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Sample records for barley grain results

  1. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana;

    2016-01-01

    family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C......C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi...... silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7 % reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS...

  2. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

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    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  3. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch

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    Maria Balcerek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  4. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...... and higher viscosity than malt wort. Furthermore, the use of 100 % unmalted grains resulted in a decrease in the levels of colour and brightness, as well as higher alcohols and esters in the final beers. Consequently, the study provides valuable information for exploring beer brewing with 100 % unmalted...

  5. Analysis on Interaction between Genotype of Four Main Flavonoids of Barley Grain and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YANG; Chengli DUAN; Yawen ZENG; Juan DU; Shuming YANG; Xiaoying PU; Shengchao YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the interaction between genotype of flavonoids of barley grain and environment, to increase the flavonoid content of barley grain in cultivation and breeding. [Method] In this study, the content of cate- chin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol of barley grain planted in Kunming, Qujing and Baoshan were determined by HPLC, and the genotype, environment, genotype- environment interaction of the flavonoid content of barley grain were analyzed. [Result] According to the experimental results, the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction variance of catechin and kaempferol contents show the same trend: genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance, envi- ronmental variance and G × E interaction variance of quercetin and total flavonoid contents show the same trend: genetype variation 〉 G × E interaction variation 〉 environmental variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance and environmental variance of myricetin content both reach a extremely sig- nificant level, while the G × E interaction variance reaches a significant level, showing an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation; the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction vari- ance of total flavonoid content show an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation. Among different barley varieties, Ziguang- mangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai in Qujing, Kunming and Baoshan have relatively high content of quercetin, while other barley varieties barely contain any quercetin. The grains of Ziguangmangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai are purple, while the grains of other barley varieties are yellow. [Conclusion] Four main flavonoids and the total flavonoids of barley grain are mainly under genetic control and

  6. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

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    Yonggang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  7. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

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    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  8. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing

    2007-01-01

    nutrient solution containing the markers for phloem (rubidium) and xylem (strontium) transport. Cd concentration in each part of detached spikes increased with external Cd levels, and Cd concentration in various organs over the three Cd levels of 0.5, 2, 8 μM Cd on 15-day Cd exposure was in the order: awn...... Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed...... dramatic reduction in Cd transport to developing grains. The results indicated that awn, rachis and glume may involve in Cd transport into developing grains, and suggested that Cd redistribution in maturing cereals be considered as an important physiological process influencing the quality of harvested...

  9. Transcriptomics analysis of hulless barley during grain development with a focus on starch biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yawei; Zeng, Xingquan; Wang, Yulin; Bai, Lijun; Xu, Qijun; Wei, Zexiu; Yuan, Hongjun; Nyima, Tashi

    2017-01-01

    Hulless barley, with its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits, has increasingly attracted attentions in recent years. However, the transcription dynamics during hulless barley grain development is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome changes during barley grain development using Illumina paired-end RNA-sequencing. Two datasets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two barley landraces with the differential seed starch synthesis traits were generated, and comparative transcriptome approach in both genotypes was performed. The results showed that 38 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found co-modulated in both genotypes during the barley grain development. Of those, the proteins encoded by most of those DGEs were found, such as alpha-amylase-related proteins, lipid-transfer protein, homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip), NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y, subunit B (NF-YBs), as well as MYB transcription factors. More interestingly, two genes Hvulgare_GLEAN_10012370 and Hvulgare_GLEAN_10021199 encoding SuSy, AGPase (Hvulgare_GLEAN_10033640 and Hvulgare_GLEAN_10056301), as well as SBE2b (Hvulgare_GLEAN_10018352) were found to significantly contribute to the regulatory mechanism during grain development in both genotypes. Moreover, six co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways (M1 to M6) were identified by consensus co-expression network. Significantly enriched pathways of those module genes showed difference in both genotypes. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanism of starch synthesis during barley grain development.

  10. Expression of lipoxygenase isoenzymes in developing barley grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, N.F.; Mechelen, J.R. van

    1997-01-01

    Expression of lipoxygenase was studied in whole developing barley grains from 5 days after flowering (DAF) to full maturity. Lipoxygenase showed two distinct peaks of activity. The first peak of activity occurred in the early stages of grain development from 5 until 20 DAF, whereas the second peak o

  11. Effects of split nitrogen fertilization on post-anthesis photoassimilates, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2011-01-01

    photosynthesis after anthesis, dry matter accumulation and assimilates remobilization, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield to fraction of topdressed nitrogen treatments were investigated in malting barley. Net photosynthetic rate of the penultimate leaf, leaf area index and light extinction coefficient...... and agronomic nitrogen use efficiencies. The enhanced nitrogen use efficiency was corresponding to the improved photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in the leaves at fraction of topdressed nitrogen of 30%. In conclusion, appropriate fraction of topdressed nitrogen application on malting barley improved...... assimilation rate and nitrogen use efficiency resulting in higher grain yields and proper grain protein content in malting barley....

  12. Barley grain enrichement with essential elements by agronomic biofortification

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    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grain is rich in mineral nutrients, but their bioavailability to humans depends on antinutrients that restrain bioavailability and promoters that promote bioavailability. The aim of this study was to examine composition of barley grain, including phytate and phenolics as antinutrients, carotenoids and glutathione as promoters and mineral elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Si, Zn and Mn influenced by various non-standard foliar fertilizers (Zircon, Chitosan, Siliplant, Propikonazole, including some hormonal growth-stimulators (Epin Extra, Benzyladenine, as potential biofortification measure. Chitosan increased glutathione concentration in grain. Unfavorable meteorological conditions were partly mitigated by application of Benzyladenine and Siliplant, reflected through increased potential bioavailability of P, Mg, Ca and Fe. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31037

  13. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    ) and five antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines. Considering the amounts of soluble and protein-bound aspartate-derived amino acids together with the analysis of key enzymes of aspartate metabolic pathway, we suggest that the C-hordein suppression did not only alter the metabolism of at least one......The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition......, with increased lysine, methionine and threonine contents. The objective of the study was to investigate the possible changes in the regulation of key enzymes of the aspartate metabolic pathway and the contents of aspartate-derived amino acids in the nontransgenic line (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golden Promise...

  14. Enzymatic fingerprinting of arabinoxylan and β-glucan in triticale, barley and tritordeum grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, A; Saulnier, L; Aman, P; Andersson, R

    2012-10-15

    Enzymatic fingerprinting of arabinoxylan (AX) and β-glucan using endo-xylanase and lichenase, respectively, helps determine the structural heterogeneity between different cereals and within genotypes of the same cereal. This study characterised the structural features of AX and β-glucan in whole grains of eight triticale cultivars grown at two locations, 20 barley cultivars/lines with wide variation in composition and morphology and five tritordeum breeding lines. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in clear clustering of these cereals. In general, barley and tritordeum had a higher relative proportion of highly branched arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) than triticale. Subsequent analysis of triticale revealed two clusters based on growing region along principal component (PC) 1, while PC2 explained the genetic variability and was based on mono-substitution and di-substitution in AX fragments. PCA of β-glucan features separated the three cereals based on β-glucan content. The molar ratio of trisaccharide to tetrasaccharide was 2.5-3.4 in triticale, 2.3-3.3 in barley and 2.8-3.4 in tritordeum. Barley showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.86) between β-glucan content and relative proportion of trisaccharide. The results show that structural features of AX and β-glucan vary between and within triticale, barley and tritordeum grains which might be important determinants of end-use quality of grains.

  15. The effect of long-term storage on quality of malting barley grain and malt

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    Tomáš KRAJČOVIČ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the grain samples of five malting barley varieties harvested in 2011, the amount of basic components as well as physiological characteristics of barley were determined. These samples were micromalted and resulting malt was analyzed mainly according to the European Brewery Convention (EBC and the Mitteleuropäische Brautechnische Analysenkommission (MEBAK methodologies. The same samples of malting barley grain and also samples of malt were placed in polyethylene bags, from which the air was exhausted and they were further stored at 4 °C until 2016. In 2016, grain and malt samples were subjected to the same analyses as in 2011. Results were statistically evaluated by t-test of dependent samples. Most of the monitored parameters has remained at the same level as in 2011 or has slightly improved. The exception was statistically very highly significant decrease (P ≤ 0.001 of friability and increase of amount of whole and partly unmodified grains. Under conditions described, long-term storage of malting barley grain has not significantly negatively affected its germination. Long-term storage of malt has had not a significant negative impact on its quality too.

  16. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

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    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  17. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

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    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  18. Degradability Characteristics of Treated and Untreated Barley Grain Using In situ Technique

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    Akbar Taghizadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine of degradability characteristics of untreated barely grain (UBG and treated barley grain with autoclaving at 120°C, 5´ (TBG1 and 20' (TBG2, treated barley grain at 100°C, 5´ (TBG3 and 20' (TBG4, using in situ technique in Ghizel sheep’s. The sheep fed diet content 40% alfalfa: 60% concentrate containing 2.9 Mcal kg-1 DM and 14% CP. The incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36 and 48 h and rumen degradation of cp and DM was measured. The equation of p = a+b (1-e-ct was used for fitting of dry matter and crude protein disappearance data. The dry matter disappearance of TBG1 and TBG2 at 24 and 48 h were lower than the other treatments (p<0.05. The crude protein disappearance of 24 and 48 h of UBG was more than the other treatment (p<0.05. Treating of barley grain of 120°C (5' and 20' can be decreased ruminal crude protein degradability of barley grain resulting high escaped crude protein into lower digestive tract.

  19. Proteome analysis of grain filling and seed maturation in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, Christine; Melchior, Sabrina; Roepstorff, Peter; Svensson, Birte

    2002-07-01

    In monocotyledonous plants, the process of seed development involves the deposition of reserves in the starchy endosperm and development of the embryo and aleurone layer. The final stages of seed development are accompanied by an increase in desiccation tolerance and drying out of the mature seed. We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for a time-resolved study of the changes in proteins that occur during seed development in barley (Hordeum vulgare). About 1,000 low-salt extractable protein spots could be resolved on the two-dimensional gels. Protein spots were divided into six categories according to the timing of appearance or disappearance during the 5-week period of comparison. Nineteen different proteins or protein fragments in 36 selected spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MS) or nano-electrospray tandem MS/MS. Some proteins were present throughout development (for example, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase), whereas others were associated with the early grain filling (ascorbate peroxidase) or desiccation (Cor14b) stages. Most noticeably, the development process is characterized by an accumulation of low-M(r) alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, and enzymes involved in protection against oxidative stress. We present examples of proteins not previously experimentally observed, differential extractability of thiol-bound proteins, and possible allele-specific spot variation. Our results both confirm and expand on knowledge gained from previous analyses of individual proteins involved in grain filling and maturation.

  20. The role of alpha-glucosidase in germinating barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

    2011-02-01

    The importance of α-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an α-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, α-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the α-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process.

  1. Cyclitols in maturing grains of wheat, triticale and barley

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    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the feeding of stem-flag leaf-ear explants of wheat, triticale and barley with d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol was used for modification of the composition of soluble carbohydrates in grains without genetic transformation of plants. Maturing grains indicated ability to uptake exogenously applied cyclitols, not occurring naturally in cereal plants, and synthesized their a-d-galactosides. The pattern of changes in soluble carbohydrates during grain maturation and germination was not disturbed by the uptake and accumulation of cyclitols. Both, d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol as well as their a-d-galactosides can be an additional pool of soluble carbohydrates accumulated by maturing grains, without decreasing seeds viability. This is the first report indicating the possibility of introduction of cyclitols with potentially human health benefits properties into cereal grains.

  2. Pollen grain of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. - pattern of development

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    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen development in barley follows the general pattern established for other species of Poaceae: 1 microspore division occurs at the vacuolate microspore stage with polarly located nucleus; 2 microspore mitosis is immediately followed by phragmoplast and cell plate formation; 3 in consequence or unequal microspore division, the generative cell, at first attached to the pollen wall, is separated from the vegetative cell by a callosic wall; 4 during the postmitotic two-cell stage of development, the vegetative nucleus migrates to the aperture pole and is followed by the generative cell that is detached and free of callose wall. In this position the generative cell divides into two sperm cells. These data do not confirm the interpretation of pollen grain development in barley given by Cass and Karas in Can. J. Bot. 53: 1051-1062, 1975.

  3. Differences in grain ultrastructure, phytochemical and proteomic profiles between the two contrasting grain Cd-accumulation barley genotypes.

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    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low-grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars.

  4. Genetic Variation of Functional Components in Grains of Improved Barley Lines from Four Continents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen ZENG; Xiaoying PU; Jing ZHANG; Juan DU; Ganggang GUO; Tao YANG; ChunyanZHAO; Shuming YANG; Dawei ZHAO; Junjie TANG; Ping JIA

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to analyze functional components in improved barley grains. [Method] Genetic variations of functional components in grains among 629 barley improved lines from four continents were determined with DU640-type ul- traviolet spectrophotometry (BECKMAN). [Result] The contents (mg/100 g) of total flavones and GABA in grains of Asian barley lines (123.09_+29.56, 9.49_+4.34) were significantly higher than that of American barley lines (103.85_22.33, 7.38_+3.59), while no significant difference was observed between Asia/Americas and Europe (115.47_+11.41, 9.66-+3.98) and Australia (104.20-+4.76, 8.83-+3.41); furthermore, there was no significant difference of resistant starch content (%) in barley grains among four continents [Asia (1.63_+1.44), America (1.54_+1.13), Europe (1.20+0.85) and Aus- tralia (0.27_+0.26)]. The contents (%) of resistant starch in grains of two-rowed barley (ssp. Hordeurn distichon Koern., 1.45_+1.20) was significantly lower than that of poly- rowed barley (ssp. Hordeum vulgare Orlov., 1.95_+1.24). On the contrary, the content of total flavones in two-rowed lines (111.43_+27.79 mg/100 g) wa, s significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (102.15_+14.95 mg/100 g), and the content of GABA in two-rowed lines (8.55+_3.73 mg/100 g) was also significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (5.96_+3.95 mg/100 g). There was the most significant correlation between GABA content and resistant starch (-0.21)/total flavones content (0.12 , P〈0.01, n=-629). There were great genotype differences among the functional compo- nents in barley grains. The coefficient of variation (78.60%) and range (0-9.29%) of resistant starch (1.56_+1.22%) were relatively large, including 11 high-resistant starch lines above 5%; the coefficient of variation (49.00%) and range (0-30.67 mg/100g) of GABA (8.00-

  5. Analysis of variability, heritability, and interrelationships among grain yield and related characters in barley advanced lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to improve pure lines for low input agricultural areas of the semi-arid region of Iran and similar environmental conditions. Forty barley pure lines provided from ICARDA along with three check cultivars were evaluated under rain-fed conditions in a semi-arid region of Iran during two years (2011-2013. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications to estimate genetic variation and heritability for agro-morphological traits. The highest values of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were observed for the number of grains per spike followed by peduncle length, early vigor and grain yield. The broad heritability estimates ranged from 24% for grain yield to 96% for the number of grains per spike. The highest and lowest expected genetic advance, observed for days to physiological maturity and the number of grains per spike, respectively. Results of stepwise regression and path analysis showed that hectoliter grain weight and thousand grain weight exhibited the highest direct effects on grain yield, respectively. Comparisons between the pure lines and check cultivars indicated that out of 40 pure lines, 27 lines had a higher grain yield. Also, the pure lines No. 29, 13, 9 and 33 were identified as the superior lines for semi-arid environmental conditions. Our results indicate that check cultivars could be improved by selecting for pure lines with taller peduncle and the number of grains per spike, but with heavier grains. Therefore, these lines can be used as genetic material to broaden the genetic basis of barley breeding programs all over the world.

  6. DNA microarray revealed and RNAi plants confirmed key genes conferring low Cd accumulation in barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanism of low Cd accumulation in crops is crucial for sustainable safe food production in Cd-contaminated soils. Results Confocal microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence analyses revealed a distinct difference in Cd......-grain-Cd-accumulation. Conclusion Novel transporter genes such as HvZIP3 and HvZIP8 were identified as being associated with low-grain-Cd-accumulation. In addition to advancing academic knowledge, our findings may also result in potential economic benefits for molecular breeding of low Cd accumulating barley and other crops....

  7. Localization to Chromosomes of Structural Genes for the Major Protease Inhibitors of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Bjørn, S.E.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Wheat-barley chromosome addition lines were compared by isoelectric focusing of protein extracts to identify chromosomes carrying loci for the major immunochemically distinct protease inhibitors of barley grains. Structural genes for the following inhibitors were localized: an inhibitor of both...

  8. Determinants of barley grain yield in a wide range of Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Li Destri Nicosia, O.; Akar, T.; Grando, S.; Al-Yassin, A.; Benkelkacim, A.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pechionni, N.

    2011-01-01

    Barley grain yield in rainfed Mediterranean regions can be largely influenced by terminal drought events. In this study the ecophysiological performance of the ‘Nure’ (winter) × ‘Tremois’ (spring) barley mapping population (118 Doubled Haploids, DHs) was evaluated in a multi-environment trial of eig

  9. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    , and decreased with 300 kg N ha−1. Net photosynthetic rate (P N) and the amount of accumulated dry matter distributed into grains showed the same response to N application as grain yield. Grain protein content increased with increasing N application rates. Moreover, based on further analysis of these results......The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China....... Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1...

  10. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change.

  11. CONTRIBUTION OF PRIMARY SPIKES VS TILLERS TO TOTAL DEOXYNIVALENOL IN HARVESTED GRAIN OF WHEAT AND BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of higher number of tillers is desirable for higher grain yield in both wheat and barley; tillers have delayed physiological development. Studies addressing the contribution of secondary tillers in final DON concentration for wheat and barley are limited. This project aims to improve our understanding of the relationship between FHB symptoms and DON concentration by examining the contribution of primary spikes and secondary tillers as it relates to the final DON concentration. Experiments, established as split-split plot design with five replications, was be conducted in South Dakota with moderately resistant and susceptible cultivars of each spring wheat, winter wheat and barley. Two inoculation time treatments was applied; at the anthesis of primary spikes (Feekes 10.5 and at anthesis of tillers (Feekes 11.2. Primary spikes (inoculated at Feekes 10.5 and tillers (inoculated at Feekes 11.2 were harvested separately, analyzed for visually scabby kernels and deoxynivalenol following standard protocols. Levels of DON were statistically higher in main heads of barley and spring wheat in each cultivar compared to its tillers. In winter wheat, though there was higher DON level in tillers than main heads in each cultivar, it was not statistically different. Based upon our result, it is suggested that cultivars with high tillers number should be selected in breeding programs to develop cultivars with high yield and low DON. Similarly, planting density of wheat and barley can be adjusted such that it will result in higher numbers of tillers, increasing tillers proportion that might lower DON concentration in final harvest.

  12. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  13. Modeling moisture absorption kinetics of barley grain using viscoelastic model and neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kamali

    2015-09-01

    Network (ANN as an important artificial intelligent method comparable to human brain capabilities is applied to train and store data in the form of weighted networks (Dayhoff, 1990. This method has superiority to many ordinary statistical and model making methods. In comparison to linear regression models, ANN does not require placing estimated values around mean values and for this reason it retains actual variations in the data being analyzed. Prediction by using trained ANN enables the researchers to decrease or increase input and output variables.Therefore, it is possible to produce a multivariate model with an output even more than the objectives deemed necessary (Heristev, 1998. The goal of this research was to predict instant moisture content of three barley varieties (Reyhan3, Fajr and MB862 during the soaking process under three temperature levels (10, 20 and 45 ◦C using two conventional ANN methods of multilayer perceptron (MLP and radial basis function (RBF in comparison with viscoelastic mathematical model and reporting the results. Materials and method: Barley varieties were collected from the Isfahan Province Agriculture Organization grain depository and were cleaned and the debris were separated before the experiments. The selected grains were sorted to three groups of small, medium and large grains sizes. To exclude the effect of grain size during moisture absorption, the medium size grains were used. The moisture content of the grains was determined based on the ASAE S352.2 DEC97 (ASAE, 1999 which were %8.23, %8.62 and %8.89 on a dry basis for Reyhan3, Fajr and MB862, respectively with no significant difference at %5 probability level (p>0.05. Experiments were conducted under three temperatures (10, 20 and 45 ◦C in the refrigerator, at room temperature and in the oven, respectively for each variety. In each experiment, 10 medium size grains were selected randomly and weighed with an AND laboratory scale model Gf-400 (made in Japan and placed in foam

  14. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition......The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary...... silencing cassette for HvAgl97, alpha-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the alpha-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing...

  15. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  16. Selenium speciation in malt, wort, and beer made from selenium-biofortified two-rowed barley grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Sara; Santamaria, Oscar; Chen, Yi; McGrath, Steve P; Poblaciones, Maria J

    2014-06-25

    Selenium (Se) biofortification of barley is a suitable strategy to increase the Se concentration in grain. In the present paper, the suitability of this Se-biofortified grain for making Se-enriched beer is analyzed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different Se fertilizer doses (0, 10, and 20 g of Se ha(-1)) and forms (sodium selenate or sodium selenite) on the Se loss during the malting and brewing processes and Se speciation in grain, malt, wort, and beer. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS for total Se and speciation. Mashing-lautering was the process with the greatest Se loss (83.8%). After malting and brewing, only 7.3% of the initial Se was retained in beer, mainly in selenite form. Even so, the fertilizer application of sodium selenate at 20 g ha(-1) increased the total Se concentration almost 6-fold in the final beer in comparison to the use of grain derived from unfertilized barley. The present paper provides evidence that the use of Se-biofortified barley grain as a raw material to produce Se-enriched beer is possible, and the results are comparable to other methods in terms of efficiency.

  17. Grain yield, symbiotic N2 fixation and interspecific competition for inorganic N in pea-barley intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    only 9% of total fertilizer-N recovery in the intercrop. The amount of symbiotic N-2 fixation in the intercrop was less than expected from its composition and the fixation in monocrop. This indicates that the competition from barley had a negative effect on the fixation, perhaps via shading...... g N-15-labeled N m(-2). The effect of intercropping on the dry matter and N yields, competition for inorganic N among the intercrop components, symbiotic fixation in pea and N transfer from pea to barley were determined. As an average of four years the grain yields were similar in monocropped pea...... by the intercrop components, resulting in reduced competition for inorganic N, rather than a facilitative effect, in which symbiotically fixed N-2 is made available to barley....

  18. Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Françoise; Leymarie, Juliette

    2013-04-01

    In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature.

  19. Evaluation of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles as a substitute for barley grain and barley silage in feedlot finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, K T; McAllister, T A; Gibb, D J; Chaves, A V; Okine, E K; Beauchemin, K A; Oba, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for barley silage in addition to a portion of the dry-rolled barley (DRB) in a grain-based feedlot finishing diet. The trial used 160 crossbred yearling steers: 144 noncannulated (478 +/- 84 kg) in a complete randomized design, and 16 ruminally cannulated (494 +/- 50 kg) in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. The noncannulated steers were assigned to 8 standard pens (10 per pen) and 8 pens equipped with the GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada; 8 per pen). The cannulated steers were placed (2 per pen) in the 8 GrowSafe pens and moved between pens at 28-d intervals. Each of 4 experimental diets was fed in 2 standard and 2 GrowSafe pens. The diets contained (DM basis) 1) 85% DRB and 10% barley silage (CON); 2) 65% DRB, 20% triticale DDGS, and 10% barley silage (D-10S), 3) 65% DRB, 25% triticale DDGS, and 5% barley silage, and 4) 65% DRB, 30% triticale DDGS, and no barley silage. Supplement (5% of dietary DM) was included in all diets. Ruminal pH was measured over four 7-d periods using indwelling electrodes. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS linearly decreased mean ruminal pH (P = 0.006), linearly increased duration (P = 0.006 and P = 0.01) and area under the curve (P = 0.02 and P = 0.05) below pH 5.5 and 5.2, and linearly increased the frequency of subacute (P = 0.005) and acute (P = 0.05) bouts of ruminal acidosis. Variation in mean ruminal pH decreased (P = 0.008) in steers fed D-10S compared with CON. Similarly, variation in DMI was less for steers fed triticale DDGS compared with CON. Steers fed D-10S tended to have greater DMI (P = 0.08) but similar ADG and G:F compared with CON steers. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS tended to linearly decrease DMI (P = 0.10) and increase (P = 0.06) G:F. Compared with CON, steers fed D-10S tended to have greater backfat thickness (P = 0.10) and

  20. Zinc Blotting Assay for Detection of Zinc-Binding Prolamin in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Langkilde, Ane; Vincze, Éva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  1. Accelerated rates of protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes might be legacy of domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Dimitrov, Ivan; Zhang, Yinling; Tax, Frans E; Yi, Jing; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia

    2015-10-01

    Traits related to grain and reproductive organs in grass crops have been under continuous directional selection during domestication. Barley is one of the oldest domesticated crops in human history. Thus genes associated with the grain and reproductive organs in barley may show evidence of dramatic evolutionary change. To understand how artificial selection contributes to protein evolution of biased genes in different barley organs, we used Digital Gene Expression analysis of six barley organs (grain, pistil, anther, leaf, stem and root) to identify genes with biased expression in specific organs. Pairwise comparisons of orthologs between barley and Brachypodium distachyon, as well as between highland and lowland barley cultivars mutually indicated that grain and pistil biased genes show relatively higher protein evolutionary rates compared with the median of all orthologs and other organ biased genes. Lineage-specific protein evolutionary rates estimation showed similar patterns with elevated protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes, yet protein sequences generally evolve much faster in the lowland barley cultivar. Further functional annotations revealed that some of these grain and pistil biased genes with rapid protein evolution are related to nutrient biosynthesis and cell cycle/division. Our analyses provide insights into how domestication differentially shaped the evolution of genes specific to different organs of a crop species, and implications for future functional studies of domestication genes.

  2. Selection of barley grain affects ruminal fermentation, starch digestibility, and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, C; Oba, M; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 lots of barley grain cultivars differing in expected ruminal starch degradation on dry matter (DM) intake, ruminal fermentation, ruminal and total tract digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows when provided at 2 concentrations in the diet. Four primiparous ruminally cannulated (123 +/- 69 d in milk; mean +/- SD) and 4 multiparous ruminally and duodenally cannulated (46 +/- 14 d in milk) cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 16-d periods. Primiparous and multiparous cows were assigned to different squares. Treatments were 2 dietary starch concentrations (30 vs. 23% of dietary DM) and 2 lots of barley grain cultivars (Xena vs. Dillon) differing in expected ruminal starch degradation. Xena had higher starch concentration (58.7 vs. 50.0%) and greater in vitro 6-h starch digestibility (78.0 vs. 73.5%) compared with Dillon. All experimental diets were formulated to supply 18.3% crude protein and 20.0% forage neutral detergent fiber. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment. Milk fat concentration (3.55 vs. 3.29%) was greater for cows fed Dillon compared with Xena, but was not affected by dietary starch concentration. Ruminal starch digestion was greater for cows fed high-starch diets compared with those fed low-starch diets (4.55 vs. 2.49 kg/d), and tended to be greater for cows fed Xena compared with those fed Dillon (3.85 vs. 3.19 kg/d). Ruminal acetate concentration was lower, and propionate concentration was greater, for cows fed Xena or high-starch diets compared with cows fed Dillon or low-starch diets, respectively. Furthermore, cows fed Xena or high-starch diets had longer duration that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (6.6 vs. 4.0 and 6.4 vs. 4.2 h/d) and greater total tract starch digestibility (94.3 vs. 93.0 and 94.3 vs. 93.0%) compared with cows fed Dillon or low-starch diets, respectively. These results

  3. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pecchioni, N.

    2013-01-01

    The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT) population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 sit

  4. Effects of Zn fertilization on hordein transcripts at early developmental stage of barley grain and correlation with increased Zn concentration in the mature grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasir Uddin

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency is causing malnutrition for nearly one third of world populations. It is especially relevant in cereal-based diets in which low amounts of mineral and protein are present. In biological systems, Zn is mainly associated with protein. Cereal grains contain the highest Zn concentration during early developmental stage. Although hordeins are the major storage proteins in the mature barley grain and suggested to be involved in Zn binding, very little information is available regarding the Zn fertilization effects of hordein transcripts at early developmental stage and possible incorporation of Zn with hordein protein of matured grain. Zinc fertilization experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with barley cv. Golden Promise. Zn concentration of the matured grain was measured and the results showed that the increasing Zn fertilization increased grain Zn concentration. Quantitative real time PCR showed increased level of total hordein transcripts upon increasing level of Zn fertilization at 10 days after pollination. Among the hordein transcripts the amount of B-hordeins was highly correlated with the Zn concentration of matured grain. In addition, protein content of the matured grain was analysed and a positive linear relationship was found between the percentage of B-hordein and total grain Zn concentration while C-hordein level decreased. Zn sensing dithizone assay was applied to localize Zn in the matured grain. The Zn distribution was not limited to the embryo and aleurone layer but was also present in the outer part of the endosperm (sub-aleurone layers which known to be rich in proteins including B-hordeins. Increased Zn fertilization enriched Zn even in the endosperm. Therefore, the increased amount of B-hordein and decreased C-hordein content suggested that B-hordein upregulation or difference between B and C hordein could be one of the key factors for Zn biofortification of cereal grains due to the Zn fertilization.

  5. Improving the nutritional quality of the barley and wheat grain storage proteins by antisense technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Lange, Mette; Aaslo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Prolamins are the predominant storage proteins in barley and wheat grains, accounting for 50 to 80% of total seed protein. However, the prolamins are not optimal feed for monogastric animals as they have a low content of certain essential amino acids such as lysine, threonine and tryptophan...... gliadins) are also available from Germany and UK. We have grown them under different N regimes (high, medium and low N) in semi-field conditions. Previously five different antisense C-hordein lines of barley have been characterized in our laboratory. The analyses revealed that the lysine, threonine...

  6. Dormancy of the barley grain is correlated with gibberellic Acid responsiveness of the isolated aleurone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurink, R C; Sedee, N J; Wang, M

    1992-12-01

    The relationship between barley grain dormancy and gibberellic acid (GA(3)) responsiveness of aleurone layers has been investigated. Barley (Hordeum distichum L. cvs Triumph and Kristina) grains were matured under defined conditions in a phytotron. Grains of Triumph plants grown under long-day/warm conditions had lower dormancy levels than grains of plants grown under short-day/cool conditions. Aleurone layers isolated from grains of long-day Triumph plants secreted more alpha-amylase and had a higher responsiveness to GA(3) as measured by alpha-amylase secretion. Storage of the grains increased both the percentage of germination and the responsiveness of the aleurone to GA(3). Use of different sterilization methods to break dormancy confirmed the correlation between germination percentage and aleurone layer GA(3) responsiveness. The response of embryoless Triumph grains to GA(3) was lower than that of the isolated aleurone layers, suggesting a role of the starchy endosperm in regulating the GA(3) response of the aleurone layer. Grains of the cultivar Kristina harvested from short day- and long day-grown plants lacked dormancy, and their isolated aleurone layers had a similar responsiveness to GA(3) as measured by alpha-amylase secretion. The data indicate that the physiological state of the aleurone layers contributes to the percentage germination of the grains.

  7. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh

    2017-01-01

    , the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2-generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase...

  8. Association mapping of grain hardness, polyphenol oxidase, total phenolics, amylose content, and ß-glucan in US barley breeding germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A renewed interest in breeding barley specifically for food end-uses is being driven by increased consumer interest in healthier foods. We conducted association mapping on physicochemical properties of barley that play a role in food quality and processing including, grain hardness, polyphenol oxid...

  9. Accumulation of mixed linkage (1¿3) (1¿4)-ß-D-glucan during grain filling in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jespersen, Birthe P Møller

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of mixed linkage barley (1 → 3) (1 → 4)-β-d-glucan (BG) during grain filling at eight stages was studied using standard reference methods and infrared spectroscopy. Two mutant barley genotypes having higher (starch mutant lys5f) and lower (high lysine mutant lys3a) BG content tha...

  10. Supplementation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol-lowering effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Turowski, Maciej; Anderson, W H Kerr; Young, Scott A; Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-07-27

    We investigated in Syrian Golden hamsters the biological impact and its underlying mechanism of single whole grain breads supplemented with 2-3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic viscous soluble dietary fiber (SDF) as a substitute for gluten. Hamsters were fed high-fat diets supplemented with 48-65% (w/w) differently ground, freeze-dried single grain breads including whole grain wheat, barley, barley supplemented with HPMC, debranned oat, and oat supplemented with HPMC which were compared to a diet containing microcrystalline cellulose (control). All single grain breads significantly lowered plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the control. Enrichment with HPMC further lowered plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. Despite the reduced molecular weight of naturally occurring soluble (1--->3),(1--->4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) caused by the bread-making process, whole grain barley breads downregulated hepatic expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoAR genes that are responsible for bile acid and cholesterol synthesis, suggesting a possible role of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids and phenolic compounds from barley bread. Barley bread enriched with HPMC downregulated expression of ABCG5 gene. Taken together, it appears that distinctive modulation of synthesis and excretion of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid contributes to the cholesterol-lowering properties of whole grain barley breads and breads enriched with HPMC. These data suggests that alternative whole grain breads supplemented with HPMC may provide consumers with a staple food that can assist in cholesterol management.

  11. Iron transport, deposition and bioavailability in the wheat and barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the increasing knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying mineral uptake, transport, homeostasis and deposition within plants, has paved the way for a more targeted approach to improving the nutrient status of crop plants based on biotechnology. In the present paper we...... will briefly review existing knowledge on the distribution and transport pathways of iron in the two small grained cereals, barley and wheat, and focus on the efforts made to increase the iron content in cereals in general. However, mineral content is not the only factor of relevance for improving...... insight into metal transport and deposition (Tauris et al. 2009). In the present paper we will provide a tentative and preliminary roadmap for iron trafficking in the barley grain...

  12. Effect of induced lodging on grain yield and quality of brewing barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lodging is one of the main factors of constraint to grain yield stability in barley. The objective of this study wasto evaluate the effects of lodging on agronomic and qualitative traits, when induced at different stages of the crop development.The trial was carried out in Victor Graeff, RS, using a randomized complete block design with four replications and 3 factors:year, lodging date and lodging intensity. The analyzed parameters were grain yield (GY, kernel plumpness (KP, germination(G, and score of lodging at harvest (SLH. No significant interaction was observed for GY and G. The effects of inducedlodging at the booting and physiologic maturity stages were distinct for GY, KP and G. Unlike G, the variables GY and KPwere not significantly affected by lodging intensity. Quantitative and qualitative losses in barley can be predicted based onlodging.

  13. A functional genomics approach to understand the control and regulation of storage protein biosynthesis in barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, É; Hansen, M; Bowra, S;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain an insight into amino acid and storage protein metabolism in the developing barley grain at the molecular level. Our strategy was to analyse the transcriptome of relevant pathways in developing grains of field grown barley using a grain specific microarray...... reference to the temporal expression levels of a range of genes involved in the photosynthesis process, amino acid and storage protein metabolism. We conclude that the grain specific microarray is a reliable and cost-effective tool for monitoring temporal changes in the transcriptome of the major metabolic...... pathways in the barley grain. The study described here could provide a strong complement to existing knowledge assisting further  understanding of seed development and thereby provide a foundation for plant breeding towards storage protein with improved nutritional quality....

  14. A roadmap for zinc transport into the developing barley grain. Gene expression profiling using laser microdissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Tauris, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression...... profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the 'laser capture microdissection' technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification...... were taken into account. On the basis of the expression levels of a number of metal homeostasis genes, a working model is proposed for the translocation of zinc from the phloem to the storage sites in the developing grain....

  15. In situ identification and quantification of protein-hydrolyzing ruminal bacteria associated with the digestion of barley and corn grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Huang, Heping; Yang, Hee Eun; Forster, Robert; McAllister, Tim A

    2016-12-01

    In this study, BODIPY FL DQ™ casein staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect and identify protein-hydrolyzing bacteria within biofilms that produced active cell-surface-associated serine- and metallo-proteases during the ruminal digestion of barley and corn grain in cows fed barley-based diets at 2 different levels. A doublet coccoid bacterial morphotype associated with barley and corn grain particles fluoresced after BODIPY FL DQ™ casein staining. Bacteria with this morphotype accounted for 3%-10% of the total bacteria attached to surface of cereal grain particles, possibly indicative of an important role in the hydrolysis of the protein matrix within the endosperm. However, the identity of these predominant proteolytic bacteria could not be determined using FISH. Quantitative FISH revealed that known proteolytic species, Prevotella ruminicola, Ruminobacter amylophilus, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, were attached to particles of various cultivars of barley grain and corn, confirming their role in the proteolysis of cereal grains. Differences in chemical composition among different barley cultivars did not affect the composition of proteolytic bacterial populations. However, the concentrate level in the basal diet did have an impact on the relative abundance of proteolytic bacteria and thus possibly their overall contribution to the proteolysis of cereal grains.

  16. Genome-wide association mapping in winter barley for grain yield and culm cell wall polymer content using the high-throughput CoMPP technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellucci, Andrea; Tondelli, Alessandro; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    A collection of 112 winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown in the field for two years (2008/09 and 2009/10) in northern Italy and grain and straw yields recorded. In the first year of the trial, a severe attack of barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) strongly influenced final...... gene, which is known to regulate resistance to BaYMV. Subsequently the QTL was shown to be tightly linked to rym4, a locus for resistance to the virus. GWAs on arabinans quantified by LM6 resulted in the identification of major QTLs closely located on 3H and hypotheses regarding putative candidate...

  17. PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN JUVENILE STAGE AND WINTER BARLEY BREEDING FOR IMPROVED GRAIN YIELD AND STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kovačević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic efficiency parameters (Fv/Fm, ET0/ABS and PIABS were investigated at the end of tillering stage of winter barley grown in stress environment (21.3% vol. water content of soil and control (water content 30.4% vol. in relation to grain yield per vegetative pot. The trial was conducted in vegetative pots according to the RBD method of two-factorial experiment with 10 winter barley cultivars (7 tworowed and 3 six-rowed and 2 treatments in 3 repetitions. The stressed variant was exposed to water reduction three times (end of tillering stage, flag leaf to beginning of heading stage, grain filling stage. From sowing to maturity, the air temperature varied from -3.9°C to 32.9°C and water content from 16.4 % to 39.0 % of soil volume in vegetative pot. Significant differences were found for grain yield among the cultivars. The short-term drought stress caused significant reductions in grain yield per pot. The photosynthetic efficiency parameters were significant between cultivars, but significant effects for treatments and interaction were only detected for the Fv/Fm parameter. Photosynthetic efficiency parameters did not have significant correlation coefficients with grain yield and its stability in both treatments. Stability indexes of the parameters PIABS and Fv/Fm had positive but not significant correlations with grain yield in stressed variant (0.465 and 0.452 and stability index of grain yield (0.337 and 0.481.

  18. Measuring Meiotic Crossovers via Multi-Locus Genotyping of Single Pollen Grains in Barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Dreissig

    Full Text Available The detection of meiotic crossovers in crop plants currently relies on scoring DNA markers in a segregating population or cytological visualization. We investigated the feasibility of using flow-sorted haploid nuclei, Phi29 DNA polymerase-based whole-genome-amplification (WGA and multi-locus KASP-genotyping to measure meiotic crossovers in individual barley pollen grains. To demonstrate the proof of concept, we used 24 gene-based physically mapped single nucleotide polymorphisms to genotype the WGA products of 50 single pollen nuclei. The number of crossovers per chromosome, recombination frequencies along chromosome 3H and segregation distortion were analysed and compared to a doubled haploid (DH population of the same genotype. The number of crossovers and chromosome wide recombination frequencies show that this approach is able to produce results that resemble those obtained from other methods in a biologically meaningful way. Only the segregation distortion was found to be lower in the pollen population than in DH plants.

  19. Synthesis of Salt Soluble Proteins in Barley. Pulse-Labeling Study of Grain Filling in Liquid-Cultured Detached Spikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation of salt-soluble proteins in the endosperm of developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains was examined. Detached spikes of barley were cultured at different levels of nitrogen nutrition and pulse-labeled with [14C] sucrose at specific times after anthesis. Proteins were extracted...... to increased nitrogen nutrition. Two major components, β-amylase and protein Z in particular, had a synthesis profile almost identical to that of the endosperm storage protein, hordein....

  20. Oil content and fatty acid composition of some varieties of barley and sorghum grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood, M. G.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil content of sorghum grains (average 4.57 % was nearly twice that of barley (average 2.27 %. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were the most abundant fatty acids and that stearic acid content was low in barley and sorghum. The content of linolenic acid was higher in barley than in sorghum. The composition of sorghum oil, in general, was similar to corn oil and could be used for cooking and other uses of edible oils.El contenido en aceite de granos de sorgo (media del 4.57 % fue aproximadamente el doble del de cebada (media del 2,27 %. Los ácidos grasos más abundantes fueron el palmítico, oleico y linoleico y siendo bajo el ácido esteárico, esto tanto en cebada como en sorgo. El contenido del ácido linolénico fue mayor en la cebada que en el sorgo. En general la composición del aceite de sorgo fue similar a la del aceite de maíz y podría utilizarse para el cocinado y otros usos de los aceites comestibles.

  1. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals.

  2. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Guang; Veljanoski, Filip; Wang, Gang; Shabala, Sergey; Zhou, Meixue; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis), and molecular techniques (RT-PCR and qPCR) to investigate stomatal behavior and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterization of stomatal behavior of a large number of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant cultivar CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture under 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive cultivar Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield under salt treatment. Phenotypic characterization and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to higher barley grain yield in the field.

  3. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 2 HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological and molecular techniques (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis, and gene expression to investigate stomatal behaviour and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterisation of stomatal behaviour of large numbers of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we have found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture in 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield in salt treatment. Phenotypic characterisation and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to high barley grain yield in the field.

  4. Investigation of the Germination of Barley and Wheat Grains with a Design of Experiments for the Production of Hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Bertolt; Koch, Milena; Schapfl, Matthias; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    The production of hydrolases from cereals has been examined in order to investigate food-derived enzymes as an alternative source to microbial enzymes for the use in food processes. For that, the influence of temperature on the pretreatment, imbibition and germination of barley and wheat grains was determined by measuring the β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and lipase activities using a design of experiments. The evaluation of the statistical model showed an increase of the β-glucosidase activity with low imbibition and low germination temperature for barley grains and low imbibition and high germination temperature for wheat grains. The maximum β-glucosidase activity in wheat extracts was (585±151) nkat per g of dry mass (dm), while in barley extracts it was (109±15) nkat per g of dm. The maximum β-galactosidase activities in barley and wheat extracts were (34±12) and (63±23) nkat per g of dm, respectively. The maximum lipase activities of (6.7±0.1) and (4.6±4.4) nkat per g of dm in barley and wheat extracts, respectively, were rather low compared to the glycosidase activities. The extracts were also tested for other hydrolase activities (e.g. peptidase and α-amylase activities). The insights obtained enable the basis for the potential use of cereal hydrolases in food processing, which might be attractive to consumers.

  5. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part II. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was investigated in the embryos and endosperm of wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne grain after 2, 4 and 6 days of germination. In germinating grain the phosphorus compounds transformations ran along the way of synthesis in the embryo and of breakdown in the endosperm. The level of phosphorus: inorganic, nucleotides, saccharides esters and their metabolites, lipid, RNA, DNA, phytin free and phytin bound with proteins and proteins rapidly increased in germinating seed embryos. The content of phosphorus free phytin and that bound with proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA in the endosperm rapidly decreased during germination. On the other hand, the saccharides phosphorus and that of their metabolites did not change, and inorganic, nuclotides and proteins-P slightly increased. Germinating rye grains showed a higher rate of synthesis in the embryos and of breakdown in the endosperm of the investigated phosphorus compounds than wheat and barley grains.

  6. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. I. Individual grain weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Sombrero, A.; Lafarga, A.; Igartua, E.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean-type environments, grain weight of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is influenced by the presence of terminal abiotic stresses such as drought or elevated temperature. The relative importance of these climatic constraints acting together prior to and after anthesis, as well as the specif

  7. Multi-method research strategy for understanding changes in storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa

    , the increases in the nitrogen fertiliser are not accompanied by a good quallity of protein composition in barley grain. Hodeins are coded by highly polymorphic genes which are clustered into four main families. B.C.D and γ. The high N-dosage promotes C-hordein synthesis, the class with the lowest content...

  8. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed.

  9. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;

    2008-01-01

    ) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration......Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR...

  10. A proteomics-based study of endogenous and microbial xylanases and xylanase inhibitors associated with barley grains used for liquid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida

    The mature barley grain contains a complement of enzymes that are synthesized during seed development for degradation of seed storage reserves during germination. These enzyme activities (first wave enzymes) are considered important for maximizing nutrient digestibility in food and feed. Several...... of these enzyme activities between barley cultivars, as well as the distribution and composition of the residing commensal fungal community and the grain surface associated proteins. To obtain new insight into the interplay between barley grains and the colonizing fungi, we set out to study the activities...

  11. Antioxidant activity in barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) grains roasted in a microwave oven under conditions optimized using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwamba, Mary; Hu, Qiuhui

    2010-01-01

    Microwave processing and cooking of foods is a recent development that is gaining momentum in household as well as large-scale food applications. Barley contains phenol compounds which possess antioxidant activity. In this study the microwave oven roasting condition was optimized to obtain grains with high antioxidant activity measured as the ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Antioxidant activity of grains roasted under optimum conditions was assessed based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of oxidation in linoleic acid system. The optimum condition for obtaining roasted barley with high antioxidant activity (90.5% DPPH inhibition) was found to be at 600 W microwave power, 8.5 min roasting time, and 61.5 g or 2 layers of grains. The roasting condition influenced antioxidant activity both individually and interactively. Statistical analysis showed that the model was significant (P < 0.0001). The acetone extract had significantly high inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to the aqueous extract and alpha-tocopherol. The reducing power of acetone extracts was not significantly different from alpha-tocopherol. The acetone extract had twice the amount of phenol content compared to the aqueous extract indicating its high extraction efficiency. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of phenol acids, amino phenols, and quinones. The aqueous extract did not contain 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid which are phenol compounds reported to contribute to antioxidant activity in barley grain.

  12. Replacement of Dietary Barley Grain by Different Levels of Restaurant Waste and Its Effect on Hybrid Lambs Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moradi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the nutritive value of restaurant waste (RW, substituted with dietary barley grain and its effects on the performance of finishing lambs. Dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and ash content of RW were 33.4, 95.9, 15.1, 14.1 and 4 percent respectively. 36 male and female lambs, (initial weight of 33.4± 0.5 and 29.7± 0.5 kg respectively were used in the experiment. The experimental lambs were from three hybrid groups: Ghezel*Merino (n=12, Merino*Moghani (n=18 and Ghezel*Baluchi (n=6. Dietary barley grains at the levels of 50 and 100 percent were replaced with RW and along with control group (no RW compromised experimental treatments.. Experimental diets were offered three times daily at 6.00, 14.00 and 20.00 hours. Dry matter intake was not significantly different between the treatments. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were differ between sexes. Weight gain of male and female lambs during the fattening period was 250.3 and 171.6 g/day respectively. Replacement of barley grain with RW in the 3rd treatment significantly affected ruminal pH, N-NH3 and total volatile fatty acids content and fecal pH, as well as blood glucose and BUN comparing the control group. Replacement of RW with barley grain at levels of 50 and 100 percent reduced cost of the live weight gain up to 24 and 37.7 percent respectively versus control diet.

  13. Effect of Soil Erosion on Spring Barley Growth in East Anglia,England:Preliminary Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUXI-XI; Y.BIOT

    1994-01-01

    The effect of soil erosion on spring barley growth was studied on a deep loamy soil in East Anglia,England,in 1992,Soil erosion was simulated by three levels of soil desurfacing,7.5,18and 30cm with three replicates.Significant differences in crop height,ground cover and crop yield were observed between the three levels of desurfacing.Soil desurfacing also has a singnificant effect on soil moisture at the 20cm depth.The interaction between soil removal and crop performance affected soil moisture at the depths of 50 and 100cm,No significant differences were found in runoff and sediment etween the three topsoil removals due to very dry growing season.Regression equations were developed between spring barley yield and soil desurfacing Spring barley grain yield declined by 97.6kg/ha per cm soil desurfacing.

  14. Drying kinetics of barley grains and effects on the germination index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Aparecida Bomfim SOARES

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to assess the drying kinetics of barley grains and, using mathematical modeling, to evaluate the diffusivity during drying and after drying to evaluate the effect of high drying temperatures on the seed germination index for malt production. Three drying temperatures 40, 60 and 80°C were used. The last two, 60 and 80°C, reached moisture close to ideal for storage with 6 and 4 hours respectively; at 40°C, drying process took 12 hours and would still take additional hours to reach 13% moisture on a dry basis. Drying temperature influenced the germination power. The protein content was reduced according to increased drying time. The diffusivity coefficient was higher in conventional than in intermittent drying, probably due to heat loss in the intermittent process. It was observed that higher the temperature higher is the diffusivity. Ks values of the Omoto model ranged from 1.07 to 2.05E-4.

  15. Purification, characterization and stability of barley grain peroxidase BP1, a new type of plant peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christine B; Henriksen, Anette; Abelskov, A. Katrine

    1997-01-01

    The major peroxidase of barley grain (BP 1) has enzymatic and spectroscopic properties that are very differeant from those of other known plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) and can therefore contribute to the understanding of the many physiological functions ascribed to these enzymes. To study...... the structure-function relationships of this unique model peroxidase, large-scale and laboratory-scale purifications have been developed. The two batches of pure BP 1 obtained were identical in their enzymatic and spectral properties, and confirmed that BP 1 is different from the prototypical horseradish...... peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRP C). However, when measuring the specific activity of BP 1 at pH 4.0 in the presence of 1 mM CaCl2, the enzyme was as competent as HRP C at neutral pH towards a variety of substrates (mM mg(-1) min(-1)): coniferyl alcohol (930+/-48), caffeic acid (795+/-53), ABTS (2,2(1)-azino...

  16. A roadmap for zinc trafficking in the developing barley grain based on laser capture microdissection and gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauris, Birgitte; Borg, Søren; Gregersen, Per L;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression...... profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the ‘laser capture microdissection' technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification...... were taken into account. On the basis of the expression levels of a number of metal homeostasis genes, a working model is proposed for the translocation of zinc from the phloem to the storage sites in the developing grain....

  17. Microwave irradiation induced changes in protein molecular structures of barley grains: relationship to changes in protein chemical profile, protein subfractions, and digestion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaogang; Khan, Nazir A; Zhang, Fangyu; Yang, Ling; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate microwave irradiation (MIR) induced changes in crude protein (CP) subfraction profiles, ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP), and protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains. Samples from hulled (n = 1) and hulless cultivars (n = 2) of barley, harvested from four replicate plots in two consecutive years, were evaluated. The samples were either kept as raw or irradiated in a microwave for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). Compared to raw grains, MIR5 decreased the contents of rapidly degradable CP subfraction (from 45.22 to 6.36% CP) and the ruminal degradation rate (from 8.16 to 3.53%/h) of potentially degradable subfraction. As a consequence, the effective ruminal degradability of CP decreased (from 55.70 to 34.08% CP) and RUP supply (from 43.31 to 65.92% CP) to the postruminal tract increased. The MIR decreased the spectral intensities of amide 1, amide II, α-helix, and β-sheet and increased their ratios. The changes in protein spectral intensities were strongly correlated with the changes in CP subfractions and digestive kinetics. These results show that MIR for a short period (5 min) with a lower energy input can improve the nutritive value and utilization of CP in barely grains.

  18. The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains.

  19. Barley HvHMA1 is a heavy metal pump involved in mobilizing organellar Zn and Cu and plays a role in metal loading into grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dalgaard Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P(1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P(1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated the properties of HvHMA1, which is a barley orthologue of Arabidopsis thaliana AtHMA1 localized to the chloroplast envelope. HvHMA1 was localized to the periphery of chloroplast of leaves and in intracellular compartments of grain aleurone cells. HvHMA1 expression was significantly higher in grains compared to leaves. In leaves, HvHMA1 expression was moderately induced by Zn deficiency, but reduced by toxic levels of Zn, Cu and Cd. Isolated barley chloroplasts exported Zn and Cu when supplied with Mg-ATP and this transport was inhibited by the AtHMA1 inhibitor thapsigargin. Down-regulation of HvHMA1 by RNA interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling and germination.

  20. Caspase-like activities accompany programmed cell death events in developing barley grains.

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    Van Tran

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death is essential part of development and cell homeostasis of any multicellular organism. We have analyzed programmed cell death in developing barley caryopsis at histological, biochemical and molecular level. Caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities increased with aging of pericarp coinciding with abundance of TUNEL positive nuclei and expression of HvVPE4 and HvPhS2 genes in the tissue. TUNEL-positive nuclei were also detected in nucellus and nucellar projection as well as in embryo surrounding region during early caryopsis development. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of micro-dissected grain tissues revealed the expression of HvVPE2a, HvVPE2b, HvVPE2d, HvPhS2 and HvPhS3 genes exclusively in the nucellus/nucellar projection. The first increase in cascade of caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities in the endosperm fraction may be related to programmed cell death in the nucellus and nucellar projection. The second increase of all above caspase-like activities including of caspase-9-like was detected in the maturating endosperm and coincided with expression of HvVPE1 and HvPhS1 genes as well as with degeneration of nuclei in starchy endosperm and transfer cells. The distribution of the TUNEL-positive nuclei, tissues-specific expression of genes encoding proteases with potential caspase activities and cascades of caspase-like activities suggest that each seed tissue follows individual pattern of development and disintegration, which however harmonizes with growth of the other tissues in order to achieve proper caryopsis development.

  1. The detection of QTLs in barley associated with endosperm hardness, grain density, grain size and malting quality using rapid phenotyping tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra K; Ford, Rebecca; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Panozzo, Joe F

    2013-10-01

    Using a barley mapping population, 'Vlamingh' × 'Buloke' (V × B), whole grain analyses were undertaken for physical seed traits and malting quality. Grain density and size were predicted by digital image analysis (DIA), while malt extract and protein content were predicted using near infrared (NIR) analysis. Validation of DIA and NIR algorithms confirmed that data for QTL analysis was highly correlated (R (2) > 0.82), with high RPD values (the ratio of the standard error of prediction to the standard deviation, 2.31-9.06). Endosperm hardness was measured on this mapping population using the single kernel characterisation system. Grain density and endosperm hardness were significantly inter-correlated in all three environments (r > 0.22, P hardness QTLs were found on 1H, 5H, and 7H. In this study, the majority of the genomic regions associated with grain texture were also coincident with QTLs for grain size, yield, flowering date and/or plant development genes. This study highlights the complexity of genomic regions associated with the variation of endosperm hardness and grain density, and their relationships with grain size traits, agronomic-related traits, and plant development loci.

  2. Effect of different doses of post-emergence-applied iodosulfuron on weed control and grain yield of malt barley (Hordeum distichum L., under Mediterranean conditions

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    Barros José Calado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out over a two year period (2009/2010 and 2012/2013 on an experimental farm in the Alentejo region (Beja, in southern Portugal where rainfed malt barley (Hordeum distichum L. is sown at the end of autumn or beginning of winter (November- December. The aim of this experiment was to study the efficiency of the herbicide iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium to control post-emergence broadleaved weeds in this cereal crop. The malt barley crop was established using no-till farming. This technology provides the necessary machine bearing capacity of the soil to assure the post-emergence application of herbicides at two different weed development stages. The herbicide iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied at three doses (5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 g a. i. · ha-1 and at two different broadleaved weed development stages (3 to 4 and 6 to 7 pairs of leaves, that also corresponded to two different crop development stages (beginning of tillering and complete tillering. The results indicated that early herbicide application timing provided a significantly higher efficiency for all the applied herbicide doses, but this better weed control was not reflected in a higher crop grain yield. The lack of a higher crop grain yield was probably due to a crop phytotoxicity of the herbicide, when used at an early application timing.

  3. Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus johnsonii , and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Anastasia S; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; Sigl, Stefanie; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrøm, Stefan

    2012-06-27

    The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the dietary phenolic acids in flours from whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting high feruloyl esterase activity (FAE). The highest increase of free phenolic acids was observed after fermentation with three probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, with maximum increases from 2.55 to 69.91 μg g(-1) DM and from 4.13 to 109.42 μg g(-1) DM in whole grain barley and oat groat, respectively. Interestingly, higher amounts of bound phenolic acids were detected after both water treatment and LAB fermentation in whole grain barley, indicating higher bioaccessibility, whereas some decrease was detected in oat groat. To conclude, cereal fermentation with specific probiotic strains can lead to significant increase of free phenolic acids, thereby improving their bioavailability.

  4. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products.

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    Carla Ibáñez

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day. The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL, another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH. After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average. No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05 fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75. Pentadecanoic acid (15:0 and heptadecanoic acid (17:0 were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average. Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance.

  5. Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers’ Grains in Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, M.; Shao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers’ grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (p<0.05), and lower butyric acid content and ammonia-N/total N (p<0.05) as compared with the control. These results indicated that WHDG additions not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria, but also resulted in faster and greatly enhanced LA production and pH value decline, which restricted activity of undesirable bacteria, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the silages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (p<0.05) higher than that of the control. In conclusion, the addition of WHDG increased the fermentation and nutritive quality of straw-grass silage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%. PMID:25049588

  6. The effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from different qualities of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Hansen, Preben Bøje;

    Barley sorting is an important step for picking up grain of desired quality. Whilst brewing with 100% sorted barley (picked high quality) has become realistic with the addition of exogenous enzymes, the effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from un-sorted barley (mixed) and sorted...... filterability, the Ondea® Pro treatment resulted in significantly lower turbidity and smaller particle size compared to Cellic® CTec2; however, this effect was observed in sorted and un-sorted barley but not in sorted-out barley. Consequently the un-sorted barley demonstrated great potential in brewing process...

  7. Barley metallothioneins: MT3 and MT4 are localized in the grain aleurone layer and show differential zinc binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2012-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on recombinant MT3 and MT4, their specificity and capacity for metal ion binding were quantified, showing a strong preferential Zn binding relative to Cu and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations.

  8. A pathway-specific microarray analysis highlights the complex and co-ordinated transcriptional networks of the developing grain of field-grown barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Friis, Carsten; Bowra, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the molecular and biochemical interactions associated with amino acid biosynthesis and storage protein accumulation in the developing grains of field-grown barley. Our strategy was to analyse the transcription of genes associated with the biosynthesis of stora...

  9. Expression of the Arabidopsis vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) improves the shoot biomass of transgenic barley and increases grain yield in a saline field

    KAUST Repository

    Schilling, Rhiannon K.

    2013-11-22

    Cereal varieties with improved salinity tolerance are needed to achieve profitable grain yields in saline soils. The expression of AVP1, an Arabidopsis gene encoding a vacuolar proton pumping pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase), has been shown to improve the salinity tolerance of transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions. However, the potential for this gene to improve the grain yield of cereal crops in a saline field has yet to be evaluated. Recent advances in high-throughput nondestructive phenotyping technologies also offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the growth of transgenic plants under abiotic stress through time. In this study, the growth of transgenic barley expressing AVP1 was evaluated under saline conditions in a pot experiment using nondestructive plant imaging and in a saline field trial. Greenhouse-grown transgenic barley expressing AVP1 produced a larger shoot biomass compared to segregants, as determined by an increase in projected shoot area, when grown in soil with 150 mm NaCl. This increase in shoot biomass of transgenic AVP1 barley occurred from an early growth stage and also in nonsaline conditions. In a saline field, the transgenic barley expressing AVP1 also showed an increase in shoot biomass and, importantly, produced a greater grain yield per plant compared to wild-type plants. Interestingly, the expression of AVP1 did not alter barley leaf sodium concentrations in either greenhouse- or field-grown plants. This study validates our greenhouse-based experiments and indicates that transgenic barley expressing AVP1 is a promising option for increasing cereal crop productivity in saline fields. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Exploring the Plant–Microbe Interface by Profiling the Surface-Associated Proteins of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    -associated proteins and xylanolytic activities of two barley cultivars. The surface-associated proteome was dominated by plant proteins with roles in defense and stress-responses, while the relatively less abundant microbial (bacterial and fungal) proteins were involved in cell-wall and polysaccharide degradation...... and included xylanases. The surface-associated proteomes showed elevated xylanolytic activity and contained several xylanases. Integration of proteomics with enzyme assays is a powerful tool for analysis and characterization of the interaction between microbial consortia and plants in their natural environment....

  11. Barley Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as Feedstock for Production of Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Wal, van der H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) represent important co-product from commercial yeast fermentations, including bioethanol, from grains. In view of the current expansion of the bioethanol fermentation process, with the concomitant increase in production of DDGS, alternative applications t

  12. Inositol phosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatzack, F.; Hübel, F.; Zhang, W.

    2001-01-01

    Inositolphosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants and their parent variety were analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR. Compound assignment was carried out by comparison of retention times using a chemical hydrolysate of phytate [Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P(6)] as a reference; Co......-inciding retention times indicated the presence of phytate, D/L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P(5), Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(6), D/L-(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), D/L-(1,2,3,4)P(4), D/L-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4) and D/L-Ins(1,4,5,6)P(4) in PLP1B mutants as well as the parent variety. In grain extracts from mutant lines PLP1A, PLP2A and PLP3A unusual...... accumulations of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) were observed whereas phytate and the above-mentioned inositol phosphates were present in relatively small amounts. Assignment of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) was corroborated by precise co-chromatography with a commercial Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) standard and by NMR spectroscopy. Analysis...

  13. Drought stress effects on the grain yield among different barley cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshadi Aram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined commercial barley cultivars in two sequential growing season by including irrigation and rainfed conditions under a randomized complete block experimental design. There were positive and significant correlations between the yeild and either of the indices including Mean productivity (MP, Stress Tolerance Index (STI, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP, Harmonic Mean Productivity (HMP, and Mean Relative Performance (MRP in both irrigated and drought conditions. The PC1 and PC2 justified 94.86 and 94.44% of total variation in the first year and second year, respectively. According to 3-dimensional diagram and based on STI, genotypes 2, 3, and 8 in the first year and gentypes 4, 3, 8, and 2 in the second year were clustered together in group A, and therefore, called the most tolerant cultivars to drought stress.

  14. Combining functional features of whole-grain barley and legumes for dietary reduction of cardiometabolic risk: a randomised cross-over intervention in mature women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Juscelino; Nilsson, Anne; Johansson, Maria; Björck, Inger

    2014-02-01

    The usefulness of dietary strategies against cardiometabolic risk is increasingly being acknowledged. Legumes and whole grains can modulate risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases, but their possible additive/synergistic actions are unknown. The objective of the present study was to assess, in healthy subjects, the effect of a diet including specific whole-grain barley products and legumes with prior favourable outcomes on cardiometabolic risk parameters in semi-acute studies. A total of forty-six overweight women (50-72 years, BMI 25-33 kg/m² and normal fasting glycaemia) participated in a randomised cross-over intervention comparing a diet rich in kernel-based barley products, brown beans and chickpeas (D1, diet 1 (functional diet)) with a control diet (D2, diet 2 (control diet)) of similar macronutrient composition but lacking legumes and barley. D1 included 86 g (as eaten)/d brown beans, 82 g/d chickpeas, 58 g/d whole-grain barley kernels and 216 g/d barley kernel bread. Both diets followed the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, providing similar amounts of dietary fibre (D1: 46·9 g/d; D2: 43·5 g/d), with wheat-based products as the main fibre supplier in D2. Each diet was consumed for 4 weeks under weight-maintenance conditions. Both diets decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels, but D1 had a greater effect on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels (Plegume diet improves cardiometabolic risk-associated biomarkers in a healthy cohort, showing potential preventive value beyond that of a nutritionally well-designed regimen.

  15. Comparative effect of salinity on ion accumulation, grain yield and stability salt tolerance degree of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in different growth stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdennaceur Ben Khaled

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, excess salts in agricultural land can limit crop production. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is one of the most salt tolerant crop species. This study was conducted to determine the effects of salinity on seed germination, mineral content and yield production of 14 barley accessions from two regions in the Southern Tunisia. First experiment was conducted in laboratory to test the effect of nine levels of NaCl concentrations in different germination parameter. Second experiments were conducted in a greenhouse. The accessions were grown in soil and exposed to three salinity levels. Salinity decreased significantly the germination rate and the germination rate index for all accessions. Na+ content, total dry matter and grain yield vary significantly with increasing salinity levels. The degree of tolerance varies between accessions in the different growth stage. A significant correlation were observed between ranking using grain yield and multivariate parameter. The tolerance degree based in germination rate and Na+ content don’t present significant correlation with yield ranking. Therefore, ranking using multivariate parameter can be the appropriate method to analysis the tolerance degree of barley under saline conditions. The differences response between accessions of local population of barley “Ardhaoui” reflected an important internal genetic variability against the salinity. This variability could be more explored and used for the barley breeding program. The accessions Ettalah, Chneni Tatouine and Elhezma showed more salt tolerance at 13 dS/m as indicated by the multivariate ranking using germination rate, Na+ content and grain yield.

  16. Co-fermentation of hemicellulose and starch from barley straw and grain for efficient pentoses utilization in acetone-butanol-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Zhang, Junhua; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to efficiently use hemicellulose-based biomass for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production by co-fermentation with starch-based biomass. Two processes were investigated: (I) co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and starch in a mixture of barley straw and grain that was pretreated with dilute acid; (II) co-fermentation of straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate and gelatinized grain slurry in which the straw was pretreated with dilute acid. The two processes produced 11.3 and 13.5 g/L ABE that contains 7.4 and 7.8 g/L butanol, respectively. In process I, pretreatment with 1.0% H2SO4 resulted in better ABE fermentability than with 1.5% H2SO4, but only 19% of pentoses were consumed. In process II, 95% of pentoses were utilized even in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreated with more severe condition (1.5% H2SO4). The results suggest that process II is more favorable for hemicellulosic biomass utilization, and it is also attractive for sustainable biofuel production due to great biomass availability.

  17. Vitro-antioxidative activity of polyphenol from barley spent grains%大麦糟多酚体外抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅进; 丁文平; 刘航; 庄坤; 张轩

    2015-01-01

    用不同方法评价了大麦糟多酚的抗氧化活性,如测定大麦糟多酚的还原能力、羟基自由基、超氧阴离子自由基以及DPPH自由基的清除能力。试验结果表明,大麦糟多酚清除羟基自由基、超氧阴离子自由基和DPPH自由基的能力较强,大麦糟多酚精提取液的半抑制浓度(IC50)分别为4.132、89.504、15.304μg/ml ,而粗提取液的半抑制浓度分别为87.408、113.795、26.873μg/m l;在测定大麦糟多酚的还原能力试验中,当吸光值为0.6时,儿茶素、V C、大麦糟多酚精提取液和粗提取液的质量浓度分别为48.8、54.8、44.1和72.9μg/m l ,大麦糟多酚精提取液体外抗氧化能力明显优于儿茶素、VC和粗提取液。%The antioxidant activity of barley spent gains was investigated with different methods .The reductive ability and the scavenging of hydroxy free radical ,superoxide anion free radical ,DPPH free radical of barley spent gains polyphenols were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity .Results demonstrated that polyphenol from barley spent grains showed high scaven‐ging activity of hydroxyl radical ,superoxide anion radical and DPPH radical ,the concentrations for 50% inhibition of essence extract were 4 .132 ,89 .504 ,15 .304μg/ml ,respectively ,the concentrations for 50% inhibition of crude extract were 87 .408 , 113 .795 ,26 .873 μg/ml ,respectively .In the determination of the reducing ability of barley spent gains polyphenols ,w hen the absorbance was at 0 .6 ,the mass concentration of catechin ,vitamin C ,essence extract and crude extract were 48 .8 ,54 .8 ,44 .1 and 72 .9 μg/ml ,respectively .The essence extract of polyphenol from barley spent gains was higher than catechin ,vitamin C and crude extract in vitro‐antioxidative activity .

  18. Field studies on the regulation of abscisic acid content and germinability during grain development of barley: molecular and chemical analysis of pre-harvest sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Honda, Ichiro; Shinoda, Shoko; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Yuji; Nambara, Eiji; Kawakami, Naoto; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) content was related to germinability during grain development, two cDNAs for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) and one cDNA for ABA 8'-hydroxylase (HvCYP707A1), which are enzymes thought to catalyse key regulatory steps in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively, were cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Expression and ABA-quantification analysis in embryo revealed that HvNCED2 is responsible for a significant increase in ABA levels during the early to middle stages of grain development, and HvCYP707A1 is responsible for a rapid decrease in ABA level thereafter. The change in the embryonic ABA content of imbibing grains following dormancy release is likely to reflect changes in the expression patterns of HvNCEDs and HvCYP707A1. A major change between dormant and after-ripened grains occurred in HvCYP707A1; the increased expression of HvCYP707A1 in response to imbibition, followed by a rapid ABA decrease and a high germination percentage, was observed in the after-ripened grains, but not in the dormant grains. Under field conditions, HvNCED2 showed the same expression level and pattern during grain development in 2002, 2003, and 2004, indicating that HvNCED2 expression is regulated in a growth-dependent manner in the grains. By contrast, HvNCED1 and HvCYP707A1 showed a different expression pattern in each year, indicating that the expression of these genes is affected by environmental conditions during grain development. The varied expression levels of these genes during grain development and imbibition, which would have effects on the activity of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, might be reflected, in part, in the germinability in field-grown barley.

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  20. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  1. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  2. A semidwarf phenotype of barley uzu results from a nucleotide substitution in the gene encoding a putative brassinosteroid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Saisho, Daisuke; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Takatsuto, Suguru; Hoshino, Tsuguhiro; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-11-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles throughout plant growth and development. Despite the importance of clarifying the mechanism of BR-related growth regulation in cereal crops, BR-related cereal mutants have been identified only in rice (Oryza sativa). We previously found that semidwarf barley (Hordeum vulgare) accessions carrying the "uzu" gene, called "uzu" barley in Japan, are non-responding for brassinolide (BL). We then performed chemical and molecular analyses to clarify the mechanisms of uzu dwarfism using isogenic line pairs of uzu gene. The response of the uzu line to BL was significantly lower than that of its corresponding normal line. Measurement of BRs showed that the uzu line accumulates BRs, similar to known BR-insensitive mutants. The marker synteny of rice and barley chromosomes suggests that the uzu gene may be homologous to rice D61, a rice homolog of Arabidopsis BR-insensitive 1 (BRI1), encoding a BR-receptor protein. A barley homolog of BRI1, HvBRI1, was isolated by using degenerate primers. A comparison of HvBRI1 sequences in uzu and normal barley varieties showed that the uzu phenotype is correlated with a single nucleotide substitution. This substitution results in an amino acid change at a highly conserved residue in the kinase domain of the BR-receptor protein. These results may indicate that uzu dwarfism is caused by the missense mutation in HvBRI1. The uzu gene is being introduced into all hull-less barley cultivars in Japan as an effective dwarf gene for practical use, and this is the first report about an agronomically important mutation related to BRs.

  3. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn;

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein concentra......In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein...

  4. New 3DXRD results on recrystallization and grain growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; West, Stine; Poulsen, Stefan Othmar;

    2012-01-01

    New in-situ 3DXRD results obtained since the last Rex&GG conference are presented and discussed. This includes: Documentation of the formation of nuclei with new orientations, determination of apparent activation energies for individual bulk grains during recrystallization and evolution in the 3D...... microstructure during grain growth...

  5. Effect of inclusion of distillers dried grains and solubles from barley, wheat and corn in isonutritive diets on the performance and caecal environment of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alagón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate how the dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS could affect the performance and caecal environment of growing rabbits, four experimental diets were formulated from a control diet without DDGS (C, including 20% of barley DDGS (Db20, 20% of wheat DDGS (Dw20 and 20 (Dc20 or 40% (Dc40 of corn DDGS. Animals had free access to medicated versions of the diets until 49 d, and then to unmedicated diets until 59 d of age. The performance trial was done using 475 three-way crossbred weaned rabbits of 28 d of age, individually housed in 5 batches. Caecal fermentation traits were determined in 20 animals per diet and at 42 d and at 59 d of age. No significant effect of the growing diet on mortality, morbidity or sanitary risk index was observed. In the whole period and respect to the control group, animals fed with Db20 showed higher dry matter (DM and digestible energy (DE intake (+6 and +12%, respectively; P<0.05, but similar daily weight gain (DWG and increased feed conversion ratio (+9%; P<0.05. Similarly, and regardless of its inclusion level, the increase in DE intake of animals fed with corn DDGS (+9, respectively; P<0.05 did not increase DWG. In contrast, higher DM and DE intake of animals fed with Dw20 (+8; P<0.05 resulted in a higher DWG (+2.8 g/d; P<0.05 than those fed with C. Although inclusion of DDGS at 20% did not affected main caecal parameters controlled at 42 d, caecum of animals fed with the diet Dc40 was characterized by greater N-NH3 and valeric acid and lower total volatile fatty acids and acetic acid concentrations than the average of the other groups (on av. +5.2±1.7 mmol/L, +0.29±0.07 mol/100 mol, –17.17±4.41 μmol/L and –2.60±0.99 mol/100 mol, respectively; P<0.05. At 59 d of age, higher caecal DM, and propionic and valeric acid concentration and lower values of total volatile fatty acids and acetic/propionic rate were observed for DDGS inclusion at 20% compared to the control (+1

  6. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was us

  7. High moisture airtight storage of barley and triticale: Effect of moisture level and grain processing on nitrogen and phosphorus solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    moisture levels (20, 23, 26 and 29% moisture) and to compare HMA storage of cereals with dry storage for 49 days. Dry stored barley and triticale (10 and 13% moisture, respectively) were kept in 10 L plastic buckets for 0 and 49 days. HMA stored cereals were kept in airtight bags (400 g per bag) at 15 °C...

  8. Strengths and Limitations of Operational Use of 1 Km EO Biophysical Products for Regional Prediction of Grain Yelds in Europe (wheat, barley and maize)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, M.; LEO, O.; Lopez-Lozano, R.; Baruth, B.; Duveiller, G.; Garcia-Condado, S.; Hooker, J.; Seguini, L.

    2014-12-01

    The site-specific relationship between EO indicators and actual crop yields has been explored in many different studies, describing semi-empirical regression models between spatially aggregated biophysical parameters or vegetation indices and observed yields (from field measurements or official statistics). However, when considering larger extensions -from countries to continents- agro-climatic conditions and crop management may differ substantially among regions, and these differences may greatly influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and the observed yields, which may be also driven by limiting factors other than green biomass formation. The present study aims to better assess the contribution of EO indicators within an operational crop yield forecasting system in Europe and neighbouring countries, by evaluating how these above mentioned geographic differences influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and crop yield. We therefore explore, as a first step, the correspondence between fAPAR time-series (1999-2013) and the inter-annual yield variability of wheat, barley and grain maize, at sub-national level across Europe (270-450 Administrative Units, depending on crop). In a second step, we map the agro-climatic contexts in which EO indicators better explain the observed yield inter-annual variability, identify the influence of some meteorological events on the fAPAR -yield relationship and provide some recommendations for further investigation. The results indicate that in water-limited environments (e.g. Mediterranean and Black Sea areas), fAPAR is highly correlated with yields whereas in northern Europe, crop yield appears much less limited by leaf area expansion along the season, and the relationship between yield and EO products becomes more difficult to interpret.

  9. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus.

  10. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part I. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during ripening of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was followed in ripening wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne seeds. In the investigated ontogenesis period the content in the seeds of total and acid-soluble phosphorus doubled. The phosphorus of free phytin and phytin that bound with proteins increased to the end of maturation. In dormant seeds the contribution of phosphorus bound with phytin was 62-70 per cent of total P. As the seeds ripened, the content of inorganic and nucleotides-P decreased, while that of saccharides-P and their metabolites started to decrease from the moment of wax ripeness. Later RNA-P and DNA-P level decreased only slight.ly and that of lipids-P markedly. Phosphoproteid content diminished at the beginning of ripening and further remained at almost the same level. Wheat, barley and rye seed exhibited similar dynamics of metabolically active (nucleotides, saccharide-P esters and their metabolites, functional (nucleic acids and structural (phospholipids phosphorus compounds. Accumulation of storage forms (phytin of phosphorus was higher in wheat and successively lower in rye and barley.

  11. HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Toni; Holme, Inger; Dockter, Christoph; Preuß, Aileen; Thomas, William; Waugh, Robbie; Braumann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv.) Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield. PMID:28005988

  12. Differential gene expression for suicide-substrate serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in vegetative and grain tissues of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, T.H.; Marttila, S.; Rasmussen, S.K.;

    2003-01-01

    Proteins of the serpin superfamily (similar to43 kDa) from mature cereal grains are in vitro suicide-substrate inhibitors of specific mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family. However, unlike the 'standard-mechanism' serine proteinase inhibitors (

  13. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN ON PHENOLIC ACID AND PROTEIN CONTENT IN BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L. ) GRAIN%氮素对大麦籽粒中酚酸和蛋白质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥军; 齐军仓; 贾力群; 王倩; 王琴; 马建峰; 王仙; 曹连莆

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the necessary nutrient elements for crop growth. The primary and secondary metabolisms of plant are regulated by nitrogen nutrient levels. As important secondary metabolites, phenolic acids play significant roles in plant resistances, and potentially contribute to barley qualities. However, little is known concerning effects of nitrogen on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ) phenolic acids. In the present study, two barley cultivars were used, and seven nitrogen concentration treatments (0,412.5, 825.0, 1237.5, 1650, 3300, and 4950mg/L, respectively) under in vitro spike culture were conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen on phenolic acid and protein contents in barley grain. Results showed that the development of barley grain was inhibited under high nitrogen levels (3300 ~ 4950mg/L), and grain weight decreasing significantly was as the response. Total hydroxybenzoic acid content (THBA), total hydroxycinnamic acid content (THCA), total phenolic acid content (TPA) and THBA/THCA ratio were all significantly affected by nitrogen concentration, cultivar and the interaction between nitrogen concentration and cultivar. Four indexes above were all significantly positively correlated with nitrogen concentration. Except for hordein content ( HC ), the protein indexes of crude protein content (CPC), salt-soluble protein content (SSPC), and glutelin content (GC) were all significantly affected by nitrogen concentration, moreover, SSPC and GC were significantly affected by cultivar and the interaction between nitrogen concentration and cultivar. Excluding HC and GC in the four indexes, CPC and SSPC were significantly positive-correlated with nitrogen concentration. The results also indicated that phenolic acid contents (including THBA, THCA, and TPA) in barley grain increased cooperated with CPC and SSPC when the nitrogen nutrient level went up.%采用穗培养技术在7个氮素(NH4NO3为氮源)浓度水平(N1:0mg/L;N2:412.5 mg/L;N3:825.0mg/L;N4

  14. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. II. Grain growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Araus, J.L.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean areas, grain growth of temperate cereals often progresses under the harmful influence of drought and high temperature. Genotypic responses are mediated by the specific occurrence of these constraints, thus causing genotype by environment (G × E) interaction. Field experiments were c

  15. Differential appearance of isoforms and cultivar variation in protein temporal profiles revealed in the maturing barley grain proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    -peroxiredoxin isoform was identified in three spots, one present throughout grain filling, one appearing during desiccation and one observed only in mature seeds. This suggested post-translational modification of the protein to different degrees during seed maturation. Distinct isoforms of several proteins were...

  16. Reproductive performance of reindeer fed all-grain and hay-grain rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Blanchard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance of grain-fed reindeer {Rangifer tarandus was evaluated over a 2-year period. Groups of pregnant reindeer were fed one of three rations, (1 100% whole-grain barley, (2 98.9% whole-grain barley and 1.2% mineral and trace element supplement, and (3 70% whole-grain barley and 30% finely-chopped bluegrass hay. Reindeer fed unsupplemented whole-barley failed to produce a single live calf. The addition of mineral and trace element supplement to the ration did not result in any significant improvement in reproductive performance. Eighty-five percent of the reindeer consuming unsupplemented and supplemented all-barley rations became pregnant; however, 76% of the pregnancies resulted in stillborn calves. One-hundred percent of the cows maintained on the grain/hay ration produced live calves. We speculate that reproductive failure in reindeer cows maintained on all-grain rations is most likely a result of a diet induced disfunction in maternal rumen and/or carbohydrate metabolism rather than a micro-nutrient deficiency. More research is neeeded to determine which metabolic pathways are affected.

  17. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on protein quality/quantity and Zn content of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Lange, Mette; Schjørring, Jan Kofod;

    2011-01-01

    it is estimated that nearly half of the world’s population, primarily children and women in the developing world, suffer from zinc deficiency as they live on a diet that mostly is based on cereals and other starch-rich staples that have a quite low Zn content and with poor zinc bioavailability. The rise...... the increases of yield is primarily in the form of starch there will be a “dilution” of other nutrients like minerals and proteins in the grain with severe consequences for the nutrition of human and livestock Although the nutritional short-comings could be met by using higher amounts of nitrogen and mineral...... fertilizer it would increase nitrogen and mineral load (in particular for zinc in areas with intensive pig production) so this strategy may not be warranted. Alternative approaches to increase grain Zn content are to create transgenic lines that accumulate more Zn or to exploit natural variation in zinc...

  18. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  19. Distinct developmental defense activations in barley embryos identified by transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, ME; Lok, F; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    analyses of > 22,000 genes, which together with measurements of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid during embryo development provide new information on the initiation in the developing barley embryo of at least two distinct types of developmental defense activation (DDA). Early DDA is characterized by the up......-regulation of several PR genes is notable. Throughout barley embryo development, there are no indications of an increased biosynthesis of either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Collectively, the results help explain how the proposed DDA enables protection of the developing barley embryo and grain for purposes...

  20. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopade Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

  1. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  2. Yield and yield structure of spring barley (Hodeum vulgare L. grown in monoculture after different stubble crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2006- 2008 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The experimental factor was the type of stubble crop ploughed in each year after harvest of spring barley: white mustard, lacy phacelia, winter rape, and a mixture of narrow-leaf lupin with field pea. In the experiment, successive spring barley crops were grown one after the other (in continuous monoculture. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of stubble crops used on the size and structure of barley yield. The three-year study showed an increasing trend in grain yield of spring barley grown after the mixture of legumes, lacy phacelia, and white mustard compared to its size in the treatment with no cover crop. Straw yield was significantly higher when barley was grown after the mixture of narrowleaf lupin with field pea than in the other treatments of the experiment. The type of ploughed-in stubble crop did not modify significantly plant height, ear length, and grain weight per ear. Growing the mixture of leguminous plants as a cover crop resulted in a significant increase in the density of ears per unit area in barley by an average of 14.7% relative to the treatment with winter rape. The experiment also showed the beneficial effect of the winter rape cover crop on 1000-grain weight of spring barley compared to that obtained in the treatments with white mustard and the mixture of legumes. All the cover crops caused an increase in the number of grains per ear of barley relative to that found in the control treatment. However, this increase was statistically proven only for the barley crops grown after lacy phacelia and the mixture of legumes.

  3. Controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e rendimento de grãos em cevada após aplicação de elicitores e fungicida = Bipolaris sorokiniana control and grain yield in barley after application of elicitors and fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemir Antoniazzi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mancha marrom causada pelo fungo Bipolaris sorokiniana é considerada um dos problemas fitossanitários mais importantes na cevada provocando reduções na produtividade e prejuízos na qualidade cervejeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos elicitores goma xantana e alicina e do fungicida epoxiconazole + piraclostrobina no controle da mancha marrom em cevada cervejeira, cultivar BRS 195 em dois ciclos de cultivo. O experimento foi conduzido na Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FAPA, em Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, comquatro repetições. A aplicação de elicitores e fungicida resultou em maior peso de mil sementes, sem interferir no teor de proteínas e na classificação comercial. O rendimento de grãos foi superior após duas ou três aplicações de alicina. A incidência e severidade de B.sorokiniana nas folhas de plantas tratadas com elicitores foram semelhantes àquelas com fungicida.The disease spot blotch, caused by the fungi Bipolaris sorokiniana, is considered one of the most important phytosanitary problems ofbarley crop resulting on low productivity and damage on beer quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the elicitors xanthan gum and alicin and fungicide epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin on spot blotch control of barley cultivar BRS 195 during two cultivation cycles. The experiment was carried out at Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FAPA, Guarapuava, state of Paraná. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks, with four replications. Treatment of barley plants withelicitors and fungicide resulted in higher thousand-seed weight without interfering on protein content and commercial classification. The grain yield increased after two or three alicin treatments. Bipolaris sorokiniana incidence and severety on the leaves of plants treated with elicitors were similar to those treated with fungicide.

  4. High grain diets perturb rumen and plasma metabolites and induce inflammatory responses in early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Ametaj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Immediately after parturition dairy cows are fed diets containing high proportions of grain which are associated with high incidence of metabolic disorders. However, the reason behind these effects is not clear. The goal of this study was to investigate metabolic and immune responses of early postpartum dairy cows to feeding increasing proportions of barley grain in the diet. Rumen endotoxin content increased several fold and rumen fluid pH was lower in cows fed the highest amount of barley grain. Results indicate that feeding high proportions of barley grain in early lactation dairy cows was associated with induction of an acute phase response and changes in multiple plasma metabolites. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanism(s by which feeding of barley grain causes disturbances in plasma metabolites and stimulates an inflammatory response in dairy cows.

  5. Effect of adding wet hulless barley distillers' grains on fermentation quality of mixed ensilage of hulless barley straw and tall fescue in Tibet%添加青稞酒糟对西藏地区青稞秸秆和高羊茅混合青贮发酵品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原现军; 余成群; 李志华; 下条雅敬; 邵涛

    2012-01-01

    为评价添加不同水平青稞酒糟对青稞秸秆与高羊茅(4∶6)混合青贮发酵品质的影响,试验设对照组( Control)和3个添加水平(10%,20%和30%)的青稞酒糟处理组,青贮后第7,14和30天后打开青贮窖,测定青贮饲料发酵品质.结果表明,添加青稞酒糟可以抑制青贮早期好氧性微生物的活性,促进乳酸发酵,使pH值快速下降,青贮饲料快速进入稳定阶段.青贮30 d后,与对照组相比酒糟处理显著降低(P<0.05)了青贮饲料的pH值,提高了乳酸和水溶性碳水化合物含量,降低了(P<0.05)氨态氮/总氮及丙酸和丁酸含量.综合考虑,添加20%酒糟效果更佳.%The effect of adding wet,hulless barley distillers' grains (WHDG) on the fermentation quality in mixed silage of hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare) straw and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) during ensiling was assessed.There were three treatments of different WHDG addition ratios (10%,20% and 30% of fresh weight) plus a control.The silos were opened on 7,14 and 30 days after ensiling and the fermentation quality was analyzed.WHDG addition significantly improved the mixed silage fermentation quality,as indicated by a sharp accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (Presults indicated that WHDG addition not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria,but also speeded-up and greatly enhanced lactic acid production and pH reduction.This restricted the utilization of water soluble carbohydrate by undesirable bacteria and reduced the loss of water soluble carbohydrate,leaving more residual water soluble carbohydrate for lactic acid bacteria.From results of the present study,it is suggested that 20% WHDG addition is effective for improving the fermentation quality of mixed ensilage of hulless barley straw and tall fescue.

  6. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

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    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  7. The effect of fungicidal treatment on selected quality parameters of barley and malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlová, Pavla; Lancová, Katerina; Vánová, Marie; Havel, Josef; Hajslová, Jana

    2006-02-22

    Protection of barley grain against contamination by fungi such as Fusarium spp., particularly by those producing mycotoxins, secondary metabolites with adverse health effects, is of principal importance. Fungicides applied immediately after full heading of spring barley is one method of direct protection. In this work, extensive two-year field experiments combined with a detailed chemical laboratory analysis (barley and malt) were performed with the aim to study the effect of previous crops, different fungicides, and other conditions on the selected barley and malt quality parameters (content of beta-glucans, pentosans, oxalic acid, deoxynivalenol, and gushing), while the main task was to follow the effect of the fungicide (used as a treatment to protect against pathogens, mostly Fusarium) on changes of the chemical composition in barley and malt, and gushing. It was found that the relationship between the studied factors and the parameters usually applied to the evaluation of barley and malt quality is quite complex and not straightforward. The responses show typical features of a multifactorial influence with both positive and negative correlations resulting in a decrease or increase in grain quality (concentrations of beta-glucans, pentosans, deoxynivalenol, and other studied parameters). The role of previous crops was also found to be important. The fungicides should be applied at the time of heading but not at the very beginning of this period.

  8. Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

    2010-11-24

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid.

  9. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

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    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  10. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among the...

  11. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    conditions continue to be key to discovering the roles of individual protein forms and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation. Activity-based proteomics, particularly in combination with new gene editing technologies, has great potential to elucidate the network of enzymes in barley...

  12. Barley HvHMA1 is a heavy metal pump involved in mobilizing organellar Zn and Cu and plays a role in metal loading into grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela;

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated...... interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we...... suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling...

  13. Effect of Barley and Enzyme on Performance, Carcass, Enzyme Activity and Digestion Parameters of Broilers

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    majid kalantar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Corn has been recently used for producing ethanol fuel in the major corn-producing countries such as the US and Brazil. Recent diversion of corn for biofuel production along with the increased world's demand for this feedstuff has resulted in unprecedented rise in feed cost for poultry worldwide. Alternative grains such as wheat and barley can be successfully replaced for corn in poultry diets. These cereal grains can locally grow in many parts of the world as they have remarkably lower water requirement than corn. Wheat and barley are generally used as major sources of energy in poultry diets. Though the major components of these grains are starch and proteins, they have considerable content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs, derived from the cell walls (Olukosi et al. 2007; Mirzaie et al. 2012. NSPs are generally considered as anti-nutritional factors (Jamroz et al. 2002. The content and structure of NSP polymers vary between different grains, which consequently affect their nutritive value (Olukosi et al. 2007.Wheat and barley are generally used as major sources of energy in poultry diets. The major components of these grains are starch and proteins, they have considerable content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs, derived from the cell walls. NSPs are generally considered as anti-nutritional factors. The content and structure of NSP polymers vary between different grains, which consequently affect their nutritive value. The major part of NSPs in barley comprises polymers of (1→3 (1→4-β- glucans which could impede growth factors and consequently carcass quality through lowering the rate and amount of available nutrients in the mucosal surface of the intestinal. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of corn and barley based diets supplemented with multi-enzyme on growth, carcass, pancreas enzyme activity and physiological characteristics of broilers. A total number of 375 one day old

  14. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  15. Modelling phytate degradation kinetics in soaked wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, A B; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    for describing the phytate degradation profiles of the soaked wheat and barley. The in vitro results showed that heat-treatment of the cereals increased the F0 and reduced the K although the plant phytase activity was reduced. This was possible due to induced structural changes of the grain that increased...... the contact between phytate and plant phytases. The lack of effect of additions of Phytase 1 or Phytase 2 on the phytate degradation in the cereals was possible due to a poor access of the microbial phytases to phytate. Therefore, more knowledge is needed about processing technologies that increase the access...... of plant and microbial phytases to phytate in the grains....

  16. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    , the molecular mechanisms of barley defense to Fusarium graminearum at the early infection stage were studied. Antibodies against barley β-amylases were shown to be the markers for infection at proteome level and for selection of the time for proteome analysis before extensive degradation caused by the fungus...... proteases which could be responsible for proteolysis of β-amylases in the infected barley. In Chapter 4, the in vitro secretome of F. graminearum on the 2-D gels in the presence of substrates of barley or wheat grain was studied. Totally 69 unique fungal proteins identified were mainly cell....... In addition, sharper increase in fungal biomass was observed in barley than in wheat and fungal induced proteolytic fragments of - amylases were only observed in barley not in wheat. Furthermore, a barley PR17 protein and a fungal hypothetical protein were expressed in E. coli and purified in Chapter 5...

  17. Development of DNA markers associated with beer foam stability for barley breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Ichikawa, Seiichiro; Ito, Kazutoshi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Traits conferring brewing quality are important objectives in malting barley breeding. Beer foam stability is one of the more difficult traits to evaluate due to the requirement for a relatively large amount of grain to be malted and then the experimental costs for subsequent brewing trials. Consequently, foam stability tends to be evaluated with only advanced lines in the final stages of the breeding process. To simplify the evaluation and selection for this trait, efficient DNA makers were developed in this study. Previous studies have suggested that the level of both of the foam-associated proteins Z4 and Z7 were possible factors that influenced beer foam stability. To confirm the relationship between levels of these proteins in beer and foam stability, 24 beer samples prepared from malt made from 10 barley cultivars, were examined. Regression analyses suggested that beer proteins Z4 and Z7 could be positive and negative markers for beer foam stability, respectively. To develop DNA markers associated with contents of proteins Z4 and Z7 in barley grain, nucleotide sequence polymorphisms in barley cultivars in the upstream region of the translation initiation codon, where the promoter region might be located were compared. As a result, 5 and 23 nucleotide sequence polymorphisms were detected in protein Z4 and protein Z7, respectively. By using these polymorphisms, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers were developed. The CAPS markers for proteins Z4 and Z7 were applied to classify the barley grain content of 23 barley cultivars into two protein Z4 (pZ4-H and pZ4-L) and three protein Z7 (the pZ7-H, pZ7-L and pZ7-L2) haplotypes, respectively. Barley cultivars with pZ4-H showed significantly higher levels of protein Z4 in grain, and those with pZ7-L and pZ7-L2 showed significantly lower levels of protein Z7 in grain. Beer foam stability in the cultivars with pZ4-H and pZ7-L was significantly higher than that with pZ4-L and pZ7-H, respectively. Our

  18. Uso industrial de grãos de cevada de lavouras dessecadas em pré-colheita Industrial suitability for malting of grains from desiccated pre-harvest barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da antecipação da colheita de lavouras de cevada sobre a germinação dos grãos, ao longo de 12 meses de armazenamento. O ensaio de campo foi realizado em 2002 e 2003. As parcelas colhidas foram armazenadas nos anos subseqüentes aos dos ensaios em campo, e a germinação foi monitorada mensalmente. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: dessecação com os princípios ativos glifosato e paraquat, nas doses 1, 1,5 e 2 L ha-1, além das testemunhas, colhidas normalmente e de forma antecipada, sem dessecação. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A colheita antecipada sem dessecação foi o tratamento de maior prejuízo qualitativo à germinação dos grãos. A deterioração qualitativa temporal dos grãos, nos tratamentos com herbicidas dessecantes, foi estatisticamente similar à observada nas amostras oriundas da testemunha colhida normalmente, sem dessecação. Não foram encontradas evidências de que o uso de herbicidas dessecantes acelere o processo de perda de germinação de grãos de cevada, ao longo do período de armazenagem, para os produtos e doses testados.The objective of this work was to assess the impact of early harvesting of barley on grain germination, along 12 months of storage. A field trial was carried out in 2002 and 2003. The plot yields were stored during the years subsequent to the field trial, and germination was monitored monthly. The following treatments were evaluated: desiccation with glyphosate and paraquat, at 1, 1.5, and 2 L ha-1, and the checks, which were normal and early harvest without desiccation. A randomized block design with three replications was utilized. The early harvest without desiccation treatment had the greatest quality loss regarding grain germination. Qualitative deterioration of grains within time was statistically similar both in treatments with desiccation and those with normal harvest without desiccation

  19. A comparison of controlled self-pollination and open pollination results based on maize grain quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sulewska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. grain endosperm is triploid (3n, of which 2n come from the male (transferred by pollen and only 1n from the female plant, thus a major impact of the male form can be expected on grain quality parameters. A good example of this relationship is the phenomenon of xenia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pollen on grain quality. The field experiment was conducted in 2011; seeds were harvested from eight cultivars: Bosman, Blask, Tur, Kozak, Bielik, Smok, SMH 220 and Kresowiak, derived from free pollination and controlled self-pollination of maize. Analyses of nutrient contents and starch content in the grain were conducted in the laboratory. In addition, 1000 grain weight and the hectoliter weight of all grain samples were recorded. The results confirmed differences in grain quality of maize hybrids obtained by self-pollination and by open pollination. Grain of maize plants obtained by open-pollination was characterised by higher contents of N-free extract and starch, and lower protein content. Undertaking further studies on this subject may indicate specific recommendations for agricultural practice, such as mixtures of hybrids with good combining abilities, which will contribute to improved grain quality without additional costs.

  20. Barley Leaf Area and Leaf Growth Rates Are Maximized during the Pre-Anthesis Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Alqudah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf developmental traits are an important component of crop breeding in small-grain cereals. Surprisingly, little is known about the genetic basis for the differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. leaf development. The two barley row-type classes, i.e., two- and six-rowed, show clear-cut differences in leaf development. To quantify these differences and to measure the genetic component of the phenotypic variance for the leaf developmental differences in both row-type classes we investigated 32 representative spring barley accessions (14 two- and 18 six-rowed accessions under three independent growth conditions. Leaf mass area is lower in plants grown under greenhouse (GH conditions due to fewer, smaller, and lighter leaf blades per main culm compared to pot- and soil-grown field plants. Larger and heavier leaf blades of six-rowed barley correlate with higher main culm spike grain yield, spike dry weight, and harvest index; however, smaller leaf area (LA in two-rowed barley can be attributed to more spikes, tillers, and biological yield (aboveground parts. In general, leaf growth rate was significantly higher between awn primordium and tipping stages. Moderate to very high broad-sense heritabilities (0.67–0.90 were found under all growth conditions, indicating that these traits are predominantly genetically controlled. In addition, our data suggests that GH conditions are suitable for studying leaf developmental traits. Our results also demonstrated that LA impacts single plant yield and can be reconsidered in future breeding programs. Six-rowed spike 1 (Vrs1 is the major determinate of barley row-types, the differences in leaf development between two- and six-rowed barleys may be attributed to the regulation of Vrs1 in these two classes, which needs further testing.

  1. From field barley to malt: detection and specification of microbial activity for quality aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noots, I; Delcour, J A; Michiels, C W

    1999-01-01

    Barley grain carries a numerous, variable, and complex microbial population that mainly consists of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi and that can partly be detected and quantified using plating methods and microscopic and molecular techniques. The extent and the activity of this microflora are determined by the altering state of the grain and the environmental conditions in the malt production chain. Three ecological systems can be distinguished: the growing cereal in the field, the dry barley grain under storage, and the germinating barley kernel during actual malting. Microorganisms interact with the malting process both by their presence and by their metabolic activity. In this respect, interference with the oxygen uptake by the barley grain and secretion of enzymes, hormones, toxins, and acids that may affect the plant physiological processes have been studied. As a result of the interaction, microorganisms can cause important losses and influence malt quality as measured by brewhouse performance and beer quality. Of particular concern is the occurrence of mycotoxins that may affect the safety of malt. The development of the microflora during malt production can to a certain extent be controlled by the selection of appropriate process conditions. Physical and chemical treatments to inactivate the microbial population on the barley grain are suggested. Recent developments, however, aim to control the microbial activity during malt production by promoting the growth of desirable microbial cultures, selected either as biocontrol agents inhibiting mycotoxin-producing molds or as starter cultures actively contributing to malt modification. Such techniques may offer natural opportunities to improve the quality and safety of malt.

  2. Brewing with fractionated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Donkelaar, van, CC René

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley.  The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how ba...

  3. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  4. Barley metallothioneins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation...... storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations....

  5. Glycemic index of cracked corn, oat groats and rolled barley in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose-Cunilleras, E; Taylor, L E; Hinchcliff, K W

    2004-09-01

    Muscle glycogen synthesis depends on glucose availability. This study was undertaken to determine the glycemic and insulinemic response of horses to equal amounts of hydrolyzable carbohydrates (starch and sugar) in the form of one of three grain meals or intragastric administration of a glucose solution. In a randomized crossover design, seven horses were fed each of three grain meals (cracked corn, steamed oat groats, or rolled barley) or were infused intragastrically with glucose solution at 2 g of hydrolyzable carbohydrate (starch plus sugar) per kilogram of BW. The quantity of hydrolyzable carbohydrate ingested was not different among all treatments (P = 0.70). Plasma glucose concentration peaked in all four treatments by 1.5 to 2 h after feeding. Plasma glucose concentration remained higher than baseline in oat groats or barley-fed horses throughout 8 h, whereas plasma glucose returned to baseline by 5 to 6 h in corn-fed horses or after glucose administration. Meal consumption was slower in oat groats-fed horses than in corn-fed ones, which may confound the glycemic and insulinemic responses observed after grain feeding. Plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 63% both in corn and oat groats and 57% in barley-fed horses compared with that of horses administered glucose (P = 0.13). Serum immunoreactive insulin concentration peaked between 2 and 3 h after feeding or glucose administration, and barley-fed horses had lower serum immunoreactive insulin concentration by 3 to 4 h than corn-fed horses or after glucose administration (P oat groats, corn, and barley result in similar plasma glucose AUC and, compared with the glycemic index of 100 as the glucose reference, corn, oat groats, and barley had a glycemic index of approximately 60.

  6. In vitro digestion characteristics of unprocessed and processed whole grains and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernot, David C; Boileau, Thomas W; Bauer, Laura L; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

    2008-11-26

    Chemical composition and in vitro digestion properties of select whole grains, before and after processing, and their components were measured. Substrates included barley, corn, oat, rice, and wheat. In addition to whole grain flours, processed substrates also were tested as were corn bran, oat bran, wheat bran, and wheat germ. Processing of most substrates resulted in higher dry matter and digestible starch and lower resistant starch concentrations. Dietary fiber fractions varied among substrates with processing. Digestion profiles for most substrates correlated well with their chemical composition. Corn bran and rice substrates were the least fermentable. Extrusion rendered barley, corn, and wheat more hydrolytically digestible and barley and oat more fermentatively digestible. Except for corn bran, all components had greater or equal fermentability compared with their native whole grains. Understanding digestion characteristics of whole grains and their components will allow for more accurate utilization of these ingredients in food systems.

  7. The Metabolic Signature of Biomass Formation in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mohammad R; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Usadel, Björn; Junker, Björn; Schreiber, Falk; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-09-01

    The network analysis of genome-wide transcriptome responses, metabolic signatures and enzymes' relationship to biomass formation has been studied in a diverse panel of 12 barley accessions during vegetative and reproductive stages. The primary metabolites and enzymes involved in central metabolism that determine the accumulation of shoot biomass at the vegetative stage of barley development are primarily being linked to sucrose accumulation and sucrose synthase activity. Interestingly, the metabolic and enzyme links which are strongly associated with biomass accumulation during reproductive stages are related to starch accumulation and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citrate, malate, trans-aconitate and isocitrate. Additional significant associations were also found for UDP glucose, ATP and the amino acids isoleucine, valine, glutamate and histidine during the reproductive stage. A network analysis resulted in a combined identification of metabolite and enzyme signatures indicative for grain weight accumulation that was correlated with the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a rate-limiting enzyme involved in starch biosynthesis, and with that of alanine amino transferase involved in the synthesis of storage proteins. We propose that the mechanism related to vegetative and reproductive biomass formation vs. seed biomass formation is being linked to distinct fluxes regulating sucrose, starch, sugars and amino acids as central resources. These distinct biomarkers can be used to engineer biomass production and grain weight in barley.

  8. Impact of Pre-Anthesis Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants Grown under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria I. Al-Ajlouni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought at pre-anthesis stages can influence barley growth and results in yield losses. Therefore, it is important to understand how drought at pre-anthesis can affect different traits associated with yield reduction in barley. The objective of this study was to understand the relevance of the genetic background of major flowering time genes in barley plants subjected to pre-anthesis drought and its impact on yield and yield components. A glasshouse experiment using a Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted to investigate the effect of drought and its timing on yield and yield components on eleven barley genotypes, which were selected to represent genetic diversity of major flowering time genes (PPDH1, PPDH2, HvVrn1, HvVrn2 and HvVrn3. Barley plants were exposed to three water regimes, non-stressed and stressed, which was applied at two pre-anthesis growth stages, tillering (SS and stem elongation (SE. Results identified differences among genotypes in all measured traits. Grain yield, grain number and "thousand kernel weight" were reduced in all genotypes due to drought, irrespective of the growth stage. Early flowering genotypes had better performance as reflected in higher yield compared with late flowering genotypes. Results verified the fundamental importance of early flowering to improve productivity in response to pre-anthesis drought. The results of this study can help in selecting barley lines for future breeding purposes with improved resilience to drought conditions in Mediterranean environments.

  9. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  10. Spinning Dust Emission: Effects of irregular grain shape, transient heating and comparison with WMAP results

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Thiem; Draine, B T

    2011-01-01

    Planck is expected to answer crucial questions on the early Universe, but it also provides further understanding on anomalous microwave emission. Electric dipole emission from spinning dust grains continues to be the favored interpretation of anomalous microwave emission. In this paper, we present a method to calculate the rotational emission from small grains of irregular shape with moments of inertia $I_{1}\\ge I_{2}\\ge I_{3}$. We show that a torque-free rotating irregular grain with a given angular momentum radiates at multiple frequency modes. The resulting spinning dust spectrum has peak frequency and emissivity increasing with the degree of grain shape irregularity, which is defined by $I_{1}:I_{2}:I_{3}$. We discuss how the orientation of dipole moment $\\bmu$ in body coordinates affects the spinning dust spectrum for different regimes of internal thermal fluctuations. We show that the spinning dust emissivity for the case of strong thermal fluctuations is less sensitive to the orientation of $\\bmu$ than...

  11. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  12. Characterization of the microchemical structure of seed endosperm within a cellular dimension among six barley varieties with distinct degradation kinetics, using ultraspatially resolved synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yu, Peiqiang

    2010-07-14

    Barley varieties have similar chemical composition but exhibit different rumen degradation kinetics and nutrient availability. These biological differences may be related to molecular, structural, and chemical makeup among the seed endosperm tissue. No detailed study was carried out. The objectives of this study were: (1) to use a molecular spectroscopy technique, synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM), to determine the microchemical-structural features in seed endosperm tissue of six developed barley varieties; (2) to study the relationship among molecular-structural characteristics, degradation kinetics, and nutrient availability in six genotypes of barley. The results showed that inherent microchemical-structural differences in the endosperm among the six barley varieties were detected by the synchrotron-based analytical technique, SFTIRM, with the univariate molecular spectral analysis. The SFTIRM spectral profiles differed (P degradation). Weak correlations may indicate that limited variations of these six barley varieties might not be sufficient to interpret the relationship between spectroscopic information and the nutrient value of barley grain, although significant differences in biodegradation kinetics were observed. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated the potential of ultraspatially resolved synchrotron based technology (SFTIRM) to reveal the structural and chemical makeup within cellular and subcellular dimensions without destruction of the inherent structure of cereal grain tissue.

  13. Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, van E.

    1993-01-01

    Research ObjectivesBarley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation i

  14. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B;

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  15. Estimation of Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L. Crop Water Requirements Using Cropwat Software in Ksar-Chellala Region, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Laouisset

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the reference Evapotranspiration (ET0 and Water requirements of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in Ksar-Chellala region, Algeria, for one dry year by using CROPWAT software. Determination of Evapotranspiration ( ET is important in application such as irrigation design, irrigation scheduling, water resource management, hydrology and cropping systems modeling. Estimation of crop water requirements of barley ( CWR b respected the methodology adopted by the service of development and management service of FAO, based on the use of software CROPWAT 8.0. The total water requirements for barley depend on a variety of target yields and crops management. The period of climatic data used is 23 years (1990-2012, the average rain in this period is 254 mm. The total rain of the dry year is 190 mm. The results of this study show, during the vegetative cycle of barley which is 6 months, the calculation of ET 0 is 453 mm, the potential water which was used by the crop barley is estimated at 281.4 mm, the efficiency of rainfall is 69 mm and a total water requirements of barley ( CWR b equals to 211 mm, this amount distributed on three months coincided with important stages of development in barley. The supplementary irrigation in these conditions with optimal contents equals water requirements estimated by CROPWAT software that increases significantly grain yield of barely. Consequently, the gross irrigation water requirements ( GIWR of 1250000 ha which project to grow barley in the Algerian steppes regions are estimated at 3.77 billion and this for a dry year and a irrigation efficiency of 70%.

  16. Determination of basal ileal endogenous losses and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Hanna Katharina; Mosenthin, Rainer; Rosenfelder, Pia;

    2016-01-01

    to tabulated values. Moreover, these SID values were greater than those reported in literature, based on correction of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and AA for their IAAend values. Summarized, the results of the present regression analysis indicate greater IAAend in barley-based diets compared......BackgroundBasal ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses (IAAend) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of cereal grains, such as barley, are apparently underestimated when determined according to the nitrogen (N)-free method. Regression analysis between the dietary apparent ileal...

  17. Screening of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsvali, Alireza; Farzaneh, Vahid; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Zare, Zahra; Karami, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel. S.

    2016-10-01

    An understanding of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt is necessary for the appropriate design of equipment for the handling, shipping, dehydration, grading, sorting and warehousing of this strategic crop. Malting is a complex biotechnological process that includes steeping; germination and finally, the dehydration of cereal grains under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this investigation, the biophysical properties of barley malt were predicted using two models of artificial neural networks as well as response surface methodology. Stepping time and germination time were selected as the independent variables and 1 000 kernel weight, kernel density and terminal velocity were selected as the dependent variables (responses). The obtained outcomes showed that the artificial neural network model, with a logarithmic sigmoid activation function, presents more precise results than the response surface model in the prediction of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of produced barley malt. This model presented the best result with 8 nodes in the hidden layer and significant correlation coefficient values of 0.783, 0.767 and 0.991 were obtained for responses one thousand kernel weight, kernel density, and terminal velocity, respectively. The outcomes indicated that this novel technique could be successfully applied in quantitative and qualitative monitoring within the malting process.

  18. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  19. Immunological characterization of the gluten fractions and their hydrolysates from wheat, rye and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-18

    Gluten proteins in wheat, rye and barley cause celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, which affects approximately 1% of the world population. Gluten is comprised of prolamin and glutelin. Since avoidance of dietary gluten is the only option for celiac patients, a sensitive gluten detection and quantitation method is warranted. Most regulatory agencies have set a threshold of 20 ppm gluten in foods labeled gluten-free, based on the currently available ELISA methods. However, these methods may exhibit differences in gluten quantitation from different gluten-containing grains. In this study, prolamin and glutelin fractions were isolated from wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. Intact and pepsin-trypsin (PT)-digested prolamin and glutelin fractions were used to assess their immunoreactivity and gluten recovery by three sandwich and two competitive ELISA kits. The Western blots revealed varied affinity of ELISA antibodies to gluten-containing grain proteins and no reactivity to oat and corn proteins. ELISA results showed considerable variation in gluten recoveries from both intact and PT-digested gluten fractions among different kits. Prolamin fractions showed higher gluten recovery compared to their respective glutelin fractions. Among prolamins, barley exhibited higher recovery compared to wheat and rye with most of the ELISA kits used. Hydrolysis resulted in reduced gluten recovery of most gluten fractions. These results suggest that the suitability of ELISA for accurate gluten quantitation is dependent upon various factors, such as grain source, antibody specificity, gluten proteins and the level of their hydrolysis in foods.

  20. Compositional Analysis of Whole Grains, Processed Grains, Grain Co-Products, and Other Carbohydrate Sources with Applicability to Pet Animal Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Buff, Preston R; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2016-03-25

    Our objective was to measure the proximate, starch, amino acid, and mineral compositions of grains, grain co-products, and other carbohydrate sources with potential use in pet foods. Thirty-two samples from barley (barley flake, cut barley, ground pearled barley, malted barley, whole pearled barley, pearled barley flakes, and steamed rolled barley); oats (groats, ground oatmeal, ground steamed groats, instant oats, oat bran, oat fiber, oat flour, quick oats, regular rolled oats, steamed rolled oat groats, and steel cut groats); rice (brown rice, polished rice, defatted rice bran, and rice flour); and miscellaneous carbohydrate sources (canary grass seed, hulled millet, whole millet, quinoa, organic spelt hull pellets, potato flake, sorghum, whole wheat, and whole yellow corn) were analyzed. Crude protein, amino acid, fat, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and mineral concentrations were highly variable among the respective fractions (i.e., barley flake vs. malted barley vs. steamed rolled barley) as well as among the various grains (i.e., barley flake vs. brown rice vs. canary grass seed). These ingredients not only provide a readily available energy source, but also a source of dietary fiber, resistant starch, essential amino acids, and macrominerals for pet diets.

  1. Activity-based protein profiling of hydrolytic enzymes induced by gibberellic acid in isolated aleurone layers of malting barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Grosse-Holz, Friederike M; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Roberts, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    During barley germination, the aleurone layer secretes most of the enzymes required to degrade the endosperm, many of which are yet to be characterized. We used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to detect a range of active enzymes extracted from aleurone layers isolated from grains of a commercial malting barley variety incubated with or without gibberellic acid (GA). Enzymes found to be induced by GA were putative aleurains, cathepsin-B-like proteases and serine hydrolases. By using an inhibitory sugar panel, a specific active retaining β-glycosidase in the barley aleurone was identified as a putative xylanase. Our results show that ABPP can be used rapidly to identify a variety of active enzyme isoforms in cereal aleurone without the need for enzyme purification.

  2. Further Experiments on Gibberellin-Stimulated Amylase Production in Cereal Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppage, Jo; Hill, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments conducted on wheat and barley grains to analyze activities of alpha- and beta-amylase enzymes. Gibberellins were used exogenously. Techniques are described in detail. Results on different cultivars revealed that beta-amylase was not an invariable result of imbibition. Techniques employed can be used by school students. (PS)

  3. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dörsch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM. Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilized cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha−1 throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010 all plots were ploughed (with and without GM and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (110 kg N ha−1 before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilized cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009 had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha−1. Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain.

  4. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dörsch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM. Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha−1 throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha−1 before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009 had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha−1. Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain.

  5. Comparison of the potential rate of population increase of brown and green color morphs of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on barley infected and uninfected with Barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Thieme, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Life tables of brown and green color morphs of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on barley under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1°C, 65% ± 5% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (L : D) were compared. The plants were either: (i) infected with the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV); (ii) not infected with virus but previously infested with aphids; or (iii) healthy barley plants, which were not previously infested with aphids. Generally, both color morphs of S. avenae performed significantly better when fed on BYDV-infected plants than on plants that were virus free but had either not been or had been previously infested with aphids. Furthermore, when fed on BYDV-infected plants, green S. avenae developed significantly faster and had a significantly shorter reproductive period than the brown color morph. There were no significant differences in this respect between the two color morphs of S. avenae when they were reared on virus-free plants that either had been or not been previously infested with aphids. These results indicate that barley infected with BYDV is a more favorable host plant than uninfected barley for both the color morphs of S. avenae tested, particularly the green color morph.

  6. Constitutive expression of a barley Fe phytosiderophore transporter increases alkaline soil tolerance and results in iron partitioning between vegetative and storage tissues under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Ana M. Pelacho; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Cereals have evolved chelation systems to mobilize insoluble iron in the soil, but in rice this process is rather inefficient, making the crop highly susceptible to alkaline soils. We therefore engineered rice to express the barley iron-phytosiderophore transporter (HvYS1), which enables barley plants to take up iron from alkaline soils. A representative transgenic rice line was grown in standard (pH 5.5) or alkaline soil (pH 8.5) to evaluate alkaline tolerance and iron mobilizati...

  7. New starch phenotypes produced by TILLING in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sparla

    Full Text Available Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1, GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I, LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1, SSI (Starch Synthase I, SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa. Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications.

  8. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The cisgenesis concept implies that plants are transformed only with their own genetic materials or genetic materials from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. We used a barley...... phytase gene (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during grain filling to evaluate the cisgenesis concept in barley. The marker gene elimination method was used to obtain marker-free plant lines. Here, the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders to allow unlinked integration...... of the two genes. We analysed the transformants for co-transformation efficiency, increased phytase activities in the grain, integration of the kanamycin resistance gene of the vector-backbone and segregation between the HvPAPhy_a insert and the hygromycin resistance gene. The frequencies of the four...

  9. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is needed on the effects of management practices on dryland malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) yields and quality. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland malt barley and pea yields, grain characterist...

  10. Phytochemical Pharmacokinetics and Bioactivity of Oat and Barley Flour: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleigh M. Sawicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While dietary fiber plays an important role in the health benefits associated with whole grain consumption, other ingredients concentrated in the outer bran layer, including alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols, may also contribute to these outcomes. To determine the acute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the major phytochemicals found in barley and oats, we conducted a randomized, three-way crossover trial in 13 healthy subjects, aged 40–70 years with a body mass index (BMI of 27–35.9 kg/m2. After a two-day run-in period following a diet low in phytochemicals, subjects were randomized to receive muffins made with either 48 g whole oat flour, whole barley flour, or refined wheat flour plus cellulose (control, with a one-week washout period between each intervention. At the same time, an oral glucose tolerance test was administered. In addition to plasma phytochemical concentrations, glucose and insulin responses, biomarkers of antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodeling were determined over a 24-h period. There was no significant effect on acute bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of major phytochemicals. Administered concurrently with a glucose bolus, the source of whole grains did not attenuate the post-prandial response of markers of glucoregulation and insulin sensitivity, inflammation, nor vascular remodeling compared to the refined grain control. No significant differences were observed in the bioavailability or postprandial effects between whole-oat and whole-barley compared to a refined wheat control when administered with a glucose challenge. These null results may be due, in part, to the inclusion criteria for the subjects, dose of the whole grains, and concurrent acute administration of the whole grains with the glucose bolus.

  11. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  12. The barley grain thioredoxin system - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Björnberg, Olof; Navrot, Nicolas;

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type Trx facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent Trx reductase. This review presents a summary of the resear...

  13. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...... of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  14. Fractionation and Characterization of Brewers' Spent Grain Protein Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Celus, Inge; BRIJS, Kristof; Delcour, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates with a low and high degree of hydrolysis were enzymatically produced from brewers' spent grain (BSG), the insoluble residue of barley malt resulting from the manufacture of wort in the production of beer. To that end, BSG protein concentrate (BPC), prepared by alkaline extraction of BSG and subsequent acid precipitation, was enzymatically hydrolyzed with Alcalase during both 1.7 and 120 min. Because these hydrolysates contained many different peptides, fractionation of th...

  15. Effects of whole grains on coronary heart disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kristina A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2010-11-01

    Characterizing which types of carbohydrates, including whole grains, reduce the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is challenging. Whole grains are characterized as being high in resistant carbohydrates as compared with refined grains, meaning they typically are high in fiber, nutrients, and bound antioxidants. Whole grain intake consistently has been associated with improved cardiovascular disease outcomes, but also with healthy lifestyles, in large observational studies. Intervention studies that assess the effects of whole grains on biomarkers for CHD have mixed results. Due to the varying nutrient compositions of different whole grains, each could potentially affect CHD risk via different mechanisms. Whole grains high in viscous fiber (oats, barley) decrease serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure and improve glucose and insulin responses. Grains high in insoluble fiber (wheat) moderately lower glucose and blood pressure but also have a prebiotic effect. Obesity is inversely related to whole grain intake, but intervention studies with whole grains have not produced weight loss. Visceral fat, however, may be affected favorably. Grain processing improves palatability and can have varying effects on nutrition (e.g., the process of milling and grinding flour increases glucose availability and decreases phytochemical content whereas thermal processing increases available antioxidants). Understanding how individual grains, in both natural and processed states, affect CHD risk can inform nutrition recommendations and policies and ultimately benefit public health.

  16. Differential Antioxidative Responses to Water Deficit Among four Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Future climate changes are expected to increase risks of drought, which already represent the most common stress factor for stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L. production in Iran. Up to now, extensive research projects have been done to study effects of drought stress on the antioxidant enzyme activity. While there is a few works of such studies on the field condition. In order to study of water deficit effects on the antioxidant enzymes activities as a secondary stress, we evaluate the effects of mild and severe drought stress on activities of antioxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase, among four barley genotypes, differing in the capacity to maintain the grain yield under drought condition during beginning on anthesis, kernel watery ripe and late milk stages under field condition. Results showed that drought increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in all genotypes. At beginning of anthesis, POX activity of Q22 was higher than it in other genotypes ( P

  17. Determination of ergosterol levels in barley and malt varieties in the Czech Republic via HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicková, Lenka; Gadas, David; Havlová, Pavla; Havel, Josef

    2008-06-11

    Ergosterol is considered to be a suitable indicator of mold infestation in barley and malt. In this study ergosterol levels in different varieties of barley and malt produced in the Czech Republic were determined. A modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was statistically processed, validated (Effivalidation program), and applied to 124 samples of barley and malt. Ergosterol was isolated by extraction and saponification, and the quantification was performed using HPLC with diode array detection. The content of ergosterol ranged between the limit of detection (LOD) and 36.3 mg/kg in barley and between the LOD and 131.1 mg/kg in malt. Ergosterol is presumably connected with metabolites generated when barley grain is attacked by pathogens, and such barley often shows a high overfoaming (gushing) value. However, it was found that the content of ergosterol does not correlate with the degree of beer gushing.

  18. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  20. The heliocentric evolution of cometary infrared spectra: results from an organic grain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, C F; Sagan, C; Mumma, M J

    1989-01-01

    Observations of Comets Halley and Wilson reveal an emission feature peaking near 3.4 micrometers, characteristic of C-H stretching in hydrocarbons. We have previously (Chyba and Sagan 1987a, Nature (London) 330, 350-353) fit this feature with a simple two-component thermal emission model for dust in the cometary coma (one component corresponding to large, cool, optically thick particles, the other due to smaller, hotter, organic grains) by employing laboratory spectra of the organic residue produced by the irradiation of carbon-bearing ices. This procedure yields optical depths in agreement with limits from spacecraft data. One remarkable result of such modeling is that at approximately 1 AU emission features at wavelengths longer than 3.4 micrometers are largely overwhelmed (or "diluted") by continuum emission. The large particle optical depth is approximately 10(2) times that of the emitting organics, so that, relative to the continuum, only near the continuum minimum can the emitting organics make a significant contribution. At approximately 1 AU, the 3.4-micrometers feature is the sole feature near that minimum, lying at the intersection of the curves for particle thermal emission and scattered sunlight. Thus, since as a comet moves away from perihelion the intersection of the scattered solar spectrum and the comet's thermal emission spectrum will move to longer wavelengths, we predicted (Chyba and Sagan 1987a) that the 3.4-micrometers feature is diluted while those at longer wavelengths are progressively revealed--so long as the comet retains its coma. We now quantitatively develop this model and find agreement with observational data for Comet Halley for certain plausible values of optical constants. Thus the observed heliocentric evolution of the 3.4-micrometers feature provides information on the composition, and perhaps structure, of the organic grains in Comet Halley. In addition, we argue that the heliocentric evolution of organic features will differ in

  1. Resultados agronômicos e qualitativos da nova cultivar de cevada MN 743 Agronomic and qualitative results of the new barley cultivar MN 743

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 743, criada pela Cia Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev foi lançada para cultivo no ano de 2004. Originou-se de um cruzamento simples entre as linhagens MN 681 e GIMPEL, realizado em 1992, no campo experimental da antiga Cia Brahma, no município de Encruzilhada do Sul. A cultivar MN 743 é do tipo duas fileiras, possui ciclo precoce e ampla adaptação às condições do sul do Brasil. Das cultivares disponíveis a nível de produção é a que apresenta a maior classificação comercial (grãos de primeira qualidade. Nos anos em que fez parte do ensaio de Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU, sempre apresentou médias competitivas em termos de rendimento corrigido em relação à testemunha de maior área no Brasil, MN 698. Com relação às características qualitativas, apresenta excelente performance no que diz respeito ao teor de extrato e poder diastásico. A cultivar é recomendada para os estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná. Devido a seu ótimo desempenho no aspecto qualidade, visando a indústria cervejeira, a cultivar representa um importante avanço para o melhoramento deste cereal no Brasil, aliando os interesses do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 743, developed by the Cia. Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev was released in 2004. It resulted from a simple cross between lines MN 681 x GIMPEL, made in 1992, in the Brahma's Experimental Field - Encruzilhada do Sul/RS. MN 743, a two-rowed type cultivar has early cicle and is broadly adapted to southern Brazil. Among the hight producing cultivars available, it shows higher kernel plumpness (first quality kernel. Over the years it was included in the VCU (cost and use value trial, the cultivar has repeatedly showed competitive means in adjusted yield, as compared to the control occupying the largest cropped area in Brazil, MN 698. Regarding quality characteristics, it has an excellent performance as friability and diastasic power. The cultivar is recomended for all

  2. Cisgenic Barley with Improved Phytase Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops...... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  3. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops...... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  4. Barley peroxidase isozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

  5. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  6. Overexpression of cytokinin dehydrogenase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise fundamentally affects morphology and fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Mrízová

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereal crops grown worldwide. It has numerous applications, but its utility could potentially be extended by genetically manipulating its hormonal balances. To explore some of this potential we identified gene families of cytokinin dehydrogenases (CKX and isopentenyl transferases, enzymes that respectively irreversibly degrade and synthesize cytokinin (CK plant hormones, in the raw sequenced barley genome. We then examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns by immunostaining and qPCR. Two CKX-specific antibodies, anti-HvCKX1 and anti-HvCKX9, predominantly detect proteins in the aleurone layer of maturing grains and leaf vasculature, respectively. In addition, two selected CKX genes were used for stable, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the barley cultivar Golden Promise. The results show that constitutive overexpression of CKX causes morphological changes in barley plants and prevents their transition to flowering. In all independent transgenic lines roots proliferated more rapidly and root-to-shoot ratios were higher than in wild-type plants. Only one transgenic line, overexpressing CKX under the control of a promoter from a phosphate transporter gene, which is expressed more strongly in root tissue than in aerial parts, yielded progeny. Analysis of several T1-generation plants indicates that plants tend to compensate for effects of the transgene and restore CK homeostasis later during development. Depleted CK levels during early phases of development are restored by down-regulation of endogenous CKX genes and reinforced de novo biosynthesis of CKs.

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk (ID 819, 822) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders....... In the context of the clarifications provided by Member States and the references provided, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to the improvement of bowel function by increasing faecal bulk. The Panel considers that an increase in faecal bulk may be a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing...

  8. Constitutive expression of a barley Fe phytosiderophore transporter increases alkaline soil tolerance and results in iron partitioning between vegetative and storage tissues under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Pelacho, Ana M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Cereals have evolved chelation systems to mobilize insoluble iron in the soil, but in rice this process is rather inefficient, making the crop highly susceptible to alkaline soils. We therefore engineered rice to express the barley iron-phytosiderophore transporter (HvYS1), which enables barley plants to take up iron from alkaline soils. A representative transgenic rice line was grown in standard (pH 5.5) or alkaline soil (pH 8.5) to evaluate alkaline tolerance and iron mobilization. Transgenic plants developed secondary tillers and set seeds when grown in standard soil although iron concentration remained similar in leaves and seeds compared to wild type. However, when grown in alkaline soil transgenic plants exhibited enhanced growth, yield and iron concentration in leaves compared to the wild type plants which were severely stunted. Transgenic plants took up iron more efficiently from alkaline soil compared to wild type, indicating an enhanced capacity to increase iron mobility ex situ. Interestingly, all the additional iron accumulated in vegetative tissues, i.e. there was no difference in iron concentration in the seeds of wild type and transgenic plants. Our data suggest that iron uptake from the rhizosphere can be enhanced through expression of HvYS1 and confirm the operation of a partitioning mechanism that diverts iron to leaves rather than seeds, under stress.

  9. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2014-05-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich

  10. Quantification of amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan in the search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley using genome-wide association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren K Rasmussen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS for amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17 and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and β-glucan (R=-0.62, P<0.01 and amylopectin and β-glucan (R= -0.487, P<0.01 were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6 and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for β-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3 and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding β-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49cM, and SRF6, encoding ‘leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein’ on chromosome 2H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1H, 5H, 6H and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5H and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding.

  11. PERSPECTIVE OF RETURN OF THE VAT BY RESULTS OF GRAIN EXPORT OUT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudinova E. E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two modes of the agricultural taxation are considered in the article: general regime of the taxation and spe-cial mode of the taxation. The authors precisely de-scribed communication between different ways of grain purchases (VAT incl. or VAT excl., and possi-bility of the subsequent compensation of the VAT to the exporter according to its ex-port activity. The fol-lowing question is highly mentioned in the article: the necessity of control of illegal operations in the Russian grain market. The alternative scheme of VAT return is offered

  12. Embrittlement of austempered nodular irons: Grain boundary phosphorus enrichment resulting from precipitate decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, R. C.; Hintz, M. B.; Rundman, K. B.

    1985-05-01

    The microstructures, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior were characterized for a series of Mg treated nodular cast iron specimens austenitized at 1170, 1255, and 1340 K and subsequently austempered at 640 K. The ductility and toughness of the alloy decreased as austenitization temperatures were increased, which is contrary to the behavior anticipated from the observed micro-structural evolution. Fractographic and surface chemical analyses demonstrated that the mechanical property degradation was associated with embrittlement of the austenite grain boundaries by phosphorus. The primary mechanism of grain boundary phosphorus enrichment does not appear to be equilibrium segregation, and an alternative mechanism based on the decomposition of P rich precipitates is proposed and discussed.

  13. The untranslated leader sequence of the barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene confers embryo-specific expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouster, J.; Mechelen J. van; Cameron-Mills, V.

    1998-01-01

    The barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene encodes a protein expressed in embryos during grain development and germination and in leaves after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Transient gene expression assays in germinating barley embryos were used to identify cis-regulatory elements involved in the em

  14. Optimised quantification of the antiyeast activity of different barley malts towards a lager brewing yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Sandra N E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2008-10-01

    The brewing of beer involves two major biological systems, namely malted barley (malt) and yeast. Both malt and yeast show natural variation and assessing the impact of differing malts on yeast performance is important in the optimisation of the brewing process. Currently, the brewing industry uses well-established tests to assess malt quality, but these frequently fail to predict malt-associated problem fermentations, such as incomplete fermentations, premature yeast flocculation (PYF) and gushing of the final beer product. Antimicrobial compounds, and in particular antiyeast compounds in malt, may be one of the unknown and unmeasured malt factors leading to problem fermentations. In this study, the adaptation of antimicrobial assays for the determination of antiyeast activity in malt is described. Our adapted assay was able to detect differing antiyeast activities in nine malt samples. For this sample set, malts associated with PYF during fermentation and gushing activity in beer showed high antiyeast activity. Both PYF and gushing are malt quality issues associated with fungal infection of barley in the field which may result in elevated antimicrobial activity in the barley grain. Also, two more malts that passed the normal quality control tests were also observed to have high antiyeast activity and such malts must be considered as suspect. Based on our results, this assay is a useful measure of malt quality as it quantifies the antiyeast activity in malt which may adversely impact on brewery fermentation.

  15. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...

  16. Malting barley BRS Borema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclydes Minella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Borema is an early maturing, two-rowed spring barley registered in 2003 for commercial production inSouthern Brazil, bred by Embrapa Trigo. It combines good yield potential with superior malting quality and a reasonable levelof disease (net blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust resistance. It is well-adapted to all major production regions of maltingbarley in Brazil.

  17. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  18. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. A New Determination of the Binding Energy of Atomic Oxygen on Dust Grain Surfaces: Experimental Results and Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jiao; Hopkins, Tyler; Vidali, Gianfranco; Kaufman, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The energy to desorb atomic oxygen from an interstellar dust grain surface, $E_{\\rm des}$, is an important controlling parameter in gas-grain models; its value impacts the temperature range over which oxygen resides on a dust grain. However, no prior measurement has been done of the desorption energy. We report the first direct measurement of $E_{\\rm des}$ for atomic oxygen from dust grain analogs. The values of $E_{\\rm des}$ are $1660\\pm 60$~K and $1850\\pm 90$~K for porous amorphous water ice and for a bare amorphous silicate film, respectively, or about twice the value previously adopted in simulations of the chemical evolution of a cloud. We use the new values to study oxygen chemistry as a function of depth in a molecular cloud. For $n=10^4$ cm$^{-3}$ and $G_0$=10$^2$ ($G_0$=1 is the average local interstellar radiation field), the main result of the adoption of the higher oxygen binding energy is that H$_2$O can form on grains at lower visual extinction $A_{\\rm V}$, closer to the cloud surface. A higher ...

  20. Viability of barley seeds after long-term exposure to outer side of international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi C.; Elena, Shagimardanova; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kihara, Makoto; Hoki, Takehiro; Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-09-01

    Barley seeds were exposed to outer space for 13 months in a vented metal container without a climate control system to assess the risk of physiological and genetic mutation during long-term storage in space. The space-stored seeds (S0 generation), with an 82% germination rate in 50 seeds, lost about 20% of their weight after the exposure. The germinated seeds showed normal growth, heading, and ripening. The harvested seeds (S1 generation) also germinated and reproduced (S2 generation) as did the ground-stored seeds. The culm length, ear length, number of seed, grain weight, and fertility of the plants from the space-stored seeds were not significantly different from those of the ground-stored seeds in each of the S0 and S1 generation. Furthermore, the S1 and S2 space-stored seeds respectively showed similar β-glucan content to those of the ground-stored seeds. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis with 16 primer combinations showed no specific fragment that appears or disappears significantly in the DNA isolated from the barley grown from the space-stored seeds. Though these data are derived from nine S0 space-stored seeds in a single exposure experiment, the results demonstrate the preservation of barley seeds in outer space for 13 months without phenotypic or genotypic changes and with healthy and vigorous growth in space.

  1. The application of AMMI model for barley cultivars evaluation in multi-year trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosavljević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of new varieties performance is disturbed under the influence of genotype-by-environment interaction. Among several methods used for understanding this effect, one of the most frequently used methods is Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI analysis. In this study we used AMMI method with the aim to estimate the genotype - environment interaction of 14 barley genotypes, and to identify barley genotypes that have high and stable performance in different environments. The trials were conducted during 11 growing seasons (1995/96 - 2005/06, arranged in a randomized complete block (RCB design with four replications in location Rimski Šančevi. The results showed that the influence of environment (seasons, genotypes and their interaction on barley grain yield were significant (p < 0.01. Based on AMMI method, two-rowed variety Novosadski 317 and the six-rowed variety Novosadski 331 can be distinguished due their high and stable yields. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31066

  2. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG barley (lys3a-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE. Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2 antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches.

  3. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Liu, David X; Alvarez, Xavier; Laine, David; Clarke, Adam; Doyle, Anthony; Aye, Pyone P; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P

    2016-06-28

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement-but not remission-of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm-by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG) barley (lys3a)-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two) study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE). Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea-all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches.

  4. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Liu, David X.; Alvarez, Xavier; Laine, David; Clarke, Adam; Doyle, Anthony; Aye, Pyone P.; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG) barley (lys3a)-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two) study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE). Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches. PMID:27367722

  5. Impact of foliar application of nano micronutrient fertilizers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the growth and yield components of barley under supplemental irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen JANMOHAMMADI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nano-fertilizers are new generation of the synthetic fertilizers which contain readily available nutrients in nano scale range. Nano fertilizers are preferred largely due to their efficiency and environment friendly nature compared to conventional chemical fertilizers. To evaluate the effects of foliar spray of micronutrient nano-fertilizer (iron and zinc and nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2 solution on grain yield and its components in barley under supplemental irrigation conditions, a field experiment was carried out in the semi-arid highland region of Maragheh, Iran. Barley plants were separately treated with of chelated nano-scale zinc oxide (ZnO and ferric oxide (Fe2O3 suspensions during tillering stage, booting and milky stages. Results revealed that days to anthesis and maturity significantly increased after application of both nano-fertilizers. Furthermore, a considerable improvement was observed in grain mass, spike length, number of the grains per spike, chlorophyll content, grain yield and harvest index by application of nano-fertilizer. However the impact of nano zinc fertilizer was more prominent than iron. Foliar application of nTiO2 positively affected some morphophysiological characteristics like as days to anthesis, chlorophyll content and straw yield. The results suggest that the delivery of Zn into barley seedling through spray of nano-fertilizer can be an efficient nutrient management strategy in semi-arid regions. Overall, our result indicated that the integration of nanotechnology in fertilizer products can improve fertilizer use efficiency and significantly increase of barley yield. However, plant response to nanoparticles significantly depend on concentration and time of application as well as size, shape, and surface functionalization of the particles.

  6. Effect of feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, V; Burns, J C; Marshall, D S

    2008-05-01

    Increased demands for corn grain warrant the evaluation of alternative grain types for ruminant production systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hulled and hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars compared with corn (Zea mays L.) as an alternative grain type on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between 2 feedings) consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay pellets (40% of dry matter) and 1) ground corn, 2) hulled barley, or 3) hull-less barley concentrate (60% of dry matter) in each fermentor. Following an adaptation period of 5 d, culture samples were taken at 2 h after the morning feeding on d 6, 7, and 8 of each period for analysis. A second run of the fermentors followed the same treatment sequence to provide replication. Culture pH was reduced with corn (5.55) and did not differ between barley cultivars (average pH 5.89). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and acetate to propionate ratio were not different across grain type or barley cultivar with the exception of greater total volatile fatty acid concentrations with hull-less barley. Corn produced less methane (14.6 mmol/d) and ammonia-N (7.3 mg/100 mL) compared with barley (33.1 mmol/d and 22 mg/100 mL, respectively); methane was greater with hull-less barley but ammonia-N concentration was similar between the 2 barley cultivars. Hull-less barley had greater digestibility compared with hulled barley, and corn had reduced digestibility compared with barley. Concentrations of C18:0 were greater and those of C18:1 and C18:2 lesser in cultures fed hulled and hull-less barley compared with corn. Our data indicate that grain type and barley cultivar have an impact on ruminal fermentation. The lesser starch concentration of barley minimized the drop in culture pH and improved digestibility.

  7. Antisense-mediated suppression of C-hordein biosynthesis in the barley grain results in correlated changes in the transcriptome, protein profile, and amino acid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Lange, Marianne; Friis, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    Antisense- or RNAi-mediated suppression of the biosynthesis of nutritionally inferior storage proteins is a promising strategy for improving the amino acid profile of seeds. However, the potential pleiotropic effects of this on interconnected pathways and the agronomic quality traits need...

  8. Exploring options for managing strategies for pea-barley intercropping using a modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Launay, M.; Brisson, N.; Satger, S.;

    2009-01-01

    A modeling study was carried out into pea–barley intercropping in northern Europe. The two objectives were (a) to compare pea–barley intercropping to sole cropping in terms of grain and nitrogen yield amounts and stability, and (b) to explore options for managing pea–barley intercropping systems...... Kingdom and France), and using 10 years of weather records. A preliminary stage evaluated the STICS intercrop model's ability to predict grain and nitrogen yields of the two species, using a 2-year dataset from trials conducted at the three sites. The work was carried out in two phases, (a) the model......) intercropping made better use of environmental resources as regards yield amount and stability than sole cropping, with a noticeable site effect, (2) pea growth in intercrops was strongly linked to soil moisture, and barley yield was determined by nitrogen uptake and light interception due to its height...

  9. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  10. Composition and Functional Lipid Profiles of Low-Phyate Barleys and Related Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, one of the earliest cultivated cereal grains in the world, is gaining renewed interest for use in food, feed and as a bioethanol feedstock. Like other grains, its high phytate content is undesirable since phytate affects mineral bioavailability and contributes to P pollution to environment....

  11. The USDA barley core collection: genetic diversity, population structure, and potential for genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Muñoz-Amatriaín

    Full Text Available New sources of genetic diversity must be incorporated into plant breeding programs if they are to continue increasing grain yield and quality, and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Germplasm collections provide a source of genetic and phenotypic diversity, but characterization of these resources is required to increase their utility for breeding programs. We used a barley SNP iSelect platform with 7,842 SNPs to genotype 2,417 barley accessions sampled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection of 33,176 accessions. Most of the accessions in this core collection are categorized as landraces or cultivars/breeding lines and were obtained from more than 100 countries. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified five major subpopulations within the core collection, mainly differentiated by geographical origin and spike row number (an inflorescence architecture trait. Different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD were found across the barley genome and many regions of high LD contained traits involved in domestication and breeding selection. The genotype data were used to define 'mini-core' sets of accessions capturing the majority of the allelic diversity present in the core collection. These 'mini-core' sets can be used for evaluating traits that are difficult or expensive to score. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS of 'hull cover', 'spike row number', and 'heading date' demonstrate the utility of the core collection for locating genetic factors determining important phenotypes. The GWAS results were referenced to a new barley consensus map containing 5,665 SNPs. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and high-density SNP genotyping are effective tools for plant breeders interested in accessing genetic diversity in large germplasm collections.

  12. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  13. Transcriptome study of storage protein genes of field-grown barley in response to inorganic nitrogen fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Bowra, Steve; Lange, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    The storage proteins of barley, in terms of both amino acid profile and quantity, are traits strongly influenced by the amount of nitrogen applied. Given this, we performed a developmental expression analysis of the genes from barley grains grown under field conditions to further our understanding...... of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning nitrogen utilization. A barley grain specific micro-array, where a comprehensive set of genes involved in nitrogen mobilization, storage protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism were assembled, was used to obtain a global but focused gene expression...

  14. Syncytes during male meiosis resulting in 2n pollen grain formation in Lindelofia longiflora var.falconeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Kumar SINGHAL; Pawan Kumar RANA; Puneet KUMAR

    2011-01-01

    Lindelofia longiflora (Royle ex Benth.) Baill.var.falconeri (Cl.) Brand (Family:Boraginaceae) is investigated cytologically (n =12) for the first time from the cold deserts of Pangi Valley,Chamba District (Himachal Pradesh) in India.We report the formation of syncytes and 2n pollen grains in the species.During meiosis,the majority of the pollen mother cells (PMCs) exhibited 12 bivalents,equal segregation of chromosomes during anaphases,regular tetrads,and normal-sized pollen grain formation.Occasionally,two proximate PMCs fused during the early stages ofprophase-I and resulted in the formation of syncytes.The frequency of syncytes in the accession is rather low,at 25 out of 1866 (1.33%).Such syncyte PMCs are detectable during meiosis due to their larger size compared to typical PMCs.The syncytes or polyploid cells showed normal 24 bivalents and depicted perfectly regular meiotic course.But the products of such PMCs yield 2n or larger sized pollen grains that are almost double the size of typical normal or n pollen grains.The origin of syncytes as a consequence of the fusion of meiocytes during the early stages of meiosis-I could be attributed to low temperature stress conditions prevailing in the Pangi Valley,where temperature during May and June dip to below freezing,the time the plants enters the reproductive/flowering bud stage.It is possible that such apparently fertile 2n pollen grains originating from syncytes might play a role in the origin of intraspecific polyploids in the species.

  15. The heliocentric evolution of cometary infrared spectra - Results from an organic grain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Christopher F.; Sagan, Carl; Mumma, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    An emission feature peaking near 3.4 microns that is typical of C-H stretching in hydrocarbons and which fits a simple, two-component thermal emission model for dust in the cometary coma, has been noted in observations of Comets Halley and Wilson. A noteworthy consequence of this modeling is that, at about 1 AU, emission features at wavelengths longer than 3.4 microns come to be 'diluted' by continuum emission. A quantitative development of the model shows it to agree with observational data for Comet Halley for certain, plausible values of the optical constants; the observed heliocentric evolution of the 3.4-micron feature thereby furnishes information on the composition of the comet's organic grains.

  16. Planck early results. XX. New light on anomalous microwave emission from spinning dust grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.;

    2011-01-01

    by a combination of free-free radiation, cosmic microwave background, thermal dust, and electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The spinning dust spectra are the most precisely measured to date, and show the high frequency side clearly for the first time. The spectra have a peak in the range 20......-40 GHz and are detected at high significances of 17.1σ for Perseus and 8.4σ for ρ Ophiuchi. In Perseus, spinning dust in the dense molecular gas can account for most of the AME; the low density atomic gas appears to play a minor role. In ρ Ophiuchi, the ~30 GHz peak is dominated by dense molecular gas...... of the synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust. We present spectra for two of the candidates; S140 and S235 are bright Hii regions that show evidence for AME, and are well fitted by spinning dust models. © ESO, 2011....

  17. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  18. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle N. Cooper; Martin, Roy J.; Keim, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not...

  19. Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Wynse S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (≤ 5 ppm in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON, and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201 were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare. DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation.

  20. Planck Early Results: New Light on Anomalous Microwave Emission from Spinning Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cabella, P; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Casassus, S; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Dickinson, C; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; En\\sslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Hoyland, R J; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knox, L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leonardi, R; Lilje, P B; Linden-V\\ornle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mann, R; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; N\\orgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Poutanen, T; Prézeau, G; Procopio, P; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reich, W; Reinecke, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubi\; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, P; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Stivoli, F; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Torre, J -P; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Varis, J; Verstraete, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Ysard, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2011-01-01

    Anomalous microwave emission (AME) has been observed by numerous experiments in the frequency range ~10-60 GHz. Using Planck maps and multi-frequency ancillary data, we have constructed spectra for two known AME regions: the Perseus and Rho Ophiuchus molecular clouds. The spectra are well fitted by a combination of free-free radiation, cosmic microwave background, thermal dust, and electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The spinning dust spectra are the most precisely measured to date, and show the high frequency side clearly for the first time. The spectra have a peak in the range 20-40 GHz and are detected at high significances of 17.1sigma and 10.4sigma, respectively. In Perseus, spinning dust in the dense molecular gas can account for most of the AME; the low density neutral gas appears to play a minor role. In Rho Ophiuchus, the ~30 GHz peak is dominated by dense molecular gas, but there is an indication of an extended tail at frequencies 50-100 GHz, which can be accounted for by irra...

  1. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... for variations in storage protein and AA composition. These cultivars were selected based on their higher protein contents (11.8–17.6%). The results obtained indicated that substantial variation not only in the distribution of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins...

  2. Influência da inoculação de Azospirillum sp. em trigo, cevada e aveia / Influence of Azospirillum sp. inoculation in wheat, barley and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study has been to evaluate the infl uence of inoculation with Azospirillum sp. RAM-7 in wheat, barley and oats on yields, density and N total of grains. The experiments were conducted under fi eld conditions. The treatments involved bacterial inoculation with or without different levels of nitrogen fertilization and absolute control. The inoculation was carried out by the seed coating method with bacterial suspension containing 1010 CFU.mL-1. Statistically signifi cant effects on grain yield in wheat were obtained at the inoculated treatment without any nitrogen fertilizer, increasing the yield by 23.9% over de control (p<0.05. In the inoculated treatment associated with 48 kg of N.ha-1, the yield was similar to that obtained at 60 kg of N.ha-1 with or without inoculation. In barley, the grain yields of the inoculated treatment associated with 32 kg of N.ha-1 was statistically equivalent to that obtained with 40 kg de N.ha-1 with or without inoculation (p<0,05. In oats, there was no signifi cant difference between treatments and their respective controls for yields, density and N total of grains. The results of the present investigations showed the possibility of the partial substitution of the inorganic nitrogen fertilizer with the Azospirillum sp. RAM-7 inoculation in wheat, barley and oats.

  3. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  4. Effect of different ascorbic acid levels (Vitamin C on eco-physiological properties of barley in soils contaminated with lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamdin Akhavan Samimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the effects of foliar application of ascorbic acid on barley in contaminated soil in a completely randomized factorial design with 2 factors, 9 treatments and 3 replications in Varamin in 1393.150 mg of lead nitrate per kg of soil were applied to infect the soil for all treatments. Superabsorbent was the first factor used in three levels (0, 3, 6 g per kg soil and ascorbic acid as the second factor was also used in three levels (0, 50 and 100 ppm. The results of this experiment showed that increase in superabsorbent and ascorbic acid concentrations in barley improved the morphological traits such as plant height and spike and grain number, grain weight, total weight of shoot, root dry weight and thousand grain weight and also improved physiological traits such as protein content and chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll in barley, moreover, increase in ascorbic acid in the plant resulted in reduction in antioxidant enzymes content such as superoxide dismutase andcatalase, and physiological traits such as proline, increased relative water content and reduced lead content in leaves and roots.So it can be concluded that, given that the country is located in arid and semiarid regions and considering Iran’s soils pollution with heavy metals,using effective treatments such as ascorbic acid can enhance crop water holding capacity and also reduce the effects of these elements toxicity. Therefore,the use of ascorbic acid seems essential.Due to the non-degradable and long life of heavy metals in soil, insoluble hydrophilic polymers with different amounts carboxylic groups are used. The surface carboxylic groups of the polymer (SAP due to exposure to pH are ionized and make strong bonds with soil pollutant metals, and eventually form a gel and are separated from soil.

  5. 青稞酒糟对紫花苜蓿和多年生黑麦草混合青贮发酵品质的影响%Effect of adding wet hulless barley distillers' grains on fermentation quality of mixed ensilage of alfalfa and perennial ryegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春旺; 原现军; 李君风; 闻爱友; 白晰; 肖慎华; 郭刚; 魏化敬; 邵涛

    2016-01-01

    [Objectives] The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding different ratios of wet hulless barley distillers' grains(WHBDG) on the fermentation qualities of mixed ensilage of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)(3∶7).[Methods] The treatments were as follows:control (without WHBDG)and three treatments of different WHBDG addition rations(10%,20%,30% of fresh weight).These silos were opened 7,14,30 and 60 days after ensiling and the fermentation quality was analyzed.[Results] The results showed the WHBGD improved the mixed silage fermentation quality,as indicated by a sharp accumulation of lactic acid (LA),faster decline of pH,and the treatments of PAW20 and PAW30 markedly increased the concentrations of LA and decreased pH when compared with the control.The content of acetic acid was gradually decreasing with the WHBDG ratio increasing,and the lactic acid/acetic acid of treatments was higher than that of control,indicating the homofermentative lactic bacteria held a dominant position in the silage.The contents of propionic acid and butyric acid of treatments were very low(<2 g· kg-1)and the ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen of them was lower than that of control.These results indicated that WHBDG addition effectively reduced the loss of water soluble carbohydrate.[Conclusions] Taking fermentation quality and rational utilization of resources into account,it was suggested that PAW20 treatment was the most suitable choice.%[目的]本文旨在研究添加不同比例的青稞酒糟对紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativaL.)和多年生黑麦草(Lolium perenne L.)(质量比为3∶7)混合青贮发酵品质的影响.[方法]试验设对照组(CK)与10% (PAW10)、20% (PAW20)和30% (PAW30)青稞酒糟添加水平处理组,分别在青贮后7、14、30和60d打开实验室青贮窖,取样分析青贮饲料发酵品质.[结果]与对照相比,青稞酒糟添加组提高了乳酸含量,降低了pH值,其中PAW20

  6. Correlation-maximizing surrogate gene space for visual mining of gene expression patterns in developing barley endosperm tissue

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    Usadel Björn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro- and macroarray technologies help acquire thousands of gene expression patterns covering important biological processes during plant ontogeny. Particularly, faithful visualization methods are beneficial for revealing interesting gene expression patterns and functional relationships of coexpressed genes. Such screening helps to gain deeper insights into regulatory behavior and cellular responses, as will be discussed for expression data of developing barley endosperm tissue. For that purpose, high-throughput multidimensional scaling (HiT-MDS, a recent method for similarity-preserving data embedding, is substantially refined and used for (a assessing the quality and reliability of centroid gene expression patterns, and for (b derivation of functional relationships of coexpressed genes of endosperm tissue during barley grain development (0–26 days after flowering. Results Temporal expression profiles of 4824 genes at 14 time points are faithfully embedded into two-dimensional displays. Thereby, similar shapes of coexpressed genes get closely grouped by a correlation-based similarity measure. As a main result, by using power transformation of correlation terms, a characteristic cloud of points with bipolar sandglass shape is obtained that is inherently connected to expression patterns of pre-storage, intermediate and storage phase of endosperm development. Conclusion The new HiT-MDS-2 method helps to create global views of expression patterns and to validate centroids obtained from clustering programs. Furthermore, functional gene annotation for developing endosperm barley tissue is successfully mapped to the visualization, making easy localization of major centroids of enriched functional categories possible.

  7. 大麦雄性不育的遗传研究%Genetic Study on Barley Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 刘志萍; 包海柱

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research the genetic mechanism of barley male sterility, and provide the theoretical reference for breeding strong heterosis hybrid of barley. [Method] Fertility segregation phenomenon, morphological characteristics and main agronomic characters of male sterility character of 4 kinds of barley male sterility materials 2001-17, 2001-37, 2001-84 and 2001-116 and their derived lines were observed and researched. [Result] Barley male sterility existed genetic phenomenon of single dominant nuclear gene caused by environmental stimulation, its sterility controlled by MS, the sterile genotype was MSms. There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility which was controlled by cytoplasmic male sterile gene S and nuclear gene rr, and its genotype was S(rr), this male sterility belonged to CMS type sterility. Temperature had no effect on fertility. [Conclusion] There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility, this result played a positively promoting role in barley practical production.

  8. Thermal transfer and apparent-dose distributions in poorly bleached mortar samples: Results from single grains and small aliquots of quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Bøtter-Jensen, L.;

    2004-01-01

    and inner wall plaster from a building built in 1964. These samples are found to be both poorly bleached and weakly sensitive (only 0.3% of grains giving a detectable dose response). We study thermal transfer in single grains of quartz, investigate the grain-size dependence of bleaching in the size range 90......-300 mum and compare the dose-distributions obtained from small aliquots and single-grain procedures. A comparison of three different methods viz. (a) first 5%, (b) probability plot and (c) comparison of internal and external uncertainties, is made for equivalent dose estimation. The results have...

  9. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  10. Effect of crop density on competition by wheat and barley with Agrostemma githago and other weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, H.; Holm, U.; Søgaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Agrostemma githago L. and other naturally occurring weeds on biomass production and grain yield was studied in winter wheat and winter barley. Naturally occurring weeds had only a negligible effect on barley, but reduced wheat grain yield by 10% at a quarter of normal crop density...... had a better competitive ability than A. githago. Wheat and A. githago utilized resources for growth better when grown in mixture than when grown in pure stands as the relative yield totals were significantly larger than unity....

  11. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  12. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine;

    2007-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vecto...... inoculation, although large parts of the insert had been lost from the virus vector. The instability of the insert, observed consistently throughout our experiments, offers an explanation for the transient nature of silencing when using BSMV as a VIGS vector.......Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...... for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the resulting...

  13. Further molecular evidence for the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    106 accessions of Tibetan wild barley, including 50 accessions of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum(HS), 27 accessions of the six-rowed bottle-shaped wild barley H. lagunculiforme(HL) and 29 accessions of the six-rowed wild barley H. agriocrithon(HA) that separately represent different agrigeographical regions of Tibet, were used to study the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation using SSR markers selected from seven barley linkage groups. 229 allelic variants were identified with an average of 7.6 alleles/locus. The average of total number of alleles per locus in HA(6.4) is much higher than that in HS(3.9) and HL(3.4). The genetic diversity and its standard deviation among the three subspecies were in the order of HS>HL>HA. Very significant genetic differentiation was observed among the three subspecies of wild barley. Comparisons of the results from this and previous studies showed a strong Oriental-Occidental differentiation of barley, and that Shannan region of Tibet might be the center of origin of the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley, thus supporting not only the hypothesis of a mono-phyletic origin of cultivated barley but also the proposition that the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley.

  14. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  15. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  16. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  17. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (Pphytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding.

  18. EFFECTS OF BARLEY PROCESSING ON THE BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES IN FATTENING WEANED LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VOIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our researches was to observe the nutritive and productive effect of the ratio, offered at discretion, composed of alfalfa hay and barley under the following presentation forms: whole grains, roughly ground (4mm with and without addition of yeast, strain Yea-Sacc1026, to lambs submitted for fattening. The experiment lasted 54 days, the biological material was represented by Turcana lambs, grouped in three lots (n=12. Growth performances were significant bigger (p< 0.04 for the final body weight, total weight gain and average daily gain, but the specific intake was decreased with 0.49 UNC in lambs that consumed ground barley prior to those that consumed whole barley grains. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain Yea-Sacc1026 in the ground barley at 4 mm has a more productive and evident effect (p<0.02 regarding final body weight, total weight and average daily weigh compared to the lambs fed with whole barley grains, with a specific intake lower with 0.89 UNC.

  19. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  20. Effects of ratios of basal to topdressed nitrogen on post-anthesis photosynthesis,dry matter distribution and grain yield in malting barley%氮肥基追比对啤酒大麦花后叶片光合特性、干物质分配及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈会权; 蔡剑; 陈和; 陈晓静; 陶红; 姜东; 戴廷波; 曹卫星

    2009-01-01

    Two malting barley cultivars, Supi 3 and Dan 2, were planted in two eco-sites, Nanjing and Yancheng, Jiangsu Province. At a total nitrogen dose of 225 kg· hm~(-2), split nitrogen application effects were studied on post-anthesis photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content, dry matter accumulation and redistribution and grain yield. The penult leaf photosynthetic rate and LAI generally increased with increasing ratio of basal to topdressed nitrogen, and reached the maximum values at the ratio of 7:3, and then decreased. The same responses of yield and amount of post-anthesis accumulated dry matter transferred to grain to ratio of basal to topdressed nitrogen were observed. Further, a high photosynthetic rate benefited the accumulation and redistribution of dry matter aftert-anthesis, which contributed to a high grain yield under an appropriate ratio of basal to topdressed nitrogen.%在江苏南京和盐城两生态点研究总施氮量为225 kg·hm~(-2)条件下,氮肥基追比对苏啤3和单2两个大麦品种花后叶片光合特性、干物质分配及产量的影响.结果表明:大麦花后叶片净光合速率、叶面积指数、花后干物质转运量及对籽粒贡献率均随着氮肥基追比先升高后降低,在氮肥基追比为7∶3时达到最大.大麦籽粒产量亦呈现相同的趋势,以氮肥基追比7∶3处理的产量最高.进一步分析表明,采用合理的氮肥基追比、保持花后较高的光合速率有利于提高花后干物质积累和再分配,最终提高籽粒产量.

  1. Protein and hordein fraction content in barley seeds as affected by sowing date and their relations to malting quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Jun-cong; CHEN Jin-xin; WANG Jun-mei; WU Fei-bo; CAO Lian-pu; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sowing date on grain protein, hordein fraction content and malting quality of two-rowed spring barley was investigated by using ten commercial cultivars with different grain protein content and the relationships among these traits were examined. The results showed that grain protein content and B hordein content increased as the sowing date postponed and were significantly affected by sowing date, while C and D hordein contents were less influenced by sowing date. There were significant differences in grain protein and hordein fraction content among the ten cultivars. The coefficient of variation of D hordein content was much larger than that of B and C hordein contents, suggesting its greater variation caused by different sowing dates. Beta-amylase activity and diastatic power were also significantly affected by sowing date, with malt extract being less affected. Significant differences in measured malt quality were found among the ten cultivars. Grain protein was significantly correlated with B hordein and malt extract positively and negatively, respectively. There was no significant correlation between beta-amylase activity or diastatic power and grain protein content. B hordein was negatively and significantly correlated with malt extract, but no significant correlations between C hordein, D hordein and malting quality traits.

  2. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...... strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research....

  3. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  4. Experimental Barley Flour Production in 12,500-Year-Old Rock-Cut Mortars in Southwestern Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Eitam, David; Kislev, Mordechai; Karty, Adiel; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Experimental archaeology at a Natufian site in the Southern Levant documents for the first time the use of 12,500-year-old rock-cut mortars for producing wild barley flour, some 2,000 to 3,000 years before cereal cultivation. Our reconstruction involved processing wild barley on the prehistoric threshing floor, followed by use of the conical mortars (a common feature in Natufian sites), thereby demonstrating the efficient peeling and milling of hulled grains. This discovery complements nearly...

  5. Analysis of early events in the interaction between Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Scarlett

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Svensson, Birte;

    2010-01-01

    after inoculation. This coincided with the appearance of discrete F. graminearum-induced proteolytic fragments of beta-amylase. Based on these results, analysis of grain proteome changes prior to extensive proteolysis enabled identification of barley proteins responding early to infection by the fungus...... function was identified. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of selected genes showed a correlation between high gene expression and detection of the corresponding proteins. Fungal genes encoding alkaline protease and endothiapepsin were expressed during 1-3 days after inoculation, making them...... candidates for generation of the observed beta-amylase fragments. These fragments have potential to be developed as proteome-level markers for fungal infection that are also informative about grain protein quality....

  6. In vitro gas production profiles and fermentation end-products in processed barley, maize and milo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarfar, A.; Namgay, K.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Tamminga, S.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An experiment was carried out to establish whether using a pre-compacting device (expander) changes the contribution of dry matter (DM) and degradative behaviour of grains of barley, maize and milo pre-processed by grinding over the different DM fractions (non-washable (NWF), insoluble w

  7. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  8. Spatial and temporal regulation of DNA fragmentation in the aleurone of germinating barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Oppedijk, B.J.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Lamers, G.E.M.; Boot, M.J.; Geerlings, D.N.G.; Bakhuizen, B.; Meijer, A.H.; Duijn, B. van

    1998-01-01

    During germination of barley grains, the appearance of DNA fragmentation started in aleurone cells near the embryo and extended to the distal end in a time-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation was demonstrated to occur only after the expression of α-amylase mRNA in the aleurone layer. In addition, ce

  9. A comparison of energy use and productivity of wheat and barley (case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Ziaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of energy productivity of different crops can be used as an effective tool to prioritize crops planting in each area. This study was conducted in order to compare wheat and barley farms of Sistan and Baluchestan province in Iran in relation to various aspects of energy consumption at 2009. 100 wheat and 100 barley fields were selected randomly from main 11 cities in the studied region. Input data and yield of wheat and barley fields were collected in the form of questionnaires in a face-to-face interview. Results showed that total energy inputs of wheat and barley fields were 32492.97 and 25655.81 MJ ha−1, respectively. Total energy outputs for wheat and barley fields were 48517.24 and 49800.87 MJ ha−1, respectively. Based on these results the amount of energy use efficiency for wheat and barley fields were 1.49 and 1.94, respectively, and the amount of energy productivity for mentioned fields were 0.056 and 0.066. The share of renewable energy as one of the sustainability indexes of agricultural systems was 19.60 for wheat and 14.60 for barley fields. Therefore, it seems that barley production is more efficient from various aspects of energy consumption rather than wheat in the studied region.

  10. Efficacy of imidacloprid for control of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, C; Blodgett, S L; Johnson, G D

    2000-02-01

    The toxicity of imidacloprid to the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), was measured under laboratory and field conditions. Insect mortality and plant damage were determined from artificial and natural infestations of O. melanopus applied to various growth stages of barley. All rates of imidacloprid formulated and applied as a seed treatment caused >90% mortality to cereal leaf beetle larvae when barley was infested with eggs at the 4-leaf stage, but were ineffective when barley was infested with eggs at the early tillering or flag-leaf stages of barley. This window of susceptibility influenced results obtained in field trials where peak larval emergence did not occur until the early tillering stage of barley. The resulting mortality in plants from treated seeds never exceeded 40% in the field. Foliar imidacloprid, however, caused >90% mortality in the field, and may be another option in the management of the cereal leaf beetle.

  11. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  12. Effects of elevated CO2 on grain yield and quality of wheat: results from a 3-year free-air CO2 enrichment experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högy, P; Wieser, H; Köhler, P; Schwadorf, K; Breuer, J; Franzaring, J; Muntifering, R; Fangmeier, A

    2009-11-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. TRISO) was grown for three consecutive seasons in a free-air carbon dioxide (CO(2)) enrichment (FACE) field experiment in order to examine the effects on crop yield and grain quality. CO(2) enrichment promoted aboveground biomass (+11.8%) and grain yield (+10.4%). However, adverse effects were predominantly observed on wholegrain quality characteristics. Although the thousand-grain weight remained unchanged, size distribution was significantly shifted towards smaller grains, which may directly relate to lower market value. Total grain protein concentration decreased significantly by 7.4% under elevated CO(2), and protein and amino acid composition were altered. Corresponding to the decline in grain protein concentration, CO(2) enrichment resulted in an overall decrease in amino acid concentrations, with greater reductions in non-essential than essential amino acids. Minerals such as potassium, molybdenum and lead increased, while manganese, iron, cadmium and silicon decreased, suggesting that adjustments of agricultural practices may be required to retain current grain quality standards. The concentration of fructose and fructan, as well as amounts per area of total and individual non-structural carbohydrates, except for starch, significantly increased in the grain. The same holds true for the amount of lipids. With regard to mixing and rheological properties of the flour, a significant increase in gluten resistance under elevated CO(2) was observed. CO(2) enrichment obviously affected grain quality characteristics that are important for consumer nutrition and health, and for industrial processing and marketing, which have to date received little attention.

  13. Comparison of frequency distributions of doubled haploid and single seed descent lines in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, T M; Reinbergs, E; Park, S J

    1982-09-01

    Both doubled haploid (DH) and single seed descent (SSD) methods were used to derive homozygous lines from two crosses of barley. The frequency distributions of grain yield, heading date, and plant height of the DH and SSD lines were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov twosample test and Wald-Wolfowitz runs test. It was found that the DH lines distributed in the same manner as the SSD lines with respect to the three characters. The results indicated that although the SSD method had more opportunity for recombination than the DH method, it did not produce a sample of recombinants which differed significantly from the DH sample; thus both methods were equally efficient for use in deriving homozygous lines from F1 hybrids in a relatively short time.

  14. Factors underlying restricted crossover localization in barley meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, James D; Osman, Kim; Jones, Gareth H; Franklin, F Chris H

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic recombination results in the formation of cytological structures known as chiasmata at the sites of genetic crossovers (COs). The formation of at least one chiasma/CO between homologous chromosome pairs is essential for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division as well as for generating genetic variation. Although DNA double-strand breaks, which initiate recombination, are widely distributed along the chromosomes, this is not necessarily reflected in the chiasma distribution. In many species there is a tendency for chiasmata to be distributed in favored regions along the chromosomes, whereas in others, such as barley and some other grasses, chiasma localization is extremely pronounced. Localization of chiasma to the distal regions of barley chromosomes restricts the genetic variation available to breeders. Studies reviewed herein are beginning to provide an explanation for chiasma localization in barley. Moreover, they suggest a potential route to manipulating chiasma distribution that could be of value to plant breeders.

  15. Estimation of Zn mobility and biological availability in sod-podzolic soil and leached chernozem based on results of soil extraction by various salt solutions and Zn accumulation in barley plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Y. A.

    2012-04-01

    Extraction of soils by chemical reagents is widely used as a basis for forecasting the stock of the metal in the soil available to the plants. There are some doubts about how heavy metals uptake from specific soil to certain plant species can be adequately modeled on the results of chemical extraction. Problems of regulation of heavy metals in natural objects and risk assessment of soil contamination must be solved as issues of unification and standardization of existing assessment methods and new methods developing for their use in studies of the mobility of metals in soils and their availability to plants. Zn is a priority pollutant of the soil. The availability of Zn compounds to plants in two soils of different genesis was compared on the basis of their extraction by neutral salt solutions Ca(NO3)2, MgCl2, and CH3COONH4 and a pot experiment. It was shown that not only the concentration of contaminant in the extractant, but also the proportion of extractable Zn in its total content in the soil increased with increasing contamination of soil. The difference between the estimates of exchangeable Zn obtained by these methods was ~2.5 times for soddy-podzolic soil and 3-6 times for leached chernozem. The relationship between the accumulation of Zn in 14-day-old barley seedlings and the content of its exchangeable form in the soil was near linear, but the parameters of regression equations for two soils differed significantly. Chemical extraction allowed the differentiation of the mobile Zn fraction, but its accumulation by plants from different soils could not be predicted from the extractability of the element by neutral salt solutions without consideration for other soil properties.

  16. Effects of irradiated barley on fattening quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica); Effekte der Fuetterung strahlenbehandelter Gerste auf wachsende Wachteln (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlhelm, H.

    1999-07-01

    For the feeding experiments reported, barley grains irradiated at doses of 2, 10, and 100 kGy were used as a diet. The results obtained revealed no significant effects in the parameters analysed. (orig./CB) [German] In den mit Wachteln durchgefuehrten Fuetterungsexperimenten mit strahlenbehandelter Gerste in Dosen von 2, 10 und 100 kGy konnten bei den analysierten zootechnischen, klinisch-chemischen, haematologischen und immunologischen Parametern keine signifikanten Veraenderungen festgestellt werden, die auf die Strahlenbehandlung der Gerste zurueckzufuehren waeren. Signifikante Abweichungen lagen im physiologischen Streuungsbereich und waren nicht reproduzierbar. (orig.)

  17. Powerful regulatory systems and post-transcriptional gene silencing resist increases in cellulose content in cell walls of barley

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hwei-Ting; Shirley, Neil J; Singh, Rohan R; Henderson, Marilyn; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Mayo, Gwenda M; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Burton, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to increase cellulose content and improve the stem strength of cereals could have beneficial applications in stem lodging and producing crops with higher cellulose content for biofuel feedstocks. Here, such potential is explored in the commercially important crop barley through the manipulation of cellulose synthase genes (CesA). Results Barley plants transformed with primary cell wall (PCW) and secondary cell wall (SCW) barley cellulose synthase (HvCesA) cDNAs driven b...

  18. DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stracke Silke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping is receiving considerable attention in plant genetics for its potential to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL, validate candidate genes, and identify alleles of interest. In the present study association mapping in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is investigated by associating DNA polymorphisms with variation in grain quality traits, plant height, and flowering time to gain further understanding of gene functions involved in the control of these traits. We focused on the four loci BLZ1, BLZ2, BPBF and HvGAMYB that play a role in the regulation of B-hordein expression, the major fraction of the barley storage protein. The association was tested in a collection of 224 spring barley accessions using a two-stage mixed model approach. Results Within the sequenced fragments of four candidate genes we observed different levels of nucleotide diversity. The effect of selection on the candidate genes was tested by Tajima's D which revealed significant values for BLZ1, BLZ2, and BPBF in the subset of two-rowed barleys. Pair-wise LD estimates between the detected SNPs within each candidate gene revealed different intra-genic linkage patterns. On the basis of a more extensive examination of genomic regions surrounding the four candidate genes we found a sharp decrease of LD (r2 Significant marker-trait associations between SNP sites within BLZ1 and flowering time, BPBF and crude protein content and BPBF and starch content were detected. Most haplotypes occurred at frequencies BPBF was associated to crude protein content and starch content, BLZ2 showed association to thousand-grain weight and BLZ1 was found to be associated with flowering time and plant height. Conclusions Differences in nucleotide diversity and LD pattern within the candidate genes BLZ1, BLZ2, BPBF, and HvGAMYB reflect the impact of selection on the nucleotide sequence of the four candidate loci. Despite significant associations, the analysed candidate

  19. Noble Gas Diffusion Mechanism in Lunar Soil Simulant Grains: Results from 4He+ Implantation and Extraction Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Fu; Yongliao Zou; Yongchun Zheng; Huaiyu He; Ziyuan Ouyang

    2011-01-01

    Experiments on ion implantation were performed in order to better characterize diffusion of noble gases in lunar soil.4He+ at 50 keV with 5×1016 ions/cm2 was implanted into lunar simulants and crystal ilmenite.Helium in the samples was released by stepwise heating experiments.Based on the data,we calculated the helium diffusion coefficient and activation energy.Lunar simulants display similar 4He release patterns in curve shape as lunar soil,but release temperatures are a little lower.This is probably a consequence of long-term diffusion after implantation in lunar soil grains.Variation of activation energy was identified in the Arrhenius plots of lunar simulants and Panzhihua (攀枝花) ilmenite.We conclude that noble gas release in lunar soil cannot be described as simple thermally activated volume diffusion.Variation of diffusion parameters could be attributed to physical transformation during high temperature.Radiation damage probably impedes helium diffusion.However,bubble radius growth during heating does not correlate with activation energy variation.Activation energy of Panzhihua ilmenite is 57.935 kJ/mol.The experimental results confirm that ilmenite is more retentive for noble gas than other lunar materials.

  20. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring i...

  1. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  2. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    yielding cereal crops are generated. In cereals, the process of leaf senescence is of utmost relevance when discussing yield. It is during the senescence process that all nutrients are transported from the withering leaf to the developing grains. Furthermore, the timing of senescence determines...... parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  3. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    Grain legumes are known to increase the soil mineral nitrogen (N) content, reduce the infection pressure of soil borne pathogens, and hence enhance subsequent cereals yields. Replicated field experiments were performed throughout W. Europe (Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy....... In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark...

  4. Genetic Engineering of Cereal Grains with Starch Consisting of More Than 99% Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Numerous textbooks tell us that plant starches are a mix of two starch types: amylopectin and amylose. We recently succeeded in engineering a cereal crop – a barley line – producing grain starch consisting of more than 99% amylose1. This amylose-only starch contains a high residual fraction...... that is resistant to enzymatic degradation, even when gelatinized by cooking. The barley plants producing the grains had a moderate yield loss of 25% in comparison with other barley plants of the same cultivar. We believe that the method can be applied to produce amylose-only starch in other cereal crops including...

  5. Chromosomal loci associated with endosperm hardness in a malting barley cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra K; Panozzo, J F; Ford, R; Eckermann, P; Moody, D; Lehmensiek, A; Appels, R

    2011-01-01

    A breeding objective for the malting barley industry is to produce lines with softer, plumper grain containing moderate protein content (9-12%) as they are more likely to imbibe water readily and contain more starch per grain, which in turn produces higher levels of malt extract. In a malting barley mapping population, 'Arapiles' × 'Franklin', the most significant and robust quantitative trait locus (QTL) for endosperm hardness was observed on the short arm of chromosome 1H, across three environments over two growing seasons. This accounted for 22.6% (Horsham 2000), 26.8% (Esperance 2001), and 12.0% (Tarranyurk 2001) of the genetic variance and significantly increased endosperm hardness by 2.06-3.03 SKCS hardness units. Interestingly, Arapiles and Franklin do not vary in Ha locus alleles. Therefore, this region, near the centromere on chromosome 1H, may be of great importance when aiming to manipulate endosperm hardness and malting quality. Interestingly, this region, close to the centromere on chromosome 1H, in our study, aligns with the region of the genome that includes the HvCslF9 and the HvGlb1 genes. Potentially, one or both of these genes could be considered to be candidate genes that influence endosperm hardness in the barley grain. Additional QTLs for endosperm hardness were detected on chromosomes 2H, 3H, 6H and 7H, confirming that the hardness trait in barley is complex and multigenic, similar to many malting quality traits of interest.

  6. The effect of interspecies interactions and water deficit on spring barley and red clover biomass accumulation at successive growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in Olsztyn, Poland, in the period 2010–2012. The aim of the study was to examine whether soil water deficit would change biomass volume and distribution of pure sown spring barley and red clover as well as growth rate during their joint vegetation and mutual interactions. The interactions between spring barley and red clover were of a competitive character, and the cereal was the stronger crop. The strength of this competition increased in time with the growing season. Through most of the growing season, the competition was poorer in water deficit conditions. The impact of clover on barley before the heading stage showed facilitation symptoms. Interspecific competition reduced the rate of barley biomass accumulation and decreased stem and leaf biomass towards the end of the growing season. Intensified translocation of assimilates from the vegetative parts to grain minimized the decrease in spike biomass. Water deficit stress had a more inhibitory effect on the biomass and growth rate of barley than competition, and competition did not exacerbate the adverse influence of water deficit stress on barley. Competition from barley significantly reduced the biomass and biomass accumulation rate of clover. Water deficit stress did not exacerbate barley’s competitive effect on clover, but it strongly inhibited the growth of aboveground biomass in pure-sown clover.

  7. 不同地区啤酒大麦品种农艺性状鉴定与分类研究%Agronomic Characteristics and Classification of Malting Barley from Different Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树明; 普晓英; 张京; 曾亚文; 杨涛; 杜娟

    2011-01-01

    为筛选可用于云南啤酒大麦改良的优良种质材料,对107份不同来源啤酒大麦品种的农艺性状进行鉴定与分类研究.结果表明,云南啤酒大麦的主要特点是成熟期长,分蘖较强,植株高,旗叶面积大,穗长、穗粒数、穗粒重、千粒重、秸秆干重中等,穗草比较高;国外引进品种株型中等紧凑,叶片细长,穗粒重和千粒重较大,穗草比适中.从中筛选出19份性状优良的材料.通过聚类分析,可将供试材料划分成4个性状不同的类群,各类群的农艺性状差异明显,有利于育种目标材料的选择.%In order to select good germplasm for improvement of Yunnan malting barley, agronomic characteristics of 107 accession of malting barley from different ecological regions were evaluated and classified. The results showed that the malting barley cultivars from Yunnan have common characters of long maturity, strong tillering, high plant,wide flag leaves,middle spike length, grain number per spike,grain weight per spike, 1000-grain weight, and dry panicle grain/item. The cultivars from abroad have middle height and compact plant type,long and narrow leaves ,high single panicle grain weight, 1000-grain weight, middle panicle grain/item. Nineteen cultivars with good morphological characteristics were selected for possible parents to improve productivity of barley in Yunnan. Through a cluster analysis,the material could be divided into 4 groups with different characteristics in which differences morphological character was obvious. It would be advantageous to the choice of breeding material.

  8. The Effect of Monensin or Protexin on Gas Production Parameters of Alfalfa and Barley in the Ruminal Fungi Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid sobhanirad

    2016-11-01

    were statistically analyzed in a completely randomized design was performed by SAS (9.1 version and the least square of means. Results and Discussion Results showed the higher level of sodium monensin (1000 mg/kg decreased fermentable fraction (b, organic digestibility and metabolizable energy of both alfalfa hay and barley grain compared with other treatments significantly. The total gas production (A and the rate of gas production (c of gas production, cumulative gas production, organic digestibility and metabolizable energy of alfalfa were highest for control treatment (alfalfa without additives. But the level of 1000 mg/kg of protexin supplemented with barley increased fermentable fraction (b, cumulative gas production, organic digestibility and metabolizable energy than other treatments by ruminal fungi (p

  9. Evaluation of qualitative and quantitative immunoassays to detect barley contamination in gluten-free beer with confirmation using LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Laura K; Sealey Voyksner, Jennifer A; Voyksner, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    To meet the need for the detection and quantitation of barley gluten in beer, qualitative screening and quantitative immunoassays based on the monoclonal antigluten antibody 401/21 (Skerritt) were validated in a single laboratory. Sample replicates were tested at each stage of beer production using multiple yeast strains and methods of end-stage protein removal. Quantitation was performed using barley-specific standards based on barley flour extracts. Immunoassay results were confirmed using LC/MS/MS for barley-specific peptides. The LOD for the qualitative screening test was 5 mg/L barley gluten. Recovery for the barley-spiked worts ranged from 81 to 128% in the quantitative ELISA assay; the LOD was methods were found to be fit for the purposes of detection of low levels of barley gluten in beer.

  10. Report of test results at USSO grain elevator - 31150 Lespinasse (France). Storage in tight cells under controlled atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    Experimental tests have been conducted with a new storage system for grains: disinsectization of weevil infested wheat through carbon dioxide injection and phosphine (PH3) injection; study of the behaviour of moist harvested sunflowers, stored under carbon dioxide before drying; study of the behaviour of very humid harvested corn, stored in confined atmosphere (without addition of CO2) before drying.

  11. Microgeographic Edaphic Differentiation in Hordein Polymorphisms of Wild Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevo, E.; Beiles, A.; Storch, N.

    1983-01-01

    and topography. Likewise, significant correlations were found between hordein phenotypes and allozyme types detected in a previous study. Our results suggest that at least part of the hordein polymorphisms in wild barley is adaptive and selected by soil and topographic differences over very short distances....

  12. The effects of whole grains on nutrient digestibilities, growth performance, and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in young chicks fed ground corn-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, P; Parsons, C M

    2009-09-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of whole wheat, whole sorghum, or whole barley on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations when supplemented primarily at the expense of corn in ground corn-soybean meal control diets. The first 4 experiments utilized New Hampshire x Columbian male chicks. In the first 2 experiments, feeding 5, 10, 15, or 20% whole wheat had no effect on growth performance at 21 d when compared with chicks fed the control diet. The third experiment tested 20, 35, and 50% whole wheat fed from 0 to 21 d of age and showed that a 50% whole wheat diet decreased (Pwhole sorghum reduced (Pwhole barley had similar weight gains to chicks fed a ground corn-soybean meal diet. The fifth experiment with commercial Ross x Ross male broiler chicks evaluated 10 and 20% whole sorghum or whole barley and 20 and 35% whole wheat. Growth at 21 d was unaffected by any dietary treatment. Feed efficiency was decreased (Pwhole wheat and improved (Pwhole barley. Feeding whole grains to chicks resulted in an increase in gizzard weight, even as early as 7 d, in all experiments. Chicks fed diets containing 10 to 20% whole wheat generally had increased MEn values at 3 to 4, 7, 14, and 21 d and also had increased amino acid digestibility at 21 d in one experiment. At 21 d, cecal pH and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in all experiments were unaffected by feeding whole grains to chicks. The results of this study indicated that feeding whole wheat, sorghum, or barley increased gizzard weight, and feeding 10 to 20% whole wheat may increase ME and amino acid digestibility.

  13. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  14. Zinc absorption from low phytic acid genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) assessed in a suckling rat pup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Mendoza, Concepcion; Brown, Kenneth H; Rutger, J Neil; Raboy, Victor

    2011-05-11

    Dietary phytic acid is a major causative factor for low Zn bioavailability in many cereal- and legume-based diets. The bioavailability of Zn in seed of low phytic acid (lpa) variants of maize ( Zea mays L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) was evaluated using a suckling rat pup model. Suckling rat pups (14 days old, n = 6-8/treatment) were fasted for 6 h and intubated with (65)Zn-radiolabeled suspensions prepared using seed produced by either wild-type (normal phytic acid) or lpa genotypes of each cereal. Test solutions were radiolabeled overnight (all genotypes) or immediately prior to intubation (barley genotypes). Pups were killed 6 h postintubation and tissues removed and counted in a gamma counter. Zn absorption was low from wild-type genotypes of maize (21, 33%) and rice (26%), and phytic acid reduction resulted in significantly higher Zn absorption, 47-52 and 35-52%, respectively. Zn absorption from wild-type barley incubated overnight was high (86-91%), and phytate reduction did not improve Zn absorption (84-90%), which is likely due to endogenous phytase activity. When the wild-type barley solutions were prepared immediately before intubation, Zn absorption was significantly lower (63, 78%) than from the lpa cultivars (92, 96%). Variation in seed or flour phenolic acid levels did not affect Zn absorption. Differences in seed Zn levels did not substantially affect Zn absorption. Thus, when phytic acid is abundant in a diet, it has a larger effect on Zn absorption than the level of Zn. Therefore, reducing the phytic acid content of staple cereal grains may contribute to enhancing Zn nutrition of populations consuming these staple foods.

  15. Capacity of Fusarium species isolated from brewer's barley to synthesise zearalenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Fusarium, known as toxigenic species, are very of- ten parasites and contaminants of brewer's barley. In this paper, the composition of the genus Fusarium species in brewer's barley samples and their potential in the zearalenone synthesis were investigated. The tests were done on different brewer's barley varieties, crop 2003, samples (SSK1, SSK2, SSK3 SSK4, SSK5, SSK6, SSK7, SSK8, SSK9, SSK10 and SSK12 from Kragujevac locality. The isolation and identification of the Fusarium species were done according to the methods described by N e l s o n et al. (1983. The identified Fusarium species (6 were tested for their capacity to synthesise zearalenone. The isolates were cultivated on sterilised barley grains at the temperature of 25°C for 14 days, and then the zearalenone concentration was determined by the fluorometric method on the fluorometer "VI- CAM" series 4. The following seven Fusarium species were isolated from barley samples: F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. tricinctum. F. poae was the most distributed species (10.26%. The zearalenone concentration within the range of 12.0 to 430.0 g kg-1 was determined in cultures of barley grain inoculated with F. avenacuem (SSK6 and SSK12, F. culmorum (SSK8, F. tricinctum (SSK1, F. sporotrichioides (SSK7 and SSK12 and F. poae (SSK5, SSK9 and SSK10. Isolates of F. equiseti (SSK2 and F. poae (SSK6 did not express capacity to synthesise this toxic metabolite.

  16. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in landrace populations of barley in Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; O'Sullivan, Donal; Brown, Anthony H D; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Multilocus digenic linkage disequilibria (LD) and their population structure were investigated in eleven landrace populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) in Sardinia, using 134 dominant simple-sequence amplified polymorphism markers. The analysis of molecular variance for these markers indicated that the populations were partially differentiated (F(ST) = 0.18), and clustered into three geographic areas. Consistent with this population pattern, STRUCTURE analysis allocated individuals from a bulk of all populations into four genetic groups, and these groups also showed geographic patterns. In agreement with other molecular studies in barley, the general level of LD was low (13% of locus pairs, with P landrace populations, but that epistatic homogenising or diversifying selection was also present. Notably, the variance of the disequilibrium component was relatively high, which implies caution in the pooling of barley lines for association studies. Finally, we compared the analyses of multilocus structure in barley landrace populations with parallel analyses in both composite crosses of barley on the one hand and in natural populations of wild barley on the other. Neither of these serves as suitable mimics of landraces in barley, which require their own study. Overall, the results suggest that these populations can be exploited for LD mapping if population structure is controlled.

  17. Cisgenic barley for animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Service and Sejet Plant Breeding based on the Cisgenesis concept. Cisgenesis implies that the plants are transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material and that the final Cisgenic plants have to be free of any foreign genes. The Cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction...... of extra gene copies of a particular gene whereby a particular trait can be accentuated. Transgenic crops generated by the Cisgenesis concept are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. In our part of the project we are focusing on barley phytases as candidate genes...... using a genomic barley lambda library. The clone has been inserted into a Cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. T0-plants show...

  18. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  20. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possess a significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess little or virtually no pre-formed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during...

  1. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ghorbani, F.

    2012-01-01

    ), 3 acetyl-DON, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in naturally (n = 48) and artificially (n = 30) contaminated cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, rye triticale) is reported. The method has also been applied to whole fresh maize plant intended for production of maize...... silage (n = 10). The samples were collected from the harvest years 2006–2010, The results show that DON-3-glucoside and DON co-occurred in cereal grains and, especially in several of the highly contaminated samples, the concentration of the glucoside can be relatively high, corresponding to over 37...

  2. Chestnut wood in compression perpendicular to the grain : non-destructive correlations for test results in new and old wood

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Paulo B.; Feio, A. O.; Machado, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the compressive properties of chestnut wood under compression perpendicular to the grain, using destructive and non-destructive methods. Three non-destructive methods (ultrasonic testing, Resistograph and Pilodyn) are proposed and the possibility of their application is discussed based on the application of simple linear regression models. Timber specimens were tested up to failure, divided in two different groups for assessing a possible load h...

  3. Long-term influence of feeding barley treated with lactic acid and heat on performance and energy balance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Leonhard; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Humer, Elke; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief M; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2017-02-01

    The study evaluated the long-term influence of feeding ground barley treated with lactic acid (LA) alone or with LA and heat on performance, energy and protein balance in dairy cows. Thirty cows were fed three diets differing in the treatment of barley grain, either unprocessed ground barley (Control), ground barley steeped in 1% LA at room temperature (LA-treated barley) or ground barley steeped in 1% LA with an additional heating at 55°C (LAH-treated barley). Cows were studied from week 3 to 17 post-partum. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and composition and body weight (BW) were measured daily. Estimated energy and protein balances were calculated and blood samples were collected three times during the experiment and analysed for common metabolites of energy and lipid metabolism. Digestibility of different treated barley and other dietary ingredients was investigated in vivo using four wethers. The treatment of barley with LA and LAH increased the digestibility of organic matter (OM) by approximately 5% and the content of metabolisable energy by 0.5-0.6 MJ/kg DM. Data showed no effect of feeding diets containing LA- or LAH-treated barley at 39% of DM on overall DMI, BW, BW change, milk production and composition and on the blood variables studied. Diet influenced the estimated balances of net energy of lactation (p balances. In conclusion, feeding diets containing LA- or LAH-treated barley had no influence on performance, milk composition and blood metabolites, but LA treatment without heat seems to improve the energy balance of cows.

  4. Fermentation of barley by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: examination of barley as a feedstock for bioethanol production and value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Curtis, Jonathan M; Bressler, David C

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility.

  5. Characterization of Gibberellin Receptor Mutants of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter M.Chandler; Carol A.Harding; Anthony R.Ashton; Mark D.Mulcair; Nicholas E.Dixon; Lewis N.Mander

    2008-01-01

    The sequence of Gidl (a gene for a gibberellin (GA) receptor from rice) was used to identify a putative orthoIogue from barley.This was expressed in E.coil,and produced a protein that was able to bind GA in vitro with both structural specificity and saturability.Its potential role in GA responses was investigated using barley mutants with reduced GA sensitivity (gsel mutants).Sixteen different gsel mutants each carried a unique nucleotide substitution in this sequence.In all but one case,these changes resulted in single amino acid substitutions,and,for the remaining mutant,a substitution in the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA is proposed to interfere with translation initiation.There was perfect linkage in segregating populations between new mutant alleles and the gsel phenotype,leading to the conclusion that the putative GID1 GA receptor sequence in barley corresponds to the Gsel locus.Determination of endogenous GA contents in one of the mutants revealed enhanced accumulation of bioactive GA1,and a deficit of C20 GA precursors.All of the gsel mutants had reduced sensitivity to exogenous GA3,and to AC94377 (a GA analogue) at concentrations that are normally 'saturating',but,at much higher concentrations,there was often a considerable response.The comparison between barley and rice mutants reveals interesting differences between these two cereal species in GA hormonal physiology.

  6. 酸法提取青稞麸皮结合酚工艺优化%Optimization of combined phenols extraction with sulfuric acid from hulless barley bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐菲; 杨希娟; 党斌; 赵亚东; 吴昆仑; 迟德钊

    2016-01-01

    about the phenolic in hulless barley are of great significance. Free form, soluble combined form and insoluble combined form are the 3 main states of polyphenols in grain, and combined form is the most common state of polyphenols in grain. Research found that when respectively using acid and alkaline hydrolysis to extract combined phenols from lychee, different type and content were obtained, and the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the former were higher than the latter; a similar result was also obtained when using wheat as raw material, but related researches on combined phenol of hulless barley have not yet been reported. In order to further develop the most characteristics crop on the Tibetan plateau, taking hulless barley as the raw material, central composite design was used to optimize the extraction process of combined phenols based on the single factor experiments in this paper. Different extraction reagents, NaOH, HCl and H2SO4were compared and H2SO4solution was selected as the best extraction reagent. Acid concentration, extraction pH value, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction temperature were studied with combined phenols content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity as indices. Solid-liquid ratio, acid concentration and extraction temperature were selected as 3 factors when using Box-Behnken central composite design to optimize the extraction parameters. Results showed that the optimum extraction parameters should be as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:17 g/mL, acid concentration of 11.10%, and extraction temperature of 75℃. Under the condition, polyphenol content was 224.33 mg/(100 g) and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was 9 919.28μmol/(100 g) which were consistent with predicted values and significantly better than rice, wheat and oat. High performance liquid chromatography was used to detect this optimum extract and 8 kinds of phenolic acids and 8 kinds of flavonoids were found using acid method , such as, gallic acid, 2,4-dihydroxy

  7. Effects of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. treatment on nutrient composition and ruminal fermentability of barley straw, barley rootless, and a mixture of the two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Soto-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and its derivatives, ranks fourth in cereal production worldwide, and the Pleurotus species are among the most efficient types of lignocellulolytic white-rot fungi. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the degradation of barley straw and barley rootless with an inoculum of Pleurotus to improve their nutritional availability as a food source for ruminants. Two experiments were conducted; the first was to determine the effects of inoculation of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. (PS in barley straw (BS, barley rootless (BR, and a 75% BS and 25% BR mixture (M. The second experiment was to evaluate the same substrates in vitro ruminal fermentation. Barley rootless had better organic matter (OM degradability than BS after 24 h incubation with PS. The protein content in BR was higher than in BS (P < 0.01. Enzyme activities had the highest concentration from the start of fermentation, and in vitro dry matter (DM degradability in BS and BR increased after 8 and 24 d fermentation, respectively (P < 0.05. Propionic acid concentration was enhanced after 16 d fermentation in BR (P < 0.5. The use of BS combined with BR exhibited better fermentation; this result provides relevant information for integrating BR with other substrates and improving the use of straw, which can be more nutritionally available for feeding ruminants.

  8. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  9. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future.

  10. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the pre

  11. Issues surrounding health claims for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Nancy P; Rhymer, Camille R

    2008-06-01

    Government-approved health claims support dietary intervention as a safe and practical approach to improving consumer health and provide industry with regulatory guidelines for food product labels. Claims already allowed in the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands for reducing cholesterol through consumption of oat or barley soluble fiber provide a basis for review, but each country may have different criteria for assessing clinical evidence for a physiological effect. For example, the FDA-approved barley health claim was based on a petition that included 39 animal model studies and 11 human clinical trials. Since then, more studies have been published, but with few exceptions, clinical data continue to demonstrate that the consumption of barley products is effective for lowering total and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to fully understand the mechanism of cholesterol reduction and the role of beta-glucan molecular weight, viscosity, and solubility. In an assessment of the physiological efficacy of a dietary intervention, consideration should also be given to the potential impact of physical and thermal food-processing treatments and genotypic variation in the barley source. New barley cultivars have been generated specifically for food use, possessing increased beta-glucan, desirable starch composition profiles, and improved milling/processing traits. These advances in barley production, coupled with the establishment of a government-regulated health claim for barley beta-glucan, will stimulate new processing opportunities for barley foods and provide consumers with reliable, healthy food choices.

  12. Analysis of alkylresorcinols in wheat germ oil and barley germ oil via HPLC and flourescence detection: Cochromatography with tocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkylresorcinols are long chain phenolic compounds that have been reported to be localized in the outer layers of the kernels of wheat, rye, barley and other grains. A sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection was recently reported for the quantitative analysis of alkylresorcinols in cereal...

  13. Synthesis, processing and export of cytoplasmic endo-ß-1,4-xylanase from barley aleurone during germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspers, M.P.M.; Lok, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.; Zeijl, M. van; Nielsen, K.A.; Cameron-Mills, V.

    2001-01-01

    We have identified the major endo-β-l,4-xylanase (XYN-1) in the aleurone of germinating barley grain, and show that it is expressed as a precursor of Mr 61 500 with both N- and C-terminal propeptides. XYN-1 is synthesized as an inactive enzyme in the cytoplasm, and only becomes active at a late stag

  14. Antisense downregulation of the barley limit dextrinase inhibitor modulates starch granule size distribution, starch composition and amylopectin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Yvonne; Coates, Steve; Bryce, James H; Morris, Peter C

    2004-08-01

    The barley protein limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI), structurally related to the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family, is an inhibitor of the starch debranching enzyme limit dextrinase (LD). In order to investigate the function of LDI, and the consequences for starch metabolism of reduced LDI activity, transgenic barley plants designed to downregulate LDI by antisense were generated. Homozygous antisense lines with reduced LDI protein level and activity were analysed and found to have enhanced free LD activity in both developing and germinating grains. In addition the antisense lines showed unpredicted pleiotropic effects on numerous enzyme activities, for example, alpha- and beta-amylases and starch synthases. Analysis of the starch showed much reduced numbers of the small B-type starch granules, as well as reduced amylose relative to amylopectin levels and reduced total starch. The chain length distribution of the amylopectin was modified with less of the longer chains (>25 units) and enhanced number of medium chains (10-15 units). These results suggest an important role for LDI and LD during starch synthesis as well as during starch breakdown.

  15. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Background In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. Results In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong doubl...

  16. Uzu mutation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reduces the leaf unrolling response to brassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Chono, Makiko; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-05-01

    A sensitive method to examine the brassinolide (BL) response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using dark-grown leaf segments was established based on the known method for wheat. BL responses of 53 dwarf isogenic lines of barley were examined, and two lines were found having a uzu gene that doesn't respond significantly. These results indicate that uzu dwarfism may be caused by the non-responding character to BL.

  17. Cell wall degradation is required for normal starch mobilisation in barley endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M E; Rejzek, Martin; Barclay, Elaine; Rugen, Michael D; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

    2016-09-13

    Starch degradation in barley endosperm provides carbon for early seedling growth, but the control of this process is poorly understood. We investigated whether endosperm cell wall degradation is an important determinant of the rate of starch degradation. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of enzymes that degrade the cell wall component arabinoxylan. The iminosugar 1,4-dideoxy-1, 4-imino-l-arabinitol (LAB) inhibits arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase (AXAH) but does not inhibit the main starch-degrading enzymes α- and β-amylase and limit dextrinase. AXAH activity in the endosperm appears soon after the onset of germination and resides in dimers putatively containing two isoforms, AXAH1 and AXAH2. Upon grain imbibition, mobilisation of arabinoxylan and starch spreads across the endosperm from the aleurone towards the crease. The front of arabinoxylan degradation precedes that of starch degradation. Incubation of grains with LAB decreases the rate of loss of both arabinoxylan and starch, and retards the spread of both degradation processes across the endosperm. We propose that starch degradation in the endosperm is dependent on cell wall degradation, which permeabilises the walls and thus permits rapid diffusion of amylolytic enzymes. AXAH may be of particular importance in this respect. These results provide new insights into the mobilization of endosperm reserves to support early seedling growth.

  18. Cell wall degradation is required for normal starch mobilisation in barley endosperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M. E.; Rejzek, Martin; Barclay, Elaine; Rugen, Michael D.; Field, Robert A.; Smith, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    Starch degradation in barley endosperm provides carbon for early seedling growth, but the control of this process is poorly understood. We investigated whether endosperm cell wall degradation is an important determinant of the rate of starch degradation. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of enzymes that degrade the cell wall component arabinoxylan. The iminosugar 1,4-dideoxy-1, 4-imino-l-arabinitol (LAB) inhibits arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase (AXAH) but does not inhibit the main starch-degrading enzymes α- and β-amylase and limit dextrinase. AXAH activity in the endosperm appears soon after the onset of germination and resides in dimers putatively containing two isoforms, AXAH1 and AXAH2. Upon grain imbibition, mobilisation of arabinoxylan and starch spreads across the endosperm from the aleurone towards the crease. The front of arabinoxylan degradation precedes that of starch degradation. Incubation of grains with LAB decreases the rate of loss of both arabinoxylan and starch, and retards the spread of both degradation processes across the endosperm. We propose that starch degradation in the endosperm is dependent on cell wall degradation, which permeabilises the walls and thus permits rapid diffusion of amylolytic enzymes. AXAH may be of particular importance in this respect. These results provide new insights into the mobilization of endosperm reserves to support early seedling growth. PMID:27622597

  19. Environmental impacts of barley cultivation under current and future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Saxe, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of spring barley cultivation in Denmark under current (year 2010) and future (year 2050) climatic conditions. Therefore, a Life Cycle Assessment was carried out for the production of 1 kg of spring barley in Denmark, at farm gate....... Both under 2010 and 2050 climatic conditions, four subscenarios were modelled, based on a combination of two soil types and two climates. Included in the assessment were seed production, soil preparation, fertilization, pesticide application, and harvest. When processes in the life cycle resulted in co...... categories, except human and freshwater eco-toxicity, are higher when the barley is produced under climatic circumstances representative for 2050. Comparison of the 2010 and 2050 climatic scenarios indicates that a predicted decrease in barley yields under the 2050 climatic conditions is the main driver...

  20. High-level expression of the native barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Pernille Ollendorff; Ostergaard, Peter Rahbek; Lange, Lene;

    2008-01-01

    An expression system for high-level expression of the native Hordeum vulgare alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) has been developed in Pichia pastoris, using the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. To optimize expression, two codon-optimized coding regions have been designed...... and characterized by Edman degradation, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and insoluble blue starch assay, and was shown to possess the same characteristics as wild-type protein purified from barley grains....

  1. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  2. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles and fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and fibrolytic enzymes (FE) on ruminal fermentation, in situ ruminal and in vivo total tract digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 6 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 794 ± 44.2 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were a control diet consisting of 50% barley silage, 10% grass hay, and 40% barley grain-based concentrate (CON) and the CON with 15% DDGS substituted for barley grain (WDG) combined with either 0, 1, or 2 mL FE/kg diet DM, respectively. Inclusion of DDGS increased total tract digestibility of CP ( effects of DDGS inclusion or FE on ruminal pH or VFA concentration except that propionate was greater ( = 0.04) with the WDG. In situ ruminal DM and NDF disappearance of barley silage was greater ( < 0.04) in heifers fed the WDG than in heifers fed the CON after 24 h of incubation. Increasing FE linearly ( = 0.03) increased in situ NDF disappearance of barley silage after 24 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 120 weaned steers (initial BW of 289 ± 11.0 kg) were fed diets similar to those in Exp. 1. The steers fed the WDG had greater ( < 0.01) final BW, ADG, DMI, and G:F compared with steers fed the CON. Increasing FE did not alter ADG or G:F but tended ( < 0.07) to linearly decrease DMI. There were interactions ( < 0.02) between DDGS and FE on eating rate and the time spent at the feed bunk. Supplementing FE decreased ( < 0.01) time at the bunk and increased ( < 0.01) eating rate for steers fed the WDG but not for steers fed the CON. Eating rate ( < 0.01) and meal frequency ( = 0.02) were greater but eating duration was shorter ( < 0.01) for steers fed the WDG than for those fed the CON. These results indicate that inclusion of wheat DDGS in a growing diet increased total tract digestibility of NDF and CP and improved the

  3. A barley PHD finger transcription factor that confers male sterility by affecting tapetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Gómez, José; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-08-01

    Controlling pollen development is of major commercial importance in generating hybrid crops and selective breeding, but characterized genes for male sterility in crops are rare, with no current examples in barley. However, translation of knowledge from model species is now providing opportunities to understand and manipulate such processes in economically important crops. We have used information from regulatory networks in Arabidopsis to identify and functionally characterize a barley PHD transcription factor MALE STERTILITY1 (MS1), which expresses in the anther tapetum and plays a critical role during pollen development. Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis, rice and Brachypodium genomes was used to identify conserved regions in MS1 for primer design to amplify the barley MS1 gene; RACE-PCR was subsequently used to generate the full-length sequence. This gene shows anther-specific tapetal expression, between late tetrad stage and early microspore release. HvMS1 silencing and overexpression in barley resulted in male sterility. Additionally, HvMS1 cDNA, controlled by the native Arabidopsis MS1 promoter, successfully complemented the homozygous ms1 Arabidopsis mutant. These results confirm the conservation of MS1 function in higher plants and in particular in temperate cereals. This has provided the first example of a characterized male sterility gene in barley, which presents a valuable tool for the future control of male fertility in barley for hybrid development.

  4. Grain dormancy and light quality effects on germination in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, José M; Jacobsen, John V; Talbot, Mark J; White, Rosemary G; Swain, Stephen M; Garvin, David F; Gubler, Frank

    2012-01-01

    • Lack of grain dormancy in cereal crops such as barley and wheat is a common problem affecting farming areas around the world, causing losses in yield and quality because of preharvest sprouting. Control of seed or grain dormancy has been investigated extensively using various approaches in different species, including Arabidopsis and cereals. However, the use of a monocot model plant such as Brachypodium distachyon presents opportunities for the discovery of new genes related to grain dormancy that are not present in modern commercial crops. • In this work we present an anatomical description of the Brachypodium caryopsis, and we describe the dormancy behaviour of six common diploid Brachypodium inbred genotypes. We also study the effect of light quality (blue, red and far-red) on germination, and analyse changes in abscisic acid levels and gene expression between a dormant and a non-dormant Brachypodium genotype. • Our results indicate that different genotypes display high natural variability in grain dormancy and that the characteristics of dormancy and germination are similar to those found in other cereals. • We propose that Brachypodium is an ideal model for studies of grain dormancy in grasses and can be used to identify new strategies for increasing grain dormancy in crop species.

  5. Biomarker of whole grain wheat intake associated lower BMI in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids in the bran fraction of some whole grains (wheat, rye and barley). Plasma AR reflect recent intake of these whole grains. We examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR (measured by LCMS/ MS), whole wheat intake, and body mass index (BMI) in ...

  6. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Thomassen, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD......The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates......+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P

  7. Assessment and introduction of quantitative resistance to Fusarium head blight in elite spring barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkmeyer, A; Götz, M; Hu, L; Asam, S; Rychlik, M; Hausladen, H; Hess, M; Hückelhoven, R

    2013-12-01

    Breeding for resistance is a key task to control Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of small cereals leading to economic losses and grain contamination with mycotoxins harmful for humans and animals. In the present work, FHB resistance of the six-rowed spring barley 'Chevron' to FHB in Germany was compared with those of adapted German spring barley cultivars. Both under natural infection conditions and after spray inoculation with conidia of Fusarium culmorum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. avenaceum under field conditions, Chevron showed a high level of quantitative resistance to the infection and contamination of grain with diverse mycotoxins. This indicates that Chevron is not only a little susceptible to deoxynivalenol-producing Fusarium spp. but also to Fusarium spp. producing type A trichothecenes and enniatins. Monitoring the initial infection course of F. culmorum on barley lemma tissue by confocal laser-scanning microscopy provided evidence that FHB resistance of Chevron is partially mediated by a preformed penetration resistance, because direct penetration of floral tissue by F. culmorum was observed rarely on Chevron but was common on susceptible genotypes. Alternatively, F. culmorum penetrated Chevron lemma tissue via stomata, which was unusual for susceptible genotypes. We generated double-haploid barley populations segregating for the major FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Qrgz-2H-8 of Chevron. Subsequently, we characterized these populations by spray inoculation with conidia of F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides. This suggested that Qrgz-2H-8 was functional in the genetic background of European elite barley cultivars. However, the degree of achieved resistance was very low when compared with quantitative resistance of the QTL donor Chevron, and the introgression of Qrgz-2H-8 was not sufficient to mediate the cellular resistance phenotype of Chevron in the European backgrounds.

  8. Primer extension studies on alpha-amylase mRNAs in barley aleurone. II. Hormonal regulation of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, P M; Jacobsen, J V

    1991-04-01

    Relative levels of different alpha-amylase mRNAs were assessed by primer extension experiments using RNA prepared from aleurone of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Himalaya). Three different aleurone systems were studied: protoplasts prepared from aleurone layers, isolated aleurone layers, and aleurone from germinated grain. Oligonucleotide primers specific for the low-pI and high-pI alpha-amylase groups allowed the levels of different alpha-amylase mRNAs to be assessed both within and between the two groups. In all aleurone systems the same set of alpha-amylase mRNAs was produced in response to either applied gibberellic acid (aleurone protoplasts, isolated aleurone layers) or, presumably, native gibberellin(s) (germinated grain). This result indicates that the same set of genes is being expressed in each case. Differences were observed between the different aleurone systems in regulation of levels of alpha-amylase mRNAs. In particular, the regulation of alpha-amylase mRNA levels in aleurone of germinated grain has unique features which are not adequately explained by the response of isolated aleurone layers to gibberellic acid.

  9. Effect of wide variation of the Waxy gene on starch properties in hull-less barley from Qinghai-Tibet plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao; Pan, Zhifen; Deng, Guangbing; Long, Hai; Li, Zhongyi; Deng, Xiaoqing; Liang, JunJun; Tang, Yawei; Zeng, Xingquan; Tashi, Nyima; Yu, Maoqun

    2014-11-26

    Granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSS I) plays an important role in the synthesis of amylose and in the determination of starch properties in barley grains. Genomic DNAs for the Waxy gene encoding GBSS I protein were sequenced from 34 barley accessions or lines from Qinghai-Tibet plateau in China, to identify Waxy gene nucleotide variations and study the roles of polymorphic sites of the Waxy gene on expression levels of Waxy transcripts and GBSS I proteins and on resulting starch properties. A total of 116 DNA polymorphic sites were identified within the barley Waxy gene, which divided the studied accessions into 11 haplotypes. Among 33 nucleotide polymorphic sites in coding regions, 5 SNPs in three exons were found to play different roles on the expression level of the Waxy transcript and the GBSS I protein and on the amylose content and starch properties. One SNP G(3935)-to-T substitution in the 10th exon in the accession Z999 (HP II-2) caused a high expression level of the Waxy transcript and the GBSS I protein and the amylose free phenotype. The other SNP alteration was a C(2453)-to-T in the fifth exon in the accession Z1191 (HP I-5), which drastically reduced the expression level of the Waxy transcript and the GBSS I protein and, finally, produced the amylose free phenotype. Three SNPs in the seventh exon in the accession Z1337 (HP I-6) did not significantly change the level of Waxy transcript, the GBSS I protein, and starch properties, except obviously reducing the breakdown value of starch viscosity and extending the peak time. A total of 84 DNA polymorphic sites were found in the noncoding regions. A 403 bp deletion at 5'UTR in the accession Z1979 (HP I-3) had low transcript level, low GBSS I protein level, and low amylose content due to the deletion of cis-acting DNA regulatory elements. A 191 bp insertion and a 15 bp insertion in the first intron and second exons, respectively, may be closely related to a higher transcript level of the Waxy gene and

  10. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    the wild-type cultivar. These exciting results may provide a potential clean technological approach to starch modification by in-planta bioengineering and avoid environmental hazards resulting from post-harvest treatments by chemical modifications. The third study was to investigate the effects...... involved in this process, has enabled the genetic modification f crops in a rational manner to produce novel designer starches with improved functionality. The hypothesis of the present study is that the hyper-phosphorylation of cereal endosperm starch makes it easily accessible and degradable...... by the amylolytic enzymes while the amylose-only endosperm starch exhibits high resistance to degradation and hence less available for degradation. With the aim to investigate the hypothesis, starch molecular structures were modulated with the above mentioned modifications and were studied for the effects...

  11. Digestion during continuous culture fermentation when replacing perennial ryegrass with barley and steam-flaked corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, W J; Kolver, E S; Egan, A R

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the optimal inclusion rate of grain required to maximize nutrient digestion of a diet based on highly digestible pasture. It was hypothesized that maximum digestion would occur at a rate of grain inclusion that resulted in a culture pH of 6.0, reflecting the pH below which fiber digestion would be expected to be compromised. Four dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were used to establish the effects on digestion of replacing freeze-dried, highly digestible ryegrass with 0, 15, 30, and 45% of dry matter as 60% barley, 35% steam-flaked corn, and 5% molasses mix. The respective composite diets were fed twice daily to mimic intake patterns observed in dairy cows offered supplements during milking and offered half their daily allowance of pasture after each milking. Digesta samples were collected during the last 3 d of each of four 9-d experimental periods. Average daily culture pH decreased linearly as proportion of cereal grain in the diet increased, with average daily pH ranging from 6.29 to 5.74. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber and total fatty acids decreased linearly with increasing proportion of cereal grain in the diet. Digestion of organic matter (OM) was maximized at an interpolated value of 24% grain inclusion and culture pH of 6.0, but the difference in the OM digestibility over the range of grain treatments from 0 to 45% was small (3 percentage units) despite pH changes over a range of 6.3 to 5.7. The relatively small change in OM digestibility was explained by reduced fiber and crude protein digestibilities being balanced by an increased digestion of nonstructural carbohydrate. Although different relationships between ruminal pH and digestibility appear to exist when cows are fed pasture alone compared with a total mixed ration, when starch supplements are included in pasture diets, the relationships associated with feeding a total mixed ration may then be more likely to apply.

  12. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  13. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PREPLANT TREATING OF SEEDS WITH INDUSTRIAL ALTERNATING ELECTROMAGNETIC FREQUENCY (EMF PF 50 HZ ON THE GERMINATION ENERGY OF MIDRIPENING SPRING BARLEY SEEDS OF THE VARIETIES OF VAKULA, VIKONT, RATNIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobova M. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of physical factors for preplant stimulation of seeds increases vigor, germination and improves the yield of agricultural products. One of the effective ways to improve seed grain quality is to impact on the seeds using physical factors, in particular, an alternating electromagnetic field of industrial frequency of 50 Hz (EMF of IF of 50 Hz. We studied the impact of EMF of IF of 50 Hz on the energy germination of mid-ripening spring barley seeds of promising varieties Vakula, Vikont, Ratnik. Carrying out the experimental studies we used a laboratory setup with annular pole points of rectangular cross section. Our disperse analysis resulted in data on germinative energy of seeds of spring barley varieties Vakula, Vikont, Ratnik, which showed that while treating seeds of spring barley by an alternating electromagnetic field of industrial frequency of 50Hz, we obtained the best values of germinative energy of seeds of Variety Vikont with a mode of processing being equal to W = 16%, T = 2 c, L = 0,03 m

  15. Genome-wide association study of production and stability traits in barley cultivated under future climate scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, Gunter; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    Future barley cultivars will have to produce under the constraints of higher temperature in combination with increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone as a consequence of climate change. A diverse set of 167 spring barley genotypes was cultivated under elevated levels...... to identify markers for increased primary production under climate change conditions and reveal possible genes of interest. Phenotyped traits included grain yield, number of grains, number of ears per plant, aboveground vegetative biomass, harvest index and stability of the production parameters over the five...... applied treatments. The GWAS encompassed 7864 SNP markers (Illumina iselect), a compressed mixed linear model with the GAPIT package, and conservative validation of markers. A total of 60 marker-trait associations [−log10(P value) 2.97–5.58] were identified, e.g. grain yield under elevated temperature...

  16. Initial Effects of Differently Treated Biogas Residues from Municipal and Industrial Wastes on Spring Barley Yield Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prays, Nadia; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Soil application of biogas residues (BGRs) is important for closing nutrient cycles. This study examined the efficiency and impact on yields and yield formation of solid-liquid separated residues from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes (bio-waste) in comparison to complete BGRs, nitrification inhibitor, agricultural BGRs, mineral fertilizer and unfertilized plots as control. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design on silt loam Cambisol. Biogas residues from four biogas plants were evaluated. Plants per m², ears per plant, grains per ear and thousand grain weight (TGW) were measured at harvest. Fertilization with BGRs resulted in similar biomass yields compared with mineral fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer (71 dt/ha) and plots fertilized with liquid fraction (59-62 dt/ha) indicated a trend to higher yields than solid fraction or complete BGR due to its high ammonia content. Liquid fractions and fraction with nitrification inhibitor induced fewer plants per m² than corresponding solid and complete variants due to a potential phytotoxicity of high NH4-N concentration during germination. However, barley on plots fertilized with liquid fraction compensated the disadvantages at the beginning during the vegetation period and induced higher grain yields than solid fraction. This was attributable to a higher number of ears per plant and grains per ear. In conclusion, BGRs from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes can be used for soil fertilization and replace considerable amounts of mineral fertilizer. Our study showed that direct application of the liquid fraction of BGR is the most suitable strategy to achieve highest grain yields. Nevertheless potential phytotoxicity of the high NH4-N concentration in the liquid fraction should be considered.

  17. Initial Effects of Differently Treated Biogas Residues from Municipal and Industrial Wastes on Spring Barley Yield Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Prays

    Full Text Available Soil application of biogas residues (BGRs is important for closing nutrient cycles. This study examined the efficiency and impact on yields and yield formation of solid-liquid separated residues from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes (bio-waste in comparison to complete BGRs, nitrification inhibitor, agricultural BGRs, mineral fertilizer and unfertilized plots as control. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design on silt loam Cambisol. Biogas residues from four biogas plants were evaluated. Plants per m², ears per plant, grains per ear and thousand grain weight (TGW were measured at harvest. Fertilization with BGRs resulted in similar biomass yields compared with mineral fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer (71 dt/ha and plots fertilized with liquid fraction (59-62 dt/ha indicated a trend to higher yields than solid fraction or complete BGR due to its high ammonia content. Liquid fractions and fraction with nitrification inhibitor induced fewer plants per m² than corresponding solid and complete variants due to a potential phytotoxicity of high NH4-N concentration during germination. However, barley on plots fertilized with liquid fraction compensated the disadvantages at the beginning during the vegetation period and induced higher grain yields than solid fraction. This was attributable to a higher number of ears per plant and grains per ear. In conclusion, BGRs from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes can be used for soil fertilization and replace considerable amounts of mineral fertilizer. Our study showed that direct application of the liquid fraction of BGR is the most suitable strategy to achieve highest grain yields. Nevertheless potential phytotoxicity of the high NH4-N concentration in the liquid fraction should be considered.

  18. Effect of ozone pretreatment on hydrogen production from barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangning; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Upreti, Simant

    2013-09-01

    Application of ozone technology to lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored with a barley straw. Ozone pretreatment effectively degraded the straw lignin and increased reducing sugar yield. A simultaneous enzyme hydrolysis and dark fermentation experiment was conducted using a mixed anaerobic consortium together with saccharification enzymes. Both untreated and ozonated samples produced hydrogen. Compared to the untreated group, hydrogen produced by the groups ozonated for 15, 30, 45 and 90 min increased 99%, 133%, 166% and 94%, respectively. Some inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed with the samples ozonated for 90 min, and the inhibition was on the fermentative microorganisms, not the saccharification enzymes. These results demonstrate that production of biohydrogen from barley straw, a lignocellulosic biomass, can be significantly enhanced by ozone pretreatment.

  19. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  20. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  1. Effects of feeding hull-less barley on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2017-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). All diets contained ∼20% grain (dry matter basis). Treatments consisted of 100% corn (0B), 67% corn and 33% hull-less barley (33B), 33% corn and 67% hull-less barley (67B), and 100% hull-less barley (100B) as the grain sources. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was estimated using lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) as an external marker. Dry matter intake differed quadratically among treatments, being lowest for 67B and highest for 0B and 100B. Feeding hull-less barley did not affect milk yield, and milk fat concentration differed cubically among treatments. The cubic response was attributed to the higher milk fat concentration observed for the diet containing 67B. Neither the concentrations in milk of protein and lactose nor the yields of protein and lactose differed among treatments. The proportion of de novo synthesized fatty acids in milk did not differ among treatments. The apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ among treatments. Although a quadratic effect was observed, starch digestibility was minimally affected by treatments. In conclusion, this study indicates that hull-less barley grain is as good as corn grain as an energy source when formulating diets for high-producing dairy cows.

  2. The competitive ability of pea–barley intercrops against weeds and the interactions with crop productivity and soil N availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corre-Hellou, G.; Dibet, A.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Grain legumes, such as peas (Pisum sativum L.), are known to be weak competitors against weeds when grown as the sole crop. In this study, the weed-suppression effect of pea–barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) intercropping compared to the respective sole crops was examined in organic field experiments...... (2003–2005). The weed biomass was three times higher under the pea sole crops than under both the intercrops and barley sole crops at maturity. The inclusion of joint experiments in several countries and various growing conditions showed that intercrops maintain a highly asymmetric competition over...... weeds, regardless of the particular weed infestation (species and productivity), the crop biomass or the soil nitrogen availability. The intercropping weed suppression was highly resilient, whereas the weed suppression in pea sole crops was lower and more variable. The pea–barley intercrops exhibited...

  3. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic analysis of the effects of cereal type and variety within a type of grain on structural makeup in relation to rumen degradation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Amanda M; Yu, Peiqiang; Christensen, Colleen R; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J

    2009-08-12

    The objectives of this study were to use Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) to determine structural makeup (features) of cereal grain endosperm tissue and to reveal and identify differences in protein and carbohydrate structural makeup between different cereal types (corn vs barley) and between different varieties within a grain (barley CDC Bold, CDC Dolly, Harrington, and Valier). Another objective was to investigate how these structural features relate to rumen degradation kinetics. The items assessed included (1) structural differences in protein amide I to nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC, starch) intensity and ratio within cellular dimensions; (2) molecular structural differences in the secondary structure profile of protein, alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and their ratio; (3) structural differences in NSC to amide I ratio profile. From the results, it was observed that (1) comparison between grain types [corn (cv. Pioneer 39P78) vs barley (cv. Harrington)] showed significant differences in structural makeup in terms of NSC, amide I to NSC ratio, and rumen degradation kinetics (degradation ratio, effective degradability of dry matter, protein and NSC) (P degradation kinetics (effective degradability of dry matter, protein, and NSC) (P degradation kinetics in terms of the degradation rate (R = 0.91, P = 0.086) and effective degradability of dry matter (R = 0.93, P = 0.071). The results suggest that with the FTIRM technique, the structural makeup differences between cereal types and between different varieties within a type of grain could be revealed. These structural makeup differences were related to the rate and extent of rumen degradation.

  4. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  5. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...

  6. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation.

  7. Health status of five spring barley cultivars cultivated under organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baturo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare health status of harvested grain of spring barley cv. Rudzik, Rodos, Start and Maresi cultivated in organic system and cv. Damazy grown in an organic farm. Analyses showed that prevalent pathogen on grain was Bipolaris sorokiniana isolated from 48% of grains. Fungi from genus of Fusarium were obtained less numerously, from 27% of grains and were represented mainly by F. poae and F. avenaceum. Microscopic analysis of F. poae was confirmed by PCR analysis. All cultivars were intensively diseased by B. sorokiniana, thus it is impossible to show a cultivar especially recommended for this system, where B. sorokiniana can be serious problem. However cv. Damazy showed relatively the lowest infestation by B. sorokiniana and it also was not more intensively diseased by Fusarium spp. It is very important in nutrition aspect because these fungi can be dangerous for both human and animal health due to their abilities to produce mycotoxins.

  8. Effects of ethylene on root elongation in barley and rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, A.; Hall, M.A.; Crossett, R.N.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of rice and barley to growth inhibition by ethylene. The mechanism of growth inhibition was investigated at the cellular level and a detailed comparison was made between the responses of the two species. The following measurements were made on intact plants in short (up to 200 minutes), medium (up to 3 days) or long (up to 10 days) experiments: the rate of extension growth of main root axes; the final cell length and number of elongating cells produced; and the extensibility of the apical growing region. Results indicate that the effects of ethylene on the elongation of roots of rice and barley plants are different. In barley there is a rapid inhibition of root extension which persists with prolonged exposure to the gas but with little effect on the production of growing cells. However, rice roots exhibit no rapid growth inhibition response, but a reduction does occur after prolonged exposure. Low concentrations promote extension rice roots. The inhibition of root growth is reflected in a reduced extensibility of the apical growing region.

  9. Pysicochemical properties of Tibetan hull-less barley starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Gong, Lingxiao; Zhang, Ying; Jane, Jay-lin

    2016-02-10

    Objectives of this study were to (1) determine the starch physicochemical properties of two commercial Tibetan hull-less barley varieties, Beiqing (BQ) and Kangqing (KQ); and (2) understand the relationship between unique properties of the starches, their structures, and impacts of growing conditions. The BQ barleys were grown at a location with lower temperature and less rainfall compared with the KQ barleys. The BQ starches showed significantly lower onset-gelatinization temperature (54.1-54.9 °C), larger gelatinization-temperature range (9.4-10.6 °C), and higher peak-viscosities (138.9-153.9RVU) than the KQ starches (55.1-56.1 °C, 7.4-8.8 °C, and 63.4-64.7RVU, respectively). After a treatment with 2% sodium-dodecyl-sulphate solution, the KQ starches showed substantially greater increases in peak viscosities than the BQ starches. Annealing of starch and enhanced amylose-lipid complex formation, resulting from higher growing temperature during the development of the KQ starches, likely contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties between the BQ and KQ starches.

  10. Influence of grain orientation on evolution of surface features in fatigued polycrystalline copper: A comparison of thermal and uniaxial mechanical fatigue results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aicheler, Markus, E-mail: markus.aicheler@cern.c [EN-MME-MM Metallurgy and Metrology, CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Surface state plays a major role in the crack nucleation process of pure metals in the High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF) as well as in the Ultra-High-Cycle-Fatigue (UHCF) regime. Therefore, in studies dealing with HCF or UHCF, special attention is paid to the evolution of surface degradation during fatigue life. The accelerating structures of the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN will be submitted to a high number of thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles, arising from Radio Frequency (RF) induced eddy currents, causing local superficial cyclic heating. The number of cycles during the foreseen lifetime of CLIC reaches 2x10{sup 11}. Fatigue may limit the lifetime of CLIC structures. In order to assess the effects of superficial fatigue, specific tests are defined and performed on polycrystalline Oxygen Free Electronic (OFE) grade Copper, a candidate material for the structures. Surface degradation depends on the orientation of near-surface grains. Copper samples thermally fatigued in two different fatigue experiments, pulsed laser and pulsed RF-heating, underwent postmortem Electron Backscattered Diffraction measurements. Samples fatigued by pulsed laser show the same trend in the orientation-fatigue damage behavior as samples fatigued by pulsed RF-heating. It is clearly observed that surface grains, oriented [1 1 1] with respect to the surface, show significantly more damage than surface grains oriented [1 0 0]. Results arising from a third fatigue experiment, the ultrasound (US) swinger, are compared to the results of the mentioned experiments. The US swinger is an uniaxial mechanical fatigue test enabling to apply within several days a total number of cycles representative of the life of the CLIC structures, thanks to a high repetition rate of 24 kHz. For comparison, laser fatigue experiments have much lower repetition rates. The dependence of surface degradation on grain orientation of samples tested by the US swinger was monitored during the fatigue

  11. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms based on RNA sequencing data of diverse bio-geographical accessions in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahagi, Kotaro; Uehara-Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Mochida, Keiichi; Saisho, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Barley is one of the founder crops of Old world agriculture and has become the fourth most important cereal worldwide. Information on genome-scale DNA polymorphisms allows elucidating the evolutionary history behind domestication, as well as discovering and isolating useful genes for molecular breeding. Deep transcriptome sequencing enables the exploration of sequence variations in transcribed sequences; such analysis is particularly useful for species with large and complex genomes, such as barley. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of 20 barley accessions, comprising representatives of several biogeographic regions and a wild ancestor. We identified 38,729 to 79,949 SNPs in the 19 domesticated accessions and 55,403 SNPs in the wild barley and revealed their genome-wide distribution using a reference genome. Genome-scale comparisons among accessions showed a clear differentiation between oriental and occidental barley populations. The results based on population structure analyses provide genome-scale properties of sub-populations grouped to oriental, occidental and marginal groups in barley. Our findings suggest that the oriental population of domesticated barley has genomic variations distinct from those in occidental groups, which might have contributed to barley’s domestication. PMID:27616653

  12. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-12-01

    In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and wheat straw of three different pretreatment procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose concentrations obtained after enzymatic hydrolyses were related to the potential glucose present in the pretreated residues, the highest yield, approximately 48% (g g-1), was obtained with hot water extraction pretreatment of barley straw; this pretreatment also produced highest yields for wheat straw, producing a glucose yield of approximately 39% (g g-1). Addition of extra enzyme (Celluclast 1.5 L+Novozyme 188) during enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the highest total glucose concentrations from barley straw, 32-39 g L-1, but the relative increases in glucose yields were higher on wheat straw than on barley straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid-impregnated samples.

  13. Inheritance of the number and thickness of cell layers in barley aleurone tissue (Hordeum vulgare L.): an approach using F2-F3 progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestin, Louis; Ravel, Catherine; Auroy, Sylvie; Laubin, Bastien; Perretant, Marie-Reine; Pont, Caroline; Charmet, Gilles

    2008-05-01

    The aleurone tissue of cereal grains, nutritionally rich in minerals and vitamins, is an important target for the improvement of cereals. Inheritance of the thickness and the number of cell layers in barley aleurone was studied on the F2-F3 progeny of an Erhard Frederichen x Criolla Negra cross in which the parental lines have three or two aleurone layers, respectively. F3 grain was sampled from each F2 plant and 96.8% of the entire F3 grain population was classified as being either the 2- or 3-layer type. Using microsatellite, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and morphological markers on 190 F2 plants, a linkage map was built. Three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting aleurone traits were revealed on chromosome 5H (max. LOD = 5.83) and chromosome 7H (max. LOD = 4.45) by interval mapping, and on chromosome 2H by marker analysis with an unmapped marker. These QTLs were consistent with genetic sub-models involving either 2-cell type dominance for 7H and 2H, or putative partial dominance for 5H where 2-cell-layer dominance and additivity gave similar LODs. The number of aleurone cell layers and aleurone thickness were strongly correlated and QTL results for these traits were alike. An SNP marker of sal1, an orthologue of the maize multilayer aleurone gene was mapped to the 7HL chromosome arm. However, the 7H QTL did not co-locate with the barley sal1 SNP, suggesting that an additional gene is involved in determining aleurone traits. These new mapping data allow comparisons to be made with related studies.

  14. Spatial pattern of grain-size distribution in surface sediments as a result of variations in the aeolian environment in China's Shapotou railway protective system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaqiong; Zhang, Chunlai; Zhou, Na; Ma, Xiaojie

    2011-12-01

    China's Shapotou railway protective system provides effective protection against the region's mobile sands, but little quantitative evidence is available about how it affects the aeolian environment surrounding the railway. In the present study, we analyzed the grain-size distribution in surface sediments as a result of variations in the aeolian environment at different spatial scales: the scale of a cross-section of the protective system along the prevailing wind direction (from the northwest to southeast), of individual stabilized sand dunes in the area protected by straw checkerboards and unirrigated vegetation, of the area around individual plants in the protective system, and of individual straw checkerboards. Surface sediments were sampled to define the spatial pattern of the grain-size distribution at these four scales. Along the transect from the area of mobile dunes through the protective system, sediment particles became finer (silt and clay contents increased) and sorting decreased. This indicated that the protective system is a deposition-dominated aeolian environment, with sediment characteristics stabilizing with increasing distance inside the protected area. In such an environment, dune topographic relief also played an important role in determining the deposition pattern; the dune top is particularly fragile and subject to wind erosion if the straw checkerboards or planted vegetation are destroyed. The influences of the straw checkerboards and the plant canopies on the grain size of the surface sediments within a single checkerboard or near a single plant were limited. However, the combination of straw checkerboards and planted vegetation has synergistically produced a deposition-dominated aeolian environment.

  15. Characterization of Antibodies for Grain-Specific Gluten Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Rallabhandi, Prasad; Williams, Kristina M; Pahlavan, Autusa

    2016-03-01

    Gluten ingestion causes immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy or celiac disease in sensitive individuals, and a strict gluten-free diet greatly limits food choices. Immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are used to quantify gluten to ensure labeling compliance of gluten-free foods. Anti-gluten antibodies may not exhibit equal affinity to gluten from wheat, rye, and barley. Moreover, because wheat gluten is commonly used as a calibrator in ELISA, accurate gluten quantitation from rye and barley contaminated foods may be compromised. Immunoassays utilizing grain-specific antibodies and calibrators may help improve gluten quantitation. In this study, polyclonal antibodies raised against gluten-containing grain-specific peptides were characterized for their immunoreactivity to gluten from different grain sources. Strong immunoreactivity to multiple gluten polypeptides from wheat, rye, and barley was observed in the range 34 to 43 kDa with anti-gliadin, 11 to 15 and 72 to 95 kDa with anti-secalin, and 30 to 43 kDa with anti-hordein peptide antibodies, respectively. Minimal or no cross-reactivity with gluten from other grains was observed among these antibodies. The anti-consensus peptide antibody raised against a repetitive amino acid sequence of proline and glutamine exhibited immunoreactivity to gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and oat. The antibodies exhibited similar immunoreactivity with most of the corresponding grain cultivars by ELISA. The high specificity and minimal cross-reactivity of grain-specific antibodies suggest their potential use in immunoassays for accurate gluten quantitation.

  16. Surge Driven Return Flow Results in Deposition of Coarse Grain Horizons Archiving a 4000 Year Record of Extreme Storm Events, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, C. V.; Donnelly, J. P.; Sullivan, R.; Weidman, C. R.; Sheremet, V.

    2014-12-01

    The brevity of the instrumental record and lack of detailed historical accounts is a limiting factor in our understanding of the relationship between climate change and the frequency and intensity of extreme storm events. This study applied paleotempestologic and hydrographic methods to identify the mechanisms of storm-induced coarse grain deposition and reconstruct a late Holocene storm record within Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts. Three sediment cores (6.0 m, 8.4 m, and 8.2 m) were collected in 3 m of water using a vibracore system. Grain sizes were measured along core to identify coarse grain anomalies that serve as a proxy for past storm events. An historical age model (1620-2011 AD) was developed based on Pb pollution chronomarkers derived from X-Ray Florescence bulk Pb data, equating to a sedimentation rate of 8-8.3 mm/yr (R2 = 0.99). A long-term (4000 to 275 years before present) sedimentation rate of 1.1-1.4 mm/yr (R2 = 0.89) was calculated based on twenty-four continuous flow atomic mass spectrometry 14C ages of marine bivalves. To determine hydrographic conditions within the embayment during storm events current meters and tide gauges were deployed during Hurricane Irene (2011) which measured a storm surge of 88 cm above mean sea level. The buildup of storm water against the landward shoreline resulted in a measured 10 cm/s seaward moving bottom current capable of transporting coarse sand eroded from the adjacent shoreface into the coring site. Modeled surges for eleven modern and historic storm events ranged in height from 0.37 m (2011) to 3.72 m (1635) above mean high water. The WAQ1, WAQ2, and WAQ3 cores recorded a total of 89, 139, and 137 positive anomalies that exceeded the lower threshold and 15, 34, and 12 that exceeded the upper threshold respectively. Events recorded during the historic period coincide with documented storm events. The mean frequency within the three cores applying the lower threshold was 2.6 events per century, while applying the

  17. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Cooper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not include satiety components, so no functional claims between microbiota and satiety can be made. Ten satiety trials were evaluated and provide evidence that whole oats, barley, and rye can increase satiety, whereas the evidence for whole wheat and maize is not compelling. There are many gaps in the literature; no one clinical trial has examined the effects of whole grains on satiety and gut microbiota together. Once understanding the impact of whole grains on satiety and microbiota is more developed, then particular grains might be used for better appetite control. With this information at hand, healthcare professionals could make individual dietary recommendations that promote satiety and contribute to weight control.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP17.8 and their association with agronomic traits in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanshi Xia

    Full Text Available Small heat shock protein 17.8 (HSP17.8 is produced abundantly in plant cells under heat and other stress conditions and may play an important role in plant tolerance to stress environments. However, HSP17.8 may be differentially expressed in different accessions of a crop species exposed to identical stress conditions. The ability of different genotypes to adapt to various stress conditions resides in their genetic diversity. Allelic variations are the most common forms of genetic variation in natural populations. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the HSP17.8 gene were investigated across 210 barley accessions collected from 30 countries using EcoTILLING technology. Eleven SNPs including 10 from the coding region of HSP17.8 were detected, which form nine distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. Among the 10 SNPs in the coding region, six are missense mutations and four are synonymous nucleotide changes. Five of the six missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to HSP17.8 function. The accessions from Middle East Asia showed the higher nucleotide diversity of HSP17.8 than those from other regions and wild barley (H. spontaneum accessions exhibited greater diversity than the cultivated barley (H. vulgare accessions. Four SNPs in HSP17.8 were found associated with at least one of the agronomic traits evaluated except for spike length, namely number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, plant height, flag leaf area and leaf color. The association between SNP and these agronomic traits may provide new insight for study of the gene's potential contribution to drought tolerance of barley.

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP17.8 and their association with agronomic traits in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yanshi; Li, Ronghua; Ning, Zhengxiang; Bai, Guihua; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Yan, Guijun; Baum, Michael; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Peiguo

    2013-01-01

    Small heat shock protein 17.8 (HSP17.8) is produced abundantly in plant cells under heat and other stress conditions and may play an important role in plant tolerance to stress environments. However, HSP17.8 may be differentially expressed in different accessions of a crop species exposed to identical stress conditions. The ability of different genotypes to adapt to various stress conditions resides in their genetic diversity. Allelic variations are the most common forms of genetic variation in natural populations. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the HSP17.8 gene were investigated across 210 barley accessions collected from 30 countries using EcoTILLING technology. Eleven SNPs including 10 from the coding region of HSP17.8 were detected, which form nine distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. Among the 10 SNPs in the coding region, six are missense mutations and four are synonymous nucleotide changes. Five of the six missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to HSP17.8 function. The accessions from Middle East Asia showed the higher nucleotide diversity of HSP17.8 than those from other regions and wild barley (H. spontaneum) accessions exhibited greater diversity than the cultivated barley (H. vulgare) accessions. Four SNPs in HSP17.8 were found associated with at least one of the agronomic traits evaluated except for spike length, namely number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, plant height, flag leaf area and leaf color. The association between SNP and these agronomic traits may provide new insight for study of the gene's potential contribution to drought tolerance of barley.

  20. Creation of the first ultra-low gluten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for coeliac and gluten-intolerant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Gregory J; Blundell, Malcolm J; Colgrave, Michelle L; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a well-defined condition that is estimated to affect approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity is a condition that is less well defined, but is estimated to affect up to 10% of the population, and is often self-diagnosed. At present, the only remedy for both conditions is a lifelong gluten-free diet. A gluten-free diet is often expensive, high in fat and low in fibre, which in themselves can lead to adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is an opportunity to use novel plant breeding strategies to develop alternative gluten-free grains. In this work, we describe the breeding and characterization of a novel ultra-low gluten (ULG) barley variety in which the hordein (gluten) content was reduced to below 5 ppm. This was achieved using traditional breeding strategies to combine three recessive alleles, which act independently of each other to lower the hordein content in the parental varieties. The grain of the initial variety was shrunken compared to wild-type barleys. We implemented a breeding strategy to improve the grain size to near wild-type levels and demonstrated that the grains can be malted and brewed successfully. The ULG barley has the potential to provide novel healthy foods and beverages for those who require a gluten-free diet.

  1. Differential Synthesis in Vitro of Barley Aleurone and Starchy Endosperm Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Hejgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Annette

    1986-01-01

    RNAs from isolated endosperm and aleurone tissues (developing and mature grain) and from cultured (germinating) aleurone layers treated with abscisic acid (ABA) and GA(3). B and C hordein polypeptides and the salt-soluble proteins beta-amylase, protein Z, protein C, the chymotrypsin inhibitors (CI-1 and 2......To widen the selection of proteins for gene expression studies in barley seeds, experiments were performed to identify proteins whose synthesis is differentially regulated in developing and germinating seed tissues. The in vitro synthesis of nine distinct barley proteins was compared using m......, expression of genes encoding ASI, PSI, protein C, and PAPI is tissue and stage-specific during seed development. Only ASI, CI-1, and PAPI were synthesized in significant amounts with mRNA from cultured aleurone layers. The levels of synthesis of PAPI and CI-1 were independent of hormone treatment...

  2. CDNA cloning, characterization and expression of an endosperm-specific barley peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Welinder, K.G.; Hejgaard, J.

    1991-01-01

    A barley peroxidase (BP 1) of pI ca. 8.5 and M(r) 37000 has been purified from mature barley grains. Using antibodies towards peroxidase BP 1, a cDNA clone (pcR7) was isolated from cDNA expression library. The nucleotide sequence of pcR7 gave a derived amino acid sequence identical to the 158 C......-terminal amino acid residues of mature BP 1. The clone pcR7 encodes an additional C-terminal sequence of 22 residues, which apparently are removed during processing. BP 1 is less than 50% identical to other sequenced plant peroxidases. Analyses of RNA and protein from aleurone, endosperm and embryo tissue showed...

  3. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news......: fighting crystalline starch energy deposits in the cell. Trends in Plant Science Vol. 15, 4:236-240 Hebelstrup, K. H., Christiansen, M. W., Carciofi, M., Tauris, B., Brinch-Pedersen, H., Bach Holm, P. (2010). UCE: A uracil excision (USER™)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals. Plant Methods 6:15...

  4. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news......: fighting crystalline starch energy deposits in the cell. Trends in Plant Science Vol. 15, 4:236-240 Hebelstrup, K. H., Christiansen, M. W., Carciofi, M., Tauris, B., Brinch-Pedersen, H., Bach Holm, P. (2010). UCE: A uracil excision (USER™)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals. Plant Methods 6:15...

  5. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise...

  6. Evaluation of Barley as Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Köten

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley, as animal feed, raw material for malting and human food, constitute an important part among cereal sources in the world. Majority of barley that produced both in Turkey and other countries of the world, is being used as animal feed. Poor baking quality, taste and appearance of barley restricted its use in human nutrition. However, recently high protein, fiber, especially β-glucan and high starch content appeal to food industry. Many scientific researches established that β-glucan, a soluble fiber, has an effect in healing coronary-hearth diseases, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level, preventing obesity. Being a healthy cereal that can be used in various purposes, and an additive in many food products, barley is considered a very promising cereal, and research to increase possibilities of its use in human nutrition is being increased. In the literature, there has been researches on making noodles, bulgur, kavut (roasted cereal, breakfast cereals. In this study the researches relating to evaluation of barley, importance of which is increased every day, as human food was reviewed.

  7. Grain legume-cereal intercropping: The practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jørnsgaard, B.; Kinane, J.;

    2008-01-01

    in Denmark over three consecutive cropping seasons including dual grain legume (pea, faba bean and lupin)-barley intercropping as compared to the respective sole crops (SC). Yield stability of intercrops (IC) was not greater than that of grain legume SC, with the exception of the IC containing faba bean....... Faba bean and lupin had lower yield stability than pea and fertilized barley. However, the different IC used environmental resources for plant growth up to 50% (LER=0.91-1.51) more effectively as compared to the respective SC, but with considerable variation over location, years and crops. The SC...... was comparable; however, it tended to be the highest in sole cropped faba bean, lupin and unfertilized barley, where the application of urea to barley reduced the weed infestation by around 50%. Reduction in disease was observed in all IC systems compared to the corresponding SC, with a general disease reduction...

  8. GrainSpotter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for indexing multigrain diffraction data is presented. It is based on the use of a monochromatic beam simultaneously illuminating all grains. By operating in sub-volumes of Rodrigues space, a powerful vertex-finding algorithm can be applied, with a running time that is compatible...... with online analysis. The resulting program, GrainSpotter, is sufficiently fast to enable online analysis during synchrotron sessions. The program applies outlier rejection schemes, leading to more robust and accurate data. By simulations it is shown that several thousand grains can be retrieved. A new method...... to derive partial symmetries, called pseudo-twins, is introduced. Uniquely, GrainSpotter includes an analysis of pseudo-twins, which is shown to be critical to avoid erroneous grains resulting from the indexing....

  9. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  10. Review:Aluminium tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): physiological mechanisms, genetics and screening methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-ping; RAMAN Harsh; ZHANG Guo-ping; MENDHAM Neville; ZHOU Mei-xue

    2006-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the major limiting factors for barley production on acid soils. It inhibits root cell division and elongation, thus reducing water and nutrient uptake, consequently resulting in poor plant growth and yield. Plants tolerate Al either through external resistance mechanisms, by which Al is excluded from plant tissues or internal tolerance mechanisms, conferring the ability of plants to tolerate Al ion in the plant symplasm where Al that has permeated the plasmalemma is sequestered or converted into an innocuous form. Barley is considered to be most sensitive to Al toxicity among cereal species. Al tolerance in barley has been assessed by several methods, such as nutrient solution culture, soil bioassay and field screening. Genetic and molecular mapping research has shown that Al tolerance in barley is controlled by a single locus which is located on chromosome 4H. Molecular markers linked with Al tolerance loci have been identified and validated in a range of diverse populations. This paper reviews the (1) screening methods for evaluating Al tolerance, (2) genetics and (3) mechanisms underlying Al tolerance in barley.

  11. Induction of beta-1,3-glucanase in barley in response to infection by fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutidamrongphan, W; Andersen, J B; Mackinnon, G; Manners, J M; Simpson, R S; Scott, K J

    1991-05-01

    The sequence of a partial cDNA clone corresponding to an mRNA induced in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) by infection with fungal pathogens matched almost perfectly with that of a cDNA clone coding for beta-1,-3-glucanase isolated from the scutellum of barley. Western blot analysis of intercellular proteins from near-isogenic barley lines inoculated with the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) showed a strong induction of glucanase in all inoculated lines but was most pronounced in two resistant lines. These data were confirmed by beta-1,3-glucanase assays. The barley cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to detect mRNAs in barley, wheat (Triticum aestivum), rice (oryza sativus), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which are induced by infection with the necrotrophic pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. These results demonstrate that activation of beta-1,3-glucanase genes may be a general response of cereals to infection by fungal pathogens.

  12. Utilization of barley or wheat bran to bioconvert glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with the utilization of agro-industrial wastes created by barley and wheat bran in the production of a value-added product, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The simple and eco-friendly reaction requires no pretreatment or microbial fermentation steps but uses barley or wheat bran as an enzyme source, glutamate as a substrate, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The optimal reaction conditions were determined on the basis of the temperatures and times used for the decarboxylation reactions and the initial concentrations of barley or wheat bran, glutamate, and PLP. The optimal reactions produced 9.2 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 92% GABA conversion rate, when barley bran was used and 6.0 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 60% GABA conversion rate, when wheat bran was used. The results imply that barley bran is more efficient than wheat bran in the production of GABA.

  13. Mathematical Modelling of Allelopathy: IV. Assessment of Contributions of Competition and Allelopathy to Interference by Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De Li; An, Min; Johnson, I R; Lovett, J V

    2005-04-01

    One of the main challenges to the research on allelopathy is technically the separation of allelopathic effect from competition, and quantitatively, the assessment of the contribution of each component to overall interference. A simple mathematical model is proposed to calculate the contribution of allelopathy and competition to interference. As an example of applying the quantitative model to interference by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Triumph), the approach used was an addition of allelopathic effect, by an equivalent amount, to the environment of the test plant (white mustard, Sinapis alba), rather than elimination of competition. Experiments were conducted in glasshouse to determine the magnitude of the contributions of allelopathy and competition to interference by barley. The leachates of living barley roots significantly reduced the total dry weight of white mustard. The model involved the calculation of adjusted densities to an equivalent basis for modelling the contribution of allelopathy and competition to total interference. The results showed that allelopathy contributed 40%, 37% and 43% to interference by barley at 6, 12 and 18 white mustard pot(-1). The consistency in magnitude of the calculated contribution of allelopathic effect by barley across various densities of receiver plant suggested that the adjusted equivalent density is effective and that the model is able to assess the contribution of each component of interference regardless of the density of receiver plant.

  14. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  15. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  16. Transcriptional Activity of rRNA Genes in Barley Cells after Mutagenic Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Kwasniewska

    Full Text Available In the present study, the combination of the micronucleus test with analysis of the activity of the rRNA genes in mutagen-treated Hordeum vulgare (barley by maleic hydrazide (MH cells was performed. Simultaneously fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with 25S rDNA as probes and an analysis of the transcriptional activity of 35S rRNA genes with silver staining were performed. The results showed that transcriptional activity is always maintained in the micronuclei although they are eliminated during the next cell cycle. The analysis of the transcriptional activity was extended to barley nuclei. MH influenced the fusion of the nucleoli in barley nuclei. The silver staining enabled detection of the nuclear bodies which arose after MH treatment. The results confirmed the usefulness of cytogenetic techniques in the characterization of micronuclei. Similar analyses can be now extended to other abiotic stresses to study the response of plant cells to the environment.

  17. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-AtPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finni, Christine; Andersen, Claus H; Borch, Jonas;

    2002-01-01

    , or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H...

  18. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-ATPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, C.; Andersen, C.H.; Borch, J.;

    2002-01-01

    , or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H...

  19. The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L K; Cook, D J; Edwards, S G; Ray, R V

    2014-06-02

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium

  20. Study on processing of barley healthcare sausage%大麦保健香肠工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱萍; 张丽萍

    2014-01-01

    以香肠为研究对象,在香肠原配料中添加两种不同处理方式的大麦籽实,经过单因素试验与感官评价确定大麦保健香肠中大麦添加的最佳量,结果表明,大麦保健香肠的最佳配方为精肉80 g,肥膘20 g,大麦20 g,复合其他调配料。%Sausage was taken as the research object. Two different processing modes of barley seeds were added in sausage, through single factor experiment and sensory evaluation, the optimal addition of barley was determined. The result showed that the optimal formula of barley healthcare sausage was that lean meat 80g, fat 20g, barley 20g and composite of other ingredients.

  1. Bio-oil and bio-char from low temperature pyrolysis of spent grains using activated alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Aimaro; Li, Sujing; Linforth, Rob; Smart, Katherine A; Andrésen, John M

    2011-11-01

    The pyrolysis of wheat and barley spent grains resulting from bio-ethanol and beer production respectively was investigated at temperatures between 460 and 540 °C using an activated alumina bed. The results showed that the bio-oil yield and quality depend principally on the applied temperature where pyrolysis at 460 °C leaves a bio-oil with lower nitrogen content in comparison with the original spent grains and low oxygen content. The viscosity profile of the spent grains indicated that activated alumina could promote liquefaction and prevent charring of the structure between 400 and 460 °C. The biochar contains about 10-12% of original carbon and 13-20% of starting nitrogen resulting very attractive as a soil amendment and for carbon sequestration. Overall, value can be added to the spent grains opening a new market in bio-fuel production without the needs of external energy. The bio-oil from spent grains could meet about 9% of the renewable obligation in the UK.

  2. Factors determining accumulation of mycotoxin producers in cereal grain during harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugauskas, Albinas; Raila, Algirdas; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Railiene, Marija; Novosinskas, Henrikas

    2007-01-01

    During the meteorologically contrasting period of 2003-2005, the contamination of winter wheat, malt barley and fodder barley grain with micromycetes during grain harvesting and preparation for storage was investigated. Micromycetes of over 70 species ascribed to 16 genera were isolated and identified, the density of their populations in grain was determined. Micromycetes with a population density of >50% were attributed to dominant species. Short biological characteristic, ecological peculiarities of the dominating micromycetes are provided; factors determining intensity of their development and abilities to synthesise and excrete toxic metabolites are indicated. The importance of grain drying for stabilisation of its contamination with micromycete propagules is highlighted. It is noted that in grain dried in shaft dryer using air at 90 degrees C the number of cfu (colony forming units) was reduced from 2.2 to 8.2 times. When active ventilation is applied, conditions favourable for the development of micromycetes remain longest in the upper layers of the mound. The airflow passing through the layer of damp grain inhibits the development of micromycetes, but an increase of comparative air flow for more than 500 m3x(txh)(-1) did not reduce the abundance of micromycete cfu. After drying Alternaria alternata, Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, Penicillum verrucosum dominated in wheat grain; Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. culmorum, F. tricinctum in malts barley grain; Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. tricinctum, Alternaria alternata in fodder barley grain. It has been determined that all micromycetes recorded on grain after drying are potential producers of toxic metabolites, i.e. are hazardous to human health.

  3. Response of Barley Seedlings to Microwaves at 2.45 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Crețescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes induced upon germination and growth rate, expressed by vigor index of barley seeds exposed to microwave (MW treatment. As a microwave source was used a magnetron MWG20H, which emits radiation with a frequency of 2.45 GHz. In the experiment, barley seeds were exposed for 0s, 10s and 20s. The germination energy (GE and germination (G, cotyledon length (CL, leaves length (LL and roots length (RL in cm were determined on the 3th, 7th and 14th day after irradiation in order to estimate the influence of microwave treatment on them. The hypothesis was that seeds exposed to MW will behave differently than those unexposed. It was observed that the best results in terms of GE, G and vigor index (SVI were obtained in barley seeds for the treatment with output microwaves power of 400W for 20s.

  4. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L (R) from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw...... generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose...... straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid...

  5. Allelopathic potential of Chrozophora tinctoria on early growth of Barley and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Aliloo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory bioassay was conducted to investigate the allelopathic effects of Chrozophora tinctoria on germination and seedling growth of barley and wheat. Aqueous leave extracts of C. tinctoria at 5, 10, 15 and 20 % concentrations were prepared and distilled water was used as a control. Results showed that germination percentage of two species decreased with increasing the extract concentrations; however, wheat germination was relatively resistant to allelochemicals than barley. In contrast to germination behavior, seedling traits showed different responses. The extracts improved seedling dry weights, particularly barley, whereas seedling lengths were inhibited. Roots of both species were more affected than shoots by extracts. The extracts reduced seed reserve mobilization significantly (p≤0.05. It was concluded that the used extract had inhibitory effects on seed germination of the crops; however, at seedling stages the effects were severely reduced.

  6. Virus-induced gene-silencing in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of HMW-GS-encoding genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Meng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV-based vector has been developed and used for gene silencing in barley and wheat seedlings to assess gene functions in pathogen- or insect-resistance, but conditions for gene silencing in spikes and grains have not been evaluated. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using BSMV for gene silencing in wheat spikes or grains. Results Apparent photobleaching on the spikes infected with BSMV:PDS at heading stage was observed after13 days post inoculation (dpi, and persisted until 30dpi, while the spikes inoculated with BSMV:00 remained green during the same period. Grains of BSMV:PDS infected spikes also exhibited photobleaching. Molecular analysis indicated that photobleached spikes or grains resulted from the reduction of endogenous PDS transcript abundances, suggesting that BSMV:PDS was able to induce PDS silencing in wheat spikes and grains. Inoculation onto wheat spikes from heading to flowering stage was optimal for efficient silencing of PDS in wheat spikes. Furthermore, we used the BSMV-based system to reduce the transcript level of 1Bx14, a gene encoding for High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit 1Bx14 (HMW-GS 1Bx14, by 97 % in the grains of the BSMV:1Bx14 infected spikes at 15dpi, compared with that in BSMV:00 infected spikes, and the reduction persisted until at least 25 dpi. The amount of the HMW-GS 1Bx14 was also detectably decreased. The percentage of glutenin macropolymeric proteins in total proteins was significantly reduced in the grains of 1Bx14-silenced plants as compared with that in the grains of BSMV:00 infected control plants, indicating that HMW-GS 1Bx14 is one of major components participating in the formation of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grains. Conclusion This is one of the first reports of successful application of BSMV-based virus-induced-gene-silencing (VIGS for gene knockdown in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of

  7. Using of Different Grain Sources with or without Monensin on Fattening Performance of Brown Swiss Male Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bashtani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of barley or triticale and monensin on fattening performance of Brown Swiss calves (with average body weight of 170±30 kg were studied in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement of 2×2 and 4 replicates. Experimental treatments were: 1- barley grain without monensin 2- barley grain with monensin 3- triticale grain without monensin and 4- triticale grain with monensin. The amount of monensin in the ration was set to be 30 mg/kg DM. Calves weighing was undertaken monthly and dry matter intake was measured daily. Sampling from rumen fluid was carried out using a stomach tube, and blood sampes were taken at the end of each month. Average daily gain, feed conversion ratio and daily feed intake were not significantly affected by the treatments. Monensin had no significant effect on blood glucose concentration. Ruminal N-NH3, blood urea nitrogen and ruminal pH were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. As grain sources and monensin application had no effect on fattening performance of the calves. it can therefore concluded that triticale grain might be utilized substituted with barley grain in feed lot diets. This substitutionn can be important from the economical of view in calves feed lot interprise.

  8. Extracted oat and barley β-glucans do not affect cholesterol metabolism in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Poulsen, Malene Wibe

    2013-01-01

    , barley, and barley mutant β-glucans of similar molecular mass. Before and after each period, fasting and postprandial blood samples were drawn and 3-d fecal samples were collected. Treatment did not affect changes in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol compared with control; however, consumption of 3.3 g......:cellotetraosyl). Decreases in fasting triacylglycerol were substantially greater after oat β-glucan treatment compared with control (P = 0.03). Fecal dry and wet weight, stool frequency, fecal pH, and energy excretion were unaffected. The results do not fully support the hypocholesterolemic effects by differently structured...

  9. Long-term reticuloruminal pH dynamics and markers of liver health in early-lactating cows of various parities fed diets differing in grain processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, E; Khol-Parisini, A; Gruber, L; Gasteiner, J; Abdel-Raheem, Sh M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-09-01

    results indicate greater risk for primiparous cows to develop subacute ruminal acidosis-like conditions during early lactation than multiparous cows. The study also suggests limited benefits of feeding processed barley grain with La with or without thermal treatment to modulate ruminal tolerance of grain feeding, whereby differing effects in primiparous cows were observed compared with multiparous cows.

  10. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz Hensel

    Full Text Available Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4 signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER retention signal (SEKDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up to 1.2 g/kg dry weight of recombinant protein (GFP, deposited in small roundish compartments assumed to be ER-derived protein bodies. The molecular farming potential of the system was tested by generating doubled haploid transgenic lines engineered to synthesize the anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody 2G12 with up to 160 μg recombinant protein per g grain. The recombinant protein was deposited at the periphery of protein bodies in the form of a mixture of various N-glycans (notably those lacking terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues, consistent with their vacuolar localization. Inspection of protein-A purified antibodies using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that their equilibrium and kinetic rate constants were comparable to those associated with recombinant 2G12 synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  11. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  12. Mixed cropping of annual feed legumes with barley improves feed quantity and crude protein content under dry-land conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine a suitable mixture of annual feed legumes and barley as a winter crop under dry-land conditions. Seeds of Hungarian vetch (cv. 2670, smooth vetch (cv. Maragheh, and local varieties of grass pea and field pea were mixed with barley (cv. Abidar in a 1:1 ratio and were tested, along with related monoculture. All legumes in the mixture survived winter while legumes alone, except Hungarian vetch, did not survive in the cold areas. The maximum fresh and dry forage yields (56 and 15 ton ha-1 respectively were obtained from a mixture of smooth vetch and barley in provinces with mild winter and more than 400 mm of rainfall. The mixture of barley and smooth vetch resulted in the highest mean crude protein content (17%. Autumn seeding of smooth vetch and barley in a 1:1 ratio produced more than 2 ton ha-1 of dry biomass with good quality in all studied areas and thus could serve as an alternative cropping system after wheat/barley in cold and semi-cold dry land.

  13. Molecular analysis of cultivated naked barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China using SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifen PAN; Guangbing DENG; Xuguang ZHAI; Hai LONG; Yawei TANG; Xiaolin QIANG; Maoqun YU

    2008-01-01

    Naked barley is widely planted in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China and is essential for the daily life of Tibetans in those regions. In this study, the genetic diversity of 64 cultivated naked barley accessions from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China was analyzed using 30 mapped SSRs linked with the important traits of barley improvement. A total of 132 alleles were identified at 22 polymorphic SSR loci, with the number of each locus ranging from 2 to 15, the polymorphism information con-tent (PIC) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.91, and with an average of 0.65. Of the selected SSRs, 13 SSR markers with high PIC value were highly efficient for the genetic analysis of Chinese barley. The accessions were divided into five main groups by cluster analysis and could be differentiated from each other. The genetic diversity in the Tibet accessions was slightly higher than in the Sichuan accessions. It is found that there were specific genes linked with the collecting sites. These results indi-cate the cultivated naked barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China are highly polymorphic and could be considered as an important resource bank for cultivated naked barley breeding in the future.

  14. Occurrence of four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin, in wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Tomoya; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Koji; Taniguchi, Masaru; Hashiguchi, Shigeki; Kai, Shigemi; Ogiso, Motoki; Sato, Takashi; Akiyama, Yu; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2014-11-01

    A survey of the contamination of wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food by four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin (T-2), and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), was performed between 2010 and 2012. A method for the simultaneous determination of the four mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated by a small-scale interlaboratory study using two spiked wheat samples (DON was spiked at 20 and 100 μg/kg and ZEN, T-2, and HT-2 at 6 and 20 μg/kg in the respective samples). The recovery of the four mycotoxins ranged from 77.3 to 107.2%. A total of 557 samples of 10 different commodities were analyzed over 3 years by this validated method. Both T-2 and HT-2 were detected in wheat, wheat flour, barley, Job's tears products, beer, corn grits, azuki beans, soybeans, and rice with mixed grains. Only T-2 toxin was detected in sesame seeds. The highest concentrations of T-2 toxin (48.4 μg/kg) and HT-2 toxin (85.0 μg/kg) were present in azuki beans and wheat, respectively. DON was frequently detected in wheat, wheat flour, beer, and corn grits. The contamination level of wheat was below the provisional standard in Japan (1,100 μg/kg). The maximum contamination level of DON was present in a sample of a Job's tears product (1,093 μg/kg). ZEN was frequently detected in Job's tears products, corn grits, azuki beans, rice with mixed grains, and sesame seeds. A sample of a Job's tears product presented the highest ZEN contamination (153 μg/kg). These results indicate that continuous monitoring by multiple laboratories is effective and necessary due to the percentage of positive samples detected.

  15. Liquid digestate from anaerobic treatment of source-separated household waste as fertilizer to barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Andersen, Uno; Krogstad, Tore; Sørheim, Roald

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the efficiency of different organic waste materials as NPK fertilizer, in addition to the risk for leaching losses related to shower precipitation in the first part of the growing season. The experiment was tested in a pot trial on a sandy soil in a greenhouse. Six organic fertilizers were evaluated: liquid anaerobic digestate (LAD) sourced from separated household waste, nitrified liquid anaerobic digestate (NLAD) of the same origin as LAD, meat and bone meal (MBM), hydrolysed salmon protein (HSP), reactor-composted catering waste (CW) and cattle manure (CM). An unfertilized control, calcium nitrate (CN) and Fullgjødsel® 21-4-10 were used as reference fertilizers. At equal amounts of mineral nitrogen both LAD and Fullgjødsel® gave equal yield of barley in addition to equal uptake of N, P, and K in barley grain. NLAD gave significantly lower barley yield than the original LAD due to leaching of nitrate-N after a simulated surplus of precipitation (28 mm) at Zadoks 14. There was significantly increased leaching of nitrate N from the treatments receiving 160 kg N ha(-1) of CN and NLAD in comparison with all the other organic fertilizers. In this study LAD performed to the same degree as Fullgjødsel® NPK fertilizer and it was concluded that LAD can be recommended as fertilizer for cereals. Nitrification of the ammonium N in the digestate caused significantly increased nitrate leaching, and cannot be recommended.

  16. Enzymic hydrolysis and industrial importance of barley. beta. -glucans and wheat flour pentosans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleary, B.V.; Gibson, T.S.; Allen, H.; Gams, T.C.

    1986-12-01

    Mixed linkage ..beta..-glucane and pentosanes (mainly arabinoxylanes) are the major endosperm cell-wall polysaccharides of barley and wheat respectively. These polysaccharides, although minor components of the whole grain, significantly affect the industrial utilization of these cereals. The modification of barley corns during malting requires the dissolution of the ..beta..-glucane in the cell-wall of the starch endosperm. High ..beta..-glucane concentration in wort and beer effect the rate of filtration and can also lead to precipitate or gel formation in the final product. In a similar manner, pentosane is thought to cause filtration problems with wheat starch hydrolysates by increasing viscosity and by producing gelatinous precipitate which blocks filters. Ironically, it is this same viscosity building and water binding capacity which is considered to render pentosanes of considerable value in dough development and bread storage (anti-staling functions). In the current paper, some aspects of the beneficial and detrimental effects of pentosanes and ..beta..-glucane in the industrial utilization of wheat and barley are discussed. More specifically, enzymic methods for the preparation, analysis and identification of these polysaccharides and for the removal of their functional properties, are described in detail.

  17. Performance of spring barley varieties and variety mixtures as affected by manure application and their order in an organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Berntsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a high and stable yield of organic spring barley, production should be optimized according to the specific environment. To test the performance of spring barley varieties under varying cropping conditions, a field experiment was carried out in 2003 and 2004 in a six-field mixed...... organic crop rotation. We investigated the choice of variety, the order in a rotation, and the application of manure (slurry and farmyard manure; 0 to 120 total-N ha−1) on grain yields of six selected varieties with different characteristics grown in either pure stands or in two spring barley mixtures......, each consisting of three varieties. Average grain yield of the barley varieties varied between 3.3 t DM ha−1 and 4.1 t DM ha−1. Grain yields of the two mixtures were 4.0 and 3.6 t DM ha−1, respectively. The varieties/mixtures interacted with crop order and year. Foliar diseases were more severe...

  18. Grain Destruction in Interstellar Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Interstellar shock waves can erode and destroy grains present in the shocked gas, primarily as the result of sputtering and grain-grain collisions. Uncertainties in current estimates of sputtering yields are reviewed. Results are presented for the simple case of sputtering of fast grains being stopped in cold gas. An upper limit is derived for sputtering of refractory grains in C-type MHD shocks: shock speeds $v_s \\gtrsim 50 \\kms$ are required for return of more than 30\\% of the silicate to t...

  19. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  20. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carciofi Massimiliano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded to glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed “resistant starch” (RS escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA which are linked to several health benefits. The RS is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs. However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm. This trait was segregating 3:1. Amylose-only starch granules were irregularly shaped and showed peculiar thermal properties and crystallinity. Transgenic lines retained high-yield possibly due to a pleiotropic upregualtion of other starch biosynthetic genes compensating the SBEs loss. For gelatinized starch, a very high content of RS (65 % was observed, which is 2.2-fold higher than control (29%. The amylose-only grains germinated with same frequency as control grains. However, initial growth was delayed in young plants. Conclusions This is the first time that pure amylose has been generated with high yield in a living organism. This was achieved by a new method of simultaneous suppression of the entire complement of genes encoding starch

  1. GWAS of Barley Phenotypes Established Under Future Climate Conditions of Elevated Temperature, CO2, O3 and Elevated Temperature and CO2 Combined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, G.; Lyngkjær, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is likely to decrease crop yields worldwide. Developing climate resilient cultivars is one way to combat this production scarcity, however, little is known of crop response to future climate conditions and in particular the variability within crops.In Scandinavia, barley is widely...... cultivated, but yields have stagnated since the start of this century. In this study we cultivated 138 spring barley accessions in a climate phytotron under four treatments mimicking forecasted levels of temperature, carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and ozone ([O3]) at the end of the 21st century1...... yield, grain protein concentration, grain protein harvested, number of grains, number of ears, aboveground vegetative biomass and harvest index. In addition, stability of the production was calculated over the applied treatments for the assessed parameters.In the climate scenario of elevated temperature...

  2. Predicting spring barley yield from variety-specific yield potential, disease resistance and straw length, and from environment-specific disease loads and weed pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Kristensen, Kristian; Pinnschmidt, Hans O.;

    2008-01-01

    For low-input crop production, well-characterised varieties increase the possibilities of managing diseases and weeds. This analysis aims at developing a framework for analyzing grain yield using external varietal information about disease resistance, weed competitiveness and yield potential...... and quantifying the impact of susceptibility grouping and straw length scores (as a measure for weed competitiveness) for predicting spring barley grain yield under variable biotic stress levels. The study comprised 52 spring barley varieties and 17 environments, i.e., combinations of location, growing system...... and year. Individual varieties and their interactions with environments were analysed by factorial regression of grain yield on external variety information combined with observed environmental disease loads and weed pressure. The external information was based on the official Danish VCU testing. The most...

  3. Chemical genetics and cereal starch metabolism: structural basis of the non-covalent and covalent inhibition of barley β-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejzek, Martin; Stevenson, Clare E; Southard, Andrew M; Stanley, Duncan; Denyer, Kay; Smith, Alison M; Naldrett, Mike J; Lawson, David M; Field, Robert A

    2011-03-01

    There are major issues regarding the proposed pathway for starch degradation in germinating cereal grain. Given the commercial importance but genetic intractability of the problem, we have embarked on a program of chemical genetics studies to identify and dissect the pathway and regulation of starch degradation in germinating barley grains. As a precursor to in vivo studies, here we report systematic analysis of the reversible and irreversible inhibition of the major β-amylase of the grain endosperm (BMY1). The molecular basis of inhibitor action was defined through high resolution X-ray crystallography studies of unliganded barley β-amylase, as well as its complexes with glycone site binder disaccharide iminosugar G1M, irreversible inhibitors α-epoxypropyl and α-epoxybutyl glucosides, which target the enzyme's catalytic residues, and the aglycone site binders acarbose and α-cyclodextrin.

  4. Contracts for Grain Biosecurity and Grain Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Abougamos, Hoda; White, Benedict; Sadler,Rohan

    2012-01-01

    The export of grain from Western Australia depends upon a grain supply network that takes grain from farm to port through Cooperative Bulk Handling receival and storage sites. The ability of the network to deliver pest free grain to the port and onto ship depends upon the quality of grain delivered by farmers and the efficacy of phosphine based fumigation in controlling stored grain pests. Phosphine fumigation is critical to the grain supply network because it is the cheapest effective fumiga...

  5. Lysine-Rich Proteins in High-Lysine Hordeum Vulgare Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    The salt-soluble proteins in barley grain selected for high-lysine content (Hiproly, CI 7115 and the mutants 29 and 86) and of a control (Carlsberg II) with normal lysine content, contain identical major proteins as determined by MW and electrophoretic mobility. The concentration of a protein group...

  6. [The radiation-increased synthesis of phytochelatins in roots of gamma-irradiated barley seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilin, I A; Dikarev, V G; Geras'kin, S A

    2004-01-01

    It was shown that gamma-irradiation and cadmium nitrate increased synthesis of phytochelatins in roots of barley seedlings. The stimulation of synthesis of phytochelatins in gamma-irradiated plants was shown for the first time. The results obtained indicate more important role of phytochelatins in intercellular metabolism than heavy-metal-binding.

  7. Penicillium verrucosum in wheat and barley indicates presence of ochratoxin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2003-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to isolate and identify ochratoxin A (OTA) producing fungi in cereals containing OTA and to determine the best selective and indicative medium for recovery of OTA producing fungi.Methods and Results: Seventy-six wheat, barley and rye samples from Europe containing...

  8. Purification and characterization of three chitinases and one beta-1,3-glucanase accumulating in the medium of cell suspension cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, K.M.; Jacobsen, S.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.;

    1991-01-01

    chromatography. Two of the chitinases were identified as the previously described endochitinases T and C from barley grain. The third and novel chitinase, designated K, was the major basic chitinase in the medium constituting 4% of the soluble protein. Chitinase K was found to be a 33-kDa endochitinase with p...... chitinases from barley aleurone and barley, bean and potato leaves. The purified beta-1,3-glucanase with a molecular weight (MW) of 32 kDa and pI greater-than-or-equal-to 9.8 constituted 1% of the soluble protein in the medium. Based on similar MW, pI and amino acid composition as well as identical N...

  9. Effective utilization of heat from incinerating brewer prime s grains and dehydrated sludge. Beer kasu dassui odei shokyakunetsu no yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, T. (Asahi Breweries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-02-04

    Merits of treatment cost reduction and effective utilization of waste heat were obtained through effectively utilizing the waste heat from the in-plant incineration of the brewer {prime} s grains (barley grains) generated from the brewing processes, and the dehydrated sludge generated from the waste water treatment. Keeping the pace with increase in the annual manufacturing capacity at Hakata Plant, from 60,000 kl to 180,000 kl, the brewer {prime} s grain generation has increased, but these grains have become unable to be utilized as livestock feed due to the appreciation of the yen value, hence the excess is now disposed of as wastes, causing an expense increase. Therefore, these will be incinerated together with the hydrated sludge. Because dehydrating the grains will produce fluids with high BOD value, the grains are to be burned as they are, and for this reason, a fluidized bed furnace was introduced. Effects of the incineration to the environment were surveyed, and it was confirmed that the parameters agreed with the Fukuoka Municipality can be maintained. The operation was begun in June 1989. As a result of the measures applied, an annual monetary saving of about 100 million yen can be expected out of the capital investment of 350 million yen, with the return of investment estimated to be made in about four years. 21 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Economic efficiency of the maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, was calculated and the level of profitability for several levels of production for grain maize cultivation. We chose corn because it is one of the most important forage crops, we could say even the largest, occupying third place among cultivated plants worldwide. Along with wheat and barley, the food is the biggest part of the population in the world, directly or converted to animal products. Maize can be used in animal feed in various forms. The most used is corn grain, which is characterized by a very high nutritional value, this product is properly regarded as a feed concentrate. Culture of maize have been designed two levels of production: 4000 kg / ha and 6000 kg / ha.

  11. Grain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Our fundamental knowledge of interstellar grain composition has grown substantially during the past two decades thanks to significant advances in two areas: astronomical infrared spectroscopy and laboratory astrophysics. The opening of the mid-infrared, the spectral range from 4000-400 cm(sup -1) (2.5-25 microns), to spectroscopic study has been critical to this progress because spectroscopy in this region reveals more about a materials molecular composition and structure than any other physical property. Infrared spectra which are diagnostic of interstellar grain composition fall into two categories: absorption spectra of the dense and diffuse interstellar media, and emission spectra from UV-Vis rich dusty regions. The former will be presented in some detail, with the latter only very briefly mentioned. This paper summarized what we have learned from these spectra and presents 'doorway' references into the literature. Detailed reviews of many aspects of interstellar dust are given.

  12. High mature grain phytase activity in the Triticeae has evolved by duplication followed by neofunctionalization of the purple acid phosphatase phytase (PAPhy) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holme, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The phytase activity in food and feedstuffs is an important nutritional parameter. Members of the Triticeae tribe accumulate purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhy) during grain filling. This accumulation elevates mature grain phytase activities (MGPA) up to levels between ~650 FTU/kg for barley...

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  14. Saccharification and fermentation of whole barley ground in the Szego mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.R.; Parekh, R.S.; Trass, O.; Gandolfi, E.

    1988-11-01

    Barley, after steeping in water, was ground with ease and efficiency in the Szego mill, and its starch was liquefied, saccharified and fermented to very high yields of ethanol. The Szego mill consists of vertical rollers with helical grooves which rotate within a fixed cylinder, resulting in very fine grinding and a somewhat flaky product. The steeped barley was ground to a fine paste. This was readily liquefied and saccharified by amylolytic enzymes (dual enzyme process), and the resulting sugars were fermented in 24 h by ordinary bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in over 450 l ethanol/t of barley. Still shorter time, 12 h, and the same high yield were achieved when liquefied barley starch was simultaneously saccharified by glucoamylase and fermented. Fermentation to ethanol by a glucoamylase-producing yeast S. diastaticus strain 164A (from Labatt Brewing Company) enabled the amount of this enzyme required for saccharification to be reduced to about one-half the normal quantity, but at some cost in slower fermentation and slightly lower ethanol yield.

  15. SNP Analysis and Haplotype Identification in Chymotrypsin Inhibitor-2 (CI-2) Gene of Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xiang-hui; WEI Yu-ming; JIANG Qian-tao; QI Peng-fei; ZHENG You-liang

    2009-01-01

    Barley chymotrypsin inhibitor-2 (CI-2) was considered to be a promising candidate for enhancing the nutritional value of other cereals by increasing its concentration as it is rich in lysine than any other storage protein. Also, it was proposed that CI-2 might play an important role in the inhibition of proteolytic enzymes from pests or pathogens as CI-2 can strongly inhibit chymotrypsin and subtilisin. In this study, a total of 93 CI-2 gene sequences were isolated from wild and cultivated barley. 48 SNPs and 4 indels were detected across the entire sequences. The frequency of SNPs in the non-coding region (1 out of 9 bases) was slightly higher than that in the coding region (1 out of 10.7 bases). In all, 33.3% of the candidate cSNPs resulted in amino acid changes. As a total, the 24 cSNPs resulted in 15 amino acid changes. Ten distinguishable haplotypes were detected, among which 3 haplotypes were shared in the most barley accessions, whereas the rest of the haplotypes appeared at a lower frequency. In addition, three haplotypes (haplotype 4, 8, and 9) were unique for single accessions. These results suggested that low diversity at the CI-2 locus was detected among the cultivated and wild barley.

  16. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate...... the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral...

  17. Changes of Limiting Dextrinase in Germinating Process of Malting Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiu-mei; LI Fen; WANG Hong-zhen; WANG Xing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five different species of barley, the foot layer analytic method was used to examine the activity and heat-resistance of the limiting dextrinase. The study was conducted on the dynamic changes of several types of the dextrinase in barley germinating process, the effect of temperature on the dextrinase and the divergence of dextrinase in different barley variety. The probability of the dextrinase that as reference index is used for screening and evaluating beer barley was discussed. The importance of dextrinase in brewing and its significant function was also discussed.

  18. An LRR/malectin receptor-like kinase mediates resistance to non-adapted and adapted powdery mildew fungi in barley and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaraman Rajaraman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for required for nonhost resistance 8 encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates nonhost resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating nonhost resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  19. An LRR/Malectin Receptor-Like Kinase Mediates Resistance to Non-adapted and Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungi in Barley and Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Stefanato, Francesca L; Gordon, Anna; Ereful, Nelzo; Caldararu, Octav F; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Kumlehn, Jochen; Boyd, Lesley A; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for Required for non-host resistance 8) encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates non-host resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating non-host resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  20. Mixed-starter Fermentation of New-type Highland Barley Liquor%新型青稞酒混曲发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉蛟; 易欣; 吴正云; 张文学

    2015-01-01

    In this study, highland barley from Qinghai was used as raw materials, mixed-starter fermentation (new-type highland barley Daqu and Rhizopus Xiaoqu) was adopted to produce soft-taste highland barley liquor, and the technology of steaming and distilling one time respec-tively was applied. The experimental results suggested that, as the mixed ratio of highland barley Daqu and Rhizopus Xiaoqu was 10∶1, the yield and the quality of soft-taste highland barley liquor were better than that by traditional production methods. This study provided theoretical and technical base for efficient utilization of highland barley resources and the expansion of highland barley liquor market.%以青海青稞为主要酿酒原料,探讨了新型青稞大曲与根霉小曲混曲发酵酿造绵柔青稞酒的“清蒸一次清”工艺。研究发现,青稞大曲∶根霉小曲为10∶1混曲发酵时,绵柔青稞酒酒精产率及成品酒品质均优于传统青稞酒。该项研究结果为高原青稞资源的有效利用以及青稞酒市场的进一步拓展奠定了理论和技术基础。

  1. CLIMATE CHANGE IN CENTRAL MEXICO: IMPACT ON BARLEY PRODUCTION (Hordeum vulgare IN TLAXCALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel O. Calderón-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical production of barley for ten years (2003-2012 as well as under climate change scenarios for near future (2015-2039 and for near future (2075-2099 in Calpulalpan, Tlaxcala was evaluated. An assessment of suitable regions for production was performed as well as historical performance and barley considering future climate change scenarios through the model AquaCrop (FAO also was estimated. Finally, the average production costs in the region were estimated through surveys with barley producers. The results show that over 70% of the area of the municipality has some degree of aptitude for producing barley. Climate change scenarios indicate increases proficiency in 2% of the surface and reductions of up to 16%. The production model shows very close results with those obtained by farmers in the municipality yields (2.53 t/ha, thus estimated future changes show a decline in yields of about 5% up to 100% depending on the future horizon. Considering current production costs, the benefit-cost relationship could be reduced from 1.4 and to 0.0 in the future. This will certainly affect the economy of the producers in the region.

  2. Effect of Initial Soluble Salt Composition of Saline Soil on Salinity Tolerance of Barley Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENQI-RONG; LIUZHAO-PU; 等

    1991-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out on a marine saline soil to study the effect of initial soluble Na/Ca ratio of saline soil on the salinity tolerance of barley plant.The results showed that (1) the Na/Ca ratio affected significantly the dry weight of the plant at an earlier stage of growth,the critical values of initial Na/Ca ratio at which the plant could grow normally on soils containing salts of 2.5,3.5 and 4.5g kg-1 were 30,20 and 15,respectively;(2)smaller Na/Ca ratio resulted in a considerable decrease in Na accumulation but a great increase in K accumulation in the barley plant;and (3) the plasmallema of barley leaf were badly injured when the Na/Ca ratio was more than 30 and the increase of Na content of plant caused an exudation of K from the leaf cells.Some critical indexes were suggested for the cultivation of barley plant on marine saline soils and could be used as reference in the biological reclamation of marine saline soils.

  3. Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the availability of metals and their accumulation in maize and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Alonso-Azcarate, J. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Carlos III, s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Rodriguez, L., E-mail: Luis.Rromero@uclm.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. on metal availability in two mining soils was assessed by means of chemical extraction methods and a pot experiment using crop plants. Results from single and sequential extractions showed that L. terrestris had a slight effect on metal fractionation in the studied soils: only metals bound to the soil organic matter were significantly increased in some cases. However, we found that L. terrestris significantly increased root, shoot and total Pb and Zn concentrations in maize and barley for the soil with the highest concentrations of total and available metals. Specifically, shoot Pb concentration was increased by a factor of 7.5 and 3.9 for maize and barley, respectively, while shoot Zn concentration was increased by a factor of 3.7 and 1.7 for maize and barley, respectively. Our results demonstrated that earthworm activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. - Research highlights: > Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. > Earthworm activity can significantly increase total, shoot and root metal concentrations for crop plants. > Both bioassays and chemical extraction methods are necessary for assessing the bioavailability of metals in contaminated soils. - Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils and total, shoot and root metal concentrations for maize and barley.

  4. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture.

  5. Homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid and barley seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, B; Koning, G; Lok, K Him

    2003-07-01

    The potentisation process by which homeopathic preparations are produced raises the concern that these medicines have placebo effects only, since they theoretically no longer contain active molecules of the diluted substance. Plant models offer a method of examining the efficacy of homeopathically prepared solutions. This study examined the effects of homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid (HGA3) on the germination performance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds. The effect of HGA3 (4-200 cH) on seed germination rate and seedling development was compared to that of the most commonly used form of gibberellic acid (GA3), 0.5 g l(-1), and control (distilled water). The extent and type of response was dependent on the vigour level of the seedlot. Treating seeds from three vigour groups in HGA3 consistently resulted in larger seedlings. High-vigour seeds treated with HGA3 4, 30 and 200 cH germinated faster, and roots of medium-vigour seedlots treated in HGA3 15 cH were longer. Biphasic effects of HGA3 were also demonstrated. As a plant model, germinating barley seeds successfully demonstrated the ability of HGA3 to produce a biological response.

  6. Barley β-glucans extraction and partial characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberger-Bayer, Valéria M; de Francisco, Alicia; Chan, Aline; Oro, Tatiana; Ogliari, Paulo J; Barreto, Pedro L M

    2014-07-01

    Barley is rarely used in the food industry, even though it is a main source of β-glucans, which have important health benefits and a technological role in food. This work evaluated the humid extraction of barley β-glucans and partially characterized them. The extraction was studied using surface response methodology with both temperature and pH as variables. The extracted β-glucans were characterized by chemical and rheological analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effect on extraction of linear and quadratic terms of pH and temperature corresponding to the regression model was significant, and we obtained a maximum concentration of 53.4% at pH 7.56 and temperature 45.5°C, with protein and mainly starch contamination. The extracted β-glucans presented a higher apparent viscosity than the commercial ones, the behavior of the commercial and extracted samples can be described as Newtonian and pseudoplastic, respectively. The results of infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were characteristic of commercial β-glucans, indicating that this method is efficient for extracting β-glucans.

  7. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  8. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  9. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  10. The NAC transcription factors of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael; Holm, Preben Bach; Gregersen, Per L.

    2011-01-01

    ). From these data we have identified not only putative regulators of leaf senescence (HvNAC005, HvNAC027 and HvNAC029), but also possible regulators of secondary wall synthesis (HvNAC033, HvNAC034 and HvNAC039), lateral root formation (HvNAC022) and seed development (HvNAC017, HvNAC018, HvNAC019 and Hv...... genes characterized so far have regulatory functions in a broad range of plant developmental processes and tolerances to both biotic and abiotic stresses. This makes the NAC family highly interesting target genes for plant researchers and breeders. As part of a larger project on the identification...... of Hordeum vulgare (barley) leaf senescence regulators, we have attempted to characterize for the first time all presently available barley NAC genes (HvNACs). By searching the NCBI barley EST database using the tBLASTn function, with all known NAC genes from Brachypodium and rice as input, in combination...

  11. Cereal grains for nutrition and health benefits: Overview of results from in vitro, animal and human studies in the HEALTHGRAIN project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björck, I.; Östman, E.; Kristensen, M.; Mateo Anson, N.; Price, R.K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Havenaar, R.; Bach Knudsen, K.E.; Frid, A.; Mykkänen, H.; Welch, R.W.; Riccardi, G.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole grain intake to the prevention of the metabolic syndrome, obesity and associated chronic diseases such as CVD and T2D. The Nutrition module within the HEALTHGRAIN project, included 10 partners and undertook in vitro, animal and human in vivo studies with the

  12. Influence of distillers grains resulting from a cellulosic ethanol process utilizing corn kernel fiber on nutrient digestibility of lambs and steer feedlot performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, E L; Loy, D D; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects on animal performance of traditional wet distillers grains (T-WDG) compared to cellulosic wet distillers grains (C-WDG) from a new process converting corn kernel fiber into cellulosic ethanol. The resulting coproduct has greater CP and decreased starch and ether extract (EE) concentrations (34.0% CP, 1.6% starch, 7.3% EE) compared to T-WDG (32.5% CP, 5.1% starch, 7.7% EE). In Exp. 1, 10 wethers (34.1 ± 2.35 kg, SD) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square to evaluate digestibility of DM, fiber, EE, and N. Diets including a corn-based control with 7.5% T-WDG and 7.5% C-WDG (CORN); 30% or 45% inclusion of T-WDG; and 30% or 45% inclusion of C-WDG. Between CORN, 30% T-WDG, 45% T-WDG, or 45% C-WDG, DMI was not different (P ≥ 0.11), but lambs fed 30% C-WDG had decreased (P ≤ 0.05) DMI compared to other diets. Compared to CORN and 30% T-WDG, DM digestibility was lesser ( PCORN, 30% T-WDG, 30% C-WDG, or 45% C-WDG. However, digestibility of ADF tended to differ (P = 0.06) between 30% T-WDG and 45% C-WDG and was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in lambs fed 45% T-WDG compared to other treatments. In Exp. 2, 168 steers (421 ± 23.9 kg, SD) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the impact of C-WDG or T-WDG on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Diets included a corn-based control (CON), 30% T-WDG (TRAD), 30% C-WDG (CEL), and 18% C-WDG and 12% condensed corn distillers solubles (CEL+CCDS; = 7 pens of 6 steers/pen). Steers fed TRAD had improved (P ≤ 0.01) ADG, G:F, and HCW compared to steers fed the CON diet. No differences (P ≥ 0.16) in ADG and HCW were noted for steers fed CEL compared to TRAD; however, steers fed CEL had decreased (P = 0.01) G:F due to increased (P = 0.02) DMI compared to TRAD-fed steers. Steers fed CEL or CEL+CCDS did not differ (P = 0.50) in G:F, but CEL+CCDS-fed steers had lesser (P ≤ 0.01) DMI and ADG likely due to greater S content of the CEL+CCDS diet. Overall, while DM

  13. THE STIMULATING EFFECT OF LASER RED LIGHT, FAR RED LIGHT AND SODIUM CARBONATE AT THE INITIAL STAGES OF BARLEY ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Dudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Modern ecological state of the environment and human unhealthy diet cause many diseases. A healthy diet is the one that contains adequate amounts of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, macronutrients and micronutrients. Photosynthesis i. e. the process by which plants produce organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water, is the source of life, the source of evolution and proliferation of life forms on the Earth. Thus, the juice made from sprouted barley provides physiologically active chlorophyll, macronutrients and micronutrients, vitamins А, В2 , В3 , В5 , В6 , В8 , Е and К. It is well known that light from a red laser with a wavelength of 638.2 nm has a stimulating action on the germination energy, germination ability and productivity of seeds, and on the crop yields. Therefore, this research is of primary importance today. The research result produced a sharp decline in plant vigor and germinating capacity of barley when soaking in 1n sodium carbonate solution, as well as changes in the ratio of potassium-sodium balance in plants. Thus at lower concentrations of sodium carbonate and 0.1 n sodium increasing of pigment content in barley is observed on the seventh day. The red laser light has a similar stimulating action: the chlorophyll content of barley plants increased after the red laser treatment of barley seeds. However, the chlorophyll contents were depressed when the seeds were exposed to far red light with wavelengths of 754±10 nm. Using these factors, one can manage the content of chlorophyll and sodium-potassium balance in the initial stages of barley ontogenesis in the technology of barley juice or the powder for a healthy and proper human diet.

  14. Antidepressant-like effects of young green barley leaf (Hordeum vulgare L. in the mouse forced swimming test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Yamaura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Young green barley leaf is one of the richest sources of antioxidants and has been widely consumed for health management in Japan. In this study, we examined whether oral administration of young green barley leaf has an antidepressant effect on the forced swimming test in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were individually forced to swim in an open cylindrical container, one hour after oral administration of young green barley leaf (400 or 1000 mg / kg or imipramine (100 mg / kg. Expression of mRNA for nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glucocorticoid receptor in the brain was analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: There was a significant antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test; both 400 and 1000 mg / kg young green barley leaves, as well as the positive control imipramine (100 mg / kg, reduced the immobility duration compared to the vehicle group. The expression of mRNA for NGF detected in the hippocampus immediately after the last swimming test was higher than that in the non-swimming group (Nil. Oral administration of imipramine suppressed this increase to the level of the Nil group. Young green barley leaf (400 and 1000 mg / kg also showed a moderate decrease in the expression of mRNA for NGF, in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Oral administration of young green barley leaf is able to produce an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test. Consequently it is possible that the antidepressant-like effects of the young green barley leaf are, at least in part, mediated by an inhibition of the increase in the hippocampus levels of NGF.

  15. Root border cell development is a temperature-insensitive and Al-sensitive process in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian-Wei; Ye, Dan; Wang, Li-Ling; Hua, Jing; Zhao, Gu-Feng; Pan, Wei-Huai; Han, Ning; Zhu, Mu-Yuan

    2004-06-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that border cell (BC) survival was dependent on root tip mucigel in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Hang 981). In aeroponic culture, BC development was an induced process in barley, whereas in hydroponic culture, it was a kinetic equilibrium process during which 300-400 BCs were released into water daily. The response of root elongation to temperatures (10-35 degrees C) was very sensitive but temperature changes had no great effect on barley BC development. At 35 degrees C, the root elongation ceased whereas BC production still continued, indicating that the two processes might be regulated independently under high temperature (35 degrees C) stress. Fifty microM Al could inhibit significantly BC development by inhibiting pectin methylesterase activity in the root cap of cv. 2000-2 (Al-sensitive) and cv. Humai 16 (Al-tolerant), but 20 microM Al could not block BC development in cv. Humai 16. BCs and their mucigel of barley had a limited role in the protection of Al-induced inhibition of root elongation, but played a significant role in the prevention of Al from diffusing into the meristems of the root tip and the root cap. Together, these results suggested that BC development was a temperature-insensitive but Al-sensitive process, and that BCs and their mucigel played an important role in the protection of root tip and root cap meristems from Al toxicity.

  16. Phytoremediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils around Isfahan Oil Refinery (Iran by Sorghum and Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Irajy Asiabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum compounds are one of the most frequently encountered pollutants in soils adjacent to oil refineries. Phytoremediation,where feasible, has become a cost-effective alternative to physicochemical methods of soil remediation. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and barley (Hordeum vulgare were selected for phytoremediationand the diminution in the concentration of oil-based contaminants was measured during a 90-day period. Contaminated and control treatments were compared in terms of root and shoot dry weight. Comparisons revealed reductions of about 22% and 30% in root dry matter and 51% and 42% in shoot dry matter of sorghum and barley in contaminated soil, respectively. The control and planted soils were significantly different in total and oil-degrading bacterial counts. Moreover, the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons decreased by 52%-64% in 90 days. Since planting the contaminated soil with sorghum and barley resulted in an improvement of 30% compared to unplanted contaminated soil, the two plants were highly efficient in removing petroleum from oil-contaminated soils. Therefore, despite the necessity of further studies to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation by assessing the appropriateness of various plant species, some genotypes like sorghum and barley were found suitable choices for phytoremediation of the investigated petroleum-contaminated soil.

  17. Structure and function of the bacterial root microbiota in wild and domesticated barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Davide; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Münch, Philipp C; Weiman, Aaron; Dröge, Johannes; Pan, Yao; McHardy, Alice C; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-03-11

    The microbial communities inhabiting the root interior of healthy plants, as well as the rhizosphere, which consists of soil particles firmly attached to roots, engage in symbiotic associations with their host. To investigate the structural and functional diversification among these communities, we employed a combination of 16S rRNA gene profiling and shotgun metagenome analysis of the microbiota associated with wild and domesticated accessions of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Bacterial families Comamonadaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, and Rhizobiaceae dominate the barley root-enriched microbiota. Host genotype has a small, but significant, effect on the diversity of root-associated bacterial communities, possibly representing a footprint of barley domestication. Traits related to pathogenesis, secretion, phage interactions, and nutrient mobilization are enriched in the barley root-associated microbiota. Strikingly, protein families assigned to these same traits showed evidence of positive selection. Our results indicate that the combined action of microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions drives microbiota differentiation at the root-soil interface.

  18. Effects of Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Barley Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, S. M.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, H. J.; Joo, Y. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of bacterial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation indices of barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at 24% dry matter (DM) and wilted to 47.9% DM. The wilted barley forage was chopped to 3–5 cm length and applied with no inoculant (CON), L. plantarum (1×1010 cfu/g, LP) or Effective Microorganisms (0.5×109 cfu/g, EM). Then the forages were ensiled in four replications for each treatment in 20 L mini silos and stored for 100 days. The contents of crude protein and ether extract were higher in CON silage ensiled for 100-d, while the contents of DM and crude ash were higher in EM silage (p0.05). The pH, ammonia-N concentration and lactate to acetate ratio were higher (p<0.05) in CON silage, while lactate concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in CON and LP silage. Acetate concentration and lactic acid bacteria was increased (p<0.05) by both inoculants (LP and EM), but propionate concentration and yeast was increased (p<0.05) by EM and LP, respectively. These results indicated that the fermentation quality of barley silage was improved by the application of bacterial inoculants. PMID:25049981

  19. Barley aleurone cell death is not apoptotic: characterization of nuclease activities and DNA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, A; Bethke, P C; Jones, R L

    1999-11-01

    Barley aleurone cells undergo programmed cell death (PCD) when exposed to gibberellic acid (GA), but incubation in abscisic acid (ABA) prevent PCD. We tested the hypothesis that PCD in aleurone cells occurs by apoptosis, and show that the hallmark of apoptosis, namely DNA cleavage into 180 bp fragments, plasma membrane blebbing, and the formation of apoptotic bodies do not occur when aleurone cells die. We show that endogenous barley aleurone nucleases and nucleases present in enzymes used for protoplast preparation degrade aleurone DNA and that DNA degradation by these nucleases is rapid and can result in the formation of 180 bp DNA ladders. Methods are described that prevent DNA degradation during isolation from aleurone layers or protoplasts. Barley aleurone cells contain three nucleases whose activities are regulated by GA and ABA. CA induction and ABA repression of nuclease activities correlate with PCD in aleurone cells. Cells incubated in ABA remain alive and do not degrade their DNA, but living aleurone cells treated with GA accumulate nucleases and hydrolyze their nuclear DNA. We propose that barley nucleases play a role in DNA cleavage during aleurone PCD.

  20. EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaad DERBALA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Gharbia Governorate,Egypt during 2009/2010 winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation in clay soil condition and barley production. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangular. Also, two irrigation levels and two fertilizers levels were used. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 5077, 4201 and 3068 m3ha-1for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respectively. The highest values of coefficient of uniformity, distribution uniformity and application efficiency of low quarter were achieved by the square layout. Grain yield increased from 4.55 Mg ha-1 with flood to 5.70 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Straw yield increased from 5.36 Mg ha-1 with flood to 9.65 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Water use efficiency increased from 0.90 kg m-3 with flood to 1.64 kg m-3under sprinkling method with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Energy use efficiency increased from 13.66 kg kW-1h-1 with flood to 18.20 kg kW-1h-1under sprinkler irrigation with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer.In conclusion, square layout at 100% ETc with 100% fertilizer gave the best results.

  1. The promoter of the barley aleurone-specific gene encoding a putative 7 kDa lipid transfer protein confers aleurone cell-specific expression in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, R; Shimamoto, K; Potter, R; Nielsen, P S; Linnestad, C; Olsen, O A

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the aleurone-specific gene Ltp2 from barley, which encodes a putative 7 kDa non-specific lipid transfer protein. As shown by Northern and in situ hybridization analyses, the Ltp2 transcript is present in barley aleurone cells shortly after the initiation of aleurone cell differentiation. The expression of Ltp2 increases until grain mid-maturity, but the mRNA is absent from mature grains. The Ltp2 transcript is undetectable in the embryo and vegetative tissues, confirming the aleurone specificity of the Ltp2 gene. The ability of the isolated 801 bp Ltp2 promoter to direct aleurone-specific expression in immature barley grains is demonstrated by particle bombardment experiments. In these experiments, the activity of the Ltp2 promoter is 5% of the activity of the strong constitutive Actin1 promoter from rice, as quantified by GUS activity measurements. In stably transformed rice plants containing the Ltp2 promoter-Gus construct, the specificity of the Ltp2 promoter is confirmed in vivo by the presence of GUS activity exclusively in the aleurone layer. This study demonstrates the conserved nature of the regulatory signals involved in aleurone-specific gene transcription in cereal grains.

  2. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    (III) at concentrations of 10-50-mu-g/ml did not significantly alter the concentrations of polyamines nor the chitinase activities in either species, however, at 100-mu-g/ml in barley Cr(III) induced an increase in putrescine concentration after 6 days of exposure. The induction of chitinases and the increases...... in the putrescine level caused by Cr(VI) but not by Cr(III) (10-50-mu-g/ml) exposure is similar in the two species suggesting an analogous defense system in both mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. The anionic form of Cr(VI) seems to be more potent than the cationic form of Cr(III). Grain of barley plants grown...

  3. Additive effects of Na+ and Cl- ions on barley growth under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Coventry, Stewart; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2011-03-01

    Soil salinity affects large areas of the world's cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield. Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions in high concentrations in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. It has previously been suggested that Cl(-) toxicity may also be an important cause of growth reduction in barley plants. Here, the extent to which specific ion toxicities of Na(+) and Cl(-) reduce the growth of barley grown in saline soils is shown under varying salinity treatments using four barley genotypes differing in their salt tolerance in solution and soil-based systems. High Na(+), Cl(-), and NaCl separately reduced the growth of barley, however, the reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greatest under NaCl stress and were mainly additive of the effects of Na(+) and Cl(-) stress. The results demonstrated that Na(+) and Cl(-) exclusion among barley genotypes are independent mechanisms and different genotypes expressed different combinations of the two mechanisms. High concentrations of Na(+) reduced K(+) and Ca(2+) uptake and reduced photosynthesis mainly by reducing stomatal conductance. By comparison, high Cl(-) concentration reduced photosynthetic capacity due to non-stomatal effects: there was chlorophyll degradation, and a reduction in the actual quantum yield of PSII electron transport which was associated with both photochemical quenching and the efficiency of excitation energy capture. The results also showed that there are fundamental differences in salinity responses between soil and solution culture, and that the importance of the different mechanisms of salt damage varies according to the system under which the plants were grown.

  4. 454 sequencing of pooled BAC clones on chromosome 3H of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaji Nami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing of barley has been delayed due to its large genome size (ca. 5,000Mbp. Among the fast sequencing systems, 454 liquid phase pyrosequencing provides the longest reads and is the most promising method for BAC clones. Here we report the results of pooled sequencing of BAC clones selected with ESTs genetically mapped to chromosome 3H. Results We sequenced pooled barley BAC clones using a 454 parallel genome sequencer. A PCR screening system based on primer sets derived from genetically mapped ESTs on chromosome 3H was used for clone selection in a BAC library developed from cultivar "Haruna Nijo". The DNA samples of 10 or 20 BAC clones were pooled and used for shotgun library development. The homology between contig sequences generated in each pooled library and mapped EST sequences was studied. The number of contigs assigned on chromosome 3H was 372. Their lengths ranged from 1,230 bp to 58,322 bp with an average 14,891 bp. Of these contigs, 240 showed homology and colinearity with the genome sequence of rice chromosome 1. A contig annotation browser supplemented with query search by unique sequence or genetic map position was developed. The identified contigs can be annotated with barley cDNAs and reference sequences on the browser. Homology analysis of these contigs with rice genes indicated that 1,239 rice genes can be assigned to barley contigs by the simple comparison of sequence lengths in both species. Of these genes, 492 are assigned to rice chromosome 1. Conclusions We demonstrate the efficiency of sequencing gene rich regions from barley chromosome 3H, with special reference to syntenic relationships with rice chromosome 1.

  5. Cloning and characterization of purple acid phosphatase phytases from wheat, barley, maize, and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, G.; Madsen, C. K.; Holm, P. B.;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here...... type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain...... development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed...

  6. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus.

  7. Digestibility of whole-crop barley and oat silages in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallsten, J; Bertilsson, J; Nadeau, E; Martinsson, K

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the digestibility of whole-crop cereal silage (WCCS) made from oats and six-rowed barley harvested at the heading, early milk and early dough stages, and two-rowed barley harvested at the early milk and early dough stages of maturity. The eight WCCSs were fed to 32 Swedish Red heifers in a changeover design over three periods of 28 days each. The heifers were first fed ad libitum for 17 days and then at 0.95 of ad libitum for 11 days of each period. During the last 5 days all faeces and orts were collected to determine the digestibility of the silages. Only the maturity stage effect was significant for the WCCS organic matter (OM) digestibility and the average OM digestibility was higher at the heading stage (698 g/kg) than at early milk (647 g/kg) and early dough (652 g/kg) stages of maturity. For neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility the crop × maturity stage effect was significant. The NDF digestibility decreased from the heading to the early milk stage for both six-rowed barley (746 to 607 g/kg) and oats (698 to 596 g/kg). There was no further significant decrease in NDF digestibility for six-rowed barley at the early dough stage (577 g/kg), but for two-rowed barley it decreased from the early milk (682 g/kg) to the early dough (573 g/kg) stage, and also for oats the NDF digestibility was lowest at the early dough stage (507 g/kg). The decrease in NDF digestibility during maturation was to a large extent compensated by an increase in starch concentration in the crops. The starch digestibility was lower for six-rowed barley at early dough stage (948 g/kg) than at early milk stage (977 g/kg), and was also lower compared with oats (979 g/kg) at early dough stage. The average crude protein (CP) digestibility was higher at the heading (646 g/kg) and the early milk (642 g/kg) stages than at the early dough stage (599 g/kg), and oats had higher average CP digestibility (650 g/kg) than six-rowed (613 g/kg) and two-rowed (624 g/kg) barley

  8. Investigation of Leaf Diseases and Estimation of Chlorophyll Concentration in Seven Barley Varieties Using Fluorescence and Hyperspectral Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf diseases, such as powdery mildew and leaf rust, frequently infect barley plants and severely affect the economic value of malting barley. Early detection of barley diseases would facilitate the timely application of fungicides. In a field experiment, we investigated the performance of fluorescence and reflectance indices on (1 detecting barley disease risks when no fungicide is applied and (2 estimating leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC. Leaf fluorescence and canopy reflectance were weekly measured by a portable fluorescence sensor and spectroradiometer, respectively. Results showed that vegetation indices recorded at canopy level performed well for the early detection of slightly-diseased plants. The combined reflectance index, MCARI/TCARI, yielded the best discrimination between healthy and diseased plants across seven barley varieties. The blue to far-red fluorescence ratio (BFRR_UV and OSAVI were the best fluorescence and reflectance indices for estimating LCC, respectively, yielding R2 of 0.72 and 0.79. Partial least squares (PLS and support vector machines (SVM regression models further improved the use of fluorescence signals for the estimation of LCC, yielding R2 of 0.81 and 0.84, respectively. Our results demonstrate that non-destructive spectral measurements are able to detect mild disease symptoms before significant losses in LCC due to diseases under natural conditions.

  9. Good Grains Gone Bad: How Grain to Grain Interactions Complicate the Onset of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, E.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Predictions of the onset of sediment motion are integral components of bed stability and bedload flux estimates. Mechanistic equations for initial motion employ a balance between driving and resisting forces. Driving forces are modeled as functions of the magnitude and duration of turbulence events whereas resisting forces are simply approximated by the grain weight and a static friction angle. Such resistance approximations do not include the effects of grain packing and dynamic interactions with surrounding sediment. To better understand and quantify grain resistance, we used a Discrete Element Method (DEM) model for a single test grain surrounded by a bed of smaller grains. We applied a constant external force on the test grain in each run and progressively increased the force between runs until the test grain moved out of its resting pocket. The DEM model calculated the test grain velocity, position and net force (sum of applied external force and forces from other grains) at time steps of 1×10-7 s. Despite applying a constant external force, the net force on the test grain fluctuated by three to six orders of magnitude, depending on the run. These fluctuations were driven by the creation and destruction of force chains, and the rearrangement of the positions of surrounding bed sediment. Stick-slip behavior, which has been observed in shear tests of granular material, occurred during test-grain motion. The frequency of stick-slip behavior generally declined with higher applied external forces. Therefore, the onset of grain motion was not continuous, as is often assumed even in the presence of fluctuating applied fluid forces. The duration and magnitude of turbulence fluctuations have received considerable attention but our results suggest that grain resistance oscillations are also important. Whether turbulence and resistance fluctuations are synchronous will likely dictate if grain movement occurs, and we are currently conducting model runs to better

  10. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a pre

  11. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  12. Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...

  13. Evolutionary history of barley cultivation in Europe revealed by genetic analysis of extant landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Huw

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolution of cultivated barley is important for two reasons. First, the evolutionary relationships between different landraces might provide information on the spread and subsequent development of barley cultivation, including the adaptation of the crop to new environments and its response to human selection. Second, evolutionary information would enable landraces with similar traits but different genetic backgrounds to be identified, providing alternative strategies for the introduction of these traits into modern germplasm. Results The evolutionary relationships between 651 barley landraces were inferred from the genotypes for 24 microsatellites. The landraces could be divided into nine populations, each with a different geographical distribution. Comparisons with ear row number, caryopsis structure, seasonal growth habit and flowering time revealed a degree of association between population structure and phenotype, and analysis of climate variables indicated that the landraces are adapted, at least to some extent, to their environment. Human selection and/or environmental adaptation may therefore have played a role in the origin and/or maintenance of one or more of the barley landrace populations. There was also evidence that at least some of the population structure derived from geographical partitioning set up during the initial spread of barley cultivation into Europe, or reflected the later introduction of novel varieties. In particular, three closely-related populations were made up almost entirely of plants with the daylength nonresponsive version of the photoperiod response gene PPD-H1, conferring adaptation to the long annual growth season of northern Europe. These three populations probably originated in the eastern Fertile Crescent and entered Europe after the initial spread of agriculture. Conclusions The discovery of population structure, combined with knowledge of associated phenotypes and

  14. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS...... classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes....... Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results...

  15. Nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes alter the microbial community and the fermentation patterns of barley cultivars and wheat products in an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindelle, Jérôme; Pieper, Robert; Montoya, Carlos A; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Leterme, Pascal

    2011-06-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to assess how nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes influence the fermentation of dietary fiber in the pig large intestine. Seven wheat and barley products and cultivars with differing carbohydrate fractions were hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin in the presence or not of NSP-degrading enzymes (xylanase and β-glucanase) and the filter retentate was subsequently fermented with sow fecal bacteria. Dry matter, starch, crude protein and β-glucan digestibilities during hydrolysis were measured. Fermentation kinetics of the hydrolyzed ingredients were modelled. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and molar ratio were compared after 12, 24 and 72 h. Microbial communities were analyzed after 72 h of fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results showed an increase of nutrient digestibility (Penzyme. SCFA and bacterial community profiles also indicated a shift from propionate to acetate and an increase in cellulolytic Ruminococcus- and xylanolytic Clostridium-like bacteria. This is explained by the increase in slowly fermentable insoluble carbohydrate and the lower proportion of rapidly fermentable β-glucan and starch in the retentate when grains were incubated with NSP-degrading enzymes. Shifts were also different for the four barley varieties investigated, showing that the efficiency of the enzymes depends on the structure of the carbohydrate fractions in cereal products and cultivars.

  16. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis.

  17. Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus and the Frequency of Triploids and Aneuploids in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1973-01-01

    BSMV infection caused a pronounced increase in the frequency of triploid and aneuploid seeds in eleven barley varieties, but with considerable variation in frequency among varieties. In some of the varieties triploids exceeded three per cent. In virus-free material a few triploids were found in m...

  18. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four hom...

  19. Spatial variation of bed material grain size over a large dune in the Jade Bay tidal channel, German Wadden Sea (preliminary results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. A.; Ernstsen, V. B.

    2007-12-01

    High-resolution bathymetry of a large dune with a height of ~4 m, a length of ~70 m and a cross- channel width of ~400 m was measured in the Jade Bay tidal channel, German Wadden Sea, using a multibeam echosounder (MBES) system. A total of 34 bed material samples were collected along 5 transects (trough-crest-trough) across the dune using a ShipekTM grab sampler. High-resolution flow velocity measurements, by means of an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), were conducted along 3 of these transects during a tidal cycle. Along the channel, mean grain sizes increase from trough to crest along all 5 transects. This increase is most pronounced in the center of the channel (trough ~340 μm, crest ~610 μm) compared to near the channel sides (trough ~425 μm, crest ~500 μm). Across the channel, mean grain sizes decrease along the crest (center ~610 μm, sides ~500 μm), but increase along the trough (center ~340 μm, sides ~425 μm) from the channel center toward the channel sides. The along-channel increase in mean grain size from trough to crest is coherent with an increase in the maximum near-bed flow velocity (calculated as the average flow velocity in the interval from 1 to 2 m above the bed). Moreover, this increase in near-bed flow velocity from trough to crest is more pronounced in the center of the channel (trough ~0.7 m/s, crest ~1.1 m/s) than near the channel sides (trough ~0.9 m/s, crest ~1.1 m/s), which is in line with the larger gradients in mean grain size in the center than along the sides. The higher flow velocities recorded at the crest relative to the trough is due to flow continuity. The across-track increase in mean grain size in the trough from the channel center toward the channel sides is consistent with an increase in the maximum near-bed flow velocity (center ~0.7 m/s, sides ~0.9 m/s). The decrease in mean grain size on the crest from the channel center toward the channel sides cannot simply be explained by lower near-bed flow velocities

  20. Structure, function and protein engineering in starch debranching enzyme systems. Barley limit dextrinase and its endogenous inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate in cereal grains. It is composed primarily of amylopectin, a polymer of glucose in which α-1,4-linked glucan chains are branched with α-1,6-bonds. Enzymatic degradation of starch in germinating barley seeds involves an initial solubilisation, mainly...... by α-amylase, followed by hydrolysis of the resulting dextrins to oligosaccharides and glucose by the concerted action of α- and β-amylase, limit dextrinase (LD), and α-glucosidase. Only LD is able to hydrolyse α-1,6-linkages in limit dextrins. Since LD is the sole debranching enzyme in the germinating...... on these comparisons. In the second part of the thesis I present the crystal structure of the complex between LD and LDI determined to 2.7 Å. The structure revealed a novel mode of inhibition distinctly different from that of the interaction between LDI-like inhibitors and α-1,4-acting enzymes (α-amylases) from...

  1. A role for arabinogalactan proteins in gibberellin-induced alpha-amylase production in barley aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihito; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Knox, J Paul; Yamaguchi, Isomaro

    2002-03-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are plant proteoglycans that have been implicated in plant growth and development. The possible involvement of AGPs in the action of gibberellin (GA), a class of plant hormones, was examined by applying beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent (beta-Glc)3Y, a synthetic phenyl glycoside that interacts selectively with AGPs, to barley aleurone protoplasts. Gibberellin induces transcription and secretion of alpha-amylases in the protoplasts. Induction of alpha-amylase was clearly inhibited by (beta-Glc)3Y but not by (alpha-Gal)3Y, a negative control of the Yariv reagent that does not interact with AGPs. Transfection analysis, using an alpha-amylase promoter-GUS fusion gene in the protoplasts, indicated that the transcriptional activation of the alpha-amylase promoter was inhibited specifically by (beta-Glc)3Y. These observations are the first indication of an involvement of AGPs in a plant hormone function. The inhibitory effect of (beta-Glc)3Y was not observed when aleurone layers or half-seed grains were used. This result, together with the fact that protoplasts do not have cell walls, suggests that the AGPs that function in alpha-amylase induction reside at the plasma membrane. An aleurone-specific AGP was detected by reversed-phase HPLC, and supported the idea that an AGP may play an important role in aleurone-specific events. The possible mechanism of AGP function in gibberellin-induced alpha-amylase production is discussed.

  2. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (P< 0·05) in rice and lowest (P< 0·05) in rye and sorghum. The concentrations of SID indispensable AA in rice were less (P< 0·05) than in dehulled oats, but greater (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (P< 0·05) than in yellow dent maize and sorghum, but less (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains.

  3. A novel major gene on chromosome 6H for resistance of barley against the barley yellow dwarf virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Habekuss, A.; Bekele, B.; Ordon, F.

    2004-01-01

    In a mapping population derived from the Ethiopian barley line L94 x Vada, natural infection by barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) occurred. While line L94 hardly showed symptoms, Vada was severely affected. The 103 recombinant inbred lines segregated bimodally. The major gene responsible for this res

  4. High levels of genetic and genotypic diversity in field populations of the barley pathogen Ramularia collo-cygni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund; Ravnshøj, A.R.; Nyman, M.

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete pathogen Ramularia collo-cygni causes Ramularia leaf spot (RLS) on barley. Although R. collo-cygni is considerd an emerging disease of barley, little is known about genetic diversity or population genetic structure of this pathogen. We applied a set of polymorphic AFLP (Amplified F...... result from considerable levels of gene flow between populations most likely mediated by seed borne dispersal of inoculum....

  5. Grain charging in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) turbulence and grain growth which are coupled in a two-way process. We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains and aggregates with fractal dimension D_f = 2. Applying a simple chemical network that accounts for collisional charging of grains, we provide a semi-analytical solution. This allowed us to calculate the equilibrium population of grain charges and the ionisation fraction efficiently. The grain charging was evaluated for different dynamical environments ranging from static to non-stationary disc configurations. The results show that the adsorption/desorption of neutral gas-phase heavy metals, such as magnesium, effects the ...

  6. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  7. Determination of Physical Properties of Some Agricultural Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gürsoy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for the purpose of determining physical and aerodynamic properties, some varieties of wheat, barley, chickpea and lentil were used. The length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, equivalent sphere diam eter, sphericity, seed mass, bulk density, true density, projected area, terminal velocity, drag coefficient of each grain variety were determined. The theoretical terminal velocities of those grains were calculated by using equations corrected with the shape factor. For all the grains, theoretical terminal velocities were lower than the experimental values. The average experimental terminal velocity was found to be in the range of 7.52 to 8.14 m/s for wheat varieties, 7.04 to 7.07 m /s for barley varieties, 7.72 to 7.78 m/s for lentil varieties and 11.15 to 12.01 m/s for chickpea varieties. The drag coefficients of seeds according to projected areas in different positions and equivalent spheres were calculated. The drag coefficient in the position of the lowest projected area for all the grain varieties was higher than that in the other position.

  8. Mitigation of peroxidative stress for barley exposed to cadmium in the presence of water-extractable organic matter from compost-like materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Naoya; Nagasawa, Kenya; Wang, Binhui; Nishiya, Kazuki; Fukushima, Masami; Kanno, Hikari; Shinano, Takuro; Okazaki, Keiki

    2013-10-01

    The effects of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from compost-like materials on peroxidative stress were investigated for hydroponic culture of barley exposed to Cd. In the presence of WEOM, lipoxygenase activity and malondialdehyde, indices of peroxidative stress in barley, were significantly reduced, compared to those with Cd alone (5 μM) for a 30-d culture (pcomplexed with WEOM, indicating that the complexation of Cd with WEOM is a minor factor in reducing Cd-induced stress in barley. The WEOM sample was purified by cation-exchange column and ultrafiltration to remove the nutrient minerals, such as Ca, Mg and Fe. When the purified WEOM was employed for hydroponic culture in the presence of Cd, significant decreases in peroxidative stress and Cd uptake were observed (p<0.05). These results show that the organic components in WEOM contribute to the mitigation of peroxidative stress in barley exposed to Cd.

  9. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development....

  10. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide;

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  11. Cell layer-specific distribution of transiently expressed barley ESCRT-III component HvVPS60 in developing barley endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, Julia; Kapusi, Eszter; Stoger, Eva; Ibl, Verena

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III in cereal endosperm has been shown by the identification of the recessive mutant supernumerary aleurone layer1 (SAL1) in maize. ESCRT-III is indispensable in the final membrane fission step during biogenesis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), responsible for protein sorting to vacuoles and to the cell surface. Here, we annotated barley ESCRT-III members in the (model) crop Hordeum vulgare and show that all identified members are expressed in developing barley endosperm. We used fluorescently tagged core ESCRT-III members HvSNF7a/CHMP4 and HvVPS24/CHMP3 and the associated ESCRT-III component HvVPS60a/CHMP5 for transient localization studies in barley endosperm. In vivo confocal microscopic analyses show that the localization of recombinantly expressed HvSNF7a, HvVPS24 and HvVPS60a differs within barley endosperm. Whereas HvSNF7a induces large agglomerations, HvVPS24 shows mainly cytosolic localization in aleurone and subaleurone. In contrast, HvVPS60a localizes strongly at the plasma membrane in aleurone. In subaleurone, HvVPS60a was found to a lesser extent at the plasma membrane and at vacuolar membranes. These results indicate that the steady-state association of ESCRT-III may be influenced by cell layer-specific protein deposition or trafficking and remodelling of the endomembrane system in endosperm. We show that sorting of an artificially mono-ubiquitinated Arabidopsis plasma membrane protein is inhibited by HvVPS60a in aleurone. The involvement of HvVPS60a in different cell layer-specific trafficking pathways, reflected by localization of HvVPS60a at the plasma membrane in aleurone and at the PSV membrane in subaleurone, is discussed.

  12. Impact of foliar application of nano micronutrient fertilizers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the growth and yield components of barley under supplemental irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen JANMOHAMMADI; Tahereh AMANZADEH; Sabaghnia, Naser; Shahryar DASHTI

    2016-01-01

    Nano-fertilizers are new generation of the synthetic fertilizers which contain readily available nutrients in nano scale range. Nano fertilizers are preferred largely due to their efficiency and environment friendly nature compared to conventional chemical fertilizers. To evaluate the effects of foliar spray of micronutrient nano-fertilizer (iron and zinc) and nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2) solution on grain yield and its components in barley under supplemental irrigation conditions, a field e...

  13. Combinatorial pooling enables selective sequencing of the barley gene space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lonardi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For the vast majority of species - including many economically or ecologically important organisms, progress in biological research is hampered due to the lack of a reference genome sequence. Despite recent advances in sequencing technologies, several factors still limit the availability of such a critical resource. At the same time, many research groups and international consortia have already produced BAC libraries and physical maps and now are in a position to proceed with the development of whole-genome sequences organized around a physical map anchored to a genetic map. We propose a BAC-by-BAC sequencing protocol that combines combinatorial pooling design and second-generation sequencing technology to efficiently approach denovo selective genome sequencing. We show that combinatorial pooling is a cost-effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when preparing sequencing libraries for hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as in this case gene-bearing minimum-tiling-path BAC clones. The novelty of the protocol hinges on the computational ability to efficiently compare hundred millions of short reads and assign them to the correct BAC clones (deconvolution so that the assembly can be carried out clone-by-clone. Experimental results on simulated data for the rice genome show that the deconvolution is very accurate, and the resulting BAC assemblies have high quality. Results on real data for a gene-rich subset of the barley genome confirm that the deconvolution is accurate and the BAC assemblies have good quality. While our method cannot provide the level of completeness that one would achieve with a comprehensive whole-genome sequencing project, we show that it is quite successful in reconstructing the gene sequences within BACs. In the case of plants such as barley, this level of sequence knowledge is sufficient to support critical end-point objectives such as map-based cloning and marker-assisted breeding.

  14. Holobiont nutrition: considering the role of the gastrointestinal microbiota in the health benefits of whole grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jens; Martínez, Inés; Rose, Devin J

    2013-01-01

    Intake of whole grains and other food products high in dietary fiber have long been linked to the prevention of chronic diseases associated with inflammation. A contribution of the gastrointestinal microbiota to these effects has been suggested, but little is known on how whole grains interact with gut bacteria. We have recently published the first human trial that made use of next-generation sequencing to determine the effect of whole grains (whole grain barley, brown rice or a mixture of the two) on fecal microbiota structure and tested for associations between the gut microbiota and blood markers of inflammation, glucose and lipid metabolism. Our study revealed that whole grains impacted gut microbial ecology by increasing microbial diversity and inducing compositional alterations, some of which are considered to have beneficial effects on the host. Interestingly, whole grains, and in particular the combination of whole grain barley and brown rice, caused a reduction in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), which was linked to compositional features of the gut microbiota. Therefore, the study provided evidence that a short-term increased intake of whole grains led to compositional alterations of the gut microbiota that coincided with improvements in systemic inflammation. In this addendum, we summarize the findings of the study and provide a perspective on the importance of regarding humans as holobionts when considering the health effects of dietary strategies.

  15. TAL effector nucleases induce mutations at a pre-selected location in the genome of primary barley transformants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Toni; Holm, Preben Bach; Starker, Colby G; Christian, Michelle; Voytas, Daniel F; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holme, Inger Bæksted

    2013-10-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) enable targeted mutagenesis in a variety of organisms. The primary advantage of TALENs over other sequence-specific nucleases, namely zinc finger nucleases and meganucleases, lies in their ease of assembly, reliability of function, and their broad targeting range. Here we report the assembly of several TALENs for a specific genomic locus in barley. The cleavage activity of individual TALENs was first tested in vivo using a yeast-based, single-strand annealing assay. The most efficient TALEN was then selected for barley transformation. Analysis of the resulting transformants showed that TALEN-induced double strand breaks led to the introduction of short deletions at the target site. Additional analysis revealed that each barley transformant contained a range of different mutations, indicating that mutations occurred independently in different cells.

  16. Isolation and characterization of carboxypeptidase Ⅲ from germinating triticale grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam Drzymala; Wieslaw Bielawski

    2009-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase Ⅲ from germinating triticale grains was purified 434.2-fold with a six-step procedure including:homogenization,ammonium sulfate precipitation,cation-exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose,gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-150,cation-exchange chromatography on SP8HR column(HPLC),and affinity chromatography on CABSSepharose 4B.Triticale carboxypeptidase Ⅲ is a monomer with a molecular weight of 45 kDa,which optimally hydrolyzes peptides at temperature 30-50℃and pH 4.6.N-CBZ-Ala-Phe,N-CBZ-Ala-Leu,and N-CBZ-Ala-Met are hydrolyzed at the highest rates.Amino acids with aromatic or large aliphatic side chains are preferred in position P1',whereas the presence of these types of groups in position P1 of the substrate results in a lower rate of hydrolysis.Peptides containing glutamic acid in positions P1 are poor substrates for the enzyme.This phenomenon suggests the hydrophobic substrate-binding sites S1 and S1'.The active site contains serine since diisopropylfluorophosphate and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride reduce the activity by 89.9%and 81.5%,respectively.Moreover,the activity of triticale carboxypeptidase Ⅲ is reduced by mercury ions and organomercurial compounds,which suggests the presence of a sulfhydryl group adjacent to the active site of the enzyme.Identification of purified enzyme by mass spectrometry method demonstrated that the enzyme is a homolog of barley carboxypeptidase Ⅲ.

  17. Survival of the biocontrol agents Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116 on the spikes of barley in the field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; ZHANG Bing-xin; ZHANG Zhen; SHEN Wei-feng; YANG Ching-hong; YU Jing-quan; ZHAO Yu-hua

    2005-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that results in extensive yield losses to wheat and barley. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing plasmid pRP22-GFP was constructed for monitoring the colonization of two biocontrol agents, Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116, on the spikes of barley and their effect on suppression of FHB. Survival and colonization of the Brevibacillus brevis ZJY- 1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY- 116 strains on spikes of barley were observed by tracking the bacterial transformants with GFP expression. Our field study revealed that plasmid pRP22-GFP was stably maintained in the bacterial strains without selective pressure. The retrieved GFP-tagged strains showed that the bacterial population fluctuation accorded with that of the rain events. Furthermore, both biocontrol strains gave significant protection against FHB on spikes of barley in fields. The greater suppression of barley FHB disease was resulted from the treatment of barley spikes with biocontrol agents before inoculation with F. graminearum.

  18. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny eBorling Welin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un inoculated (M, inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W, or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB; and one treatment based on dried barley (D. After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8 – 4.1. In M, W and WLAB, moulds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Moulds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively.

  19. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability.

  20. Linear grain growth kinetics and rotation in nanocrystalline Ni

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Diana; Mohanty, S.; Monk, J.

    2007-01-01

    We report three-dimensional atomistic molecular dynamics studies of grain growth kinetics in nanocrystalline Ni. The results show the grain size increasing linearly with time, contrary to the square root of the time kinetics observed in coarse-grained structures. The average grain boundary energy per unit area decreases simultaneously with the decrease in total grain boundary area associated with grain growth. The average mobility of the boundaries increases as the grain size increases. The r...

  1. Total dietary fiber intakes in the US population are related to whole grain consumption: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Albertson, Ann M; Joshi, Nandan

    2014-03-01

    Whole grain (WG) foods have been shown to reduce chronic disease risk and overweight. Total dietary fiber is associated with WG and its health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether associations exist between WG intake (no-WG intake, 0 ounce equivalent [oz eq]; low, >0-dietary fiber intake among Americans 2 years and older. One-day food intake data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010 (n = 9042) showed that only 2.9% and 7.7% of children/adolescents (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years) consumed at least 3 WG oz eq/d, respectively. For children/adolescents and adults, individuals in the high WG intake group were 59 and 76 times more likely to fall in the third fiber tertile, respectively, compared with those with no-WG intake. Total dietary fiber intake from food sources varied by WG intake group for children/adolescents and adults with more total dietary fiber consumed from ready-to-eat (RTE) and hot cereals and yeast breads/rolls in the high WG intake group compared with the no-WG intake group. Major WG sources for children/adolescents and adults included yeast bread/rolls (24% and 27%, respectively), RTE cereals (25% and 20%, respectively), and oatmeal (12% and 21%, respectively). Among those with the highest WG intake, WG RTE cereal with no added bran was the greatest contributor to total dietary fiber compared with other RTE cereal types. Whole grain foods make a substantial contribution to total dietary fiber intake and should be promoted to meet recommendations.

  2. Efficient radiative transfer in dust grain mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, S

    2003-01-01

    The influence of a dust grain mixture consisting of spherical dust grains with different radii and/or chemical composition on the resulting temperature structure and spectral energy distribution of a circumstellar shell is investigated. The comparison with the results based on an approximation of dust grain parameters representing the mean optical properties of the corresponding dust grain mixture reveal that (1) the temperature dispersion of a real dust grain mixture decreases substantially with increasing optical depth, converging towards the temperature distribution resulting from the approximation of mean dust grain parameters, and (2) the resulting spectral energy distributions do not differ by more than 10% if >= 2^5 grain sizes are considered which justifies the mean parameter approximation and the many results obtained under its assumption so far. Nevertheless, the dust grain temperature dispersion at the inner boundary of a dust shell may amount to >>100K and has therefore to be considered in the cor...

  3. Effects of Different Bio-organic Fertilizers on the Growth and Yield of Barley in Saline-alkali Soil%盐碱土壤施用不同生物有机肥对大麦生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小倩; 曹伟召; 李国梁; 施圣高; 诸海焘

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the effects of three microbial organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of the bar-ley variety 'Flower 22.As a result,compared with the conventional fertilizer application method adopted by local farmers (regularly ap-plying N-fertilizers,but without applying organic fertilizers),application of each of the three tested microbial organic fertilizers in-creased tiller number,the number of productive panicles,and 1000 -grain weight of barley;but decreased barley spike number,ear length,and plant height.Relative to regular application of N-fertilizers alone,combining them with humic acid fertilizer increased bar-ley yield by 8.54%.In two treatments,N-fertilizers (applied at a rate 10% lower than the recommended rate)were combined with humic acid fertilizer or wormcast organic fertilizer,leading to increases in barley yield by 0.22%and 1 .43%,respectively.Hence,it is feasible to reduce application rate of chemical fertilizers by combining them with microbial organic fertilizers.%在大田条件下,以大麦花22为试材,研究不同有机肥品种对大麦生长、茎蘖动态、成熟性状及产量的影响。结果表明:与当地习惯施肥(不施有机肥,常规施氮)相比,3种配施生物有机肥(联业生物肥、通微腐殖酸肥、温兴蚯蚓肥)处理,大麦分蘖数、有效穗数、千粒质量等均明显提高,而每穗粒数、穗长、株高等有所降低。腐植酸肥与常规施氮组合处理下的大麦产量最高,比仅常规施氮处理的增产8.54%。减氮10%并配施生物有机肥(腐殖酸肥或蚯蚓肥)处理的分别比常规施氮处理的增产0.22%和1.43%。本结果说明生物有机肥的施用有利于促进氮肥的减量化使用。

  4. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B. However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Results Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Conclusion Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space.

  5. Thermal properties of barley starch and its relation to starch characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källman, Anna; Vamadevan, Varatharajan; Bertoft, Eric; Koch, Kristine; Seetharaman, Koushik; Åman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2015-11-01

    Amylopectin fine structure and starch gelatinization and retrogradation were studied in 10 different barley cultivars/breeding lines. Clusters and building blocks were isolated from the amylopectin by α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and their structure was characterized. Gelatinization was studied at a starch:water ratio of 1:3, and retrogradation was studied on gelatinized starch at starch:water ratio of 1:2, by differential scanning calorimetry. Three barley cultivars/breeding lines possessed the amo1 mutation, and they all had a lower molar proportion of chains of DP ≥38 and more of large building blocks. The amo1 mutation also resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature and a broader temperature interval during gelatinization. Overall, small clusters with a dense structure resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature while retrogradation was promoted by short chains in the amylopectin and many large building blocks.

  6. Concepts on Low Temperature Mechanical Grain Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, John Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.; Boyce, Brad Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.

    2013-11-01

    In metals, as grain size is reduced below 100nm, conventional dislocation plasticity is suppressed resulting in improvements in strength, hardness, and wears resistance. Existing and emerging components use fine grained metals for these beneficial attributes. However, these benefits can be lost in service if the grains undergo growth during the component’s lifespan. While grain growth is traditionally viewed as a purely thermal process that requires elevated temperature exposure, recent evidence shows that some metals, especially those with nanocrystalline grain structure, can undergo grain growth even at room temperature or below due to mechanical loading. This report has been assembled to survey the key concepts regarding how mechanical loads can drive grain coarsening at room temperature and below. Topics outlined include the atomic level mechanisms that facilitate grain growth, grain boundary mobility, and the impact of boundary structure, loading scheme, and temperature.

  7. Experimental Barley Flour Production in 12,500-Year-Old Rock-Cut Mortars in Southwestern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, David; Kislev, Mordechai; Karty, Adiel; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Experimental archaeology at a Natufian site in the Southern Levant documents for the first time the use of 12,500-year-old rock-cut mortars for producing wild barley flour, some 2,000 to 3,000 years before cereal cultivation. Our reconstruction involved processing wild barley on the prehistoric threshing floor, followed by use of the conical mortars (a common feature in Natufian sites), thereby demonstrating the efficient peeling and milling of hulled grains. This discovery complements nearly 80 years of investigations suggesting that the Natufians regularly harvested almost-ripe wild cereals using sickles hafted with flint blades. Sickles had been replicated in the past and tested in the field for harvesting cereals, thusly obtaining the characteristic sheen along the edge of the hafted flint blades as found in Natufian remnants. Here we report that Natufian wide and narrow conical mortars enabled the processing of wild barley for making the groats and fine flour that provided considerable quantities of nourishment. Dishes in the Early Natufian (15,000-13,500 CalBP) were groat meals and porridge and subsequently, in the Late Natufian (13,500-11,700 CalBP), we suggest that unleavened bread made from fine flour was added. These food preparing techniques widened the dietary breadth of the sedentary Natufian hunter-gatherers, paving the way to the emergence of farming communities, the hallmark of the Neolithic Revolution.

  8. Experimental Barley Flour Production in 12,500-Year-Old Rock-Cut Mortars in Southwestern Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eitam

    Full Text Available Experimental archaeology at a Natufian site in the Southern Levant documents for the first time the use of 12,500-year-old rock-cut mortars for producing wild barley flour, some 2,000 to 3,000 years before cereal cultivation. Our reconstruction involved processing wild barley on the prehistoric threshing floor, followed by use of the conical mortars (a common feature in Natufian sites, thereby demonstrating the efficient peeling and milling of hulled grains. This discovery complements nearly 80 years of investigations suggesting that the Natufians regularly harvested almost-ripe wild cereals using sickles hafted with flint blades. Sickles had been replicated in the past and tested in the field for harvesting cereals, thusly obtaining the characteristic sheen along the edge of the hafted flint blades as found in Natufian remnants. Here we report that Natufian wide and narrow conical mortars enabled the processing of wild barley for making the groats and fine flour that provided considerable quantities of nourishment. Dishes in the Early Natufian (15,000-13,500 CalBP were groat meals and porridge and subsequently, in the Late Natufian (13,500-11,700 CalBP, we suggest that unleavened bread made from fine flour was added. These food preparing techniques widened the dietary breadth of the sedentary Natufian hunter-gatherers, paving the way to the emergence of farming communities, the hallmark of the Neolithic Revolution.

  9. Effects of grain species and cultivar, thermal processing, and enzymatic hydrolysis on gluten quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavan, Autusa; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2016-10-01

    Gluten from wheat, rye, and barley can trigger IgE-mediated allergy or Celiac disease in sensitive individuals. Gluten-free labeled foods are available as a safe alternative. Immunoassays such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are commonly used to quantify gluten in foods. However, various non-assay related factors can affect gluten quantitation. The effect of gluten-containing grain cultivars, thermal processing, and enzymatic hydrolysis on gluten quantitation by various ELISA kits was evaluated. The ELISA kits exhibited variations in gluten quantitation depending on the gluten-containing grain and their cultivars. Acceptable gluten recoveries were obtained in 200mg/kg wheat, rye, and barley-spiked corn flour thermally processed at various conditions. However, depending on the enzyme, gluten grain source, and ELISA kit used, measured gluten content was significantly reduced in corn flour spiked with 200mg/kg hydrolyzed wheat, rye, and barley flour. Thus, the gluten grain source and processing conditions should be considered for accurate gluten analysis.

  10. Protective effect and economic impact of insecticide application methods on barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Stoetzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of different forms of insecticide application on the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in barley cultivars, as well as to determine the production costs and the net profit of these managements. The experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons, using the following managements at main plots: T1, seed treatment with insecticide (ST + insecticide on shoots at 15-day interval; T2, just ST; T3, insecticide applied on shoots, when aphid control level (CL was reached; T4, without insecticide; and T5, ST + insecticide on shoots when CL was reached. Different barley cultivars - BRS Cauê, BRS Brau and MN 6021 - were arranged in the subplots. Insecticides lambda cyhalothrin (pyrethroid and thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid were used. There were differences on yellow dwarf disease index in both seasons for the different treatments, while damage to grain yield was influenced by year and aphid population. Production costs and net profit were different among treatments. Seed treatment with insecticide is sufficient to reduce the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in years with low aphid population pressure, while in years with larger populations, the application of insecticide on shoots is also required.

  11. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

    1999-03-23

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  12. Apoptosis in barley aleurone during germination and its inhibition by abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Oppedijk, B J; Lu, X; Van Duijn, B; Schilperoort, R A

    1996-12-01

    During germination of barley grains, DNA fragmentation was observed in the aleurone. The appearance of DNA fragmentation in the aleurone layer, observed by TUNEL staining in aleurone sections, started near the embryo and extended to the aleurone cells far from the embryo in a time dependent manner. The same spatial temporal activities of hydrolytic enzymes such as alpha-amylase were observed in aleurone. DNA fragmentation could also be seen in vitro under osmotic stress, in isolated aleurone. During aleurone protoplast isolation, a very enhanced and strong DNA fragmentation occurred which was not seen in protoplast preparations of tobacco leaves. ABA was found to inhibit DNA fragmentation occurring in barley aleurone under osmotic stress condition and during protoplast isolation, while the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid counteracted the effect of ABA. Addition of auxin or cytokinin had no significant effect on DNA fragmentation in these cells. To study the role of phosphorylation in ABA signal transduction leading to control of DNA fragmentation (apoptosis), the effects of the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid and of phenylarisine oxide on apoptosis were studied. We hypothesize that the regulation of DNA fragmentation in aleurone plays a very important role in spatial and temporal control of aleurone activities during germination. The possible signal transduction pathway of ABA leading to the regulation of DNA fragmentation is discussed.

  13. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  14. Transcriptional Modulation of Squalene Synthase Genes in Barley Treated with PGPR

    OpenAIRE

    Anam eYousaf; Abdul eQadir; Tehmina eAnjum; Aqeel eAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Phytosterol contents and food quality of plant produce is directly associated with transcription of gene Squalene Synthase (SS). In current study, barley plants were treated with different rhizobacterial strains under semi controlled (27±3°C) greenhouse conditions in order to modulate expression of SS gene. Plant samples were analysed through semi-quantitative PCR to evaluate effect of rhizobacterial application on transcriptional status of squalene synthase. Results revealed that among four ...

  15. Transcriptional modulation of squalene synthase genes in barley treated with PGPR

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf, Anam; Qadir, Abdul; Anjum, Tehmina; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    Phytosterol contents and food quality of plant produce is directly associated with transcription of gene squalene synthase (SS). In current study, barley plants were treated with different rhizobacterial strains under semi controlled (27 ± 3°C) greenhouse conditions in order to modulate expression of SS gene. Plant samples were analyzed through semi-quantitative PCR to evaluate effect of rhizobacterial application on transcriptional status of SS. Results revealed that among four SS genes (i.e...

  16. Grain Diversity Effects on Banker Plant Growth and Parasitism by Aphidius colemani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis McClure

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a serious greenhouse pest with a short generation time, parthenogenetic reproduction and a broad host range. Banker plant systems are becoming a more common form of biological control for this pest. This system consists of grain “banker plants” infested with R. padi, an alternative hosts for the parasitoid Aphidius colemani. Thus A. colemani can reproduce on the banker plant when M. persicae populations are low. This system can increase pest suppression; however, like other biological control tools, efficacy is inconsistent. One reason is because several different grain species have been used. Our studies determined if there were benefits to planting interspecific mixture banker plants, similar to when open agricultural systems use mixed cropping. Our study found that although banker plants grow larger when planted as mixtures this added plant growth does not increase in the number of aphids, or mummies an individual banker plant can sustain. Rye banker plants grew larger, and sustained more mummies than the other species we tested, but barley banker plants resulted in a similar number of aphids in a more condensed area. Ultimately, we did not see any differences in pest suppression between monoculture banker plants, mixture banker plants, or our augmentative release treatment. However, using banker plants resulted in more female parasitoids than the augmentative release, a benefit to using banker plant systems.

  17. Urbanization and Grain Production Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyang; LI; Dongge; LIU

    2015-01-01

    Based on DEA-Malmquist method,this paper calculated the integrated technology efficiency of grain production and total factor productivity and analyzed factors influencing the grain production technology efficiency using working documents of panel structure. Research results indicate that grain production integrated technology efficiency of China is relatively low,technology utilization level is low,and it remains at the stage of decreasing returns to scale,and the pure technology efficiency still has space to increase. Total factor productivity is declining and the total factor productivity of many provinces is relatively low. Since the total factor productivity of eastern areas is higher than central and western areas,it is required to strengthen technological support for grain production. The implementation of urbanization is helpful for promoting increase of grain production technology efficiency in central and eastern areas,but it will exert negative influence on western areas.

  18. Simulation of spring barley yield variability in different climatic zones of Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rötter, R P; Palosuo, T; Kersebaum, K C;

    2012-01-01

    Europe. The aims of this model comparison were to examine how different process-based crop models perform at multiple sites across Europe when applied with minimal information for model calibration of spring barley at field scale, whether individual models perform better than the multi-model mean...... as indicated by the mean bias error (MBE) (−1159 kg ha−1). While the wide range of simulated yields across all sites and years shows the high uncertainties in model estimates with only restricted calibration, mean predictions from the nine models agreed well with observations. Results of this paper also show......In this study, the performance of nine widely used and accessible crop growth simulation models (APES-ACE, CROPSYST, DAISY, DSSAT-CERES, FASSET, HERMES, MONICA, STICS and WOFOST) was compared during 44 growing seasons of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at seven sites in Northern and Central...

  19. Abscisic acid effects on activity and expression of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plastidial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Manuela; Chibani, Kamel; Cafasso, Donata; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Esposito, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    Total glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, protein abundance, and transcript levels of G6PDH isoforms were measured in response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) supply to barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Nure) hydroponic culture. Total G6PDH activity increased by 50% in roots treated for 12 h with exogenous 0.1 mM ABA. In roots, a considerable increase (35%) in plastidial P2-G6PDH transcript levels was observed during the first 3 h of ABA treatment. Similar protein variations were observed in immunoblotting analyses. In leaves, a 2-fold increase in total G6PDH activity was observed after ABA treatment, probably related to an increase in the mRNA level (increased by 50%) and amount of protein (increased by 85%) of P2-G6PDH. Together these results suggest that the plastidial P2-isoform plays an important role in ABA-treated barley plants.

  20. The effect of temperature and rainfall on participation of the pathogens causing root and stem rot in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Łacicowa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments conducted in the years 1990-1995 were localized at the Plaiit Cultivation Station, Ulhówek to repeat the cultivation of spring barley cultivars Roland and Lot. In conditions of monoculture, Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium culmorum were of the foremost importance in causing root and stem rot. The proportion of infected plants did not increase with time. Depending on the period of vegetation and the cultivar, the percentage of seedlings with necrosis symptoms ranged from 6% to 53,5% and that of stem base rot from 14% to 59%. In the case of both cultivars. root and stem rot was especially intensive in the third successive season of vegetation, i, e,. in 1992. That season was characterized by warm and wet weather conditions. favourable for the infection of seedlings by B.sorokiniane during the period of six weeks after the sowing of grain. Bipolaris sorokiniana always had the greatest proportion in the infction of spring barley but not in the seasons distinguished by hot and dry weather conditions. On the other hand, during dry and hot weather conditions the only or the dominating fungus obtained from the infcted stem base after the heading of spring barley was F. culmorum. In conditions of monoculture, favourable for root and stem rot of spring barley, the temperature and rainfalls clearly distinguished the proportion of B. sorokiniana and F. culmorum in plant infection.

  1. Soil fertility, nutrition and yield of maize and barley with gypsum application on soil surface in no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Michalovicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual crop yield and nutrition have shown differentiated responses to modifications in soil chemical properties brought about by gypsum application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gypsum application rates on the chemical properties of a Latossolo Bruno (Clayey Oxisol, as well as on the nutrition and yield of a maize-barley succession under no-till. The experiment was set up in November 2009 in Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil, applying gypsum rates of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 Mg ha-1 to the soil surface upon sowing maize, with crop succession of barley. Gypsum application decreased the levels of Al3+ and Mg2+ in the 0.0-0.1 m layer and increased soil pH in the layers from 0.2-0.6 m depth. Gypsum application has increased the levels of Ca2+ in all soil layers up to 0.6 m, and the levels of S-SO4(2- up to 0.8 m. In both crops, the leaf concentrations of Ca and S were increased while Mg concentrations have decreased as a function of gypsum rates. There was also an effect of gypsum rates on grain yield, with a quadratic response of maize and a linear increase for barley. Yield increases were up to 11 and 12 % in relation to control for the maximum technical efficiency (MTE rates of 3.8 and 6.0 Mg ha-1 of gypsum, respectively. Gypsum application improved soil fertility in the profile, especially in the subsurface, as well as plant nutrition, increasing the yields of maize and barley.

  2. The Hydrogen Sulfide Donor NaHS Delays Programmed Cell Death in Barley Aleurone Layers by Acting as an Antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xin; Hu, Kang-Di; Lv, Kai; Li, Yan-Hong; Hu, Lan-Ying; Zhang, Xi-Qi; Ruan, Long; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    H2S is a signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here we investigated the effects of H2S on programmed cell death (PCD) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers. The H2S donor NaHS significantly delayed PCD in aleurone layers isolated from imbibed embryoless barley grain. NaHS at 0.25 mM effectively reduced the accumulation of superoxide anion (·O2 (-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA), promoted the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in isolated aleurone layers. Quantitative-PCR showed that NaHS treatment of aleurone tissue led to enhanced transcript levels of the antioxidant genes HvSOD1, HvAPX, HvCAT1, and HvCAT2 and repressed transcript levels of HvLOX (lipoxygenase gene) and of two cysteine protease genes HvEPA and HvCP3-31. NaHS treatment in gibberellic acid- (GA-) treated aleurone layers also delayed the PCD process, reduced the content of ·O2 (-), and increased POD activity while decreasing LOX activity. Furthermore, α-amylase secretion in barley aleurone layers was enhanced by NaHS treatment regardless of the presence or absence of GA. These data imply that H2S acted as an antioxidant in delaying PCD and enhances α-amylase secretion regardless of the presence of GA in barley aleurone layers.

  3. The Hydrogen Sulfide Donor NaHS Delays Programmed Cell Death in Barley Aleurone Layers by Acting as an Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Xin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H2S is a signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here we investigated the effects of H2S on programmed cell death (PCD in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. aleurone layers. The H2S donor NaHS significantly delayed PCD in aleurone layers isolated from imbibed embryoless barley grain. NaHS at 0.25 mM effectively reduced the accumulation of superoxide anion (·O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA, promoted the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX in isolated aleurone layers. Quantitative-PCR showed that NaHS treatment of aleurone tissue led to enhanced transcript levels of the antioxidant genes HvSOD1, HvAPX, HvCAT1, and HvCAT2 and repressed transcript levels of HvLOX (lipoxygenase gene and of two cysteine protease genes HvEPA and HvCP3-31. NaHS treatment in gibberellic acid- (GA- treated aleurone layers also delayed the PCD process, reduced the content of ·O2-, and increased POD activity while decreasing LOX activity. Furthermore, α-amylase secretion in barley aleurone layers was enhanced by NaHS treatment regardless of the presence or absence of GA. These data imply that H2S acted as an antioxidant in delaying PCD and enhances α-amylase secretion regardless of the presence of GA in barley aleurone layers.

  4. Controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L., e gorga (Spergula arvensis L. e seletividade de herbicidas as culturas de trigo, cevada e centeio Control of rye grass (Lolium multiforum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L., and selectivity of herbicides to wheat, barley, and rye crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. R. O. Velloso

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos a campo em 1980, no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS, visando conhecer o comportamento dos herbicidas diclofop, dicamba, a associação 2,4 D com dicamba e a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba, no controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. e gorga (Spergula arvensis L.. Ao mesmo tempo foi avaliada a seletividade que estes herbicidas apresentam às culturas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. e centeio (Secale cereale L.. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostra ram que o dicamba causou o maior grau de injúria para as três culturas. Cevada mostrou ser a cultura mais sensível ao dicamba na fase inicial. Trigo, cevada e centeio foram tolerantes ao diclofop. A mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba não controlou o azevém nas três culturas. Esta mistura apresentou ainda redução no controle de gorga, nas culturas de cevada e centeio. Dicamba ocasionou redução no rendimento de grãos das culturas, mostrando ser pouco seletivo na dose testada. Centeio sofreu uma redução no rendimento de grãos causada por diclofop, enquanto que a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba foi seletiva para todas as culturas.Three field experiments were carried out, in 1980, at the National Wheat Research Center/ EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS. They aimed at testnig the responses of herbicides diclofop, dicamba, the association 2,4 D with dicamba, and the mixture diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba in the control of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. Simultaneously, the selectivity of these herbicides to wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and rye (Secale cereale L. was evaluated. The results of visual evaluation of phytotoxicity showed that dicamba caused the greatest degree of injury to the three crops studied. Barley was the most sensitive crop to dicamba in the initial growth stage. Wheat, barley, and rye were

  5. Influence of grain orientation on evolution of surface features in fatigued polycrystalline copper: a comparison of thermal and uniaxial mechanical fatigue results

    CERN Document Server

    Aicheler, M

    2010-01-01

    Surface state plays a major role in the crack nucleation process of pure metals in the High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF) as well as in the Ultra-High-Cycle-Fatigue (UHCF) regime. Therefore, in studies dealing with HCF or UHCF, special attention is paid to the evolution of surface degradation during fatigue life. The accelerating structures of the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN will be submitted to a high number of thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles, arising from Radio Frequency (RF) induced eddy currents, causing local superficial cyclic heating. The number of cycles during the foreseen lifetime of CLIC reaches 2x10(11). Fatigue may limit the lifetime of CLIC structures. In order to assess the effects of superficial fatigue, specific tests are defined and performed on polycrystalline Oxygen Free Electronic (OFE) grade Copper, a candidate material for the structures. Surface degradation depends on the orientation of near-surface grains. Copper samples thermally fatigued in two different fatigu...

  6. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  7. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  8. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...... for estimating a linkage map; it involves (1) transformation by the Kosambi mapping function of the available recombination percentages to additive map distances, (2) calculations of a set of map distances from the transformed recombination percentages by a maximum likelihood method in which all the available...... data are utilized jointly, and (3) omission of inconsistent data and determination of the most likely order of the loci. This procedure was applied to the 42 recombination percentages available for the 13 “mapped” loci. Due to inconsistencies 14 of the recombination percentages and, therefore, two...

  9. Bioconversion of barley straw and corn stover to butanol (a biofuel) in integrated fermentation and simultaneous product recovery bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In these studies concentrated sugar solutions of barley straw and corn stover hydrolysates were fermented with simultaneous product recovery and compared with the performance of a control glucose batch fermentation process. The control glucose batch fermentation resulted in the production of 23.25 g...

  10. Difference in yield and physiological features in response to drought and salinity combined stress during anthesis in Tibetan wild and cultivated barleys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imrul Mosaddek Ahmed

    Full Text Available Soil salinity and drought are the two most common and frequently co-occurring abiotic stresses constraining crop growth and productivity. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to investigate the tolerance potential and mechanisms of Tibetan wild barley genotypes (XZ5, drought-tolerant; XZ16, salinity/aluminum tolerant during anthesis compared with salinity-tolerant cv CM72 in response to separate and combined stresses (D+S of drought (4% soil moisture, D and salinity (S. Under salinity stress alone, plants had higher Na(+ concentrations in leaves than in roots and stems. Importantly, XZ5 and XZ16 had substantially increased leaf K(+ concentrations; XZ16 was more efficient in restricting Na(+ loading in leaf and maintained a lower leaf Na(+/K(+ ratio. Moreover, a significant decrease in cell membrane stability index (CMSI and an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA were accompanied by a dramatic decrease in total biomass under D+S treatment. We demonstrated that glycine-betaine and soluble sugars increased significantly in XZ5 and XZ16 under all stress conditions, along with increases in protease activity and soluble protein contents. Significant increases were seen in reduced ascorbate (ASA and reduced glutathione (GSH contents, and in activities of H(+K(+-, Na(+K(+-, Ca(++Mg(++-, total- ATPase, and antioxidant enzymes under D+S treatment in XZ5 and XZ16 compared to CM72. Compared with control, all stress treatments significantly reduced grain yield and 1000-grain weight; however, XZ5 and XZ16 were less affected than CM72. Our results suggest that high tolerance to D+S stress in XZ5 and XZ16 is closely related to the lower Na(+/K(+ ratio, and enhanced glycine-betaine and soluble protein and sugar contents, improved protease, ATPase activities and antioxidative capacity for scavenging reactive oxygen species during anthesis. These results may provide novel insight into the potential responses associated with increasing D+S stress in wild barley

  11. The Mystery of Spot Blotch Disease Caused by the Fungal Pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana on Barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjendal, Nele

    The fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana causes a wide spectrum of diseases including spot blotch disease. To achieve a better understanding of the biology of the fungus, the interaction of B. sorokiniana with the host barley (Hordeum vulgare L) and the resulting disease spot blotch was investig...

  12. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    of reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49......: Reconstituted barley had higher soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and lower phytate P (0.93 g/ kg DM) compared with dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM, respectively). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed increased P absorption (52%) and decreased P excretion in feces (21%) (P

  13. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  14. Proteome analysis of dissected barley seed tissue during germination and radicle elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine

    2007-01-01

    Cereal grains are vital components of our diet, and therefore understanding of the biology of breakage of dormancy and initiation of germination very important. These processes are far from fully understood, despite extensive studies, and no specific markers for germination have been identified...... at the protein or the DNA level. In addition, germination of barley seeds is of interest for the brewing industry since this process corresponds to the steeping process that starts the industrial malting. In the present study a proteomics approach was employed to understand the initial changes in the water...... stress, storage breakdown, folding, and housekeeping were identified and tracked through 72 h PI. APX and the other enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase) were thought to have an important function during...

  15. Climate Change Effects to Plant Ecosystems - Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz

    A growing population and a considerable increase in living standards worldwide are increasing the demand on the primary production. At the same time, climate change is projected to lower the primary production due to increases in the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and ozone...... production. Within the network ‘Sustainable primary production in a changing climate’ 22-138 spring barley accessions have been grown in the climate phytotron RERAF under conditions mimicking climate change; 1) elevated temperature (+5 °C), [CO2] (700 ppm) and [O3] (100-150 ppb) as single factors, 2...... treatments were assessed. In addition, a genome-wide association study of recorded phenotypes and DNA-markers (from Illumina arrays) recognized novel marker-trait associations of production parameters under climate change conditions. In a future climate scenario of elevated temperature and [CO2] the grain...

  16. Monitoring intra- and extracellular redox capacity of intact barley aleurone layers responding to phytohormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    2016-01-01

    Redox regulation is important for numerous processes in plant cells including abiotic stress, pathogen defence, tissue development, seed germination and programmed cell death. However, there are few methods allowing redox homeostasis to be addressed in whole plant cells, providing insight...... into the intact in vivo environment. An electrochemical redox assay that applies the menadione-ferricyanide double mediator is used to assess changes in the intracellular and extracellular redox environment in living aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Himalaya) grains, which respond...... to the phytohormones gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid is shown to elicit a mobilisation of electrons as detected by an increase in the reducing capacity of the aleurone layers. By taking advantage of the membrane-permeable menadione/menadiol redox pair to probe the membrane-impermeable ferricyanide...

  17. Carotenoids of aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn and wheat differentially inhibit oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masisi, Kabo; Diehl-Jones, William L; Gordon, Joseph; Chapman, Donald; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Beta, Trust

    2015-03-18

    The antioxidant potential of carotenoids from aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn, and wheat has been evaluated. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids (nd-15139 μg/kg) in extracts of cereal grain fractions. The antioxidant properties using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays revealed significantly higher (Paleurone and endosperm fractions. Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 2,2'azobis (2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced cell loss was effectively reduced by preincubating Caco-2, HT-29, and FHs 74 Int cells with carotenoid extracts. Moreover, carotenoid extracts reduced (Paleurone, and endosperm fractions improved antioxidant capacity and thus have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress.

  18. Ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentration and inflammatory response during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C

    2007-02-01

    The effects of grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in lactating dairy cows on free ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and indicators of inflammation were determined. Four mid lactation dairy cows were divided into 2 groups of 2 cows and used in a repeated switchover design. During each period, SARA was induced in 2 animals for 5 subsequent days by replacing 25% of their total mixed ration (dry matter basis) with a concentrate made of 50% wheat and 50% barley. The other 2 cows acted as controls and were fed a total mixed ration diet in which 44% of dry matter was concentrate. On average, inducing SARA did not affect milk composition, increased the duration of rumen pH below 5.6 from 187 to 309 min/d, and increased free ruminal LPS concentration from 24,547 endotoxin units (EU)/mL to 128,825 EU/mL. Averaged across treatments, milk fat yield and milk protein yield were 0.66 and 1.00 kg/d, respectively. Rumen pH and milk fat data suggest that control cows also experienced ruminal acidosis, albeit a milder form of this disease than SARA cows. Serum LPS concentration in both control and SARA cows was less than the detection limit of inflammation including haptoglobin, fibrinogen, serum copper, or white blood cells. These results suggest that grain-induced SARA in mid lactation dairy cows increases the lysis of gram-negative bacteria and activates an inflammatory response.

  19. Fingering phenomena during grain-grain displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Nathália M. P.; Paiva, Humberto A.; Combe, G.; Atman, A. P. F.

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous formation of fingered patterns during the displacement of dense granular assemblies was experimentally reported few years ago, in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Here, by means of discrete element simulations, we have recovered the experimental findings and extended the original study to explore the control parameters space. In particular, using assemblies of grains with different geometries (monodisperse, bidisperse, or polydisperse), we measured the macroscopic stress tensor in the samples in order to confirm some conjectures proposed in analogy with Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering phenomena for immiscible fluids. Considering an axial setup which allows to control the discharge of grains and to follow the trajectory and the pressure gradient along the displacing interface, we have applied the Darcy law for laminar flow in fluids in order to measure an "effective viscosity" for each assembly combination, in an attempt to mimic variation of the viscosity ratio between the injected/displaced fluids in the Saffman-Taylor experiment. The results corroborate the analogy with the viscous fluids displacement, with the bidisperse assembly corresponding to the less viscous geometry. But, differently to fluid case, granular fingers only develop for a specific combination of displaced/injected geometries, and we have demonstrated that it is always related with the formation of a force chain network along the finger direction.

  20. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, Christian; Sergusheva, Elena A; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W; Tarasov, Pavel E

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehis