WorldWideScience

Sample records for barley endosperm development

  1. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA re...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development.......The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...

  2. Correlation-maximizing surrogate gene space for visual mining of gene expression patterns in developing barley endosperm tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usadel Björn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro- and macroarray technologies help acquire thousands of gene expression patterns covering important biological processes during plant ontogeny. Particularly, faithful visualization methods are beneficial for revealing interesting gene expression patterns and functional relationships of coexpressed genes. Such screening helps to gain deeper insights into regulatory behavior and cellular responses, as will be discussed for expression data of developing barley endosperm tissue. For that purpose, high-throughput multidimensional scaling (HiT-MDS, a recent method for similarity-preserving data embedding, is substantially refined and used for (a assessing the quality and reliability of centroid gene expression patterns, and for (b derivation of functional relationships of coexpressed genes of endosperm tissue during barley grain development (0–26 days after flowering. Results Temporal expression profiles of 4824 genes at 14 time points are faithfully embedded into two-dimensional displays. Thereby, similar shapes of coexpressed genes get closely grouped by a correlation-based similarity measure. As a main result, by using power transformation of correlation terms, a characteristic cloud of points with bipolar sandglass shape is obtained that is inherently connected to expression patterns of pre-storage, intermediate and storage phase of endosperm development. Conclusion The new HiT-MDS-2 method helps to create global views of expression patterns and to validate centroids obtained from clustering programs. Furthermore, functional gene annotation for developing endosperm barley tissue is successfully mapped to the visualization, making easy localization of major centroids of enriched functional categories possible.

  3. Cell layer-specific distribution of transiently expressed barley ESCRT-III component HvVPS60 in developing barley endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, Julia; Kapusi, Eszter; Stoger, Eva; Ibl, Verena

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III in cereal endosperm has been shown by the identification of the recessive mutant supernumerary aleurone layer1 (SAL1) in maize. ESCRT-III is indispensable in the final membrane fission step during biogenesis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), responsible for protein sorting to vacuoles and to the cell surface. Here, we annotated barley ESCRT-III members in the (model) crop Hordeum vulgare and show that all identified members are expressed in developing barley endosperm. We used fluorescently tagged core ESCRT-III members HvSNF7a/CHMP4 and HvVPS24/CHMP3 and the associated ESCRT-III component HvVPS60a/CHMP5 for transient localization studies in barley endosperm. In vivo confocal microscopic analyses show that the localization of recombinantly expressed HvSNF7a, HvVPS24 and HvVPS60a differs within barley endosperm. Whereas HvSNF7a induces large agglomerations, HvVPS24 shows mainly cytosolic localization in aleurone and subaleurone. In contrast, HvVPS60a localizes strongly at the plasma membrane in aleurone. In subaleurone, HvVPS60a was found to a lesser extent at the plasma membrane and at vacuolar membranes. These results indicate that the steady-state association of ESCRT-III may be influenced by cell layer-specific protein deposition or trafficking and remodelling of the endomembrane system in endosperm. We show that sorting of an artificially mono-ubiquitinated Arabidopsis plasma membrane protein is inhibited by HvVPS60a in aleurone. The involvement of HvVPS60a in different cell layer-specific trafficking pathways, reflected by localization of HvVPS60a at the plasma membrane in aleurone and at the PSV membrane in subaleurone, is discussed. PMID:25796522

  4. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  5. Isolation and Translation of Hordein Messenger RNA from Wild Type and Mutant Endosperms in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders Bøving; Ingwersen, J.

    1978-01-01

    0.30 megadaltons. The 11S messenger RNA was translated in vitro into hordein precursor polypeptides which are 2–4 kilodaltons larger than the native hordein polypeptides. The endosperm cell of mutant No. 1508 contained twice as much RNA as the wild type endosperm cell but the same amount of...... polyadenylated 11S RNA. The template activity of the latter was 10% of that found for the 11S hordein messenger RNA from the wild type and was limited to translation into one hordein precursor polypeptide....... different B1 hordein polypeptide, which is revealed by 21 nucleotide substitutions resulting in 9 amino acid changes. Messenger RNA has been isolated from developing barley endosperms by sucrose gradient sedimentation, Sepharose 4B gel filtration and preparative gel electrophoresis. Hordein messenger RNA...

  6. Endosperm Development in Autotetraploid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; LIU Xiang-dong; LU Yong-gen; FENG Jiu-huan; XU Xue-bin; XU Shi-xiong (S.Y.Zee)

    2005-01-01

    By using the laser scanning confocal microscope and plastic (Leica 7022 historesin embedding kit) semi-thin sectioningtechnique, comparative studies on the development of endosperm were carried out between autotetraploid and diploid rices. Aboutone third of the ovaries in the autotetraploid showed normal endosperm development as those in the diploid. In these ovaries, one ofthe polar nuclei would fuse with the sperm nucleus, and the primary endosperm nucleus formed and underwent the first division in 4hours after pollination; the anticlinal wall began to grow centripetally between the free nuclei starting from the wall ingrowths of theembryo sac near the micropylar end, and some of the phragmoplasts formed transformed into periclinal walls. In addition, some of thecell wall situated in the middle of the endosperm appeared to originate from phragmoplasts, whereas others seemed to developrandomly without the obvious formation of phragmoplasts. Cellulose began to accumulate in the wall of aleurone cell layer at 6 daysafter pollination. The cellulose wall of the cells of the aleurone cell layer appeared to have completely formed within 7 to 8 days afterpollination. On the other hand, about two thirds of the ovaries in the autotetraploid showed abnormality in endosperm developmentwith various types, such as non-fertilization, abnormal fertilization, endosperm development-delay and non-synchronization in thedevelopment of cellulose wall of cells of the aleurone layer. These abnormalities usually resulted in decreased seed setting inautotetraploid rice.

  7. DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stracke Silke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping is receiving considerable attention in plant genetics for its potential to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL, validate candidate genes, and identify alleles of interest. In the present study association mapping in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is investigated by associating DNA polymorphisms with variation in grain quality traits, plant height, and flowering time to gain further understanding of gene functions involved in the control of these traits. We focused on the four loci BLZ1, BLZ2, BPBF and HvGAMYB that play a role in the regulation of B-hordein expression, the major fraction of the barley storage protein. The association was tested in a collection of 224 spring barley accessions using a two-stage mixed model approach. Results Within the sequenced fragments of four candidate genes we observed different levels of nucleotide diversity. The effect of selection on the candidate genes was tested by Tajima's D which revealed significant values for BLZ1, BLZ2, and BPBF in the subset of two-rowed barleys. Pair-wise LD estimates between the detected SNPs within each candidate gene revealed different intra-genic linkage patterns. On the basis of a more extensive examination of genomic regions surrounding the four candidate genes we found a sharp decrease of LD (r2 Significant marker-trait associations between SNP sites within BLZ1 and flowering time, BPBF and crude protein content and BPBF and starch content were detected. Most haplotypes occurred at frequencies BPBF was associated to crude protein content and starch content, BLZ2 showed association to thousand-grain weight and BLZ1 was found to be associated with flowering time and plant height. Conclusions Differences in nucleotide diversity and LD pattern within the candidate genes BLZ1, BLZ2, BPBF, and HvGAMYB reflect the impact of selection on the nucleotide sequence of the four candidate loci. Despite significant associations, the analysed candidate

  8. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS-p...

  9. Invitro Synthesis of Barley Endosperm Proteins on Wild Type and Mutant Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, A.; Ingversen, J.

    1976-01-01

    an increased content of some hordein polypeptides catalyzed a preferential synthesis of these polypeptides in vitro. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the in vitro template activities of the free polyribosomes from the wild type and mutant endosperms were very similar. The......Membrane bound and free polyribosomes were isolated from 20 day old barley endosperms. Sucrose gradient analysis revealed distinct polysomal peaks up to heptamers. The isolated polysomes were active in a cell-free protein synthesizing system employing wheat germ extract. SDS-polyacrylamide gel......-migration with native hordein on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Membrane bound endosperm polysomes from a barley mutant defective in hordein synthesis produced in the cell-free protein synthesizing system only a small amount of hordein. Conversely membrane bound polysomes from the endosperm of a mutant giving rise to...

  10. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz Hensel; Doreen M Floss; Elsa Arcalis; Markus Sack; Stanislav Melnik; Friedrich Altmann; Twan Rutten; Jochen Kumlehn; Eva Stoger; Udo Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4) signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (SE)KDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up...

  11. CDNA cloning, characterization and expression of an endosperm-specific barley peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Welinder, K.G.; Hejgaard, J.

    1991-01-01

    amino acid residues of mature BP 1. The clone pcR7 encodes an additional C-terminal sequence of 22 residues, which apparently are removed during processing. BP 1 is less than 50% identical to other sequenced plant peroxidases. Analyses of RNA and protein from aleurone, endosperm and embryo tissue showed......A barley peroxidase (BP 1) of pI ca. 8.5 and M(r) 37000 has been purified from mature barley grains. Using antibodies towards peroxidase BP 1, a cDNA clone (pcR7) was isolated from cDNA expression library. The nucleotide sequence of pcR7 gave a derived amino acid sequence identical to the 158 C-terminal...

  12. Rice caryopsis development II: Dynamic changes in the endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoba; Liu, Jinxin; Li, Dongqi; Liu, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The rice endosperm plays crucial roles in nourishing the embryo during embryogenesis and seed germination. Although previous studies have provided the general information about rice endosperm, a systematic investigation throughout the entire endosperm developmental process is still lacking. In this study, we examined in detail rice endosperm development on a daily basis throughout the 30-day period of post-fertilization development. We observed that coenocytic nuclear division occurred in the first 2 days after pollination (DAP), cellularization occurred between 3 and 5 DAP, differentiation of the aleurone and starchy endosperm occurred between 6 and 9 DAP, and accumulation of storage products occurred concurrently with the aleurone/starchy endosperm differentiation from 6 DAP onwards and was accomplished by 21 DAP. Changes in cytoplasmic membrane permeability, possibly caused by programmed cell death, were observed in the central region of the starchy endosperm at 8 DAP, and expanded to the whole starchy endosperm at 21 DAP when the aleurone is the only living component in the endosperm. Further, we observed that a distinct multi-layered dorsal aleurone formed near the dorsal vascular bundle, while the single- or occasionally two-cell layered aleurone was located in the lateral and ventral positions of endosperm. Our results provide in detail the dynamic changes in mitotic divisions, cellularization, cell differentiation, storage product accumulation, and programmed cell death that occur during rice endosperm development. PMID:27449987

  13. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  14. Hordein gene dose effects in triploid endosperm of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two maternal chromosome sets in triploid barley endosperm allows the distinction of maternal and paternal hordein bands in an electrophoregram: the maternal bands are stronger due to the higher gene dose. In the F1 generation there are differences between reciprocal crosses and in the F2 generation all 16 classes that are theoretically possible for a pair of polymorphic loci can be distinguished. This full classification is rarely possible in genetic studies, and allows more accurate estimates of recombination rates. Two hordein gene clusters (Hor1 and Hor2, corresponding to hordein C and hordein B respectively were analyzed in hybrids obtained by crossing two winter barley cultivars Partizan and HWV-247. Hordein separation was performed by acid-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 3.2 (A-PAGE. A set of most informative bands of B and C hordeins was selected in each cross by two criteria: (1 presence or absence of bands in the parents and (2 signal strength to allow doses scoring. The average genetic distance between Hor1 and Hor2 loci was 11 cM. Distances in male and female maps were not significantly different, suggesting a similar recombination rate in male and female meiosis.

  15. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz Hensel

    Full Text Available Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4 signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER retention signal (SEKDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up to 1.2 g/kg dry weight of recombinant protein (GFP, deposited in small roundish compartments assumed to be ER-derived protein bodies. The molecular farming potential of the system was tested by generating doubled haploid transgenic lines engineered to synthesize the anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody 2G12 with up to 160 μg recombinant protein per g grain. The recombinant protein was deposited at the periphery of protein bodies in the form of a mixture of various N-glycans (notably those lacking terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues, consistent with their vacuolar localization. Inspection of protein-A purified antibodies using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that their equilibrium and kinetic rate constants were comparable to those associated with recombinant 2G12 synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  16. In situ study of water uptake by the seeds, endosperm and husk of barley using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, D; Degner, S; Eglinton, J K

    2015-11-01

    Variations in the amount and rates of water uptake influence the seed hydration as well as the modification of the endosperm for industrial uses (e.g., malting). The aim of this study was to investigate and interpret absorption frequencies in the mid infrared (MIR) region associated with water uptake in whole seeds, husk and endosperm of barley seeds during the initial period of soaking in water. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models for the prediction of water uptake in the set of samples yield a coefficient of determination (R(2)) and a standard error in cross validation of 0.75 and 2.57 (% w/w), respectively. The biological implications of this study are that the first stages of germination can be monitored using the information derived from the MIR spectra. These results also demonstrated that whole seeds, endosperm and husk derived from the same variety or genotype have different patterns in the MIR region. PMID:26048560

  17. FLOURY ENDOSPERM7 encodes a regulator of starch synthesis and amyloplast development essential for peripheral endosperm development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Ren, Yulong; Lu, Bingyue; Yang, Chunyan; Feng, Zhiming; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Jun; Ma, Weiwei; Wang, Ying; Yu, Xiaowen; Wang, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenwei; Wang, Yihua; Liu, Shijia; Wu, Fuqing; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Bao, Yiqun; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-02-01

    In cereal crops, starch synthesis and storage depend mainly on a specialized class of plastids, termed amyloplasts. Despite the importance of starch, the molecular machinery regulating starch synthesis and amyloplast development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the characterization of the rice (Oryza sativa) floury endosperm7 (flo7) mutant, which develops a floury-white endosperm only in the periphery and not in the inner portion. Consistent with the phenotypic alternation in flo7 endosperm, the flo7 mutant had reduced amylose content and seriously disrupted amylopectin structure only in the peripheral endosperm. Notably, flo7 peripheral endosperm cells showed obvious defects in compound starch grain development. Map-based cloning of FLO7 revealed that it encodes a protein of unknown function. FLO7 harbors an N-terminal transit peptide capable of targeting functional FLO7 fused to green fluorescent protein to amyloplast stroma in developing endosperm cells, and a domain of unknown function 1338 (DUF1338) that is highly conserved in green plants. Furthermore, our combined β-glucuronidase activity and RNA in situ hybridization assays showed that the FLO7 gene was expressed ubiquitously but exhibited a specific expression in the endosperm periphery. Moreover, a set of in vivo experiments demonstrated that the missing 32 aa in the flo7 mutant protein are essential for the stable accumulation of FLO7 in the endosperm. Together, our findings identify FLO7 as a unique plant regulator required for starch synthesis and amyloplast development within the peripheral endosperm and provide new insights into the spatial regulation of endosperm development in rice. PMID:26608643

  18. Lignification of developing maize ( Zea mays L. endosperm transfer cells and starchy endosperm cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eRocha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endosperm transfer cells in maize have extensive cell wall ingrowths that play a key role in kernel development. Although the incorporation of lignin would support this process, its presence in these structures has not been reported in previous studies. We used potassium permanganate staining combined with transmission electron microscopy – energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry as well as acriflavine staining combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine whether the most basal endosperm transfer cells (MBETCs contain lignified cell walls, using starchy endosperm cells for comparison. We investigated the lignin content of ultrathin sections of MBETCs treated with hydrogen peroxide. The lignin content of transfer and starchy cell walls was also determined by the acetyl bromide method. Finally, the relationship between cell wall lignification and MBETC growth/flange ingrowth orientation was evaluated. MBETC walls and ingrowths contained lignin throughout the period of cell growth we monitored. The same was true of the starchy cells, but those underwent an even more extensive growth period than the transfer cells. Both the reticulate and flange ingrowths were also lignified early in development. The significance of the lignification of maize endosperm cell walls is discussed in terms of its impact on cell growth and flange ingrowth orientation.

  19. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Using a Supercontinuum Laser: Application to Long Wavelength Transmission Spectra of Barley Endosperm and Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsted, Tine; Dupont, Sune; Ramsay, Jacob; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; Keiding, Søren Rud; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-07-01

    The supercontinuum laser is a new type of light source, which combines the collimation and intensity of a laser with the broad spectral region of a lamp. Using such a source therefore makes it possible to focus the light onto small sample areas without losing intensity and thus facilitate either rapid or high-intensity measurements. Single seed transmission analysis in the long wavelength (LW) near-infrared (NIR) region is one area that might benefit from a brighter light source such as the supercontinuum laser. This study is aimed at building an experimental spectrometer consisting of a supercontinuum laser source and a dispersive monochromator in order to investigate its capability to measure the barley endosperm using transmission experiments in the LW NIR region. So far, barley and wheat seeds have only been studied using NIR transmission in the short wavelength region up to 1100 nm. However, the region in the range of 2260-2380 nm has previously shown to be particularly useful in differentiating barley phenotypes using NIR spectroscopy in reflectance mode. In the present study, 350 seeds (consisting of 70 seeds from each of five barley genotypes) in 1 mm slices were measured by NIR transmission in the range of 2235-2381 nm and oils from the same five barley genotypes were measured in a cuvette with a 1 mm path length in the range of 2003-2497 nm. The spectra of the barley seeds could be classified according to genotypes by principal component analysis; and spectral covariances with reference analysis of moisture, β-glucan, starch, protein and lipid were established. The spectral variations of the barley oils were compared to the fatty acid compositions as measured using gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:27340221

  20. Synthesis of SP II albumin, β-amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitor CI-1 on polysomes from the endoplasmic reticulum of barley endosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free and initially membrane bound polysomes were isolated from 20 day old endosperms of Bomi and Hiproly barley and used as templates in an in vitro protein synthesizing system based on wheat germ extract. Three 35S--labelled translation products were identified as SP II albumin, β-amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitor CI-1 among the polypeptides synthesized by the polysomes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Identification employed immunoaffinity isolation. Protein Z was not detectable among the in vitro translation products of either initially membrane bound or free endosperm polysomes. Compared to Bomi barley the Hiproly endosperm is enriched for translatable mRNA coding SP II albumin, β-amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitor CI-1. In vitro and in vivo synthesized β-amylases have identical molecular weights. Only one form of SP II albumin is produced in vitro, confirming that the lower molecular weight SP II B albumin is a proteolytic cleavage product of the SP II A albumin. (author)

  1. Spatio-temporal dynamics of fructan metabolism in developing barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Peshev, Darin; Weschke, Winfriede; Van den Ende, Wim; Mock, Hans-Peter; Matros, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain development follows a series of defined morphological and physiological stages and depends on the supply of assimilates (mainly sucrose) from the mother plant. Here, spatio-temporal patterns of sugar distributions were investigated by mass spectrometric imaging, targeted metabolite analyses, and transcript profiling of microdissected grain tissues. Distinct spatio-temporal sugar balances were observed, which may relate to differentiation and grain filling processes. Notably, various types of oligofructans showed specific distribution patterns. Levan- and graminan-type oligofructans were synthesized in the cellularized endosperm prior to the commencement of starch biosynthesis, while during the storage phase, inulin-type oligofructans accumulated to a high concentration in and around the nascent endosperm cavity. In the shrunken endosperm mutant seg8, with a decreased sucrose flux toward the endosperm, fructan accumulation was impaired. The tight partitioning of oligofructan biosynthesis hints at distinct functions of the various fructan types in the young endosperm prior to starch accumulation and in the endosperm transfer cells that accomplish the assimilate supply toward the endosperm at the storage phase. PMID:25271242

  2. Effect of nitrogen nutrition on endosperm protein synthesis in wild and cultivated barley grown in spike culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In normal growth conditions, total protein percent, in the endosperm at maturity in barley cultivar Hordeum vulgare L. cv Ruth was about 14%, whereas in an accession of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum Koch line 297, it was about 28%. Spike culture experiments were conducted to ascertain whether there were basic differences between the two genotypes under conditions of widely different nitrogen supply. Spikes of each genotype were grown from 8 to 25 days after flowering in in vitro culture in a growth medium containing 0 to 4 grams per liter nitrogen supplied as NH4NO3. Spikes were pulse-labeled at intervals from 12 to 24 days after flowering with 3.7 megabecquerel of [3H]leucine to determine relative rates of synthesis of hordein-1 and hordein-2 polypedtides. At low nitrogen levels Ruth had a lower protein content than 297, but at increasing nitrogen levels its protein content increased rapidly and reached a maximum (35%) higher than 297 (30%). The relative contribution of the hordein fraction to total protein increased mainly with time, and hordein-1 to total hordein increased mainly with nitrogen level, in both genotypes. There appeared to be no fundamental limitations in the capacity of Ruth to accumulate protein: 297 appears to have a greater basal level of nitrogen availability under normal conditions

  3. [14C]sucrose uptake and labeling of starch in developing grains of normal segl barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work showed that the segl mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare o Betzes) did not differ from normal Betzes in plant growth, photosynthesis, or fertility, but it produced only shrunken seeds regardless of pollen source. To determine whether defects in sucrose uptake or starch synthesis resulted in the shrunken condition, developing grains of Betzes and segl were cultured in [14C]sucrose solutions after slicing transversely to expose the endosperm cavity and free space. In both young grains (before genotypes differed in dry weight) and older grains (17 days after anthesis, when segl grains were smaller than Betzes), sucrose uptake and starch synthesis were similar in both genotypes on a dry weight basis. To determine if sucrose was hydrolyzed during uptake, spikes of Betzes and segl were allowed to take up [fructose-U-14C]sucrose 14 days after anthesis and the radioactivity of endosperm sugars was examined during 3 hours of incubation. Whereas less total radioactivity entered the endosperm and the endosperm cavity (free space) of segl, in both genotypes over 96% of the label of endosperm sugars was in sucrose, and there was no apparent initial or progressive randomization of label among hexose moieties of sucrose as compared to the free space sampled after 1 hour of incubation. The authors conclude that segl endosperms are capable of normal sucrose uptake and starch synthesis and that hydrolysis of sucrose is not required for uptake in either genotype. Evidence suggests abnormal development of grain tissue of maternal origin during growth of segl grains

  4. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    granular component. Particles with the same structure were present in the protein body preparation from the mutant, where, however, the granular component was the most prominent. Amino-acid composition and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins from the protein body preparation revealed......-polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis. Sections through pellets of isolated protein bodies from both the mutant and the wild type revealed protein body structures corresponding with those observed in sections through the intact starchy endosperms. The majority of the wild-type protein bodies was homogeneous spheres accompanied with a...

  5. Differential expression of two ß-amylase genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in developing and mature barley grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific (Bmy1) and ubiquitous (Bmy2) ß-amylase were studied during the late maturation phase of seed development in four genotypes. Sequencing of Bmy2 from genomic DNA revealed six polymorphisms in the introns and two synonymous SNPs in the coding region. Acc...

  6. Temporal patterns of gene expression in developing maize endosperm identified through transcriptome sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guosheng; Wang, Dongfang; Yang, Ruolin; Logan, Kyle; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Shanshan; Skaggs, Megan I.; Lloyd, Alan; Burnett, William J.; Laurie, John D.; Hunter, Brenda G.; Dannenhoffer, Joanne M.; Larkins, Brian A; Drews, Gary N.; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    In flowering plants, double fertilization gives rise to an embryo and the endosperm, an absorptive storage structure that supports embryogenesis and seedling germination. In cereal grains, endosperm comprises a large proportion of the mature seed, contains large amounts of carbohydrates and proteins, and is an important source of food, feed, and industrial raw materials. This study provides a comprehensive profile of the genes expressed in the early developing endosperm in maize. We also show...

  7. DNA endoreplication level in endosperm during seed development in three monocotyledonous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Marciniak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The DNA content after the Feulgen reaction in the endosperm of three monocotyledonous plant species (Asparagus officinalis, Muscari comosom, Haemanthus kurharinae differing in their 2C DNA content, was cytophotometrically measured. During endosperm development 1-6 endoreplication cycles take place, depending on the species. Differences in nuclear DNA endoreplication dynamics in the tested species are similar to those occurring in root parenchyma, but the endoreplication level in the endosperm is higher.

  8. Studies on the Programmed Cell Death in Rice During Starchy Endosperm Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; LAN Sheng-yin; XU Zhen-xiu

    2004-01-01

    Morphological variations of the nucleus in starchy endosperm cell were observed by the electron-transmisson microscope during endosperm development in rice. Along with the development of the starchy endosperm,the nuclei of the cells showed chromatin condensation,the typical feature of programmed cell death(PCD). The nuclei also showed nucleus deformation,disruption of nuclear envelope,nucleoplasm leaking into the cytoplasm and nucleus disintegration resulting in nuclear residue formation. From the nucleus deformation to the nucleus disintegration,the morphological changes of the nucleus were orderly progressive. This indicated that the cell death of starchy endosperm in rice was programmed cell death. Evans Blue staining observation showed that the cell death was initially detected in the central part of starchy endosperm in rice,then expanded outward. The activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD)and catalase(CAT)in rice starchy endosperm both descended continuously as development progressed. The analysis of DNA of rice starchy endosperm did not show the presence of DNA laddering. The above results showed that the cell death of starchy endosperm in rice was a special form of PCD.

  9. Temporal patterns of gene expression in developing maize endosperm identified through transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guosheng; Wang, Dongfang; Yang, Ruolin; Logan, Kyle; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Shanshan; Skaggs, Megan I; Lloyd, Alan; Burnett, William J; Laurie, John D; Hunter, Brenda G; Dannenhoffer, Joanne M; Larkins, Brian A; Drews, Gary N; Wang, Xiangfeng; Yadegari, Ramin

    2014-05-27

    Endosperm is a filial structure resulting from a second fertilization event in angiosperms. As an absorptive storage organ, endosperm plays an essential role in support of embryo development and seedling germination. The accumulation of carbohydrate and protein storage products in cereal endosperm provides humanity with a major portion of its food, feed, and renewable resources. Little is known regarding the regulatory gene networks controlling endosperm proliferation and differentiation. As a first step toward understanding these networks, we profiled all mRNAs in the maize kernel and endosperm at eight successive stages during the first 12 d after pollination. Analysis of these gene sets identified temporal programs of gene expression, including hundreds of transcription-factor genes. We found a close correlation of the sequentially expressed gene sets with distinct cellular and metabolic programs in distinct compartments of the developing endosperm. The results constitute a preliminary atlas of spatiotemporal patterns of endosperm gene expression in support of future efforts for understanding the underlying mechanisms that control seed yield and quality. PMID:24821765

  10. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  11. Differential Synthesis in Vitro of Barley Aleurone and Starchy Endosperm Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Hejgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Annette;

    1986-01-01

    . Thus, expression of genes encoding ASI, PSI, protein C, and PAPI is tissue and stage-specific during seed development. Only ASI, CI-1, and PAPI were synthesized in significant amounts with mRNA from cultured aleurone layers. The levels of synthesis of PAPI and CI-1 were independent of hormone treatment....... In contrast, synthesis of alpha-amylase (included as control) and of ASI showed antagonistic hormonal control: while GA promotes and ABA reduces accumulation of mRNA for alpha-amylase, these hormones have the opposite effect on ASI mRNA levels....

  12. Expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in developing endosperm of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Keyu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporal and spatial expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes are associated with the accumulation of storage lipids in the seeds of oil plants. In jatropha (Jatropha curcas L., a potential biofuel plant, the storage lipids are mainly synthesized and accumulated in the endosperm of seeds. Although the fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in jatropha have been identified, the expression of these genes at different developing stages of endosperm has not been systemically investigated. Results Transmission electron microscopy study revealed that the oil body formation in developing endosperm of jatropha seeds initially appeared at 28 days after fertilization (DAF, was actively developed at 42 DAF and reached to the maximum number and size at 56 DAF. Sixty-eight genes that encode enzymes, proteins or their subunits involved in fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis were identified from a normalized cDNA library of jatropha developing endosperm. Gene expression with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the 68 genes could be collectively grouped into five categories based on the patterns of relative expression of the genes during endosperm development. Category I has 47 genes and they displayed a bell-shaped expression pattern with the peak expression at 28 or 42 DAF, but low expression at 14 and 56 DAF. Category II contains 8 genes and expression of the 8 genes was constantly increased from 14 to 56 DAF. Category III comprises of 2 genes and both genes were constitutively expressed throughout endosperm development. Category IV has 9 genes and they showed a high expression at 14 and 28 DAF, but a decreased expression from 42 to 56 DAF. Category V consists of 2 genes and both genes showed a medium expression at 14 DAF, the lowest expression at 28 or 42 DAF, and the highest expression at 56 DAF. In addition, genes encoding enzymes or proteins with similar function were

  13. Dynamics of early embryo development in reference to endosperm and embryo types in angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Erdelska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mitotic cycle of the endosperm cells is relatively short in the firsit phases of the postfertilization development. The endosperm type does not significantly influence the duration of the mitotic cycle; it might, however, influence the dynamics of zygote and embryo development. The quick development and early end of cellular endosperm proliferation is connected with the fact that it is, in most cases, bound to small, "spare" or "saving" tenuinucellate and unitegmic ovules. Structural differences in the behaviour of the endosperm of different types, in the phase of globular and early heart embryo, might point to differences in the time or way of transition of the embryo from suspensorial to surface nutrition.

  14. Ultracytochemical Localization and Functional Analysis of ATPase During the Endosperm Development in Oryza sativa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Cun-xu; LAN Sheng-yin; XU Zhen-xiu

    2003-01-01

    Ultracytochemical localization of ATPase during development of rice endosperm was performed using a lead phosphate precipitation technique. The results indicated that, at the coenocyte and ceilularization stages, active ATPase was mainly distributed in an embryo sac wall, nucleus, and plasma membrane. At the early stage of development and differentiation, active ATPase was observed in the plasma membrane. At the grain filling stage, ATPase was highly active in the plasma membrane, intercellular space, and plasmodesmata in aleurone, moderately active on the plasma membrane in subaleurone. In starchy endosperm, ATPase was localized in the plasma membrane and degenerated nucleus. ATPase activity also appeared around vacuole and protein body in endosperm cell. The relationships between the ultracytochemical localization of ATPase and its function during the development of rice endosperm were discussed. Overall, ATPase was involved in the process of nutrition absorption and protein synthesis.

  15. Degradation in vitro of [3H]lysine and [14C]leucine-labelled protein by proteases from developing normal and opaque-2 Zea mays endosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During later stages of kernel development total lysine content per endosperm in normal and opaque-2 maize endosperms decreased in spite of net increase in total protein. The proteolytic enzymes increased during development until 25 d after pollination and later declined in both normal and opaque-2 endosperms. Release of lysine in vitro from [3H]lysine and [14C]leucine-labelled normal maize endosperm proteins by proteases from developing normal maize endosperms was higher than in opaque-2 endosperms towards later stages of maturity. Present study suggests that lysine-liberating proteases present in endosperms also contribute to decrease in lysine and consequently the quality of protein. (author)

  16. Sugar uptake and starch biosynthesis by slices of developing maize endosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-Sugar uptake and incorporation into starch by slices of developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm were examined and compared with sugar uptake by maize endosperm-derived suspension cultures. Rates of sucrose, fructose, and D- and L-glucose uptake by slices were similar, whereas uptake rates for these sugars differed greatly in suspension cultures. Concentration dependence of sucrose, fructose, and D-glucose uptake was biphasic (consisting of linear plus saturable components) with suspension cultures but linear with slices. These and other differences suggest that endosperm slices are freely permeable to sugars. After diffusion into the slices, sugars were metabolized and incorporated into starch. Starch synthesis, but not sugar accumulation, was greatly reduced by 2.5 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid and 0.1 millimolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Starch synthesis was dependent on kernel age and incubation temperature, but not on external pH (5 through 8). Competing sugars generally did not affect the distribution of 14C among the soluble sugars extracted from endosperm slices incubated in 14C-sugars. Competing hexoses reduced the incorporation of 14C into starch, but competing sucrose did not, suggesting that sucrose is not a necessary intermediate in starch biosynthesis. The bidirectional permeability of endosperm slices to sugars makes the characterization of sugar transport into endosperm slices impossible, however the model system is useful for experiments dealing with starch biosynthesis which occurs in the metabolically active tissue

  17. Diurnal oscillation of SBE expression in sorghum endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chuanxin; Mutisya, J.; Rosenquist, S.; Baguma, Y.; Jansson, C.

    2009-01-15

    Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the sorghum SBEI, SBEIIA and SBEIIB genes, encoding, respectively, starch branching enzyme (SBE) I, IIA and IIB, in the developing endosperm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were studied. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones for sorghum was cloned and the SBEIIA cDNA was used together with gene-specific probes for sorghum SBEIIB and SBEI. In contrast to sorghum SBEIIB, which was expressed primarily in endosperm and embryo, SBEIIA was expressed also in vegetative tissues. All three genes shared a similar temporal expression profile during endosperm development, with a maximum activity at 15-24 days after pollination. This is different from barley and maize where SBEI gene activity showed a significantly later onset compared to that of SBEIIA and SBEIIB. Expression of the three SBE genes in the sorghum endosperm exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 24-h cycle.

  18. Dynamic expression of imprinted genes associates with maternally controlled nutrient allocation during maize endosperm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Mingming; Yang, Ruolin; Li, Guosheng; Chen, Hao; Laurie, John; Ma, Chuang; Wang, Dongfang; Yao, Yingyin; Larkins, Brian A; Sun, Qixin; Yadegari, Ramin; Wang, Xiangfeng; Ni, Zhongfu

    2013-09-01

    In angiosperms, the endosperm provides nutrients for embryogenesis and seed germination and is the primary tissue where gene imprinting occurs. To identify the imprintome of early developing maize (Zea mays) endosperm, we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of whole kernels at 0, 3, and 5 d after pollination (DAP) and endosperms at 7, 10, and 15 DAP, using B73 by Mo17 reciprocal crosses. We observed gradually increased expression of paternal transcripts in 3- and 5-DAP kernels. In 7-DAP endosperm, the majority of the genes tested reached a 2:1 maternal versus paternal ratio, suggesting that paternal genes are nearly fully activated by 7 DAP. A total of 116, 234, and 63 genes exhibiting parent-specific expression were identified at 7, 10, and 15 DAP, respectively. The largest proportion of paternally expressed genes was at 7 DAP, mainly due to the significantly deviated parental allele expression ratio of these genes at this stage, while nearly 80% of the maternally expressed genes (MEGs) were specific to 10 DAP and were primarily attributed to sharply increased expression levels compared with the other stages. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of the imprinted genes suggested that 10-DAP endosperm-specific MEGs are involved in nutrient uptake and allocation and the auxin signaling pathway, coincident with the onset of starch and storage protein accumulation. PMID:24058158

  19. Influence of irradiated pollen on embryo and endosperm development in kiwifruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of seeds following pollination with irradiated pollen was studied in Actinidia deliciosa(kiwifruit) ‘Hayward’. Pollinations were carried out using two different sources of pollen (‘Tomuri’ and ‘Matua’) irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 700 and 900 Gy. Non-irradiated crosses were used as controls. Pollen irradiation had little effect onin vitropollen germination. Irradiated pollen affected seed set and seed content, and induced the formation of parthenogenetic embryos. In comparison to the control, the embryo growth rate was slower and the endosperm contained very low amounts of storage products. Seed set was significantly reduced following both doses of irradiation. Two types of seeds were observed: (1) seeds with endosperm only; and (2) seeds with both embryo and endosperm. The proportion of seeds containing endosperm only was almost ten-fold higher than those containing both embryo and endosperm. Embryo production by gamma-irradiated pollen was genotype- and dose-dependent. The induction of parthenogenesis was higher following gamma ray doses of 900 Gy than 700 Gy, which suggests the ‘Hertwig Effect’; the best efficiency was obtained with ‘Tomuri’ pollen. Ploidy level of parthenogenetic embryos was evaluated by nuclear size (area) with the use of image analysis. There was a large difference in embryo nuclei size between control and parthenogenetic embryos (mean size 90.8 and 49.1 μm2, respectively). It is concluded that parthenogenetic embryos represent trihaploids. (author)

  20. Effect of High Temperature on Albumin and Globulin Accumulation in the Endosperm Proteome of the Developing Wheat Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of high temperature during grain fill on albumin and globulin accumulation profiles was investigated in the endosperm of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. cv. Butte 86) grain. Albumins and globulins were isolated from endosperm of grain grown under a moderate (24°C/17°C, day/night) ...

  1. Near infrared spectra indicate specific mutant endosperm genes and reveal a new mechanism for substituting starch with (1-->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, L.; Møller, B.; Jacobsen, Susanne;

    2004-01-01

    region. The characteristic spectral signatures representing the lys5 locus (Riso mutants 13 and 29) were found to be associated with large changes in percentage of starch and (1-->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan. These alleles compensated for a low level of starch (down to 30%) by a high level of (1......-->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan (up to 15-20%), thus, maintaining a constant production of polysaccharides at 50-55%, within the range of normal barley.The spectral tool was tested by an independent data set with six mutants with unknown polysaccharide composition. Spectral data from four of these were classified within...... the high (1-->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan BG lys5 cluster in a PCA. Their high (1-->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan and low starch content was verified. It is concluded that genetic diversity such as from gene regulated polysaccharide and storage protein pathways in the endosperm tissue can be discovered directly...

  2. Water mobility in the endosperm of high beta-glucan barley mutants as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; van den Berg, Frans W.J.; Köckenberger, Walter;

    2007-01-01

    where it leads to clotting of filters and hazing of beer as well as in animal feed where it hinders the rapid uptake of energy. However, a high content of BG has a positive nutritional effect, as it lowers the cholesterol and the glycaemic index. It was studied whether water distribution and mobility...... were related to content and location of BG. Water mobility was investigated by following the rate and mode of desiccation in hydrated single seeds. In order to determine the different water components, a multispin echo experiment was set up to reveal the T2 transverse relaxation rates of water within...... the seeds. A principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated control seeds from the high-BG mutant seeds. MRI proved efficient in tracing the differences in water-holding capacity of contrasting barley seeds. All accessions showed nonuniform distribution of water at full hydration as well as during...

  3. Disruption of endosperm development is a major cause of hybrid seed inviability between Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus nudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Elen; Willis, John H; Franks, Robert G

    2016-05-01

    Divergence of developmental mechanisms within populations could lead to hybrid developmental failure, and might be a factor driving speciation in angiosperms. We investigate patterns of endosperm and embryo development in Mimulus guttatus and the closely related, serpentine endemic Mimulus nudatus, and compare them to those of reciprocal hybrid seed. We address whether disruption in hybrid seed development is the primary source of reproductive isolation between these sympatric taxa. M. guttatus and M. nudatus differ in the pattern and timing of endosperm and embryo development. Some hybrid seeds exhibit early disruption of endosperm development and are completely inviable, while others develop relatively normally at first, but later exhibit impaired endosperm proliferation and low germination success. These developmental patterns are reflected in mature hybrid seeds, which are either small and flat (indicating little to no endosperm) or shriveled (indicating reduced endosperm volume). Hybrid seed inviability forms a potent reproductive barrier between M. guttatus and M. nudatus. We shed light on the extent of developmental variation between closely related species within the M. guttatus species complex, an important ecological model system, and provide a partial mechanism for the hybrid barrier between M. guttatus and M. nudatus. PMID:26824345

  4. Expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in developing endosperm of Jatropha curcas

    OpenAIRE

    Gu Keyu; Yi Chengxin; Tian Dongsheng; Sangha Jatinder; Hong Yan; Yin Zhongchao

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Temporal and spatial expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes are associated with the accumulation of storage lipids in the seeds of oil plants. In jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.), a potential biofuel plant, the storage lipids are mainly synthesized and accumulated in the endosperm of seeds. Although the fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in jatropha have been identified, the expression of these genes at different developing stages of endosperm has not been...

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of High-Temperature Stress in Developing Barley Caryopses :Early Stress Responses and Effects on Storage Compound Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elke Mangelsen; Joachim Kilian; Klaus Harter; Christer Jansson; Dierk Wanke; Eva Sundberg

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature stress,like any abiotic stress,impairs the physiology and development of plants,including the stages of seed setting and ripening.We used the Aflymetrix 22K Barley1 GeneChip microarray to investigate the response of developing barley(Hordeum vulgare)seeds,termed caryopses,after 0.5,3,and 6 h of heat stress exposure;958 induced and 1122 repressed genes exhibited spatial and temporal expression patterns that provide a detailed insight into the caryopses'early heat stress responses.Down-regulation of genes related to storage compound biosynthesis and cell growth provides evidence for a rapid impairment of the caryopsis' development.Increased levels of sugars and amino acids were indicative for both production of compatible solutes and feedback-induced accumulation of substrates for storage compound biosynthesis.Metadata analysis identified embryo and endosperm as primary locations of heat stress responses,indicating a strong impact of short-term heat stress on central developmental functions of the caryopsis.A comparison with heat stress responses in Arabidopsis shoots and drought stress responses in barley caryopses identified both conserved and presumably heat-and caryopsis-specific stress-responsive genes.Summarized,our data provide an important basis for further investigation of gene functions in order to aid an improved heat tolerance and reduced losses of yield in barley as a model for cereal crops.

  6. Temporal small RNA transcriptome profiling unraveled partitioned miRNA expression in developing maize endosperms between reciprocal crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Mingming; Yang, Guanghui; Yao, Yingyin; Peng, Huiru; Hu, Zhaorong; Sun, Qixin; Wang, Xiangfeng; Ni, Zhongfu

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the endosperm nurtures the embryo and provides nutrients for seed germination. To identify the expression pattern of small interfering RNA in the developing maize endosperm, we have performed high-throughput small RNA transcriptome sequencing of kernels at 0, 3, and 5 days after pollination (DAP) and endosperms at 7, 10, and 15 DAP using B73 and Mo17 reciprocal crosses in previous study. Here, we further explored these small RNA-seq data to investigate the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating the gene expression process. In total, 57 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs were observed highly expressed in maize endosperm. Temporal expression profiling indicated that these miRNAs exhibited dynamic and partitioned expression patterns at different developmental stages between maize reciprocal crosses, and quantitative RT-PCR results further confirmed our observation. In addition, we found a subset of distinct tandem miRNAs are generated from a single stem-loop structure in maize that might be conserved in monocots. Furthermore, a SNP variation of Zma-miR408-5p at 11th base position was characterized between B73 and Mo17 which might lead to completely different functions in repressing targets. More interestingly, Zma-miR408-5p exhibited B73-biased expression pattern in the B73 and Mo17 reciprocal hybrid endosperms at 7, 10, and 15 DAP according to the reads abundance with SNPs and CAPS experiment. Together, this study suggests that miRNA plays a crucial role in regulating endosperm development, and exhibited distinct expression patterns in developing endosperm between maize reciprocal crosses. PMID:26442057

  7. Near infrared spectra indicate specific mutant endosperm genes and reveal a new mechanism for substituting starch with (1-->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, L.; Møller, B.; Jacobsen, Susanne; Søndergaard, Ib

    2004-01-01

    region. The characteristic spectral signatures representing the lys5 locus (Riso mutants 13 and 29) were found to be associated with large changes in percentage of starch and (1-->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan. These alleles compensated for a low level of starch (down to 30%) by a high level of (1...... the high (1-->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan BG lys5 cluster in a PCA. Their high (1-->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan and low starch content was verified. It is concluded that genetic diversity such as from gene regulated polysaccharide and storage protein pathways in the endosperm tissue can be discovered directly...

  8. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  9. Drought stress delays endosperm development and misregulates genes associated with cytoskeleton organization and grain quality proteins in developing wheat seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-11-01

    Drought stress is a major yield-limiting factor for wheat. Wheat yields are particularly sensitive to drought stress during reproductive development. Early seed development stage is an important determinant of seed size, one of the yield components. We specifically examined the impact of drought stress imposed during postzygotic early seed development in wheat. We imposed a short-term drought stress on plants with day-old seeds and observed that even a short-duration drought stress significantly reduced the size of developing seeds as well as mature seeds. Drought stress delayed the developmental transition from syncytial to cellularized stage of endosperm. Coincident with reduced seed size and delayed endosperm development, a subset of genes associated with cytoskeleton organization was misregulated in developing seeds under drought-stressed. Several genes linked to hormone pathways were also differentially regulated in response to drought stress in early seeds. Notably, drought stress strongly repressed the expression of wheat storage protein genes such as gliadins, glutenins and avenins as early as 3 days after pollination. Our results provide new insights on how some of the early seed developmental events are impacted by water stress, and the underlying molecular pathways that can possibly impact both grain size and quality in wheat. PMID:26475192

  10. The Multiple Uses of Barley Endosperm Mutants in Plant Breeding for Quality and for Revealing Functionality in Nutrition and Food Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes, with examples, how biochemical seed mutations can be used not only to improve quality in cereals, but also to understand functionality in nutrition and in food processing, and even to provide an overview of gene expression for improved genetic theory. A high lysine barley mutant Riso 1508 (lys3.a) cross breeding material developed at Carlsberg between 1973 and 1988 is used to demonstrate how Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectra evaluated by a Principal Component analysis (PCA) score plot can visualize an improved chemical composition resulting from an altered genotype. By introducing high lysine lys3.a recombinants with increased starch and yield to pig feeding, protein concentration in the feed, nitrogen load on the animal and, also, importantly nitrogen load on environment could be reduced by 15-20% without compromising meat production. The decreased nitrogen load on the animal spares the energy that is necessary to catabolize the surplus of non-essential amino acids. The lower carbohydrate content and lower energy digestibility in the improved lys3.a lines is likely to be compensated by a more efficient metabolism of the protein. Thus, the high lysine mutants are contributing to the understanding of animal physiology. Similarly, the technological importance of slender cell walls and low β-glucan was elucidated using mutant M-737 from Carlsberg, which accelerated malt modification to spare one to two days. The vast majority of scientists are traditionally rather pessimistic about the possibility of repairing the negative pleiotropic effects of mutations by engaging in the hard and time-consuming work of cross breeding. An open holistic exploratory strategy is necessary in order to evaluate the great complexity of the pleiotropic effects of a mutant gene that can not be forecasted by prior scientific knowledge. This is now possible by exploiting NIR Spectroscopy as a coarse overview of the phenotype (Phenome) on the level of chemical

  11. The multiple use of barley endosperm mutants in plant breeding for quality and for revealing functionality in nutrition and food technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    but also to understand functionality in nutrition and in food processing and even to overview gene expression for improved genetic theory. A high lysine barley mutant Risoe 1508 (lys3.a) cross breeding material developed at Carlsberg 1973-1988 is used to demonstrate how Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectra evaluated by a Principal Component analysis (PCA) score plot can visualize an improved chemical composition due to a changed mutant gene background. By introducing starch and yield improved high lysine lys3.a recombinants in pig feeding, protein concentration in the feed and nitrogen load on the animal and also importantly on environment could be reduced by 15-20% without compromising meat production. The decreased nitrogen load on the animal spares the energy that is necessary to catabolize the surplus of non essential aminoacids. The less carbohydrates and lower energy digestibility in the improved lys3.a lines is thus likely to be compensated by a more efficient energy metabolisation of the protein.Thus the high lysine mutants are contributing to the understanding of animal physiology. In analogy the technological importance of slender cellwalls and low β-glucan was elucidated by a mutant M-737 from Carlsberg speeding up malt modification to spare 1-2 days. The vast majority of mutation scientists are traditionally rather pessimistic regarding the possibility to repair negative pleiotropic effects of mutants by engaging in the hard and time consuming work of cross breeding. An open holistic exploratory strategy is necessary in order to evaluate the great complexity of the pleiotropic effects of a mutant gene that can not be forcasted by prior scientific knowledge. This is now possible by exploiting NIR Spectrocopy as a coarse overview of the phenotype (Phenome) on the level of chemical bonds. (author)

  12. Primer Dependent and Independent Forms of Soluble Starch Synthetase from Developing Barley Endosperms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, M.

    1980-01-01

    purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-cellulose chromatography and separated into four fractions. In the absence of an added carbohydrate primer two of the four fractions catalized the synthesis of a methanol-precipitable agr-glucan when high concentrations of sodium citrate and bovine serum...

  13. Kin recognition within a seed and the effect of genetic relatedness of an endosperm to its compatriot embryo on maize seed development

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chi-Chih; Diggle, Pamela K.; Friedman, William E.

    2013-01-01

    As one of two sexual products resulting from double fertilization in angiosperms, the endosperm nourishes its compatriot embryo during seed development and/or germination and ultimately dies. Theoretical studies suggest that the genetic relatedness of an endosperm to its embryo in the same seed might determine the amount of resources ultimately available for the embryo during seed development. We took advantage of the phenomenon of heterofertilization in cultivated maize to empirically test w...

  14. Isolation of Promoters and Fragments of Genes Controlling Endosperm Development Without Fertilization in Arabidopsis and Engineering of the Antisense Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory A. Gerashchenkov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apomixis is asexual seed reproduction without both meiosis and fertilization based on the complex developmental processes such as apomeiosis, parthenogenesis and specific endosperm development. This investigation is aimed at engineering of apomixis in Arabidopsis thaliana with sexual seed reproduction. The fragments of known genes of endosperm formation MEA, FIE, FIS2 and gene of apomeiosis DYAD (as control were isolated using Q5 high fidelity DNA polymerase. These gene fragments of interest at the antisense orientation were fused with isolated constitutive and meiosis specific promoters of Arabidopsis at NcoI sites. The fused promoter-gene fragment modules were cloned in pCambia1301 at SalI cites. The engineered constructions will be used for the floral dip transformation of Arabidopsis and down regulation of these genes at engineering of apomixis.

  15. Spatio-temporal changes in germination and radical elongation of barley seeds tracked by proteome analysis of dissected embryo, aleurone layer and endosperm tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Finnie, Christine; Roepstorff, P.;

    2007-01-01

    proteins to appear (at 4 h PI). Other early changes were observed that affected spots containing desiccation stress-associated late embryogenesis abundant and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced proteins. From 12 h PI proteins characteristic for desiccation stress disappeared rapidly, as did a putative embryonic...... functions to the seed embryo, aleurone, and endosperm. Abundance in 2-DE patterns was monitored for 48 different proteins appearing in 79 gel spots at 8 time-points up to 72 h post imbibition (PI). In embryo, a beta-type proteasome subunit and a heat shock protein 70 fragment were among the earliest......, increased in abundance at 36 h PI. The surprisingly early changes seen in the protein profiles already 4 h after imbibition indicate that germination is programmed during seed maturation...

  16. Underlying Mechanisms of Zymographic Diversity in Starch Synthase I and Pullulanase in Rice-Developing Endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaling; Bao, Jinsong

    2016-03-01

    Amylopectin is synthesized by the coordinated actions of many (iso)enzymes, including ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), starch synthases (SSs), branching enzymes (BEs), and debranching enzymes (DBEs). Here, two polymorphic forms of starch synthase I (SSI) and pullulanase (PUL) in rice-developing seeds, designated as SSI-1/SSI-2 and PUL-1/PUL-2, were discovered for the first time by zymographic analysis. The SSI and PUL polymorphisms were strongly associated with the SSI microsatellite marker (p = 3.6 × 10(-37)) and PUL insertion/deletion (InDel) markers (p SSI and PUL enzymes. Only one non-synonymous variation in SSI DNA sequence (the SNP A/G) causing the change of the amino acid K438 to E438 was observed, which coincided well with the polymorphic forms of SSI. Nine non-synonymous variations were found between PUL-1 and PUL-2. Two non-synonymous variations of PUL (F316L and D770E) were identified by mass spectrometric analysis, but all of the variations did not change the structure of PUL. The co-immunoprecipitation results revealed the differences in protein-protein interaction patterns, i.e., strong or weaker signals of SSI-BEI and SSI-BEIIb, between the two forms of SSI. The results will enhance our understanding of SSI and PUL properties and provide helpful information to understand their functions in starch biosynthesis in rice endosperm. PMID:26860852

  17. A chemometric evaluation of the underlying physical and chemical patterns that support near infrared spectroscopy of barley seeds as a tool for explorative classification of endosperm genes and gene combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Susanne; Søndergaard, Ib; Møller, Birthe;

    2005-01-01

    Analysis (PCA). Riso mutants R-13, R-29 high (I -> 3, 1 -> 4)-beta-glucan, low starch and R-1508 (high lysine, reduced starch), near isogeneic controls and normal lines and recombinants were studied. Based on proteome analysis results, six antimicrobial proteins were followed during endosperm development...... genetic classification ability verified. Wavelength bands with known water binding and (I -> 3, 1 -> 4)-beta-glucan assignments were successfully predicted by partial least squares regression giving insight into how NIR-data works in classification. Highly reproducible gene-specific, covariate...

  18. Gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances govern development and differentiation of the nucellar projection of barley grains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weier, D.; Thiel, J.; Kohl, S.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Schaarschmidt, S.; Weschke, W.; Weber, H.; Hause, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 18 (2014), s. 5291-5304. ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Assimilate transfer * barley endosperm * gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  19. Exogenous steroid hormones stimulate full development of autonomous endosperm in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Rojek; Łukasz Pawełko; Małgorzata Kapusta; Aleksandra Naczk; Jerzy Bohdanowicz

    2015-01-01

    Most flowering plants, including important crops, require double fertilization to form an embryo and endosperm, which nourishes it. Independence from fertilization is a feature of apomictic plants that produce seeds, from which the plants that are clones of the mother plant arise. The phenomenon of apomixis occurs in some sexual plants under specific circumstances. Since the launch of a fertilization-independent mechanism is considered a useful tool for plant breeding, there have been efforts...

  20. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  1. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero; Michael J. Edney

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four cl...

  2. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  3. 植物胚乳发育的表观遗传学调控%Epigenetic Regulation in Plant Endosperm Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美善; 刘宝

    2012-01-01

    In angiosperms, seed development initiates from double fertilization, which produces a diploid embryo and a triploid endosperm. The endosperm, a terminally differentiated tissue that nourishes the embryo during seed development and germination, is the prominent tissue of imprinting in plants. Proper endosperm development is crucial for normal embryo and seed development. The expression of imprinted genes is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, H3K27 trimethylation and PollV-dependent siRNA (p4-siRNA). Such epigenetic regulation of imprinting is vital to proper endosperm development and seed viability. Recent studies show that endosperm DNA methylation is reduced genome-wide, which likely originates from demethylation in the central cell nucleus of the female gametophyte. This review focuses on the latest research advances in the epigenetic regulation in plant seed development, including the mechanism of plant genomic imprinting and dynamics of the genome-wide demethylation in endosperm.%被子植物的种子发育从双受精开始,产生二倍体的胚和三倍体的胚乳.在种子发育和萌发过程中,胚乳向胚组织提供营养物质,因此胚乳对胚和种子的正常生长发育至关重要.开花植物发生基因组印迹的主要器官是胚乳.印迹基因的表达受表观遗传学机制的调控,包括DNA甲基化和组蛋白H3K27甲基化修饰以及依赖于PollV的siRNAs(p4-siRNAs)调控.基因组印迹的表观遗传学调控对胚乳的正常发育和种子育性具有不可或缺的重要作用.最新研究显示,胚乳的整个基因组DNA甲基化水平降低,而且去甲基化作用可能源于雌配子体的中央细胞.该文综述了种子发育的表观遗传学调控机制,包括基因组印迹机制以及胚乳基因组DNA甲基化变化研究的最新进展.

  4. Effects of the activities of key enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis on the fine structure of amylopectin in developing rice (Oryza sativa L.) endosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic changes of the activities of enzymes involving in starch biosynthesis, including ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), soluble starch synthases (SSS), starch branching enzyme (SBE) and starch debranching enzymes (DBE) were studied, and changes of fine structure of amy- lopectin were characterized by isoamylase treatment during rice grain development, using trans anti-waxy gene rice plants. The relationships between the activities of those key enzymes were also analyzed. The amylose synthesis was significantly inhibited in transgenic Wanjing 9522, but the total starch content and final grain weight were less affected as compared with those of non-transgenic Wanjing 9522 rice cultivar. Analyses on the changes of activities of enzymes involving in starch bio- synthesis showed that different enzyme activities were expressed differently during rice endosperm development. Soluble starch synthase is relatively highly expressed in earlier stage of endosperm de- velopment, whilst maximal expression of granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) occurred in mid-stage of endosperm development. No obvious differences in changes of the activities of AGPase and SBE between two rice cultivars investigated, except the DBEs. Distribution patterns of branches of amy- lopectin changed continually during the development of rice grains and varied between two rice culti- vars. It was suggested that amylopectin synthesis be prior to the synthesis of amylose and different enzymes have different roles in controlling syntheses of branches of amylopectin.

  5. Map-Based Cloning of Seed Dormancy1-2 Identified a Gibberellin Synthesis Gene Regulating the Development of Endosperm-Imposed Dormancy in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Heng; Feng, Jiuhuan; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Jinfeng; Mispan, Muhamad S; Cao, Zhuanqin; Beighley, Donn H; Yang, Jianchang; Gu, Xing-You

    2015-11-01

    Natural variation in seed dormancy is controlled by multiple genes mapped as quantitative trait loci in major crop or model plants. This research aimed to clone and characterize the Seed Dormancy1-2 (qSD1-2) locus associated with endosperm-imposed dormancy and plant height in rice (Oryza sativa). qSD1-2 was delimited to a 20-kb region, which contains OsGA20ox2 and had an additive effect on germination. Naturally occurring or induced loss-of-function mutations of the gibberellin (GA) synthesis gene enhanced seed dormancy and also reduced plant height. Expression of this gene in seeds (including endospermic cells) during early development increased GA accumulation to promote tissue morphogenesis and maturation programs. The mutant allele prevalent in semidwarf cultivars reduced the seed GA content by up to 2-fold at the early stage, which decelerated tissue morphogenesis including endosperm cell differentiation, delayed abscisic acid accumulation by a shift in the temporal distribution pattern, and postponed dehydration, physiological maturity, and germinability development. As the endosperm of developing seeds dominates the moisture equilibrium and desiccation status of the embryo in cereal crops, qSD1-2 is proposed to control primary dormancy by a GA-regulated dehydration mechanism. Allelic distribution of OsGA20ox2, the rice Green Revolution gene, was associated with the indica and japonica subspeciation. However, this research provided no evidence that the primitive indica- and common japonica-specific alleles at the presumably domestication-related locus functionally differentiate in plant height and seed dormancy. Thus, the evolutionary mechanism of this agriculturally important gene remains open for discussion. PMID:26373662

  6. Probing the endosperm gene expression landscape in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In species with exalbuminous seeds, the endosperm is eventually consumed and its space occupied by the embryo during seed development. However, the main constituent of the early developing seed is the liquid endosperm, and a significant portion of the carbon resources for the ensuing stages of seed development arrive at the embryo through the endosperm. In contrast to the extensive study of species with persistent endosperm, little is known about the global gene expression pattern in the endosperm of exalbuminous seed species such as crucifer oilseeds. Results We took a multiparallel approach that combines ESTs, protein profiling and microarray analyses to look into the gene expression landscape in the endosperm of the oilseed crop Brassica napus. An EST collection of over 30,000 entries allowed us to detect close to 10,000 unisequences expressed in the endosperm. A protein profile analysis of more than 800 proteins corroborated several signature pathways uncovered by abundant ESTs. Using microarray analyses, we identified genes that are differentially or highly expressed across all developmental stages. These complementary analyses provided insight on several prominent metabolic pathways in the endosperm. We also discovered that a transcription factor LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1 was highly expressed in the endosperm and that the regulatory cascade downstream of LEC1 operates in the endosperm. Conclusion The endosperm EST collection and the microarray dataset provide a basic genomic resource for dissecting metabolic and developmental events important for oilseed improvement. Our findings on the featured metabolic processes and the LEC1 regulatory cascade offer new angles for investigation on the integration of endosperm gene expression with embryo development and storage product deposition in seed development.

  7. Regulation of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan synthesis in developing endosperm of barley lys mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-01-01

    alleles lys5f and lys5g exerted pronounced effects on the cell wall with increased level of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan content. The low-starch high-(1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan phenotype was most pronounced in lys5f. Among the Cellulose Synthase-Like (CSL) gene members belonging to the families CSLF and CSLH...... suggests the presence of a sensing and signaling system in the cell wall, which in the case of the lys5 mutants caused a decreased transcript level in response to the increased (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan levels. In the lys3a mutant we found a 1000-fold repression of the CSLF6 transcript throughout the whole...

  8. Molecular Genetic Traits Influencing Maize Endosperm Development and Value: Closeout Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER20242

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian A. Larkins

    2012-09-12

    Development of the endosperm in cereal grasses entails different phases characterized by cell division, endoreduplication, accumulation of storage metabolites and cell death, which need to be carried out in an orderly fashion. While correct regulation of the cell cycle plays an essential role in endosperm development, the key regulatory factors and how the cell cycle interfaces with other pathways in this developmental context are largely unknown. We investigated the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-retinoblastoma pathway and how it controls the cell cycle and coordinates it with other processes during maize endosperm development. Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) proteins may be inactivated through CDK-mediated phosphorylation, but the identity of the responsible kinase in maize is unknown. We have previously shown that down-regulation of CDKA;1 severely inhibits the endoreduplication cell cycle and suggested that CDK may be an up-stream regulator of the retinoblastoma pathway. We discovered two types of maize RBR genes, RBR1 and RBR3, which differ in terms of structure, regulation and function. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these genes may be distinctive features of the Poaceae. We found that RBR3 plays a positive rather than a negative role in DNA replication, cell transformation, and the expression of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM)2-7 family of DNA replication factors. These features are a paradigm shift in RBR gene function and appear to be unique within the RBR gene family. They suggest the existence in maize and related cereal crops of specific RBR/E2F-dependent pathways impinging on the cell cycle and development. RBR1 was down-regulated in transgenic endosperm using RNAi approaches. This resulted in the de-repression of a number of down-stream E2F targets, including RBR3, the MCM2-7 gene family, DNA methyltransferase (MET)1, CDKB;1, and the recently identified RBR4 gene. It also increased endosperm ploidy levels, stimulated the production of a larger

  9. Temporal small RNA transcriptome profiling unraveled partitioned miRNA expression in developing maize endosperms between reciprocal crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming eXin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, the endosperm nurtures embryo and provides nutrients for seed germination. We have performed high-throughput small RNA transcriptome sequencing of kernels at 0, 3, and 5 days after pollination (DAP and endosperms at 7, 10, and 15 DAP by using B73 and Mo17 reciprocal crosses in previous study. Here, we further explored these small RNA-seq data to investigate the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating gene expression process. In total, 57 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs were observed highly expressed in maize endosperm. Temporal expression profiling indicates these miRNAs exhibited dynamic and partitioned expression patterns at different developmental stages between maize reciprocal crosses, and qRT-PCR results further confirmed our observation. In addition, we found a subset of distinct tandem miRNAs are generated from a single stem-loop structure in maize which might be conserved in monocots. Furthermore, a SNP variation of Zma-miR408-5p at 11th base position was characterized between B73 and Mo17 which leads to completely different functions in repressing targets. More interestingly, Zma-miR408-5p exhibited B73-biased expression pattern in the B73 and Mo17 reciprocal hybrid endosperms at 7, 10 and 15 DAP according to the reads abundance with SNPs and CAPS experiment.

  10. Light microscopical study of endosperm formation in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A.M. van Lammeren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cellularization of the endosperm of Brassica napus was investigated with light microscopy after embedment in Technovit 7100. The microtubular cytoskeleton was visualized by immunofluorescence techniques after embedment in butyl methyl metacrylate (BMM. The analyses of sectioned seeds, sampled at various developmental stages, revealed that the endosperm has a nuclear phase up to the early heart shaped stage of the embryo. From the heart shaped stage onwards cells and alveoli are formed in the endosperm. The cellularization of endosperm was preceded by alveolus formation except in the region surrounding the embryo suspensor and in the chalazal zone of the embryo sac where the nuclear endosperm vacuolated and cell walls were formed all around the nuclei. Alveolus formation only occurred when nuclei had attained a dense distribution in the layer of cytoplasm aligning the wall of the central cell. When nuclei divided within the alveoli, cell plate formation resulted in the formation of mononuclear endosperm cells along the embryo sac wall. When the walls of the alveoli grew towards the centre of the embryo sac, alveoli regularly closed leaving space for enlargement of the remaining alveoli. In this way endosperm cells enlarged going from the periphery to the central area of the embryo sac. The microtubular cytoskeleton was visualized in the nuclear, alveolar and cellular endosperm. The pattern observed, showed that the organization and function of the microtubular arrays was as generally found during endosperm development.

  11. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids was...

  12. Cocos nucifersa's Watery endosperm as a potential culture medium for fungal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. M. T. Marikar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative culture medium to grow Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on coconut watery endosperm agar and broth was developed. The medium is based upon the watery endosperm from Cocos nucifera, which contains nutrients promoting mycelial growth and sporulation. Sucrose (40% further enhanced fungal growth in the broth. Dilution of watery endosperm reduced mycelial growth rate by 50%. The coconut watery endosperm is cheaper and more easily available than commercial potato dextrose agar medium in tropical regions.

  13. Root border cell development is a temperature-insensitive and Al-sensitive process in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian-Wei; Ye, Dan; Wang, Li-Ling; Hua, Jing; Zhao, Gu-Feng; Pan, Wei-Huai; Han, Ning; Zhu, Mu-Yuan

    2004-06-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that border cell (BC) survival was dependent on root tip mucigel in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Hang 981). In aeroponic culture, BC development was an induced process in barley, whereas in hydroponic culture, it was a kinetic equilibrium process during which 300-400 BCs were released into water daily. The response of root elongation to temperatures (10-35 degrees C) was very sensitive but temperature changes had no great effect on barley BC development. At 35 degrees C, the root elongation ceased whereas BC production still continued, indicating that the two processes might be regulated independently under high temperature (35 degrees C) stress. Fifty microM Al could inhibit significantly BC development by inhibiting pectin methylesterase activity in the root cap of cv. 2000-2 (Al-sensitive) and cv. Humai 16 (Al-tolerant), but 20 microM Al could not block BC development in cv. Humai 16. BCs and their mucigel of barley had a limited role in the protection of Al-induced inhibition of root elongation, but played a significant role in the prevention of Al from diffusing into the meristems of the root tip and the root cap. Together, these results suggested that BC development was a temperature-insensitive but Al-sensitive process, and that BCs and their mucigel played an important role in the protection of root tip and root cap meristems from Al toxicity. PMID:15215510

  14. A roadmap for zinc transport into the developing barley grain. Gene expression profiling using laser microdissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Tauris, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression p...

  15. Global Identification of Significantly Expressed Genes in Developing Endosperm of Rice by Expression Sequence Tags and cDNA Array Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qichao Tu; Haitao Dong; Haigen Yao; Yongqi Fang; Cheng'en Dai; Hongmei Luo; Jian Yao; Dong Zhao; Debao Li

    2008-01-01

    Rice endosperm plays a very important role in seedling germination and determines the qualities of fice grain.Although studies on specific gene categories in endosperm have been carried out,global view of gene expression at a transcription level in rice endosperm is still limited.To gain a better understanding of the global and tissue-specific gene expression profiles in rice endosperm,a cDNA library from rice endosperm of immature seeds was sequenced.A cDNA array was constructed based on the tentative unique transcripts derived from expression sequence tag (EST) assembling results and then hybridized with cONAs from five different tissues or organs including endosperm,embryo,leaf,stem and root of rice.Significant redundancy was found for genes encoding prolamin,glutelin,allergen,and starch synthesis proteins,accounting for~34% of the total ESTs obtained.The cDNA array revealed 87 significantly expressed genes in endosperm compared with the other four organs or tissues.These genes included 13 prolamin family proteins,17 glutelin family proteins,12 binding proteins,nine catalytic proteins and four ribosomal proteins,indicating a complicated biological processing in rice endosperm.In addition,Northern verification of 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme detected two isoforms in rice endosperm,the larger one of which only existed in endosperm.

  16. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  17. Development and characterization of polymorphic EST-SSR and genomic SSR markers for Tibetan annual wild barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhang

    Full Text Available Tibetan annual wild barley is rich in genetic variation. This study was aimed at the exploitation of new SSRs for the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of wild barley by data mining. We developed 49 novel EST-SSRs and confirmed 20 genomic SSRs for 80 Tibetan annual wild barley and 16 cultivated barley accessions. A total of 213 alleles were generated from 69 loci with an average of 3.14 alleles per locus. The trimeric repeats were the most abundant motifs (40.82% among the EST-SSRs, while the majority of the genomic SSRs were di-nuleotide repeats. The polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.08 to 0.75 with a mean of 0.46. Besides this, the expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.0854 to 0.7842 with an average of 0.5279. Overall, the polymorphism of genomic SSRs was higher than that of EST-SSRs. Furthermore, the number of alleles and the PIC of wild barley were both higher than that of cultivated barley, being 3.12 vs 2.59 and 0.44 vs 0.37. Indicating more polymorphism existed in the Tibetan wild barley than in cultivated barley. The 96 accessions were divided into eight subpopulations based on 69 SSR markers, and the cultivated genotypes can be clearly separated from wild barleys. A total of 47 SSR-containing EST unigenes showed significant similarities to the known genes. These EST-SSR markers have potential for application in germplasm appraisal, genetic diversity and population structure analysis, facilitating marker-assisted breeding and crop improvement in barley.

  18. Differential expression of cysteine peptidase genes in the inner integument and endosperm of developing seeds of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Antônio J; Soares, Emanoella L; Costa, José H; Costa, Washington L G; Soares, Arlete A; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-12-01

    In several plant tissues, programmed cell death (PCD) is mediated by the combined action of cysteine peptidases, namely KDEL-tailed cysteine peptidases (KDEL-CysEP) and vacuolar processing enzymes (VPE). Here, we performed a search of the draft genome of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) and identified 2 genes for KDEL-CysEP (Jc-CysEP1 and Jc-CysEP2) and 3 genes for VPE (Jc-βVPE, Jc-γVPE and Jc-δVPE) and determined the expression patterns of these genes by RT-qPCR in integument and cellular endosperm of seeds collected at seven different developmental stages. We were able to demonstrate that the expression of Jc-CysEP1, Jc-CysEP2, Jc-βVPE and Jc-γVPE proceeded rapidly from Stage IV, with Jc-CysEP2 displaying the highest relative expression; expression of Jc-δVPE could not be detected in any of the tissues/developmental stages analyzed. Additionally, we showed that the expression pattern of these peptidases correlates with anatomical changes in integument and cellular endosperm, thus suggesting a role for both classes of peptidases in PCD and in protein processing, both of which occur simultaneously in each of these tissues. PMID:24157205

  19. Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development

    OpenAIRE

    Marzec, M; Muszynska, A. (Agata); Melzer, M.; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U; Wick, S.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. ‘Karat’ with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). T...

  20. Fertilization Independent Endosperm genes repress NbGH3.6 and regulate the auxin level during shoot development in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jun; Ding, Qi; Fukuda, Hiroo; He, Xin-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE) gene is required to restrict endosperm development without fertilization, and it represses flowering during embryo and seedling development in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the regulatory mechanism of the FIE gene in postembryonic shoot development is not well understood. Silencing of Nicotiana benthamiana homologues of the FIE gene, NbFIE1 and NbFIE2, resulted in the enhanced outgrowth of axillary buds and the impairment of secondary xylem differentiation. RNA sequencing analysis found that one of the auxin-responsive GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) family genes, NbGH3.6, was upregulated and maintained a high expression during the time course of silencing NbFIE genes. Chromatin immunoprecipiation (ChIP)-PCR results showed a lack of H3K27me3 marks on NbGH3.6 chromatin in NbFIE-silenced plants compared with negative control plants, indicating that NbGH3.6 was a direct target of NbFIE genes during postembryonic shoot development. Moreover, the free IAA content was reduced significantly in NbFIE-silenced plants, which might cause the enhanced outgrowth of axillary buds as well as impaired secondary xylem differentiation. These results clearly indicated that NbGH3.6 was a primary target of NbFIE genes during postembryonic shoot development, and NbFIE genes regulated axillary bud growth and secondary xylem formation through tuning endogenous auxin homeostasis, possibly by regulating the expression of the NbGH3.6 gene. PMID:26873977

  1. Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, M; Muszynska, A; Melzer, M; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. 'Karat' with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). The results clearly show that symplasmic communication was limited during root hair differentiation in the parental variety, whereas in both root hairless mutants epidermal cells were still symplasmically connected in the corresponding root zone. This paper is the first report on the role of symplasmic isolation in barley root cell differentiation, and additionally shows that a disturbance in the restriction of symplasmic communication is present in root hairless mutants. PMID:23927737

  2. Damage resistance and microstructure of barley kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velikanov L.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Relations between mechanical properties, damage susceptibility and microstructure of five Polish cultivars of barley were examined. Brabender Hardness test, Instron measurements, PSI, PRI, and glassiness were used to characterise mechanical properties. The structure analysis was carried out with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microscopy. Mechanical properties of grain were related to barley cultivar. Grain of cultivars with glassy endosperm were characterised by higher mechanical resistance than those with floury endosperm. Particle size distribution of the extracted starch granules, as determined by digital image analysis, did not correlate with the mechanical properties of barley grains. Generally speaking, the number of damaged kernels correlated with the fracture resistance and was related both to the direction of compression force and water content of grain. Compression along the axis of kernel thickness always resulted in a high number of damaged creases. When water content was high no damaged to the crease zone and a low number of internal damage was characteristic of kernels compressed along the width axis. It was observed that barley endosperm cracked inside cells, while the spaces between cell walls remained unfractured.

  3. 功能型大麦——糯性裸大麦开发前景探讨%Development Prospects of Functional Barley, Waxy Huiless Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓静; 陈和; 陈健; 沈会权; 周汝琴; 陶红; 乔海龙; 臧慧

    2011-01-01

    Barley grain has very good health care function and medicinal value. By virtue of its special structure and chemical composition, waxy hulless barley has more advantages on nutritional value and food processing. In recent years, it attracts great attention both home and abroad, and turns out to be the focus of edible barley research. Referring to its nutritional value and food processing development, functional advantages of waxy hulless barley were introduced, and its exploiting value were confirmed. Processing technology of functional barley was put forward, which could help to increase food diversity, to add baley's economic benefit, as well as to speed up the agricultural industrial structure adjustment and to increase farmers' income.%大麦籽粒具有很好的保健与药用价值,糯性裸大麦基于其特殊的结构与化学成分,近年来受到了国内外科学家的关注,日渐成为食用大麦的研究重点。从营养价值和食品加工2个方面分析了糯性裸大麦的功能优势,介绍了国内外科学家在糯性裸大麦的利用及加工工艺方面的研究进展,对糯性裸大麦作为功能型大麦的开发利用价值与前景作出了肯定。提出进一步开展功能型大麦利用潜力和相关加工技术研究,对增加食品的多样性、提高大麦的附加值及经济效益、加快农业产业结构调整升级、增加农民收入都具有长远和非常重要的意义。

  4. Microstructural and cytogenetic disorders in endosperm of an Avena fatua × A. sterilis hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Tomaszewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A significant difference for cytogenetic and developmental stability of endosperm was discovered between two wild oat species and their hybrid progeny. The development of hybrid endosperm was regulated by apoptosis and proceeded according to a domainal pattern. Many cytogenetic anomalies were also noted, and their appearance was attributed to the activity of transposons or somatic crossing-over. The normal development of endosperm should be considered as an important factor determining viability of seedlings and their intrapopulational competitiveness.

  5. Microstructural and cytogenetic disorders in endosperm of an Avena fatua × A. sterilis hybrid

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Tomaszewska; Romuald Kosina

    2014-01-01

    A significant difference for cytogenetic and developmental stability of endosperm was discovered between two wild oat species and their hybrid progeny. The development of hybrid endosperm was regulated by apoptosis and proceeded according to a domainal pattern. Many cytogenetic anomalies were also noted, and their appearance was attributed to the activity of transposons or somatic crossing-over. The normal development of endosperm should be considered as an important factor determining viabil...

  6. Genotyping of Endosperms to Determine Seed Dormancy Genes Regulating Germination Through Embryonic, Endospermic, or Maternal Tissues in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Xing-You; Zhang, Jinfeng; Ye, Heng; Zhang, Lihua; Feng, Jiuhuan

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy is imposed by one or more of the embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissues that belong to two generations and represent two ploidy levels. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for seed dormancy as measured by gross effects on reduced germination rate or delayed germination in crop or model plants. This research developed an endosperm genotype−based genetic approach to determine specific tissues through which a mapped QTL regulates germination using rice as a mod...

  7. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an alpha-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the...

  8. GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF WINTER BARLEY IN THE CENTRAL ZONE OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysenko I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a combination of different methods of cultivation of winter barley on the background of plowing, and their impact on growth, development and crop yield. The main technological factors allowing implementing the biological potential of culture are adaptive variety, quality seeds, predecessors, sowing and harvesting, fertilizer, soil fertility, crop care, including protection from weeds, pests and diseases. Barley is the culture of versatile use, which is grown for food and feed purposes. Intensification of cultivation methods of this phenomenon is essential and significantly affects the grain yield of this crop. Under the natural fertility of the soil and favorable weather conditions for black earth of Kuban it is possible to get 3,0-3,5 tons per hectare of winter crops of grain, and this requires the creation of an optimal diet, because one of the main factors affecting the productivity of field crops, including one phenomenon are fertilizers. In addition, the level of soil fertility and protection system of weeds, pests and diseases has great importance. Since these types of issues are relevant for agriculture, we have carried out studies to identify the optimal combination of different methods on growth, development and productivity of a single phenomenon

  9. A roadmap for zinc trafficking in the developing barley grain based on laser capture microdissection and gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauris, Birgitte; Borg, Søren; Gregersen, Per L;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression p...

  10. Barley metallothioneins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjørring, Jan Kofod

    2012-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the prot...... storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations....... proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and...

  11. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... recent progress in barley germination research and discuss the factors to be considered when designing 'omics' experiments and interpreting the results. These factors include the structural and functional relationships between the various tissues of the barley caryopsis and the timing of the events...

  12. The embryo and the endosperm contribute equally to argan seed oil yield but confer distinct lipid features to argan oil

    OpenAIRE

    Errouane, K.; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Vaissayre, Virginie; Leblanc, Olivier; Collin, Myriam; Kaid-Harche, M.; Dussert, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    In the perspective of studying lipid biosynthesis in the argan seed, the anatomy, ploidy level and lipid composition of mature seed tissues were investigated using an experimental design including two locations in Algeria and four years of study. Using flow cytometry, we determined that mature argan seeds consist of two well-developed tissues, the embryo and the endosperm. The lipid content of the embryo was higher than that of the endosperm, but the dry weight of the endosperm was higher. Co...

  13. Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. VII. Effect of changes in sieve tube and endosperm cavity sap concentrations on the grain filling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which wheat grain growth is dependent on transport pool solute concentration was investigated by the use of illumination and partial grain removal to vary solute concentrations in the sieve tube and endosperm cavity saps of the wheat ear (Triticum aestivum L.). Short-term grain growth rates were estimated indirectly from the product of phloem area, sieve tube sap concentration, and 32P translocation velocity. On a per grain basis, calculated rates of mass transport through the peduncle were fairly constant over a substantial range in other transport parameters (i.e. velocity, concentration, phloem area, and grain number). The rates were about 40% higher than expected; this probably reflects some unavoidable bias on faster-moving tracer in the velocity estimates. Sieve tube sap concentration increased in all experiments (by 20 to 64%), with a concomitant decline in velocity (to as low as 8% of the initial value). Endosperm cavity sucrose concentration also increased in all experiments, but cavity sap osmolality and total amino acid concentration remained nearly constant. No evidence was found for an increase in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle in response to the treatments. This apparent unresponsiveness of grain growth rate to increased cavity sap sucrose concentration conflicts with earlier in vitro endosperm studies showing that sucrose uptake increased with increasing external sucrose concentration up to 150 to 200 millimolar

  14. The embryo and the endosperm contribute equally to argan seed oil yield but confer distinct lipid features to argan oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errouane, Kheira; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Vaissayre, Virginie; Leblanc, Olivier; Collin, Myriam; Kaid-Harche, Meriem; Dussert, Stéphane

    2015-08-15

    In the perspective of studying lipid biosynthesis in the argan seed, the anatomy, ploidy level and lipid composition of mature seed tissues were investigated using an experimental design including two locations in Algeria and four years of study. Using flow cytometry, we determined that mature argan seeds consist of two well-developed tissues, the embryo and the endosperm. The lipid content of the embryo was higher than that of the endosperm, but the dry weight of the endosperm was higher. Consequently, both tissues contribute equally to seed oil yield. Considerable differences in fatty acid composition were observed between the two tissues. In particular, the endosperm 18:2 percentage was twofold higher than that of the embryo. The tocopherol content of the endosperm was also markedly higher than that of the embryo. In contrast, the endosperm and the embryo had similar sterol and triterpene alcohol contents and compositions. PMID:25794750

  15. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  16. 高粱胚乳细胞与母体组织发育关系的研究%Investigation of Sorghum Endosperm Cell Development and the Relationship with Its Maternal Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李栋梁; 荆彦平; 李小刚; 顾蕴洁; 王忠

    2014-01-01

    势,中果皮发育后期细胞内观察到淀粉体存在特殊的二次增长,构成从前期复粒淀粉体为主转为单粒;“种皮”来源于珠心、珠被细胞依次降解后的胞壁残留堆叠而成,中间含有透明角质层。【结论】白高粱KS-304胚乳发育与玉米颖果胚乳类似,最终形成角质与粉质胚乳;颖果胚乳淀粉体发育存在独特的“发生中心”;中果皮发育后期其细胞可能行使积累同化产物“库”的作用。%Objective]The objective of this research was to clarify the relationship between endosperm and its maternal tissue during development process of the sorghum caryopsis.[Method]Sorghum KS-304 was used as the experimental material with its caryopsis development days precisely recorded and its caryopsis development closely observed. Structural changes of endosperm cells and relation with their maternal tissue were observed through semi-thin sections under light microscopy by applying Spurr resin tissue embedding. The ultrastructure of cells from different tissues and the starch granules wherein in developing and full ripe caryopsis were observed under SEM. The relationships of testa and aleurone layer of full ripe caryopsis were studied through fluorescent microscopy using cryosectioning.[Result]Four stages could be found in caryopsis development, they were formation stage, milky stage, dough stage, and full maturity stage. Accordingly, endosperm development was divided into five stages, i.e. coenocyte stage, cellurization stage, differentiation stage, developmental stage and the final maturation stage, and the first three of which are equal to that of the formation stage of caryopsis; while the last maturation stage corresponds to the last two stages of caryopsis development. It took as long as 15 days for the nucellar epidermis to be fully degraded. The outer peripheral endosperm cells started to accumulate lipid bodies as early as 7 DPA (days after pollination) and, turned

  17. Barley grain maturation and germination: Metabolic pathway and regulatory network commonalities and differences highlighted by new MapMan/PageMan profiling tools

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, N.; Usadel, B.; Winter, A.; Radchuk, V.; Scholz, U.; Stein, N.; Weschke, W.; Strickert, M.; Close, T; Stitt, M.; Graner, A; Wobus, U

    2008-01-01

    Plant seeds prepare for germination already during seed maturation. We performed a detailed transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain maturation, desiccation, and germination in two tissue fractions (starchy endosperm / aleurone and embryo / scutellum) using the Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChip. To aid data evaluation, Arabidopsis thaliana MapMan and PageMan tools were adapted to barley. The analyses allow a number of conclusions: (1) Cluster analysis revealed a smooth transition in...

  18. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...... irregular and showed no distinct melting enthalpy and very weak X-ray scattering. Hyperphosphorylated barley starch was achieved by endosperm specific overexpression of the potato glucan water dikinase1 (StGWD1). The content of phosphate esters in this starch was tenfold higher than the control lines...

  19. Proteomic Dissection of Endosperm Starch Granule Associated Proteins Reveals a Network Coordinating Starch Biosynthesis and Amino Acid Metabolism and Glycolysis in Rice Endosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huatao; Wang, Tai

    2016-01-01

    Starch biosynthesis and starch granule packaging in cereal endosperms involve a coordinated action of starch biosynthesis enzymes and coordination with other metabolisms. Because directly binding to starch granules, starch granule-associated proteins (SGAPs) are essential to understand the underlying mechanisms, however the information on SGAPs remains largely unknown. Here, we dissected developmentally changed SGAPs from developing rice endosperms from 10 to 20 days after flowering (DAF). Starch granule packaging was not completed at 10 DAF, and was finished in the central endosperm at 15 DAF and in the whole endosperm at 20 DAF. Proteomic analysis with two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed 115 developmentally changed SGAPs, representing 37 unique proteins. 65% of the unique proteins had isoforms. 39% of the identified SGAPs were involved in starch biosynthesis with main functions in polyglucan elongation and granule structure trimming. Almost all proteins involved in starch biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, glycolysis, protein folding, and PPDK pathways increased abundance as the endosperm developed, and were predicted in an interaction network. The network represents an important mechanism to orchestrate carbon partitioning among starch biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis and glycolysis for efficient starch and protein storage. These results provide novel insights into mechanisms of starch biosynthesis and its coordination with amino acid metabolisms and glycolysis in cereal endosperms. PMID:27252723

  20. miRNA regulation in the early development of barley seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curaba Julien

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the early stages of seed development many genes are under dynamic regulation to ensure the proper differentiation and establishment of the tissue that will constitute the mature grain. To investigate how miRNA regulation contributes to this process in barley, a combination of small RNA and mRNA degradome analyses were used to identify miRNAs and their targets. Results Our analysis identified 84 known miRNAs and 7 new miRNAs together with 96 putative miRNA target genes regulated through a slicing mechanism in grain tissues during the first 15 days post anthesis. We also identified many potential miRNAs including several belonging to known miRNA families. Our data gave us evidence for an increase in miRNA-mediated regulation during the transition between pre-storage and storage phases. Potential miRNA targets were found in various signalling pathways including components of four phytohormone pathways (ABA, GA, auxin, ethylene and the defence response to powdery mildew infection. Among the putative miRNA targets we identified were two essential genes controlling the GA response, a GA3oxidase1 and a homolog of the receptor GID1, and a homolog of the ACC oxidase which catalyses the last step of ethylene biosynthesis. We found that two MLA genes are potentially miRNA regulated, establishing a direct link between miRNAs and the R gene response. Conclusion Our dataset provides a useful source of information on miRNA regulation during the early development of cereal grains and our analysis suggests that miRNAs contribute to the control of development of the cereal grain, notably through the regulation of phytohormone response pathways.

  1. Molecular Marker Development and Linkage Analysis in Three Low Phytic Acid Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mutant Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytate is the primary form of phosphorus found in mature cereal grain. This form of phosphorus is not available to monogastric animals due to a lack of the enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several barley low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have been identified that contain substantial decreases...

  2. Purification and characterization of a serine protease (CESP) from mature coconut endosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal Chhabinath; Roy Samir; Usha Rajamma; Panicker Leelamma M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In plants, proteases execute an important role in the overall process of protein turnover during seed development, germination and senescence. The limited knowledge on the proteolytic machinery that operates during seed development in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) prompted us to search for proteases in the coconut endosperm. Findings We have identified and purified a coconut endosperm protease (CESP) to apparent homogeneity. CESP is a single polypeptide enzyme of approximate...

  3. The short-term growth response to salt of the developing barley leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Wieland; Akhiyarova, Gulya; Wei, Wenxue; Alexandersson, Erik; Miller, Anthony; Kjellbom, Per Ola; Richardson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Schreiber, Lukas; Veselov, Dima; Kudoyarova, Guzel; Volkov, Vadim

    2006-01-01

    Recent results concerning the short-term growth response to salinity of the developing barley leaf are reviewed. Plants were grown hydroponically and the growth response of leaf 3 was studied between 10 min and 5 d following addition of 100 mM NaCl to the root medium. The aim of the experiments was to relate changes in variables that are likely to affect cell elongation to changes in leaf growth. Changes in hormone content (ABA, cytokinins), water and solute relationships (osmolality, turgor, water potential, solute concentrations), gene expression (water channel), cuticle deposition, membrane potential, and transpiration were followed, while leaf elongation velocity was monitored. Leaf elongation decreased close to zero within seconds following addition of NaCl. Between 20 and 30 min after exposure to salt, elongation velocity recovered rather abruptly, to about 46% of the pre-stress level, and remained at the reduced rate for the following 5 d, when it reached about 70% of the level in non-stressed plants. Biophysical and physiological analyses led to three major conclusions. (i) The immediate reduction and sudden recovery in elongation velocity is due to changes in the water potential gradient between leaf xylem and peripheral elongating cells. Changes in transpiration, ABA and cytokinin content, water channel expression, and plasma membrane potential are involved in this response. (ii) Significant solute accumulation, which aids growth recovery, is detectable from 1 h onwards; growing and non-growing leaf regions and mesophyll and epidermis differ in their solute response. (iii) Cuticular wax density is not affected by short-term exposure to salt; transpirational changes are due to stomatal control. PMID:16513814

  4. Barley NARROW LEAFED DWARF1 encoding a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3) regulates the marginal development of lateral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takanori; Tanaka, Shin-Ya; Masumoto, Yuuki; Nobori, Naoya; Ishii, Hiroto; Hibara, Ken-Ichiro; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Taketa, Shin

    2016-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the fourth most-produced cereal in the world and is mainly utilized as animal feed and malts. Recently barley attracts considerable attentions as healthy food rich in dietary fiber. However, limited knowledge is available about developmental aspects of barley leaves. In the present study, we investigated barley narrow leafed dwarf1 (nld1) mutants, which exhibit thin leaves accompanied by short stature. Detailed histological analysis revealed that leaf marginal tissues, such as sawtooth hairs and sclerenchymatous cells, were lacked in nld1, suggesting that narrowed leaf of nld1 was attributable to the defective development of the marginal regions in the leaves. The defective marginal developments were also appeared in internodes and glumes in spikelets. Map-based cloning revealed that NLD1 encodes a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3), an ortholog of the maize NARROW SHEATH genes. In situ hybridization showed that NLD1 transcripts were localized in the marginal edges of leaf primordia from the initiating stage. From these results, we concluded that NLD1 plays pivotal role in the increase of organ width and in the development of marginal tissues in lateral organs in barley. PMID:27436952

  5. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part II. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was investigated in the embryos and endosperm of wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne grain after 2, 4 and 6 days of germination. In germinating grain the phosphorus compounds transformations ran along the way of synthesis in the embryo and of breakdown in the endosperm. The level of phosphorus: inorganic, nucleotides, saccharides esters and their metabolites, lipid, RNA, DNA, phytin free and phytin bound with proteins and proteins rapidly increased in germinating seed embryos. The content of phosphorus free phytin and that bound with proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA in the endosperm rapidly decreased during germination. On the other hand, the saccharides phosphorus and that of their metabolites did not change, and inorganic, nuclotides and proteins-P slightly increased. Germinating rye grains showed a higher rate of synthesis in the embryos and of breakdown in the endosperm of the investigated phosphorus compounds than wheat and barley grains.

  6. A pathway-specific microarray analysis highlights the complex and co-ordinated transcriptional networks of the developing grain of field-grown barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Friis, Carsten; Bowra, Steve;

    2009-01-01

    products during the development of field-grown barley grains using a grain-specific microarray assembled in our laboratory. To identify co-regulated genes, a distance matrix was constructed which enabled the identification of three clusters corresponding to early, middle, and late grain development. The...

  7. Effects of seed irradiation on the early development and mitochondrial RNA synthesis of 'Impala' barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of fractionated γ-irradiation on barley seeds was investigated under outdoor and hothouse conditions. The doses were 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 rad. The resulting radiation effects were investigated from the point of view of molecular biology, i.e. studying the RNA synthesis of the mitochondria after 14C-labelling of uridine. The radiation influence on the length of the coleoptiles was another criterion. The irradiation findings are discussed in connection with the cultivation of better and more resistant plants for agriculture. (GSE/AK)

  8. Analysis of promoters in transgenic barley and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J; Pellegrineschi, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Advances in the genetic transformation of cereals have improved the prospects of using biotechnology for plant improvement, and a toolbox of promoters with defined specificities would be a valuable resource in controlling the expression of transgenes in desired tissues for both plant improvement and molecular farming. A number of promoters have been isolated from the important cereals (wheat, barley, rice and maize), and these promoters have been tested mostly in homologous cereal systems and, to a lesser extent, in heterologous cereal systems. The use of these promoters across the important cereals would add value to the utility of each promoter. In addition, promoters with less sequence homology, but with similar specificities, will be crucial in avoiding homology-based gene silencing when expressing more than one transgene in the same tissue. We have tested wheat and barley promoters in transgenic barley and wheat to determine whether their specificity is shared across these two species. The barley bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (Isa) promoter, specific to the pericarp in barley, failed to show any activity in wheat, whereas the wheat early-maturing (Em) promoter showed similar activity in wheat and barley. The wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin (HMW-Glu) and barley D-hordein (D-Hor) and B-hordein (B-Hor) storage protein promoters maintained endosperm-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in wheat and barley, respectively. Using gfp, we have demonstrated that the Isa and Em promoters can be used as strong promoters to direct transgenes in specific tissues of barley and wheat grain. Differential promoter activity across cereals expands and adds value to a promoter toolbox for utility in plant biotechnology. PMID:19175520

  9. A high lysine mutant of winter forage barley induced by Co60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is typical of the induced high lysine mutant of winter forage barley that compared to the parental form its height is reduced 10-15 cm. Besides, it is distinguished by greatly shrunken endosperm and, therefore, reduced (24.32%) 1000 grain weight. The crude protein content of the grain is 17.37%, and of lysine - 5,46 g/16 g N. The gene controlling endosperm is linked with the gene governing synthesis of more lysine. The test of allelisms for that gene has revealed that it is not allelic to the gene of Hiproly, Notch 1 and Riso-1508

  10. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among the...

  11. Luteibacter rhizovicinus MIMR1 promotes root development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Basilico, Roberto; Taverniti, Valentina; Arioli, Stefania; Piagnani, Claudia; Bernacchi, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    In order to preserve environmental quality, alternative strategies to chemical-intensive agriculture are strongly needed. In this study, we characterized in vitro the potential plant growth promoting (PGP) properties of a gamma-proteobacterium, named MIMR1, originally isolated from apple shoots in micropropagation. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence allowed the taxonomic identification of MIMR1 as Luteibacter rhizovicinus. The PGP properties of MIMR1 were compared to Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca DSM 19603(T), which was selected as a reference PGP bacterium. By means of in vitro experiments, we showed that L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 and P. chlororaphis DSM 19603(T) have the ability to produce molecules able to chelate ferric ions and solubilize monocalcium phosphate. On the contrary, both strains were apparently unable to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Furthermore, the ability to produce 3-indol acetic acid by MIMR1 was approximately three times higher than that of DSM 19603(T). By using fluorescent recombinants of strains MIMR1 and DSM 19603(T), we also demonstrated that both bacteria are able to abundantly proliferate and colonize the barley rhizosphere, preferentially localizing on root tips and in the rhizoplane. Finally, we observed a negative effect of DSM 19603(T) on barley seed germination and plant growth, whereas MIMR1, compared to the control, determined a significant increase of the weight of aerial part (+22 %), and the weight and length of roots (+53 and +32 %, respectively). The results obtained in this work make L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 a good candidate for possible use in the formulation of bio-fertilizers. PMID:23653264

  12. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  13. On the origin of Spanish two-rowed barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo, M; Romagosa, I; Salcedo, G; Sánchez-Monge, R; Molina-Cano, J L

    1994-02-01

    To investigate the phylogenetic origin of Spanish two-rowed barleys, we studied 44 accessions of old land-races both morphologically and biochemically to ascertain their similarity with 51 entries of old cultivars and land-races of widespread origin across Europe. They were also compared with 20 accessions of Hordeum spontaneum from the Mediterranean basin and other regions of its distribution range, 14 accessions of Moroccan cultivated six-rowed barley land-races, and different six-rowed Spanish and two-and six-rowed European cultivars. CM-(trypsin inhibitors and subunits of the barley tetrameric α-amylase inhibitor) proteins and hordeins, all of which are endosperm proteins, were used as biochemical markers. The appearance of separate clusters of the Spanish barleys in the numerical classifications for both protein systems as a result of the existence of characteristic gene combinations that do not exist in entries from other origins permitted us to postulate the existence of local ancestors for most of the Spanish two-rowed barleys studied, and, therefore, a possible in situ domestication. PMID:24190469

  14. Breeding of value added barley by mutation and protein engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has been bred for food, feed and beverages over the past 5000 years by selecting for spontaneous mutations and random hybrids. Crosses with defined parents (since the turn of the century) and induced mutations (since 1927) have provided variability in selecting for novel varieties. Genetic transformation of barley has been a routine procedure since 1994 and permits the introduction of tailored genes for adding quality values to the grain. It complements, but does not replace, existing efficient breeding methods. Radiation and chemically induced mutations, as well as genes introduced by transformation, have to be fitted into the genome, which may take 50 years of breeding effort and testing for agronomic and industrial performance. The mutation breeding strategy for proanthocyanidin free malt barley, which has led to the commercial varieties Caminant and NFC 8808, is presented. As an example of the breeding strategy to improve barley endosperm cell wall degradation, a description is given of the protein engineering of a (1-3, 1-4)-β-glucanase towards heat stability and the insertion of the gene encoding this enzyme by genetic transformation. It is expected that such barley varieties will extend the use of the grain for beverage and feed uses as well as for the production of renewable raw materials by malting and mashing processes. (author). 34 refs, 1 tab

  15. Cereal bioengineering: amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were engineered by transgenic methods. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch branching enzymes (SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI) by a chimeric hairpin...... demonstrates for the first time a way for production of pure amylose in plants with limited yield loss. In a different barley line endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0 and T1) of...... the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom where phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation by endogenous enzymes. Together this work shows two new strategies for in planta starch bioengineering of cereals...

  16. Effects of fast neutrons on seedling growth and metabolism in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds irradiated with fast neutrons showed reduced O2 uptake per lot of seeds compared with untreated controls, but no difference per mg of embryo ''protein''-N. This signifies that respiration per unit of active protoplasm was unchanged. Endosperm proteolytic activity and nitrogen transport to the embryo were unchanged, but embryonic protein synthesis was inhibited and nucleic acid synthesis was reduced. The relationship between seedling growth retardation and nucleic acid reduction are discussed. (author). 3 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  17. Utilization of Different Bmy1 Intron III Alleles for Predicting ß-Amylase Activity and Thermostability in Wild and Cultivated Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymorphisms in intron III of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific beta-amylase (Bmy1) have been associated with beta-amylase activity and thermostability and are thought to have potential as a selective marker for breeding elite malting cultivars. The third intron of Bmy1 was sequenced ...

  18. Effects of sulphur dioxide on the development of fungal diseases of winter barley in an open-air fumigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, P.J.; Bell, J.N.B.; Wheeler, B.E.J. (Imperial Coll., Ascot (UK)); McLeod, A.R. (National Power Technology and Environmental Centre, Leatherhead (UK))

    1991-01-01

    The development of fungal diseases was monitored through three consecutive growing seasons (1984-1985, 1985-1986 and 1986-1987) on field plots of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. 'Igri' exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) concentrations in the range 0.005-0.048 microliter l{sup {minus}1} using an open-air fumigation system. In each season the incidence and severity of powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis D.C. ex Merat f.sp. hordei Em. Marchal) increased and leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis Oudem J.J. Davis) decreased in plots exposed to elevated levels of SO{sub 2} (0.014-0.048 microliter l{sup {minus}1} SO{sub 2}) compared with control plots exposed to background levels of 0.005-0.009 microliter l{sup {minus}1} SO{sub 2}. The apparent infection rate of powdery mildew was also greater in SO{sub 2}-treated plots. The effects of SO{sub 2} exposure on eyespot (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron) Deighton) and black ear moulds (Cladosporium and Alternaria spp.) were variable. Sharp eyespot (Rhizoctonia cerealis van der Hoeven), Fusarium foot rot, brown rust (Puccinia hordei Otth.), Septoria nodorum Berk., net blotch (Pyrenophora teres Sacc.) and Botrytis spp. infection on the ear were all apparently unaffected by SO{sub 2}. 3 figs., 36 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Glyoxylate cycle and metabolism of organic acids in the scutellum of barley seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhenguo; Marsolais, Frédéric; Bernards, Mark A; Sumarah, Mark W; Bykova, Natalia V; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2016-07-01

    During the developmental processes from dry seeds to seedling establishment, the glyoxylate cycle becomes active in the mobilization of stored oils in the scutellum of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds, as indicated by the activities of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. The succinate produced is converted to carbohydrates via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and to amino acids via aminotransferases, while free organic acids may participate in acidifying the endosperm tissue, releasing stored starch into metabolism. The abundant organic acid in the scutellum was citrate, while malate concentration declined during the first three days of germination, and succinate concentration was low both in scutellum and endosperm. Malate was more abundant in endosperm tissue during the first three days of germination; before citrate became predominant, indicating that malate may be the main acid acidifying the endosperm. The operation of the glyoxylate cycle coincided with an increase in the ATP/ADP ratio, a buildup of H2O2 and changes in the redox state of ascorbate and glutathione. It is concluded that operation of the glyoxylate cycle in the scutellum of cereals may be important not only for conversion of fatty acids to carbohydrates, but also for the acidification of endosperm and amino acid synthesis. PMID:27181945

  20. Spatio-Temporal Metabolite Profiling of the Barley Germination Process by MALDI MS Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Gorzolka

    Full Text Available MALDI mass spectrometry imaging was performed to localize metabolites during the first seven days of the barley germination. Up to 100 mass signals were detected of which 85 signals were identified as 48 different metabolites with highly tissue-specific localizations. Oligosaccharides were observed in the endosperm and in parts of the developed embryo. Lipids in the endosperm co-localized in dependency on their fatty acid compositions with changes in the distributions of diacyl phosphatidylcholines during germination. 26 potentially antifungal hordatines were detected in the embryo with tissue-specific localizations of their glycosylated, hydroxylated, and O-methylated derivates. In order to reveal spatio-temporal patterns in local metabolite compositions, multiple MSI data sets from a time series were analyzed in one batch. This requires a new preprocessing strategy to achieve comparability between data sets as well as a new strategy for unsupervised clustering. The resulting spatial segmentation for each time point sample is visualized in an interactive cluster map and enables simultaneous interactive exploration of all time points. Using this new analysis approach and visualization tool germination-dependent developments of metabolite patterns with single MS position accuracy were discovered. This is the first study that presents metabolite profiling of a cereals' germination process over time by MALDI MSI with the identification of a large number of peaks of agronomically and industrially important compounds such as oligosaccharides, lipids and antifungal agents. Their detailed localization as well as the MS cluster analyses for on-tissue metabolite profile mapping revealed important information for the understanding of the germination process, which is of high scientific interest.

  1. Developing transgenic wheat and barley that exhibit resistance to Fusarium graminearum via glucoside conjugation of trichothecene mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium graminearum infection of wheat and barley results in production of trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). These mycotoxins result in increased fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Numerous transcriptomic studies have been conducted by our lab on t...

  2. Starch and Free Sugars during Kernel Development of Bomi Barley and its High-Lysine Mutant 1508

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, Michael

    1978-01-01

    At maturity the high-lysine barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ris0 mutants 1508, 527 and 29 kernels contained about 20% less starch and twice as much free sugars as the parent varieties Bomi and Carlsberg II. An enhanched effect on starch reduction and free sugar accumulation was observed during kernel...

  3. Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Renaut, Jenny;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the effect of nitrogen (N) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) storage protein production (hordeins) during grain filling. Using a combination of advanced biochemistry methods, we could comprehensively describe...

  4. Development of high-density genetic maps for barley and wheat using a novel two-enzyme genotyping-by-sequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A Poland

    Full Text Available Advancements in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled whole genome re-sequencing in many species providing unprecedented discovery and characterization of molecular polymorphisms. There are limitations, however, to next-generation sequencing approaches for species with large complex genomes such as barley and wheat. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS has been developed as a tool for association studies and genomics-assisted breeding in a range of species including those with complex genomes. GBS uses restriction enzymes for targeted complexity reduction followed by multiplex sequencing to produce high-quality polymorphism data at a relatively low per sample cost. Here we present a GBS approach for species that currently lack a reference genome sequence. We developed a novel two-enzyme GBS protocol and genotyped bi-parental barley and wheat populations to develop a genetically anchored reference map of identified SNPs and tags. We were able to map over 34,000 SNPs and 240,000 tags onto the Oregon Wolfe Barley reference map, and 20,000 SNPs and 367,000 tags on the Synthetic W9784 × Opata85 (SynOpDH wheat reference map. To further evaluate GBS in wheat, we also constructed a de novo genetic map using only SNP markers from the GBS data. The GBS approach presented here provides a powerful method of developing high-density markers in species without a sequenced genome while providing valuable tools for anchoring and ordering physical maps and whole-genome shotgun sequence. Development of the sequenced reference genome(s will in turn increase the utility of GBS data enabling physical mapping of genes and haplotype imputation of missing data. Finally, as a result of low per-sample costs, GBS will have broad application in genomics-assisted plant breeding programs.

  5. OsRRM,a Spen-like rice gene expressed specifically in the endosperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Yan Chen; Zong-Yang Wang; Xiu-Ling Cai

    2007-01-01

    We used the promoter trap technique to identify a rice plant, named 107, in which the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was expressed specifically in the endosperm. A single copy of the T-DNA was inserted into the plant genome, and a candidate gene OsRRM was identified by the insertion. The OsRRM promoter directed GUS expression specifically in rice endosperm, analogous to the GUS expression pattern observed in 107#. OsRRM is a single-copy gene in rice and encodes a nuclear protein containing 1 005 amino-acid residues with two RNA recognition motifs and one Spen paralog and ortholog C-terminal domain. Western blot analysis confirmed that the OsRRM protein was specifically expressed in rice endosperm. Ectopic expression of OsRRM in transgenic plants led to abnormalities, such as short stature, retarded growth and low fructification rates. Our data, in conjunction with the reported function of Spen genes, implicated OsRRM in the regulation of cell development in rice endosperm.

  6. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  7. Barley plants over-expressing the NAC transcription factor gene HvNAC005 show stunting and delay in development combined with early senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W; Matthewman, Colette; Podzimska-Sroka, Dagmara;

    2016-01-01

    -expressing plants showed up-regulation of genes involved with secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, stress, signalling, development, and transport. Up-regulation of senescence markers and hormone metabolism and signalling genes supports a role of HvNAC005 in the cross field of different hormone and signalling......The plant-specific NAC transcription factors have attracted particular attention because of their involvement in stress responses, senescence, and nutrient remobilization. The HvNAC005 gene of barley encodes a protein belonging to subgroup NAC-a6 of the NAC family. This study shows that HvNAC005 is...

  8. Multi-method research strategy for understanding changes in storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated in a range of diverse environments and is widely utilised as feed for animal and as malt in brewing. Nitrogen (N) is a key macronutrient whch directly increases plant growth and is used as a fertiliser to meet the demands for higher yield. However, the in...... regimes. To reach the objective, integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis complemented with AAs profiling have been undertaken....

  9. Protein disulfide isomerase-like protein 1-1 controls endosperm development through regulation of the amount and composition of seed proteins in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI is a chaperone protein involved in oxidative protein folding by acting as a catalyst and assisting folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. A genome database search showed that rice contains 19 PDI-like genes. However, their functions are not clearly identified. This paper shows possible functions of rice PDI-like protein 1-1 (PDIL1-1 during seed development. Seeds of the T-DNA insertion PDIL1-1 mutant, PDIL1-1Δ, identified by genomic DNA PCR and western blot analysis, display a chalky phenotype and a thick aleurone layer. Protein content per seed was significantly lower and free sugar content higher in PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds than in the wild type. Proteomic analysis of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds showed that PDIL1-1 is post-translationally regulated, and its loss causes accumulation of many types of seed proteins including glucose/starch metabolism- and ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging-related proteins. In addition, PDIL1-1 strongly interacts with the cysteine protease OsCP1. Our data indicate that the opaque phenotype of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds results from production of irregular starch granules and protein body through loss of regulatory activity for various proteins involved in the synthesis of seed components.

  10. Mutants pave the way to wheat and barley for celiac patients and dietary health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat has two major nutritional problems for the consumer: (1) The flour or pasta produced from the grain is not acceptable to congenital celiac patients and may induce intolerance of dietary 'gluten' in people later in life. (2) The grain is highly deficient in the essential amino acid lysine. Currently there is only one treatment for sufferers of celiac disease: the complete exclusion of wheat, barley and rye grains from their diets. Celiac disease is caused by an autoimmune reaction against undigested proline/glutamine rich peptides (epitopes) that are taken up through the intestinal mucosa and initiate an autoimmune response in human leucocyte antigen DQ2- or DQ8-positive individuals. This leads to chronic erasure of the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium and to permanent intolerance of dietary 'gluten'. Cereal prolamins are of two types: high molecular weight glutenins (HMWG) with a molecular structure of elastic fibrils that form dityrosine cross-links during dough formation and baking, and gliadins. The gene promoters of the gliadin-type proteins are silenced by DNA methylation in vegetative tissues. This methylation is removed during grain development to permit protein synthesis. Inhibition of the demethylation by mutation specifically inhibits the synthesis of the gliadin-type proteins and only proteins consisting of elastic fibrils are produced. As a proof of principle, a barley cultivar called Lysiba already exists that has such a mutation and provides the rationale creating wheat varieties by mutation of the 5-methylcytosine deglycosylases in the endosperm. Celiac patients are sensitive to a wide variety of different epitopes, which are located in the gliadin-type prolamins. Gliadin-type prolamins are of no importance for baking because wheat HMW glutenin has been shown to be alone sufficient to produce high quality breads. (author)

  11. Mutants Pave the Way to Wheat and Barley for Celiac Patients and Dietary Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat has two major nutritional problems for the consumer: (1) The flour or pasta produced from the grain is not acceptable to congenital celiac patients and may induce intolerance of dietary 'gluten' in people later in life. (2) The grain is highly deficient in the essential amino acid lysine. Currently there is only one treatment for sufferers of celiac disease: the complete exclusion of wheat, barley and rye grains from their diets. Celiac disease is caused by an autoimmune reaction against undigested proline/glutamine rich peptides (epitopes) that are taken up through the intestinal mucosa and initiate an autoimmune response in human leucocyte antigen DQ2- or DQ8-positive individuals. This leads to chronic erasure of the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium and to permanent intolerance of dietary 'gluten.' Cereal prolamins are of two types: high molecular weight glutenins (HMWG) with a molecular structure of elastic fibrils that form dityrosine cross-links during dough formation and baking, and gliadins. The gene promoters of the gliadin-type proteins are silenced by DNA methylation in vegetative tissues. This methylation is removed during grain development to permit protein synthesis. Inhibition of the demethylation by mutation specifically inhibits the synthesis of the gliadin-type proteins and only proteins consisting of elastic fibrils are produced. As a proof of principle, a barley cultivar called Lysiba already exists that has such a mutation and provides the rationale for creating wheat varieties by mutation of the 5-methylcytosine deglycosylases in the endosperm. Celiac patients are sensitive to a wide variety of different epitopes, which are located in the gliadin-type prolamins. Gliadin-type prolamins are of no importance for baking because wheat HMW glutenin has been shown to be alone sufficient to produce high quality breads. (author)

  12. Endosperm Tolerance of Paternal Aneuploidy Allows Radiation Hybrid Mapping of the Wheat D-Genome and a Measure of γ Ray-Induced Chromosome Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Vijay K; Oscar Riera-Lizarazu; Hilary L Gunn; Kasandra Lopez; M Javed Iqbal; Kianian, Shahryar F; Leonard, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical mapping and genome sequencing are underway for the ≈17 Gb wheat genome. Physical mapping methods independent of meiotic recombination, such as radiation hybrid (RH) mapping, will aid precise anchoring of BAC contigs in the large regions of suppressed recombination in Triticeae genomes. Reports of endosperm development following pollination with irradiated pollen at dosages that cause embryo abortion prompted us to investigate endosperm as a potential source of RH mapping germplasm. H...

  13. Control of cell proliferation, endoreduplication, cell size, and cell death by the retinoblastoma-related pathway in maize endosperm

    KAUST Repository

    Sabelli, Paolo A.

    2013-04-22

    The endospermof cereal grains is one of the most valuable products of modern agriculture. Cereal endosperm development comprises different phases characterized by mitotic cell proliferation, endoreduplication, the accumulation of storage compounds, and programmed cell death. Although manipulation of these processes could maximize grain yield, how they are regulated and integrated is poorly understood. We show that the Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) pathway controls key aspects of endosperm development in maize. Down-regulation of RBR1 by RNAi resulted in up-regulation of RBR3-type genes, as well as the MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE 2-7 gene family and PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN, which encode essential DNA replication factors. Both the mitotic and endoreduplication cell cycles were stimulated. Developing transgenic endosperm contained 42-58% more cells and ~70% more DNA than wild type, whereas there was a reduction in cell and nuclear sizes. In addition, cell death was enhanced. The DNA content of mature endosperm increased 43% upon RBR1 downregulation, whereas storage protein content and kernel weight were essentially not affected. Down-regulation of both RBR1 and CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE A (CDKA);1 indicated that CDKA;1 is epistatic to RBR1 and controls endoreduplication through an RBR1- dependent pathway. However, the repressive activity of RBR1 on downstream targets was independent from CDKA;1, suggesting diversification of RBR1 activities. Furthermore, RBR1 negatively regulated CDK activity, suggesting the presence of a feedback loop. These results indicate that the RBR1 pathway plays a major role in regulation of different processes during maize endosperm development and suggest the presence of tissue/organlevel regulation of endosperm/seed homeostasis.

  14. The effects of gamma irradiation on the leaching of reducing sugars, inorganic phosphate and enzymes from barley seeds during germination in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation enhanced the leaching of reducing sugars from barley seeds into the water in which the seeds were shaken. Treatments prior to shaking in water, such as overnight soaking in water at 50C and subsequent germination in Petri dishes for 1 or 2 days at 200C, showed pronounced effects on the leaching. The highest effect, which was obtained at 500 krad irradiation, was four times higher than that of the non-irradiated control. Gamma irradiation also stimulated the leaching of inorganic phosphate and slightly that of amylases from barley seeds. When seeds from which the embryos has been removed were shaken into water, no stimulating effect on the leaching of sugars was noted. These results, combined with the irradiation effect on the embryo, suggest that the stimulated leaching of reducing sugars is due to the extreme difference in sensitivity to gamma irradiation between the production of reducing sugars in the endosperm and the development and growth of the embryo. (author)

  15. Development and validation of a terrestrial biotic ligand model predicting the effect of cobalt on root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Biotic Ligand Model was developed predicting the effect of cobalt on root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare) in nutrient solutions. The extent to which Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ ions and pH independently affect cobalt toxicity to barley was studied. With increasing activities of Mg2+, and to a lesser extent also K+, the 4-d EC50Co2+ increased linearly, while Ca2+, Na+ and H+ activities did not affect Co2+ toxicity. Stability constants for the binding of Co2+, Mg2+ and K+ to the biotic ligand were obtained: log K CoBL = 5.14, log K MgBL = 3.86 and log K KBL = 2.50. Limited validation of the model with one standard artificial soil and one standard field soil showed that the 4-d EC50Co2+ could only be predicted within a factor of four from the observed values, indicating further refinement of the BLM is needed. - Biotic Ligand Models are not only a useful tool to assess metal toxicity in aquatic systems but can also be used for terrestrial plants

  16. Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

  17. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    Starch represents the most important carbohydrate used for food and feed purposes. Increasingly, it is also used as a renewable raw material, as a source of biofuel, and for many different industrial applications. Progress in understanding starch biosynthesis, and investigations of the genes...... involved in this process, has enabled the genetic modification f crops in a rational manner to produce novel designer starches with improved functionality. The hypothesis of the present study is that the hyper-phosphorylation of cereal endosperm starch makes it easily accessible and degradable by the...... amylolytic enzymes while the amylose-only endosperm starch exhibits high resistance to degradation and hence less available for degradation. With the aim to investigate the hypothesis, starch molecular structures were modulated with the above mentioned modifications and were studied for the effects of...

  18. Isolated endosperm tissue as a model for experimental botany

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Popielarska-Konieczna; Małgorzata Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno; Izabela Marcińska; Dagmara Kwolek; Halina Ślesak

    2014-01-01

    Experiments conducted on isolated endosperm under in vitro conditions have opened new possibilities to investigate this specific and unique plant tissue. Results are important as well for basic knowledge as for agriculture practice.

  19. Isolated endosperm tissue as a model for experimental botany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Popielarska-Konieczna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiments conducted on isolated endosperm under in vitro conditions have opened new possibilities to investigate this specific and unique plant tissue. Results are important as well for basic knowledge as for agriculture practice.

  20. Development and validation of a terrestrial biotic ligand model for Ni toxicity to barley root elongation for non-calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanqing; Di Toro, Dominic M; Allen, Herbert E

    2015-07-01

    A Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model (TBLM) for Ni toxicity to barley root elongation (RE) developed from experiments conducted in sand culture was used to predict toxicity in non-calcareous soils. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations and pH in sand solution were varied individually and TBLM parameters were computed. EC50 increased as Mg(2+) increased, whereas the effect of Ca(2+) was insignificant. TBLM parameters developed from sand culture were validated by toxicity tests in eight Ni-amended, non-calcareous soils. Additional to Ni(2+) toxicity, toxicity from all solution ions was modelled independently as an osmotic effect and needed to be included for soil culture results. The EC50s and EC10s in soil culture were predicted within twofold of measured results. These are close to the results obtained using parameters estimated from the soil culture data itself. PMID:25800936

  1. Light microscopical study of endosperm formation in Brassica napus L.

    OpenAIRE

    A. A.M. van Lammeren; Kieft, H.; Ma, F; L. H. van Veenendaal

    2014-01-01

    The cellularization of the endosperm of Brassica napus was investigated with light microscopy after embedment in Technovit 7100. The microtubular cytoskeleton was visualized by immunofluorescence techniques after embedment in butyl methyl metacrylate (BMM). The analyses of sectioned seeds, sampled at various developmental stages, revealed that the endosperm has a nuclear phase up to the early heart shaped stage of the embryo. From the heart shaped stage onwards cells and alveoli are formed in...

  2. Effect of endosperm mutants on maize seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica; Đukanović Lana; Erić Uroš

    2004-01-01

    The expression of genetic potential of yielding and quality of a certain genotype depends among other factors on seed quality. Seed is very important not only for the reproduction of the particular plant species, but also, for the contemporary plant production. Each part of maize seed (pericarp endosperm and germ) has a specific function in the complex process of germination and emergence. The following three genotypes of different endosperm types were observed: ZPSC 42A (standard grain quali...

  3. Understanding the Differences in Molecular Conformation of Carbohydrate and Protein in Endosperm Tissues of Grains with Different Biodegradation Kinetics Using Advanced Synchrotron Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional 'wet' chemical analyses rely heavily on the use of harsh chemicals and derivatization, thereby altering native seed structures leaving them unable to detect any original inherent structures within an intact tissue sample. A synchrotron is a giant particle accelerator that turns electrons into light (million times brighter than sunlight) which can be used to study the structure of materials at the molecular level. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform IR microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive and bioanalytical technique. This technique, taking advantage of the brightness of synchrotron light and a small effective source size, is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry within the microstructures of a biological tissue without the destruction of inherent structures at ultraspatial resolutions within cellular dimensions. This is in contrast to traditional 'wet' chemical methods, which, during processing for analysis, often result in the destruction of the intrinsic structures of feeds. To date there has been very little application of this technique to the study of plant seed tissue in relation to nutrient utilization. The objective of this study was to use novel synchrotron radiation-based technology (SR-FTIRM) to identify the differences in the molecular chemistry and conformation of carbohydrate and protein in various plant seed endosperms within intact tissues at cellular and subcellular level from grains with different biodegradation kinetics. Barley grain (cv. Harrington) with a high rate (31.3%/h) and extent (78%), corn grain (cv. Pioneer) with a low rate (9.6%/h) and extent of (57%), and wheat grain (cv. AC Barrie) with an intermediate rate (23%/h) and extent (72%) of ruminal DM degradation were selected for evaluation. SR-FTIRM evaluations were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven, NY). These results suggest that SR-FTIRM plus

  4. The differential loading of two barley CENH3 variants into distinct centromeric substructures is cell type- and development-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Karimi-Ashtiyani, Raheleh; Banaei-Moghaddam, Ali Mohammad; Schubert, Veit; Fuchs, Jörg; Houben, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The organization of centromeric chromatin of diploid barley (Hordeum vulgare) encoding two (α and β) CENH3 variants was analysed by super-resolution microscopy. Antibody staining revealed that both CENH3 variants are organized in distinct but intermingled subdomains in interphase, mitotic and meiotic centromeres. Artificially extended chromatin fibres illustrate that these subdomains are formed by polynucleosome clusters. Thus, a CENH3 variant-specific loading followed by the arrangement into specific intermingling subdomains forming the centromere region appears. The CENH3 composition and transcription vary among different tissues. In young embryos, most interphase centromeres are composed of both CENH3 variants, while in meristematic root cells, a high number of nuclei contain βCENH3 mainly dispersed within the nucleoplasm. A similar distribution and no preferential arrangement of the two CENH3 variants in relationship to the spindle poles suggest that both homologs meet the same function in metaphase cells. PMID:25688006

  5. Antisense suppression of LOX3 gene expression in rice endosperm enhances seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huibin; Wei, Yidong; Zhu, Yongsheng; Lian, Ling; Xie, Hongguang; Cai, Qiuhua; Chen, Qiushi; Lin, Zhongping; Wang, Zonghua; Xie, Huaan; Zhang, Jianfu

    2015-05-01

    Lipid peroxidation plays a major role in seed longevity and viability. In rice grains, lipid peroxidation is catalyzed by the enzyme lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3). Previous reports showed that grain from the rice variety DawDam in which the LOX3 gene was deleted had less stale flavour after grain storage than normal rice. The molecular mechanism by which LOX3 expression is regulated during endosperm development remains unclear. In this study, we expressed a LOX3 antisense construct in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants to down-regulate LOX3 expression in rice endosperm. The transgenic plants exhibited a marked decrease in LOX mRNA levels, normal phenotypes and a normal life cycle. We showed that LOX3 activity and its ability to produce 9-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) from linoleic acid were significantly lower in transgenic seeds than in wild-type seeds by measuring the ultraviolet absorption of 9-HPOD at 234 nm and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The suppression of LOX3 expression in rice endosperm increased grain storability. The germination rate of TS-91 (antisense LOX3 transgenic line) was much higher than the WT (29% higher after artificial ageing for 21 days, and 40% higher after natural ageing for 12 months). To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that decreased LOX3 expression can preserve rice grain quality during storage with no impact on grain yield, suggesting potential applications in agricultural production. PMID:25545811

  6. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers. PMID:27463368

  7. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has...

  8. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...... provides support for the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom that phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation executed by endogenous enzymes. Our work demonstrates two new strategies for in planta starch...

  9. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...... provides support for the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom that phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation executed by endogenous enzymes. Our work demonstrates two new strategies for in planta starch...

  10. Barley callus: a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carciofi Massimiliano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties. In this way starch is adapted to a variety of specific end-uses. Recombinant DNA technologies offers an alternative to starch industrial processing. The plant biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated to design starches with novel structure and improved technological properties. In the future this may reduce or eliminate the economical and environmental costs of industrial modification. Recently, many advances have been achieved to clarify the genetic mechanism that controls starch biosynthesis. Several genes involved in the synthesis and modification of complex carbohydrates in many organisms have been identified and cloned. This knowledge suggests a number of strategies and a series of candidate genes for genetic transformation of crops to generate new types of starch-based polymers. However transformation of cereals is a slow process and there is no easy model system available to test the efficiency of candidate genes in planta. Results We explored the possibility to use transgenic barley callus generated from immature embryo for a fast test of transgenic modification strategies of starch biosynthesis. We found that this callus contains 4% (w/w dw starch granules, which we could modify by generating fully transgenic calli by Agrobacterium-transformation. A Green Fluorescent Protein reporter protein tag was used to identify and propagate only fully transgenic callus explants. Around 1 – 1.5 g dry weight of fully transgenic callus could be produced in 9 weeks. Callus starch granules were smaller than endosperm starch granules and contained less amylose. Similarly the expression profile of starch biosynthesis genes were slightly different in callus

  11. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  12. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Endosperm Traits with Molecular Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chen-wu; LI Tao; SUN Chang-sen; GU Shi-liang

    2002-01-01

    Based on the genetic models for triploid endosperm traits and on the methods for mapping diploid quantitative traits loci (QTLs), the genetic constitutions, components of means and genetic variances of QTL controlling endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes of different generations were presented. From these results, a multiple linear regression method for mapping QTL underlying endosperm traits in cereals was proposed, which used the means of endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes as a dependent variable, the coefficient of additive effect ( d ) and dominance effect ( h 1 and/or h2 ) of a putative QTL in a given interval as independent variables. This method can work at any position in a genome covered by markers and increase the estimation precision of QTL location and their effects by eliminating the interference of other relative QTLs. This method can also be easily used in other uneven data such as markers and quantitative traits detected or measured in plants and tissues different either in generations or at chromosomal ploidy levels, and in endosperm traits controlled by complicated genetic models considering the effects produced by genotypes of both maternal plants and seeds on them.

  13. Effect of low-dose gamma irradiation on the α-amylase activity at different stages of the seedling development in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced changes in the α-amylase activity of barley seeds during germination were studied. Barley-seeds of Kompolti Korai were irradiated with doses of 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 rad. The seeds were germinated for 96 hr and the α-amylase activity was determined periodically. The observation showed high α-amylase activity at 500 rad. These effects can be attributed to the increase of gibberellin - like substances. (author)

  14. Development of salt tolerant high yielding barley lines via crossing between a mutant induced by EMS and a local cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In winter season of 2002/2003, a high yielding barley mutant line and a local variety were hybridized to obtain in one genotype the salt tolerance of the local variety and the high yield potential of the induced mutant. The obtained hybrid grains were planted in 2003/2004 growing season under normal field irrigation conditions to raise F1 population, which was grown in 2004/2005 season to advance F2 generation under saline conditions at El-Fayoum experimental agriculture station belonging to the Nuclear Research Center. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between grain yield and its effective traits were estimated for F2 plant population. Results revealed that the characters most strongly correlated with grain yield were found to be number of spikes and biological yield/plant. Therefore, these couple traits were used as a selection criterion to screen F2 plant population in order to detect high yielding variants under salinity conditions. As a result, a considerable number of outstanding individual plants were selected from the large F2 population and their grains were planted in 2005/2006 winter season to raise F3 progeny rows. Superior plants from superior rows were selected and carried forward to the next winter season of 2006/2007 as F4 single plant progenies along with the two parental genotypes and a suitable check. Obtained results indicated that mean values of yield and most of its components for the tested progeny lines were significantly (P= 0.1) surpassed averages of the original parents and the check as well. (author)

  15. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  16. EFFECT OF ENDOSPERM HARDNESS ON AN ETHANOL PROCESS USING A GRANULAR STARCH HYDROLYZING ENZYME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, P; W Liu, D B; Johnston, K D; Rausch, S J; Schmidt, M E; Tumbleson, V Singh

    2010-01-01

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) can hydrolyze starch at low temperature (32°C). The dry grind process using GSHE (GSH process) has fewer unit operations and no changes in process conditions (pH 4.0 and 32°C) compared to the conventional process because it dispenses with the cooking and liquefaction step. In this study, the effects of endosperm hardness, protease, urea, and GSHE levels on GSH process were evaluated. Ground corn, soft endosperm, and hard endosperm were processed using two GSHE levels (0.1 and 0.4 mL per 100 g ground material) and four treatments of protease and urea addition. Soft and hard endosperm materials were obtained by grinding and sifting flaking grits from a dry milling pilot plant; classifications were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. During 72 h of simultaneous granular starch hydrolysis and fermentation (GSHF), ethanol and glucose profiles were determined using HPLC. Soft endosperm resulted in higher final ethanol concentrations compared to ground corn or hard endosperm. Addition of urea increased final ethanol concentrations for soft and hard endosperm. Protease addition increased ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates for soft endosperm, hard endosperm, and ground corn. The effect of protease addition on ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates was most predominant for soft endosperm, less for hard endosperm, and least for ground corn. Samples (soft endosperm, hard endosperm, or corn) with protease resulted in higher (1.0% to 10.5% v/v) ethanol concentration compared to samples with urea. The GSH process with protease requires little or no urea addition. For fermentation of soft endosperm, GSHE dose can be reduced. Due to nutrients (lipids, minerals, and soluble proteins) present in corn that enhance yeast growth, ground corn fermented faster at the beginning than hard and soft endosperm.

  17. Albinism in barley androgenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Makowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Androgenesis is highly useful for plant breeding, significantly reducing breeding cycle times, as well as in a wide range of biological research. However, for widespread use this process must be efficient. Despite several decades of research on the phenomenon of androgenesis, many processes involved are obscure and there is much to be understood about androgenesis. One of the problems inherent in androgenesis, and reducing its efficiency, is albinism. This article reviews albinism in barley a...

  18. Methods for mapping QTLs underlying endosperm traits based on random hybridization design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yongxian; WU Weiren

    2006-01-01

    Several methods of interval mapping of QTLs underlying endosperm traits based on random hybridization designs and the triploid genetic model are proposed. The basic idea is: plants (or lines) from a population with known marker genotype information are randomly hybridized to generate a population of hybrid lines for endosperm QTL mapping; a mixture of seeds of each hybrid line is measured for the endosperm trait to get the mean of the line; then endosperm QTL mapping and effect estimation is performed using the endosperm trait means of hybrid lines and the marker genotype information of parental plants (or lines). The feasibility and efficiency of the methods are examined by computer simulations. Results show that the methods can precisely map endosperm QTLs and unbiasedly and efficiently estimate the three effects (additive effect, first dominant effect, second dominant effect) of endosperm QTLs.

  19. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  20. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and carotenoid pigments obtained by isopropyl alcohol and hexane extraction from the gluten fraction... matter, not more than 14 percent. Hexane, not more than 25 narts per millimn. Isopropyl alcohol, not more... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food...

  1. Volatile organic compounds released by barley roots attract wireworms

    OpenAIRE

    Barsics, Fanny; Fiers, Marie; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles and are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed in order to develop integrated management strategies. Our work consists in elucidating the role of barley root-emitted volatile organic compounds on the orientation behaviour of Agriotes sordidus wireworms. Using a dual choice olfactometer we have evaluated the attractiveness of a variety of baits ranging from barley roots themselves to isolated root...

  2. Dissection of Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Protein Body Formation in Maize Endosperm - DE-FG03-95-ER20183

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -kD proteins bind and assemble alpha-zeins in protein bodies. Additional evidence supporting this hypothesis was obtained by showing that the starchy endosperm mutant, Mucuronate, appears to result from a defective 16-kD gamma-zein protein. By deletion mutagenesis, we identified domains within an alpha-zein that cause it to interact with other zein proteins, particularly gamma-zeins. This allowed us to develop a minimal alpha-zein gene construct that can be used as a vector to target heterologous proteins, such as green fluorescent protein, into protein bodies. We characterized the nature of storage proteins synthesized in the endosperm using a genomics analysis of endosperm ESTs. This study identified several new storage proteins and demonstrated the existence of novel protein storage vacuoles. We used mRNA transcript profiling of eight different starchy endosperm (opaque) mutants (o1, o2, o5, o9, o11, Mucronate, Defective endosperm B30, and floury2) to identify patterns of gene expression that are consistently altered in all of them, or that are unique to each one of them. These mutants fall into two subgroups: one systematically manifests an ''unfolded protein'' response (fl2, Mc, DeB30) and the other (o1, o2, o5, o9, o11) does not. Genes encoding cytoskeletal proteins are generally up-regulated in all the mutants, and this may be associated with higher lysine contents in several of them

  3. The International Barley Sequencing Consortium — At the Threshold of Efficient Access to the Barley Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequencing the genome of barley, an agriculturally and industrially important cereal crop and a useful diploid model for bread wheat, has become a realistic undertaking. Important steps have been initiated to improve genomics tools, build and anchor a physical map, develop a high-density genetic ma...

  4. Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackay Ian J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of population sub-structure. A major genotypic division within barley is that between winter- and spring-sown varieties, which differ in their requirement for vernalization to promote subsequent flowering. To date, all attempts to validate association genetics in barley by identifying major flowering time loci that control vernalization requirement (VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 have failed. Here, we validate the use of association genetics in barley by identifying VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, despite their prominent role in determining population sub-structure. Results By taking barley as a typical inbreeding crop, and seasonal growth habit as a major partitioning phenotype, we develop an association mapping approach which successfully identifies VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, the underlying loci largely responsible for this agronomic division. We find a combination of Structured Association followed by Genomic Control to correct for population structure and inflation of the test statistic, resolved significant associations only with VRN-H1 and the VRN-H2 candidate genes, as well as two genes closely linked to VRN-H1 (HvCSFs1 and HvPHYC. Conclusion We show that, after employing appropriate statistical methods to correct for population sub-structure, the genome-wide partitioning effect of allelic status at VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 does not result in the high levels of spurious association expected to occur in highly structured samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both VRN-H1 and the candidate VRN-H2 genes can be identified using association mapping

  5. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  6. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by the embryo during seed development or retained for use by the embryo during germination. Differences in timing of endosperm digestion can be illustrated with broad bean ( Vicia faba ) and Gasteria...

  7. Proteomic Analysis of the Endosperm Ontogeny of Jatropha curcas L. Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mohibullah; Soares, Emanoella L; Carvalho, Paulo C; Soares, Arlete A; Domont, Gilberto B; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Campos, Francisco A P

    2015-06-01

    Seeds of Jatropha curcas L. represent a potential source of raw material for the production of biodiesel. However, this use is hampered by the lack of basic information on the biosynthetic pathways associated with synthesis of toxic diterpenes, fatty acids, and triacylglycerols, as well as the pattern of deposition of storage proteins during seed development. In this study, we performed an in-depth proteome analysis of the endosperm isolated from five developmental stages which resulted in the identification of 1517, 1256, 1033, 752, and 307 proteins, respectively, summing up 1760 different proteins. Proteins with similar label free quantitation expression pattern were grouped into five clusters. The biological significance of these identifications is discussed with special focus on the analysis of seed storage proteins, proteins involved in the metabolism of fatty acids, carbohydrates, toxic components and proteolytic processing. Although several enzymes belonging to the biosynthesis of diterpenoid precursors were identified, we were unable to find any terpene synthase/cyclase, indicating that the synthesis of phorbol esters, the main toxic diterpenes, does not occur in seeds. The strategy used enabled us to provide a first in depth proteome analysis of the developing endosperm of this biodiesel plant, providing an important glimpse into the enzymatic machinery devoted to the production of C and N sources to sustain seed development. PMID:25920442

  8. Microbial dynamics during barley tempeh fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xinmei

    2006-01-01

    Tempeh is a traditional staple food in Indonesia mainly made from soybeans. Barley tempeh has been developed by adapting the soybean tempeh process. During soybean tempeh fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporus is dominant. However, other fungi and bacteria also occur, which may influence tempeh quality or even constitute a health risk. Introduction of food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to tempeh fermentation may enhance tempeh nutritional and hygienic quality. The abilities of LAB a...

  9. Use of the Endosperm Balance Number (EBN) in Potato Genetics and Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carputo Domenico; Jin Liping

    2006-01-01

    Solanum species have a wide geographic distribution and show a large range of ecological adaptation, and thus have developed strong resistances to a wide range of pests, diseases and abiotic stresses. They represent unique material as a source of useful genes and allelic diversity for the tetraploid cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum). Knowledge of the endosperm balance number (EBN) incompatibility system may be extremely useful for breeders in designing specific crosses schemes for potato breeding. EBN has been experimentally assigned to Solanum species after crosses with standard species whose EBN was arbitrarily established, and assuming the 2: 1 ratio as a prerequisite for normal endosperm development. The role of the EBN incompatibility system in potato breeding is strongly complemented by 2n gametes. Only 2n gametes can allow inter-EBN crosses and thus gene flow between sexually isolated species. This complementary role of EBN and 2n gametes not only facilitates gene introgression between inter-EBN species, but also maintains the ploidy integrity of the two parental species. Examples are given to illustrate how to use EBN in crossing schemes designed for 2x (2EBN) and 2x(1EBN) species. As increasing in the interest in exploiting exotic germplasm for breeding purposes, it is strongly believed that an understanding of EBN can be used for interspecific gene transfer in any crop species where an EBN-like system operates.

  10. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  11. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells are altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Butte 86’) was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/nigh...

  12. Relation between endosperm and in vitro kinetic of starch digestibility in maize hybrids for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Kis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine relationship between endosperm type of maize hybrids produced in Croatia and kinetic of starch digestibility provided by in vitro method. Proportion of endosperm type (horny and floury were used to classify hybrids into dents or flints maize. Flints had less rapidly digestible starch than dents. Maize hybrid kernel endosperm characteristics could be used for prediction of digestibility kinetics of maize grain.

  13. Circadian oscillation of starch branching enzyme gene expression in the sorghum endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutisya, J.; Sun, C.; Jansson, C.

    2009-08-31

    Expression of the three SBE genes, encoding starch branching enzymes, in the sorghum endosperm exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 24-h cycle. Remarkably, the oscillation in SBE expression was maintained in cultured spikes after a 48-h dark treatment, also when fed a continuous solution of sucrose or abscisic acid. Our findings suggest that the rhythmicity in SBE expression in the endosperm is independent of cues from the photosynthetic source and that the oscillator resides within the endosperm itself.

  14. Effects of Different Comsteep Liquids on Structure of Starch and Protein Binding in Corn Endosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Yan; Xinhua Li; Xiaojun Qi

    2015-01-01

    The changes in the structures of corn endosperms immersed in different reagents were studied, in order to preliminarily determine the mode of binding of starch and protein in the endosperm. The corn endosperm was immersed in Sulfurous acid, NaOH, ethanol, L-cysteine and morel berry, respectively. The dissociated starch content was analyzed using water as the reference. The results of the treatment were analyzed by the dissociated starch content, optical microscopy and scanning electron micros...

  15. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  16. Effect of endosperm mutants on maize seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Zorica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of genetic potential of yielding and quality of a certain genotype depends among other factors on seed quality. Seed is very important not only for the reproduction of the particular plant species, but also, for the contemporary plant production. Each part of maize seed (pericarp endosperm and germ has a specific function in the complex process of germination and emergence. The following three genotypes of different endosperm types were observed: ZPSC 42A (standard grain quality dent hybrid ZPSC 504 su (sweet maize hybrid with a sugary gene and ZPSyn.II sh2 (synthetic population with a shranken2 gene. Seed viability of the stated genotypes was determined by the accepted ISTA methods: standard method accelerating age and cold test. Obtained results point out to differences in the germination capacity of the observed genotypes. The greatest reduction of the germination capacity and the emergence rate was expressed by the application of the accelerating ageing method. Appeared differences are probably a result of the endosperm texture (type, grain weight, sugar content and pericarp thickens and composition.

  17. Gene duplication confers enhanced expression of 27-kDa γ-zein for endosperm modification in quality protein maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjun; Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Chuanlong; Gong, Hao; Fan, Xingming; Qiu, Fazhan; Huang, Xuehui; Feng, Qi; Zheng, Xixi; Yuan, Ningning; Li, Changsheng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Deng, Yiting; Wang, Jiechen; Pan, Guangtang; Han, Bin; Lai, Jinsheng; Wu, Yongrui

    2016-05-01

    The maize opaque2 (o2) mutant has a high nutritional value but it develops a chalky endosperm that limits its practical use. Genetic selection for o2 modifiers can convert the normally chalky endosperm of the mutant into a hard, vitreous phenotype, yielding what is known as quality protein maize (QPM). Previous studies have shown that enhanced expression of 27-kDa γ-zein in QPM is essential for endosperm modification. Taking advantage of genome-wide association study analysis of a natural population, linkage mapping analysis of a recombinant inbred line population, and map-based cloning, we identified a quantitative trait locus (qγ27) affecting expression of 27-kDa γ-zein. qγ27 was mapped to the same region as the major o2 modifier (o2 modifier1) on chromosome 7 near the 27-kDa γ-zein locus. qγ27 resulted from a 15.26-kb duplication at the 27-kDa γ-zein locus, which increases the level of gene expression. This duplication occurred before maize domestication; however, the gene structure of qγ27 appears to be unstable and the DNA rearrangement frequently occurs at this locus. Because enhanced expression of 27-kDa γ-zein is critical for endosperm modification in QPM, qγ27 is expected to be under artificial selection. This discovery provides a useful molecular marker that can be used to accelerate QPM breeding. PMID:27092004

  18. Effect of Flowering Time of Spikelets Within a Rice Panicle on Endosperm Deve lopment and Its Physiological Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The flowering duration of spikelets within a panicle of the rice cultivars of Wuyujing 3 (Japonica), Yangdao 4 (Indica), Shanyou 63 (Indica hybrid rice) and PC311/Zaoxiandang 18 (Indica/japonica hybrid rice) was 5d, 7d, 7d and 8d, respectively. The spikelets flowered on the 2nd day produced the highest endosperm weight (EW) and the most endosperm cells (ECs), and followed by the spikelets flowered on the 1st day. ECs decreased with the delay of flowering of the spikelets flowered from the 3rd day. Within a variety or a hybrid combination, the difference in endosperm cell weight (ECW) was not significant among the grains flowered on different dates. EW and grain-filled percentage (G-FP) were very significantly correlated with ECs, but not with ECW. The earlier the spikelets flowered (except those flowered on the 1st day), the greater the initial proliferation power (R°), the higher the maximum proliferation rate (Vmax) and the higher the mean proliferation rate (V) of ECs, and the shorter the time reaching Vmax, and vice versa. R°, Vmax,V and ECs were significantly correlated with the physiological activities (ATPase activity and the content of spermidine and spermine) of the grains at early grain filling stage. The physiological activities of the grains, R°,Vmax,V, ECs and EW significantly increased after removing 1/2 plants at booting stage and spraying 6-BA 〔N6(benzyl) adenine〕 at early heading stage, and the results were reversed after cutting 1/2 leaves at booting stage. These results suggest that the difference in ECs results in the difference in the grain weight, while the low physiological activities of late-flowered grains are the important reasons for their poor endosperm development.

  19. Temperature Stress at Grain Filling Stage Mediates Expression of Three Isoform Genes Encoding Starch Branching Enzymes in Rice Endosperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ke-su; CHENG Fang-min; ZHANG Qi-fang; LIU Kui-gang

    2009-01-01

    An early-maturity indica rice variety Zhefu 49, whose grain quality and starch structure are sensitive to environmental temperature, was subjected to different temperatures (32oC for high temperature and 22oC for optimum temperature) at the grain filling stage in plant growth chambers, and the different expressions of three isoform genes (SBEI, SBEIII and SBEIV) encoding starch branching enzyme (SBE) in the endosperms were studied by the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR) method. Effects of high temperature on the SBE expression in developing rice endosperms were isoform-dependent. High temperature significantly down-regulated the expressions of SBEI and SBEIII, while up-regulated the expression of SBEIV. Compared with SBEIV and SBEIII, the expression of SBEI gene in Zhefu 49 rice endosperms was more sensitive to temperature variation at the grain filling stage. This study indicates that changes in weather/climate conditions especially temperature stress influence rice grain formation and its quality as evidenced by isoform expression.

  20. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  1. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  2. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  3. Simultaneous epidemic development of scald and net blotch on single leaf layers of a spring barley crop

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmer, J.H.; Pinnschmidt, H.O.; Munk, L.; Østergård, H

    2005-01-01

    Background and objectives Two pathogens growing on the same leaf compete for the same resources, i.e. space and plant nutrients. This may lead to density dependent disease development. The pathogens may also influence each other directly such that the influence of one on the other is more complex than a simple function of the area of the other pathogen. Different interaction types are, for example, competition, mutualism and exploitation. The importance of such interactions for epidemics o...

  4. Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley. PMID:21932866

  5. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bi Fu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Twenty-five informative primer pairs were applied to screen all samples and 359 alleles were detected over seven barley chromosomes. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.004 to 0.708 and averaged 0.072. More than 24% or 7% SSR variation resided among accessions of 16 countries or two regions, respectively. Accessions from Israel and Jordan were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Lebanon and Greece were most differentiated. Four and five optimal clusters of accessions were obtained using STRUCTURE and BAPS programs and partitioned 16.3% and 20.3% SSR variations, respectively. The five optimal clusters varied in size from 15 to 104 and two clusters had only country-specific accessions. A genetic separation was detected between the accessions east and west of the Zagros Mountains only at the country, not the individual, level. These SSR patterns enhance our understanding of the wild barley gene pool, and are significant for conserving wild barley germplasm and exploring new sources of useful genes for barley improvement.

  6. 陕糯1号与非糯小麦西农1330胚乳发育及淀粉形态、粒径分析%Study on Endosperm Development and Morphological Features of Starch Granules in Waxy Wheat Shannuo 1 and Non-Waxy Wheat Xinong 1330

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余静; 冉从福; 李学军; 邵慧; 李立群

    2014-01-01

    与西农1330 B型淀粉粒粒径分布影响较大。%[Objective] The aim of this research is to study the endosperm development and morphological features of starch in waxy wheat Shannuo 1 and non-waxy wheat Xinong 1330, which will provide a theoretical basis for quality improvement of wheat breeding. [Method] Two wheat cultivars, Shannuo 1 (waxy wheat) and Xinong 1330 (non-waxy wheat) were used as materials in this paper. The development of endosperm cells were observed by optical microscope. In order to preserve the endosperm structure, the developing grains (5, 8, 12, 15, 18, 21, 25 and 28 d after fertilization) were immersed in glutaraldehyde and osmic acid after transected by freezing in liquid nitrogen. Before embedded with Epon812, samples were washed with phosphate buffer and dehydrated individually in a graded acetone solution. The semi-thin slices were obtained by Leica ULTRACUT slicer. Images were taken by optical microscope after stained by 1%toluidine. The cross sections of Shannuo 1 and Xinong 1330 grains and starch samples which isolated from the two wheat varieties were placed on an aluminum specimen holder, and sputter-coated with a thin film of gold under vacuum condition. Samples were observed with a JEOL scanning electron microscope (JSM-6360LV, JEOL, Japan). Particle size distribution of the starch samples was measured by MASTERSIZER-2000 laser particle analyzer (Malvern UK company). All measurements were performed in triplicates. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using LSD’s test to compare treatment variations at a significance level of P10μm) type starch granules, the percentage of the volume and the surface area of Shannuo 1 were both lower than those of Xinong 1330. While for B (53μm) type starch granules was found in Shannuo 1, but not in Xinong 1330. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the development of endosperm and the morphological features of starch granules of waxy wheat Shannuo 1 were significantly different from those of non-waxy wheat

  7. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on distribution of starch granules in different regions of wheat endosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xiong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study provided visual evidence of a nitrogen effect on starch granules (SGs in wheat endosperm. Winter wheat (Titicum aestivum L. cultivar Xumai 30 was cultured under no nitrogen (control and 240 kg ha− 1 of nitrogen applied at the booting stage. The number, morphology, and size of A- and B-type SGs in subaleurone of dorsal endosperm (SDE, center of dorsal endosperm (CDE, modified aleurone (MA, subaleurone of ventral endosperm (SVE, and center of ventral endosperm (CVE were observed under light and electron microscopes. (1 The distribution of SGs in SDE was similar to that in SVE, the distributions of SGs in CDE and CVE were similar, but the distribution of SGs in MA was different from those in the other four endosperm regions. The number of SGs in the five endosperm regions was in the order SDE > CDE > SVE > CVE > MA. (2 Nitrogen increased the number of A- and B-type SGs in SDE and SVE. Nitrogen also increased the number of B-type SGs but decreased the number of A-type SGs in CDE and CVE. Nitrogen decreased the numbers of A-type and B-type SGs in MA. The results suggest that increased N fertilizer application mainly increased the numbers of small SGs and decreased the numbers of large SGs, but that the results varied in different regions of the wheat endosperm.

  8. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe;

    2011-01-01

    objective is to develop barley varieties with good baking properties. The poor leavening properties of barley can be attributed, at least partially, to the physical properties of the storage proteins. Studies based on small scaled baking trials and protein pattern analysed by SDS-PAGE on a large number of...... high protein barley cultivars suggested differences in baking quality and correlation between baking quality and D-hordeins. The amino acid composition was measures using the newly developed AccQ Tag Ultra Amino acid (AA) derivatisation system designed for the Acquity UPLC. Obtained results from the...... opportunity to give a forecast of the taste of the bread, as the AA composition is known to control certain aspects of the taste. We uses a MSE approach on a time of flight instrument coupled to a UPLC and in gel digestion to identify and characterize the different D-hordeins responsible for baking quality...

  9. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba;

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  10. Division of Free Nuclei in Rice Endosperm and Its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Man-xi; WANG Zhong; WU Xiao-mei; CHEN Yi-fang; GU Yun-jie

    2009-01-01

    The division process of endosperm in rice and its influencing factors were investigated. Total dissection, resin embedding and sectioning under light and transmission electron microscopes were used to observe the division patterns of free nuclei and cytological characters of an endosperm. The various division patterns of free nuclei in rice endosperm included mitosis, amitosis, and the mitosis to amitosis change without an interphase. The division velocity of free nuclei in rice endosperm varied with the internucleus distance. Comparing to a cluster, the division velocity increased when the free nuclei were separated from each other. Moderately higher temperatures also enhanced the proliferation and shortened the division cycle of free nuclei in rice endosperm. To a certain extent, nitrogenous fertilizer applied at the booting stage together with a moderate drought treatment accelerated the division of free nuclei as well.

  11. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  12. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    OpenAIRE

    Ayed Sourour; Bouharb Ameni; Cherif Mejda

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel) through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours), on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours) and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours). Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germinat...

  13. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Nørregaard Jensen, Ole;

    2006-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the cereal aleurone layer is the site of perception of germination signals and release of enzymes to the starchy endosperm. Analysis of membrane proteins is challenging due to their hydrophobicity and low abundance, thus little is known about the membrane proteins involved in...... seed germination. A membrane fraction highly enriched for the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was prepared from barley aleurone layers by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Since detergent and salt washes did not efficiently remove soluble proteins from the membrane preparations, an alternative procedure was...

  14. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.;

    2006-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the cereal aleurone layer is the site of perception of germination signals and release of enzymes to the starchy endosperm. Analysis of membrane proteins is challenging due to their hydrophobicity and low abundance; thus, little is known about the membrane proteins involved...... in seed germination. A membrane fraction highly enriched for the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was prepared from barley aleurone layers by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Because detergent and salt washes did not efficiently remove soluble proteins from the membrane preparations, an alternative procedure...

  15. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Barley Seed ß-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leah, R.; Kigel, J.; Svendsen, I.;

    1995-01-01

    blot analysis with the cDNA as probe indicated that BGQ60 is encoded by a single gene, and that BGQ60 mRNA only accumulates in the starchy endosperm tissue of late developing seeds. The bgq60 structural gene of approximately 5 kilobases contains an open reading frame encoding 485 amino acids...

  16. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  17. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    OpenAIRE

    Igino Andrighetto; Severino Segato; Gianluca Fregolent; Barbara Contiero; Franco Mutinelli; Flaviana Gottardo; Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m). The healt...

  18. Distinct developmental defense activations in barley embryos identified by transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, ME; Lok, F; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    analyses of > 22,000 genes, which together with measurements of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid during embryo development provide new information on the initiation in the developing barley embryo of at least two distinct types of developmental defense activation (DDA). Early DDA is characterized by the up......-regulation of several PR genes is notable. Throughout barley embryo development, there are no indications of an increased biosynthesis of either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Collectively, the results help explain how the proposed DDA enables protection of the developing barley embryo and grain for purposes...

  19. The experience of induction of mutation on barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on induced mutation of barley was started in 1978 under the Programme of Cereal Improvement. Barley was irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 Krad. Radiation doses of 18 and 21 Krad gave the highest frequency of albino and cloroticos mutants. Induced mutation is being carried out in different parts of the country to develop mutants having early germination property. These mutants will play an important role in the late cultivation in the mountain areas of Peru

  20. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  1. Combining mechanical rhizome removal and cover crops for Elytrigia repens control in organic barley systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B; Nørremark, M; Kristensen, E F

    2013-01-01

    -vetch-mustard mixture) on Elytrigia repens rhizome removal, shoot growth and suppression of a subsequent barley crop was examined in two growing seasons. Four passes with a modified rotary cultivator, where each pass was followed by rhizome removal, reduced E. repens shoot growth in barley by 84% and 97%. In general......, the cover crop developed poorly and did not affect barley or E. repens. Barley yield was only affected by treatments in the first season, where yield was negatively correlated with E. repens shoot biomass. The concept has potential for the control of severe E. repens infestations, but future research...

  2. Regeneration by somatic embryogenesis of triploid plants from endosperm of walnut, Juglans regia L. cv Manregian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulecke, W; McGranahan, G; Ahmadi, H

    1988-08-01

    Plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis from endosperm tissue of open-pollinated seeds of Juglans regia L. cv Manregian. These plants were obtained by growing endosperm tissue on media similar to those used for plant regeneration from walnut cotyledons (Tulecke and McGranahan 1985). The plants appear morphologically uniform and have a triploid chromosome number of 3n=48. Nine plants have been grown to a young sapling stage in soil. This embryogenic line from endosperm has been maintained in culture for two years by the process of repetitive somatic embryogenesis. PMID:24241869

  3. The effect of two types of moisture treatment of wheat grain on endosperm damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat grain of low moisture content cracks when it absorbs water or moisture from the environment. The resulting endosperm damage is detected by X-ray method. Grain samples of spring wheat cv. Henika of 10% moisture content of different endosperm types - vitreous and mealy, were subjected to the process of moistening: in water, and in a controlled-climate chamber. The resulting internal damage was described by means of digital indexes. Analysis of results indicates that the extend of the damage is affected by both the method of moistening and the type of endosperm. (author). 20 refs, 3 tabs, 2 figs

  4. Dissection of Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Protein Body Formation in Maize Endosperm - DE-FG03-95-ER20183 B139

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian A. Larkins

    2003-03-21

    -kD proteins bind and assemble alpha-zeins in protein bodies. Additional evidence supporting this hypothesis was obtained by showing that the starchy endosperm mutant, Mucuronate, appears to result from a defective 16-kD gamma-zein protein. By deletion mutagenesis, we identified domains within an alpha-zein that cause it to interact with other zein proteins, particularly gamma-zeins. This allowed us to develop a minimal alpha-zein gene construct that can be used as a vector to target heterologous proteins, such as green fluorescent protein, into protein bodies. We characterized the nature of storage proteins synthesized in the endosperm using a genomics analysis of endosperm ESTs. This study identified several new storage proteins and demonstrated the existence of novel protein storage vacuoles. We used mRNA transcript profiling of eight different starchy endosperm (opaque) mutants (o1, o2, o5, o9, o11, Mucronate, Defective endosperm B30, and floury2) to identify patterns of gene expression that are consistently altered in all of them, or that are unique to each one of them. These mutants fall into two subgroups: one systematically manifests an ''unfolded protein'' response (fl2, Mc, DeB30) and the other (o1, o2, o5, o9, o11) does not. Genes encoding cytoskeletal proteins are generally up-regulated in all the mutants, and this may be associated with higher lysine contents in several of them.

  5. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

  6. Identifying root system genes using induced mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root systems play an important role in plant growth and development. They absorb water and nutrients, anchor plant in the soil and affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Despite their importance, the progress in understanding the molecular processes underlying root development has been achieved only in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was accomplished through detailed analysis of root mutants with the use of advanced molecular, genomic and bioinformatic tools. Recently, similar studies performed with rice and maize root mutants have led to the identification of homologous and novel genes controlling root system formation in monocots. The collection of barley mutants with changes in root system development and morphology has been developed in our Department after mutagenic treatments of spring barley varieties with N-methyl N-nitosourea (MNU) and sodium azide. Among these mutants, the majority was characterized by seminal roots significantly shorter than roots of a parent variety throughout a whole vegetation period. Additionally, several mutants with root hairs impaired at different stages of development have been identified. These mutants have become the material of studies aimed at genetic and molecular dissection of seminal root and root hair formation in barley. The studies included the molecular mapping of genes responsible for mutant phenotype using DNA markers and root transcriptome analysis in the mutant/parent variety system. Using cDNA RDA approach, we have identified the HvEXPB1 gene encoding root specific beta expansin related to the root hair initiation in barley. We have also initiated the database search for barley sequences homologous to the known Arabodopsis, maize and rice genes. The identified homologous ESTs are now used for isolation of the complete coding sequences and gene function will be validated through identification of mutations related to the altered phenotype. This work was supported by the IAEA Research Contracts 12611 and 12849

  7. Semidwarf, high yielding and high protein mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An induced mutations programme was undertaken in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with the primary objective of developing some semidwarf, short duration, high yielding types as most of the local cultivars grown in Meerut are tall statured with maturity period of 130-140 days. In recent years, the barley crop in this region, particularly at flowering/grain filling stages during February/March, has often been affected by unexpected rains accompanied by gusty winds, resulting in severe lodging of the crop and thereby reduction in crop yields. To combat this problem it is necessary to develop short statured types of barley, which can withstand lodging. If such types are associated with early maturity, that will be of greater help. Dry seeds of three local cultivars of barley 'K-169', 'K-272' and 'DL-281' were irradiated with gamma rays at 100; 200; 300 and 400 Gy. A number of morphological mutants for different plant characters like plant height (dwarfs and semidwarfs), maturity period (early and late maturing), spike density and size (lax panicled and erectoides), high tillering and chlorophyll deficiency (virescent) types were isolated from M2 mutated populations of the three varieties. Among these mutants, one semidwarf mutant (No. 3-20-5) of parent cultivar K-169 is of particular interest because of increased yield and significantly high protein content, besides the short stature

  8. Predicting the Effect of Some Yield Stabilizing Agents on Increasing Drought Resistance in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ouda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to predict the role of two yield stabilizing agents (magnesium carbonate and sodium salicylate on barley yield under water stress condition. Four hulled barley cultivars and two hull-less were sprayed with magnesium carbonate or sodium salicylate twice during vegetative growth and the last irrigation was skipped. Different growth and yield parameters were measured for five bordered plants. Data for mean temperature and relative humidity % were collected and averaged over the two growing seasons. Three groups of prediction equations were developed. The first group is an overall of the six barley cultivars prediction equations under the above mentioned treatments using plant attributes and weather parameters. The second group predicted barley yield over all the normal (hulled cultivars only. The third group predicted barley yield over the two hull-less barley cultivars. Results indicated that the highest reduction in yields as result of skipping the last irrigation were obtained by Giza 126. Whereas, the lowest reduction in biological yields were obtained by the two hull-less cultivars. The application of magnesium carbonate had better effect on the yield of barley cultivars than the application of sodium salicylate. Results also showed that both temperature and relative humidity % were highly and negatively correlated with barley yields. The three yield attributes were positively correlated with barley grain, straw and biological yields, except for plant height, which was negatively correlated with grain yield. All the three developed groups of prediction equations had high degree of precision because R2 was high and SE% was low. Thus, it allowed us to predicted the expected yield under optimum conditions, under water stress and under the application of yield stabilizing agents, in addition to water stress. Furthermore, percent reduction in yield as a result of skipping the last irrigation and the improvement in yield

  9. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.

    1986-01-01

    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...... penetration attempts. This number increased as the degree of resistance increased, i.e. the ESH frequency decreased. The penetration stage also invariably proved to be the limiting stage, where the largest proportion of fungal propagules was stopped....

  10. Barley mutant line with high protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding was initiated in 1969 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, aiming at developing high yielding barley lines having also high protein or lysine content. The final results were reported at the FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting at Nicosia in 1980. At that time some lines were superior to their mother line in grain yield, protein content or protein yield. However, high yield is essential for feed-barley as there is no premium price for protein content or quality. In the experiments reported earlier, the mean grain yield of mutant M-Att-73-337-1 was 3202 kg/ha, 9.9% higher than the mother variety 'Attiki'. The Kjeldahl protein content was 12.7% for the mutant line and 13.4% for the mother variety. The mutant line was further evaluated in field trials (11 m2 plots and 6 replications) during 1983-88, along with other promising material from the breeding programme. The mutant line outyielded its mother variety by 9.7% in grain yield and 16% in straw yield. These increases are apparently the result of increased 1000-grain weight and a higher number of culms per m2. Protein content of the mutant line was slightly lower, but its protein yield was 5.5% higher. The yield of the mutant line over 16 trials during 1983-88 was also 4% higher than the yield of the main commercially grown variety Athenais

  11. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B; Stölen, O

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  12. Sequencing of 15,622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework....

  13. Economic analysis of fuel ethanol production from hulled barley by the EDGE (Enhanced Dry Grind Enzymatic) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cost model was developed for fuel ethanol production from barley based on the EDGE (Enhanced Dry Grind Enzymatic) process (Nghiem, et al., 2008). In this process, in addition to beta-glucanases, which is added to reduce the viscosity of the barley mash for efficient mixing, another enzyme, beta-...

  14. Quantitative trait loci of barley malting quality trait components in the Stellar/01Ab8219 mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malting barley is of high economic and scientific importance. Determining barley grains that are suitable for malting involves measuring malting quality, which is an expensive and complex process. In order to decrease the cost of phenotyping and accelerate the process of developing superior malting ...

  15. Comparison of endosperm microstructure of wheat and durum wheat using digital image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Quattrucci E.; Sadowska J.; Jeliński T.; Fornal J.

    1999-01-01

    Six wheat varieties were analysed to quantify the relationship between the microstructure and hardness of endosperm. The microstructure of endosperms was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Digital image analysis was used to transform the scanned microphotographs and to characterize the image objects. With the DIA algorithms employed for the microstructure quantifications, the grains of different hardness could be differentiated within the variety by analysing the endosper...

  16. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    hydroxynitrile glucosides can act as carbohydrate and nitrogen storage compounds and as reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching compounds. A positive correlation between the hydroxynitrile glucoside content in barley and susceptibility toward the barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, Bgh...... to regulate defense related genes in maize. Barley plants that are gene-silenced in the first step of hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis have been generated to further investigate these results. It appears that hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley have a dual role; up to a certain level Bgh profits...

  17. The barley protein project at Svaloev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important findings of the barley protein improvement project at Svaloev are reported. Linkage analyses have shown that in Hiproly the lysine factor is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. The results, so far, indicate that during favourable conditions the best high lysine barleys yield 95-100% of the standard variety Mona. However, when the growing conditions are unfavourable, high lysine barleys suffer more. Encouraging results were obtained from feeding experiments on pigs and it is anticipated that using available high-lysine barley, the protein supplementation can be reduced by 35%. (author)

  18. Molecular analysis of genome instability in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable protocol for regenerating barley from seedling explants, including leaf bases with a complete apical meristem, has been developed at the Institute of Genetic Engineering. The system was established with Bulgarian barley cultivars (Ruen, Karnobat, Obzor and Yubilei) and reconstructed genotypes (K. Gecheff IG). Pretreatment of the mature embryos with a high concentration of 2.4D generated valuable and stable genetic deviations in the regenerants. The brewery cultivar Ruen was selected as the model genotype. It has been demonstrated that genetic variations, such as higher yield, earlier maturation and lower protein content, have been induced and maintained for 5 years. Comparative experiments, including treatment of barley mature seeds with 60Co gamma rays (10 and 20 krad) and sodium azide (1.10-3 M and 5 x 10-4 M), were also carried out. The results obtained showed that both treatments stimulated calusogenesis and regeneration of the plants. Molecular markers such as proteins, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were applied in studies on the mutagenic effects of 2.4D, gamma rays and sodium azide, and a combination threof, on the quality and quantity of the genetic diversification generated in tissue culture of the Bulgarian barley cultivars Ruen, Karnobat, Obzor and Yubilei and the reconstructed genotypes

  19. Lipid transfer proteins of barley

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žídková, Jitka; Matejková, M.; Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Žídek, L.; Sikorová, K.; Nálezková, M.; Chmelík, Josef; Sklenář, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 51. ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics /6./. 29.03.2007-31.03.2007, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : protein separation * barley * MALDI-TOF/TOF MS-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  20. In Situ Histochemical Localisation of Alkaloids and Acetogenins in the Endosperm and Embryonic Axis of Annona Macroprophyllata Donn. Sm. Seeds During Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechú-Franco, A.E.; Laguna-Hernández, G.; De la Cruz-Chacón, I.; González-Esquinca, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the Annonaceae family is characterised by the production of acetogenins (ACGs), and also by the biosynthesis of alkaloids, primarily benzylisoquinolines derived from tyrosine. The objective of this study was to confirm the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins in the idioblasts of the endosperm and the embryonic axis of A. macroprophyllata seeds in germination. The Dragendorff, Dittmar, Ellram, and Lugol reagents were used to test for alkaloids, and Kedde’s reagent was used to determine the presence of acetogenins in fresh sections of the endosperm and embryonic axis of seeds after twelve days of germination. A positive reaction was observed for all the reagents, and the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins was confirmed in the idioblasts of the endosperm and those involved in the differentiation of the embryonic axis of the developing seedling. We concluded that the idioblasts store both metabolites, acetogenins and alkaloids. Beginning at differentiation, the idioblasts of the embryonic axis simultaneously biosynthesise acetogenins and alkaloids that are characteristic of the species during the development of the seedling. The method used here can be applied to histochemically confirm the presence of acetogenins and alkaloids in tissues and structures of the plant in different stages of its life cycle. PMID:26972713

  1. In situ histochemical localisation of alkaloids and acetogenins in the endosperm and embryonic axis of Annona macroprophyllata Donn. Sm. seeds during germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Brechú-Franco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Annonaceae family is characterised by the production of acetogenins (ACGs, and also by the biosynthesis of alkaloids, primarily benzylisoquinolines derived from tyrosine. The objective of this study was to confirm the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins in the idioblasts of the endosperm and the embryonic axis of A. macroprophyllata seeds in germination. The Dragendorff, Dittmar, Ellram, and Lugol reagents were used to test for alkaloids, and Kedde’s reagent was used to determine the presence of acetogenins in fresh sections of the endosperm and embryonic axis of seeds after twelve days of germination. A positive reaction was observed for all the reagents, and the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins was confirmed in the idioblasts of the endosperm and those involved in the differentiation of the embryonic axis of the developing seedling. We concluded that the idioblasts store both metabolites, acetogenins and alkaloids. Beginning at differentiation, the idioblasts of the embryonic axis simultaneously biosynthesise acetogenins and alkaloids that are characteristic of the species during the development of the seedling. The method used here can be applied to histochemically confirm the presence of acetogenins and alkaloids in tissues and structures of the plant in different stages of its life cycle.

  2. In situ histochemical localisation of alkaloids and acetogenins in the endosperm and embryonic axis of Annona macroprophyllata Donn. Sm. seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechu-Franco, A E; Laguna-Hernández, G; De la Cruz-Chacón, I; González-Esquinca, A R

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the Annonaceae family is characterised by the production of acetogenins (ACGs), and also by the biosynthesis of alkaloids, primarily benzylisoquinolines derived from tyrosine. The objective of this study was to confirm the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins in the idioblasts of the endosperm and the embryonic axis of A. macroprophyllata seeds in germination. The Dragendorff, Dittmar, Ellram, and Lugol reagents were used to test for alkaloids, and Kedde's reagent was used to determine the presence of acetogenins in fresh sections of the endosperm and embryonic axis of seeds after twelve days of germination. A positive reaction was observed for all the reagents, and the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins was confirmed in the idioblasts of the endosperm and those involved in the differentiation of the embryonic axis of the developing seedling. We concluded that the idioblasts store both metabolites, acetogenins and alkaloids. Beginning at differentiation, the idioblasts of the embryonic axis simultaneously biosynthesise acetogenins and alkaloids that are characteristic of the species during the development of the seedling. The method used here can be applied to histochemically confirm the presence of acetogenins and alkaloids in tissues and structures of the plant in different stages of its life cycle. PMID:26972713

  3. Use of an Induced Barley Mutant in Cross-Breeding Program for Developing New Lines Under Saline Water and Soil Conditions at Ras-Sudr Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These field experiments were carried out during six successive winter seasons at Ras-Sudr coastal experimental station belonging to the Nuclear Research Center. The objective was to obtain high yielding barley lines with enhanced tolerance to salinity stress. Thus, crossing between a high yielding mutant line and a local cultivar was performed with a view to combine in one genotype the salt tolerance of the local cultivar and the high productivity of the mutant. The hybrid grains were then sown to raise F1 cross population, which was grown to advance F2 population under saline water and soil conditions at Ras-Sudr location. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between yield and its components were estimated to determine the most important traits that associated with grain yield. On this basis, F2 populations were screened to identify and select high yielding variants. The selections were grown in F3 as plant - progeny rows. Superior plants from superior rows were picked out and grown as F4 single plant progenies. At maturity, all derived progeny lines were screened and the outstanding ones showing high mean productivity were selected and subjected to progeny testing in F5 generation for confirmation. (author)

  4. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Francia; Alessandro Tondelli; Fulvia Rizza; Franz W. Badeck; Thomas, William T. B.; Fred van Eeuwijk; Ignacio Romagosa; A. Michele Stanca; Nicola Pecchioni

    2013-01-01

    The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT) population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 site-year combination). Agrometeorological variables have been recorded and calculated at each site too. Four main periods of barley development were considered, vegetative, reproductive early and lat...

  5. Quantitative trait loci for agronomic traits in an elite barley population for Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Elsayed; Casas Cendoya, Ana María; Gracia Gimeno, María Pilar; Molina-Cano, José Luis; Moralejo, Marian; Cattivelli, Luigi; William T.B. Thomas; Igartua Arregui, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Advances in plant breeding through marker-assisted selection (MAS) are only possible when genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) can contribute to the improvement of elite germplasm. A population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed for one of the best crosses of the Spanish National Barley Breeding Program, between two six-row winter barley cultivars Orria and Plaisant. The objective of this study was to identify favourable QTLs for agronomic traits in this population, which may...

  6. Assisting decision-making in Queensland barley production through chance constrained programming

    OpenAIRE

    Gali, Jyothi; Brown, Colin G.

    2000-01-01

    A chance constrained programming model is developed to assist Queensland barley growers make varietal and agronomic decisions in the face of changing product demands and volatile production conditions. Unsuitable or overlooked in many risk programming applications, the chance constrained programming approach nonetheless aptly captures the single‐stage decision problem faced by barley growers of whether to plant lower‐yielding but potentially higher‐priced malting varieties, given a particular...

  7. Effect of salicylhydroxamic acid on endosperm strength and embryo growth of Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, C. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) stimulated germination of photosensitive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green) seeds in darkness. To determine whether SHAM acts on the embryo or the endosperm, we investigated separately effects of SHAM on growth potential of isolated embryos as well as on endosperm strength. Embryo growth potential was quantified by incubating decoated embryos in various concentrations of osmoticum and measuring subsequent radicle elongation. Growth potential of embryos isolated from seeds pretreated with 4 millimolar SHAM was equal to that of untreated controls. Rupture strength of endosperm tissue excised from seeds pretreated with SHAM was 33% less than that of controls in the micropylar region. To determine if the embryo must be in contact with the endosperm of SHAM to weaken the endosperm, some endosperms were incubated with SHAM only after dissection from seeds. Rupture strength of SHAM-treated, isolated endosperms in the micropylar region was 25% less than that of untreated controls. There was no difference in rupture strength in the cotyledonary region of endosperm isolated from seeds treated with SHAM in buffer or buffer alone. SHAM therefore stimulates germination not by enhancing embryo growth potential, but by weakening the micropylar region of the endosperm enclosing the embryo.

  8. Associated field mycobiota on malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf; Svendsen, Anne; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    1996-01-01

    composition of field mycobiota compared with the pesticide-free barley. The determining factor on the mycobiota was the location. The dominant species on barley was Alternaria infectoria Simmons. The most frequent Fusarium species detected were F. tricinctum (Corda) Sacc. and F. avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. Results...... implied an interaction between Alternaria and Fusarium on the surface of the kernels....

  9. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  10. Healthier cereal products: breadmaking with barley flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya Romero, Carolina; Novillo, Carmen; Rodríguez Badiola, Guillermo; Callejo González, Maria Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Promote consumption of barley breads, in order to improve intake of fibre and healthenhancing components: Instrumental evaluation of breads. Sensory consumer evaluation of breads. Bread-making performances of flours. Instrumental evaluation of barley substituted wheat Dough.

  11. Bioacumulación de arsénico en las etapas de desarrollo de la cebada maltera (Hordeum distichon L. Arsenic bioaccumulation in the stages of development of malt barley (Hordeum distichon L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    cultivo para estimar niveles de contaminación por arsénico.The contamination by arsenic in water and ground of Zimapán, Hidalgo, Mexico, causes that malt barley (Hordeum distichon L. grown in this region, accumulates this element. The objective was to measure the levels of arsenic accumulated in organs and tissues of barley under controlled conditions, at different stages of development. Malt barley cv. Esmeralda was grown in 25 pots, five pots per differentiated trial. Trials include negative (not contaminated ground and water and positive controls. Five plants by pot were used and the accumulation of arsenic in each one was evaluated in five organs: root, stem, leaf, glean and grain, at each of five stages of development (coleoptiles formation or first leaf, macollo or true leaves from an armpit first knot that becomes present separated from the ground and forms the first spike, formation of spikes and seed filling. A random block design with three treatments was used: with arsenic, positive control and negative control. Malt barley presented high accumulation of arsenic at different stages of development, directly proportional to the time of exposition. Roots presented the highest accumulation of arsenic (100 and 300 mg kg-1, followed by leaves (80 to 180 mg kg-1 and stem (70 to 110 mg kg-1. The level of accumulation of arsenic in grains was between 40-90 mg kg-1, amount that according to Argentinean norms can be considered as highly contaminated. For the bioaccumulation index (BI, the leaves presented the high values, classified as medium values (0.1-1 for green plants. This organ can be indicative of contamination level in the ground. The largest values for the BI were observed in the stem, this organ can be a malt barley specific indicator of the level of arsenic contamination.

  12. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  13. Fungal growth during malting of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated and identified in two samples of winter two-row barley (SSK3 and SSK6 harvested in 2003, Kragujevac location, during micromalting. Fungi were isolated and identified in barley before the micromalting, after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of steeping, the first day and after the germination after kilning and after malt degermination. The total fungi count was followed in both barley samples, during the mentioned phases. The total count of fungi was also determined in the steeping water, and the isolation and identification was performed after the steeping process. Change of the total count of fungi during barley micromalting was exponentional. During barley micromalting nine fungi genera were isolated: Phoma, Alternaria, Fusarium aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Aureobasidium and Mucor. The most frequent genera were: Phoma, Alternaria and Fusarium. In water for steeping, five genera were identified: Geotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma Cladosporium and Mucor. The most frequent genera was Phoma.

  14. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during......Barley is a major cereal crop grown mainly for feed and malting. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has been used to analyse barley proteins for over 20 years and more recently, mass spectrometry was applied. In the absence of a genome sequence, barley gene and EST sequences combined with...... grain filling, maturation, germination and radicle elongation. Cultivar comparisons and genetic mapping of polymorphic protein spots in doubled haploid populations provide a means to link the genome to the proteome and identify proteins that can influence grain quality. Many proteins appear in multiple...

  15. Development of Salt-Tolerant High-Yielding Barley Lines via Crossing Between a Mutant Induced by EMS and a Local Cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the winter season of 2002/2003, a high-yielding barley mutant line and a local variety were hybridized to obtain the salt tolerance of the local variety and the high yield potential of the induced mutant in one genotype. The obtained hybrid grains were planted in the 2003/2004 growing season under normal field irrigation conditions to raise F1 population, which was grown in the 2004/2005 season to advance F2 generation under saline conditions at El-Fayoum experimental agriculture station belonging to the Nuclear Research Center. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between grain yield and its effective traits were estimated for F2 plant population. Results revealed that the characters most strongly correlated with grain yield were found to be number of spikes and biological yield/plant. Therefore, these couple traits were used as a selection criterion to screen F2 plant population in order to detect high yielding variants under salinity conditions. As a result, a considerable number of outstanding individual plants was selected from the large F2 population and their grains were planted in 2005/2006 winter season to raise F3 progeny rows. Superior plants from superior rows were selected and carried forward to the next winter season of 2006/2007 as F4 single plant progenies along with the two parental genotypes and a suitable check. Obtained results indicated that mean values of yield and most of its components for the tested progeny lines were significantly (P=0.1) surpassed averages of the original parents and the check as well. (author)

  16. Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

    Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 μ Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (β -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of β -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No

  17. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring in...

  18. Structural Variation and Content of Arabinoxylans in Endosperm and Bran of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotuli, Ilaria; Hsieh, Yves S-Y; Lahnstein, Jelle; Yap, Kuok; Burton, Rachel Anita; Blanco, Antonio; Fincher, Geoffrey Bruce; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-04-13

    Arabinoxylans are one group of dietary fiber components in cereal grains, and specific health benefits have been linked with their molecular fine structures and hence with physicochemical properties such as solubility in aqueous media. To characterize the fiber quality for functional foods, starchy endosperm and bran fractions from 11 durum wheat lines were analyzed for total and water-soluble arabinoxylans, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, and bound ferulic acid. The arabinoxylan contents ranged from 11 to 16.4% (w/w) in bran and from 1.5 to 1.8% in the starchy endosperm. Of the starchy endosperm arabinoxylans, 37% was soluble in water. No correlation was found between arabinoxylan content and bound ferulic acid in bran, although a relatively high level of this antioxidant was found in endosperm (38.3 μg/g endosperm flour). Enzymatic fingerprinting was performed to define the major fine structural features of arabinoxylans from both regions of the grain. Five major oligosaccharides released by xylanase hydrolysis were identified and characterized in the 11 durum lines. In addition, DP5, DP6, and DP7 oligosaccharides containing five, six, and seven pentosyl residues, respectively, were purified. PMID:27018210

  19. Consolidated conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Taylor, Frank; Hicks, Kevin B

    2011-06-01

    A novel process using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic treatment for conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars was developed. The purpose of this process is to convert both lignocellulosic polysaccharides and starch in hulled barley grains into fermentable sugars simultaneously without a need for grinding and hull separation. In this study, hulled barley grains were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 wt.-% sulfuric acid at various temperatures ranging from 110 to 170 °C in a 63-ml flow-through packed-bed stainless steel reactor. After sulfuric acid pretreatment, simultaneous conversion of lignocellulose and starch in the barley grains into fermentable sugars was performed using an enzyme cocktail, which included α-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, and β-glucosidase. Both starch and non-starch polysaccharides in the pre-treated barley grains were readily converted to fermentable sugars. The treated hulled barley grains, including their hull, were completely hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars with recovery of almost 100% of the available glucose and xylose. The pretreatment conditions of this chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) process for achieving maximum yield of fermentable sugars were 1.0 wt.% sulfuric acid and 110 °C. In addition to starch, the acid pretreatment also retained most of the available proteins in solid form, which is essential for subsequent production of fuel ethanol and high protein distiller's dried grains with solubles co-product. PMID:21229334

  20. Development of mutants of local barley bakur (T. Hordeum vulgare. c v Bakkur L.) with good quantitative and qualitative traits under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of local barley bakur were exposed to 150 Gy of gamma rays from cobalt 60 source irradiated seeds were planted in rows as M1.From M1 magnetized population plants , the main spike of each plants were collected, threshed and planted head to row method in 2008 winter season as M2. Evaluation of mutants was done for the increase in long spike and level of resistance to loading in compare with mother variety (untreated) resulted in selecting fifty mutated plants. These plants were planted as plant/ row method along with the mother variety and evaluated for grain yield and level of resistance for lodging which consequent y resulted in selecting of twenty four mutant lines which were varied in plant height long spike and yield. These lines were planted in the research farm during 2009 and the research farm during 2009 and 2011 winter season as M4 and M5 for two consecutive season resulted in selecting eight mutant lines which were distinguished of others in respect of level of resistance and increase of yield. These mutant lines were planted in plots in Kawkban and Bani-Mater locations during 2010 and 2011 seasons along with mother variety and improved variety Kawkban-1 which dominated in the region. Data were collected from the trail analyzed them separate y over each location. Results showed that the mutant line Al-e rra-B-008-15 was the best in grain yield and early maturity followed by Al-erra-B-008-20 and Al-erra-B-008-20. In the meantime these mutant line showed resistance to loading compare with other including the mother variety. There fore it can be recommended to register these mutants as a new varieties for Kawkaban Bain-Mater regions as well as for similar areas in the central and northern regions. This research summarizing results obtained from the trail conducted in both research farm and in farmer fields at Kawkaban and Bani-Mater locations. (Author)

  1. Development of the terrestrial biotic ligand model for predicting nickel toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare): ion effects at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Paula M C; Kreager, Nancy J

    2009-08-01

    The focus of the present study was to investigate the potential for Al3+, Mg2+, and H+ to influence Ni2+ toxicity for barley seedlings grown in acidic aqueous solutions and to assess the capacity of a two-site terrestrial biotic ligand model (tBLM) to accurately predict 50% effect activities (EA50s). To accomplish these objectives, 48-h EA50Ni2+ values were obtained for three sets of exposures in which the pH and activity of Al3+ and Mg2+ were varied. Exposures contained both Al alone and in combination with Mg so that compound ion effects could be investigated. A tBLM was then constructed to predict EA50Ni2+ values from the exposure solution chemistry. The results show a slight protective effect of H+ against Ni2+ toxicity and a strong protective effect of Mg2+, as indicated by a 4.6- and 8.0-fold increase in the measured EA50Ni2+ values corresponding to changes in pH from 6.0 to 4.5 and {Mg2+} from 0 to 1.40 mM, respectively. Increasing solution {Al3+} from 0 to 0.5 microM had no effect on Ni2+ toxicity, although Al itself negatively affected root elongation. Comparison of EA50 values calculated as both Ni2+ and measured concentration of total Ni in the root ([Root-Ni]T) showed [Root-Ni]T to be a more normalized measure of Ni bioavailability. The strong correlation between root growth inhibition and tBLM-predicted root-Ni accumulation suggests that toxicity was influenced by Ni2+ binding to low-affinity ligands within the cell wall, in addition to Ni2+ uptake through Mg2+ transporters. Predicted EA50Ni2+ values generated with the model were all within a factor of +/-1.5 from measured values--a result that emphasizes the advantage of using the tBLM for risk assessment. PMID:19374472

  2. Genetics of the induced and natural phenotypic variation in cultivated barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bowman series of nearly isogenic lines (NILs) developed by Prof. J. Franckowiak contain almost all of the classically described morphological mutations in barley. The unique feature of the collection is that the original mutated donor plants have all been backcrossed into a single recurrent parent, the cultivar Bowman (generally to > BC4F3). We applied a 1536-plex SNP genotyping platform developed as part of a transatlantic collaboration (BBSRC/RERAD funded AGOUEB and USDA funded Barley CAP projects) to characterise the introgressed segments containing the mutated alleles in about 1000 of the Bowman NILs. In parallel, to facilitate rapid forward genetics-based gene isolation, we generated high density barley genetic linkage map by integrating recently developed eQTL mapping data in the barley SNP-based genetic linkage map. The SNP map was constructed by genotyping three different bi-parental DH populations with 4600 SNP markers. The integrated barley map was then anchored to the rice genome sequence. We have also developed about 200 F2 populations representing 40 different genes and alleles from the phenotypic classes such as awn development, grain size, spikelet density and the lateral spikelet development. We will present an update of the strategy and our initial results. (author)

  3. Preliminary studies on plants regenerated from endosperm-derived callus of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Popielarska-Konieczna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To show differences between plants of Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa regenerated from endosperm-derived callus (with 3C amounts of DNA and those obtained from seeds, observation of their stomata and leaf hairs density was carried out. Stomata and leaf hairs are the features which are often related to ploidy status of plants. Our observation revealed that for plants, which represents 3C DNA level, stomata density was higher than for plantlets showing 2C DNA content. Additionally, density of leaf hairs seems to be also higher in regenerants. This is the first morpho-histological studies of plants regenerated from kiwifruits endosperm tissue.

  4. A cDNA clone from Zea mays endosperm sucrose synthetase mRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Geiser, M.; Döring, H P; Wöstemeyer, J; Behrens, U.; Tillmann, E; Starlinger, P.

    1980-01-01

    A cDNA clone for maize endosperm sucrose synthetase of 62o nucleotide pairs length was obtained by cloning double stranded DNA obtained from the total maize endosperm poly(A) RNA in pBR322, and identifying the appropriate clone by hybrid-promoter translation. In Southern blotting to genomic BamHI-digested DNA, a single band only of approximately 20 Kb lights up, indicating that the sucrose synthetase gene is unique, or that closely linked copies are located on this DNA fragment.

  5. Barley Leaf Area and Leaf Growth Rates Are Maximized during the Pre-Anthesis Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Alqudah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf developmental traits are an important component of crop breeding in small-grain cereals. Surprisingly, little is known about the genetic basis for the differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. leaf development. The two barley row-type classes, i.e., two- and six-rowed, show clear-cut differences in leaf development. To quantify these differences and to measure the genetic component of the phenotypic variance for the leaf developmental differences in both row-type classes we investigated 32 representative spring barley accessions (14 two- and 18 six-rowed accessions under three independent growth conditions. Leaf mass area is lower in plants grown under greenhouse (GH conditions due to fewer, smaller, and lighter leaf blades per main culm compared to pot- and soil-grown field plants. Larger and heavier leaf blades of six-rowed barley correlate with higher main culm spike grain yield, spike dry weight, and harvest index; however, smaller leaf area (LA in two-rowed barley can be attributed to more spikes, tillers, and biological yield (aboveground parts. In general, leaf growth rate was significantly higher between awn primordium and tipping stages. Moderate to very high broad-sense heritabilities (0.67–0.90 were found under all growth conditions, indicating that these traits are predominantly genetically controlled. In addition, our data suggests that GH conditions are suitable for studying leaf developmental traits. Our results also demonstrated that LA impacts single plant yield and can be reconsidered in future breeding programs. Six-rowed spike 1 (Vrs1 is the major determinate of barley row-types, the differences in leaf development between two- and six-rowed barleys may be attributed to the regulation of Vrs1 in these two classes, which needs further testing.

  6. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  7. Rice endosperm is cost-effective for the production of recombinant griffithsin with potent activity against HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvaka, Evangelia; Arcalis, Elsa; Ramessar, Koreen; Evans, Abbey; O'Keefe, Barry R; Shattock, Robin J; Medina, Vicente; Stöger, Eva; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Protein microbicides containing neutralizing antibodies and antiviral lectins may help to reduce the rate of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) if it is possible to manufacture the components in large quantities at a cost affordable in HIV-endemic regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. We expressed the antiviral lectin griffithsin (GRFT), which shows potent neutralizing activity against HIV, in the endosperm of transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa), to determine whether rice can be used to produce inexpensive GRFT as a microbicide ingredient. The yield of (OS) GRFT in the best-performing plants was 223 μg/g dry seed weight. We also established a one-step purification protocol, achieving a recovery of 74% and a purity of 80%, which potentially could be developed into a larger-scale process to facilitate inexpensive downstream processing. (OS) GRFT bound to HIV glycans with similar efficiency to GRFT produced in Escherichia coli. Whole-cell assays using purified (OS) GRFT and infectivity assays using crude extracts of transgenic rice endosperm confirmed that both crude and pure (OS) GRFT showed potent activity against HIV and the crude extracts were not toxic towards human cell lines, suggesting they could be administered as a microbicide with only minimal processing. A freedom-to-operate analysis confirmed that GRFT produced in rice is suitable for commercial development, and an economic evaluation suggested that 1.8 kg/ha of pure GRFT could be produced from rice seeds. Our data therefore indicate that rice could be developed as an inexpensive production platform for GRFT as a microbicide component. PMID:26800650

  8. Radiostimulation of protein synthesis in barley seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds were irradiated with 10 gy of gamma-radiation and protein synthesis was measured in terms of incorporation of (3H) leucine at varying periods after the onset of germination. It is found that the process of translation of long-life mRNA is accentuated by about 20 percent in the irradiated barley seeds during the first hour of germination as compared to the corresponding appropriate control. (author)

  9. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  10. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

  11. Barley metallothioneins differ in ontogenetic pattern and response to metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Pedas, Pai;

    2014-01-01

    pollination. However, among the MT grain transcripts MT2c was the most abundant, whereas MT4 was the least abundant. Excess Cu up-regulated three out of the six MTs expressed in leaves of young barley plants. In contrast, most MTs were down-regulated by excess Zn or Cd. Zn starvation led to up-regulation of......, the root-specific gene MT1b1 was 1000-fold up-regulated. Immunolocalizations provided the first evidence for accumulation of MT1a and MT2a proteins in planta, with correlation to transcript levels. In developing grains, MT2a and MT4 expression increased 4- and 300-fold over a 28-day-period after...... MT1a, whereas Cu starvation up-regulated MT2a, which has two copper-responsive elements in the promoter. Arabidopsis lines constitutively overexpressing barley MT2a showed increased sensitivity to excess Cd and Zn but no Cu-induced response. We suggest that barley MTs are differentially involved in...

  12. Rice endosperm produces an underglycosylated and potent form of the HIV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvaka, Evangelia; Twyman, Richard M; Murad, Andre Melro; Melnik, Stanislav; Teh, Audrey Yi-Hui; Arcalis, Elsa; Altmann, Friedrich; Stoger, Eva; Rech, Elibio; Ma, Julian K C; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Protein microbicides against HIV can help to prevent infection but they are required in large, repetitive doses. This makes current fermenter-based production systems prohibitively expensive. Plants are advantageous as production platforms because they offer a safe, economical and scalable alternative, and cereals such as rice are particularly attractive because they could allow pharmaceutical proteins to be produced economically and on a large scale in developing countries. Pharmaceutical proteins can also be stored as unprocessed seed, circumventing the need for a cold chain. Here, we report the development of transgenic rice plants expressing the HIV-neutralizing antibody 2G12 in the endosperm. Surprisingly for an antibody expressed in plants, the heavy chain was predominantly aglycosylated. Nevertheless, the heavy and light chains assembled into functional antibodies with more potent HIV-neutralizing activity than other plant-derived forms of 2G12 bearing typical high-mannose or plant complex-type glycans. Immunolocalization experiments showed that the assembled antibody accumulated predominantly in protein storage vacuoles but also induced the formation of novel, spherical storage compartments surrounded by ribosomes indicating that they originated from the endoplasmic reticulum. The comparison of wild-type and transgenic plants at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels indicated that endogenous genes related to starch biosynthesis were down-regulated in the endosperm of the transgenic plants, whereas genes encoding prolamin and glutaredoxin-C8 were up-regulated. Our data provide insight into factors that affect the functional efficacy of neutralizing antibodies in plants and the impact of recombinant proteins on endogenous gene expression. PMID:25845722

  13. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Boiled Prosopis africana Seed Endosperm Macerated in Various Ethanol-water Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Obiegbuna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The processing of boiled Prosopis africana endosperm for better utilization using ethanol-water mixtures was explored. Prosopis africana seeds were boiled for 5 h to softness and the endosperm fraction separated from the kernel (cotyledon and the hull. The endosperm was divided into five equal parts which were individually macerated in absolute (Abs ethanol, 80, 60 and 40% ethanol in water prior to sun-drying (32±2°C, 3 days. The fifth sample, which served as control, was left untreated with ethanol. The samples were ground using a hand milling machine and analyzed for the proximate composition, water and oil absorption capacities, foaming capacity and foam stability, bulk density, emulsion activity and stability, colour preference, texture preference and overall acceptability. The results revealed that treatment of the endosperm significantly affected the moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents; water and oil absorption capacities, foaming capacity and foam stability; and the sensory properties. The moisture and protein contents, oil absorption capacity, foam stability, appearance, texture and overall acceptability of endosperm treated with 40% ethanol in water differed significantly (p<0.05 from that treated with absolute ethanol. There was also significant (p<0.05 differences in moisture, protein and carbohydrate contents, oil absorption capacity and foam stability of the 40% ethanol in water treated endosperm and the control. Slightly above 40% ethanol in water (50-60% should be used to macerate Prosopis africana endosperm to reduce the cost of using absolute ethanol.

  14. Genetic analysis of vitreous endosperms derived from homozygotic plants for opaque-2 gene in maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From experiments in which opaque-2 maize seeds were treated with gamma rays and ethil methanesulfonate, and their respective untreated controls, seeds with hard, vitreous endosperms were obtained. Some of these were completely vitreous, with no evidence of opaque endosperm tissue. Others had very small and few (one to three) areas of opaque tissue. Plants derived from completely vitreous endosperm seeds were self pollinated and crossed to an opaque-2 inbred. The segregation of vitreous to opaque seeds indicated that the normal allele at the opaque-2 locus was responsible for the vitreousity of the endosperm. Lysine content of the vitreous endosperm was comparable to that of normal endosperms. Plants derived from vitreous seeds with few and tiny spots of opaque tissue produced, upon selfing or crossing to the opaque-2 inbred, only opaque-2 seeds. It is concluded that: (a) induced mutation may not be an effective tool to obtain vitreous opaque-2 endosperm with high lysine content; and, (b) there are unknown genetic systems which severely modify the expression of the opaque-2 gene. (Author)

  15. Parental epigenetic asymmetry of PRC2-mediated histone modifications in the Arabidopsis endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Romero, Jordi; Jiang, Hua; Santos-González, Juan; Köhler, Claudia

    2016-06-15

    Parental genomes in the endosperm are marked by differential DNA methylation and are therefore epigenetically distinct. This epigenetic asymmetry is established in the gametes and maintained after fertilization by unknown mechanisms. In this manuscript, we have addressed the key question whether parentally inherited differential DNA methylation affects de novo targeting of chromatin modifiers in the early endosperm. Our data reveal that polycomb-mediated H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) is preferentially localized to regions that are targeted by the DNA glycosylase DEMETER (DME), mechanistically linking DNA hypomethylation to imprinted gene expression. Our data furthermore suggest an absence of de novo DNA methylation in the early endosperm, providing an explanation how DME-mediated hypomethylation of the maternal genome is maintained after fertilization. Lastly, we show that paternal-specific H3K27me3-marked regions are located at pericentromeric regions, suggesting that H3K27me3 and DNA methylation are not necessarily exclusive marks at pericentromeric regions in the endosperm. PMID:27113256

  16. Metabolic Pathways of the Wheat (Triticum aestivum)Endosperm Amyloplast Revealed by Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, amyloplasts have a broader range of functions that are not widely recognized. A recent proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86) endosperm suggested that they share many of the ...

  17. Realtionship between protein content, bread-making quality and wheat endosperm microstructure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, I.; Dvořáková, P.; Hřivna, L.; Mika, Filip

    Zlín: Univerzita Tomáše Bati, 2011, s. 36-39. ISBN 978-80-7454-022-6. [Proteiny 2011 /4./. Zlín (CZ), 03.05.2011-04.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : wheat * microstructure * quality * endosperm Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. A protocol of homozygous haploid callus induction from endosperm of Taxus chinensis Rehd. var. mairei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Lin; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Jia-Yin; Bu, Feng-Jiao; Lin, Tao; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Xiong, Xing-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Obtainment and characterization of the novel endosperm callus of Taxus chinensis Rehd. var. mairei are valuable for haploid breeding, genome, and functional genome in Taxus. Callus was obtained by hydropriming with sterile water for 3 days and suitable medium composition. The highest callus induction (70.89 %) and lower browning ratio (7.95 %) were obtained from Gamborg (B5) medium supplemented with 30 g l(-1) of sucrose, 2.5 mg l(-1) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D), 0.5 mg l(-1) of 6-benzylademine (6-BA) and 7 g l(-1) of agar under dark conditions. The auxin of 2,4-D had a better efficiency of callus induction than naphthylacetic acid, and over 1 mg l(-1) of 6-BA was inhibitory to the callogensis of endosperm. The endosperm callus was haploid which was detectable by the flow cytometry. The genome block of homozygosity of callus was homozygous which was indicated by PCR-based SNP marks. The homozygous haploid of endosperm callus in vitro culture may be useful tools for taxoid-metabolism of gene engineering and bio-fermentation engineering. PMID:27350901

  19. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed...... tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...

  20. Mobilization of lipid reserves during germination of oat (Avena sativa L.), a cereal rich in endosperm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Leonova, Svetlana; Grimberg, Åsa; Marttila, Salla; Stymne, Sten; Carlsson, Anders S.

    2010-01-01

    Since the cereal endosperm is a dead tissue in the mature grain, β-oxidation is not possible there. This raises the question about the use of the endosperm oil in cereal grains during germination. In this study, mobilization of lipids in different tissues of germinating oat grains was analysed using thin-layer and gas chromatography. The data imply that the oat endosperm oil [triacylglycerol (TAG)] is not a dead-end product as it was absorbed by the scutellum, either as free fatty acids (FFAs...

  1. Effects of Different Comsteep Liquids on Structure of Starch and Protein Binding in Corn Endosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the structures of corn endosperms immersed in different reagents were studied, in order to preliminarily determine the mode of binding of starch and protein in the endosperm. The corn endosperm was immersed in Sulfurous acid, NaOH, ethanol, L-cysteine and morel berry, respectively. The dissociated starch content was analyzed using water as the reference. The results of the treatment were analyzed by the dissociated starch content, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The test results showed that by immersing in NaOH solution, the protein matrix was effectively decomposed, the protein in the endosperm was dissolved and the highest amount of starch granules were released. Sulfurous acid and L-cysteine solution could make the protein matrix into pieces by destroying intermolecular disulfide bridge and the starch granules would be released. There were some holes on the surface of starch granules after L-cysteine steeping. Immersed in the morel berry, there were holes on the protein matrix surface and the water absorption of corn endosperm was improved. In case of the sample immersed in ethanol, the zein was dissolved, whereas the matrix protein was still intact with the starch grains that still bound to it. By analysis of the microscopic structure and morphological change of starch and protein in corn endospers in different comsteep liquor, it is demonstrated that the main reason which the starch grains were tightly wrapped by Glutenin is the intermolecular disulfide bonds in glutelin. In addition, a part of the protein combined with starch granules directly. The study provided a reference for exploring the structure of binding of starch and protein and their interaction in corn.

  2. Purification and characterisation of arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase I responsible for the filterability of barley malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Fei; Cai, Guolin; Jin, Zhao; Lu, Jian; Dong, Jianjun; Yin, Hua; Yu, Junhong; Yang, Mei

    2015-05-01

    Dan'er is a widely grown malt barley cultivar in China, but its filterability defects have severely impeded its application in beer brewing. Previous investigations have suggested that we should identify the malt filterability correlated proteins, one of which was postulated to be arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase I (AXAH-I). To verify this hypothesis, we purified AXAH-I from Dan'er malt, characterised its enzyme performance, and investigated its influence on filterability by adding different amounts of purified enzyme to the mash. With 6 mU g(-1) malt AXAH-I supplemented, the wort separation rate increased by 31.8%, viscosity decreased by 3.6%, and the endosperm reserve contents declined concomitantly. Unexpectedly, the wort turbidity increased with increasing AXAH-I. We also tried to optimise the use of currently available commercial enzyme products for filterability improvement in beer brewing, by supplementing them with purified AXAH-I and β-amylase. AXAH-I could be a functional component for novel commercial enzyme products in the beer industry. PMID:25529682

  3. Mapping genes in barley for resistance to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and to P. striiformis from brome, wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Alemu, Sisay K.; Marcel, T.C.; Heyzen, van Skye

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mapping populations have been developed that are useful to study the inheritance of quantitative resistance to adapted and unadapted rust fungi. In a recent host range study, we found that the parents of those mapping populations also differed in their resistance to th

  4. The effects of X-ray irradiation on the induction of α-amylase synthesis by gibberelic acid in the aleurone system of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ionizing radiation on a system without DNA replication and cell division was investigated with the aid of GA3-induced α-amylase synthesis in aleurone cells of barley. The reaction of the system was determined by dose effect curves (after irradiation of one half of the endosperms in rest) for the synthesis and secretion of α-amylase, protein, and reducing sugars. The system proves to be highly radiation-resistant. The course of the synthesis of α-amylase after X-ray irradiation with varying doses during enzyme synthesis suggests that transcription occurs in the middle of the lag-phase and is the most sensitive stage in enzyme synthesis, while translation alone is less sensitive to radiation. (BSC/AK)

  5. Characterization of recombinant high pI Barley α-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Svensson, Birte

    α-glucosidase activity in barley seeds plays a crucial role in embryonic development. The concerted action of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, β-amylase, and limit dextrinase serve as the machinery responsible for the supply of glucose as energy source for the developing embryo in the germinating seed...... (MacGregor A.W.). Here we present the recent results of the expression and characterization of the recombinant full length barley high pI α-glucosidase in Pichia Pastoris. In order to facilitate in the range of mg protein yield, a clone representing an N-terminal hexa histidine tagged recombinant form...

  6. Purification and characterization of recombinant high pI Barley α-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Bojsen, Kirsten; Svensson, Birte

    α-glucosidase activity in barley seeds plays a crucial role in embryonic development. The concerted action of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase serves as the machinery responsible for the supply of glucose as energy source for the developing embryo in the germinating seed...... (MACGREGOR & sissons). recently expression and characterization of the recombinant full length and fully functional barley high pi α-glucosidase in pichia pastoris has been achieved. in order to facilitate protein yield in the mg range, a clone representing an n-terminal hexa histidine tagged recombinant...

  7. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni; Valles, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) production is an efficient tool in barley breeding, but efficiency of DH methods is not consistent. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the effect of n-butanol application on DH barley plant production efficiency. Five elite cultivars of barley and thirteen breeding...

  8. Recombinant human proinsulin from transgenic corn endosperm: solvent screening and extraction studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Farinas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant pharmaceutical proteins are being produced in different systems such as bacteria and mammalian cell cultures. The use of transgenic plants as bioreactors has recently arisen as an alternative system offering many practical and economic advantages. However, finding an optimum strategy for the downstream processing (DSP of recombinant proteins from plants still remains a challenge. In this work, we studied the extraction of recombinant human proinsulin (rhProinsulin produced in the endosperm of transgenic corn seeds. An efficient extraction solvent was selected and the effects of temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio, time, and impeller rotational speed on the extraction were evaluated using an experimental design. After an extraction kinetics study, temperature was further evaluated to maximize rhProinsulin concentration in the extracts and to minimize the native corn components carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, and proteins. A high efficiency condition for extracting rhProinsulin with the selected solvent - 50 mM sodium bicarbonate buffer pH 10.0 and 5 mM DTT - was an extraction time of 2 h at a solvent-to-solid ratio of 10:1 and 25º C. The maximum rhProinsulin concentration in the extracts at that condition was 18.87 mg l-1 or 0.42% of the total soluble protein. These values are within the range in which the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants can be competitive with other expression systems. The results presented provide information for the development of an additional production platform for the hormone insulin.

  9. Spontaneous mutation frequencies in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Estimation of the spontaneous mutation frequency requires screening of very large populations and has therefore rarely been carried out in higher plants. A study on inter-allelic recombination in the ml-o locus allowed to collect some data on spontaneous chlorophyll mutants. 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. 25 plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among a total of 470129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7±0.6x10-4). If these data are pooled with others from similar materials the resulting estimate is 1.6x10-4 in about 1,43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 6.3x10-4 per diploid genome. Assuming that the number of loci that can give rise to chlorophyll mutants is in the order of 500, the spontaneous mutation rate would be in the order of 6x10-7 per locus and haploid genome per generation. (author)

  10. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  11. Effects of Zn fertilization on hordein transcripts at early developmental stage of barley grain and correlation with increased Zn concentration in the mature grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasir Uddin

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency is causing malnutrition for nearly one third of world populations. It is especially relevant in cereal-based diets in which low amounts of mineral and protein are present. In biological systems, Zn is mainly associated with protein. Cereal grains contain the highest Zn concentration during early developmental stage. Although hordeins are the major storage proteins in the mature barley grain and suggested to be involved in Zn binding, very little information is available regarding the Zn fertilization effects of hordein transcripts at early developmental stage and possible incorporation of Zn with hordein protein of matured grain. Zinc fertilization experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with barley cv. Golden Promise. Zn concentration of the matured grain was measured and the results showed that the increasing Zn fertilization increased grain Zn concentration. Quantitative real time PCR showed increased level of total hordein transcripts upon increasing level of Zn fertilization at 10 days after pollination. Among the hordein transcripts the amount of B-hordeins was highly correlated with the Zn concentration of matured grain. In addition, protein content of the matured grain was analysed and a positive linear relationship was found between the percentage of B-hordein and total grain Zn concentration while C-hordein level decreased. Zn sensing dithizone assay was applied to localize Zn in the matured grain. The Zn distribution was not limited to the embryo and aleurone layer but was also present in the outer part of the endosperm (sub-aleurone layers which known to be rich in proteins including B-hordeins. Increased Zn fertilization enriched Zn even in the endosperm. Therefore, the increased amount of B-hordein and decreased C-hordein content suggested that B-hordein upregulation or difference between B and C hordein could be one of the key factors for Zn biofortification of cereal grains due to the Zn fertilization.

  12. Barley germplasm conservation and resources. Chapter 7 in barley: improvement, production, and uses. Blackwell Publishing, ED.S.E. Ullrich

    Science.gov (United States)

    The history and current status of barley germplasm preservation activities is presented on a global scale and specifically for the United States. Total of barley germplasm holdings at 47 major barley collections (those with more than 500 accessions) worldwide is approximately 402,000 accessions. I...

  13. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  14. Identification and Fine Mapping of a White Husk Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhu, Jinghuan; Shang, Yi; Wang, Junmei; Jia, Qiaojun; Zhang, Qisen; Yang, Jianming; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Barley is the only crop in the Poaceae family with adhering husks at maturity. The color of husk at barely development stage could influence the agronomic traits and malting qualities of grains. A barley mutant with a white husk was discovered from the malting barley cultivar Supi 3 and designated wh (white husk). Morphological changes and the genetics of white husk barley were investigated. Husks of the mutant were white at the heading and flowering stages but yellowed at maturity. The diastatic power and α-amino nitrogen contents also significantly increased in wh mutant. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed abnormal chloroplast development in the mutant. Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1F1 populations developed from a cross of wh and Yangnongpi 5 (green husk) showed that the white husk was controlled by a single recessive gene (wh). The wh gene was initially mapped between 49.64 and 51.77 cM on chromosome 3H, which is syntenic with rice chromosome 1 where a white husk gene wlp1 has been isolated. The barley orthologous gene of wlp1 was sequenced from both parents and a 688 bp deletion identified in the wh mutant. We further fine-mapped the wh gene between SSR markers Bmac0067 and Bmag0508a with distances of 0.36 cM and 0.27 cM in an F2 population with 1115 individuals of white husk. However, the wlp1 orthologous gene was mapped outside the interval. New candidate genes were identified based on the barley genome sequence. PMID:27028408

  15. A seed coat bedding assay to genetically explore in vitro how the endosperm controls seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Molina, Luis; Lee, Keun Pyo

    2013-01-01

    The Arabidopsis endosperm consists of a single cell layer surrounding the mature embryo and playing an essential role to prevent the germination of dormant seeds or that of nondormant seeds irradiated by a far red (FR) light pulse. In order to further gain insight into the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying the germination repressive activity exerted by the endosperm, a "seed coat bedding" assay (SCBA) was devised. The SCBA is a dissection procedure physically separating seed coats and e...

  16. Effect of Soil Erosion on Spring Barley Growth in East Anglia,England:Preliminary Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUXI-XI; Y.BIOT

    1994-01-01

    The effect of soil erosion on spring barley growth was studied on a deep loamy soil in East Anglia,England,in 1992,Soil erosion was simulated by three levels of soil desurfacing,7.5,18and 30cm with three replicates.Significant differences in crop height,ground cover and crop yield were observed between the three levels of desurfacing.Soil desurfacing also has a singnificant effect on soil moisture at the 20cm depth.The interaction between soil removal and crop performance affected soil moisture at the depths of 50 and 100cm,No significant differences were found in runoff and sediment etween the three topsoil removals due to very dry growing season.Regression equations were developed between spring barley yield and soil desurfacing Spring barley grain yield declined by 97.6kg/ha per cm soil desurfacing.

  17. Impact of Low Concentration of Cadmium on Photosynthesis and Growth of Pea and Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Januškaitienė

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic gas exchange and growth characteristics were examined in pea and barley plants using 1 mM Cd treatment. Plants were sown into neutral peat substrate and at a leaf development stage were treated with 1 mM cadmium concentration solution. Gas exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate; intercellular CO2 concentration; transpiration rate; water use efficiency were measured with portable photosynthesis system LI-6400 on the fifth day after Cd treatment. Under Cd stress the photosynthetic rate of pea and barley plants decreased by 16.7 % (p 2 concentration decreased by 27.4 % (p 2 reduction processes of Cd treated pea leaves increased (because intercellular CO2 concentration decreased, but that had no positive effect on a photosynthetic rate, and the photosynthetic rate of pea decreased by 4 % more than that of barley. The changes of dry biomass of cadmium treated plants were weak and statistically insignificant.

  18. OsMADS6 plays an essential role in endosperm nutrient accumulation and is subject to epigenetic regulation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Nallamilli, Babi R; Mujahid, Hana; Peng, Zhaohua

    2010-11-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are known for their roles in plant growth and development. The regulatory mechanisms of spatial and temporal specific expression of MADS-box genes and the function of MADS-box genes in other biological processes are still to be explored. Here, we report that OsMADS6 is highly expressed in flower and endosperm in Oryza sativa (rice). In addition to displaying a homeotic organ identity phenotype in all the four whorls of the flowers, the endosperm development is severely affected in its mutant. At least 32% of the seeds lacked starch filling and aborted. For seeds that have starch filling and develop to maturity, the starch content is reduced by at least 13%. In addition, the seed shape changes from elliptical to roundish, and the protein content increases from 12.1 to 15.0% (P < 0.05). Further investigation shows that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase genes, encoding the rate-limiting step enzyme in the starch synthesis pathway, are subject to the regulation of OsMADS6. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR analyses on the chromatin of the OsMADS6 gene find that H3K27 is trimethylated in tissues where OsMADS6 is silenced, and that H3K36 is trimethylated in tissues where OsMADS6 is highly activated. Point mutation analysis reveals that leucine at position 83 is critical to OsMADS6 function. PMID:20822505

  19. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells is altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkman, William J.; Wood, Delilah F.

    2010-06-01

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. 'Butte 86') was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/night regimen imposed from flowering to maturity and starch and protein deposition examined using scanning electron microscopy. The high temperature regimen shortened the duration of grain fill from 40 to 18 days. Under the 37/28°C regimen, A- and B-type starch granules decreased in size. A-type starch granules also exhibited pitting, suggesting enhanced action of starch degradative enzymes. Under both temperature regimens, protein bodies originated early in development and coalesced during mid to late development to form a continuous protein matrix surrounding the starch granules. Under the 37/28°C regimen, the proportion of protein matrix increased in endosperm cells of mature grain. Taken together, the changes in starch granule number and size and in protein matrix amount provide clues for understanding how high temperature during grain fill can affect end use properties of wheat flour.

  20. Mobilization of lipid reserves during germination of oat (Avena sativa L.), a cereal rich in endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, Svetlana; Grimberg, Asa; Marttila, Salla; Stymne, Sten; Carlsson, Anders S

    2010-06-01

    Since the cereal endosperm is a dead tissue in the mature grain, beta-oxidation is not possible there. This raises the question about the use of the endosperm oil in cereal grains during germination. In this study, mobilization of lipids in different tissues of germinating oat grains was analysed using thin-layer and gas chromatography. The data imply that the oat endosperm oil [triacylglycerol (TAG)] is not a dead-end product as it was absorbed by the scutellum, either as free fatty acids (FFAs) released from TAG or as intact TAG immediately degraded to FFAs. These data were supported by light and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM) studies where close contact between endosperm lipid droplets and the scutellum was observed. The appearance of the fused oil in the oat endosperm changed into oil droplets during germination in areas close to the aleurone and the scutellar epithelium. However, according to the data obtained by TEM these oil droplets are unlikely to be oil bodies surrounded by oleosins. Accumulation of FFA pools in the embryo suggested further transport of FFAs from the scutellum. Noticeably high levels of TAG were also accumulated in the embryo but were not synthesized by re-esterification from imported FFAs. Comparison between two oat cultivars with different amounts of oil and starch in the endosperm suggests that an increased oil to starch ratio in oat grains does not significantly impact the germination process. PMID:20497973

  1. PRODUCTION OF RECOMBINANT HIGH pI-BARLEY α-GLUCOSIDASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Svensson, Birte

    α-glucosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 31 plays in barley seeds a crucial role in embryonic development. The concerted action of α-glucosidase, β-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase is responsible for supply of glucose in the germinating seed as energy source for the embryo and growing...... plantlet [1]. Recently, expression and characterization of the recombinant full length, fully functional barley high pI α-glucosidase in Pichia pastoris has been achieved. To enable production of recombinant protein in mg amounts, a transformant harbouring a clone encoding the N-terminally hexa histidine...

  2. Assesment of amylose and amylopectin variability in barley germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley grain is composed of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. The present study was conducted to investigate the variability for amylose and amylopectin content in different accessions of wild and cultivated barley from different regions. Our results showed that apparent amylose content ranged from 14.1 to 35.8 percentage, 5.7 to 26.8 percentage and 13.9 to 36.2 percentage for wild barley, barley landraces and varieties, respectively. The highest range for amylopectin content was observed in barley landraces from 33.7 to 81.7 percentage with the highest mean average value and the lowest range from 39.9 to 63.7 percentage with 52.5 percentage mean average value was observed in wild barley for amylopectin content. Furthermore, we found that out of 157 accessions, 52 had an average content of amylose (20-30 percentage), whereas six accessions had more than 30 percentage of amylose content. Our results indicated that the wild barley and barley varieties had considerable variation for amylose and amylopectin ratio compared to barley landraces, which not only provided some useful information about the difference in the amount of amylose and amylopectin content among these barley accessions, but also offered some prospects of using selected germplasm for barley quality improvement in respect of preferred amylose and amylopectin content. (author)

  3. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the...... physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars for...

  4. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Bowra, Steve

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the...... physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars for...

  5. Fast neutron mutagenesis in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to conduct a deletion mutant analysis of the barley genome, seeds of cultivar 'Steptoe' were irradiated in 1992 with two doses of fast neutrons, 3.5 Gy and 4.0 Gy at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf SNIF facility by Dr. H. Brunner. M1 seeds were grown at Pullman, Washington, USA in the field. Approximately 500 M2 spikes were picked from each treatment and the remainder harvested in bulk. Mutation rates were determined on 1000 bulk M2 seedlings (chlorophyll deficient) and 500 M2 head rows (chlorophyll deficient and morphological) per treatment. Chlorophyll-deficient mutations were observed at a frequency of 8.1% and 9.4% on M1 spike basis and 2.2% and 2.6% on M2 seedling basis for the 3.5 and 4.0 Gy treatments, respectively. Total mutations observed in the field were 19.0% and 20.8% on M1 spike basis for the two treatments. Approximately 2,500 M2 seedlings were assayed for nitrate reductasedeficient mutants and 12,000 M2 seeds screened for waxy mutants. Although several putative mutants were identified, none have been confirmed to date. The mutation frequencies observed are similar for both treatments and appear to be approximately the same as what we have previously observed with γ-radiation treatments. The absence of nitrate reductase-deficient and waxy mutants is most likely due to the small population size screened. The morphological mutants recovered include dwarfs, sterile, necrotic, glossy, elongated outer glume, winter type and some very interesting floral mutants such as multi-ovary and branched inflorescence. Mutants affecting functions of genes for which cloned DNA segments are available will be sought in order to identify specific molecular changes that have been induced by fast neutron radiation. (author)

  6. The development and evaluation of single cell suspension from wheat and barley as a model system; a first step towards functional genomics application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Jing; Bowra, Steve; Vincze, Éva

    2010-01-01

    chose to study the impact of selected abiotic stress elicitors at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level. We report the results of osmotic stress imposed by NaCl and PEG. As proline is an important osmoprotectant of the cereal cells, colorimetric assay for proline detection was developed for...... small volumes (200mul). We performed RT-PCR experiments to study the change in the expression of the genes encoding Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and Delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PC5R) in response to abiotic stress. Conclusions We found differences between the wheat and...

  7. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. Metabolism of S-adenosylmethionine and ethanolamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methylation steps in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by castor bean endosperm have been studied. Endosperm halves were incubated with tracer concentrations of [2-14C] ethanolamine or [14C]S-adenosyl-L-methionine for 10 or 30 minutes, respectively. The kinetics of appearance were followed in methyl- and dimethylethanolamine, choline, and their phospho-, CDP-, and phosphatidyl-derivatives. Methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine rapidly labeled the three methylated-ethanolamine derivatives. Radioactivity then decreased in these compounds and accumulated in phosphatidylcholine. The initial methylation utilized ethanolamine as a substrate to form methyl-ethanolamine, which was partially converted to dimethyl-ethanolamine, choline, and phosphomethylethanolamine. Subsequent methylations occurred at both phospho-base and phosphatidyl-base levels. Experiments with ethanolamine confirmed these results

  8. Mutagenic effects of endosperm of triticum aestivum implanted by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    75 MeV/u 16O8+ ions (degraded to 36 MeV/u) were used to implant into endosperm about 2.4 mm on top of the seeds. Germination started after a 'grafting' technique was employed. Chromosomal aberration frequency and micronucleus frequency of the root-tip cells in M0 were measured. The results indicate that the frequencies were proportional to implanted dose. Antioxidant enzyme activity, MDA content and protein content of present generation M0 were assayed. Farm culture was carried out in many generations. Short-stem and various variation of ear-type were obtained and the variation possess heredity. It showed that the endosperm implanted by the ions not only affected biological repair system, but also induced the mutation of offspring

  9. Rapid assignment of malting barley varieties by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedo, Ondrej; Kořán, Michal; Jakešová, Michaela; Mikulíková, Renata; Boháč, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2016-09-01

    A method for discriminating malting barley varieties based on direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) fingerprinting of proteins was developed. Signals corresponding to hordeins were obtained by simple mixing of powdered barley grain with a MALDI matrix solution containing 12.5mgmL(-1) of ferulic acid in an acetonitrile:water:formic acid 50:33:17 v/v/v mixture. Compared to previous attempts at MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of barley proteins, the extraction and fractionation steps were practically omitted, resulting in a significant reduction in analytical time and costs. The discriminatory power was examined on twenty malting barley varieties and the practicability of the method was tested on sixty barley samples acquired from Pilsner Urquell Brewery. The method is proposed as a rapid tool for variety assignment and purity determination of malting barley that may replace gel electrophoresis currently used for this purpose. PMID:27041307

  10. Programmed Cell Death During Female Gametophyte Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drews, Gary, N.

    2004-09-15

    Endosperm is a storage tissue in the angiosperm seed that is important both biologically and agriculturally. Endosperm is biologically important because it provides nutrients to the embryo during seed development and agriculturally important because it is a significant source of food, feed, and industrial raw materials. Approximately two-thirds of human calories are derived from endosperm, either directly or indirectly through animal feed. Furthermore, endosperm is used as a raw material for numerous industrial products including ethanol. A major event in endosperm development is the transition between the syncytial phase, during which the endosperm nuclei undergo many rounds of mitosis without cytokinesis, and the cellularized phase, during which cell walls form around the endosperm nuclei. Understanding how the syncytial-cellular transition is regulated is agriculturally important because it influences seed size, seed sink strength, and grain weight. However, the molecular processes controlling this transition are not understood. This project led to the identification of the AGL62 gene that regulates the syncytial-cellular transition during endosperm development. AGL62 is expressed during the syncytial phase and suppresses endosperm cellularization during this period. AGL62 most likely does so by suppressing the expression of genes required for cellularization. At the end of the syncytial phase, the FIS PcG complex suppresses AGL62 expression, which allows expression of the cellularization genes and triggers the initiation of the cellularized phase. Endosperm arises following fertilization of the central cell within the female gametophyte. This project also led to the identification of the AGL80 gene that is required for development of the central cell into the endosperm. Within the ovule and seed, AGL80 is expressed exclusively in the central cell and uncellularized endosperm. AGL80 is required for expression of several central cell-expressed genes, including

  11. Histochemical detection of acetogenins and storage molecules in the endosperm of Annona macroprophyllata Donn Sm. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Laguna Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetogenins (ACGs are bioactive compounds with cytotoxic properties in different cell lines. They are antitumoural, antiparasitic, antimalarial, insecticidal, antimicrobial, antifungal and antibacterial. These secondary metabolites function in plant defence and are found in specific organelles and specific cells, thereby preventing toxicity to the plant itself and permitting site-specific defence. The aim of this work was to histochemically determine the in situ localisation of ACGs in the endosperm of Annona macroprophyllata seeds using Kedde’s reagent. Additionally, the colocalisation of ACGs with other storage molecules was analysed. The seeds were analysed after 6 and 10 days of imbibition, when 1 or 2 cm of the radicle had emerged and metabolism was fully established. The seeds were then transversally cut in half at the midline and processed using different histological and histochemical techniques. Positive reactions with Kedde’s reagent were only observed in fresh, unfixed sections that were preserved in water, and staining was found only in the large cells (the idioblasts at the periphery of the endosperm. The ACGs’ positive reaction with Sudan III corroborated their lipid nature. Paraffin sections stained with Naphthol Blue Black showed reactions in the endosperm parenchyma cells and stained the proteoplasts blue, indicating that they might correspond to storage sites for albumin-like proteins. Lugol’s iodine, which is similar in chemical composition to Wagner’s reagent, caused a golden brown reaction product in the cytoplasm of the idioblasts, which may indicate the presence of alkaloids. Based on these results, we propose that Kedde’s reagent is an appropriate histochemical stain for detecting ACGs in situ in idioblasts and that idioblasts store ACGs and probably alkaloids. ACGs that are located in idioblasts found in restricted, peripheral areas of the endosperm could serve as a barrier that protects the seeds against

  12. Histochemical detection of acetogenins and storage molecules in the endosperm of Annona macroprophyllata Donn Sm. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna Hernández, G; Brechú-Franco, A E; De la Cruz-Chacón, I; González-Esquinca, A R

    2015-01-01

    Acetogenins (ACGs) are bioactive compounds with cytotoxic properties in different cell lines. They are antitumoural, antiparasitic, antimalarial, insecticidal, antimicrobial, antifungal and antibacterial. These secondary metabolites function in plant defence and are found in specific organelles and specific cells, thereby preventing toxicity to the plant itself and permitting site-specific defence. The aim of this work was to histochemically determine the in situ localisation of ACGs in the endosperm of Annona macroprophyllata seeds using Kedde's reagent. Additionally, the colocalisation of ACGs with other storage molecules was analysed. The seeds were analysed after 6 and 10 days of imbibition, when 1 or 2 cm of the radicle had emerged and metabolism was fully established. The seeds were then transversally cut in half at the midline and processed using different histological and histochemical techniques. Positive reactions with Kedde's reagent were only observed in fresh, unfixed sections that were preserved in water, and staining was found only in the large cells (the idioblasts) at the periphery of the endosperm. The ACGs' positive reaction with Sudan III corroborated their lipid nature. Paraffin sections stained with Naphthol Blue Black showed reactions in the endosperm parenchyma cells and stained the proteoplasts blue, indicating that they might correspond to storage sites for albumin-like proteins. Lugol's iodine, which is similar in chemical composition to Wagner's reagent, caused a golden brown reaction product in the cytoplasm of the idioblasts, which may indicate the presence of alkaloids. Based on these results, we propose that Kedde's reagent is an appropriate histochemical stain for detecting ACGs in situ in idioblasts and that idioblasts store ACGs and probably alkaloids. ACGs that are located in idioblasts found in restricted, peripheral areas of the endosperm could serve as a barrier that protects the seeds against insects and pathogen attack. PMID

  13. Characters of Cysteine Endopeptidases in Wheat Endosperm during Seed Germination and Subsequent Seedling Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Shi; Lang-Lai Xu

    2009-01-01

    The endopeptidaees (Eps) In wheat endosperm during seed germination and subsequent seedling growth were character-Izad by gradiant-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with gelatin copolymerized into the gel. Four cysteine Eps (EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4) ware detected in wheat endosperm during the 7 d growth after seed imbibition. The results also showed that the activities of all of these Eps increased continuously, and EP2 first appeared and had the highest proteolytic activity among the four Eps in this experimental process. The optimum pH and temperature of all four Eps were 4.0 and 40.0℃. All Eps were completely inhibited by 25 μmol/L E-64 and had no good thermal stabilities, especially EP1. In addition, these Eps had different substrate apecificities to albumins, globulins, gliadins and glutanins; the main storage proteins of mature wheat endosperm. Among them, EP2 had the highest proteolytic activities on globulins, gliadins and glutenins, and might be the most important and specific EP with potential to be tightly correlated with seedling devalopment.

  14. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Vincze, Éva; Holm, Preben Bach

    2010-01-01

    barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  15. Improvement of barley for drought tolerance by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley (cultivar Ardhaoui) is a traditional cereal adapted to the agroclimatic and abiotic stresses of South Tunisia. It is used by local communities as the food plant and source of proteins for animals. It is a heterogeneous mixtures of land races and represent the adapted natural germplasm which needs to be improved in yield, quality and tolerance to stress (especially drought). Irradiation technique is used in this work for the selection of barley lines tolerant to drought. Building on the obtained results, the technique will be used to develop barley lines matching specific environments prevailing in the south of Tunisia. The obtained mutants are characterized by the increased of grain yield and water use efficiency through a greater tolerance to drought. On the level of the physiological behavior, the mutants are more efficient regarding the values of rate of photosynthesis A, the stomatic conductance gs, the rate of transpiration E, chlorophyl rate and the internal CO2 concentration Ci. The content of proline shows that this amino acid is strongly concentrated at the irradiated lines. The analysis of nutritional behavior shows that the content of (Ca+Mg) in irradiated lines decreases by increasing the stress. The phosphorus content was also assigned by the water stress. On the contrary, the potassium content increases with the intensity of stress. Under water deficit, the growth parameter, the grain production and the number of spike and tillers are significantly reduced for the control (the reduction reached 42 to 50%). This reduction does not exceed 25% for the irradiated lines. The availability of these improved mutant seeds can contribute to increase food security for the local population. (author)

  16. Elevated phosphorus impedes manganese acquisition by barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Skytte, Kristian; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of manganese (Mn) deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P) status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure and P-fertilizers. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Addition of a pulse of KH(2)PO(4) rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn-P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn(2+) had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu, and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels. PMID:22639592

  17. Registration of 'Stoneham' spring feed barley resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Stoneham' (REG. No.; PI 641940) a Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov)-resistant, spring, two-rowed, feed barley (Hordeum vulgare) tested as 97BX 27-132, was developed and released by the USDA-ARS, Stillwater, OK and Aberdeen, ID; Colorado State University; and the University of Neb...

  18. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain, is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States. New strategies to reduce the threat of DON need to be developed and implemented. Previous work has...

  19. 1-MCP treatment enhanced expression of genes controlling endosperm cell division and starch biosynthesis for improvement of grain filling in a dense-panicle rice cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, B B; Badoghar, A K; Sekhar, S; Shaw, B P; Mohapatra, P K

    2016-05-01

    High ethylene production in dense-panicle rice cultivars impacts grain filling. 1-MCP (ethylene action inhibitor) treatment increased assimilates partitioning, cell number and size and expression of starch synthesizing enzyme genes of developing caryopses mostly in the basal spikelets of panicle at early post-anthesis stage. The gain in cell number was less compared to the increase of size. High ethylene production in spikelets matched with greater expression of ethylene receptor and signal transducer genes. Genes encoding cell cycle regulators CDK, CYC and CKI expressed poorly on 9 DAA. 1-MCP treatment enhanced their expression; the increase of expression was higher for CDKs and lower for CKIs in basal compared to apical spikelets. Greater expression of CDKB2:1 might have lifted cytokinesis of nascent peripheral cells of endosperm, while promotion of CDKAs, CYCD2:2 and inhibition of CYCB2:2 expression contributed to endoreduplication of central cells increasing cell size and DNA ploidy level. It is concluded that the process of endoreduplication, which begins at mid-grain filling stage, is crucially linked with the final caryopsis size of rice grain. The enhanced endosperm growth brought about by repressed ethylene action during the first few days after anthesis seems to be associated with the overall increased cell cycle activity and sink strength. PMID:26993232

  20. Unraveling the seed endosperm proteome of the lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) utilizing 1DE and 2DE separation in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Carlo F; Fukao, Yoichiro; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Shioda, Seiji; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Yonekura, Masami

    2015-05-01

    Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) or lotus, is an aquatic plant native to India, and presently consumed as food mainly in China and Japan. Lotus is also widely used in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. Extracts from different parts of the lotus plant have been reported to show diverse biological activities-antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory. Despite this, little work has been done in isolating and identifying proteins responsible for these activities, or yet importantly to establish a lotus proteome. The aim of our group is to develop a proteome catalog of the lotus plant, starting with its seed, the nutrient rich food source. In this present study, the seed endosperm-most abundant in proteins, and main nutrient storage tissue-was targeted for protein extraction by testing five different extraction protocols, followed by their proteomic analyses using complementary 1DE and 2DE approaches in conjunction with MS/MS. The inventory of 66 nonredundant proteins obtained by 1DE-MS and the 30 obtained by 2DE-MS provides the first catalog of the lotus seed endosperm, where the most abundant protein functions were in categories of metabolic activities related to carbohydrate metabolism and nutrient storage. PMID:25545995

  1. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  2. Pollination with gamma-irradiated pollen and seed development in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. The effects of pollen irradiation at 70 and 90 kr on seed set were studied in Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa. Pollination with irradiated pollen affected seed development and contents. Rising irradiation doses increased the percentages of empty seeds and decreased the percentages of seeds containing embryos with endosperm. Moreover, pollination with heavily irradiated pollen led to the formation of seeds containing the endosperm only. Embryo and endosperm size was also strongly influenced by irradiated pollen. The length of endosperms was reduced at all levels of pollen irradiation compared to the non-irradiated controls; the embryo development was conspicuously retarded. Cells in endosperm resulting from the treatments differed in the presence and number of starch grains. (author)

  3. Composition and nutritional quality of barley protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lysine concentration in barley seed protein is known to depend on both genetical and environmental factors. We investigated whether the differences in lysine concentration as well as the differences in nutritional quality between various barley cultivars could be accounted for by the protein composition of the hordein fraction. Hordein, the low lysine storage protein in barley seed, is classified in A, B and C hordeins with decreasing lysine content. The Riso high lysine mutants are characterized by decreased amounts of at least one of the three fractions. With increasing N-fertilization the content of the C hordeins in particular is elevated disproportionally more than the total N-content, resulting in overall decreasing lysine concentrations. Rat-feeding experiments did not displace any significant difference between the protein digestibility in the mutants and in the parent varieties. The biological value (BV) averaged 77 for field-grown normal-lysine barley against 90 for the high lysine mutant 1508. A marked negative correlation between BV and percentage N in the seed was found for both Bomi and mutant 1508. A marked negative correlation between BV and percentage N in the seed was found for both Bomi and mutant 1508. In Bomi this could be explained by the variation in lysine concentration whereas the sulphur-containing amino acids probably are limiting in mutant 1508. Provided that lysine is the first limiting amino acid, the nutritional quality of barley seed protein is closely related to the content of B- and C-hordeins. When this is not the case, as in mutant 1508, other unidentified proteins or groups of proteins become of importance. (author)

  4. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  5. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muavviz Ayvaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98 were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm to plants that had grown from seeds for four weeks. Plants were harvested, stem-root length and stem-root dry-fresh weight content were determined. For further analysis, chlorophyll, total protein, endogenic IAA and ABA content analyses were carried out. Results: According to the data obtained, plant growth and development decreased with increasing boron concentrations. With increasing boron concentrations, soluble total protein increased in both cultivars. Boron application led to increased endogenic IAA content in both cultivars. 10 and 20 ppm boron application led to increased endogenic ABA content in Vamik Hoca cultivar whereas endogenic ABA content decreased in Efes 98. Absence of boron application led to increased endogenic IAA and ABA content in both cultivars. Conclusion: As a result, the response to boron is different in the two cultivars and Efes 98 may be more resistant to the toxicity than Vamik Hoca cultivar.

  6. How barley growing conditions and its output change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Erdélyi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that climate change has started. It is very important to make effort in developing impact analyses and adaptation strategies. First we were investigated how theproduction risk of winter barley is changing with time using the E,V efficiency criterion. Based on the regional yearly production data of the crop, we can conclude that beside other non-climatic effects, the changing climate has considerable impact on crops yield; its variability is increasing with the variability of meteorological parameters. We have used production data from 1951 to nowadays. Next, using comparison analyses for climate scenarios, we predict what we can expect in the future. For detecting the reasons of risk increase in the past, and forecasting the potential main points of future risk we have analysed statistically whether the climate needs of winter barley will be satisfied ornot in its important periods of growing. Frequency calculations were made based on the daily meteorological data. The situation doesn’t show big change, but It is no doubt that the anomalies of the indicators have been becoming more and more frequent. The morefrequent the extreme weather events are, the more we can be convinced of uncertainty.

  7. Deficiency of Starch Synthase IIIa and IVb Alters Starch Granule Morphology from Polyhedral to Spherical in Rice Endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosawa, Yoshiko; Kawagoe, Yasushi; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Ogawa, Masahiro; Fukuda, Masako; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Okazaki, Yozo; Kusano, Miyako; Saito, Kazuki; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Ai, Yongfeng; Jane, Jay-Lin; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Starch granule morphology differs markedly among plant species. However, the mechanisms controlling starch granule morphology have not been elucidated. Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm produces characteristic compound-type granules containing dozens of polyhedral starch granules within an amyloplast. Some other cereal species produce simple-type granules, in which only one starch granule is present per amyloplast. A double mutant rice deficient in the starch synthase (SS) genes SSIIIa and SSIVb (ss3a ss4b) produced spherical starch granules, whereas the parental single mutants produced polyhedral starch granules similar to the wild type. The ss3a ss4b amyloplasts contained compound-type starch granules during early developmental stages, and spherical granules were separated from each other during subsequent amyloplast development and seed dehydration. Analysis of glucan chain length distribution identified overlapping roles for SSIIIa and SSIVb in amylopectin chain synthesis, with a degree of polymerization of 42 or greater. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy of wild-type developing rice seeds revealed that the majority of SSIVb was localized between starch granules. Therefore, we propose that SSIIIa and SSIVb have crucial roles in determining starch granule morphology and in maintaining the amyloplast envelope structure. We present a model of spherical starch granule production. PMID:26747287

  8. A plant-specific transcription factor IIB-related protein, pBRP2, is involved in endosperm growth control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Cavel

    Full Text Available General transcription factor IIB (TFIIB and TFIIB-related factor (BRF, are conserved RNA polymerase II/III (RNAPII/III selectivity factors that are involved in polymerase recruitment and transcription initiation in eukaryotes. Recent findings have shown that plants have evolved a third type of B-factor, plant-specific TFIIB-related protein 1 (pBRP1, which seems to be involved in RNAPI transcription. Here, we extend the repertoire of B-factors in plants by reporting the characterization of a novel TFIIB-related protein, plant-specific TFIIB-related protein 2 (pBRP2, which is found to date only in the Brassicacea family. Unlike other B-factors that are ubiquitously expressed, PBRP2 expression is restricted to reproductive organs and seeds as shown by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence labelling and GUS staining experiments. Interestingly, pbrp2 loss-of-function specifically affects the development of the syncytial endosperm, with both parental contributions required for wild-type development. pBRP2, is the first B-factor to exhibit cell-specific expression and regulation in eukaryotes, and might play a role in enforcing bi-parental reproduction in angiosperms.

  9. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  10. 454 sequencing of pooled BAC clones on chromosome 3H of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaji Nami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing of barley has been delayed due to its large genome size (ca. 5,000Mbp. Among the fast sequencing systems, 454 liquid phase pyrosequencing provides the longest reads and is the most promising method for BAC clones. Here we report the results of pooled sequencing of BAC clones selected with ESTs genetically mapped to chromosome 3H. Results We sequenced pooled barley BAC clones using a 454 parallel genome sequencer. A PCR screening system based on primer sets derived from genetically mapped ESTs on chromosome 3H was used for clone selection in a BAC library developed from cultivar "Haruna Nijo". The DNA samples of 10 or 20 BAC clones were pooled and used for shotgun library development. The homology between contig sequences generated in each pooled library and mapped EST sequences was studied. The number of contigs assigned on chromosome 3H was 372. Their lengths ranged from 1,230 bp to 58,322 bp with an average 14,891 bp. Of these contigs, 240 showed homology and colinearity with the genome sequence of rice chromosome 1. A contig annotation browser supplemented with query search by unique sequence or genetic map position was developed. The identified contigs can be annotated with barley cDNAs and reference sequences on the browser. Homology analysis of these contigs with rice genes indicated that 1,239 rice genes can be assigned to barley contigs by the simple comparison of sequence lengths in both species. Of these genes, 492 are assigned to rice chromosome 1. Conclusions We demonstrate the efficiency of sequencing gene rich regions from barley chromosome 3H, with special reference to syntenic relationships with rice chromosome 1.

  11. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes. PMID:26527793

  12. The barley genome sequence assembly reveals three additional members of the CslF (1,3;1,4-β-glucan synthase gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Schreiber

    Full Text Available An important component of barley cell walls, particularly in the endosperm, is (1,3;1,4-β-glucan, a polymer that has proven health benefits in humans and that influences processability in the brewing industry. Genes of the cellulose synthase-like (Csl F gene family have been shown to be involved in (1,3;1,4-β-glucan synthesis but many aspects of the biosynthesis are still unclear. Examination of the sequence assembly of the barley genome has revealed the presence of an additional three HvCslF genes (HvCslF11, HvCslF12 and HvCslF13 which may be involved in (1,3;1,4-β-glucan synthesis. Transcripts of HvCslF11 and HvCslF12 mRNA were found in roots and young leaves, respectively. Transient expression of these genes in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in phenotypic changes in the infiltrated leaves, although no authentic (1,3;1,4-β-glucan was detected. Comparisons of the CslF gene families in cereals revealed evidence of intergenic recombination, gene duplications and translocation events. This significant divergence within the gene family might be related to multiple functions of (1,3;1,4-β-glucans in the Poaceae. Emerging genomic and global expression data for barley and other cereals is a powerful resource for characterising the evolution and dynamics of complete gene families. In the case of the CslF gene family, the results will contribute to a more thorough understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in grass cell walls.

  13. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  14. UV-B辐射增强及种植密度对大麦生长发育的影响%Effects of planting density and enhanced UV-B radiation on growth and development of barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婷婷; 娄运生; 黄岩

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation and different planting densities on growth and development of barley. The experiment was designed with four levels of UV-B radiation i. e. control (CK, ambient) , enhanced UV-B (El , enhanced 10% ) , enhanced UV-B (E2, 20% enhanced) and enhanced UV-B (E3, 30% enhanced) and with three levels of planting densities i.e. 5.56 g/m2 ( D1 ) , 11. 11 g/m2 ( D2) and 16.67 g/m2 (D3). The results showed that the decreases in plant height, green leaf area and biomass (root and shoot) decreased under enhanced UV-B radiation, and the stronger the radiation, the more obvious the inhibition. The inhibition varied with growth stages. Under natural light, increasing planting density led to the increase in plant height and the decreases in green leaf area and biomass. Under enhanced UV-B treatment E2, the inhibition could be alleviated by increasing planting density.%在大田条件下研究了不同UV-B辐射强度及种植密度对大麦生长发育的影响.UV-B辐射强度设4个水平,即对照(自然光)、E1(比对照增强10%)、E2(比对照增强20%)和E3(比对照增强30%);种植密度(播种量)设3个水平,即D1(5.56 g/m2)、D2(11.11g/m2)和D3(16.67g/m2).结果表明,UV-B辐射增强明显抑制大麦生长,使植株变矮,绿叶面积和干物质量下降,且辐射越强,抑制作用越明显,但抑制程度随生育期而异.在自然光下,增大种植密度可使株高增加,绿叶面积和干物质量下降;UV-B辐射增强20%处理下,增大种植密度可减轻UV-B辐射增强对大麦生长的抑制作用.在UV-B辐射增强条件下,适当提高大麦种植密度,可降低UV-B辐射增强对大麦生长的不利影响.

  15. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  16. Enhancement of methane production from barley waste

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Two different approaches were attempted to try and enhance methane production from an industrial waste composed of 100% barley, which results from production of instant coffee substitutes. In previous work, this waste was co-digested with an excess of activated sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant located in same industrial unit, resulting in a very poor methane yield (25LCH4(STP)/ kgVSinitial), and low reductions in total solids (31%) and in volatile solids (40%). Wh...

  17. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...... significantly decreased the Bgh haustorial formation rate, indicating their contribution to fungal pathogenesis. All these CSEPs were highly expressed during and after haustorial formation, suggesting that they play a role in virulence during the late infection processes. In addition, they all localized to the...... misfolding and aggregation. Through their chaperone activity, some sHsps contribute to pathogen defence by stabilizing intracellular proteins, including resistance and defence signalling proteins. In this study, we validated the chaperone activity of the barley Hsp16.9, which prevented the aggregation of...

  18. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine;

    2007-01-01

    for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the...... length influenced stability but not efficiency of VIGS. Silencing was transient in most cases; however, the decrease in PDS mRNA levels measured by qRT-PCR began earlier and lasted longer than the photobleaching. Occasionally, silencing persisted and could be transmitted through seed as well as via......Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...

  19. From field barley to malt: detection and specification of microbial activity for quality aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noots, I; Delcour, J A; Michiels, C W

    1999-01-01

    Barley grain carries a numerous, variable, and complex microbial population that mainly consists of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi and that can partly be detected and quantified using plating methods and microscopic and molecular techniques. The extent and the activity of this microflora are determined by the altering state of the grain and the environmental conditions in the malt production chain. Three ecological systems can be distinguished: the growing cereal in the field, the dry barley grain under storage, and the germinating barley kernel during actual malting. Microorganisms interact with the malting process both by their presence and by their metabolic activity. In this respect, interference with the oxygen uptake by the barley grain and secretion of enzymes, hormones, toxins, and acids that may affect the plant physiological processes have been studied. As a result of the interaction, microorganisms can cause important losses and influence malt quality as measured by brewhouse performance and beer quality. Of particular concern is the occurrence of mycotoxins that may affect the safety of malt. The development of the microflora during malt production can to a certain extent be controlled by the selection of appropriate process conditions. Physical and chemical treatments to inactivate the microbial population on the barley grain are suggested. Recent developments, however, aim to control the microbial activity during malt production by promoting the growth of desirable microbial cultures, selected either as biocontrol agents inhibiting mycotoxin-producing molds or as starter cultures actively contributing to malt modification. Such techniques may offer natural opportunities to improve the quality and safety of malt. PMID:10405796

  20. Evolutionary history of barley cultivation in Europe revealed by genetic analysis of extant landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Huw

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolution of cultivated barley is important for two reasons. First, the evolutionary relationships between different landraces might provide information on the spread and subsequent development of barley cultivation, including the adaptation of the crop to new environments and its response to human selection. Second, evolutionary information would enable landraces with similar traits but different genetic backgrounds to be identified, providing alternative strategies for the introduction of these traits into modern germplasm. Results The evolutionary relationships between 651 barley landraces were inferred from the genotypes for 24 microsatellites. The landraces could be divided into nine populations, each with a different geographical distribution. Comparisons with ear row number, caryopsis structure, seasonal growth habit and flowering time revealed a degree of association between population structure and phenotype, and analysis of climate variables indicated that the landraces are adapted, at least to some extent, to their environment. Human selection and/or environmental adaptation may therefore have played a role in the origin and/or maintenance of one or more of the barley landrace populations. There was also evidence that at least some of the population structure derived from geographical partitioning set up during the initial spread of barley cultivation into Europe, or reflected the later introduction of novel varieties. In particular, three closely-related populations were made up almost entirely of plants with the daylength nonresponsive version of the photoperiod response gene PPD-H1, conferring adaptation to the long annual growth season of northern Europe. These three populations probably originated in the eastern Fertile Crescent and entered Europe after the initial spread of agriculture. Conclusions The discovery of population structure, combined with knowledge of associated phenotypes and

  1. Isolation, mapping, and characterization of two barley multiovary mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, J D; Kudrna, D A; Kleinhofs, A

    2000-01-01

    Mutations in homeotic genes disturb the spatial and temporal patterns of development, often leading to the appearance of tissues in abnormal locations. Many homeotic genes, involved in flower development, code for proteins with a highly conserved domain called the MADS box, which acts as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Two floral development mutants were isolated from a fast neutron irradiated M2 barley population. The phenotypes are multiovary, that is, stamens replaced with carpels, designated mo7a, and stamens replaced with carpels and lodicules converted to leaflike structures, designated mo6b. These phenotypes resemble the Arabidopsis mutants APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILATA (PI). The mo6b and mo7a mutants were mapped to the centromeric region of chromosome 1 (7H) and to the telomeric region of chromosome 3 (3H), respectively. PMID:11218087

  2. Reactive oxygen species regulate programmed cell death progress of endosperm in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under waterlogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang-Xu; Yu, Min; Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Zhu-Qing; Xu, Qiu-Tao; Mei, Fang-Zhu; Qu, Liang-Huan

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have proved that waterlogging stress accelerates the programmed cell death (PCD) progress of wheat endosperm cells. A highly waterlogging-tolerant wheat cultivar Hua 8 and a waterlogging susceptible wheat cultivar Hua 9 were treated with different waterlogging durations, and then, dynamic changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene expressions, and activities of antioxidant enzymes in endosperm cells were detected. The accumulation of ROS increased considerably after 7 days of waterlogging treatment (7 DWT) and 12 DWT in both cultivars compared with control group (under non-waterlogged conditions), culminated at 12 DAF (days after flowering) and reduced hereafter. Waterlogging resulted in a great increase of H2O2 and O2 (-) in plasma membranes, cell walls, mitochondrias, and intercellular spaces with ultracytochemical localization. Moreover, the deformation and rupture of cytomembranes as well as the swelling and distortion of mitochondria were obvious. Under waterlogging treatment conditions, catalase (CAT) gene expression increased in endosperm of Hua 8 but activity decreased. In addition, Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene expression and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased. Compared with Hua 8, both CAT, MnSOD gene expressions and CAT, SOD activities decreased in Hua 9. Moreover, ascorbic acid and mannitol relieve the intensifying of PCD processes in Hua 8 endosperm cells induced by waterlogging. These results indicate that ROS have important roles in the PCD of endosperm cells, the changes both CAT, MnSOD gene expressions and CAT, SOD activities directly affected the accumulation of ROS in two different wheat cultivars under waterlogging, ultimately led to the PCD acceleration of endosperm. PMID:25854793

  3. Application of two bicistronic systems involving 2A and IRES sequences to the biosynthesis of carotenoids in rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sun-Hwa; Liang, Ying Shi; Jung, Harin; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Suh, Seok-Cheol; Kweon, Soon-Jong; Kim, Dong-Hern; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Ju-Kon

    2010-10-01

    Coordination of multiple transgenes is essential for metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the utilization of two bicistronic systems involving the 2A sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus and the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence from the crucifer-infecting tobamovirus to the biosynthesis of carotenoids in rice endosperm. Two carotenoid biosynthetic genes, phytoene synthase (Psy) from Capsicum and carotene desaturase (CrtI) from Pantoea, were linked via either the synthetic 2A sequence that was optimized for rice codons or the IRES sequence under control of the rice globulin promoter, generating PAC (Psy-2A-CrtI) and PIC (Psy-IRES-CrtI) constructs, respectively. The transgenic endosperm of PAC rice had a more intense golden color than did PIC rice, demonstrating that 2A was more efficient than IRES in coordinating gene expression. The 2A and IRES constructs were equally effective in driving transgene transcription. However, immunoblot analysis of CRTI, a protein encoded by the downstream open reading frame of the bicistronic constructs, revealed that 2A was ninefold more effective than IRES in driving translation. The PAC endosperms accumulated an average of 1.3 μg/g of total carotenoids, which was ninefold higher than was observed for PIC endosperms. In particular, accumulation of β-carotene was much higher in PAC endosperms than in PIC endosperms. Collectively, these results demonstrate that both 2A and IRES systems can coordinate the expression of two biosynthetic genes, with the 2A system exhibiting greater efficiency. Thus, the 2A expression system described herein is an effective new tool for multigene stacking in crop biotechnology. PMID:20649940

  4. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the aleurone grains of Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Konopska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aleurone grains from Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons were isolated partly according to Tombs's method (1967. Nitrogen compounds content was determined in them by Kjeldahl's micromethod, and in the particular fractions after Thiman and Laloraya (1960. Mainly protein N was detected in the aleurone grains, constituting 14.8 and 15.2 per cent of the dry mass of pea and Iris seeds, respectively. Moreover, phosphorus compounds were fractionated according to Holden and Pirie (1955. Analyses demonstrated the presence in aleurone grains of inorganic P, acid-soluble organophosphorus compounds, phospholipids and RNA.

  5. A protocol of homozygous haploid callus induction from endosperm of Taxus chinensis Rehd. var. mairei

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan-Lin; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Jia-Yin; Bu, Feng-Jiao; Lin, Tao; Zhang, Zhong-hua; Xiong, Xing-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Obtainment and characterization of the novel endosperm callus of Taxus chinensis Rehd. var. mairei are valuable for haploid breeding, genome, and functional genome in Taxus. Callus was obtained by hydropriming with sterile water for 3 days and suitable medium composition. The highest callus induction (70.89 %) and lower browning ratio (7.95 %) were obtained from Gamborg (B5) medium supplemented with 30 g l−1 of sucrose, 2.5 mg l−1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D), 0.5 mg l−1 of 6-benzylad...

  6. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus. PMID:25752426

  7. Effect Of Barley Fibres And Barley Intake On The Ileal Endogenous Nitrogen Losses In Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Leterme, Pascal; Souffrant, Wb.; Thewis, André

    2000-01-01

    Ileal endogenous N losses (ENL) were measured, using the 15N isotope dilution technique, in piglets (17 kg) fed different barley genotypes (naked, spring, winter with low/high beta-glucan content) or diets containing 330, 530, 730 or 930 g of a blend of barleys/kg diet. The apparent protein and amino acid digestibilities of the naked variety and the winter variety with a high beta-glucan content were, on average, significantly higher than those for the other two varieties. The ENL were invers...

  8. Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    identified using mass spectrometry and data mining. Salt-soluble endosperm proteins from 67 CS deletion lines were also separated by 2DE (four gels per line). Image analysis of the 268 2DE gels as compared to the CS reference proteome allowed the detection of qualitative and quantitative variations in...... endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression of...

  9. Expression of Ethylene Biosynthesis Genes in Barley Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant hormone ethylene influences green plant regeneration rates from barley callus cultures. Our studies have focused on the effects of short treatments of an ethylene inhibitor or an ethylene precursor on green plant regeneration from two barley cultivars and the expression patterns of two eth...

  10. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  11. Effect of heat stress on the pattern of protein synthesis in wheat endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inwood, W.; Bernardin, J. (USDA, Albany, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The exposure of detached wheat heads (T. aestivum L. cv Cheyenne) to elevated temperatures resulted not only in the induction of a typical set of high and low molecular weight heat shock proteins (hsps), but also in a differential effect on the synthesis of wheat storage proteins in endosperm tissue when monitored by SDS PAGE of {sup 35}S-labeled polypeptides. The synthesis of hsps in the endosperm had a rapid onset, reached a maximum rate within the first 2 hours at 40{degree}C, and then steadily decreased during the next four hours. When heads were returned to 25{degree}C after 3 hours at 40{degree}C, hsp synthesis did not cease abruptly, but gradually declined over the next several hours. High molecular weight glutenin protein synthesis was drastically reduced with the same time course as heat shock protein synthesis was induced at 40{degree}C. Conversely, the synthesis of gliadin proteins remained at a high level at 40{degree}C. The synthesis rates for glutenin and gliadin proteins remained at low and high levels, respectively, for as long as the elevated temperature was maintained up to 7 hours.

  12. Pea legumin overexpressed in wheat endosperm assembles into an ordered paracrystalline matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, E; Parker, M; Christou, P; Casey, R

    2001-04-01

    Legumin, a major component of pea seed storage vacuoles, is synthesized by a number of paralogous genes. The polypeptides are cleaved posttranslationally and can form mixed hexamers. This heterogeneity hampers structural studies, based on the production of hexamer crystals in vitro. To study a single type of homogenous legumin we produced pea legumin A in transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) endosperm where prolamins are predominant and only small amounts of globulins accumulate in separate inclusions. We demonstrated that the legumin precursor was cleaved posttranslationally and we confirmed assembly into 11S hexamers. Legumin was deposited within specific regions of the inclusion bodies. Angular legumin crystals extended from the inclusion bodies into the vacuole, correlating with the high legumin content. This suggests that the high-level production of a single type of legumin polypeptide resulted in the spontaneous formation of crystals in vivo. The use of a heterologous cereal system such as wheat endosperm to produce, isolate, and recrystallize homogenous 11S legume globulins offers exciting possibilities for structural analysis and characterization of these important seed storage proteins. PMID:11299354

  13. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolase II (Cel6A) in maize endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaiah, Shivakumar Pattada; Requesens, Deborah Vicuna; Chang, Yeun-Kyung; Hood, Kendall R; Flory, Ashley; Howard, John A; Hood, Elizabeth E

    2013-06-01

    The technology of converting lignocellulose to biofuels has advanced swiftly over the past few years, and enzymes are a significant constituent of this technology. In this regard, cost effective production of cellulases has been the focus of research for many years. One approach to reach cost targets of these enzymes involves the use of plants as bio-factories. The application of this technology to plant biomass conversion for biofuels and biobased products has the potential for significantly lowering the cost of these products due to lower enzyme production costs. Cel6A, one of the two cellobiohydrolases (CBH II) produced by Hypocrea jecorina, is an exoglucanase that cleaves primarily cellobiose units from the non-reducing end of cellulose microfibrils. In this work we describe the expression of Cel6A in maize endosperm as part of the process to lower the cost of this dominant enzyme for the bioconversion process. The enzyme is active on microcrystalline cellulose as exponential microbial growth was observed in the mixture of cellulose, cellulases, yeast and Cel6A, Cel7A (endoglucanase), and Cel5A (cellobiohydrolase I) expressed in maize seeds. We quantify the amount accumulated and the activity of the enzyme. Cel6A expressed in maize endosperm was purified to homogeneity and verified using peptide mass finger printing. PMID:23080294

  14. Metabolic pathways of the wheat (Triticum aestivum endosperm amyloplast revealed by proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont Frances M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, a proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86 endosperm at 10 days after anthesis (DPA detected enzymes from many other metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. To better understand the role of amyloplasts in food production, the data from that study were evaluated in detail and an amyloplast metabolic map was outlined. Results Analysis of 288 proteins detected in an amyloplast preparation predicted that 178 were amyloplast proteins. Criteria included homology with known plastid proteins, prediction of a plastid transit peptide for the wheat gene product or a close homolog, known plastid location of the pathway, and predicted plastid location for other members of the same pathway. Of these, 135 enzymes were arranged into 18 pathways for carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid and other biosynthetic processes that are critical for grain-fill. Functions of the other proteins are also discussed. Conclusion The pathways outlined in this paper suggest that amyloplasts play a central role in endosperm metabolism. The interacting effects of genetics and environment on starch and protein production may be mediated in part by regulatory mechanisms within this organelle.

  15. In vivo gibberellin biosynthesis in endosperm of Sechium edule Sw. seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccarelli, N.; Lorenzi, R. (Universita degli Studi, Pisa (Italy))

    1990-07-01

    Biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) was studied in vivo in endosperms of Sechium edule Sw. Exogenous ent-({sup 14}C)kaurene was metabolized into four major products: GA{sub 12}, GA{sub 4}, GA{sub 7} and 16,17-dihydro-16-hydroxy-GA{sub 15} alcohol glucoside. Other minor metabolites were also observed including ent-kaurenol and ent-kaurenal. Conversion of ent-({sup 14}C)kaurene to ent-karuenol glucoside by endosperm cell-free preparations in the presence of UDPG was observed. However, the finding was not confirmed in in vivo studies and is probably artifactual. Overall evidence coming from the analysis of endogenous GAs and in vitro and in vivo biosynthetic studies are discussed in relation to the possible existence in the Sechium seeds of a different route, along with the known pathway, branching from ent-kaurene or ent-7-{alpha}-hydroxykaurenoic acid and this also leading to biologically active GAs.

  16. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH4)SO4, glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl2 (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by 32P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation

  17. Molecular cloning of starch synthase I from maize (W64) endosperm and expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, M E; Harn, C; Lilley, C E; Guan, H; Singletary, G W; MuForster, C; Wasserman, B P; Keeling, P L

    1998-06-01

    A full length cDNA clone encoding a starch synthase (zSS) from maize endosperm (inbred line W64) was isolated and characterized. The cDNA clone (Ss1) is 2907 bp in length and contains an open reading frame of 1866 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 622 amino acid residues including a transit peptide of 39 amino acids. The Ss1 cDNA clone was identified as zSSI by its direct alignment with sequences to: (i) the N-terminus obtained from the granule-associated form of the zSSI polypeptide, (ii) four internal peptide fragments obtained from the granule-associated form of the zSSI protein, and (iii) one internal fragment from the soluble form of the zSSI protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ss1 shares 75.7% sequence identity with rice soluble Ss and contains the highly conserved KSGGLGDV putative ADP-Glc binding site. Moreover, Ss1 exhibited significant activity when expressed in E. coli and the expressed protein is recognized by the antibody raised against the granule associated zSSI protein. Ss1 transcripts were detected in endosperm beginning at 15 days after pollination, but were not found in embryo, leaf or root. Maize contains a single copy of the Ss1 gene, which maps close to the Waxy locus of chromosome 9. PMID:9675904

  18. Characterization of the reactions of starch branching enzymes from rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasunori; Utsumi, Yoshinori; Sawada, Takayuki; Aihara, Satomi; Utsumi, Chikako; Yoshida, Mayumi; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2010-05-01

    To our knowledge the present paper shows for the first time the kinetic parameters of all the three starch branching enzyme (BE) isozymes, BEI, BEIIa and BEIIb, from rice with both amylopectin and synthetic amylose as glucan substrate. The activities of these BE isozymes with a linear glucan amylose decreased with a decrease in the molar size of amylose, and no activities of BEIIa and BEIIb were found when the degree of polymerization (DP) of amylose was lower than at least 80, whereas BEI had an activity with amylose of a DP higher than approximately 50. Detailed analyses of debranched products from BE reactions revealed the distinct chain length preferences of the individual BE isozymes. BEIIb almost exclusively transferred chains of DP7 and DP6 while BEIIa formed a wide range of short chains of DP6 to around DP15 from outer chains of amylopectin and amylose. On the other hand, BEI formed a variety of short chains and intermediate chains of a DP endosperm. Based on these results, the functional distinction and interaction of BE isozymes during amylopectin biosynthesis in cereal endosperm is discussed. PMID:20305271

  19. Hydrogen storage in carbon derived from solid endosperm of coconut

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Viney; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Shahi, R. R.; Yadav, T. P.; O.N. Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Carbons are being widely investigated as hydrogen storage material owing to their light weight, fast hydrogen adsorption kinetics and cost effectiveness. However, these materials suffer from low hydrogen storage capacity, particularly at room temperature. The aim of the present study is to develop carbon-based material from natural bio-precursor which shows at least moderate hydrogen storage at room temperature. For this purpose, hydrogenation characteristics of carbon derived from solid endo...

  20. Zinc Blotting Assay for Detection of Zinc-Binding Prolamin in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Langkilde, Ane; Vincze, Éva

    2014-01-01

    -binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric......In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  1. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    , with an apparent shift towards abiotic stress responses. Finally the population genetic study based on low distances between populations samples in Denmark and Scotland and high genotypic diversity gave indications of a pathogen with a high evolutionary potential. Altogether, this points to a plant......Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight...... into these aspects four experiments were set up; (1) a mapping experiment aiming at identifying QTL’s controlling disease levels under field conditions was conducted in two winterbarley populations. (2) a toxin assay testing the parental lines used in the mapping populations for response to Rubellin D...

  2. Androgenic response to preculture stress in microspore cultures of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszczuk, S; Sowa, S; Zimny, J

    2006-08-01

    Various stresses such as starvation and cold or heat shocks have been identified as triggers in the induction of the microspore embryogenesis. This study attempts to quantify the effects of different pretreatment conditions for successful microspore culture of malting barley (cv. Scarlett). While the sporophytic microspore development could be induced from treated and nontreated microspores, abiotic stress was essential for embryo formation and plant regeneration. The type of stress treatment applied affected the numbers and the ratios of albino and green plants regenerated, as well as their fertility. The highest number of green plants was obtained after the treatment of anthers in 0.3 M mannitol at 32 degrees C for 24 h before microspore culture. PMID:16937060

  3. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  4. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga Christensen; Lind Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J.; Madrid, Susan M.; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben Bach; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2010-01-01

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm-specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) KDEL were used. Transg...

  5. Overexpression of the rice carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene in Golden Rice endosperm suggests apocarotenoids as substrates in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Andrea; Yu, Qiuju; Schaub, Patrick; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2010-08-01

    Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids. However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading to different volatile compounds. In this study, we investigated the impact of the rice CCD1 (OsCCD1) on the pigmentation of Golden Rice 2 (GR2), a genetically modified rice variety accumulating carotenoids in the endosperm. For this purpose, the corresponding cDNA was introduced into the rice genome under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter in sense and anti-sense orientations. Despite high expression levels of OsCCD1 in sense plants, pigment analysis revealed carotenoid levels and patterns comparable to those of GR2, pleading against carotenoids as substrates in rice endosperm. In support, similar carotenoid contents were determined in anti-sense plants. To check whether OsCCD1 overexpressed in GR2 endosperm is active, in vitro assays were performed with apocarotenoid substrates. HPLC analysis confirmed the cleavage activity of introduced OsCCD1. Our data indicate that apocarotenoids rather than carotenoids are the substrates of OsCCD1 in planta. PMID:20549230

  6. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinoxylan (AX is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm.

  7. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B. However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Results Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Conclusion Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space.

  8. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide;

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... polymerization DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  9. Mutation breeding of barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has special value as a food for people living in the Andes mountain area of Peru. It is also the basic raw material for the malting industry. The factors limiting barley production in Peru are mainly diseases, low soil fertility, low rainfall, drought, frost and hail. Improved varieties should have the capability to overcome most of the factors limiting production. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to apply appropriate methods in mutation induction, and crossing and selection. The mutation induction methods are used to improve well adapted varieties and lines. The barley variety Buenavista is suited to the Altiplano conditions. Because of its spikes, it can withstand hail damage better than other varieties. Naked barley is appreciated very much as a different type of food by people living in the highlands. Based on these facts, a mutation breeding programme was initiated to search for naked kernels and other interesting mutants in the Buenavista variety. The mutagenic agents applied were: gamma rays at 20 and 30 krad (200 and 300 Gy); EMS at 0.05 M and 0.1 M; and sodium azide at 0.001 and 0.004 M. The M1 populations were planted in Callejon de Huaylas at 2700 m of elevation. The M2 generation was grown at La Molina on the campus of the University at 200 m of elevation. The total number of plants in the M2 was 187,574. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations ranged from 1.13% to 5.94%. The highest doses of mutagens resulted in a higher number of chlorophyll mutations, while in the case of naked kernels selected from the bulked seeds of each treatment, the lower dose gave the higher number. The frequency of mutants with naked kernels ranged from 0.07% to 0.12%. The main goal of obtaining naked kernel mutants was achieved. At the applied treatments gamma rays were more effective as a mutagenic agent for this purpose than EMS or sodium azide. (author). 4 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Analysis of Spring Barley Actual Evapotranspiration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Pohanková, Eva; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    Brno: Mendel university, 2013 - (Škarpa, P.; Ryant, P.; Cerkal, R.; Polák, O.; Kovárník, J.), s. 357-361 ISBN 978-80-7375-908-7. [MendelNet 2013. Mendelova univerzita v Brně (CZ), 20.11.2013-21.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MZe QJ1310123 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : reference evapotranspiration * Bowen ratio/energy balance method * crop coefficient * spring barley * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. Molecular mapping of a recessive gene for resistance to stripe rust in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, G P; Chen, X M

    2006-08-01

    Barley stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, is one of the most important barley (Hordeum vulgare) diseases in the United States. The disease is best controlled using resistant cultivars. Barley genotype Grannenlose Zweizeilige (GZ) has a recessive gene (rpsGZ) that is effective against all races of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei identified so far in the USA. To develop a molecular map for mapping the gene, F(8 )recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from the Steptoe X GZ cross through single-seed descent. Seedlings of the parents and RILs were evaluated for resistance to races PSH-14 and PSH-54 of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei under controlled greenhouse conditions. Genomic DNA was extracted from the parents and 182 F(8 )RILs and used for linkage analysis. The resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) technique was used to identify molecular markers for rpsGZ. A linkage group for the gene was constructed with 12 RGAP markers, of which two markers co-segregated with the resistance locus, and two markers were closely linked to the locus with a genetic distance of 0.9 and 2.0 cM, respectively. These four markers were present only in the susceptible parent. The closest marker to the resistance allele was 11.7 cM away. Analyses of two sets of barley chromosome addition lines of wheat with the two RGAP markers that were cosegregating with the susceptibility allele showed that rpsGZ and the markers were located on the long arm of barley chromosome 4H. Further, tests with four simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers confirmed the chromosomal location of the rpsGZ gene and also integrated the RGAP markers into the known SSR-based linkage map of barley. The closest SSR marker EBmac0679 had a genetic distance of 7.5 cM with the gene in the integrated linkage map constructed with the 12 RGAP markers and 4 SSR markers. The information on chromosomal location and molecular markers for rpsGZ should be useful for incorporating this gene into commercial

  12. Mass spectrometric analysis reveals remnants of host-pathogen molecular interactions at the starch granule surface in wheat endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael L; Wheeler, Heather L; Smith, Jeffrey; Figeys, Daniel; Altosaar, Illimar

    2010-09-01

    The starch granules of wheat seed are solar energy-driven deposits of fixed carbon and, as such, present themselves as targets of pathogen attack. The seed's array of antimicrobial proteins, peptides, and small molecules comprises a molecular defense against penetrating pathogens. In turn, pathogens exhibit an arsenal of enzymes to facilitate the degradation of the host's endosperm. In this context, the starch granule surface is a relatively unexplored domain in which unique molecular barriers may be deployed to defend against and inhibit the late stages of infection. Therefore, it was compelling to explore the starch granule surface in mature wheat seed, which revealed evidence of host-pathogen molecular interactions that may have occurred during grain development. In this study, starch granules from the soft wheat Triticum aestivum cv. AC Andrew and hard wheat T. turgidum durum were isolated and water washed 20 times, and their surface proteins were digested in situ with trypsin. The peptides liberated into the supernatant and the peptides remaining at the starch granule surface were separately examined. In this way, we demonstrated that the identified proteins have a strong affinity for the starch granule surface. Proteins with known antimicrobial activity were identified, as well as several proteins from the plant pathogens Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Fusarium graminearum, Magnaporthe grisea, Xanthomonas axonopodis, and X. oryzae. Although most of these peptides corresponded to uncharacterized hypothetical proteins of fungal pathogens, several peptide fragments were identical to cytosolic and membrane proteins of specific microbial pathogens. During development and maturation, wheat seed appeared to have resisted infection and lysed the pathogens where, upon desiccation, the molecular evidence remained fixed at the starch granule surface. PMID:20701481

  13. Impact of Low Concentration of Cadmium on Photosynthesis and Growth of Pea and Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Januškaitienė

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthetic gas exchange and growth characteristics were examined in pea and barley plants using 1 mM Cd treatment. Plants were sown into neutral peat substrate and at a leaf development stage were treated with 1 mM cadmium concentration solution. Gas exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate; intercellular CO2 concentration; transpiration rate; water use efficiency) were measured with portable photosynthesis system LI-6400 on the fifth day after Cd treatment. Under Cd stress the photosynth...

  14. Detection of nitrogen deficiency QTL in juvenile wild barley introgression lines growing in a hydroponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann Astrid; Maurer Andreas; Pillen Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In this report we studied the genetic regulation of juvenile development of wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) under two contrasting hydroponic nitrogen (N) supplies. Ten shoot and root related traits were examined among 42 S42ILs and the recurrent parent ‘Scarlett’. The traits included tiller number, leaf number, plant height, leaf and root length, leaf to root length ratio, shoots and root dry weight, shoot to root weight ratio, and chlorophyll content. Our aims we...

  15. Genetic Dissection of Photoperiod Response Based on GWAS of Pre-Anthesis Phase Duration in Spring Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Sharma, Rajiv; Pasam, Raj K.; Graner, Andreas; Kilian, Benjamin; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Heading time is a complex trait, and natural variation in photoperiod responses is a major factor controlling time to heading, adaptation and grain yield. In barley, previous heading time studies have been mainly conducted under field conditions to measure total days to heading. We followed a novel approach and studied the natural variation of time to heading in a world-wide spring barley collection (218 accessions), comprising of 95 photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) and 123 accessions with reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1) to long-day (LD) through dissecting pre-anthesis development into four major stages and sub-phases. The study was conducted under greenhouse (GH) conditions (LD; 16/8 h; ∼20/∼16°C day/night). Genotyping was performed using a genome-wide high density 9K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chip which assayed 7842 SNPs. We used the barley physical map to identify candidate genes underlying genome-wide association scans (GWAS). GWAS for pre-anthesis stages/sub-phases in each photoperiod group provided great power for partitioning genetic effects on floral initiation and heading time. In addition to major genes known to regulate heading time under field conditions, several novel QTL with medium to high effects, including new QTL having major effects on developmental stages/sub-phases were found to be associated in this study. For example, highly associated SNPs tagged the physical regions around HvCO1 (barley CONSTANS1) and BFL (BARLEY FLORICAULA/LEAFY) genes. Based upon our GWAS analysis, we propose a new genetic network model for each photoperiod group, which includes several newly identified genes, such as several HvCO-like genes, belonging to different heading time pathways in barley. PMID:25420105

  16. Genetic Diversity of Some Saudi Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L. Landraces Based on Two Types of Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.H.M. El-Awady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Very little is known about the genetic diversity and morphological variability present in barley landrace in KSA, a country experiencing loss of biodiversity because of replacement of landraces with modern landraces. Approach: The molecular markers RAPD and ISSR were used as an efficient tools to estimate the intra-and inter-cultivar polymorphism among six barley KSA landraces collected from different geographical regions in order to assess the genetic relationships and develop cultivar-specific molecular fingerprints. The long term objective was to use these fingerprints to identify molecular markers that co-segregate and could be used in isolating gene(s which controlling some important traits, thereafter could be used in breeding programs (marker assisted selection. Results: Out of 20 and 10 primers of RAPD and ISSR, respectively, a clear and reproducible band profile of 13 RAPD primers and 7 ISSR primers were obtained. In RAPD analyses, 61 out of 111 bands (54.6% were polymorphic. The number of alleles ranged from 5-15 per primer, with an average of 8.54 per primer. In ISSR analyses, a total of 53 alleles were detected, among which 16 alleles (30.2% were polymorphic. The number of alleles per primer ranged from 5-10 with an average of 7.57 alleles per ISSR primer. The mean Polymorphism Information Content (PIC values were 0.45 and 0.37 for RAPD and ISSR markers, respectively. Conclusion: ISSR is better than RAPD to detect genetic diversity among the barley landraces. The RAPDs and ISSRs have confirmed each other and the ISSR results are more realistic comparing to RAPD results regarding to the geographical distribution of the six barley landraces. The outcome of this investigation can help strengthen the exiting pool of information on barley that may help assess national barley programs in KSA.

  17. Protein quality of induced high lysine mutants in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum, B O

    1978-01-01

    Evidence of high-lysine gene sources in barley derived from spontaneous and induced mutations has been presented. In addition barley sources considered to be "normal" also differ in lysine content. Changes in lysine concentrations invariable results in changes in other amino acids in barley protein. Protein fractions are altered in several mutant barleys and differ also in so called "normal barleys". The fractions in the normal barleys are probably more dependent upon environmental conditions than in mutant barleys. It is clearly demonstrated with chemical analyses and biological experiments with rats, poultry and pigs that high-lysine cultivars are superior in nutritive quality than their low-lysine isotypes. However, it appears that most of the lysine genotypes possess reduced grain weight and lower grain yield. This is of course unfortunate as an adequate supply of food appears to be the number one nutritional priority in the world today. This does not mean, however, that protein improvement would be of no practical value under conditions of marginal energy deprivation. The literature reviewed suggests that protein improvement would likely be of value under these conditions. PMID:727018

  18. Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of α-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, α-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat. PMID:25578157

  19. Ways of Developing Plants in Interspecific Hybridization of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAKHMANKULOV; S; DAMINOVA; D; RAKHMANKULOV; M

    2008-01-01

    It is known,that there are various barriers to fertilization,development of embryos,and endosperm because of different number of chromosomes in parents in the interspecific hybridization of cotton.Thus the factors providing normal cell fission of a germ and endosperm are necessary.It is necessary to culture embryos in vitro on the artificial environments containing various phytohormones,or to

  20. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762

  1. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.;

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active...

  2. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control...... expressed in E. coli and purified in Chapter 5. The functional characterization of two proteins is undergoing. In Chapter 6, microarray data of F. graminearum during interaction with barley and wheat was analysed. The expression patterns of 11fungal genes in microarray analysis were different from q...

  3. PAMP-triggered immune responses in barley and susceptibility to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hückelhoven, Ralph; Seidl, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) builds one of the first layers of plant disease resistance. In susceptible plants, PTI is overcome by adapted pathogens. This can be achieved by suppression of PTI with the help of pathogen virulence effectors. However, effectors may also contribute to modification of host metabolism or cell architecture to ensure successful pathogenesis. Barley responds to treatment with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns flg22 or chitin with phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and an oxidative burst. RAC/ROP GTPases can act as positive or negative modulators of these plant immune responses. The RAC/ROP GTPase RACB is a powdery mildew susceptibility factor of barley. However, RACB apparently does not negatively control early PTI responses but functions in polar cell development during invasion of the pathogen into living host epidermal cells. Here, we further discuss the incomplete picture of PTI in Triticeae. PMID:27348336

  4. Element distribution of the barley plant grown in an agar slice suspended culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An agar slice suspended culture was devised for the further study of the barley root. The roots were placed into an agar covered with a nylon cloth and suspended in a water culture vessel. Barley roots grown in the agar developed hardly any root hair. The element contents of the root grown in the agar culture and that in the water culture were measured by neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of K, Mg and Cl in the root grown in the agar were about half of these grown in the water. Na and Mn concentrations were the same and Ca concentration was slightly higher when grown in the agar. The agar system is expected to provide more information to study the root hair. (author)

  5. A Simple Method for Assessing Severity of Common Root Rot on Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common root rot caused by Cochliobolus sativus is a serious disease of barley. A simple and reliable method for assessing this disease would enhance our capacity in identifying resistance sources and developing resistant barley cultivars. In searching for such a method, a conidial suspension of C. sativus was dropped onto sterilized elongated subcrown internodes and incubated in sandwich filter paper using polyethylene transparent envelopes. Initial disease symptoms were easily detected after 48h of inoculation. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found in each experiment (A, B and C between sandwich filter paper and seedling assays, indicating that this testing procedure was reliable. The method presented facilitates a rapid pre-selection under uniform conditions which is of importance from a breeder’s point of view.

  6. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...... present in the embryo of the seed. These will, however, not appear in plants under normal development.There are, according to the present analysis, 6 spikes for which 1 or 2 functional initial cells for their sporogenous tissue are already established in the embryo, i.e. at the time of mutagenic treatment...... mutants were analyzed in spikes classified according to their ontogenetic relationship. The frequency with which two spikes segregated identical mutants was determined by pairwise comparisons of all spikes in each plant. In this way the frequency of mutant cluster sharing between spikes and spike groups...

  7. Development and structure of hawthorn seeds (Crataegus L.) from species occurring in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Pelc; Krystyna Ptak

    2014-01-01

    The development, internal and external structure of seeds of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., C. curvisepala Lindm., C. lindmannii Hrabĕt-Uhr., C. oxyacantha L. em. Jacq., C. palmstruchii Lindm., C. macrocarpa Hegetsch were investigated. It was found that the embryo development is specific, and the development of endosperm precedes that of the embryo. In mature seeds of the examined species endosperm is present under the seed coat and the embryo with large cotyledones and radicle is completely immer...

  8. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Kala, Yugal K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat-a novel step toward the development of "climate-smart" wheat

  9. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R.; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P.; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C.; Kala, Yugal K.; Singh, Gyanendra P.; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D.

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat—a novel step toward the development of

  10. The molecular biology and biochemistry of rice endosperm α-globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author's first objective was to isolate a cDNA clone that encodes the rice endosperm α-globulin. Purified antibodies against a rice storage protein, α-globulin, were used to screen a λgt11 cDNA expression library constructed from immature rice seed endosperm. The cDNA insert of clone 4A1 (identified by antibody screening) was used as a probe to identify long cDNA inserts in the library. The deduced amino acid sequence of clone A3-12 cDNA insert (identified by cDNA screening) contained the amino acid sequences of three cyanogen bromide peptides fragment of α-globulin. The calculated molecular weight and amino acid composition of the deduced amino acid sequence were similar to the α-globulin protein. Northern blot analysis indicated that mRNA of one size, approximately 1.0 kb, is expressed. Southern genomic blot analysis revealed one band with EcoRI or Hind III digestion. Cell-free translation and immunoprecipitation showed that the initial translation product is approximately 2,000 daltons larger than the mature protein. The amino acid sequence of α-globulin revealed limited regions of similarities with wheat storage proteins. The author concludes that the cDNA insert in clone A3-12 contained the entire coding region of α-globulin protein and that α-globulin is encoded by a single gene. My second objective was to inhibit the degradation of α-globulin in the salt extract of rice flour. The salt extract of rice flour contained an acid protease whose optimal pH was 3 for 3H-casein hydrolysis. A polypeptide with molecular weight of 20,000 was immunologically reactive with α-globulin antibodies and is produced by limited proteolysis in the extract. Pepstatin inhibited the proteolysis of 3H-casein and slowed the proteolysis of α-globulin

  11. Resistance against barley leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in West-European spring barley germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Niks, Rients; Walther, Ursula; Jaiser, Heidi; Martinez, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2000-01-01

    International audience The level and type of resistance against leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) was determined in modern spring barley germplasm. In field trials all over Europe most accessions were in some locations and years significantly less infected than the moderately resistant reference ,Grit'. Differentiating P. hordei isolates indicated that most accessions carried hypersensitivity (Rph) genes. A virulence survey indicated that among the known resistance genes, only Rph7 is still full...

  12. Dwarf and semi-dwarf barley mutants in cross-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important stress tolerant rabi cereal. It is consumed as food and as animal feed, and is used in the malt industry in India. The local genotypes are prone to lodging and low yields. Mutation breeding work, using physical mutagens, was initiated at the Agricultural Research Station, Durgapura, Jaipur, to evolve non-lodging, dwarf and high yielding genotypes suitable for direct and indirect utilization. Subsequently, a suitable dwarf cultivar, RDB-1, was developed by irradiating a tall local cultivar, RS-17, with 4.5 x 1012n/cm2. Later, other genotypes, e.g. Azam dwarf-1 and Azam dwarf-13, were also identified as spontaneous mutants. These three mutants were used extensively and successfully in the barley cross-breeding programme in India for developing dwarf genotypes that are non-lodging, have a high yield, and are hulled and hull-less. So far, 15 promising cultivars have been identified by scientific evaluation committees for cultivation in varied agroclimatic farming environments. These new genotypes have increased the per unit production of barley in India. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab

  13. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus

  14. Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of barley

    OpenAIRE

    H. Samarah, Nezar

    2005-01-01

    International audience Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Mediterranean regions undergoes drought stress during the grain-filling period. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of drought stress on grain growth and yield of barley. Plants were exposed to three drought treatments at the beginning of grain filling: (1) well-watered at 100% field capacity, (2) mild drought stress at 60% field capacity, and (3) severe drought stress at 20% field capacity until grain maturity....

  15. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    OpenAIRE

    Muavviz Ayvaz; Mesut Koyuncu; Avni Guven; FAGERSTEDT, KURT V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98) were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm) ...

  16. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  17. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones

  18. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  19. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  20. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [14C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  1. Induced High Lysine Mutants in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Køie, B.; Eggum, B. O.

    1974-01-01

    Screening of mutagenically treated materials by combined Kjeldahl nitrogen and dye-binding capacity determinations disclosed fourteen barley mutants, which have from a few to about 40 per cent more lysine in the protein and one mutant with 10 per cent less lysine in the protein than the parent...... variety. Comparisons of six high lysine mutants with the parent variety showed that grain yield and seed size of the mutants are reduced between 10 and 30 per cent. However, the most promising mutant had the lowest reduction in grain yield, and the absolute lysine yield of this mutant was some 30 per cent...... above that of the parent variety. Feeding tests with rats revealed substantial increases in the biological value of the high lysine mutant protein. Also the net protein utilization was improved but less so because of a somewhat reduced digestibility of the mutant protein....

  2. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Wanic; Magdalena Jastrzębska; Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale), when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley), when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full ...

  3. High voltage electric field effects on structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaei, J. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agrotechnology, Univ. College of Abouraihan; Aliabadi, E. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Crop Production Horticulture, Univ. College of Aburaihan; Shayegani, A.A. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Univ. College of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Electric biostimulation of seeds is a pre-sowing treatment in which an electric field is applied to seeds to increase germination of non standard seeds. This paper reported on a study that examined the effects of AC electric field and exposure time on the structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds. The objective was to determine the potential to accelerate seed germination, plant growth and root development by the electric field strength and exposure time. Makooei cultivar barley seeds were used in this study. The effect of electric field strength (at 2, 4, 9, and 14 kV/m) and exposure time (at 15, 45, 80, and 150 min) on seed germination was studied along with height of seedling, length or root, height of stem, length of leaves, earliness, dry weight and wet weight of seedling. The treated seeds were stored for a month in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C prior to the germination experiments. The initial germination percent of the seed was 81 per cent. The treatment of barley seeds in an AC electric field had a positive effect on all investigated parameters. The germination percent of the treated seed increased to 94.5 per cent . The seeds exposed for long periods of time (45 to 150 min) showed better germination than the seeds exposed to lower exposure times. Dry and wet weights of seedling increased 143.4 per cent and 45.7 per cent, respectively.

  4. Comparison of barley stripe mosaic virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Elsayed E; Abdel Aleem, Engy E; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2008-01-01

    BSMV (barley stripe mosaic virus) particles were obtained in a pure state from infected host plant tissues of Hordeum vulgare. The three genomic parities (alpha, beta and gamma) were amplified by PCR using specific primers for each particle; each was cloned. Partial sequence of the alpha, beta and gamma segments was determined for the Egyptian isolate of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV AE1). Alignment of nucleotide sequences with that of other known strains of the virus, BSMV type strains (CV17, ND18 and China), and the generation of phylogenetic trees was performed. A low level of homology was detected comparing 467 bp of the a and 643 bp of the segments to that of the other strains, and thus BSMV alpha and beta segments were in separate clusters. However, 1154 bp of the gamma segments of BSMV AE1 showed a high level of homology especially to strain BSMV ND18, as they both formed a distinct cluster. Northern blotting of pure BSMV AE1 virus and H. vulgare-infected tissue were compared using an alpha ND18 specific probe. Western blotting using antibodies specific for the coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block 1 (TGB1) protein, which are both encoded by the beta ND18 segment, still indicated a high level of similarity between proteins produced by BSMV ND18 and AE1. We suggest that the BSMV AE1 isolate is a distinct strain of BSMV which reflects the genetic evolutionary divergence among BSMV strains and members of the Hordeivirus group. PMID:18533473

  5. An Endosperm-Associated Cuticle Is Required for Arabidopsis Seed Viability, Dormancy and Early Control of Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien De Giorgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular layers and seeds are prominent plant adaptations to terrestrial life that appeared early and late during plant evolution, respectively. The cuticle is a waterproof film covering plant aerial organs preventing excessive water loss and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. Cutin, consisting of crosslinked fatty acid monomers, is the most abundant and studied cuticular component. Seeds are dry, metabolically inert structures promoting plant dispersal by keeping the plant embryo in an arrested protected state. In Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the embryo is surrounded by a single cell endosperm layer itself surrounded by a seed coat layer, the testa. Whole genome analyses lead us to identify cutin biosynthesis genes as regulatory targets of the phytohormones gibberellins (GA and abscisic acid (ABA signaling pathways that control seed germination. Cutin-containing layers are present in seed coats of numerous species, including Arabidopsis, where they regulate permeability to outer compounds. However, the role of cutin in mature seed physiology and germination remains poorly understood. Here we identify in mature seeds a thick cuticular film covering the entire outer surface of the endosperm. This seed cuticle is defective in cutin-deficient bodyguard1 seeds, which is associated with alterations in endospermic permeability. Furthermore, mutants affected in cutin biosynthesis display low seed dormancy and viability levels, which correlates with higher levels of seed lipid oxidative stress. Upon seed imbibition cutin biosynthesis genes are essential to prevent endosperm cellular expansion and testa rupture in response to low GA synthesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the course of land plant evolution cuticular structures were co-opted to achieve key physiological seed properties.

  6. Identification of the differentially accumulated proteins associated with low phosphorus tolerance in a Tibetan wild barley accession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadira, Umme Aktari; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Zeng, Jianbin; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-07-01

    Low phosphorus (LP) in soil is a widely-occurred limiting factor for crop production in the world. In a previous study we identified a highly LP-tolerant Tibetan wild barley accession (XZ99). Here, a comparatively proteomic analysis was conducted using three barley genotypes differing in LP tolerance to reveal the mechanisms underlying the LP tolerance of XZ99. Totally, 31 differentially accumulated proteins were identified in the roots and leaves of the three genotypes using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. They were involved in the various biological processes, including carbon and energy metabolism, signal transduction, cell growth and division, secondary metabolism, and stress defense. In comparison with XZ100 (LP sensitive) and ZD9 (LP moderately-tolerant), XZ99 had a more developed root system, which is mainly attributed to enhanced carbohydrate metabolizing proteins under LP conditions. The current results showed that Tibetan wild barley XZ99 and cultivated barley cultivar ZD9 differ in the mechanism of LP tolerance. The changes of the proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism could account for the difference between the LP-tolerant and LP-sensitive genotypes. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of 9 LP responsive proteins were verified by qRT-PCR. The current results may open a new avenue of understanding the LP tolerance in plants on the proteomic basis. PMID:27111503

  7. The Effects of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Systemic Immune Responses of Gluten-Sensitive Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD affects approximately 1% of the general population while an estimated additional 6% suffers from a recently characterized, rapidly emerging, similar disease, referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires removal of gluten sources from the diet. Since required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD is difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop alternative treatments have been intensifying in recent years. In this study, the non-human primate model of CD/NCGS, e.g., gluten-sensitive rhesus macaque, was utilized with the objective to evaluate the treatment potential of reduced gluten cereals using a reduced gluten (RG; 1% of normal gluten barley mutant as a model. Conventional and RG barleys were used for the formulation of experimental chows and fed to gluten-sensitive (GS and control macaques to determine if RG barley causes a remission of dietary gluten-induced clinical and immune responses in GS macaques. The impacts of the RG barley diet were compared with the impacts of the conventional barley-containing chow and the GFD. Although remission of the anti-gliadin antibody (AGA serum responses and an improvement of clinical diarrhea were noted after switching the conventional to the RG barley diet, production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interleukin-8 (IL-8 by peripheral CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, persisted during the RG chow treatment and were partially abolished only upon re-administration of the GFD. It was concluded that the RG barley diet might be used for the partial improvement of gluten-induced disease but its therapeutic value still requires upgrading—by co-administration of additional treatments.

  8. Competition and Facilitation in Hairy Vetch-Barley Intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Tosti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercrops between legumes and non-legumes are widely used for fodder production and as cover crops, but little quantitative data are available on competition between species in the mixture. The objective of the present study was to assess the interaction between hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown as pure crops or intercrops with different proportions of seed rates at sowing. A 4-year field study was conducted using hairy vetch and barley as pure stands at full sowing density and as intercrops at different proportions of their own full seed rate according to the replacement principle. Interaction between species was evaluated on the basis of Land Equivalent Ratio (LER, Relative Neighbour Effect (RNE and Aggressivity (A calculated on biomass and nitrogen (N accumulation. The N accumulation of the mixed crops increased linearly with the legume proportion in the mixture. The mixtures were more efficient than the pure crops in terms of N use (LER > 1. Partial LER values indicated that the barley component benefited from the presence of the legume, while the hairy vetch partial LER decreased with increasing barley proportion in the mixture. The competitive response in terms of biomass accumulation was high for both species when their density in the mixture was high. Concerning N accumulation, barley benefited from an asymmetric interspecific facilitation while the vetch behaviour was similar to that observed for biomass accumulation. Barley dominance progressively increased reaching a maximum just before the last sampling date. At the last sampling date the competitive ability of hairy vetch showed a considerable increase in all mixtures (A ≈ 0. These findings indicate that the use of mixtures between hairy vetch and barley allows an increase in the use efficiency of N resource with respect to pure crops. Barley is the dominant component of the mixture and the hairy vetch is able to cope with the cereal

  9. Xyloglucan Metabolism Differentially Impacts the Cell Wall Characteristics of the Endosperm and Embryo during Arabidopsis Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechet, Julien; Frey, Anne; Effroy-Cuzzi, Delphine; Berger, Adeline; Perreau, François; Cueff, Gwendal; Charif, Delphine; Rajjou, Loïc; Mouille, Grégory; North, Helen M; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2016-03-01

    Cell wall remodeling is an essential mechanism for the regulation of plant growth and architecture, and xyloglucans (XyGs), the major hemicellulose, are often considered as spacers of cellulose microfibrils during growth. In the seed, the activity of cell wall enzymes plays a critical role in germination by enabling embryo cell expansion leading to radicle protrusion, as well as endosperm weakening prior to its rupture. A screen for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants affected in the hormonal control of germination identified a mutant, xyl1, able to germinate on paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis. This mutant also exhibited reduced dormancy and increased resistance to high temperature. The XYL1 locus encodes an α-xylosidase required for XyG maturation through the trimming of Xyl. The xyl1 mutant phenotypes were associated with modifications to endosperm cell wall composition that likely impact on its resistance, as further demonstrated by the restoration of normal germination characteristics by endosperm-specific XYL1 expression. The absence of phenotypes in mutants defective for other glycosidases, which trim Gal or Fuc, suggests that XYL1 plays the major role in this process. Finally, the decreased XyG abundance in hypocotyl longitudinal cell walls of germinating embryos indicates a potential role in cell wall loosening and anisotropic growth together with pectin de-methylesterification. PMID:26826221

  10. Numerical simulation static-bed drying of barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandas, N. [Universita di Cagliari (Italy). Dipartimento d' Ingegneria Meccanica; Habte, M. [Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia). Mechanical Engineering Department

    2002-07-01

    The last decade has seen enormous progress in mathematical modelling and numerical simulation in areas related with fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer. This is because of the increasingly widespread use of powerful, low-cost digital computers. Future efforts should be directed towards developing computer codes that can be implemented by users who may not be well versed in computational skills. Here a computer program has been developed, for simulating a non-equilibrium mathematical model for static-deep-bed drying of barley. The model consists of a set of four non-linear partial differential equations as a result of mass and energy balances and heat transfer equations, together with appropriate diffusion equation. The set of equations is solved by means of a finite-difference method, using a second-order iterative predictor-corrector process to solve the first two equations in the time domain, and a first-order iterative process for the second two, in the space domain. Published experimental results are used to validate the model. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data relative to heated-air drying system, and the prediction accuracy is enhanced with respect to equilibrium models. (author)

  11. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  12. Addition of Manas barley chromosome arms to the hexaploid wheat genome

    OpenAIRE

    Türkösi, Edina; Cseh, András; Darkó, Éva; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultivated barley belongs to the tertiary genepool of hexaploid wheat. Genes of interest can be transferred from barley into wheat through wide hybridization. The application of wheat-barley introgression lines could provide an excellent tool for the transfer of earliness, favourable amino acid composition, biotic stress resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, or good tillering ability into wheat. Results A set of 10 wheat-barley ditelosomic addition lines (2HS, 2HL, 3HS, 3HL, 4HS, 4...

  13. 大麦营养品质及加工研究进展%Research progress on nutritional quality and processing technology of barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文; 叶晓汀; 谢静; 史定国; 张智超; 刘加友; 隋中泉

    2016-01-01

    Barley is one of the major cereal foods for people lived in Eastern Europe,North Africa,Hima-layan region in Asia and other region with extreme climate,providing novel functional benefit for human health.The progress in nutritional components and process of barley was summarized in the aspects of starch,fiber,protein and β-glucan.The qualities of barley products were affected by the physicochemi-cal properties of barley and process,which provided information for the development and application of barley food.%大麦是欧洲东部、非洲北部、亚洲喜马拉雅地区和其他极端气候地区居民的主食和主要碳水化合物来源。大麦在食品中的添加应用有助于提升食品的营养价值,对人体有一定益处。从大麦淀粉、膳食纤维、蛋白质、β-葡聚糖等方面综述现阶段大麦的营养价值和加工应用的研究进展,并讨论了大麦理化性质与加工工艺的关联性,为大麦食品的开发应用提供一定的参考。

  14. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  15. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...

  16. Effect of Different Levels of Germinated Barley on Live Performance and Carcass Traits in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastar B

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of germinated barley (GB on live performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. The experiment lasted for 5 weeks starting from 7 days of age and ending at 42 days of age. Chicks (Ross 308 were fed six dietary treatments including a corn–soy diet (corn diet, a barley–soy diet (barley diet, a barley diet plus enzymes (enzyme barley diet, and 3 other diets in which GB was replaced with barley at levels of 33%, 66%, and 100% in the barley diet (33% GB diet, 66% GB diet, and GB diet, respectively. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. Results indicated that birds fed a barley diet had significantly lower performance than those fed other diets (P. Supplementing of the barley diet with β-glucanase enzyme as well as replacing GB with barley improved the performance of broilers. Birds fed a GB diet had a significantly higher carcass yield those fed other diets (P. The lowest abdominal fat percentage was observed in birds fed a barley diet or a corn diet. Thus, it is concluded that replacing GB with barley, especially at 33% level, is more effective than supplementing barley diets with β-glucanase enzyme in improving live performance of broiler chickens.

  17. Research on the mechanism of penicillin induction of α-amylase biosynthesis in wheat endosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penicillin induced the synthesis of α-amylase in wheat-endosperm (embryoless half-seeds) was studied. Of concentrations tried, 500 mg/L penicillin was the most effective, which increased the enzyme activity by 46.7∼75.3%. Penicillin also stimulated the content of the soluble protein (increased by 27.66%∼111.59%), which had significant positive correlation with the activity of α-amylase. The analysis of α-amylase isoenzymogram showed that a band was added with penicillin treatment. And tracing 3H-L-Leu showed the radioactivity of α-amylase with penicillin was 39.0% higher than that of the control. Penicillin induction of α-amylase could be prevented by the transcription inhibitor (AMD) and the translation inhibitor (CHI), indicating that the biosynthesis of α-amylase promoted by penicillin occurred in the transcriptional and translational levels. The contents of endogenous gibberellin in whole and embryoless half seeds were determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the contents of gibberellin in penicillin-treated seeds were 84.40% and 180.22% higher than that of the control, respectively, which indicated that penicillin probably induced gibberellin biosynthesis, which in turn regulated opening and transcription of gene

  18. Solubilization of beta-glucan synthases from the membranes of cultured ryegrass endosperm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R J; Stone, B A

    1982-06-01

    beta-Glucan synthases were solubilized by treating membrane preparations from suspension-cultured ryegrass (lolium multiflorum) endosperm cells with detergents. Of the seven detergents tested only digitonin and octyl glucoside dissociated active synthases from the membranes. The digitonin-solubilized enzymes produced 1,4-beta-glucans and 1,3:1,4-beta-glucans, whereas the digitonin-insoluble enzymes produced, in addition, 1,3-beta-glucans. Chromatography of the digitonin-solubilized beta-glucan synthases on DEAE-Sepharose resulted in their partial purification. The octyl glucoside-solubilized enzymes produced more 1,3-beta-glucans than did the membrane-bound preparations. These results suggest that the 1,3-beta-glucan synthase is a separate enzyme and is not involved in 1,3:1,4-beta-glucan synthesis. Digitonin not only dissociated synthases from the membranes, but also stimulated synthase activity. This effect may be related to the inhibition by digitonin of glucosyl transfer from UDP-glucose to form steryl glucosides. PMID:6214254

  19. Genetic control of amylose content in wheat endosperm starch and differential effects of three Wx genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, H; Tanii, S; Nakamura, T; Watanabe, N

    1994-10-01

    The endosperm starch of the wheat grain is composed of amylose and amylopectin. Genetic manipulation of the ratio of amylose to amylopectin or the amylose content could bring about improved texture and quality of wheat flour. The chromosomal locations of genes affecting amylose content were investigated using a monosomic series of Chinese Spring (CS) and a set of Cheyenne (CNN) chromosome substitution lines in the CS genetic background. Trials over three seasons revealed that a decrease in amylose content occurred in monosomic 4A and an increase in monosomic 7B. Allelic variation between CS and CNN was suggested for the genes on chromosomes 4A and 7B. To examine the effects of three Waxy (Wx) genes which encode a granule-bound starch synthase (Wx protein), the Wx proteins from CS monosomics of interest were analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The amount of the Wx protein coded by the Wx-B1 gene on chromosome arm 4AL was reduced in monosomic 4A, and thus accounted for its decreased amylose content. The amounts of two other Wx proteins coded by the Wx-A1 and Wx-D1 genes on chromosome arms 7AS and 7DS, respectively, showed low levels of protein in the monosomics but no effect on amylose content. The effect of chromosome 7B on the level of amylose suggested the presence of a regulator gene which suppresses the activities of the Wx genes. PMID:24177841

  20. The project of mutation breeding in barley (first report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley is a second main crop with the production of 7 million tons per year and 3,5 million hectare cultivation area in Turkey. Because of wateer deficiency, cereals cultivated in Central Anatolian region. Barley is well adapted to dry farming system besides it is basic food for animal husbandry and main raw material for brewery industry. the main problems in barley production are drought disease epidemic and increasing salinity gradually. Main purposes of our project is to increase resistance and tolerence to this stress factors. In order to reach to our aim we have been using mutation breeding techniques and conventional breeding methods. This Project has been started with irradiation of barley seeds with different gamma ray doses. After that resistant and tolerant mutant has been selected most of these mutanys have resistance and tolerance to different disease and stress conditions. During the selection procedure, hydroponics and tissue culture techniques have been applied to improve the selection efficiency. Up to now, promising barley mutant lines 71 that have earliness (30 days) than parents and because of that reason that escape from drought period. Disease tests of our mutant lines have been conducted under controlled conditions and tolerant lines have been determined under the high the high epidemic conditions. Salt tolerance studies have been applied under hydroponics conditions and salt tolerant mutant have been determined under 180-200mMolNaCl concentration. All mutant lines are carried out to preliminary yield trials for their evaluation

  1. Simulation of in situ Root Decomposition of Two Barley Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jing-gang; Duan Xue-jiao; Nooralla Juma

    2014-01-01

    Root C and root-released C are closely related to soil organic matter content and mechanistic simulation modeling has proven to be useful for studying root and soil organic C dynamics in plant-soil ecosystems. A computer model was designed in this study to simulate the dynamics of root C and root released C decomposition in situ and the dynamics of different forms of C in soil under two barley cultivars (Abee and Samson). The results showed that on the 15th day, about 48%of the total 14C fixed in roots was respired for Abee and 42%for Samson. This indicated that the turnover rate of root 14C of Abee was higher than that of Samson. The percentage of water-soluble organic 14C, active microbial 14C and stable 14C over the total fixed 14C were not different between two barley cultivars. From the analysis of the model for two barley cultivars, the total 14C transformed into different soil pools (excluding CO2-C and root C pools) for the two barley cultivars was similar (26%for Abee and 25%for Samson), but the difference of 14C remaining in soil between the two barley cultivars was mainly because of the difference of 14C remaining in roots which have not been yet decomposed. Some of the information which could not be measured in the laboratory conditions was obtained in this study.

  2. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  3. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: → The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. → Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. → Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. → Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  4. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  5. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Rosset Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC, with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs.

  6. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  7. In vitro culture in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

  8. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  9. Improvement of quinoa and barley through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main cropping problems in the Bolivian highlands are the long growing period of barley, high degree of environmental influence on the performance of quinoa, and low soil moisture at sowing time, leading to low germination rate and poor stands, and frost or chilling damages. The program aimed to establish protocols for induction of mutations with X rays and chemical mutagens (NaN3, MNH, EMS) in quinoa, barley, native forage species and forest plants and to obtain mutant lines, especially in barley and quinoa; and to establish callus regeneration in quinoa and micropropagation of kenua (Polilepis). The project is still in its study stages, hence further evaluations are needed before firm conclusions are drawn. (author)

  10. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise' and...... 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high...... crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri .times. H. brevisubulatum) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 27-30) and (H. jubatum .times. H. lechleri) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 20-22). The first combination...

  11. THE VALUE OF PROTEIN IN FEED BARLEY FOR BEEF, DAIRY, AND SWINE FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    LaFrance, Jeffrey T.; Watts, Myles J.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of the protein content of feed barley on the costs of feeding beef, dairy cattle, and swine in Montana is evaluated. A model of least-cost feed rations is constructed to analyze the marginal value of additional protein content in feed barley. The results indicate that increasing the protein content of feed barley above 12% will not substantially increase the value of barley to feeders. This implies that the establishment and maintenance of a protein premium in the feed barley marke...

  12. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  13. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by...... solubilization of the lamellae in phenol/acetic acid/8 M urea. Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein....

  14. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly......A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse...

  15. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by......, the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in...

  16. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG barley (lys3a-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE. Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2 antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches.

  17. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Liu, David X.; Alvarez, Xavier; Laine, David; Clarke, Adam; Doyle, Anthony; Aye, Pyone P.; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG) barley (lys3a)-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two) study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE). Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches. PMID:27367722

  18. PHYTO-SANITARY CONDITION OF CROPS OF WINTER BARLEY WHEN GROWING USING DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysenko I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the biennial data on infestation of winter barley infected with his disease and pests, depending on fertilizer rates, the main method of tillage and plant protection. Weeds are one of the most highly potent factors that reduce the productivity of plants. System of agronomic plant cannot increase the productivity of plants, if it contributes to impurity of crops. In the studied years, the most common weeds at the recommended tillage were dead nettle, cleavers, chickweed, field bindweed. At zero processing - foxtail, poppy, wild oats, Leptospermum, dead nettle, veronica. The use of biological and chemical plant protection products reduced the degree of expansion and development of disease

  19. Extraction of light filth from barley, oatmeal, and mixed dry infant cereals: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, R G

    1980-03-01

    A new method has been developed for the extraction of light filth from oatmeal, barley, and mixed dry infant cereals which involves HCl digestion followed by wet sieving. The residue is defatted in a paper cup, using isopropanol, and transferred to a 2 L Wildman trap flask with 40% isopropanol. Filth elements are extracted with light mineral oil. Interlaboratory studies resulted in 92 and 86% average recoveries of rodent hairs and insect fragments, respectively. The proposed method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:7053199

  20. Desenvolvimento de populações duplo-haplóides de cevada cervejeira associadas à atividade das enzimas (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases Development of doubled-haploids populations in malting barley associated to activity of enzymes (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Endres Georg-Kraemer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Populações duplo-haplóides apresentam especial vantagem para análises genéticas, uma vez que a informação que elas oferecem pode ser maximizada, devido ao fato que todos os locos encontram-se em homozigose. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de duas populações duplo-haplóides (DHs de cevada (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. segregantes para a atividade das enzimas (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases, através da técnica de cultura de anteras. Foram realizados dois cruzamentos com cultivares contrastantes para esta característica. As cultivares parentais selecionadas foram 'MN 698' e 'CEV 97047', para o desenvolvimento da população "malte verde" (MV, e 'Embrapa 127' e 'CEV 96025' para o desenvolvimento da população "malte seco" (MS. Foram cultivadas 10.734 anteras da população MS e 4.139 anteras da população MV. A população MV produziu 50% mais plântulas verdes quando comparada à população MS, refletindo a importância do genótipo na resposta à cultura de anteras e na regeneração. A maioria das plantas adultas duplo-haplóides foi obtida através da duplicação espontânea in vitro do genoma haplóide, ocorrendo em 66% das plantas da população MS e 76% das plantas da população MV. Também foram observadas, em menor frequência, plantas haplóides, triplóides e tetraplóides. Através da técnica de cultura de anteras, foram desenvolvidas 204 linhagens duplo-haplóides, das quais 72 linhagens são da população "malte seco" e 132 linhagens são da população "malte verde". Este material constitui um importante germoplasma para o melhoramento genético da cevada.Doubled haploid populations offer special advantages in genetic analyses, since the information they provide may be maximized due to the fact that all loci are homozygous. The aim of this study was to develop two barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp.vulgare L. doubled-haploid (DHs populations segregating to (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases activity, utilizing the anther

  1. TOTAL IMPORTS AND IMPORT PATTERNS OF BARLEY INTO JAPAN: Implications of the 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Makus, Larry D.

    1990-01-01

    A two-stage budgeting procedure was employed to analyze (1) the Japanese import demand for barley and (2) allocation of Japanese barley imports between North America (Canada and the United States) and Australia. It was found that the import demand for barley was price inelastic and corn was a substitute for barley. Japanese barley imports were also influenced by size of the cattle herd and the number of cattle slaughtered. Price competition played a significant role in import allocation and b...

  2. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  3. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of beta-expansin gene related to root hair formation in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona

    2006-07-01

    Root hairs are specialized epidermal cells that play a role in the uptake of water and nutrients from the rhizosphere and serve as a site of interaction with soil microorganisms. The process of root hair formation is well characterized in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana); however, there is a very little information about the genetic and molecular basis of root hair development in monocots. Here, we report on isolation and cloning of the beta-expansin (EXPB) gene HvEXPB1, tightly related to root hair initiation in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Using root transcriptome differentiation in the wild-type/root-hairless mutant system, a cDNA fragment present in roots of wild-type plants only was identified. After cloning of full-length cDNA and genomic sequences flanking the identified fragment, the subsequent bioinformatics analyses revealed homology of the protein coded by the identified gene to the EXPB family. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that expression of HvEXPB1 cosegregated with the root hair phenotype in F2 progeny of the cross between the hairless mutant rhl1.a and the wild-type Karat parent variety. Expression of the HvEXPB1 gene was root specific; it was expressed in roots of wild-type forms, but not in coleoptiles, leaves, tillers, and spikes. The identified gene was active in roots of two other analyzed root hair mutants: rhp1.a developing root hair primordia only and rhs1.a with very short root hairs. Contrary to this, a complete lack of HvEXPB1 expression was observed in roots of the spontaneous root-hairless mutant bald root barley. All these observations suggest a role of the HvEXPB1 gene in the process of root hair formation in barley. PMID:16679418

  5. Influence of biologically-active substances on 137Cs and heavy metals uptake by Barley plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: When solving the problem of contaminated agricultural lands rehabilitation, most of attention is concentrated on the effective means which allow the obtaining of ecologically safe production. The minimization of radionuclides and heavy metals (HM) content in farm products on the basis of their migration characteristics in agro-landscapes and with the regard for different factors influencing contaminants behavior in the soil-plant system is of great significance. Our investigation has shown that the effect of biologically active substances (BAS) using for seeds treatment on 137Cs transfer to barley grown on Cd contaminated soil was dependent on their properties and dosage, characteristics of soil contamination and biological peculiarities of plants, including stage of plants development. Seeds treatment by plant growth regulator Zircon resulted in a significant increase in 137Cs activity in harvest (40- 50%), increase in K concentration and significant reduction in Ca concentration. Increased Cd content in soil reduced 137Cs transfer to barley plants by 30-60% (p137Cs uptake by roots and Cd and Pb phyto-toxicity. The experimental data do not make it possible to link the BAS effect on inhibition of 137Cs absorption by plants directly with their influence on HM phyto-toxicity. The dependence of Concentration Ratio of 137Cs on the Ambiol and El dose was not proportional and the most significant decrease in the radionuclide uptake by plants was reported with the use of dose showing the most pronounced stimulating effect on the barley growth and development. The pre-sowing seed treatment with Ambiol increased Pb absorption by 35-50% and, on the contrary, decreased Cd uptake by plants by 30-40%. (authors)

  6. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. PMID:26111197

  7. Marker-free transgenic (MFT) near-isogenic introgression lines (NIILs) of 'golden' indica rice (cv. IR64) with accumulation of provitamin A in the endosperm tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisakh, Niranjan; Rehana, Sayda; Rai, Mayank; Oliva, Norman; Tan, Jing; Mackill, David J; Khush, Gurdev S; Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan K

    2006-07-01

    We have developed near-isogenic introgression lines (NIILs) of an elite indica rice cultivar (IR64) with the genes for beta-carotene biosynthesis from dihaploid (DH) derivatives of golden japonica rice (cv. T309). A careful analysis of the DH lines indicated the integration of the genes of interest [phytoene synthase (psy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI)] and the selectable marker gene (hygromycin phosphotransferase, hph) in two unlinked loci. During subsequent crossing, progenies could be obtained carrying only the locus with psy and crtI, which was segregated independently from the locus containing the hph gene during meiotic segregation. The NIILs (BC(2)F(2)) showed maximum similarity with the recurrent parent cultivar IR64. Further, progenies of two NIILs were devoid of any fragments beyond the left or right border, including the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) antibiotic resistance gene of the transformation vector. Spectrophotometric readings showed the accumulation of up to 1.06 microg total carotenoids, including beta-carotene, in 1 g of the endosperm. The accumulation of beta-carotene was also evident from the clearly visible yellow colour of the polished seeds. PMID:17177811

  8. Effect of suppression of arabinoxylan synthetic genes in wheat endosperm on chain length of arabinoxylan and extract viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jackie; Lovegrove, Alison; Wilkinson, Mark David; Saulnier, Luc; Shewry, Peter Robert; Mitchell, Rowan Andrew Craig

    2016-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) is the dominant component within wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endosperm cell walls, accounting for 70% of the polysaccharide. The viscosity of aqueous extracts from wheat grain is a key trait influencing the processing for various end uses, and this is largely determined by the properties of endosperm AX. We have previously shown dramatic effects on endosperm AX in transgenic wheat by down-regulating either TaGT43_2 or TaGT47_2 genes (orthologues to IRX9 and IRX10 in Arabidopsis, respectively) implicated in AX chain extension and the TaXAT1 gene responsible for monosubstitution by 3-linked arabinose. Here, we use these transgenic lines to investigate the relationship between amounts of AX in soluble and insoluble fractions, the chain-length distribution of these measured by intrinsic viscosity and the overall effect on extract viscosity. In transgenic lines expressing either the TaGT43_2 or TaGT47_2 RNAi transgenes, the intrinsic viscosities of water-extractable (WE-AX) and of a water-insoluble alkaline-extracted fraction (AE-AX) were decreased by between 10% and 50% compared to control lines. In TaXAT1 RNAi lines, there was a 15% decrease in intrinsic viscosity of WE-AX but no consistent effect on that of AE-AX. All transgenic lines showed decreases in extract viscosity with larger effects in TaGT43_2 and TaGT47_2 RNAi lines (by up to sixfold) than in TaXAT1 RNAi lines (by twofold). These effects were explained by the decreases in amount and chain length of WE-AX, with decreases in amount having the greater influence. Extract viscosity from wheat grain can therefore be greatly decreased by suppression of single gene targets. PMID:25819752

  9. Microscopic Structures of Endosperms Before and After Gelatinization in Rice Varieties with Varied Grain Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ze-min; WANG Wei-jin; LAN Sheng-yin; XU Zhen-xiu; ZHOU Zhu-qing; WANG Meng

    2003-01-01

    The microscopic structures of the endosperm of indica rice varieties with different quality be-fore and after gelatinization were observed using scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the de-gree of gelatinization varied in different parts of the grain and in different varieties under the same experimen-tal conditions. The gelatinization of dorsal side was the most complete. Its cells were decomposed totally intopuff-like or flocculent materials. The ventral side gelatinized less thoroughly, appearing agglomerate and somecell frames were still visible. The middle part gelatinized most incompletely and the cells were still integrated.Evident differences in gelatinization were observed among different varieties, the dorsal, ventral and middleparts of high quality varieties gelatinized more thoroughly than those of the corresponding parts of low qualityvarieties respectively. An obvious concavity often appeared in the middle of the cross-section of the low qualitygrains while the cross-section of high quality grains was normally flat. The same phenomenon was noted whencomparing the early maturing indica rice and the late maturing indica rice. Varietal difference of gelatiniza-tion in dorsal sides was not as distinct as in middle parts and ventral sides. The difference among dorsal side,middle part and ventral side in gelatinization was greater in low quality grains than that of high quality grains.In addition, a lot of ruptured cells were observed in the cross-section of high quality rice, while few of themcould be found in the low quality rice. Apparently, the number of ruptured cells is positively correlated withrice quality. Quality of rice grain also has positive correlation with the rate of water absorption and extension. Highrates of water absorption and extension lead to better gelatinization of rice grain, and hence indicate good quality.

  10. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    homologues of each of the chromosomes. The aneuploid C2--seedlings were fairly equally distributed on hypo-and hyperploids, and on the seven chromosome groups. This suggests that a particular chromosome is lost or gained at random in gametes and embryos. The 11 C3--seedlings comprised seven true euploids......The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four......, one seedling with 2n=28 having an extra chromosome 6 and missing one chromosome 3, and three seedlings with 2n=29. The chromosomal composition of aneuploid C3--seedlings did not reflect that of their aneuploid C2--parents with respect to missing or extra chromosomes. Two hypohexaploid C2--seedlings...

  11. High temperature combined with drought affect rainfed spring wheat and barley in South-Eastern Russia: I. Phenology and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Akbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Lozovskaya, Marina Viacheslavovna; Zvolinsky, Vacheslav Petrovich

    2012-01-01

    Heat stress, when combined with drought, is one of the major limitations to food production worldwide, especially in areas that use rainfed agriculture. As the world population continues to grow, and water resources for the crop production decline and temperature increases, so the development of heat- and drought-tolerant cultivars is an issue of global concern. In this context, four barley and two wheat genotypes were evaluated in south-eastern Russia to identify heat- and drought-tolerant g...

  12. Observations Regarding the Duration of Feeding Behaviour when Intensively Farmed Coypus (Nutrias) are Fed with Barley and Carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Bănăţean-Dunea; Marian Bura; Adrian Grozea; Silvia Pătruică; Sorin Voia; Mărioara Nicula

    2010-01-01

    The studies on coypu behaviour are applied in the development of knowledge regarding ethology, in the coypubreedingtechnology, animal welfare and, at the moment, they present great importance for animal protection. Thebiological material studied was consisted of health adult coypus, belonging to the variety Golden Standard with asimilar body mass. The indices supervised were: feeding behaviour duration if coypus are fed with barley and carrotsaccording to gender and time slot, the duration of...

  13. Differential transcriptomic responses to Fusarium graminearum infection in two barley quantitative trait loci associated with Fusarium head blight resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yadong; Li, Lin; Smith, Kevin P.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB), a major disease problem worldwide. Resistance to FHB is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL) of which two are located on barley chromosomes 2H bin8 and 6H bin7. The mechanisms of resistance mediated by FHB QTL are poorly defined. Results Near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying Chevron-derived resistant alleles for the two QTL were developed and exhibited FHB resistance in field trials. To understand the molecular responses ...

  14. 6-Plex microsphere immunoassay with imaging planar array detection for mycotoxins in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeroen; Cardall, Alice; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2014-08-21

    Mycotoxins are produced by fungi as secondary metabolites. They often multi-contaminate food and feed commodities posing a health risk to humans and animals. A fast and easy to apply multiplex screening of these commodities could be useful to detect multi-contamination. For this, we developed a semi-quantitative 6-plex immunoassay using a suspension array of paramagnetic colour-coded microspheres combined with imaging planar array detection for the mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, T2-toxin, HT-2 toxin and fumonisin B1. Mycotoxin specific monoclonal antibodies were coupled to different sets of microspheres and mycotoxins conjugated to the fluorescent protein R-phycoerythrin served as reporter molecules. Competition between free mycotoxins in the sample and mixed reporter molecules for antibody binding sites on mixed microspheres created a multiplex direct inhibition immunoassay. The reagents were selected for no or low cross-interactions between the assays and cross-reactions with metabolites and possible masked forms were determined. A within-laboratory validation was carried out using blank and spiked barley samples. Furthermore, the 6-plex was used to screen available barley, and malted barley, reference materials. The validation showed very high inter and intra-day precision for all samples with a maximum relative standard deviation value of 10%. The screening assay allows easy and rapid multiplex detection of the target mycotoxins in barley according to EU legislation. With a cut off factor of 50%, based on the EU maximum levels, we were able to screen at 2 μg kg(-1) for aflatoxin B1, 2.5 μg kg(-1) for ochratoxin A, 625 μg kg(-1) for deoxynivalenol, 50 μg kg(-1) for zearalenone, 1000 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1 and 25 μg kg(-1) for T-2 toxin. Thanks to the transportable planar array system, the developed 6-plex has potential for future on-site testing. Future implementation of this method as a pre-screening tool, prior to

  15. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem around the world. During infection, trichothecene mycotoxins are produced and act as virulence factors, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. There are two types of tricho...

  16. Physiological tests for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological tests for characterizing drought tolerance in barley (H. vulgare L.) and durum wheat (T. durum L.) were evaluated. These tests involved: 1) germination in osmotic solution (-13 atm by d-mannitol); 2) thermal stress on seedlings (42 deg. C for 5 hours); 3) stability of the cellular membrane under osmotic stress (PEG 6000 at 43%). For both species genotypic variability which was associated with drought tolerance in the field was identified by the laboratory evaluation techniques. Based on these procedures, the two-row barley types were more drought tolerant than six-row types. In durum wheat, only some local populations and some varieties, bred in drought environments, showed high laboratory test values. Weak and not significant correlations were found between the physiological tests indicating that the genetic mechanisms which control these traits may be independent and process-specific. Yield trials, in barley, have been carried out in environments with drought conditions and the correlation between grain and physiological tests were significant. Of the three procedures evaluated in this study, the dry matter increase after a period of thermal stress and electrolyte leakage seemed to be most reliable and potentially useful for screening for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

  17. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisen Zhang

    Full Text Available Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling. Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%, intron retention (32%-34% and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21% were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  18. Modelling phytate degradation kinetics in soaked wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, A B; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    or Phytase 2 had no effect on the degradation of phytate. The F0 was greater in the heat-treated barley compared with the heat-treated wheat (0.19 vs. 0.14; P=0.02; Phytase 1). Heat-treatment of the cereals increased the F0 from 0.05 to 0.15 (P=0.0007; Phytase 2). The K was lower in the non-heat-treated...... wheat compared with the non-heat-treated barley (averaging 23.3 vs. 43.5 h), whereas K was higher in the wheat compared with the barley (averaging 12.3 vs. 11.1 h; P=0.02 and P=0.006; Phytase 1 and Phytase 2) when the cereals were heat-treated. In conclusion, the GMM function is a suitable model for......The objective of this study was to identify an appropriate mathematical function describing the in vitro phytate degradation profile of soaked wheat or barley (20 °C; 1 cereal: 2.75 water (w/w)) as affected by heat-treatment (stem pelleting at 90 °C) and phytase addition (Phytase 1: 0, 250, 500...

  19. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  20. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 400, subpart G. (b) Approved malting variety. A variety of barley specified as... and Drug Administration when determining concentrations of mycotoxins or other substances or... organization of the United States for substances or conditions, including mycotoxins, that are identified...

  1. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly...

  2. Protein composition of malting barley varieties required in brewing industry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Bobálová, Janette

    Berlin : Freie Universität Berlin, 2011. s. 354. [Proteomic Forum 2011. 03.04.2011-07.04.2011, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley * varieties * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  3. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  4. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by...

  5. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  6. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a...

  7. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K;

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  8. Expression of Barley Endopeptidase B in Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Saarelainen, R.; Mantyla, A.; Nevalainen, H.; Suominen, P.

    1997-01-01

    The gene for barley endopeptidase B (EPB) has been expressed in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei from the cbh1 promoter. The EPB signal sequence allowed secretion of over 90% of the recombinant protein. Yields reached about 500 mg of immunoreactive protein per liter and exceeded values for any other protein derived from a higher eukaryotic organism produced in T. reesei.

  9. 2012 North Dakota Transgenic Barley FHB Nursery Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2012 North Dakota transgenic field trials consisted of 23 barley lines, tested in three misted and three non-misted replicates. Plots were sown on May 9, 2012 in hill plots with 10 seed per hill spaced at 30 cm, and all plots were inoculated using the grain spawn method at heading. Lines include...

  10. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Honsdorf

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r=0.98 between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars.

  11. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines

    KAUST Repository

    Honsdorf, Nora

    2014-05-13

    Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old) wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r = 0.98) between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars. © 2014 Honsdorf et al.

  12. Structural modeling and molecular simulation analysis of HvAP2/EREBP from barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bharati; Sharma, Pradeep; Tyagi, Chetna; Goyal, Sukriti; Grover, Abhinav; Sharma, Indu

    2016-06-01

    AP2/ERF transcription factors play a critical role in plant development and stress adaptation. This study reports the three-dimensional ab initio-based model of AP2/EREBP protein of barley and its interaction with DNA. Full-length coding sequence of HvAP2/EREBP gene isolated from two Indian barley cultivars, RD 2503 and RD 31, was used to model the protein. Of five protein models obtained, the one with lowest C-score was chosen for further analysis. The N- and C-terminal regions of HvAP2 protein were found to be highly disordered. The dynamic properties of AP2/EREBP and its interaction with DNA were investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of trajectories from simulation yielded the equilibrated conformation between 2-10ns for protein and 7-15ns for protein-DNA complex. We established relationship between DNA having GCC box and DNA-binding domain of HvAP2/EREBP was established by modeling 11-base-pair-long nucleotide sequence and HvAP2/EREBP protein using ab initio method. Analysis of protein-DNA interaction showed that a β-sheet motif constituting amino acid residues THR105, ARG100, ARG93, and ARG83 seems to play important role in stabilizing the complex as they form strong hydrogen bond interactions with the DNA motif. Taken together, this study provides first-hand comprehensive information detailing structural conformation and interactions of HvAP2/EREBP proteins in barley. The study intensifies the role of computational approaches for preliminary examination of unknown proteins in the absence of experimental information. It also provides molecular insight into protein-DNA binding for understanding and enhancing abiotic stress resistance for improving the water use efficiency in crop plants. PMID:26198402

  13. Detection of nitrogen deficiency QTL in juvenile wild barley introgression lines growing in a hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Astrid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this report we studied the genetic regulation of juvenile development of wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs under two contrasting hydroponic nitrogen (N supplies. Ten shoot and root related traits were examined among 42 S42ILs and the recurrent parent ‘Scarlett’. The traits included tiller number, leaf number, plant height, leaf and root length, leaf to root length ratio, shoots and root dry weight, shoot to root weight ratio, and chlorophyll content. Our aims were (1 to test the suitability of a hydroponic system for early detection of favourable S42ILs, (2 to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the examined traits, (3 to identify favourable wild barley alleles that improve trait performances in regard to N treatment and, finally, (4 to validate the identified QTL through comparison with previously reported QTL originating from the same parental cross. Results The phenotypic data were analysed in a mixed model association study to detect QTL. The post-hoc Dunnett test identified 28 S42ILs that revealed significant (P Hsp effects for tiller number, leaf number, leaf length, plant height and leaf to root ratio on the long arm of chromosome 7H. These QTL correspond to QTL for ears per plant and plant height that were previously detected in field trials conducted with the same S42ILs or with the S42 population. Conclusion Our results suggest that the QTL we identified under hydroponic N cultivation partly correspond to QTL detected in field experiments. Due to this finding, screening of plants in early developmental stages grown in a hydroponic system may be a fast and cost effective method for early QTL detection and marker-assisted allelic selection, potentially speeding up elite barley breeding programs.

  14. The germinlike protein GLP4 exhibits superoxide dismutase activity and is an important component of quantitative resistance in wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bentsen; Thordal-Christensen, Hans; Zimmermann, Grit;

    2004-01-01

    Germinlike proteins (GLP) are encoded in plants by a gene family with proposed functions in plant development and defense. Genes of GLP subfamily 4 of barley (HvGLP4, formerly referred to as HvOxOLP) and the wheat orthologue TaGLP4 (formerly referred to as TaGLP2a) were previously found to be exp...

  15. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Nørregaard Jensen, Ole; Barkholt, Vibeke; Finnie, Christine

    2006-01-01

    developed, comprising batch reversed-phase chromatography with stepwise elution of hydrophobic proteins by 2-propanol. Proteins in the most hydrophobic fraction were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS and barley EST sequence database search. The method was efficient for enrichment of integral...

  16. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.; Barkholt, Vibeke; Finnie, Christine

    2006-01-01

    was developed, comprising batch reversed-phase chromatography with stepwise elution of hydrophobic proteins by 2-propanol. Proteins in the most hydrophobic fraction were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS and barley EST sequence database search. The method was efficient for enrichment of...

  17. Identification of barley and rye varieties using matrix- assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, H.A.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena;

    2001-01-01

    developed, which combines analysis of alcohol-soluble wheat proteins (gliadins) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks. Here we have applied the same method for the identification of both barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye (Secale cereale L...

  18. Inheritance of resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus detected by northern blot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars tolerant to the barley yellow dwarf virus disease (BYD) has been limited by lack of precision in rating plants for response to infection, usually done by visual scoring of plant symptoms under field conditions. Other methodologies have been developed to study the host/pathogen relationship and to assess resistance or susceptibility. In this study northern dot blot analysis was used to determine barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) RNA concentrations of six wheat cultivars that differed in visual BYD symptom expression. Plants were infected with the NYPAV (PAV) isolate of BYDV in the greenhouse. At several dates after inoculation crude plant extracts were blotted on nitrocellulose and hybridized with a 32P-labeled probe of the pPA8 cDNA clone of BYDV. The distribution of PRC for the F2 population was compared to the distribution of BYD visual symptom scores for 403 F2 plants of a similar F2 population of NS 879/4 x Seri 82 under field conditions. The results were qualitatively similar, suggesting that northern dot blot analysis to measure PRC may be useful in understanding the genetics of resistance to BYD. This technique, when incorporated into breeding programs, could be important in the development of highly tolerant wheat cultivars with reduced losses to BYD

  19. SNP-based high density genetic map and mapping of btwd1 dwarfing gene in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Jibin; Liu, Lipan; Sun, Genlou; Li, Chengdao; Luo, Hong; Sun, Dongfa

    2016-01-01

    A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for functional genomics and breeding. A newly developed sequence-based marker technology, restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, has been proven to be powerful for the rapid discovery and genotyping of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and for the high-density genetic map construction. The objective of this research was to construct a high-density genetic map of barley using RAD sequencing. 1894 high-quality SNP markers were developed and mapped onto all seven chromosomes together with 68 SSR markers. These 1962 markers constituted a total genetic length of 1375.8 cM and an average of 0.7 cM between adjacent loci. The number of markers within each linkage group ranged from 209 to 396. The new recessive dwarfing gene btwd1 in Huaai 11 was mapped onto the high density linkage maps. The result showed that the btwd1 is positioned between SNP marks 7HL_6335336 and 7_249275418 with a genetic distance of 0.9 cM and 0.7 cM on chromosome 7H, respectively. The SNP-based high-density genetic map developed and the dwarfing gene btwd1 mapped in this study provide critical information for position cloning of the btwd1 gene and molecular breeding of barley. PMID:27530597

  20. Evaluation of drought tolerance and yield capacity of barley (hordeum vulgare) genotypes under irrigated and water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve barley genotypes developed through different selection methods were evaluated under drought and irrigated conditions. The results of a correlation matrix revealed highly significant associations between Grain Yield (Yp) and Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) under irrigated conditions while the Mean Productivity (MP), Yield Stability Index (Yi), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) had a high response under stressed condition. Based on a principal component analysis, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Mean Productivity (MP) and Stress Tolerance Index (STI) were considered to be the best parameters for selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The 2-row barley genotypes B-07023 and B-07021 performed better in yield response under drought conditions and were more stable under stress conditions. Furthermore, drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability in this material for drought tolerance. (author)

  1. Barley polyamine oxidase: Characterisation and analysis of the cofactor and the N-terminal amino acid sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radova, A.; Sebela, M.; Galuszka, P.;

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the first purification method developed for the isolation of an homogeneous polyamine oxidase (PAO) from etiolated barley seedlings. The crude enzyme preparation was obtained after initial precipitation of the extract with protamine sulphate and ammonium sulphate. The enzyme was...... further purified to a final homogeneity (by the criteria of isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE) using techniques of low pressure chromatography followed by two FPLC steps. The purified yellow enzyme showed visible absorption maxima of a flavoprotein at 380 and 450 nm: the presence of FAD as the cofactor...... was further confirmed by measuring the fluorescence spectra, Barley PAO is an acidic protein (pI 5.4) containing 3% of neutral sugars: its molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE was 56 kDa, whilst gel permeation chromatography revealed the higher value of 76 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of...

  2. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Francia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 site-year combination. Agrometeorological variables have been recorded and calculated at each site too. Four main periods of barley development were considered, vegetative, reproductive early and late grain filling phases, to dissect the effect on yield traits of the growth phases. Relationships between agrometeorological variables, grain yield (GY and its main components (GN and GW were also investigated by correlation. Results firstly gave a clear indication of the involvement of water consumption in determining GY and GW (r2=0.616, P=0.007 and r2=0.703, P=0.005, respectively calculated from sowing to the early grain filling period, while GN showed its highest correlation with the total photothermal quotient (PQ calculated for the same period (r2=0.646, P=0.013. With the only exception of total PQ calculated during the vegetative period, all significant correlations with GY were associated to water-dependent agrometeorological parameters. As a second result, the NT segregating population allowed us to weight the amount of interaction due to genotypes over environments or to environments in relation to genotypes by a GGE analysis; 47.67% of G+GE sum of squares was explained by the first two principal components. Then, the introduction of genomic information at major barley genes regulating the length of growth cycle allowed us to explain patterns of adaptation of different groups of NT lines according to the variants (alleles harbored at venalization (Vrn-H1 in combination with earliness (Eam6 genes. The superiority of the lines carrying the Nure allele at Eam6 was confirmed by factorial ANOVA testing the four possible haplotypes obtained combining

  3. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  4. A high throughput barley stripe mosaic virus vector for virus induced gene silencing in monocots and dicots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yuan

    Full Text Available Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various aspects of genes functioning in development. To permit more effective use of BSMV VIGS for functional genomics experiments, we have developed an Agrobacterium delivery system for BSMV and have coupled this with a ligation independent cloning (LIC strategy to mediate efficient cloning of host genes. Infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves provided excellent sources of virus for secondary BSMV infections and VIGS in cereals. The Agro/LIC BSMV VIGS vectors were able to function in high efficiency down regulation of phytoene desaturase (PDS, magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH, and plastid transketolase (TK gene silencing in N. benthamiana and in the monocots, wheat, barley, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. Suppression of an Arabidopsis orthologue cloned from wheat (TaPMR5 also interfered with wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici infections in a manner similar to that of the A. thaliana PMR5 loss-of-function allele. These results imply that the PMR5 gene has maintained similar functions across monocot and dicot families. Our BSMV VIGS system provides substantial advantages in expense, cloning efficiency, ease of manipulation and ability to apply VIGS for high throughput genomics studies.

  5. Improvement of the nutritional quality of barley and spring wheat: A review of the FAO/SIDA/SAREC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the joint FAO/SIDA/SAREC project was to develop new varieties of barley and spring wheat adapted to conditions in developing countries and with increased protein and lysine contents of the grain. Six premier research institutes in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey co-operated in the project under the technical leadership of Svaloev AB, formerly the Swedish Seed Association, during the period 1974 to 1981. Barley lines having grain with high protein and high lysine contents derived from Hiproly, Risoe 1508 and B1 were used as donors and backcrossed at Svaloev into adapted breeding material provided by breeders in the participating countries. Backcrosses and other progenies selected for homozygosity of the lysine genes on the basis of their protein content and dye-binding capacity (DBC) were distributed to the participants who continued selection in their own environments. A similar programme was initiated for wheat, based largely on Atlas 66, Nap Hal and Rageni as donors of high protein and lysine, but the expression of high lysine was very weakly inherited and selection was abandoned in 1978. It has proved extremely difficult, and so far impossible, to find high yielding lines with desirable agronomic characters combined with increased protein and lysine contents. Evidence of positive improvement in protein production per unit area was obtained in both wheat and barley in India. Under the aegis of the project over 14,000 lines of wheat and nearly 21,000 lines of barley, which included around 6,000 mutant progenies, were screened for protein content and DBC values at Svaloev, but no new prospective donors were identified that were superior to those already available. Conclusions are drawn concerning the benefit of the project and suggestions are made for further action. (author)

  6. Improving barley culm robustness for secured crop yield in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockter, Christoph; Hansson, Mats

    2015-06-01

    The Green Revolution combined advancements in breeding and agricultural practice, and provided food security to millions of people. Daily food supply is still a major issue in many parts of the world and is further challenged by future climate change. Fortunately, life science research is currently making huge progress, and the development of future crop plants will be explored. Today, plant breeding typically follows one gene per trait. However, new scientific achievements have revealed that many of these traits depend on different genes and complex interactions of proteins reacting to various external stimuli. These findings open up new possibilities for breeding where variations in several genes can be combined to enhance productivity and quality. In this review we present an overview of genes determining plant architecture in barley, with a special focus on culm length. Many genes are currently known only through their mutant phenotypes, but emerging genomic sequence information will accelerate their identification. More than 1000 different short-culm barley mutants have been isolated and classified in different phenotypic groups according to culm length and additional pleiotropic characters. Some mutants have been connected to deficiencies in biosynthesis and reception of brassinosteroids and gibberellic acids. Still other mutants are unlikely to be connected to these hormones. The genes and corresponding mutations are of potential interest for development of stiff-straw crop plants tolerant to lodging, which occurs in extreme weather conditions with strong winds and heavy precipitation. PMID:25614659

  7. The dynamics of protein body formation in developing wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katie L; Tosi, Paola; Palmer, Richard; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Grovenor, Chris R M; Shewry, Peter R

    2016-09-01

    Wheat is a major source of protein in the diets of humans and livestock but we know little about the mechanisms that determine the patterns of protein synthesis in the developing endosperm. We have used a combination of enrichment with (15) N glutamine and NanoSIMS imaging to establish that the substrate required for protein synthesis is transported radially from its point of entrance in the endosperm cavity across the starchy endosperm tissues, before becoming concentrated in the cells immediately below the aleurone layer. This transport occurs continuously during grain development but may be slower in the later stages. Although older starchy endosperm cells tend to contain larger protein deposits formed by the fusion of small protein bodies, small highly enriched protein bodies may also be present in the same cells. This shows a continuous process of protein body initiation, in both older and younger starchy endosperm cells and in all regions of the tissue. Immunolabeling with specific antibodies shows that the patterns of enrichment are not related to the contents of gluten proteins in the protein bodies. In addition to providing new information on the dynamics of protein deposition, the study demonstrates the wider utility of NanoSIMS and isotope labelling for studying complex developmental processes in plant tissues. PMID:26898533

  8. Genetics of prolamin synthesis in cereal endosperms and its implication in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details on genetic analysis carried out on the factors controlling prolamin synthesis are presented. Three approaches are discussed: Mendelian genetics, molecular genetics and use of aneuploids; the advantages and limitations of each are presented and exemplified by the genes located in wheat chromosomes 1B and 1D. Quantification of every allele is studied in doses varying from 0 to 6 loci and concepts on 'threshold' and 'ceiling' effects are presented. Two trends in the distribution of prolamin genes are characterized: genes very tightly linked ('cluster') and genes located in a chromosome but at a greater distance ('isophene'). This is valid for barley and wheat. Evolution of the system would suggest the production of adjacent and non-adjacent duplications, which could explain the occurrence of deletions. Three loci have been located on chromosome 1B and three on chromosome 1D, giving a maximum distance of 16.9 and 3.2%, respectively. It is worth while mentioning the 'pseudolinkage' phenomenon found between both chromosomes. The quantity of synthesized prolamins is discussed and the main participating factors (mother genotype, environment conditions). Some conclusions for plant breeding are presented. (author)

  9. Proteomics analysis reveals distinct involvement of embryo and endosperm proteins during seed germination in dormant and non-dormant rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Shun-Hua; Wang, Rui-Xia; Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is a complex trait which is influenced by many genetic, endogenous and environmental factors, but the key event(s) associated with seed germination are still poorly understood. In present study, the non-dormant cultivated rice Yannong S and the dormant Dongxiang wild rice seeds were used as experimental materials, we comparatively investigated the water uptake, germination time course, and the differential proteome of the effect of embryo and endosperm on germination of these two types of seeds. A total of 231 and 180 protein spots in embryo and endosperm, respectively, showed a significant change in abundance during germination. We observed that the important proteins associated with seed germination included those involved in metabolism, energy production, protein synthesis and destination, storage protein, cell growth and division, signal transduction, cell defense and rescue. The contribution of embryo and endosperm to seed germination is different. In embryo, the proteins involved in amino acid activation, sucrose cleavage, glycolysis, fermentation and protein synthesis increased; in endosperm, the proteins involved in sucrose cleavage and glycolysis decreased, and those with ATP and CoQ synthesis and proteolysis increased. Our results provide some new knowledge to understand further the mechanism of seed germination. PMID:27035683

  10. Global analysis of the root hair morphogenesis transcriptome reveals new candidate genes involved in root hair formation in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Janiak, Agnieszka; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Szarejko, Iwona

    2010-09-01

    Root hairs are long tubular outgrowths of specialized root epidermal cells that play an important role in plant nutrition and water uptake. They are also an important model in studies of higher plant cell differentiation. In contrast to the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana, currently very little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of root hair formation in monocots, including major cereals. To elucidate candidate genes controlling this developmental process in barley, we took advantage of the recently established Affymetrix GeneChip Barley1 Genome Array to carry out global transcriptome analyses of hairless and root hair primordia-forming roots of two barely mutant lines. Expression profiling of the root-hairless mutant rhl1.a and its wild type parent variety 'Karat' revealed 10 genes potentially involved in the early step of root hair formation in barley. Differential expression of all identified genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The genes identified encode proteins associated with the cell wall and membranes, including one gene for xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, three for peroxidase enzymes and five for arabinogalactan protein, extensin, leucine-rich-repeat protein, phosphatidylinositol phosphatidylcholine transfer protein and a RhoGTPase GDP dissociation inhibitor, respectively. The molecular function of one gene is unknown at present. The expression levels of these genes were strongly reduced in roots of the root-hairless mutant rhl1.a compared to the parent variety, while expression of all 10 genes was similar in another mutant, i.e. rhp1.b, that has lost its ability to develop full root hairs but still forms hairs blocked at the primordium stage, and its wild type relative. This clearly indicates that the new genes identified are involved in the initiation of root hair morphogenesis in barley. PMID:20388575

  11. BAC library resources for map-based cloning and physical map construction in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Cheng-Cang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Although second generation sequencing (2GS technologies allow re-sequencing of previously gold-standard-sequenced genomes, whole genome shotgun sequencing and de novo assembly of large and complex eukaryotic genomes is still difficult. Availability of a genome-wide physical map is therefore still a prerequisite for whole genome sequencing for genomes like barley. To start such an endeavor, large insert genomic libraries, i.e. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC libraries, which are unbiased and representing deep haploid genome coverage, need to be ready in place. Result Five new BAC libraries were constructed for barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivar Morex. These libraries were constructed in different cloning sites (HindIII, EcoRI, MboI and BstXI of the respective vectors. In order to enhance unbiased genome representation and to minimize the number of gaps between BAC contigs, which are often due to uneven distribution of restriction sites, a mechanically sheared library was also generated. The new BAC libraries were fully characterized in depth by scrutinizing the major quality parameters such as average insert size, degree of contamination (plate wide, neighboring, and chloroplast, empty wells and off-scale clones (clones with 250 fragments. Additionally a set of gene-based probes were hybridized to high density BAC filters and showed that genome coverage of each library is between 2.4 and 6.6 X. Conclusion BAC libraries representing >20 haploid genomes are available as a new resource to the barley research community. Systematic utilization of these libraries in high-throughput BAC fingerprinting should allow developing a genome-wide physical map for the barley genome, which will be instrumental for map-based gene isolation and genome sequencing.

  12. Analysis of enzyme production by submerged culture of Aspergillus oryzae using whole barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Susumu; Kikuchi, Kaori; Matsumoto, Yuko; Sugimoto, Toshikazu; Shoji, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Masayuki

    2009-10-01

    We have reported on high enzyme production by submerged culture of Aspergillus kawachii using barley with the husk (whole barley). To elucidate the mechanism underlying this high enzyme production, we performed a detailed analysis. Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 was submerged-cultured using whole barley and milled whole barley. Enzyme production was analyzed in terms of changes in medium components and gene expression levels. When whole barley was used, high production of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase and high gene expression levels of these enzymes were observed. Low ammonium concentrations were maintained with nitrate ion uptake continuing into the late stage using whole barley. These findings suggest that the sustainability of nitrogen metabolism is related to high enzyme production, and that a mechanism other than that associated with the conventional amylase expression system is involved in this relationship. PMID:19809198

  13. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    Introduction: Cereals are normally stored dry at low moisture content (< 14%) to maintain grain quality. The hypothesis is that reconstitution of grain with water activates the endogenous enzymes and makes grain nutrients more soluble and digestible. The objective is to investigate the effect of...... reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49......: Reconstituted barley had higher soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and lower phytate P (0.93 g/ kg DM) compared with dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM, respectively). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed increased P absorption (52%) and decreased P excretion in feces (21%) (P<0.001). Reconstitution increased P...

  14. Construction of High-Density Genetic Map in Barley through Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofeng Zhou

    Full Text Available Genetic maps in barley are usually constructed from a limited number of molecular markers such as SSR (simple sequence repeat and DarT (diversity arrays technology. These markers must be first developed before being used for genotyping. Here, we introduce a new strategy based on sequencing progeny of a doubled haploid population from Baudin × AC Metcalfe to construct a genetic map in barley. About 13,547 polymorphic SNP tags with >93% calling rate were selected to construct the genetic map. A total of 12,998 SNP tags were anchored to seven linkage groups which spanned a cumulative 967.6 cM genetic distance. The high-density genetic map can be used for QTL mapping and the assembly of WGS and BAC contigs. The genetic map was evaluated for its effectiveness and efficiency in QTL mapping and candidate gene identification. A major QTL for plant height was mapped at 105.5 cM on chromosome 3H. This QTL with LOD value of 13.01 explained 44.5% of phenotypic variation. This strategy will enable rapid and efficient establishment of high-density genetic maps in other species.

  15. Effect of barley-legume intercrop on disease frequency in an organic farming system

    OpenAIRE

    Kinane, Dr. J.; Lyngkjær, Dr. M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of barley-legume intercrop in an organic farming system on disease incidence was investigated. The legumes were lupin, faba bean and pea. Diseases were detected on pea and barley. On pea, only ascochyta blight (Ascochyta pisi) was observed. When either pea variety was intercropped with barley, the level of ascochyta blight was reduced. Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres), brown rust (Puccinia recondita) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) (in order of incidence) were mo...

  16. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    A Ri Byun; Hyejin Chun; Jin Lee; Sang Wha Lee; Hong Soo Lee; Kyung Won Shim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided i...

  17. Molecular Phylogeography of Domesticated Barley Traces Expansion of Agriculture in the Old World

    OpenAIRE

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided...

  18. Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group GAG-1, the common pathogen of wheat, barley and sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka; Jan Adamiak; Ewa Adamiak

    2014-01-01

    Isuluies of Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group GAG-1 were obtained from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and on barley culms and from diseased sugar beet seedlings. Isolates of R. cerealis were collected from a fields with crop rotation experiments: sugar beet-spring wheat-winter barley. In pathogenicity tests isolates of R. cerealis from sugar beet seedlings and from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and barley were pathogenic to these crops. Isolates of R. cerealis from sharp eyespot lesions...

  19. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  20. Genotypic and Environmental Variations of Arabinoxylan Content and Endoxylanase Activity in Barley Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-qin; XUE Da-wei; WU Fei-bo; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) content in barley grains is an important quality determinant when barley is used as raw material of malt or beer production. The cultivar and environmental variations of total arabinoxylan (TAX), water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) and endoxylanase activity (EA) were investigated using eight barley cultivars growing at seven locations with diverse environmental conditions. The results showed that both barley cultivar and location significantly affected the TAX, WEAX and EA levels, but the variations of TAX content and EA were mainly attributed to cultivar, while the impact of location on WEAX content was greater than that of cultivar. Correlation analysis indicated that TAX was significantly correlated to WUAX.

  1. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Hull-Caryopsis Adhesion/Separation Revealed by Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Covered/Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijun Duan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The covered/naked caryopsis trait of barley is an important agronomic trait because it is directly linked to dietary use. The formation of covered/naked caryopsis is controlled by an NUD transcription factor, which is involved in pericarp cuticle development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this trait remains so far largely unknown. In this study, comparative transcriptomes of grains three weeks after anthesis of Tibetan Hulless barley landrace Dulihuang and covered barley Morex were analyzed using RNA-seq technique. A total of 4031 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified. The Nud gene was overexpressed in Morex, with trace expression in Dulihuang. Among seventeen cuticle related DEGs, sixteen were down regulated and one up regulated in Morex. These results suggest that the Nud gene in covered caryopsis might down regulate cuticle related genes, which may cause a permeable cuticle over pericarp, leading to a hull-caryopsis organ fusion. A functional cuticle covering the pericarp of naked caryopsis might be the result of deletion or low expression level of the Nud gene. The functional cuticle defines a perfect boundary to separate the caryopsis from the hull in naked barley.

  2. Rheological study of mixed flour: wheat (Triticum vulgare, barley (Hordeum vulgare and potato (Solanum tuberosum for use in the preparation of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Sandoval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With wheat flour imported and domestic wheat cereals produced in the country, and the potato tuber, a rheological study was performed to determine the most suitable proportions of substitution of wheat flour imported with the latter and its feasibility for making bread. We worked in mixtures of flour, wheat CWRS # 1 (red spring wheat in western Canada Cañicapa barley flour, wheat and potato Cojitambo Gabriela, from Ecuadorian cultures in proportions of 10, 20 and 30% (p / p. Masses from mixtures of flours were analyzed on a Brabender Farinograph, in order to determine the water absorption, development time, stability and rate of tolerance with a view to selecting the flour blends that have a behavior similar to CWRS wheat flour # 1. The best mixtures found were: wheat flour # 1 CWRS replaced with 10, 20 and 30% barley flour Cañicapa, and the mixture of wheat flour # 1 CWRS wheat flour in Cojitambo 30%. These flour mixes selected were also subjected to rheological analysis of their masses using a computer Mixolab. The breads made from flours selected were evaluated in a sensory panel. The breads more accepted by consumers were those containing 20 and 30% barley, followed by the group of those made with imported wheat with 30% wheat Cojitambo, and containing 10% of barley flour.

  3. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  4. Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

    2012-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (ΔGg) and excited (ΔGe) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley α-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

  5. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 105 to ca. 6 x 103 by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of 62Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  6. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  7. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  8. New high yielding, high lysine mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley mutants with an increased content of lysine have successfully been selected. Unfortunately, they had a reduced grain yield, and this has led to the opinion that it may not be possible to obtain normal yielding high lysine mutants. In the present study, twenty low hordein barley mutants were derived from 49,000 M2 seeds. Two probably had a 10% increase in lysine content and a grain yield that was the same as that of the mother variety. The mutants were initially selected by a fast turbidity test on the M2 seeds, using special controls that make the tests sensitive. The screening procedure further consists of determination of the non-hordein/hordein ratio in later generations. 14 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  9. SOMACLONAL VARIABILITY AND BARLEY BREEDING ON RESISTANCE TO ALUMINUM

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Shirokikh; S.Yu. Ogorodnikova; O.N. Shupletsova; I.N. Shchennikova

    2011-01-01

    In barley callus culture on acid selective media with aluminum the authors selected the resistant lines, from which the regenerated plants were obtained. During a growing on acid sod-podzol soil the seed progeny of regenerated lines was compared with initial varieties on biochemical parameters, on determinants of productivity and yield. It was revealed, that hereditable in regenerated progeny the determinants of somaclonal variability can be used for creation of high productive and resistant ...

  10. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  11. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Sparla; Giuseppe Falini; Ermelinda Botticella; Claudia Pirone; Valentina Talamè; Riccardo Bovina; Silvio Salvi; Roberto Tuberosa; Francesco Sestili; Paolo Trost

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant...

  12. The Barley Grain Thioredoxin System – an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eHägglund

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type thioredoxin facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. This review presents a summary of the research conducted during the last ten years to elucidate the structure and function of the barley seed thioredoxin system at the molecular level combined with proteomic approaches to identify target proteins.

  13. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

  14. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  15. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  16. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eBrod; Anne Falk Øgaard; Tore eKrogstad; Trond Knapp Haraldsen; Emmanuel eFrossard; Astrid eOberson

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared wit...

  17. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  18. Microbes in the tailoring of barley malt properties

    OpenAIRE

    Laitila, Arja

    2007-01-01

    Microbes have a decisive role in the barley-malt-beer chain. A major goal of this thesis was to study the relationships between microbial communities and germinating grains during malting. Furthermore, the study provided a basis for tailoring of malt properties with natural, malt-derived microbes. The malting ecosystem is a dynamic process, exhibiting continous change. The first hours of steeping and kilning were the most important steps in the process with regard to microbiological qual...

  19. Gamma Ray and Barley Improvement for drought Land in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Barley breeding program has been concentrated to improve it's yield under dry conditions (zone-C 250 m.m), so the Barley Breeder's in GCSAR reached to Barley mutant (M4) suitable for rain-fed area in zone-C by exposing Arabi Aswad (local Barley variety) to gamma-ray treatment 10 Kr/dose, It's cod is Furat A-4806. Furat A-4806 tested in yield trials 1988/1989-1992/1993 in Hasakeh Research Station RCBD 4.5 M2 plot size , Its out yielded A. Aswad by 31 %. And completed testing in On-Farme yield Trials (At Farmers fields) 1993/1994 - 1996/1997 RCBD 32 M2 plot size , Its out yielded the Farmers Variety 18 - 28 % in Hama and Daraa provinces, 16 % in Hasakeh province (Sig. at 1%). Furat A-4806 has been released and has a new name (furat 3). Furat 3 has planted at Farmers fields to released it under there conditions ( 1 Hac in 47 locations in Hama, Homs, Edleb, Aleppo and Hasakeh provinces 2000/2001 - 2002/2003. Agronomic data were: 1000-kernel weight 37.4 g ; protein content 11.7%, number of days to heading 117; Number of days to maturity 156 ; plant height 52 cm. It was also found to be moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to scald, and moderately resistant to Powdery Mildew. Furat 3 is two-row type, with brunet seeds color, and resistant to lodging. Furat 3 has been released for: Hassake, Hama, Aleppo and Dara'a, and has good adoption. (Author)

  20. Alcohol Yield of Oat, Barley and Wheat Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    PIKL, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Major part of ethanol production for industrial use in Czech Republic is made from cereals. Effect of acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis after thermopressure preparation takes part in the paper. The most promising alternative is enzymatic hydrolysis. Especially efficiency of different hydrolytic enzymes towards different species of cereals takes the main part of the simulations. Local farm products, oats, barley and wheat were prepaired by steam explosion in different pressure. After hydro...