana populations from the hybrid zone and from allopatric areas, but not in P. contorta populations. Very weak cpDNA introgression was observed, and only in P. banksiana populations. The mtDNA introgression pattern indicated that central Canada was first colonized by migrants from a P. contorta glacial population located west of the Rocky Mountains, before being replaced by P. banksiana migrating westward during the Holocene. In contrast, extensive pollen gene flow would have erased the cpDNA traces of this ancient presence of P. contorta. Additional evidence for this process was provided by the results of canonical analysis, which indicated that the current cpDNA background of trees reflected recent pollen gene flow from the surrounding dominant species rather than historical events that took place during the postglacial colonization. PMID:22957188

  4. Large-scale asymmetric introgression of cytoplasmic DNA reveals Holocene range displacement in a North American boreal pine complex

    OpenAIRE

    Godbout, Julie; Yeh, Francis C.; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) are two North American boreal hard pines that hybridize in their zone of contact in western Canada. The main objective of this study was to characterize their patterns of introgression resulting from past and recent gene flow, using cytoplasmic markers having maternal or paternal inheritance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was assessed in allopatric populations of each species and i...

  5. Hybridization but no evidence for backcrossing and introgression in a sympatric population of great reed warblers and clamorous reed warblers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Hansson

    Full Text Available Hybridization is observed frequently in birds, but often it is not known whether the hybrids are fertile and if backcrossing occurs. The breeding ranges of the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus and the clamorous reed warbler (A. stentoreus overlap in southern Kazakhstan and a previous study has documented hybridization in a sympatric population. In the present study, we first present a large set of novel microsatellite loci isolated and characterised in great reed warblers. Secondly, we evaluate whether hybridization in the sympatric breeding population has been followed by backcrossing and introgression.We isolated 181 unique microsatellite loci in great reed warblers. Of 41 loci evaluated, 40 amplified and 30 were polymorphic. Bayesian clustering analyses based on genotype data from 23 autosomal loci recognised two well-defined genetic clusters corresponding to the two species. Individuals clustered to a very high extent to either of these clusters (admixture proportions ≥ 0.984 with the exception of four previously suggested arundinaceus-stentoreus hybrid birds that showed mixed ancestry (admixture proportions 0.495-0.619. Analyses of simulated hybrids and backcrossed individuals showed that the sampled birds do not correspond to first-fourth-generation backcrosses, and that fifth or higher generation backcrosses to a high extent resemble 'pure' birds at this set of markers.We conclude that these novel microsatellite loci provide a useful molecular resource for Acrocephalus warblers. The time to reach reproductive isolation is believed to be very long in birds, approximately 5 Myrs, and with an estimated divergence time of 2 Myrs between these warblers, some backcrossing and introgression could have been expected. However, there was no evidence for backcrossing and introgression suggesting that hybrids are either infertile or their progeny inviable. Very low levels of introgression cannot be excluded, which still may be an

  6. Introgression evidence and phylogenetic relationships among three (ParaMisgurnus species as revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovlić I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of (ParaMisgurnus genera is still debated. We therefore used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, Paramisgurnus dabryanus and Misgurnus fossilis. Differing phylogenetic signals from mitochondrial and nuclear marker data suggest an introgression event in the history of M. anguillicaudatus and M. mohoity. No substantial genetic evidence was found that Paramisgurnus dabryanus should be classified as a separate genus.

  7. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

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    Kristin L Mercer

    Full Text Available Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking

  8. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  9. Phylogeny Estimation of the Radiation of Western North American Chipmunks (Tamias) in the Face of Introgression Using Reproductive Protein Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Noah; Demboski, John R.; Sullivan, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression...

  10. Adaptive introgression in an African malaria mosquito coincident with the increased usage of insecticide-treated bed nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Laura C; Main, Bradley J; Lee, Yoosook; Collier, Travis C; Fofana, Abdrahamane; Cornel, Anthony J; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2015-01-20

    Animal species adapt to changes in their environment, including man-made changes such as the introduction of insecticides, through selection for advantageous genes already present in populations or newly arisen through mutation. A possible alternative mechanism is the acquisition of adaptive genes from related species via a process known as adaptive introgression. Differing levels of insecticide resistance between two African malaria vectors, Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae, have been attributed to assortative mating between the two species. In a previous study, we reported two bouts of hybridization observed in the town of Selinkenyi, Mali in 2002 and 2006. These hybridization events did not appear to be directly associated with insecticide-resistance genes. We demonstrate that during a brief breakdown in assortative mating in 2006, A. coluzzii inherited the entire A. gambiae-associated 2L divergence island, which includes a suite of insecticide-resistance alleles. In this case, introgression was coincident with the start of a major insecticide-treated bed net distribution campaign in Mali. This suggests that insecticide exposure altered the fitness landscape, favoring the survival of A. coluzzii/A. gambiae hybrids, and provided selection pressure that swept the 2L divergence island through A. coluzzii populations in Mali. We propose that the work described herein presents a unique description of the temporal dynamics of adaptive introgression in an animal species and represents a mechanism for the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance in this important vector of human malaria in Africa. PMID:25561525

  11. Continuous morphological variation correlated with genome size indicates frequent introgressive hybridization among Diphasiastrum species (Lycopodiaceae in Central Europe.

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    Kristýna Hanušová

    Full Text Available Introgressive hybridization is an important evolutionary process frequently contributing to diversification and speciation of angiosperms. Its extent in other groups of land plants has only rarely been studied, however. We therefore examined the levels of introgression in the genus Diphasiastrum, a taxonomically challenging group of Lycopodiophytes, using flow cytometry and numerical and geometric morphometric analyses. Patterns of morphological and cytological variation were evaluated in an extensive dataset of 561 individuals from 57 populations of six taxa from Central Europe, the region with the largest known taxonomic complexity. In addition, genome size values of 63 individuals from Northern Europe were acquired for comparative purposes. Within Central European populations, we detected a continuous pattern in both morphological variation and genome size (strongly correlated together suggesting extensive levels of interspecific gene flow within this region, including several large hybrid swarm populations. The secondary character of habitats of Central European hybrid swarm populations suggests that man-made landscape changes might have enhanced unnatural contact of species, resulting in extensive hybridization within this area. On the contrary, a distinct pattern of genome size variation among individuals from other parts of Europe indicates that pure populations prevail outside Central Europe. All in all, introgressive hybridization among Diphasiastrum species in Central Europe represents a unique case of extensive interspecific gene flow among spore producing vascular plants that cause serious complications of taxa delimitation.

  12. Effect of barley-legume intercrop on disease frequency in an organic farming system

    OpenAIRE

    Kinane, Dr. J.; Lyngkjær, Dr. M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of barley-legume intercrop in an organic farming system on disease incidence was investigated. The legumes were lupin, faba bean and pea. Diseases were detected on pea and barley. On pea, only ascochyta blight (Ascochyta pisi) was observed. When either pea variety was intercropped with barley, the level of ascochyta blight was reduced. Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres), brown rust (Puccinia recondita) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) (in order of incidence) were mo...

  13. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    A Ri Byun; Hyejin Chun; Jin Lee; Sang Wha Lee; Hong Soo Lee; Kyung Won Shim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided i...

  14. Molecular Phylogeography of Domesticated Barley Traces Expansion of Agriculture in the Old World

    OpenAIRE

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided...

  15. Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group GAG-1, the common pathogen of wheat, barley and sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka; Jan Adamiak; Ewa Adamiak

    2014-01-01

    Isuluies of Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group GAG-1 were obtained from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and on barley culms and from diseased sugar beet seedlings. Isolates of R. cerealis were collected from a fields with crop rotation experiments: sugar beet-spring wheat-winter barley. In pathogenicity tests isolates of R. cerealis from sugar beet seedlings and from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and barley were pathogenic to these crops. Isolates of R. cerealis from sharp eyespot lesions...

  16. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  17. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwimana Brigitte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (transgenes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F1 hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC1 and BC2 populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC1S1 and BC2S1. Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency. Results Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC1S1 and BC2S1 hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC1 and BC2 hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. Conclusion As it was shown that the crop

  18. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Tolerance in Spring Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresman, Bradley J.; Oliver, Rebekah E.; Jackson, Eric W.; Chao, Shiaoman; Arruda, Marcio P.; Kolb, Frederic L.

    2016-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD) and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel. PMID:27175781

  19. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  20. Genotypic and Environmental Variations of Arabinoxylan Content and Endoxylanase Activity in Barley Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-qin; XUE Da-wei; WU Fei-bo; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) content in barley grains is an important quality determinant when barley is used as raw material of malt or beer production. The cultivar and environmental variations of total arabinoxylan (TAX), water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) and endoxylanase activity (EA) were investigated using eight barley cultivars growing at seven locations with diverse environmental conditions. The results showed that both barley cultivar and location significantly affected the TAX, WEAX and EA levels, but the variations of TAX content and EA were mainly attributed to cultivar, while the impact of location on WEAX content was greater than that of cultivar. Correlation analysis indicated that TAX was significantly correlated to WUAX.

  1. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  2. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  3. Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

    2012-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (ΔGg) and excited (ΔGe) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley α-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

  4. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 105 to ca. 6 x 103 by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of 62Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  5. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  6. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  7. New high yielding, high lysine mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley mutants with an increased content of lysine have successfully been selected. Unfortunately, they had a reduced grain yield, and this has led to the opinion that it may not be possible to obtain normal yielding high lysine mutants. In the present study, twenty low hordein barley mutants were derived from 49,000 M2 seeds. Two probably had a 10% increase in lysine content and a grain yield that was the same as that of the mother variety. The mutants were initially selected by a fast turbidity test on the M2 seeds, using special controls that make the tests sensitive. The screening procedure further consists of determination of the non-hordein/hordein ratio in later generations. 14 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Wynse S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (≤ 5 ppm in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON, and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201 were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare. DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation.

  9. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  10. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Sparla; Giuseppe Falini; Ermelinda Botticella; Claudia Pirone; Valentina Talamè; Riccardo Bovina; Silvio Salvi; Roberto Tuberosa; Francesco Sestili; Paolo Trost

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant...

  11. The Barley Grain Thioredoxin System – an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eHägglund

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type thioredoxin facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. This review presents a summary of the research conducted during the last ten years to elucidate the structure and function of the barley seed thioredoxin system at the molecular level combined with proteomic approaches to identify target proteins.

  12. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

  13. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  14. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  15. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eBrod; Anne Falk Øgaard; Tore eKrogstad; Trond Knapp Haraldsen; Emmanuel eFrossard; Astrid eOberson

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared wit...

  16. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  17. Microbes in the tailoring of barley malt properties

    OpenAIRE

    Laitila, Arja

    2007-01-01

    Microbes have a decisive role in the barley-malt-beer chain. A major goal of this thesis was to study the relationships between microbial communities and germinating grains during malting. Furthermore, the study provided a basis for tailoring of malt properties with natural, malt-derived microbes. The malting ecosystem is a dynamic process, exhibiting continous change. The first hours of steeping and kilning were the most important steps in the process with regard to microbiological qual...

  18. Gamma Ray and Barley Improvement for drought Land in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Barley breeding program has been concentrated to improve it's yield under dry conditions (zone-C 250 m.m), so the Barley Breeder's in GCSAR reached to Barley mutant (M4) suitable for rain-fed area in zone-C by exposing Arabi Aswad (local Barley variety) to gamma-ray treatment 10 Kr/dose, It's cod is Furat A-4806. Furat A-4806 tested in yield trials 1988/1989-1992/1993 in Hasakeh Research Station RCBD 4.5 M2 plot size , Its out yielded A. Aswad by 31 %. And completed testing in On-Farme yield Trials (At Farmers fields) 1993/1994 - 1996/1997 RCBD 32 M2 plot size , Its out yielded the Farmers Variety 18 - 28 % in Hama and Daraa provinces, 16 % in Hasakeh province (Sig. at 1%). Furat A-4806 has been released and has a new name (furat 3). Furat 3 has planted at Farmers fields to released it under there conditions ( 1 Hac in 47 locations in Hama, Homs, Edleb, Aleppo and Hasakeh provinces 2000/2001 - 2002/2003. Agronomic data were: 1000-kernel weight 37.4 g ; protein content 11.7%, number of days to heading 117; Number of days to maturity 156 ; plant height 52 cm. It was also found to be moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to scald, and moderately resistant to Powdery Mildew. Furat 3 is two-row type, with brunet seeds color, and resistant to lodging. Furat 3 has been released for: Hassake, Hama, Aleppo and Dara'a, and has good adoption. (Author)

  19. Alcohol Yield of Oat, Barley and Wheat Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    PIKL, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Major part of ethanol production for industrial use in Czech Republic is made from cereals. Effect of acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis after thermopressure preparation takes part in the paper. The most promising alternative is enzymatic hydrolysis. Especially efficiency of different hydrolytic enzymes towards different species of cereals takes the main part of the simulations. Local farm products, oats, barley and wheat were prepaired by steam explosion in different pressure. After hydro...

  20. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

  1. Proteomic analysis of different extracts from barley grains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelík, Josef; Řehulka, Pavel; Střelcová, M.; Kubáň, V.; Mayrhofer, C.; Allmaier, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2002), s. 261-264. ISSN 0370-663X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/99/1576 Grant ostatní: Austrian-Czech Republic Collaboration Grant(AT) II/4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : proteomics * barley * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2002

  2. Inheritance of prehaustorial resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter M; Ayliffe, Michael; Khatkar, Mehar S; Fetch, Tom; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Rust pathogens within the genus Puccinia cause some of the most economically significant diseases of crops. Different formae speciales of P. graminis have co-evolved to mainly infect specific grass hosts; however, some genotypes of other closely related cereals can also be infected. This study investigated the inheritance of resistance to three diverse pathotypes of the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) in the 'Yerong' ✕ 'Franklin' (Y/F) barley doubled haploid (DH) population, a host with which it is not normally associated. Both parents, 'Yerong' and 'Franklin', were immune to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes; however. there was transgressive segregation within the Y/F population, in which infection types (IT) ranged from complete immunity to mesothetic susceptibility, suggesting the presence of heritable resistance. Both QTL and marker-trait association (MTA) analysis was performed on the Y/F population to map resistance loci in response to P. graminis f. sp. avenae. QTL on chromosome 1H ('Yerong' Rpga1 and Rpga2) were identified using all forms of analysis, while QTL detected on 5H ('Franklin' Rpga3 and Rpga4) and 7H (Rpga5) were only detected using MTA or composite interval mapping-single marker regression analysis respectively. Rpga1 to Rpga5 were effective in response to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes used in this study, suggesting resistance is not pathotype specific. Rpga1 co-located to previously mapped QTL in the Y/F population for adult plant resistance to the barley leaf scald pathogen (Rhynchosporium secalis) on chromosome 1H. Histological evidence suggests that the resistance observed within parental and immune DH lines in the population was prehaustorial and caused by callose deposition within the walls of the mesophyll cells, preventing hyphal penetration. PMID:25025780

  3. Marker-trait associations in Virginia Tech winter barley identified using genome-wide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gregory L; Liu, Shuyu; Hall, Marla D; Brooks, Wynse S; Chao, Shiaoman; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Baik, B-K; Steffenson, Brian; Griffey, Carl A

    2013-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an opportunity to examine the genetic architecture of quantitatively inherited traits in breeding populations. The objectives of this study were to use GWAS to identify chromosome regions governing traits of importance in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers that can be implemented in a marker-assisted breeding program. Advanced hulled and hulless lines (329 total) were screened using 3,072 SNPs as a part of the US. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP). Phenotypic data collected over 4 years for agronomic and food quality traits and resistance to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia hordei G. Otth), powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f. sp. hordei Em. Marchal], net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres), and spot blotch [caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechsler ex Dastur] were analyzed with SNP genotypic data in a GWAS to determine marker-trait associations. Significant SNPs associated with previously described quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes were identified for heading date on chromosome 3H, test weight on 2H, yield on 7H, grain protein on 5H, polyphenol oxidase activity on 2H and resistance to leaf rust on 2H and 3H, powdery mildew on 1H, 2H and 4H, net blotch on 5H, and spot blotch on 7H. Novel QTL also were identified for agronomic, quality, and disease resistance traits. These SNP-trait associations provide the opportunity to directly select for QTL contributing to multiple traits in breeding programs. PMID:23139143

  4. The effect of lanthanum applications on drought tolerance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Glasshouse investigations carried out by the authors on both perlite and soil, have repeatedly shown that several plant species, when treated with lanthanum, retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. Dry matter increases under water stress have been observed in some cases. Barley plants watered to 50% field capacity, and show-ing signs of water stress, yielded 18% more dry matter when treated with 5 kg/ha and 10 kg/ha of lanthanum than control plants (P<0.05). The results of these experiments suggest that increased dry matter production in crops under periods of water stress, is likely when previously treated with lanthanum. Consequently, it is conceivable that lanthanum may have potential as an agent that induces drought tolerance in grain crops, grown in low rainfall areas. Subsequent field trials using barley as a test crop at Walpeup, in the Mallee region of Victoria have shown that in a below average rainfall year, combined soil and foliar applications of lanthanum can significantly increase grain yield. This effect was not evident when barley grown on the same soil type was treated with lanthanum under above average rainfall conditions

  5. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  6. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  7. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly......A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse...... from barley coleoptiles. P9.3 and P7.3 had Reinheitszahl values of 3.31 and 2.85 and specific activities (with 2,2'-azino-di-[3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], pH 5.5, as the substrate) of 11 and 79 units/mg, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption...

  8. Internal water balance of barley under soil moisture stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, A A; Duysen, M E; Wilkinson, G E

    1968-06-01

    Leaf water potential, leaf relative water content, and relative transpiration of barley were determined daily under greenhouse conditions at 3 growth stages: tillering to boot, boot to heading, and heading to maturity. The leaf moisture characteristic curve (relative water content versus leaf water potential) was the same for leaves of the same age growing in the same environment for the first 2 stages of growth, but shifted at the heading to maturity stage to higher leaf relative water content for a given leaf water potential. Growth chamber experiments showed that the leaf moisture characteristic curve was not the same for plants growing in different environments.Relative transpiration data indicated that barley stomates closed at a water potential of about -22 bars at the 3 stages studied.The water potential was measured for all the leaves on barley to determine the variation of water potential with leaf position. Leaf water potential increased basipetally with plant leaf position. In soil with a moisture content near field capacity a difference of about 16.5 bars was observed between the top and bottom leaves on the same plant, while in soil with a moisture content near the permanent wilting point the difference was only 5.6 bars between the same leaf positions. PMID:16656869

  9. Targeted introgression of cotton fibre quality quantitative trait loci using molecular markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of a cotton breeding programme, molecular markers are used to improve the efficiency of the introgression of fibre quality traits of Gossypium barbadense into G. hirsutum. A saturated genetic map was developed based on genotyping data obtained from the BC1 (75 plants) and BC2 (200 plants) generations. Phenotypic measurements conducted over three generations (BC1, BC2 and BC2S1) allowed 80 quantitative trait loci (QTL) to be detected for fibre length, uniformity, strength, elongation, fineness and colour. Positive QTL, i.e. those for which favourable alleles came from the G. barbadense parent, were harboured by 19 QTL-rich regions on 15 'carrier' chromosomes. In subsequent generations (BC3 and BC4), markers framing the QTL-rich regions were used to select about 10 percent of over 400 plants analysed in each generation. Although BC plants selected through the marker-assisted selection (MAS) process show promising fibre quality, only their full field evaluation will allow validation of the procedure. (author)

  10. Interspecific introgression in cetaceans: DNA markers reveal post-F1 status of a pilot whale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miralles

    Full Text Available Visual species identification of cetacean strandings is difficult, especially when dead specimens are degraded and/or species are morphologically similar. The two recognised pilot whale species (Globicephala melas and Globicephala macrorhynchus are sympatric in the North Atlantic Ocean. These species are very similar in external appearance and their morphometric characteristics partially overlap; thus visual identification is not always reliable. Genetic species identification ensures correct identification of specimens. Here we have employed one mitochondrial (D-Loop region and eight nuclear loci (microsatellites as genetic markers to identify six stranded pilot whales found in Galicia (Northwest Spain, one of them of ambiguous phenotype. DNA analyses yielded positive amplification of all loci and enabled species identification. Nuclear microsatellite DNA genotypes revealed mixed ancestry for one individual, identified as a post-F1 interspecific hybrid employing two different Bayesian methods. From the mitochondrial sequence the maternal species was Globicephala melas. This is the first hybrid documented between Globicephala melas and G. macrorhynchus, and the first post-F1 hybrid genetically identified between cetaceans, revealing interspecific genetic introgression in marine mammals. We propose to add nuclear loci to genetic databases for cetacean species identification in order to detect hybrid individuals.

  11. Hybrid Incompatibilities, Local Adaptation, and the Genomic Distribution of Natural Introgression between Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Christina A; Presgraves, Daven C

    2016-02-01

    Under allopatric speciation, geographic barriers eliminate gene flow between eventual species at all loci in the genome simultaneously. There is increasing evidence, however, that speciation can be complex, with some loci experiencing gene flow during speciation or during bouts of secondary contact. In taxa with heteromorphic sex chromosomes-birds, butterflies, mammals, and Drosophila-the X (or Z) chromosome generally shows reduced levels of gene flow compared to autosomes. To investigate why, we develop population genetic models of secondary contact and gene flow at a neutral locus that is genetically linked to selected loci involved in hybrid incompatibilities and/or local adaptation. Using models that assume weak migration and strong selection, we compare gene flow at X-linked versus autosomal neutral loci as a function of linkage, dominance, sex-specific selection, and sex-specific recombination. For most cases, gene flow at neutral loci on the X is reduced relative to autosomes, as the greater efficacy of hemizygous selection in XY hybrids reduces the opportunity for neutral migrant alleles to escape their genetically linked, locally disfavored alleles via recombination. There are some circumstances, however, involving sex-limited selection and sex-limited recombination that allow neutral loci on the X to introgress more readily than those on autosomes. PMID:26807751

  12. Detection of genetic diversity and selective gene introgression in coffee using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Castillo, C; Chalmers, K J; Waugh, R; Powell, W

    1994-03-01

    RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) markers generated by arbitary decamers have been successfully employed to detect genetic polymorphisms between coffee species and between Coffea arabica genotypes. The RAPD profiles were used to construct dendrograms and these were consistent with the known history and evolution of Coffea arabica. Material originating from Ethiopia and the arabica sub-groups - C. arabica var. typica and C. arabica var. bourbon - were clearly distinguished. RAPD analysis therefore reflects morphological differences between the sub-groups and the geographical origin of the coffee material. Species-specific amplification products were also identified, but, more importantly, amplification products specific to C. canephora were identified in two C. arabica genotypes, Rume Sudan and Catimor 5175. This diagnostic product is therefore indicative of interspecific gene flow in coffee and has biological implications for selective introgressive hybridisation in coffee. Our study demonstrates the power of the polymerase chain reaction technology for the generation of genetic markers for long-lived perennial tree and bush crops. PMID:24190527

  13. Adaptive introgression as a resource for management and genetic conservation in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jill A; Miller, Joshua M

    2016-02-01

    Current rates of climate change require organisms to respond through migration, phenotypic plasticity, or genetic changes via adaptation. We focused on questions regarding species' and populations' ability to respond to climate change through adaptation. Specifically, the role adaptive introgression, movement of genetic material from the genome of 1 species into the genome of another through repeated interbreeding, may play in increasing species' ability to respond to a changing climate. Such interspecific gene flow may mediate extinction risk or consequences of limited adaptive potential that result from standing genetic variation and mutation alone, enabling a quicker demographic recovery in response to changing environments. Despite the near dismissal of the potential benefits of hybridization by conservation practitioners, we examined a number of case studies across different taxa that suggest gene flow between sympatric or parapatric sister species or within species that exhibit strong ecotypic differentiation may represent an underutilized management option to conserve evolutionary potential in a changing environment. This will be particularly true where advanced-generation hybrids exhibit adaptive traits outside the parental phenotypic range, a phenomenon known as transgressive segregation. The ideas presented in this essay are meant to provoke discussion regarding how we maintain evolutionary potential, the conservation value of natural hybrid zones, and consideration of their important role in adaptation to climate. PMID:26096581

  14. Synthesis and characterization of LTA nanozeolite using barley husk silica: Mercury removal from standard and real solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Silica extraction from barley husk with high purity for the synthesis of A nanozeolite. ► Free template A nanozeolite synthesized via new source of silica at low temperature. ► Optimization of SiO2/Al2O3, Na2O/SiO2 ratios, temperature and time of the synthesis. ► Utilizing of synthesized A nanozeolite for mercury removal from aqueous solutions. ► Mercury removal at optimized pH, contact time and adsorbent dose from real solution. - Abstract: In this study, synthesized Lined Type A (LTA) nanozeolite from barley husk silica (BHS) was used for mercury removal from standard and real aqueous solutions. The BHS in amorphous phase with 80% purity was extracted from barley husk ash (BHA), and used effectively as a new source of silica for the synthesis of NaA nanozeolite. The NaA nanocrystal in pure phase has been synthesized at low temperature, without adding any organic additives. The effects of heating time, reaction temperature, SiO2/Al2O3, and Na2O/SiO2 mole ratios on the crystallization of NaA nanozeolite were studied. The adsorption capacity of mercury (II) was studied as a function of pH, contact time, and amount of adsorbent. The crystallization of NaA nanozeolite from BHS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and FTIR techniques. Moreover, concentration of Hg2+ ions in the aqueous solutions was analyzed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy method (HG-AAS). The standard and real samples analysis showed that NaA nanozeolite is capable of Hg2+ ions removal from the aqueous solutions. Efficiency of mercury (II) adsorption from real solutions onto the nano-sized NaA zeolite was 98%

  15. Heteroplasmy and paternally oriented shift of the organellar DNA composition in barley-wheat hybrids during backcrosses with wheat parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksyonova, Elena; Sinyavskaya, Marina; Danilenko, Nina; Pershina, Lidia; Nakamura, Chiharu; Davydenko, Oleg

    2005-10-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) and chloroplast (ct) genome inheritance was studied in barley-wheat hybrids, as were their progenies obtained from backcrosses with different common wheat cultivars, by monitoring the composition of 4 mtDNA (coxI, a 5'-flanking region of cob, nad3-orf156, and 5'-upstream region of 18S/5S) and 2 ctDNA (simple-sequence repeat locus downstream of trnS and a 3'-flanking region of rbcL) loci. In male sterile F1 and BC1 plants, maternal barley mtDNA fragments were mainly detected and very low levels of paternal wheat fragments were occasionally detected by PCR in coxI, a 5'-flanking region of cob and nad3-orf156, whereas a 5'-upstream region of 18S/5S showed clear heteroplasmy, containing both maternal and paternal copies, with maternal copies prevailing. Plants showing such heteroplasmic mtDNA composition remained either semisterile or became completely sterile in the later backcross generations. Only maternal ctDNA copies were detected in these plants. In 3 stable, self-fertile, and vigourous lines obtained in the advanced backcross generations and possessing recombinant wheat nuclear genome, however, only mt- and ctDNA copies of wheat parents were detected; thus, the original alloplasmic condition appeared to be lost. Our results suggest that transmission followed by selective replication of the paternal wheat organellar DNA leads to a paternally oriented shift of the organellar DNA composition in barley-wheat hybrids, which correlates with the restoration of fertility and plant vigour. These 2 processes seem to be related to nucleocytoplasmic compatibility and to be under the control of the nuclear genome composition. PMID:16391682

  16. Molecular phylogeography of domesticated barley traces expansion of agriculture in the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D

    2007-11-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided into six clusters and that barley landraces from 10 different geographical regions of Eurasia and North Africa show distinct patterns of distribution across these clusters. Using haplotype frequency data, it appears that the Europe/North Africa landraces are most similar to the Near East population (F ST = 0.15) as well as to wild barley (F ST = 0.11) and are strongly differentiated from all other Asian populations (F ST = 0.34-0.74). A neighbor-joining analysis using these F ST estimates also supports a division between European, North African, and Near East barley types from more easterly Asian accessions. There is also differentiation in the presence of a naked caryopsis and spikelet row number between eastern and western barley accessions. The data support the differential migration of barley from two domestication events that led to the origin of barley--one in the Fertile Crescent and another farther east, possibly at the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau--with European and North African barley largely originating from the former and much of Asian barley arising from the latter. This suggests that cultural diffusion or independent innovation is responsible for the expansion of agriculture to areas of South and East Asia during the Neolithic revolution. PMID:17947416

  17. Investigation of Leaf Diseases and Estimation of Chlorophyll Concentration in Seven Barley Varieties Using Fluorescence and Hyperspectral Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Yu; Georg Leufen; Mauricio Hunsche; Georg Noga; Xinping Chen; Georg Bareth

    2013-01-01

    Leaf diseases, such as powdery mildew and leaf rust, frequently infect barley plants and severely affect the economic value of malting barley. Early detection of barley diseases would facilitate the timely application of fungicides. In a field experiment, we investigated the performance of fluorescence and reflectance indices on (1) detecting barley disease risks when no fungicide is applied and (2) estimating leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC). Leaf fluorescence and canopy reflectance were...

  18. Effect of Barleys Having Different Liter Weights on Performance, Economic Value, Ruminal Fermentation of Lambs, and Nutrient Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Talat; ŞAHİN, Kazım; ÇERÇİ, İ.Halil; ERTAS, O. Nihat

    1999-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing barleys having different liter weights (It wt) on average daily gain, feed efficiency, profit margins, ruminal fermentation, and carcass characteristics of lambs and diet digestibility. 16 Akkaraman lambs approximately 8 mo old (averaging 30 kg) were used in a randomized design. Treatment groups consisting of barley grains and barley grains were classified to liter weights as follows: 1. Barley has 643 g lt wt (Grou...

  19. Genetic Characterization of Resistance to Wheat Stem Rust Race TTKSK in Landrace and Wild Barley Accessions Identifies the rpg4/Rpg5 Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Bullo Erena; Smith, Kevin P; Brueggeman, Robert S; Steffenson, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Race TTKSK of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) threatens the production of wheat and barley worldwide because of its broad-spectrum virulence on many widely grown cultivars. Sources of resistance against race TTKSK were recently identified in several barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) and wild barley accessions (H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum). The objectives of this study were to characterize the inheritance of resistance to wheat stem rust race TTKSK in four barley landraces (Hv501, Hv545, Hv602, and Hv612) and two wild barley (WBDC213 and WBDC345) accessions, map the resistance genes, and determine the allelic relationships among the genes in these accessions and the previously described rpg4/Rpg5 locus. Resistant accessions were crossed with the susceptible cv. Steptoe and resulting F3 populations were evaluated for resistance to race TTKSK at the seedling stage. Segregation of F3 families in populations involving the resistance sources of Hv501, Hv545, Hv612, WBDC213, and WBDC345 fit a 1:2:1 ratio for homozygous resistant (HR)/segregating (SEG)/homozygous susceptible (HS) progenies (with χ2=2.27 to 5.87 and P=0.053 to 0.321), indicating that a single gene confers resistance to race TTKSK. Segregation of F3 families in cross Steptoe/Hv602 did not fit a 1:2:1 ratio (HR/SEG/HS of 20:47:43 with χ2=11.95 and P=0.003), indicating that more than one gene is involved in imparting resistance to race TTKSK. Bulked segregant analysis using >1,500 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers positioned a resistance locus in all six populations on chromosome 5HL in very close proximity to the known location of the rpg4/Rpg5 complex locus. Allelism tests were conducted by making crosses among resistant accessions Hv501, Hv545, and Hv612 and also Q21861 with the rpg4/Rpg5 complex. No segregation was observed in F2 families inoculated with race TTKSK, demonstrating that all Hv lines carry the same allele for resistance and that it

  20. Uptake, distribution, and turnover rates of selenium in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K X; Clausen, J

    1994-03-01

    The present communication elucidates initially the topographic distribution of selenium in barley grains. Then by the fluorimetric method the uptake of selenium (selenite) in 8-16 d old germinating barley was estimated. Finally by means of 75Se the anabolic and catabolic rates (turnover) of 75Se (selenite) was compared. The distribution of selenium in barley was evaluated after micro-dissection of barley grains. In dried grains the highest concentration was found in husk and pericarp with about 0.6 ppm Se. Then followed Scutellum with 0.4 and 0.3 ppm in embryon. The aleurone layer, embryonic leaves, and initial root did only have 0.2 ppm Se. In order to know more about the uptake and distribution of selenium in 8-d-old barley, the plants were cultivated for a further 8 d in the culture medium with variation in selenite concentration. In roots and leaves, the uptake did not arrive at saturation during the period studied since the dose-response curve increased up to 0.34 mM selenite in the medium, whereas the selenium levels were about 200 ppm in roots and 30 ppm in leaves. However, the uptake was linear, with concentration during 8 d of cultivation up to 0.84 microM selenite for grain and stem. At higher concentrations the dose-response curve diminished its slope. At 0.34 mM selenite the concentration in grain increased to 6.87 ppm and in the stem to 8.13 ppm. The uptake, distribution, and catabolic rate of selenium components in germinating barley were further evaluated by exposing the plants to 0.0492 microCi 75Se (12.6 microM selenite) for up to 4 d. Then the plants were moved to a selenium deficient medium for further 4 d. Then finally the medium was supplemented with high doses of cold selenite (0.126 mM selenite) for further 4 d. The first third period made it possible to estimate the rate of uptake. It was highest in roots (313 fmol/h/mg dw), i.e., about 10 times those of grains, stems, and leaves. The intermediate period where the barley was transferred to a

  1. Agronomic effects of a reciprocal translocation in a widely grown Spanish barley variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré, A.; Visioni, A.; Lacasa-Benito, I.; Cistué, L.; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    A large spontaneous reciprocal translocation is present in a widely grown Spanish barley cv. ‘Albacete’. It has been hypothesized that high popularity of ‘Albacete’ with farmers, particularly in semi-arid areas where barley is grown under rainfed conditions, may be due to the presence of this transl

  2. Genetic characterization of a reciprocal translocation present in a widely grown barley variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré, A.; Cuadrado, A.; Lacasa-Benito, I.; Cistué, L.; Schubert, I.; Comadran, J.; Jansen, J.; Romagosa, I.

    2012-01-01

    Artificially induced translocation stocks have been used to physically map the barley genome; however, natural translocations are extremely uncommon in cultivated genotypes. Albacete is a barley variety widely grown in recent decades in Spain and carrying a reciprocal translocation which obviously d

  3. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  4. USE OF BARLEY OZONIZED GRAIN AND PROBIOTICS FOR INCREASING BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temiraev R. B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents experimental data indicating that for the optimization of biological and food processing meat value at risk of aflatoxicosis in feeding chicken-broilers with barley-wheat and sunflower type one should include hullless barley grain at exposure of ozone of 3.0 hour complex with Bifidumbacterinum probiotics

  5. Comparison of Pretreatment Strategies for Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Barley Straw to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicellulose, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomeri...

  6. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  7. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji; Svensson, Birte

    2004-01-01

    Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunit...

  8. Molecular mapping of greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) resistance gene Rsg1 in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is an extremely damaging aphid pest of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x =14 L.) particularly in the southern Great Plains of the US. The simply inherited, dominant resistance gene Rsg1 is presented in all greenbug-resistant US barley cultivars, includi...

  9. Fractionation of barley into value-added ingredients enriched with protein, beta-glucan or starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley contains several valuable nutrients, including protein, beta-glucan (BG) and starch. Each has additional value when concentrated. Among reported studies on barley fractionation (dry or wet), most focused enriching one or two components in term of concentrations in resulting fractions but negl...

  10. Effect of pulsed electric field on the germination of barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Dejmek, Petr; Panarese, Valentina;

    2012-01-01

    This study explores metabolic responses of germinating barley seeds upon the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Malting barley seeds were steeped in aerated water for 24 h and PEF-treated at varying voltages (0 (control), 110, 160, 240, 320, 400 and 480 V). The seeds were then allowed...

  11. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  12. Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group GAG-1, the common pathogen of wheat, barley and sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Isuluies of Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group GAG-1 were obtained from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and on barley culms and from diseased sugar beet seedlings. Isolates of R. cerealis were collected from a fields with crop rotation experiments: sugar beet-spring wheat-winter barley. In pathogenicity tests isolates of R. cerealis from sugar beet seedlings and from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and barley were pathogenic to these crops. Isolates of R. cerealis from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and barley caused severe damping-ofTof sugar beet. Isolates of R. cerealis from sugar beet seedlings also caused symptoms of sharp eyespot on wheat and barley. None of the wheat and barley isolates of R. cerealis tested caused root-rot on wheat or barley seedlings. Isolates of R. cerealis obtained from diseased plants of wheat, barley and sugar beet were similar in morphology of cultures and anastomosed with GAG-1 tester isolate. The relatinoship between anastomosis. colony characters, growth rate, hyphal diameter and pathogenicity of AG-4. AG-2-2 and AG-5 isolates obtained together with R. cerealis from diseased plants were also investigated.

  13. The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2015-01-27

    The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley. PMID:25583503

  14. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS-p...

  15. How Specific is Non-Hypersensitive Host and Nonhost Resistance of Barley to Rust and Mildew Fungi?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niks R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Full nonhost resistance can be deifned as immunity, displayed by an entire plant species against all genotypes of a plant pathogen. Interesting biological questions are, whether the genes responsible for the nonhost status of a plant species have a general or a specific effectiveness to heterologous (“nonhost”) pathogens? Is the nonhost resistance to pathogens of plant species that are related to the nonhost based onR-genes or on other types of genes?We study this question in barley (Hordeum vulgareL.), which is a near-nonhost to several rusts (Puccinia) of cereals and grasses. By crosses and selection we accumulated susceptibility and developed an experimental line, SusPtrit, with high susceptibility to at least nine different heterologous rust taxa such as the wheat andAgropyron leaf rusts (P. triticina andP. persistens, respectively). At the microscopic level there is also some variation among barley accessions in the degree that the heterologous wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminisf.sp.tritici) is able to form haustoria in epidermal cells. So, also the genetics of the variation in level of nonhost resistance to heterologous mildew fungi can be studied in barley. Our data obtained on mapping populations involving three regular nonhost-immune accessions (Vada, Cebada Capa and Golden Promise) suggest that nonhost resistance is the joined effect of multiple, quantitative genes (QTLs) and very occasionally a major gene (R-gene?) is involved. Most QTLs have effect to only one or two heterologous rusts, but some have a wider spectrum. This was conifrmed in a set of QTL-NILs. Those QTL-NILs are used to ifne-map the effective genes. In some cases, a QTL region with effectiveness to several heterologous rusts might be a cluster of genes with a more narrow spectrum of effectiveness. Our evidence suggests that nonhost resistance in barley to rust and powdery mildew fungi of related Gramineae is not due toR-genes, but to pathogen species-speciifc quantitative

  16. Influence of NaCl-Induced Salinity and Cd Toxicity on Respiration Activity and Cd Availability to Barley Plants in Farmyard Manure-Amended Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel R. A. Usman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cd availability and toxicity as affected by NaCl-induced salinity and farmyard manure addition. The Cd availability and toxicity were investigated in greenhouse pot and incubation experiments were conducted on a calcareous loamy sand soil contaminated with Cd (0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mg kg−1 of soil and amended with two rates of 0.0 and 30 g farmyard manure (FYM kg−1. Barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L. were sown in pots and irrigated with water containing different levels of salinity (0, 30, 60, and 120 mM NaCl. The results revealed that the DTPA-extractable Cd and its content in barley plant shoots tended to increase in line as Cd was applied and salt levels increased. Elevated decreases in the soil basal respiration with increased Cd applied and NaCl-induced salinity were found. However, applying FYM significantly reduced Cd availability and increased plant growth and soil respiration activity. The results clearly showed that adding farmyard manure as soil organic amendment decreased the availability of Cd to barley plants and mitigated the toxicity of both Cd and salinity to soil microbial activity.

  17. The Effects of Both Recent and Long-Term Selection and Genetic Drift Are Readily Evident in North American Barley Breeding Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Poets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley was introduced to North America ∼400 yr ago but adaptation to modern production environments is more recent. Comparisons of allele frequencies among growth habits and spike (inflorescence types in North America indicate that significant genetic differentiation has accumulated in a relatively short evolutionary time span. Allele frequency differentiation is greatest among barley with two-row vs. six-row spikes, followed by spring vs. winter growth habit. Large changes in allele frequency among breeding programs suggest a major contribution of genetic drift and linked selection on genetic variation. Despite this, comparisons of 3613 modern North American cultivated barley breeding lines that differ for spike-type and growth habit permit the discovery of 142 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP outliers putatively linked to targets of selection. For example, SNPs within the Cbf4, Ppd-H1, and Vrn-H1 loci, which have previously been associated with agronomically adaptive phenotypes, are identified as outliers. Analysis of extended haplotype sharing identifies genomic regions shared within and among breeding populations, suggestive of a number of genomic regions subject to recent selection. Finally, we are able to identify recent bouts of gene flow between breeding populations that could point to the sharing of agronomically adaptive variation. These results are supported by pedigrees and breeders’ understanding of germplasm sharing.

  18. Cisgenic Barley with Improved Phytase Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops are......-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. Transformed T0 plants show increases in the phytase activity of mature seeds from 1,400 in wild type to 8,950 FTU/kg in T0 plants. T1 plants of each transformant are currently screened with PCR for extra...... copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....

  19. Effect of nitrogen nutrition on endosperm protein synthesis in wild and cultivated barley grown in spike culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In normal growth conditions, total protein percent, in the endosperm at maturity in barley cultivar Hordeum vulgare L. cv Ruth was about 14%, whereas in an accession of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum Koch line 297, it was about 28%. Spike culture experiments were conducted to ascertain whether there were basic differences between the two genotypes under conditions of widely different nitrogen supply. Spikes of each genotype were grown from 8 to 25 days after flowering in in vitro culture in a growth medium containing 0 to 4 grams per liter nitrogen supplied as NH4NO3. Spikes were pulse-labeled at intervals from 12 to 24 days after flowering with 3.7 megabecquerel of [3H]leucine to determine relative rates of synthesis of hordein-1 and hordein-2 polypedtides. At low nitrogen levels Ruth had a lower protein content than 297, but at increasing nitrogen levels its protein content increased rapidly and reached a maximum (35%) higher than 297 (30%). The relative contribution of the hordein fraction to total protein increased mainly with time, and hordein-1 to total hordein increased mainly with nitrogen level, in both genotypes. There appeared to be no fundamental limitations in the capacity of Ruth to accumulate protein: 297 appears to have a greater basal level of nitrogen availability under normal conditions

  20. The effects of feeding 10 kGy irradiated barley on haematological and lipid metabolism parameters of growing quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on numerous test results indicating irradiated foods to be safe provided that the radiation dose does not exceed 10 kGy, the international joint FAO/IAEA/WHO committee of experts arrived at the conclusion in 1981 that irradiation had to be seen as safe. Those few results indicating impairing effects of foods and food ingredients which had been (irradiated by doses up to 10 kGy, were found to contain methodological faults and errors in detection. The results achieved by the authors in toxicity testing in quails by feeding them the foodstuff ingredients to be examined, indicate that the irradiation of barley with 10 kGy may result in the formation of reaction products which may cause biological actions and effects when feeding this cereal at a percentage of 50% of the foodstuff. However, the available results of these studies do not suggest a damaging action effect. This requires additional detailed analyses of the irradiated barley and a wider biological parameter range in follow-up tests. The selected model involving quails in their growth stage starting with hatching as base line can be seen as highly sensitive for these studies. (orig./VHE)

  1. Variability and performance evaluation of introgressed Nigerian dura x Deli dura oil palm progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, A; Rafii, M Y; Mohd Din, A; Kushairi, A; Norziha, A; Rajanaidu, N; Latif, M A; Malek, M A

    2014-01-01

    Twelve introgressed oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies of Nigerian dura x Deli dura were evaluated for bunch yield, yield attributes, bunch quality components and vegetative characters at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, in Keratong, Pahang, Malaysia. Analysis of variance revealed significant to highly significant genotypic differences, indicating sufficient genetic variability among the progenies for bunch yield and its attributes, vegetative characters and bunch quality components, except fruit to bunch ratio. Fresh fruit bunch yield ranged from 167 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1) in PK1330 to 212 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1) in PK1351, with a mean yield of 192 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1). Among the progeny, PK1313 had the highest oil to bunch ratio (19.36%), due to its high mesocarp to fruit ratio, fruit to bunch ratio and low shell to fruit ratio. Among the progenies, PK1313 produced the highest oil yield of 31.4 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1), due to a high mesocarp to fruit ratio (61.2%) and a low shell to fruit ratio (30.7%), coupled with high fruit to bunch ratio (65.6%). PK1330 was found promising for selection, as it had desirable vegetative characters, including smaller petiole cross section (27.15 cm2), short rachis length (4.83 m), short palm height (1.85 m), and the lowest leaf number (164.6), as these vegetative characters are prerequisites for selecting palms for high density planting and high yield per hectare. The genetic variability among the progenies was found to be high, indicating ample scope for further breeding, followed by selection. PMID:24781997

  2. A haplotype at STAT2 Introgressed from neanderthals and serves as a candidate of positive selection in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Fernando L; Watkins, Joseph C; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-08-10

    Signals of archaic admixture have been identified through comparisons of the draft Neanderthal and Denisova genomes with those of living humans. Studies of individual loci contributing to these genome-wide average signals are required for characterization of the introgression process and investigation of whether archaic variants conferred an adaptive advantage to the ancestors of contemporary human populations. However, no definitive case of adaptive introgression has yet been described. Here we provide a DNA sequence analysis of the innate immune gene STAT2 and show that a haplotype carried by many Eurasians (but not sub-Saharan Africans) has a sequence that closely matches that of the Neanderthal STAT2. This haplotype, referred to as N, was discovered through a resequencing survey of the entire coding region of STAT2 in a global sample of 90 individuals. Analyses of publicly available complete genome sequence data show that haplotype N shares a recent common ancestor with the Neanderthal sequence (~80 thousand years ago) and is found throughout Eurasia at an average frequency of ~5%. Interestingly, N is found in Melanesian populations at ~10-fold higher frequency (~54%) than in Eurasian populations. A neutrality test that controls for demography rejects the hypothesis that a variant of N rose to high frequency in Melanesia by genetic drift alone. Although we are not able to pinpoint the precise target of positive selection, we identify nonsynonymous mutations in ERBB3, ESYT1, and STAT2-all of which are part of the same 250 kb introgressive haplotype-as good candidates. PMID:22883142

  3. Introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and its weedy relative B. rapa L. in a natural population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Jørgensen, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated introgression in a mixed weedy population ofoilseed rape (Brassica napus) and itsrelative B. rapa usingspecies-specific AFLP-markers. The population wassituated in a field relayed from conventional to organic cultivation11 years ago. One-hundred-and-twoB. napus orB. rapa......-like plantswere collected in a 3 m2 plot. Of these, onewas a first generation hybrid (F1) and nearlyhalf (44 plants) were introgressed, having bothB. napus andB. rapa specific markers.The remaining plants apparently corresponded to pure species, with 50having only B. rapa-and seven having only B...... history of the field, thissuggests that the introgression process in the weedy mixed populationhas been in progress for some time. This study is the first to showintrogression between B.napus and B.rapa under natural conditions....

  4. The geography of introgression in a patchy environment and the thorn in the side of ecological speciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas BIERNE; Pierre-Alexandre GAGNAIRE; Patrice DAVID

    2013-01-01

    When incompletely isolated taxa coexist in a patchy environment (e.g.mosaic hybrid zones,host-race complexes),patterns of variation may differ between selected traits/genes and neutral markers.While the genetic structure of selected traits/loci tends to coincide with habitat variables (producing Genetic-Environment Association or GEA),genetic differentiation at neutral loci unlinked to any selected locus rather depends on geographic connectivity at a large scale (e.g.IsolationBy-Distance or IBD),although these loci often display GEA at a small scale.This discrepancy has been repeatedly taken as evidence for parallel primary divergence driven by local adaptation.We argue that this interpretation needs to be addressed more thoroughly by considering the altemative hypothesis that speciation was initiated in allopatry and secondary introgression has subsequently erased the signal of past differentiation at neutral loci.We present a model of neutral introgression after secondary contact in a mosaic hybrid zone,which describes how GEAs dissipate with time and how neutral variation self-organizes according to the environmental and geographic structures.We show that although neutral loci can be affected by environmental selection,they are often more affected by history and connectivity:the neutral structure retains the initial geographic separation more than it correlates with the environment during the colonization and introgression phases,and then converges to a migration-drift balance,the most frequent outcome of which is GEA at a local scale but IBD at a large scale.This is the exact pattern usually attributed to parallel ecological speciation.Introgression is heterogeneous in space and depends on the landscape structure (e.g.it is faster in small patches,which are more impacted by immigration).Furthermore,there is no directionality in the association and it is possible to observe reversed GEAs between distant regions.We argue that the history of differentiation should

  5. The geography of introgression in a patchy environment and the thorn in the side of ecological speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas BIERNE, Pierre-Alexandre GAGNAIRE, Patrice DAVID

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available When incompletely isolated taxa coexist in a patchy environment (e.g. mosaic hybrid zones, host-race complexes, patterns of variation may differ between selected traits/genes and neutral markers. While the genetic structure of selected traits/loci tends to coincide with habitat variables (producing Genetic-Environment Association or GEA, genetic differentiation at neutral loci unlinked to any selected locus rather depends on geographic connectivity at a large scale (e.g. Isolation- By-Distance or IBD, although these loci often display GEA at a small scale. This discrepancy has been repeatedly taken as evidence for parallel primary divergence driven by local adaptation. We argue that this interpretation needs to be addressed more thoroughly by considering the alternative hypothesis that speciation was initiated in allopatry and secondary introgression has subsequently erased the signal of past differentiation at neutral loci. We present a model of neutral introgression after secondary contact in a mosaic hybrid zone, which describes how GEAs dissipate with time and how neutral variation self-organizes according to the environmental and geographic structures. We show that although neutral loci can be affected by environmental selection, they are often more affected by history and connectivity: the neutral structure retains the initial geographic separation more than it correlates with the environment during the colonization and introgression phases, and then converges to a migration-drift balance, the most frequent outcome of which is GEA at a local scale but IBD at a large scale. This is the exact pattern usually attributed to parallel ecological speciation. Introgression is heterogeneous in space and depends on the landscape structure (e.g. it is faster in small patches, which are more impacted by immigration. Furthermore, there is no directionality in the association and it is possible to observe reversed GEAs between distant regions. We argue

  6. Transcriptional Responses to Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid in Barley Aleurone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kegui Chen; Yong-Qiang Charles An

    2006-01-01

    Cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to investigate giberrellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined the mRNA accumulation of over 22 000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than a threefold change in response to GA treatment, whereas 206 genes had a more than threefold change in response to ABA treatment. Interestingly, approximately 2.5-fold more genes were up-regulated than downregulated by ABA. Eighty-three genes were differentially regulated by both GA and ABA. Most of the genes were subject to antagonistic regulation by ABA and GA, particularly for genes related to seed maturation and germination, such as genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and storage mobilization enzymes. This supports the antagonistic roles of GA and ABA in seed maturation and seed germination.Interestingly, we observed that a significant percentage of the genes were coordinately regulated by both GA and ABA. Some GA-responsive genes encoded proteins involved in ethylene, jasmonate, brassinosteroid and auxin metabolic and signaling transduction pathways, suggesting their potential interaction with the GA response. We also identified a group of transcription factor genes, such as MYB and Homeobox genes, that were differentially regulated by GA. In addition, a number of GA- and/or ABA-responsive genes encoded components potentially involved in GA and ABA signal transduction pathway. Overall, the present study provides a comprehensive and global view of transcript expression accompanying the GA and ABA response in barley aleurone and identifies a group of genes with potential regulatory functions in GA- and ABA-signaling pathways for future functional validation.

  7. The genetic integrity of the ex situ population of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is seriously threatened by introgression from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzenberger, Kathrin A; Hochkirch, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the genetic diversity and relatedness of zoo populations are crucial for implementing successful breeding programmes. The European wildcat, Felis s. silvestris, is subject to intensive conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction. We here present the first systematic genetic analysis of the captive population of Felis s. silvestris in comparison with a natural wild population. We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequencing to assess genetic diversity, structure and integrity of the ex situ population. Our results show that the ex situ population of the European wildcat is highly structured and that it has a higher genetic diversity than the studied wild population. Some genetic clusters matched the breeding lines of certain zoos or groups of zoos that often exchanged individuals. Two mitochondrial haplotype groups were detected in the in situ populations, one of which was closely related to the most common haplotype found in domestic cats, suggesting past introgression in the wild. Although native haplotypes were also found in the captive population, the majority (68%) of captive individuals shared a common mtDNA haplotype with the domestic cat (Felis s. catus). Only six captive individuals (7.7%) were assigned as wildcats in the STRUCTURE analysis (at K = 2), two of which had domestic cat mtDNA haplotypes and only two captive individuals were assigned as purebred wildcats by NewHybrids. These results suggest that the high genetic diversity of the captive population has been caused by admixture with domestic cats. Therefore, the captive population cannot be recommended for further breeding and reintroduction. PMID:25162450

  8. Peroxidase isoenzymes in germinating barley seeds and in seminal roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stroński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Roots and germinating seeds of summer barley of the cv. Alsa, Antałek, Cebeco 7161, Lubuski, Skrzeszowicki and Union were found to differ in the number of peroxidase isoenzymes. In the germinating seeds from 5 to 8 isoenzymes were found whereas in the two-week-old roots – from 10 to 14 isoenzymes. Four isoenzymes in germinating seeds and eight isoenzymes in seminal roots appeared in all the cultivars tested. The cultivars differed also in the relative activity of the isoenzymes in the tested organs.

  9. Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

  10. Effects of irradiation on spring barley and sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presoaked barley seeds were irradiated with 60-500 R of 300 kV X-rays at a dose rate of 600 R/h. The seeds were sown in plastic containers and grown at 200C in a climatic chamber. A significant increase was observed in all investigated parameters except for the plant length till 250 R. Irradiation of presoaked seeds of sugar beet with 1,000-8,000 R resulted in an increase of root weight and sugar yield after 1,000 R. The irradiation of dry seeds, however, did not cause any stimulation. (MG/AK)

  11. A Potential Role of Flag Leaf Potassium in Conferring Tolerance to Drought-Induced Leaf Senescence in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed A; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R; Seiler, Christiane; Sreenivasulu, Nese; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2016-01-01

    Terminal drought stress decreases crop yields by inducing abscisic acid (ABA) and premature leaf senescence. As potassium (K) is known to interfere with ABA homeostasis we addressed the question whether there is genetic variability regarding the role of K nutrition in ABA homeostasis and drought tolerance. To compare their response to drought stress, two barley lines contrasting in drought-induced leaf senescence were grown in a pot experiment under high and low K supply for the analysis of flag leaves from the same developmental stage. Relative to the drought-sensitive line LPR, the line HPR retained more K in its flag leaves under low K supply and showed delayed flag leaf senescence under terminal drought stress. High K retention was further associated with a higher leaf water status, a higher concentration of starch and other primary carbon metabolites. With regard to ABA homeostasis, HPR accumulated less ABA but higher levels of the ABA degradation products phaseic acid (PA) and dehydro-PA. Under K deficiency this went along with higher transcript levels of ABA8'-HYDROXYLASE, encoding a key enzyme in ABA degradation. The present study provides evidence for a positive impact of the K nutritional status on ABA homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism under drought stress. We conclude that genotypes with a high K nutritional status in the flag leaf show superior drought tolerance by promoting ABA degradation but attenuating starch degradation which delays flag leaf senescence. Flag leaf K levels may thus represent a useful trait for the selection of drought-tolerant barley cultivars. PMID:26955376

  12. Further molecular evidence for the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    106 accessions of Tibetan wild barley, including 50 accessions of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum(HS), 27 accessions of the six-rowed bottle-shaped wild barley H. lagunculiforme(HL) and 29 accessions of the six-rowed wild barley H. agriocrithon(HA) that separately represent different agrigeographical regions of Tibet, were used to study the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation using SSR markers selected from seven barley linkage groups. 229 allelic variants were identified with an average of 7.6 alleles/locus. The average of total number of alleles per locus in HA(6.4) is much higher than that in HS(3.9) and HL(3.4). The genetic diversity and its standard deviation among the three subspecies were in the order of HS>HL>HA. Very significant genetic differentiation was observed among the three subspecies of wild barley. Comparisons of the results from this and previous studies showed a strong Oriental-Occidental differentiation of barley, and that Shannan region of Tibet might be the center of origin of the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley, thus supporting not only the hypothesis of a mono-phyletic origin of cultivated barley but also the proposition that the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley.

  13. Characterization of microRNAs and their targets in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) using deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pingchuan; Bian, Jianxin; Yue, Hong; Feng, Kewei; Wang, Mengxing; Du, Xianghong; Weining, Song; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a negative regulatory role in various developmental and metabolic processes of plants. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum), as the progenitor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare), has served as a valuable germplasm resource for barley genetic improvement. To survey miRNAs in wild barley, we sequenced the small RNA library prepared from wild barley using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 70 known miRNAs and 18 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that all of the miRNAs identified in wild barley contained the highly conserved hairpin sequences found in barley cultivars. MiRNA target predictions showed that 12 out of 52 miRNA families were predicted to target transcription factors, including 8 highly conserved miRNA families in plants and 4 wheat-barley conserved miRNA families. In addition to transcription factors, other predicted target genes were involved in diverse physiological and metabolic processes and stress defense. Our study for the first time reported the large-scale investigation of small RNAs in wild barley, which will provide essential information for understanding the regulatory role of miRNAs in wild barley and also shed light on future practical utilization of miRNAs for barley improvement. PMID:27100818

  14. Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity coefficients was conducted and the 40 varieties were classified into two groups. Seven malting barley varieties from China fell into the same subgroup. It was found that the genetic diversity within the Chinese malting barley varieties was narrower than that in other barley germplasm sources, suggesting the importance and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from different origins for malting barley breeding in China. PMID:20872987

  15. Molecular breeding of thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) lines of rice for blast resistance using Pi2 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jiefeng; Mou, Tongmin; Yu, Huihui; Zhou, Fasong

    2015-01-01

    Background Blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the big problems in rice production in China, especially for high yield hybrid varieties made from a two-line system in which thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) lines are used. In this study, we report the introgression of a rice blast resistance gene Pi2 from VE6219 into C815S, an elite rice TGMS line, leading to the development of blast resistant TGMS lines through marker assisted selection (MAS) and...

  16. TILLING in the two-rowed barley cultivar 'Barke' reveals preferred sites of functional diversity in the gene HvHox1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komatsuda Takao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic importance of cereals such as barley, and the demand for improved yield and quality require a better understanding of the genetic components that modulate biologically and commercially relevant traits. While Arabidopsis thaliana is the premiere model plant system, the spectrum of its traits cannot address all of the fundamental questions of crop plant development. Unlike Arabidopsis, barley is both a crop and a model system for scientific research, and it is increasingly being used for genetic and molecular investigations into the conserved biological processes of cereals. A common challenge in genetic studies in plants with large genomes arises from the very time-consuming work of associating mutant phenotypes with gene sequence information, especially if insertion mutagenesis is not routine, as in barley. Reverse genetics based on chemical mutagenesis represents the best solution to this obstacle. Findings In barley, we generated a new TILLING (Targeting Local Lesions IN Genomes resource comprising 10,279 M2 mutants in the two-rowed malting cultivar 'Barke,' which has been used in the generation of other genomic resources in barley (~150,000 ESTs, DH mapping population. The value of this new resource was tested using selected candidate genes. An average frequency of approximately one mutation per 0.5 Mb was determined by screening ten fragments of six different genes. The ethyl methanesulphonate (EMSmutagenesis efficiency was studied by recording and relating the mutagenesis-dependent effects found in the three mutant generations (M1-M3. A detailed analysis was performed for the homeodomain-leucine-zipper (HD-ZIP gene HvHox1. Thirty-one mutations were identified by screening a 1,270-bp fragment in 7,348 M2 lines. Three of the newly identified mutants exhibited either a six-rowed or an intermedium-spike phenotype, and one mutant displayed a significantly altered spikelet morphology compared to that of the 'Barke

  17. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed. PMID:26101533

  18. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ri Byun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L. contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n=51. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n=25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years and the other consumed placebo capsules (n=26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL- cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p=0.415 and p=0.351, resp. and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed.

  19. Heritability and genetic advance studies for biochemical traits in F2-3 introgressed families of Brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higher heritability estimates along with high genetic advance values are effective in envisaging gain under selection in developing genotypes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate variability, heritability and genetic advance in 10 interspecific F2-3 families of Brassica species (B. napus * B. juncea, B. napus * B. rapa). These families were studied for heterospecific introgression of biochemical traits. Low to high heritability estimates were recorded for seed quality traits. Considerable variations within F2-3 families were observed for biochemical traits. Most of the F2-3 families for oil content and erucic showed moderate to high heritability indicating the slightest influence of environment thus modification of trait by selection would be more effective. Among F2-3 introgressed families Bn-510 x Bj-109 produced high oil i.e., 49.5% while Bn-532 x Br-118 (24.4%), Bn-533 x Bj-109 (24.1%) and high protein percentage in terms of mean performance. In the present research, individual segregating progenies of interspecific cross populations i.e., which possessed combination of desirable traits, were identified which could be incorporated in the future Breeding programs and it may facilitate varietal development. (author)

  20. Potential chromosomal introgression barriers revealed by linkage analysis in a hybrid of Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Tongming

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exploring the genetic mechanisms underlying speciation is a hot topic in modern genetics and evolutionary studies. Distortion of marker transmission ratio is frequently ascribed to selection against alleles that cause hybrid incompatibility. The natural introgression between P. massoniana and P. hwangshanensis and their distribution ranges lead to the emergence of the two species as desirable organisms to study the genetic mechanisms for speciation. Results Using seeds sampled from trees at different elevations, we consistently detected sharp decreases in seed germination rates of trees in the hybrid zone, which might be due largely to the hybrid incompatibility. A genetic map was established using 192 megagametophytes from a single tree in the hybrid zone of the two species. Segregation distortion analysis revealed that the percentage of significant-segregation-distortion (SSD markers was extremely high, accounting for more than 25% of the segregating markers. The extension range, the distortion direction, and the distortion intensity of SSD markers also varied dramatically on different linkage groups. Conclusions In this study, we display the potential chromosomal introgression barriers between P. massoniana and P. hwangshanensis. Our study provides a valuable platform for conducting genome-wide association of hybrid incompatible QTLs and/or candidate genes with marker transmission ratio distortion in the hybrid.

  1. When virulence originates from nonagricultural hosts: evolutionary and epidemiological consequences of introgressions following secondary contacts in Venturia inaequalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Thibault; Caffier, Valérie; Celton, Jean-Marc; Anger, Nicolas; Durel, Charles-Eric; Lemaire, Christophe; Le Cam, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    In pathogens, introgressions through secondary contacts between divergent populations from agricultural and nonagricultural disease reservoirs are expected to have crucial evolutionary and epidemiological implications. Despite the importance of this question for disease management, experimental demonstrations of these implications remain scarce. Recently, we identified a virulent population of the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis that migrated from nonagricultural hosts to European domestic apple orchards. Here, we investigated the occurrence of gene flow between agricultural and nonagricultural populations sampled in two orchards, and thereafter its consequences on the pathogenicity of hybrids. Population genetic structure and demographic inferences based on the genotypes of 104 strains revealed a high amount of gene flow between the two populations in one orchard. In this site, mating between populations was made possible by the presence of a common host. Our results revealed an invasion of the virulent trait in the agricultural population; a main direction of introgression in hybrids from the agricultural to nonagricultural genetic backgrounds; and a population of hybrids with transgressive traits. We demonstrate a secondary contact with gene flow between divergent populations of pathogens. Our findings highlight evolutionary and epidemiological changes in pathogens and have concrete implications for sustainable disease management. PMID:26853715

  2. Interspecific Hybridization in Pilot Whales and Asymmetric Genetic Introgression in Northern Globicephala melas under the Scenario of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Laura; Oremus, Marc; Silva, Mónica A.; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Pilot whales are two cetacean species (Globicephala melas and G. macrorhynchus) whose distributions are correlated with water temperature and partially overlap in some areas like the North Atlantic Ocean. In the context of global warming, distribution range shifts are expected to occur in species affected by temperature. Consequently, a northward displacement of the tropical pilot whale G. macrorynchus is expected, eventually leading to increased secondary contact areas and opportunities for interspecific hybridization. Here, we describe genetic evidences of recurrent hybridization between pilot whales in northeast Atlantic Ocean. Based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite loci, asymmetric introgression of G. macrorhynchus genes into G. melas was observed. For the latter species, a significant correlation was found between historical population growth rate estimates and paleotemperature oscillations. Introgressive hybridization, current temperature increases and lower genetic variation in G. melas suggest that this species could be at risk in its northern range. Under increasing environmental and human-mediated stressors in the North Atlantic Ocean, it seems recommendable to develop a conservation program for G. melas. PMID:27508496

  3. Interspecific Hybridization in Pilot Whales and Asymmetric Genetic Introgression in Northern Globicephala melas under the Scenario of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Laura; Oremus, Marc; Silva, Mónica A; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Pilot whales are two cetacean species (Globicephala melas and G. macrorhynchus) whose distributions are correlated with water temperature and partially overlap in some areas like the North Atlantic Ocean. In the context of global warming, distribution range shifts are expected to occur in species affected by temperature. Consequently, a northward displacement of the tropical pilot whale G. macrorynchus is expected, eventually leading to increased secondary contact areas and opportunities for interspecific hybridization. Here, we describe genetic evidences of recurrent hybridization between pilot whales in northeast Atlantic Ocean. Based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite loci, asymmetric introgression of G. macrorhynchus genes into G. melas was observed. For the latter species, a significant correlation was found between historical population growth rate estimates and paleotemperature oscillations. Introgressive hybridization, current temperature increases and lower genetic variation in G. melas suggest that this species could be at risk in its northern range. Under increasing environmental and human-mediated stressors in the North Atlantic Ocean, it seems recommendable to develop a conservation program for G. melas. PMID:27508496

  4. Introgressive hybridization and evolution of a novel protein phenotype: glue protein profiles in the nasuta–albomicans complex of Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Aruna; H. A. Ranganath

    2006-04-01

    Glue proteins are tissue-specific proteins synthesized by larval salivary gland cells of Drosophila. In Drosophila nasuta nasuta and D. n. albomicans of the nasuta subgroup, the genes that encode the major glue protein fractions are X-linked. In the present study, these X-linked markers have been employed to trace the pattern of introgression of D. n. nasuta and D. n. albomicans genomes with respect to the major glue protein fractions in their interracial hybrids, called cytoraces. These cytoraces have inherited the chromosomes of both parents and have been maintained in the laboratory for over 400–550 generations. The analysis has revealed that cytoraces with D. n. albomicans X chromosome show either D. n. nasuta pattern or a completely novel pattern of glue protein fractions. Further, quantitative analysis also shows lack of correlation between the chromosomal pattern of inheritance and overall quantity of the major glue protein fractions in the cytoraces. Thus, in cytoraces the parental chromosomes are not just differentially represented but there is evidence for introgression even at the gene level.

  5. Possible introgression of the VRTN mutation increasing vertebral number, carcass length and teat number from Chinese pigs into European pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Huang, Lusheng; Yang, Ming; Fan, Yin; Li, Lin; Fang, Shaoming; Deng, Wenjiang; Cui, Leilei; Zhang, Zhen; Ai, Huashui; Wu, Zhenfang; Gao, Jun; Ren, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vertnin (VRTN) variants have been associated with the number of thoracic vertebrae in European pigs, but the association has not been evidenced in Chinese indigenous pigs. In this study, we first performed a genome-wide association study in Chinese Erhualian pigs using one VRTN candidate causative mutation and the Illumina Porcine 60K SNP Beadchips. The VRTN mutation is significantly associated with thoracic vertebral number in this population. We further show that the VRTN mutation has pleiotropic and desirable effects on teat number and carcass (body) length across four diverse populations, including Erhualian, White Duroc × Erhualian F2 population, Duroc and Landrace pigs. No association was observed between VRTN genotype and growth and fatness traits in these populations. Therefore, testing for the VRTN mutation in pig breeding schemes would not only increase the number of vertebrae and nipples, but also enlarge body size without undesirable effects on growth and fatness traits, consequently improving pork production. Further, by using whole-genome sequence data, we show that the VRTN mutation was possibly introgressed from Chinese pigs into European pigs. Our results provide another example showing that introgressed Chinese genes greatly contributed to the development and production of modern European pig breeds. PMID:26781738

  6. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  7. Influence of caffeine on fractionated irradiation in wheat and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractionated irradiation is one of the important methods studying repair of radiation damage. Some authors reported that caffeine, a repair inhibitor, had no effects on fractionated irradiation in human cell, animal cell and Vicia faba. And they concluded that caffeine inhibited the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD), but did not inhibit the repair of sub-lethal damage (SLD). In this study, the effect of caffeine on the repair of PLD and SLD were reexamined in wheat and barley systems. The germinating seeds of wheat of barley were pre-irradiation treated 3 h with 5 x 10-3 mol/L caffeine, then they were irradiated by single or fractionated X-ray doses. The results showed that after caffeine treatment the effect of fractionated irradiation was disappeared. In this case, caffeine not only inhibited the repair of PLD but also inhibited the repair SLD. In previous fracttionated radiation experiments, the repairs during interval were discussed in detail, but the repairs after whole irradiation were neglected. According to the resuls of this experiment and some early reported about fractionated irradiation, the repair efficiency during interval and the repair function after whole irradiation were discussed

  8. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  9. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137Cs and 134Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  10. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muavviz Ayvaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98 were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm to plants that had grown from seeds for four weeks. Plants were harvested, stem-root length and stem-root dry-fresh weight content were determined. For further analysis, chlorophyll, total protein, endogenic IAA and ABA content analyses were carried out. Results: According to the data obtained, plant growth and development decreased with increasing boron concentrations. With increasing boron concentrations, soluble total protein increased in both cultivars. Boron application led to increased endogenic IAA content in both cultivars. 10 and 20 ppm boron application led to increased endogenic ABA content in Vamik Hoca cultivar whereas endogenic ABA content decreased in Efes 98. Absence of boron application led to increased endogenic IAA and ABA content in both cultivars. Conclusion: As a result, the response to boron is different in the two cultivars and Efes 98 may be more resistant to the toxicity than Vamik Hoca cultivar.

  11. How barley growing conditions and its output change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Erdélyi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that climate change has started. It is very important to make effort in developing impact analyses and adaptation strategies. First we were investigated how theproduction risk of winter barley is changing with time using the E,V efficiency criterion. Based on the regional yearly production data of the crop, we can conclude that beside other non-climatic effects, the changing climate has considerable impact on crops yield; its variability is increasing with the variability of meteorological parameters. We have used production data from 1951 to nowadays. Next, using comparison analyses for climate scenarios, we predict what we can expect in the future. For detecting the reasons of risk increase in the past, and forecasting the potential main points of future risk we have analysed statistically whether the climate needs of winter barley will be satisfied ornot in its important periods of growing. Frequency calculations were made based on the daily meteorological data. The situation doesn’t show big change, but It is no doubt that the anomalies of the indicators have been becoming more and more frequent. The morefrequent the extreme weather events are, the more we can be convinced of uncertainty.

  12. DIFFERENTIATION OF BARLEY GENOTYPES BASED ON DNA POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tomka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for improving the quality of cultivated varieties in breeding programs. Information about the origin of varieties can help farmers in selecting appropriate varieties to specific growing conditions or end use of crops. A set of ten microsatellite markers was used to describe genetic diversity in a sample of 30 barley (Hordeum vulgare L. genotypes. A total of 55 different alleles were amplified using ten SSR markers localized on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H, 6H, 7H with an average number of 5.5 alleles per locus. On the basis of allele frequencies we have calculated diversity index, polymorphic information content and index of probability, which have mean values of 0.664; 0.643 and 0.126 respectively. These values indicate high differentiation ability of SSR markers. In the created dendrogram using hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm we were able to differentiate all 30 barley genotypes. The results show that DNA markers are suitable for the identification and differentiation of genotypes and indicated the effectiveness of microsatellite markers to describe genetic diversity.

  13. Competition and dry matter yield in intercrops of barley and legume for forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLLAH JAVANMARD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For increasing land use efficiency intercropping plays a pivotal role. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., vetch (Vicia villosa, and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75, based on seed numbers were used to investigated forage yield and competition indices such as land equivalent ratio (LER,competitive ratio (CR, relative crowding coefficient (RCC, aggressivity (A, actual yield loss (AYL, monetary advantage index (MAI and intercropping advantage (IA.The experimental was arranged asa randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications.The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grass pea75 (5.44 t ha-1 mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1. The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64 than intercropped legumes (K=1.20, indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

  14. Predicting the Effect of Some Yield Stabilizing Agents on Increasing Drought Resistance in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ouda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to predict the role of two yield stabilizing agents (magnesium carbonate and sodium salicylate on barley yield under water stress condition. Four hulled barley cultivars and two hull-less were sprayed with magnesium carbonate or sodium salicylate twice during vegetative growth and the last irrigation was skipped. Different growth and yield parameters were measured for five bordered plants. Data for mean temperature and relative humidity % were collected and averaged over the two growing seasons. Three groups of prediction equations were developed. The first group is an overall of the six barley cultivars prediction equations under the above mentioned treatments using plant attributes and weather parameters. The second group predicted barley yield over all the normal (hulled cultivars only. The third group predicted barley yield over the two hull-less barley cultivars. Results indicated that the highest reduction in yields as result of skipping the last irrigation were obtained by Giza 126. Whereas, the lowest reduction in biological yields were obtained by the two hull-less cultivars. The application of magnesium carbonate had better effect on the yield of barley cultivars than the application of sodium salicylate. Results also showed that both temperature and relative humidity % were highly and negatively correlated with barley yields. The three yield attributes were positively correlated with barley grain, straw and biological yields, except for plant height, which was negatively correlated with grain yield. All the three developed groups of prediction equations had high degree of precision because R2 was high and SE% was low. Thus, it allowed us to predicted the expected yield under optimum conditions, under water stress and under the application of yield stabilizing agents, in addition to water stress. Furthermore, percent reduction in yield as a result of skipping the last irrigation and the improvement in yield

  15. Analysis on Interaction between Genotype of Four Main Flavonoids of Barley Grain and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YANG; Chengli DUAN; Yawen ZENG; Juan DU; Shuming YANG; Xiaoying PU; Shengchao YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the interaction between genotype of flavonoids of barley grain and environment, to increase the flavonoid content of barley grain in cultivation and breeding. [Method] In this study, the content of cate- chin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol of barley grain planted in Kunming, Qujing and Baoshan were determined by HPLC, and the genotype, environment, genotype- environment interaction of the flavonoid content of barley grain were analyzed. [Result] According to the experimental results, the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction variance of catechin and kaempferol contents show the same trend: genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance, envi- ronmental variance and G × E interaction variance of quercetin and total flavonoid contents show the same trend: genetype variation 〉 G × E interaction variation 〉 environmental variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance and environmental variance of myricetin content both reach a extremely sig- nificant level, while the G × E interaction variance reaches a significant level, showing an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation; the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction vari- ance of total flavonoid content show an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation. Among different barley varieties, Ziguang- mangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai in Qujing, Kunming and Baoshan have relatively high content of quercetin, while other barley varieties barely contain any quercetin. The grains of Ziguangmangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai are purple, while the grains of other barley varieties are yellow. [Conclusion] Four main flavonoids and the total flavonoids of barley grain are mainly under genetic control and

  16. Effect of Stem Rust on the Quality of Selected Barley Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Njau, P. N.; O. D. Otaye; Tabu, I. M.; Mwando, K. E.

    2012-01-01

    Stem rust, (Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici) is a catastrophic disease of barley. Previously stem-rust-tolerant genes were incorporated in genotypes of wheat grown in Kenya, but in 1999, a new race Ug99 that is virulent to the genes was detected in Uganda. The new race spread rapidly and, in 2001, stem rust Ug99 isolates were detected in Kenya. Although barley is an important crop affected by stem rust, limited work has been done to it. In this study 20 barley cultivars from Kenya and from In...

  17. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...... site cysteines and by removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. A cDNA clone of the barley key cysteine endoprotease...

  18. Distinct developmental defense activations in barley embryos identified by transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, ME; Lok, F; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    analyses of > 22,000 genes, which together with measurements of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid during embryo development provide new information on the initiation in the developing barley embryo of at least two distinct types of developmental defense activation (DDA). Early DDA is characterized by the up......-regulation of several PR genes is notable. Throughout barley embryo development, there are no indications of an increased biosynthesis of either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Collectively, the results help explain how the proposed DDA enables protection of the developing barley embryo and grain for purposes...

  19. Biochemical characterization of protein composition of high-lysine mutant ML-109 of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present studies was to determine the biochemical basis of a high lysine content in the mutant ML-109. The protein composition of kernels of high-lysine mutant of winter barley and its initial breeding line were analysed. The portion of individual fractions differing by their solubility in total proteins as well as amino acid composition of kernel protein and separated main protein fractions were also determined. The performed studies showed that a high lysine content in the kernels of the analysed mutant results from a decrease in the hordein level and from an increase in the portion of salt soluble proteins - albumins and globulins. Besides that, the obtained results indicate that the amino acid composition of the main protein fractions of the analysed mutant was advantageously changed; these fractions contained more lysine and other exogenic amino acids. (author). 15 refs, 6 tabs

  20. Enhanced quantitative resistance against fungal disease by combinatorial expression of different barley antifungal proteins in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jach, G; Görnhardt, B; Mundy, J;

    1995-01-01

    original cytosolic form or fused to a plant secretion peptide (spRIP). Fungal infection assays revealed that expression of the individual genes in each case resulted in an increased protection against the soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, which infects a range of plant species including tobacco....... Transgenic tobacco lines were generated with tandemly arranged genes coding for RIP and CHI as well as GLU and CHI. The performance of tobacco plants co-expressing the barley transgenes GLU/CHI or CHI/RIP in a Rhizoctonia solani infection assay revealed significantly enhanced protection against fungal attack....... To create a situation similar to 'multi-gene' tolerance, which traditional breeding experience has shown to provide crops with a longer-lasting protection, several of these antifungal genes were combined and protection against fungal attack resulting from their co-expression in planta was evaluated...