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Sample records for barley aleurone layers

  1. Programmed cell death: The life ambition of the barley aleurone layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    We have developed a 24-well multiplate tissue culture system with electrochemical and optical detection techniques for cultivation of immobilised barley aleurone layers. We have applied the system for the purpose of studying the underlying mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. We...... have optimised an electrochemical, intracellular, whole-cell redox activity assay [1] that probes the NAD(P):NAD(P)H ratio via a double-mediator system. Experiments show that redox activity changes depend on phytohormone activation or inactivation of aleurone layer metabolism and subsequent PCD. We...... have successfully applied a fluorescent double-probe system [2] to detect PCD to ensure that our redox activity data match with known responses of barley aleurone layers to phytohormones. We have also used the system for transformation of barley aleurone cells with α-amylase-GFP constructs...

  2. Phosphoinositides in barley aleurone layers and gibberellic acid-induced changes in metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, P.P.N.; Renders, J.M.; Keranen, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Phospholipids of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) aleurone layers were labeled with myo-[2- 3 H]inositol or [ 32 Pi], extracted, and analyzed by physical (chromatography) and chemical (deacylation) techniques. Three phospholipids were found to incorporate both myo-[2- 3 H]inositol and [ 32 Pi]-phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol-monophosphate, and phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate. Stimulation of [ 3 H]inositol prelabeled aleurone layers with GA 3 showed enhanced incorporation of label into phosphatidylinositol within 30 seconds and subsequent rapid breakdown. Stimulation of phosphatidylinositol labeling observed in these studies is the earliest response of aleurone cells to gibberellic acid reported

  3. Proteomes of the barley aleurone layer: A model system for plant signalling and protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Andersen, Birgit; Shahpiri, Azar

    2011-01-01

    to gibberellic acid produced by the embryo, the aleurone layer synthesises hydrolases that are secreted to the endosperm for the degradation of storage products. The barley aleurone layer can be separated from the other seed tissues and maintained in culture, allowing the study of the effect of added signalling...... molecules in an isolated system. These properties have led to its use as a model system for the study of plant signalling and germination. More recently, proteome analysis of the aleurone layer has provided new insight into this unique tissue including identification of plasma membrane proteins and targeted...... analysis of germination-related changes and the thioredoxin system. Here, analysis of intracellular and secreted proteomes reveals features of the aleurone layer system that makes it promising for investigations of plant protein secretion mechanisms....

  4. Variability of barley aleurone layer induced by X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Kosina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of Hordeum vulgare cultivars was irradiated by X-rays to induce mutations in endosperm. Many structural defects of endosperm were revealed in plants irradiated 8 DAF. Change of a cell cycle was especially frequent and this was visible in the form of clones of small or large cells in the aleurone layer. X-irradiation appeared as a successful tool in the study of development.

  5. Monitoring intra- and extracellular redox capacity of intact barley aleurone layers responding to phytohormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    2016-01-01

    into the intact in vivo environment. An electrochemical redox assay that applies the menadione-ferricyanide double mediator is used to assess changes in the intracellular and extracellular redox environment in living aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Himalaya) grains, which respond...

  6. Immobilisation of barley aleurone layers enables parallelisation of assays and analysis of transient gene expression in single cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zor, Kinga; Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto

    2017-01-01

    The barley aleurone layer is an established model system for studying phytohormone signalling, enzyme secretion and programmed cell death during seed germination. Most analyses performed on the aleurone layer are end-point assays based on cell extracts, meaning each sample is only analysed at a s...

  7. Measuring Gene Expression in Bombarded Barley Aleurone Layers with Increased Throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwase, Grace; Enrico, Taylor P; Chelimo, David S; Keyser, Benjamin R; Johnson, Russell R

    2018-03-30

    The aleurone layer of barley grains is an important model system for hormone-regulated gene expression in plants. In aleurone cells, genes required for germination or early seedling development are activated by gibberellin (GA), while genes associated with stress responses are activated by abscisic acid (ABA). The mechanisms of GA and ABA signaling can be interrogated by introducing reporter gene constructs into aleurone cells via particle bombardment, with the resulting transient expression measured using enzyme assays. An improved protocol is reported that partially automates and streamlines the grain homogenization step and the enzyme assays, allowing significantly more throughput than existing methods. Homogenization of the grain samples is carried out using an automated tissue homogenizer, and GUS (β-glucuronidase) assays are carried out using a 96-well plate system. Representative results using the protocol suggest that phospholipase D activity may play an important role in the activation of HVA1 gene expression by ABA, through the transcription factor TaABF1.

  8. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Nørregaard Jensen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    was developed, comprising batch reversed-phase chromatography with stepwise elution of hydrophobic proteins by 2-propanol. Proteins in the most hydrophobic fraction were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS and barley EST sequence database search. The method was efficient for enrichment of integral......The plasma membrane of the cereal aleurone layer is the site of perception of germination signals and release of enzymes to the starchy endosperm. Analysis of membrane proteins is challenging due to their hydrophobicity and low abundance, thus little is known about the membrane proteins involved...... in seed germination. A membrane fraction highly enriched for the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was prepared from barley aleurone layers by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Since detergent and salt washes did not efficiently remove soluble proteins from the membrane preparations, an alternative procedure...

  9. Spatial and temporal regulation of DNA fragmentation in the aleurone of germinating barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Oppedijk, B.J.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Lamers, G.E.M.; Boot, M.J.; Geerlings, D.N.G.; Bakhuizen, B.; Meijer, A.H.; Duijn, B. van

    1998-01-01

    During germination of barley grains, the appearance of DNA fragmentation started in aleurone cells near the embryo and extended to the distal end in a time-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation was demonstrated to occur only after the expression of α-amylase mRNA in the aleurone layer. In addition,

  10. Spatio-temporal appearance of α-amylase and limit dextrinase in barley aleurone layer in response to gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and salicylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahpiri, Azar; Talaei, Nasim; Finnie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Release of LD was found to differ from that of amylase and was suggested to depend on programmed cell death (PCD). Despite detection of intracellular amylase in untreated aleurone layers or aleurone layers treated with ABA or SA, α-amylase was not released from these samples. Nevertheless, the re...

  11. Differential Synthesis in Vitro of Barley Aleurone and Starchy Endosperm Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Hejgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Annette

    1986-01-01

    RNAs from isolated endosperm and aleurone tissues (developing and mature grain) and from cultured (germinating) aleurone layers treated with abscisic acid (ABA) and GA(3). B and C hordein polypeptides and the salt-soluble proteins beta-amylase, protein Z, protein C, the chymotrypsin inhibitors (CI-1 and 2......, expression of genes encoding ASI, PSI, protein C, and PAPI is tissue and stage-specific during seed development. Only ASI, CI-1, and PAPI were synthesized in significant amounts with mRNA from cultured aleurone layers. The levels of synthesis of PAPI and CI-1 were independent of hormone treatment......To widen the selection of proteins for gene expression studies in barley seeds, experiments were performed to identify proteins whose synthesis is differentially regulated in developing and germinating seed tissues. The in vitro synthesis of nine distinct barley proteins was compared using m...

  12. Heat-stable proteins and abscisic acid action in barley aleurone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, J.V.; Shaw, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    [ 35 S]Methionine labeling experiments showed that abscisic acid (ABA) induced the synthesis of at least 25 polypeptides in mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone cells. The polypeptides were not secreted. Whereas most of the proteins extracted from aleurone cells were coagulated by heating to 100 degree C for 10 minutes, most of the ABA-induced polypeptides remained in solution (heat-stable). ABA had little effect on the spectrum of polypeptides that were synthesized and secreted by aleurone cells, and most of these secreted polypeptides were also heat-stable. Coomassie blue staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels indicated that ABA-induced polypeptides already occurred in high amounts in mature aleurone layers having accumulated during grain development. About 60% of the total protein extracted from mature aleurone was heat stable. Amino acid analyses of total preparations of heat-stable and heat-labile proteins showed that, compared to heat-labile proteins, heat-stable intracellular proteins were characterized by higher glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and glycine levels and lower levels of neutral amino acids. Secreted heat-stable proteins were rich in Glx and proline. The possibilities that the accumulation of the heat-stable polypeptides during grain development is controlled by ABA and that the function of these polypeptides is related to their abundance and extraordinary heat stability are considered

  13. Spatio-temporal changes in germination and radical elongation of barley seeds tracked by proteome analysis of dissected embryo, aleurone layer and endosperm tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Finnie, Christine; Roepstorff, P.

    2007-01-01

    and functions to the seed embryo, aleurone, and endosperm. Abundance in 2-DE patterns was monitored for 48 different proteins appearing in 79 gel spots at 8 time-points up to 72 h post imbibition (PI). In embryo, a beta-type proteasome subunit and a heat shock protein 70 fragment were among the earliest......Germination of barley is accompanied by changes in water-soluble seed proteins. 2-DE was used to describe spatio-temporal proteome differences in dissected seed tissues associated with germination and the subsequent radicle elongation. Protein identification by MS enabled assignment of proteins......, increased in abundance at 36 h PI. The surprisingly early changes seen in the protein profiles already 4 h after imbibition indicate that germination is programmed during seed maturation...

  14. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Nørregaard Jensen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    was developed, comprising batch reversed-phase chromatography with stepwise elution of hydrophobic proteins by 2-propanol. Proteins in the most hydrophobic fraction were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS and barley EST sequence database search. The method was efficient for enrichment of integral...

  15. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Nørregaard Jensen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    was developed, comprising batch reversed-phase chromatography with stepwise elution of hydrophobic proteins by 2-propanol. Proteins in the most hydrophobic fraction were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS and barley EST sequence database search. The method was efficient for enrichment of integral......+-ATPase, two proteins possibly involved in ion-channel regulation and two proteins of unknown function. This represents the first analysis of membrane proteins involved in seed germination, using a proteomics approach....

  16. Differential Synthesis in Vitro of Barley Aleurone and Starchy Endosperm Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Hejgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Annette

    1986-01-01

    ), the alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (ASI) and the inhibitor of animal cell-free protein synthesis systems (PSI) were synthesized with mRNA from developing starchy endosperm tissue. Of these proteins, beta-amylase, protein Z, and CI- 1 and 2 were also synthesized with mRNA from developing aleurone cells....... In contrast, synthesis of alpha-amylase (included as control) and of ASI showed antagonistic hormonal control: while GA promotes and ABA reduces accumulation of mRNA for alpha-amylase, these hormones have the opposite effect on ASI mRNA levels.......RNAs from isolated endosperm and aleurone tissues (developing and mature grain) and from cultured (germinating) aleurone layers treated with abscisic acid (ABA) and GA(3). B and C hordein polypeptides and the salt-soluble proteins beta-amylase, protein Z, protein C, the chymotrypsin inhibitors (CI-1 and 2...

  17. Synthesis, processing and export of cytoplasmic endo-ß-1,4-xylanase from barley aleurone during germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspers, M.P.M.; Lok, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.; Zeijl, M. van; Nielsen, K.A.; Cameron-Mills, V.

    2001-01-01

    We have identified the major endo-β-l,4-xylanase (XYN-1) in the aleurone of germinating barley grain, and show that it is expressed as a precursor of Mr 61 500 with both N- and C-terminal propeptides. XYN-1 is synthesized as an inactive enzyme in the cytoplasm, and only becomes active at a late

  18. Gibberellic Acid-Induced Aleurone Layers Responding to Heat Shock or Tunicamycin Provide Insight into the N-Glycoproteome, Protein Secretion, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol; Hägglund, Per

    2014-01-01

    The growing relevance of plants for the production of recombinant proteins makes understanding the secretory machinery, including the identification of glycosylation sites in secreted proteins, an important goal of plant proteomics. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone layers maintained in vitro...... effects on both the intracellular and secreted proteomes. Proteins in a total of 22 and 178 two-dimensional gel spots changing in intensity in extracellular and intracellular fractions, respectively, were identified by mass spectrometry. Among these are proteins with key roles in protein processing...... shock proteins, decreased in heat-shocked aleurone layers. Additionally, glycopeptide enrichment and N-glycosylation analysis identified 73 glycosylation sites in 65 aleurone layer proteins, with 53 of the glycoproteins found in extracellular fractions and 36 found in intracellular fractions...

  19. Live Cell Imaging During Germination Reveals Dynamic Tubular Structures Derived from Protein Storage Vacuoles of Barley Aleurone Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Ibl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The germination of cereal seeds is a rapid developmental process in which the endomembrane system undergoes a series of dynamic morphological changes to mobilize storage compounds. The changing ultrastructure of protein storage vacuoles (PSVs in the cells of the aleurone layer has been investigated in the past, but generally this involved inferences drawn from static pictures representing different developmental stages. We used live cell imaging in transgenic barley plants expressing a TIP3-GFP fusion protein as a fluorescent PSV marker to follow in real time the spatially and temporally regulated remodeling and reshaping of PSVs during germination. During late-stage germination, we observed thin, tubular structures extending from PSVs in an actin-dependent manner. No extensions were detected following the disruption of actin microfilaments, while microtubules did not appear to be involved in the process. The previously-undetected tubular PSV structures were characterized by complex movements, fusion events and a dynamic morphology. Their function during germination remains unknown, but might be related to the transport of solutes and metabolites.

  20. Novel insights into pericarp, protein body globoids of aleurone layer, starchy granules of three cereals gained using atomic force microscopy and environmental scanning electronic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Elena; Zara, Carolina; Valentini, Laura; Gobbi, Pietro; Ninfali, Paolino; Menotta, Michele

    2018-02-05

    In this study, we applied Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis to three different cereal caryopses: barley, oat and einkorn wheat. The morphological structures, chemical elemental composition and surface characteristics of the three cereals were described. Regarding the morphology, barley showed the thickest pericarp, providing a strong barrier digestion and absorption of nutrients. The aleurone layer of each cereal type contained protein body globoids within its cells. Large type-A and small type-B starchy granules were revealed in the endosperm of barley and einkorn wheat, whereas irregular starchy granules were found in oats. The starchy granule elemental composition, detected by ESEM-EDS, was rather homogenous in the three cereals, whereas the pericarp and protein body globoids showed heterogeneity. In the protein body globoids, oats showed higher P and K concentrations than barley and einkorn wheat. Regarding the topographic profiles, detected by AFM, einkorn wheat starchy granules showed a surface profile that differed significantly from that of oats and barley, which were quite similar to one another. The present work provides insights into the morphological and chemical makeup of the three grains shedding light on the higher bio-accessibility of einkorn wheat nutrients compared to barley and oats, providing important suggestions for human nutrition and technological standpoints.

  1. Novel insights into pericarp, protein body globoids of aleurone layer, starchy granules of three cereals gained using atomic force microscopy and environmental scanning electronic microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Antonini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we applied Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM analysis to three different cereal caryopses: barley, oat and einkorn wheat. The morphological structures, chemical elemental composition and surface characteristics of the three cereals were described. Regarding the morphology, barley showed the thickest pericarp, providing a strong barrier digestion and absorption of nutrients. The aleurone layer of each cereal type contained protein body globoids within its cells. Large type-A and small type-B starchy granules were revealed in the endosperm of barley and einkorn wheat, whereas irregular starchy granules were found in oats. The starchy granule elemental composition, detected by ESEM-EDS, was rather homogenous in the three cereals, whereas the pericarp and protein body globoids showed heterogeneity. In the protein body globoids, oats showed higher P and K concentrations than barley and einkorn wheat. Regarding the topographic profiles, detected by AFM, einkorn wheat starchy granules showed a surface profile that differed significantly from that of oats and barley, which were quite similar to one another. The present work provides insights into the morphological and chemical makeup of the three grains shedding light on the higher bio-accessibility of einkorn wheat nutrients compared to barley and oats, providing important suggestions for human nutrition and technological standpoints.

  2. Differential Synthesis in Vitro of Barley Aleurone and Starchy Endosperm Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Hejgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Annette

    1986-01-01

    To widen the selection of proteins for gene expression studies in barley seeds, experiments were performed to identify proteins whose synthesis is differentially regulated in developing and germinating seed tissues. The in vitro synthesis of nine distinct barley proteins was compared using mRNAs ...

  3. Messenger RNAs from the Scutellum and Aleurone of Germinating Barley Encode (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-d-Glucanase, alpha-Amylase and Carboxypeptidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Brandt, Anders; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    1985-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies raised against barley (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-d-glucanase, alpha-amylase and carboxypeptidase were used to detect precursor polypeptides of these hydrolytic enzymes among the in vitro translation products of mRNA isolated from the scutellum and aleurone of germinating barley....... In the scutellum, mRNA encoding carboxypeptidase appeared to be relatively more abundant than that encoding alpha-amylase or (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-d-glucanase, while in the aleurone alpha-amylase and (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-d-glucanase mRNAs predominated. The apparent molecular weights of the precursors for (1......-->3,1-->4)-beta-d-glucanase, alpha-amylase, and carboxypeptidase were 33,000, 44,000, and 35,000, respectively. In each case these are slightly higher (1,500-5,000) than molecular weights of the mature enzymes. Molecular weights of precursors immunoprecipitated from aleurone and scutellum mRNA translation...

  4. Evidence for a slow-turnover form of the Ca2+-independent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase in the aleurone-endosperm tissue of germinating barley seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna; Pierre; Gonzalez; Alvarez; Cejudo; Echevarria; Vidal

    1999-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity was detected in aleurone-endosperm extracts of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds during germination, and specific anti-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) C4 PEPC polyclonal antibodies immunodecorated constitutive 103-kD and inducible 108-kD PEPC polypeptides in western analysis. The 103- and 108-kD polypeptides were radiolabeled in situ after imbibition for up to 1.5 d in 32P-labeled inorganic phosphate. In vitro phosphorylation by a Ca2+-independent PEPC protein kinase (PK) in crude extracts enhanced the enzyme's velocity and decreased its sensitivity to L-malate at suboptimal pH and [PEP]. Isolated aleurone cell protoplasts contained both phosphorylated PEPC and a Ca2+-independent PEPC-PK that was partially purified by affinity chromatography on blue dextran-agarose. This PK activity was present in dry seeds, and PEPC phosphorylation in situ during imbibition was not affected by the cytosolic protein-synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, by weak acids, or by various pharmacological reagents that had proven to be effective blockers of the light signal transduction chain and PEPC phosphorylation in C4 mesophyll protoplasts. These collective data support the hypothesis that this Ca2+-independent PEPC-PK was formed during maturation of barley seeds and that its presumed underlying signaling elements were no longer operative during germination.

  5. Expression of a rice glutaredoxin in aleurone layers of developing and mature seeds: subcellular localization and possible functions in antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shigeto; Yamashita, Yuki; Fujiki, Masayoshi; Todaka, Rie; Nishikawa, Yuri; Hosoki, Ayaka; Yabe, Chisato; Nakamura, Jun'ichi; Kawamura, Kazuyoshi; Suwastika, I Nengah; Sato, Masa H; Masumura, Takehiro; Ogihara, Yasunari; Tanaka, Kunisuke; Satoh, Shigeru

    2015-11-01

    A rice glutaredoxin isoform (OsGrxC2;2) with antioxidant capacity is expressed abundantly in seed tissues and is localized to storage vacuoles in aleurone layers in developing and mature seeds. Seed tissues undergo drastic water loss at the late stage of seed development, and thus need to tolerate oxidative injuries associated with desiccation. We previously found a rice glutaredoxin isoform, OsGrxC2;2, as a gene expressed abundantly in developing seeds. Since glutaredoxin is involved in antioxidant defense, in the present study we investigated the subcellular localization and expression profile of OsGrxC2;2 and whether OsGrxC2;2 has a role in the defense against reactive oxygen species. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that the OsGrxC2;2 protein accumulated at a high level in the embryo and aleurone layers of developing and mature seeds. The OsGrxC2;2 in developing seeds was particularly localized to aleurone grains, which are storage organelles derived from vacuoles. Overexpression of OsGrxC2;2 resulted in an enhanced tolerance to menadione in yeast and methyl viologen in green leaves of transgenic rice plants. These results suggest that OsGrxC2;2 participates in the defense against oxidative stress in developing and mature seeds.

  6. Identification of thioredoxin target disulfides in proteins released from barley aleurone layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, J.; Yang, Fen

    2010-01-01

    Thioredoxins are ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including DNA synthesis, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. In cereal seeds thioredoxins are proposed to facilitate the germination process by reducing disulfide bonds in storage proteins and other...

  7. Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis in cereal aleurone is strongly cultivar-dependent and gibberellin action involves SLENDER1 but not GAMYB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastmond, Peter J; Jones, Russell L

    2005-11-01

    Storage oil is a major constituent in the cereal aleurone layer. The aim of this study was to investigate how gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate conversion of oil to sugar in barley aleurone. The activity of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) was surveyed in eight barley cultivars. Surprisingly, some cultivars do not require GA for the induction of ICL (e.g. Himalaya), whereas some do (e.g. Golden Promise). Furthermore, in Golden Promise, GA also stimulates triacylglycerol breakdown and enhances the net flux of carbon from acetate to sugar. In contrast, ABA strongly represses ICL activity and the flux of carbon from oil to sugar in both Golden Promise and Himalaya. Biolistics using a promoter reporter showed that GA and ABA regulate ICL at the level of transcription. Studies using barley and rice mutants and pharmacological agents show that GA-dependent induction of ICL activity is mediated by SLENDER1 and requires cGMP, but does not involve the transcription factor GAMYB. Gibberellin and ABA therefore act antagonistically to regulate gluconeogenesis in the aleurone layer as well as controlling the production and secretion of hydrolases into the starchy endosperm. We suggest that the variation between different barley cultivars might be a result of selective breeding to alter seed dormancy.

  8. Cobalt Alleviates GA-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Wheat Aleurone Layers via the Regulation of H2O2 Production and Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingzhu; Li, Jiale; Wang, Fangquan; Li, Feng; Yang, Jun; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are key signaling molecules that are produced in response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt is able to delay gibberellic acid (GA)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone layers. A similar response was observed when samples were pretreated with carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two end-products of HO catalysis. We further observed that increased HO-1 expression played a role in the cobalt-induced alleviation of PCD. The application of HO-1-specific inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX), substantially prevented the increases of HO-1 activity and the alleviation of PCD triggered by cobalt. The stimulation of HO-1 expression, and alleviation of PCD might be caused by the initial H2O2 production induced by cobalt. qRT-PCR and enzymatic assays revealed that cobalt-induced gene expression and the corresponding activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), three enzymes that metabolize reactive oxygen species, were consistent with the H2O2 accumulation during GA treatment. These cobalt responses were differentially blocked by co-treatment with ZnPPIX. We therefore suggest that HO-1 functions in the cobalt-triggered alleviation of PCD in wheat aleurone layers, which is also dependent on the enhancement of the activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25405743

  9. Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide Contributes to Heme Oxygenase-1 Delaying Programmed Cell Death in Isolated Aleurone Layers of Rice Subjected to Drought Stress in a cGMP-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a reactive oxygen species (ROS that plays a dual role in plant cells. Here, we discovered that drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG-triggered decreases of HO-1 transcript expression and HO activity. However, exogenous H2O2 contributed toward the increase in HO-1 gene expression and activity of the enzyme under drought stress. Meanwhile, the HO-1 inducer hematin could mimic the effects of the H2O2 scavengers ascorbic acid (AsA and dimethylthiourea (DMTU and the H2O2 synthesis inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI for scavenging or diminishing drought-induced endogenous H2O2. Conversely, the zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX, an HO-1-specific inhibitor, reversed the effects of hematin. We further analyzed the endogenous H2O2 levels and HO-1 transcript expression levels of aleurone layers treated with AsA, DMTU, and DPI in the presence of exogenous H2O2 under drought stress, respectively. The results showed that in aleurone layers subjected to drought stress, when the endogenous H2O2 level was inhibited, the effect of exogenous H2O2 on the induction of HO-1 was enhanced. Furthermore, exogenous H2O2-activated HO-1 effectively enhanced amylase activity. Application of 8-bromoguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP (the membrane permeable cGMP analog promoted the effect of exogenous H2O2-delayed PCD of aleurone layers in response to drought stress. More importantly, HO-1 delayed the programmed cell death (PCD of aleurone layers by cooperating with nitric oxide (NO, and the delayed effect of NO on PCD was achieved via mediation by cGMP under drought stress. In short, in rice aleurone layers, exogenous H2O2 (as a signaling molecule triggered HO-1 and delayed PCD via cGMP which possibly induced amylase activity under drought stress. In contrast, as a toxic by-product of cellular metabolism, the drought-generated H2O2 promoted cell death.

  10. Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide Contributes to Heme Oxygenase-1 Delaying Programmed Cell Death in Isolated Aleurone Layers of Rice Subjected to Drought Stress in a cGMP-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Xiao, Yu; Deng, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Heting; Li, Tingge; Chen, Huiping

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that plays a dual role in plant cells. Here, we discovered that drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG)-triggered decreases of HO-1 transcript expression and HO activity. However, exogenous H 2 O 2 contributed toward the increase in HO-1 gene expression and activity of the enzyme under drought stress. Meanwhile, the HO-1 inducer hematin could mimic the effects of the H 2 O 2 scavengers ascorbic acid (AsA) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and the H 2 O 2 synthesis inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for scavenging or diminishing drought-induced endogenous H 2 O 2 . Conversely, the zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), an HO-1-specific inhibitor, reversed the effects of hematin. We further analyzed the endogenous H 2 O 2 levels and HO-1 transcript expression levels of aleurone layers treated with AsA, DMTU, and DPI in the presence of exogenous H 2 O 2 under drought stress, respectively. The results showed that in aleurone layers subjected to drought stress, when the endogenous H 2 O 2 level was inhibited, the effect of exogenous H 2 O 2 on the induction of HO-1 was enhanced. Furthermore, exogenous H 2 O 2 -activated HO-1 effectively enhanced amylase activity. Application of 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) (the membrane permeable cGMP analog) promoted the effect of exogenous H 2 O 2 -delayed PCD of aleurone layers in response to drought stress. More importantly, HO-1 delayed the programmed cell death (PCD) of aleurone layers by cooperating with nitric oxide (NO), and the delayed effect of NO on PCD was achieved via mediation by cGMP under drought stress. In short, in rice aleurone layers, exogenous H 2 O 2 (as a signaling molecule) triggered HO-1 and delayed PCD via cGMP which possibly induced amylase activity under drought stress. In contrast, as a toxic by-product of cellular metabolism, the drought-generated H 2 O 2 promoted cell death.

  11. Sugar Repression of a Gibberellin-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Barley Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perata, P.; Matsukura, C.; Vernieri, P.; Yamaguchi, J.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that sugars can act as signals affecting plant metabolism and development. Some of the effects of sugars on plant growth and development suggest an interaction of sugar signals with hormonal regulation. We investigated the effects of sugars on the induction of [alpha]-amylase by gibberellic acid in barley embryos and aleurone layers. Our results show that sugar and hormonal signaling interact in the regulation of gibberellic acid-induced gene expression in barley grains. The induction of [alpha]-amylase by gibberellic acid in the aleurone layer is unaffected by the presence of sugars, but repression by carbohydrates is effective in the embryo. [alpha]-Amylase expression in the embryo is localized to the scutellar epithelium and is hormone and sugar modulated. The effects of glucose are independent from the effects of sugars on gibberellin biosynthesis. They are not due to an osmotic effect, they are independent of abscisic acid, and only hexokinase-phosphorylatable glucose analogs are able to trigger gene repression. Overall, the results suggest the existence of an interaction between the hormonal and metabolic regulation of [alpha]-amylase genes in barley grains. PMID:12237356

  12. Delivery of Prolamins to the Protein Storage Vacuole in Maize Aleurone Cells[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Francisca C.; Chung, Taijoon; Holding, David; Jung, Rudolf; Vierstra, Richard; Otegui, Marisa S.

    2011-01-01

    Zeins, the prolamin storage proteins found in maize (Zea mays), accumulate in accretions called protein bodies inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of starchy endosperm cells. We found that genes encoding zeins, α-globulin, and legumin-1 are transcribed not only in the starchy endosperm but also in aleurone cells. Unlike the starchy endosperm, aleurone cells accumulate these storage proteins inside protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) instead of the ER. Aleurone PSVs contain zein-rich protein inclusions, a matrix, and a large system of intravacuolar membranes. After being assembled in the ER, zeins are delivered to the aleurone PSVs in atypical prevacuolar compartments that seem to arise at least partially by autophagy and consist of multilayered membranes and engulfed cytoplasmic material. The zein-containing prevacuolar compartments are neither surrounded by a double membrane nor decorated by AUTOPHAGY RELATED8 protein, suggesting that they are not typical autophagosomes. The PSV matrix contains glycoproteins that are trafficked through a Golgi-multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. MVBs likely fuse with the multilayered, autophagic compartments before merging with the PSV. The presence of similar PSVs also containing prolamins and large systems of intravacuolar membranes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) starchy endosperm suggests that this trafficking mechanism may be common among cereals. PMID:21343414

  13. Delivery of prolamins to the protein storage vacuole in maize aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Francisca C; Chung, Taijoon; Holding, David; Jung, Rudolf; Vierstra, Richard; Otegui, Marisa S

    2011-02-01

    Zeins, the prolamin storage proteins found in maize (Zea mays), accumulate in accretions called protein bodies inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of starchy endosperm cells. We found that genes encoding zeins, α-globulin, and legumin-1 are transcribed not only in the starchy endosperm but also in aleurone cells. Unlike the starchy endosperm, aleurone cells accumulate these storage proteins inside protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) instead of the ER. Aleurone PSVs contain zein-rich protein inclusions, a matrix, and a large system of intravacuolar membranes. After being assembled in the ER, zeins are delivered to the aleurone PSVs in atypical prevacuolar compartments that seem to arise at least partially by autophagy and consist of multilayered membranes and engulfed cytoplasmic material. The zein-containing prevacuolar compartments are neither surrounded by a double membrane nor decorated by AUTOPHAGY RELATED8 protein, suggesting that they are not typical autophagosomes. The PSV matrix contains glycoproteins that are trafficked through a Golgi-multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. MVBs likely fuse with the multilayered, autophagic compartments before merging with the PSV. The presence of similar PSVs also containing prolamins and large systems of intravacuolar membranes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) starchy endosperm suggests that this trafficking mechanism may be common among cereals.

  14. Enrichment and Identification of the Most Abundant Zinc Binding Proteins in Developing Barley Grains by Zinc-IMAC Capture and Nano LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Dionisio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc accumulates in the embryo, aleurone, and subaleurone layers at different amounts in cereal grains. Our hypothesis is that zinc could be stored bound, not only to low MW metabolites/proteins, but also to high MW proteins as well. Methods: In order to identify the most abundant zinc binding proteins in different grain tissues, we microdissected barley grains into (1 seed coats; (2 aleurone/subaleurone; (3 embryo; and (4 endosperm. Initial screening for putative zinc binding proteins from the different tissue types was performed by fractionating proteins according to solubility (Osborne fractionation, and resolving those via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE followed by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane blotting and dithizone staining. Selected protein fractions were subjected to Zn2+-immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, and the captured proteins were identified using nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS. Results: In the endosperm, the most abundant zinc binding proteins were the storage protein B-hordeins, gamma-, and D-hordeins, while in the embryo, 7S globulins storage proteins exhibited zinc binding. In the aleurone/subaleurone, zinc affinity captured proteins were late abundant embryogenesis proteins, dehydrins, many isoforms of non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and alpha amylase trypsin inhibitor. Conclusions: We have shown evidence that abundant barley grain proteins have been captured by Zn-IMAC, and their zinc binding properties in relationship to the possibility of zinc storage is discussed.

  15. Enrichment and identification of the most abundant zinc binding proteins in developing barley grains by Zinc-IMAC capture and nano LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Vincze, Eva

    2018-01-01

    , and the captured proteins were identified using nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Results: In the endosperm, the most abundant zinc binding proteins were the storage protein B-hordeins, gamma-, and D-hordeins, while in the embryo, 7S globulins storage proteins...... exhibited zinc binding. In the aleurone/subaleurone, zinc affinity captured proteins were late abundant embryogenesis proteins, dehydrins, many isoforms of non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and alpha amylase trypsin inhibitor. Conclusions: We have shown evidence that abundant barley grain proteins have......Background: Zinc accumulates in the embryo, aleurone, and subaleurone layers at different amounts in cereal grains. Our hypothesis is that zinc could be stored bound, not only to low MW metabolites/proteins, but also to high MW proteins as well. Methods: In order to identify the most abundant zinc...

  16. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Germination induction of dormant Avena fatua caryopses by KAR(1) and GA(3) involving the control of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2(·-)) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase) both in the embryo and the aleurone layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowska-Lech, Danuta; Koprowski, Marek; Kępczyński, Jan

    2015-03-15

    Avena fatua L. caryopses did not germinate at 20 °C in darkness because they were dormant. However, they were able to germinate in the presence of karrikinolide (KAR1), a key bioactive compound present in smoke, and also in the presence of gibberellin A3 (GA3), a commonly known stimulator of seed germination. The aim of this study was to collect information on a possible relationship between the above regulators and abscisic acid (ABA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS scavenging antioxidants in the regulation of dormant caryopses germination. KAR1 and GA3 caused complete germination of dormant A. fatua caryopses. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), compounds generating the superoxide (O2(·-)), i.e. menadione (MN), methylviologen (MV) and an inhibitor of catalase activity, aminotriazole (AT), induced germination of dormant caryopses. KAR1, GA3, H2O2 and AT decreased ABA content in embryos. Furthermore, KAR1, GA3, H2O2, MN, MV and AT increased α-amylase activity in caryopses. The effect of KAR1 and GA3 on ROS (H2O2, O2(·-)) and activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined in caryopses, embryos and aleurone layers. SOD was represented by four isoforms and catalase by one. In situ localization of ROS showed that the effect of KAR1 and GA3 was associated with the localization of hydrogen peroxide mainly on the coleorhiza. However, the superoxide was mainly localized on the surface of the scutellum. Superoxide was also detected in the protruding radicle. Germination induction of dormant caryopses by KAR1 and GA3 was related to an increasing content of H2O2, O2(·-)and activities of SOD and CAT in embryos, thus ROS homeostasis was probably required for the germination of dormant caryopses. The above regulators increased the content of ROS in aleurone layers and decreased the activities of SOD and CAT, probably leading to the programmed cell death. The presented data provide new insights into the germination induction of A. fatua dormant

  18. Phytohormonal regulation of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase by gibberellic acid in wheat aleurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, M; Satpathy, M; Sachar, R C

    1992-11-17

    yielded two additional isozymic peaks, I and III, thereby suggesting its heterodimeric nature. We envisage that the three isozymes in GA3-treated wheat aleurone layers are formed by the random dimerization of two classes of enzyme subunits. The two enzyme subunits which differ in their net charge could be the product of two genes of AdoMet synthetase (SAM1 and SAM2). Based on this assumption, we propose that a single isozyme I in water imbibed control wheat aleurones is the product of SAM1 gene of AdoMet synthetase. The occurrence of three isozymes in GA3-treated aleurones could be ascribed to the expression of an alternate gene of AdoMet synthetase (SAM2 gene).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  19. Breeding of proanthocyanidin free malting barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Anna Maria

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Haze formation in stored beer is due to colloidal precipitation of proteins with polyphenols of which proanthocyanidins are the most important group. 70-80% of proanthocyanidin in beer are from barley malt. Today breweries attain haze stability by using enzymes, additives or adsorbents. A better solution would be to remove proanthocyanidins. Carlsberg Plant Breeding uses induced mutations to breed proanthocyanidin-free malting barley. After mutagen treatment with sodium azide M1 seeds are planted in the field and M2 seeds are harvested in bulk. A single seed, non-destructive method has been developed to identify mutant kernels lacking proanthocyanidins in the testa. The method involves the inclusion of M2 seeds - 50 at a time - in semisolid clay blocks, whereafter a small part of the endosperm, testa and pericarp are exposed by sanding the seeds. The clay block is then placed in a vanillin-HCI solution so that the uncovered tissues can react with the solution. A red colour will develop in the testa of normal seeds, whereas the testa layers of proanthocyanid-free seeds remain colourless. So far, more than 600 mutants have been induced in over 100 barley varieties, spring as well as winter-types, from barley producing areas around the world. The mutants can be assigned to at least 7 loci, all of which can block the biosynthetic pathway for the proanthocyanidins. Mutants in the ant-18 and ant-19 loci show poor kernel development. Only a few mutants are known in the ant-12, ant-22 and ant-25 loci. Breeding work is focussed on mutants belonging to the ant-13 and ant-17 loci. Whereas the malting quality of ant-17 lines suffer from apparent abnormal enzyme development in the aleurone layer, this defect does not exist in ant-13 lines. Brewing trials with proanthocyanidin-free malt have shown excellent haze stability without changes in beer flavour. Breeding work based on the ant-13 lines led to disease resistant lines with good malting quality, while grain yield

  20. Isolation of tissues and preservation of RNA from intact, germinated barley grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Natalie S; Berkowitz, Oliver; Liu, Ruijie; Collins, Helen M; Skadhauge, Birgitte; Dockter, Christoph; Burton, Rachel A; Whelan, James; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2017-08-01

    Isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers have been widely used as a model system for studying gene expression and hormonal regulation in germinating cereal grains. A serious technological limitation of this approach has been the inability to confidently extrapolate conclusions obtained from isolated tissues back to the whole grain, where the co-location of several living and non-living tissues results in complex tissue-tissue interactions and regulatory pathways coordinated across the multiple tissues. Here we have developed methods for isolating fragments of aleurone, starchy endosperm, embryo, scutellum, pericarp-testa, husk and crushed cell layers from germinated grain. An important step in the procedure involves the rapid fixation of the intact grain to freeze the transcriptional activity of individual tissues while dissection is effected for subsequent transcriptomic analyses. The developmental profiles of 19 611 gene transcripts were precisely defined in the purified tissues and in whole grain during the first 24 h of germination by RNA sequencing. Spatial and temporal patterns of transcription were validated against well-defined data on enzyme activities in both whole grain and isolated tissues. Transcript profiles of genes involved in mitochondrial assembly and function were used to validate the very early stages of germination, while the profiles of genes involved in starch and cell wall mobilisation matched existing data on activities of corresponding enzymes. The data will be broadly applicable for the interrogation of co-expression and differential expression patterns and for the identification of transcription factors that are important in the early stages of grain and seed germination. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The relationship between vacuolation and initiation of PCD in rice (Oryza sativa) aleurone cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Zhang, Heting; Deng, Xiaojiang; Liu, Jing; Chen, Huiping

    2017-01-01

    Vacuole fusion is a necessary process for the establishment of a large central vacuole, which is the central location of various hydrolytic enzymes and other factors involved in death at the beginning of plant programmed cell death (PCD). In our report, the fusion of vacuoles has been presented in two ways: i) small vacuoles coalesce to form larger vacuoles through membrane fusion, and ii) larger vacuoles combine with small vacuoles when small vacuoles embed into larger vacuoles. Regardless of how fusion occurs, a large central vacuole is formed in rice (Oryza sativa) aleurone cells. Along with the development of vacuolation, the rupture of the large central vacuole leads to the loss of the intact plasma membrane and the degradation of the nucleus, resulting in cell death. Stabilizing or disrupting the structure of actin filaments (AFs) inhibits or promotes the fusion of vacuoles, which delays or induces PCD. In addition, the inhibitors of the vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) and cathepsin B (CathB) block the occurrence of the large central vacuole and delay the progression of PCD in rice aleurone layers. Overall, our findings provide further evidence for the rupture of the large central vacuole triggering the PCD in aleruone layers.

  2. The 14N(d,0)15N nuclear reaction method for nitrogen depth distribution measurements in wheat and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goenczi, L.; Didriksson, R.; Berggren, H.; Sundqvist, B.; Lindh, U.; Awal, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    The 14 N(d,p 0 ) 15 N reaction has been used to measure nitrogen depth distributions in single grains of wheat and barley. With the beam energy used (6 MeV) a depth of 225 μm was reached. In order to test the applicability of the method for plant breeding purposes we have studied 1000 grains of wheat and grains of barley, which are part of a larger material of about 50 000 grains grown and harvested under controlled biological conditions. The measured nitrogen distributions in wheat show striking correlations with parameters describing the nitrogen level of fertilizer, the time of harvesting, the grain position in a head and the analyzed variety of wheat. Contributions to the spectra from silicon in the hull of barley are demonstrated. Contributions from interfering elements in the aleuron layer in wheat placed a limit of 120 μm to the depth region analyzed. The importance of effects like pileup, heating of the grains by the beam and grain asymmetries were studied in detail. The possibility to use the technique for selection purposes in plant breeding will be discussed. (author)

  3. Postprandial plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses after consumption of minimally processed wheat bran or wheat aleurone, or wheat aleurone incorporated into bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, Edel M; Price, Ruth K; Hamill, Lesley L; Wallace, Julie M W; McNulty, Helene; Ward, Mary; Strain, J J; Ueland, Per M; Molloy, Anne M; Piironen, Vieno; von Reding, Walter; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Welch, Robert W

    2015-02-14

    The bran and particularly the aleurone fraction of wheat are high in betaine and other physiological methyl donors, which may exert beneficial physiological effects. We conducted two randomised, controlled, cross-over postprandial studies to assess and compare plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses following the consumption of minimally processed bran and aleurone fractions (study A) and aleurone bread (study B). For both studies, standard pharmacokinetic parameters were derived for betaine, choline, folate, dimethylglycine (DMG), total homocysteine and methionine from plasma samples taken at 0, 0·5, 1, 2 and 3 h. In study A (n 14), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially elevated from 0·5 to 3 h following the consumption of both bran and aleurone compared with the control; however, aleurone gave significantly higher responses than bran. Small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG measures; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. In study B (n 13), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially higher following consumption of the aleurone bread compared with the control bread; small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG and folate measures in response to consumption of the aleurone bread; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. Peak plasma betaine concentrations, which were 1·7-1·8 times the baseline levels, were attained earlier following the consumption of minimally processed aleurone compared with the aleurone bread (time taken to reach peak concentration 1·2 v. 2·1 h). These results showed that the consumption of minimally processed wheat bran, and particularly the aleurone fraction, yielded substantial postprandial increases in plasma betaine concentrations. Furthermore, these effects appear to be maintained when aleurone was incorporated into bread.

  4. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... recent progress in barley germination research and discuss the factors to be considered when designing 'omics' experiments and interpreting the results. These factors include the structural and functional relationships between the various tissues of the barley caryopsis and the timing of the events...... of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...

  5. ZmDof3, a maize endosperm-specific Dof protein gene, regulates starch accumulation and aleurone development in maize endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Li, Shixue; Zhu, Yaxi; Zhao, Qian; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2017-01-01

    To explore the function of Dof transcription factors during kernel development in maize, we first identified Dof genes in the maize genome. We found that ZmDof3 was exclusively expressed in the endosperm of maize kernel and had the features of a Dof transcription factor. Suppression of ZmDof3 resulted in a defective kernel phenotype with reduced starch content and a partially patchy aleurone layer. The expression levels of starch synthesis-related genes and aleurone differentiation-associated genes were down-regulated in ZmDof3 knockdown kernels, indicating that ZmDof3 plays an important role in maize endosperm development. The maize endosperm, occupying a large proportion of the kernel, plays an important role in seed development and germination. Current knowledge regarding the regulation of endosperm development is limited. Dof proteins, a family of plant-specific transcription factors, play critical roles in diverse biological processes. In this study, an endosperm-specific Dof protein gene, ZmDof3, was identified in maize through genome-wide screening. Suppression of ZmDof3 resulted in a defective kernel phenotype. The endosperm of ZmDof3 knockdown kernels was loosely packed with irregular starch granules observed by electronic microscope. Through genome-wide expression profiling, we found that down-regulated genes were enriched in GO terms related to carbohydrate metabolism. Moreover, ZmDof3 could bind to the Dof core element in the promoter of starch biosynthesis genes Du1 and Su2 in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the aleurone at local position in mature ZmDof3 knockdown kernels varied from one to three layers, which consisted of smaller and irregular cells. Further analyses showed that knockdown of ZmDof3 reduced the expression of Nkd1, which is involved in aleurone cell differentiation, and that ZmDof3 could bind to the Dof core element in the Nkd1 promoter. Our study reveals that ZmDof3 functions in maize endosperm development as a positive regulator in

  6. Barley metallothioneins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn...... storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations....

  7. ThMYC4E, candidate Blue aleurone 1 gene controlling the associated trait in Triticum aestivum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Blue aleurone is a useful and interesting trait in common wheat that was derived from related species. Here, transcriptomes of blue and white aleurone were compared for isolating Blue aleurone 1 (Ba1 transferred from Thinopyrum ponticum. In the genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, only a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor, ThMYC4E, had a higher transcript level in blue aleurone phenotype, and was homologous to the genes on chromosome 4 of Triticum aestivum. ThMYC4E carried the characteristic domains (bHLH-MYC_N, HLH and ACT-like of a bHLH transcription factor, and clustered with genes regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis upon phylogenetic analysis. The over-expression of ThMYC4E regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis with the coexpression of the MYB transcription factor ZmC1 from maize. ThMYC4E existed in the genomes of the addition, substitution and near isogenic lines with the blue aleurone trait derived from Th. ponticum, and could not be detected in any germplasm of T. urartu, T. monococcum, T. turgidum, Aegilops tauschii or T. aestivum, with white aleurone. These results suggested that ThMYC4E was candidate Ba1 gene controlling the blue aleurone trait in T. aestivum genotypes carrying Th. ponticum introgression. The ThMYC4E isolation aids in better understanding the genetic mechanisms of the blue aleurone trait and in its more effective use during wheat breeding.

  8. Wheat aleurone polyphenols increase plasma eicosapentaenoic acid in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Ounnas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: These studies were designed to assess whether wheat polyphenols (mainly ferulic acid [FA] increased the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (VLC n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA] in rats. Wheat aleurone (WA was used as a dietary source of wheat polyphenols. Two experiments were performed; in the first one, the rats were fed WA or control pellets (CP in presence of linseed oil (LO to provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor of VLC n-3. In the second one, the rats were fed WA or CP in presence of control oil (CO without ALA. The concentrations of phenolic acid metabolites in urine were also investigated. Results: The urinary concentration of conjugated FA increased with WA ingestion (p<0.05. Plasma EPA increased by 25% (p<0.05 with WA in the CO group but not in the LO group. In contrast, there was no effect of WA on plasma DHA and omega-6 fatty acids (n-6. Finally, both n-3 and n-6 in the liver remained unchanged by the WA. Conclusion: These results suggest that WA consumption has a significant effect on EPA in plasma without affecting n-6. Subsequent studies are required to examine whether these effects may explain partly the health benefits associated with whole wheat consumption.

  9. Barley grain maturation and germination: metabolic pathway and regulatory network commonalities and differences highlighted by new MapMan/PageMan profiling tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Usadel, Björn; Winter, Andreas; Radchuk, Volodymyr; Scholz, Uwe; Stein, Nils; Weschke, Winfriede; Strickert, Marc; Close, Timothy J; Stitt, Mark; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

    2008-04-01

    Plant seeds prepare for germination already during seed maturation. We performed a detailed transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain maturation, desiccation, and germination in two tissue fractions (starchy endosperm/aleurone and embryo/scutellum) using the Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChip. To aid data evaluation, Arabidopsis thaliana MapMan and PageMan tools were adapted to barley. The analyses allow a number of conclusions: (1) Cluster analysis revealed a smooth transition in transcription programs between late seed maturation and germination within embryo tissues, but not in the endosperm/aleurone. (2) More than 12,000 transcripts are stored in the embryo of dry barley grains, many of which are presumably activated during germination. (3) Transcriptional activation of storage reserve mobilization events occurs at an early stage of germination, well before radicle protrusion. (4) Key genes of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis are already active during grain maturation at a time when abscisic acid peaks suggesting the formation of an endogenous store of GA in the aleurone. This GA probably acts later during germination in addition to newly synthesized GA. (5) Beside the well-known role of GA in gene activation during germination spatiotemporal expression data and cis-element searches in homologous rice promoters confirm an equally important gene-activating role of abscisic acid during this developmental period. The respective regulatory webs are linked to auxin and ethylene controlled networks. In summary, new bioinformatics PageMan and MapMan tools developed in barley have been successfully used to investigate in detail the transcriptome relationships between seed maturation and germination in an important crop plant.

  10. Barley callus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Nielsen, Morten M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties...... genes in planta. Results We explored the possibility to use transgenic barley callus generated from immature embryo for a fast test of transgenic modification strategies of starch biosynthesis. We found that this callus contains 4 % (w/w dw) starch granules, which we could modify by generating fully...... suggest that this method can be used as a time-efficient model system for fast screening of candidate genes for the generation of modified starch or new types of carbohydrate polymers....

  11. Oxylipins discriminate between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone intake: a metabolomics study on pig plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    were also found in the flour and the bread consumed by pigs. Since the germ is part of the whole grain flour, the germ is most likely responsible for the elevated level of oxylipins in plasma after whole grain wheat consumption. This finding may also point towards bioactive compounds, which can be used......A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced...

  12. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley

    Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental

  13. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  14. Bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds from wholegrain wheat and aleurone-rich wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Scazzina, Francesca; Leonardi, Roberto; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Newell, Michael; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Melegari, Camilla; Ray, Sumantra; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    This work aimed at investigating absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of phenolic compounds after consumption of wholegrain bread or bread enriched with an aleurone fraction. Two commercially available breads were consumed by 15 participants on three occasions and matched for either the amount of ferulic acid in the bread or the amount of bread consumed. Urine was collected for 48 h from all the volunteers for phenolic metabolite quantification. Blood samples were collected for 24 h following bread consumption in five participants. A total of 12 and 4 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma samples, respectively. Metabolites were sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates of phenolic acids, and high concentrations of ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, dihydroferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, and dihydroferulic acid-O-glucuronide were observed. The bioavailability of ferulic acid was significantly higher from the aleurone-enriched bread when all ferulic acid metabolites were accounted for. The study shows that low amounts of aleurone-enriched bread resulted in equivalent plasma levels of ferulic acid as wholegrain bread. This could suggest that, if the absorbed phenolic metabolites after wholegrain product intake exert health benefits, equal levels could be reached through the consumption of lower doses of refined products enriched in aleurone fraction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Bioactive phytochemicals in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idehen, Emmanuel; Tang, Yao; Sang, Shengmin

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of whole grain barley reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. The presence of barley fiber, especially β-glucan in whole grain barley, has been largely credited for these health benefits. However, it is now widely believed that the actions of the fiber component alone do not explain the observed health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain barley. Whole grain barley also contains phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, tocols, phytosterols, and folate. These phytochemicals exhibit strong antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cholesterol lowering abilities, which are potentially useful in lowering the risk of certain diseases. Therefore, the high concentration of phytochemicals in barley may be largely responsible for its health benefits. This paper reviews available information regarding barley phytochemicals and their potential to combat common nutrition-related diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-13

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  17. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Dall’Asta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  18. Barley peroxidase isozymes. Expression and post-translational modification in mature seeds as identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per

    2007-01-01

    spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination...

  19. Gibberellic acid-stimulated alpha-amylase secretion and phospholipid metabolism in wheat aleurone tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirbahar, R B; Laidman, D L

    1982-01-01

    1. Turnovers of [14C]glycerol-labelled phospholipids in wheat aleurone tissue have been measured by using a pulse-decay technique. The most metabolically active phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. 2. Gibberellic acid action on the tissue led to breakdown of phosphatidylcholine and stimulated turnover of the other phosphatides concomitant with the secretion of alpha-amylase from the tissue. After pulse-labelling of th...

  20. Malting of barley with combinations of Lactobacillus plantarum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, Rhizopus oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum to enhance malt quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, M; Alexander, A; Meijering, I; van Reenen, C A; Dicks, L M T

    2014-03-03

    Good quality malt is characterised by the presence of high levels of fermentable sugars, amino acids and vitamins. To reach the starch-rich endosperm of the kernel, β-glucan- and arabinoxylan-rich cell walls have to be degraded. β-Glucanase is synthesized in vast quantities by the aleurone layer and scutellum during germination. Secretion of hydrolytic enzymes is often stimulated by addition of the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA3) during germination. We have shown an enhanced β-glucanase and α-amylase activity in malt when germinating barley was inoculated with a combination of Lactobacillus plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of Aspergillus niger MH1, Rhizopus oligosporus MH2 or Trichoderma reesei MH3, and L. plantarum B.S1.6 combined with cell-free culture supernatants from each of these fungi. Highest malt β-glucanase activity (414 Units/kg malt) was recorded with a combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of A. niger MH1. Highest α-amylase activities were recorded with a combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of R. oligosporus MH2 (373 Ceralpha Units/g malt). Highest FAN levels were recorded when L. plantarum was inoculated in combination with spores of either R. oligosporus MH2 or T. reesei MH3 (259 and 260 ppm, respectively). This is the first study showing that cell-free culture supernatants of Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Trichoderma have a stimulating effect on β-glucanase and α-amylase production during malting. A combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6, and spores of A. niger MH1 and R. oligosporus MH2 may be used as starter cultures to enhance malt quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fingerprinting and characterization of anthocyanins in 94 colored wheat varieties and blue aleurone and purple pericarp wheat crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Stephanie; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2018-02-23

    Colored wheat varieties and crosses were analyzed to figure out their anthocyanin profiles, and thus, their potential as health-related food. After method development, the obtained 94 anthocyanin fingerprints allowed the clear differentiation of the blue aleurone and purple pericarp genotypes as well as their breeding lines. The method was trimmed so that the complete analysis of the whole grain flour including sample preparation of up to 20 samples on one plate took less than 3 h (<9 min per sample) and total costs including sample preparation were <1.0 Euro/sample. Sample preparation of the complex wheat matrix was reduced to a minimum (only acidified methanol extraction of the ground whole wheat grain). Separation was well achieved on amino phases with a mixture of ethyl acetate, 2-butanone, water and formic acid. It was superior to the separation on either normal or reversed phases and more robust with regard to intrinsic pH variances of the sample extracts. Pattern recognition of anthocyanins was simply performed by visual detection (the image), a key feature of high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Wheat varieties and crosses with higher anthocyanin contents were easily selectable, and thus, successfully made out. Prominent anthocyanin zones were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Their sugar moiety was characterized via methanolysis and compared with the sugars available freely in the whole wheat grain. The developed profiling is a fast and efficient screening tool with option for quantification or identification on the same HPTLC plate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A cathepsin F-like peptidase involved in barley grain protein mobilization, HvPap-1, is modulated by its own propeptide and by cystatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Ines; Martinez, Manuel; Dáder, Beatriz; González-Melendi, Pablo; Gandullo, Jacinto; Santamaría, M Estrella; Diaz, Isabel

    2012-07-01

    Among the C1A cysteine proteases, the plant cathepsin F-like group has been poorly studied. This paper describes the molecular and functional characterization of the HvPap-1 cathepsin F-like protein from barley. This peptidase is N-glycosylated and has to be processed to become active by its own propeptide being an important modulator of the peptidase activity. The expression pattern of its mRNA and protein suggest that it is involved in different proteolytic processes in the barley plant. HvPap-1 peptidase has been purified in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein is able to degrade different substrates, including barley grain proteins (hordeins, albumins, and globulins) stored in the barley endosperm. It has been localized in protein bodies and vesicles of the embryo and it is induced in aleurones by gibberellin treatment. These three features support the implication of HvPap-1 in storage protein mobilization during grain germination. In addition, a complex regulation exerted by the barley cystatins, which are cysteine protease inhibitors, and by its own propeptide, is also described.

  3. Rheological and stability aspects of dry and hydrothermally heat treated aleurone-rich wheat milling fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; von Reding, Walter; Schwendener, Urs; Kálmán, Franka; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2017-04-01

    Novel aleurone-rich wheat milling fraction developed and produced on industry scale is investigated. The special composition of the novel flour with high protein, dietary fiber and fat content results in a unique combination of the mixing and viscosity properties. Due to the high lipid concentration, the fraction is exposed to fast rancidity. Dry heat (100°C for 12min) and hydrothermal treatment processes (96°C for 6min with 0-20 L/h steam) were applied on the aleurone-rich flour to modify the technological properties. The chemical, structural changes; the extractability of protein, carbohydrate and phenolic components and the rheological characteristics of the flours were evaluated. The dry treated flour decreased protein and carbohydrate extractability, shortened dough development time, reduced gel strength and enhanced the gelling ability. Hydrothermal treatment caused changes in the phenolic content improved the dough stability and -resistance. Heat treatment processes were able to extend the stability of the flour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, it has been difficult to accurately determine the location of many types of barley molecular markers due to the lack of commonality between international barley linkage maps. In this study, a consensus map of barley was constructed from five different maps (OWB, VxHs, KxM, barley consensus 2 and barley ...

  5. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat, Barley, Maize, and Rice[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus K.; Holm, Preben B.; Welinder, Karen G.; Jørgensen, Malene; Stoger, Eva; Arcalis, Elsa; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains. PMID:21220762

  6. Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ramandeep; Brennan, Lorraine; Price, Ruth K; Wallace, Julie M W; Strain, J J; Gibney, Mike J; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Garg, Lalit; Welch, Robert W

    2016-02-17

    Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions.

  7. Antiglycemic Effect of Water Extractable Arabinoxylan from Wheat Aleurone and Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovemore Nkhata Malunga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the effects of arabinoxylan (AX polysaccharides on postprandial glucose response have resulted in contrasting results owing to the diversity in AX structures. Four water extractable AX (WEAX extracts obtained from wheat aleurone and bran were used to investigate (a the effect of AX on activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, (b influence of AX chemical composition on their inhibition potency, and (c kinetics of enzyme inhibition. α-Amylase activity was not significantly affected by the presence WEAX fractions regardless of type or concentration. WEAX inhibited α-glucosidase activity only when maltose was used as a substrate but not sucrose. The IC50 values of WEAX (4.88±0.3–10.14±0.5 mg/mL were highly correlated to ferulic acid content (R=-0.89, arabinose to xylose ratio (R=-0.67, and relative proportions of xylose being unsubstituted (R=0.69, disubstituted (R=-0.63, and monosubstituted (R=-0.76. The Lineweaver–Burk plot suggested an uncompetitive enzyme inhibition mode. Thus, our results suggest that antiglycemic properties of WEAX may be derived from direct inhibition of α-glucosidase activity.

  8. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up-regulated by both GA and seed

  9. Barley yellow dwarf virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Maria K; Kunert, Grit; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Theis, Nina; Ludwig, Anatoli; Meichsner, Doreen; Oelmüller, Ralf; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Habekuss, Antje; Ordon, Frank; Furch, Alexandra C U; Will, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is a phloem limited virus that is persistently transmitted by aphids. Due to huge yield losses in agriculture, the virus is of high economic relevance. Since the control of the virus itself is not possible, tolerant barley genotypes are considered as the most effective approach to avoid yield losses. Although several genes and quantitative trait loci are known and used in barley breeding for virus tolerance, little is known about molecular and physiological backgrounds of this trait. Therefore, we compared the anatomy and early defense responses of a virus susceptible to those of a virus-tolerant cultivar. One of the very early defense responses is the transmission of electrophysiological reactions. Electrophysiological reactions to BYDV infection might differ between susceptible and tolerant cultivars, since BYDV causes disintegration of sieve elements in susceptible cultivars. The structure of vascular bundles, xylem vessels and sieve elements was examined using microscopy. All three were significantly decreased in size in infected susceptible plants where the virus causes disintegration of sieve elements. This could be associated with an uncontrolled ion exchange between the sieve-element lumen and apoplast. Further, a reduced electrophysiological isolation would negatively affect the propagation of electrophysiological reactions. To test the influence of BYDV infection on electrophysiological reactions, electropotential waves (EPWs) induced by leaf-tip burning were recorded using aphids as bioelectrodes. EPWs in infected susceptible plants disappeared already after 10 cm in contrast to those in healthy susceptible or infected tolerant or healthy tolerant plants. Another early plant defense reaction is an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using a fluorescent dye, we found a significant increase in ROS content in infected susceptible plants but not in infected tolerant plants. Similar results were found for the

  10. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  11. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from Illumina....... Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  12. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  13. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-05-18

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley.

  14. Androgenic switch in barley microspores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Faria Maraschin, Simone

    2005-01-01

    Barley androgenesis represents an attractive system to study stress-induced cell differentiation and is a valuable tool for efficient plant breeding. The switch from the pollen developmental pathway towards an androgenic route involves several well-described morphological changes. However, little is

  15. Chloroindolyl-3-acetic Acid and its Methyl Ester Incorporation of 36Cl in Immature Seeds of Pea and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1974-01-01

    Immature seeds of pea and barley were harvested on plants grown in solutions containing 36Cl−, but no other chlorides. Autoradiography of two-dimensional thin layer chromatograms (silicagel) of butanol extracts of freeze-dried seeds showed the presence in both species of several radioactive...... compounds besides Cl−. One compound, present in pea and probably in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4- and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acid methyl esters. Another, detected in pea, but probably not in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4-and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acids....

  16. Characterization of the Entire Cystatin Gene Family in Barley and Their Target Cathepsin L-Like Cysteine-Proteases, Partners in the Hordein Mobilization during Seed Germination1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Cambra, Ines; Carrillo, Laura; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Diaz, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Plant cystatins are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases of the papain C1A and legumain C13 families. Cystatin data from multiple plant species have suggested that these inhibitors act as defense proteins against pests and pathogens and as regulators of protein turnover. In this study, we characterize the entire cystatin gene family from barley (Hordeum vulgare), which contain 13 nonredundant genes, and identify and characterize their target enzymes, the barley cathepsin L-like proteases. Cystatins and proteases were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cultures. Each cystatin was found to have different inhibitory capability against barley cysteine-proteases in in vitro inhibitory assays using specific substrates. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that inhibitors and enzymes present a wide variation in their messenger RNA expression patterns. Their transcripts were mainly detected in developing and germinating seeds, and some of them were also expressed in leaves and roots. Subcellular localization of cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases fused to green fluorescent protein demonstrated the presence of both protein families throughout the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Proteases and cystatins not only colocalized but also interacted in vivo in the plant cell, as revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The functional relationship between cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases was inferred from their common implication as counterparts of mobilization of storage proteins upon barley seed germination. The opposite pattern of transcription expression in gibberellin-treated aleurones presented by inhibitors and enzymes allowed proteases to specifically degrade B, C, and D hordeins stored in the endosperm of barley seeds. PMID:19759340

  17. Resistance of barley landraces and wild barley populations to powdery mildew in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdel-Ghani

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven barley (Hordeum vulgare L. landraces and 12 wild barley (H. spontaneum populations, collected from diverse eco-geographical regions of Jordan, were screened for resistance to powdery mildew. The average powdery mildew disease score (based on a 0 to 4 severity scale was <1 in all tested barley landraces. Disease scores in wild barley populations ranged from 1.2 to 3.8. Most barley landraces of all tested lines were highly resistant to powdery mildew. The percentage of wild barley lines exhibiting high resistance was 19%, while 45% of the lines were moderately resistant and 36% susceptible to powdery mildew. There was no significant correlation between weather variables (precipitation, temperature and altitude and the disease scores of either the barley landraces or the wild barley populations. However, resistance in wild barley was more common in humid districts and at higher altitudes. Both barley landrace and wild barley accessions could serve as potential donors for powdery mildew resistance genes to be transferred to barley varieties improved by plant breeding.

  18. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  19. BARLEY BALANCE SHEET IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE; Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereal grown in Romania, after corn and wheat. This is based, at least on considerations of cultivated area (413.4 thousand ha - average 2007-2009), but also because of the multiple uses it may have (Food, feed, industrial raw materials, etc.). Presentation of food balance we consider interesting in terms of supply and demand components: production, imports, stocks, exports, seeds, feed consumption, industrial raw materials, food and other useslosses. On th...

  20. Screening of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsvali, Alireza; Farzaneh, Vahid; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Zare, Zahra; Karami, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel. S.

    2016-10-01

    An understanding of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt is necessary for the appropriate design of equipment for the handling, shipping, dehydration, grading, sorting and warehousing of this strategic crop. Malting is a complex biotechnological process that includes steeping; germination and finally, the dehydration of cereal grains under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this investigation, the biophysical properties of barley malt were predicted using two models of artificial neural networks as well as response surface methodology. Stepping time and germination time were selected as the independent variables and 1 000 kernel weight, kernel density and terminal velocity were selected as the dependent variables (responses). The obtained outcomes showed that the artificial neural network model, with a logarithmic sigmoid activation function, presents more precise results than the response surface model in the prediction of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of produced barley malt. This model presented the best result with 8 nodes in the hidden layer and significant correlation coefficient values of 0.783, 0.767 and 0.991 were obtained for responses one thousand kernel weight, kernel density, and terminal velocity, respectively. The outcomes indicated that this novel technique could be successfully applied in quantitative and qualitative monitoring within the malting process.

  1. The Effect of Feeding Sorghum-Barley Brewer's Spent Grain (Sbbsg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study shows that SBBSG can effectively be included in laying hen diets up to 20% without any adverse effect on laying performance and egg quality while at the same time reducing egg cholesterol content and being cheaper. Keywords: Sorghum-Barley Brewer's Spent Grain (SBBSG), Layers, Egg Quality ...

  2. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    that hydroxynitrile glucosides can act as carbohydrate and nitrogen storage compounds and as reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching compounds. A positive correlation between the hydroxynitrile glucoside content in barley and susceptibility toward the barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, Bgh...

  3. Associated field mycobiota on malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf; Svendsen, Anne

    1996-01-01

    in the composition of field mycobiota compared with the pesticide-free barley. The determining factor on the mycobiota was the location. The dominant species on barley was Alternaria infectoria Simmons. The most frequent Fusarium species detected were F. tricinctum (Corda) Sacc. and F. avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. Results...... implied an interaction between Alternaria and Fusarium on the surface of the kernels....

  4. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the

  5. COMPARISON OF THE FROST RESISTANCE OF BARLEY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    immediate recovery of the photosynthetic quantum yield after freezing. Landraces which showed the highest cold tolerance were found to acclimatize best. Key words/phrases: Barley, chlorophyll fluorescence, cold acclimation, Ethiopia, frost tolerance. INTRODUCTION. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a traditional crop.

  6. Fungal growth during malting of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated and identified in two samples of winter two-row barley (SSK3 and SSK6 harvested in 2003, Kragujevac location, during micromalting. Fungi were isolated and identified in barley before the micromalting, after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of steeping, the first day and after the germination after kilning and after malt degermination. The total fungi count was followed in both barley samples, during the mentioned phases. The total count of fungi was also determined in the steeping water, and the isolation and identification was performed after the steeping process. Change of the total count of fungi during barley micromalting was exponentional. During barley micromalting nine fungi genera were isolated: Phoma, Alternaria, Fusarium aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Aureobasidium and Mucor. The most frequent genera were: Phoma, Alternaria and Fusarium. In water for steeping, five genera were identified: Geotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma Cladosporium and Mucor. The most frequent genera was Phoma.

  7. Determination of Local Barley (Hordeum Vulgare) Crop Coefficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    , 0.88 and. 0.68 kg m. -3 ... irrigated barley fields. This could be due to lack of information on water requirement of local barley. General crop coefficient values for various crops including for barley are available in ..... Soil salinity and barley.

  8. Aleurone flour increases red-cell folate and lowers plasma homocyst(e)ine substantially in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Michael; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter; Topping, David

    2005-03-01

    Aleurone flour (ALF) is a rich source of natural folate (>500 microg/100 g wet weight). Our objective was to establish whether intake of ALF in man can significantly improve folate status and reduce plasma homocyst(e)ine. We performed a randomised, controlled intervention, of 16 weeks duration, in free-living healthy individuals (mean age 46-52 years). Participants were assigned to one of three groups: ALF, 175 g bread made with ALF and placebo tablet each day; PCS, 175 g bread made with pericarp seed coat (PCS) flour and placebo tablet each day (low-folate control); or FA, 175 g bread made with PCS flour and tablet containing 640 microg folic acid each day (high-folate control). The daily folate intake contributed by the bread and tablet was 233 microg in the PCS group, 615 microg in the ALF group and 819 microg in the FA group. The number of participants completing all phases of the PCS, ALF and FA interventions was twenty-five, twenty-five and eighteen, respectively. Plasma and red-cell folate increased significantly (Pine decreased significantly (Pine in the ALF group decreased from 9.1 (8.2, 10.0) micromol/l at baseline to 6.8 (6.2, 7.5) micromol/l after 16 weeks. In conclusion, moderate dietary intake of ALF can increase red-cell folate and decrease plasma homocyst(e)ine substantially.

  9. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    in well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring...

  10. Esterase Isoenzyme Variants in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, S.; Nielsen, G.

    1977-01-01

    Gene symbols are proposed for 27 esterase isoenzyme alleles representing 10 loci in barley. Two new esterase loci, Est 9 and Est 10, each with an active and a silent allele, and three new alleles in previously described loci were found. A few chemical and physical characteristics of the different...... esterase isoenzyme systems were studied. The heat inactivation temperature differed for the isoenzymes coded by most of the loci, whereas the substrate and inhibitor specificity of the isoenzymes was less distinct. A possible relationship between some of the systems is discussed....

  11. Enumeration of fungi in barley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info rabie_1997.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 26510 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name rabie_1997.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 hmatiod Journal of...FoodMiaubiology ELSEVIER International Journal of Food Microbiology 35 (1997) Il7- 127 Enumeration of fungi in barley C.J. Rabie*, A. Liibben, G.J. Marais, H. Jansen van Vuuren CSIR Food Scienw and Technology, P.0 Bos 395. Prrroria 0001...

  12. BARLEY BALANCE SHEET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereal grown in Romania, after corn and wheat. This is based, at least on considerations of cultivated area (413.4 thousand ha - average 2007-2009, but also because of the multiple uses it may have (Food, feed, industrial raw materials, etc.. Presentation of food balance we consider interesting in terms of supply and demand components: production, imports, stocks, exports, seeds, feed consumption, industrial raw materials, food and other useslosses. On the basis of total volume of supply and demand we could determine the balance sheet at nationa level for the product.

  13. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous ...

  14. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    Plants produce an impressive variety of bioactive natural products involved in defense, insect attraction and signaling. These compounds enable the plant to defend itself, communicate with the surroundings and survive in an environment with constant challenges and attackers. This study has focused...... that hydroxynitrile glucosides can act as carbohydrate and nitrogen storage compounds and as reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching compounds. A positive correlation between the hydroxynitrile glucoside content in barley and susceptibility toward the barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, Bgh...... to regulate defense related genes in maize. Barley plants that are gene-silenced in the first step of hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis have been generated to further investigate these results. It appears that hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley have a dual role; up to a certain level Bgh profits from...

  15. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  16. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...

  17. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  18. Biochemical composition and nutritional evaluation of barley rihane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucan; bioactive compounds; functional food. Abbreviations: BR, Barley Rihane; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL, high density lipoprotein; AOM, azoxymethane; TBV, Tunisian barley varieties; TGW, thousand grain weight; SW, weight specific; TDF ...

  19. comparison of the frost resistance of barley (hordeum vulgare l.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley is the most important crop in the highlands of Ethiopia at altitudes above 2600 m, where its productivity is limited by cold stress. We studied 25 Ethiopian barley landraces in order to identify cold tolerant types and to describe characteristics and acclimation potentials of these landraces to cold stress. Barley plants ...

  20. [ Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup] of Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Importance of loose Smut [ Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup] of Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) in western Amhara Region, Ethiopia. ... with selected fungicides need to be promoted to tackle loose smut and to sustain barley production. Keywords: Barley; Hordeum vulgare; Loose Smut; Seed Treatment; Ustilago nuda ...

  1. Amylolytic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from barley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... naturally present in barley, and produced cell-bound and cell-free α-amylase at alkaline conditions. The two strains may be developed into starter cultures to facilitate the germination of barley and produce malt with a higher fermentable sugar content. Key words: Lactobacillus plantarum, starch hydrolysis, barley, malting ...

  2. Evaluation of Barley as Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Köten

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley, as animal feed, raw material for malting and human food, constitute an important part among cereal sources in the world. Majority of barley that produced both in Turkey and other countries of the world, is being used as animal feed. Poor baking quality, taste and appearance of barley restricted its use in human nutrition. However, recently high protein, fiber, especially β-glucan and high starch content appeal to food industry. Many scientific researches established that β-glucan, a soluble fiber, has an effect in healing coronary-hearth diseases, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level, preventing obesity. Being a healthy cereal that can be used in various purposes, and an additive in many food products, barley is considered a very promising cereal, and research to increase possibilities of its use in human nutrition is being increased. In the literature, there has been researches on making noodles, bulgur, kavut (roasted cereal, breakfast cereals. In this study the researches relating to evaluation of barley, importance of which is increased every day, as human food was reviewed.

  3. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  4. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...... into barley leaves. With 1.8 kb of this Jip23 sequence, GUS expression was enhanced about threefold by jasmonate treatment. This indicates that the Jip23 regulation by jasmonate occurs at the level of transcription.......The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  5. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  6. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  7. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  8. The Localization of Eceriferum Loci in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bodil

    1974-01-01

    Three different 3-point tests have been made for gene distances on chromosome 1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In all cases eceriferum, cer-f9, and albina, ac2, were examined with erectoides as the third gene. The erectoides, ert, genes are ert-a23, ert-d33 and ert-m40, respectively. The analyses...

  9. Cisgenic Barley with Improved Phytase Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  10. Barley Breeding for Quality Improvement in Tunisia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    2012-11-06

    Deghais, 1991; El Felah, 1998). The consistent difficulties observed in the ... Atlas 46 (As46), improved material Arrivat (Avt) and Athenaïs. (Aths). It's now a widely grown variety (more than 40% of total barley cultivated areas in ...

  11. Thionin antifungal peptide synthesis in transgenic barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    In seeds and vegetative organs of barley and other cereals, thionins are processed into peptides with pronounced anti-microbial properties. In vitro studies demonstrated the toxicity of a- and ß-hordothionins (HTHs) to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Increasing the expression of thionin g...

  12. Inhibition of barley grain germination by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth-Bejerano, N.; Meulen, R.M. van der; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    Intact grains of barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Triumph) germinated rapidly in the dark or when exposed to brief daily light breaks in the temperature range 15-25°C, although germination proceeded less rapidly at low temperatures. Prolonged illumination (16 h/day) or continuous light inhibited

  13. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  14. Morphological responses of barley roots to soil compaction and modified supply of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SIMOJOKI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes in barley roots in response to soil compaction and hypoxia were quantified by image analysis. Based on the assumption that these soil stresses increase endogenous ethylene production in plants, changes indicating higher construction costs for roots, such as decreased specific root length, were expected. The hypothesis was found to be only partly correct. Most morphological changes of barley roots were probably a reaction to increased soil mechanical impedance. Examples of this are root width, which was increased by compaction apart from in wet soil, as well as increased width and specific volume, and a decreased specific length of roots in the deepest layer of well-aerated loose soil. However, in loose moist soil hypoxia prevented root growth, but did not change root morphology. The results suggest that severe hypoxia lessens the possibilities of roots to adapt to the hypoxic soil by reducing root growth and by preventing the formation of aerenchyma. ;

  15. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  16. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah, Akbar

    2012-07-09

    Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  17. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  18. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th–10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter–gatherer economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergusheva, Elena A.; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N.; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W.; Tarasov, Pavel E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440–890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter–gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early–Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the “Satsumon type” barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the “Okhotsk type” spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley

  19. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, Christian; Sergusheva, Elena A; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W; Tarasov, Pavel E

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly

  20. Barley (Hordeum vulgare in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Leipe

    Full Text Available This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island, the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley

  1. Evaluation of fermented whole crop wheat and barley feeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of fermented whole crop wheat and barley feeding on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal volatile fatty acid emission, blood constituents, and faecal microbiota in growing pigs.

  2. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the phys......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... on the physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...

  3. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed for estimat......The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...... data are utilized jointly, and (3) omission of inconsistent data and determination of the most likely order of the loci. This procedure was applied to the 42 recombination percentages available for the 13 “mapped” loci. Due to inconsistencies 14 of the recombination percentages and, therefore, two...

  4. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  5. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancement of methane production from barley waste

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, L.; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Two different approaches were attempted to try and enhance methane production from an industrial waste composed of 100% barley, which results from production of instant coffee substitutes. In previous work, this waste was co-digested with an excess of activated sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant located in same industrial unit, resulting in a very poor methane yield (25LCH4(STP)/ kgVSinitial), and low reductions in total solids (31%) and in volatile solids (40%). Wh...

  7. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  8. Barley: From Brittle to Stable Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Georg; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2015-07-30

    Selection and domestication of plants with genes that prevent grains from shattering in cereals was essential for human civilization's transition to agriculture-based societies. In this issue, Pourkheirandish et al. show that domestication of barley required evolution of a molecular system distinct from other grains, such as rice and maize, and reveal that present-day cultivars derive from two ancient domestication centers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  10. Radiosensitivity study of cultured barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan; Chen Qiufang

    1991-07-01

    For studying the radioactivity, forty seven varieties of dormant barley seeds were irradiated with various doses (0 ∼ 400 Gy) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The results showed that the dose-effects relations of seedling growth inhibition could be fitted by an equation of F(D) = 1 - (1 - e -a 1 D ) N , and the dose-effects of cell-nucleus, the frequency of root tip cell with chromosome aberations and peroxidase isoenzyme band could be expressed by a linear regression equation Y = A + B · X. The radioactivity of naked barley was much higher than of covered barley. According to different radiosensitivities the varieties studied could be divided into five types i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive, and extreme sensitive. The results also showed that there was close relationship between the DNA content of cell-nucleus, peroxidase isoenzyme zymogram and radioactivity. The radiosensitivty was proportional to the DNA content. The volume of cell-nucleus varied inversly as D 50 of nucleus volume and no obvious correlation with the D 50 of seedling growth inhibition

  11. Barley yellow dwarf virus in barley crops in Tunisia: prevalence and molecular characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Asma NAJAR; Imen HAMDI; Arvind VARSANI

    2017-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Tunisia in the North-Eastern regions (Bizerte, CapBon and Zaghouan), the North-Western region (Kef) and the Central-Eastern region (Kairouan) during the 2011/2012 growing season, in order to determine the incidence and the geographic distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDVs) in barley fields. Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA) showed that BYDV was most common in Zaghouan (incidence 14%), Cap Bon (14%) and Bizerte (35%), in randomly collected samples from t...

  12. WORLD MALT AND MALTING BARLEY: COMPETITION, MARKETING, AND TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Satyanarayana, Vidyashankara; Wilson, William W.; Johnson, D. Demcey; Dooley, Frank J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent trends in production marketing, trade, and policies affecting world malting barley and malt sector are examined. A spatial equilibrium model of production and trade is used to assess the effects of alternative levels of supply, demand, and policy variables on composition and direction of malting barley and malt trade flows.

  13. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... Akdeniz H, Keskin B, Yılmaz I, Oral E (2004). A Research on yield and yield components of some barley cultivars. J. Agric. Sci. 14:119-125. Alemayehu F, Parlevliet JE (1997). Variation between and within. Ethiopian barley landraces Euphytica 94:183-189. Asfaw Z (1988). Variation in the morphology of the ...

  14. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  15. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a

  16. Molecular characterization of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed to select drought tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars through identification of stress genes responsible for drought tolerance. Several barley genotypes were tested for drought resistance using specific molecular markers, nine out of all the genotypes were chosen for this study; five out of ...

  17. (GPx) activity in young barley seedlings enriched with selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB_YOMI

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... E-mail: guzx@njau.edu.cn. Tel/Fax: +86. 25 84396293. have been used for animal feeds and beer malts. Recently, young barley seedlings have been used as food material for people in Asian countries such as China,. Japan, and Korea. Young barley seedlings are rich in dietary fiber, chlorophyll, carotene ...

  18. Comparison of stability statistics for yield in barley ( Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to assess interrelationship among these measures and to identify high-yield and stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars in 11 environments during 2001 - 2003 in the central Black Sea region of Turkey. Significant differences were observed among barley cultivars for grain yield, ...

  19. Revisit to Ethiopian traditional barley-based food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemal Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Barley producers in Ethiopia have given it the name gebs ye ehil nigus, which means barley is the king of crops, due to its suitability for preparing many of the known Ethiopians traditional dishes. Various barley foods and drinks play an important role in the socioeconomic and cultural life of Ethiopians, but detailed descriptions related to their preparation and their socioeconomic and cultural roles are not well-recorded and documented like most of the Ethiopian cultural foods. Foods such as ingera, kita, dabo, kolo, genfo, beso, chuko, shamet, tihlo, kinch, and shorba are the most commonly known traditional Ethiopian barley-based foods. These products are prepared from either roasted whole grain, raw and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley-based traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the consumers. For example, genfo is served to breast-feeding mothers with the belief that it enhances breast milk production and serves as a good substitute for breast milk. Beso is claimed to be a remedy for gastritis, while genfo and kinche are used to heal broken bones and fractures. Considering the Western consumers' trend on functional foods and health benefits of barley, Ethiopian traditional barley-based foods are worth studying as functional foods, which can be appealing to Western consumers.

  20. Barley metallothioneins differ in ontogenetic pattern and response to metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Pedas, Pai

    2014-01-01

    The barley genome encodes a family of 10 metallothioneins (MTs) that have not previously been subject to extensive gene expression profiling. We show here that expression of MT1a, MT2b1, MT2b2 and MT3 in barley leaves increased more than 50-fold during the first 10 d after germination. Concurrent...

  1. stability analysis of food barley genotypes in northern ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of the old world agriculture and was one of the first domesticated cereals. The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of genotype x environment interaction and stability for barley grain yield and yield related traits in the growing areas of Tigray. Eight.

  2. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed...

  3. Effect of partial resistance to barley leaf rust, Puccinia hordei, on the yield of three barley cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochoa, J.; Parlevliet, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Three barley cultivars, Shyri, Clipper and Terán, with different levels of partial resistance to barley leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei, were exposed to six levels of the pathogen. These levels were obtained by 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 and 0 fungicide (Propiconazol) applications respectively and occurred

  4. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  5. The adsorption of α-amylase on barley proteins affects the in vitro digestion of starch in barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenwen; Zou, Wei; Dhital, Sushil; Wu, Peng; Gidley, Michael J; Fox, Glen P; Gilbert, Robert G

    2018-02-15

    The conversion of barley starch to sugars is a complex enzymic process. Most previous work concerned the biotechnical aspect of in situ barley enzymes. However, the interactions among the macromolecular substrates and their effects on enzymic catalysis has been little examined. Here, we explore the mechanisms whereby interactions of protein and starch in barley flour affect the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in an in vitro system, using digestion rate data and structural analysis by confocal microscopy. The degradation kinetics of both uncooked barley flour and of purified starches are found to be two-step sequential processes. Barley proteins, especially the water-soluble component, are found to retard the digestion of starch degraded by α-amylase: the enzyme binds with water-insoluble protein and with starch granules, leading to reduced starch hydrolysis. These findings are of potential industrial value in both the brewing and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acid...... DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  7. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development....

  8. Temporal and spatial distribution of roots and competition for nitrogen in pea-barley intercrops - a field study employing P-32 technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Root system dynamics, productivity and N use were studied in inter- and sole crops of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on a temperate sandy loam. A P-32 tracer placed at a depth of 12.5, 37.5, 62.5 or 87.5 cm was employed to determine root system dynamics...... of that of the pea root system in root depth and lateral root distribution. More than 90% of the P uptake by the pea root system was confined to the top 12.5 cm of soil, whereas barley had about 25-30% of tracer P uptake in the 12.5 - 62.5 cm soil layer. Judging from this P uptake, intercropping caused the barley...

  9. Soil fertility, nutrition and yield of maize and barley with gypsum application on soil surface in no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Michalovicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual crop yield and nutrition have shown differentiated responses to modifications in soil chemical properties brought about by gypsum application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gypsum application rates on the chemical properties of a Latossolo Bruno (Clayey Oxisol, as well as on the nutrition and yield of a maize-barley succession under no-till. The experiment was set up in November 2009 in Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil, applying gypsum rates of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 Mg ha-1 to the soil surface upon sowing maize, with crop succession of barley. Gypsum application decreased the levels of Al3+ and Mg2+ in the 0.0-0.1 m layer and increased soil pH in the layers from 0.2-0.6 m depth. Gypsum application has increased the levels of Ca2+ in all soil layers up to 0.6 m, and the levels of S-SO4(2- up to 0.8 m. In both crops, the leaf concentrations of Ca and S were increased while Mg concentrations have decreased as a function of gypsum rates. There was also an effect of gypsum rates on grain yield, with a quadratic response of maize and a linear increase for barley. Yield increases were up to 11 and 12 % in relation to control for the maximum technical efficiency (MTE rates of 3.8 and 6.0 Mg ha-1 of gypsum, respectively. Gypsum application improved soil fertility in the profile, especially in the subsurface, as well as plant nutrition, increasing the yields of maize and barley.

  10. The Importance of Barley Varieties in terms of Production, Marketing and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Taşcı

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to investigate the criteria affecting the marketing of barley in the stages of barley production, marketing and processing in Konya province. In the study; survey results were used which get from mixed feed (37 items and malt factory (1 item, traders (50 items purchasing and selling barley, and agricultural enterprises (107 items including barley production in agricultural activities operating in Konya province. It was determined that barley varieties were not an important criterion in the selling price, while the hectoliter and other plant species do not mix into barley are the main criteria considered by agricultural enterprises to affect the sale of barley. The most important criteria that traders keep in mind when buying barley is hectoliter of barley, which is followed by moisture, colour and foreign matter confusion rate of barley. The most important criteria that factories take into consideration when purchasing barley is determined as the moisture content of the barley, followed by the hectoliter of barley and the rate of foreign matter contamination. For the malt industry; Barley variety is a very important factor in the purchase criteria, followed by barley humidity and colour.

  11. Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of α-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, α-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat.

  12. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  13. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  14. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni

    2014-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) production is an efficient tool in barley breeding, but efficiency of DH methods is not consistent. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the effect of n-butanol application on DH barley plant production efficiency. Five elite cultivars of barley and thirteen breeding...... plants (from 1.7 to 3 times) in three low-responding cultivars: Albacete, Astoria and Majestic. No significant differences on microspore embryogenesis efficiency were observed in medium and high responding cultivars. The application of n-butanol treatment to isolated microspores from cold treated spikes...

  15. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    This project focuses on developing and applying a tissue culture system with electrochemical and optical detection techniques for tissue culture of barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The major advantage of electro...... an optical double-fluorescent probe-system[4]. Currently, we are working on integrating both detection methods into a tissue culture system for immobilised plant tissues.......This project focuses on developing and applying a tissue culture system with electrochemical and optical detection techniques for tissue culture of barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The major advantage...... of electrochemical detection systems is that they can be miniaturized, multiplexed and automated without losing their performance[1,2]. Combining tissue culture with electrochemical and optical detection allows implementation of a wide range of assays for online, real-time, parallel analysis of important parameters...

  16. Using microfluidics to study programmed cell death: A new approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    This project focuses on applying microfluidic tissue culture for electrochemical or optical measurements during programmed cell death (PCD) in barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of PCD in plants. Microfluidic tissue culture enables in vitro experiments...... to approach in vivo conditions. Microfluidics also allow implementation of a wide range of electrochemical or optical assays for online, real-time, parallel analysis of important parameters such as redox activity, O2 and H2O2 concentration, extracellular pH, cell viability and enzyme activity1,2. Currently......, we are optimising an intracellular whole-cell redox activity assay3 that detects changes in redox activity in barley aleurone layer during PCD. The assay uses a double mediator-system to electrochemically measure redox activity via changes in the NADP:NADPH ratio. Initial experiments assay show...

  17. Comparison of beer quality attributes between beers brewed with 100% barley malt and 100% barley raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Elisabeth; Auer, Andrea; Becker, Thomas; Gastl, Martina

    2012-03-15

    Brewing with 100% barley using the Ondea® Pro exogenous brewing enzyme product was compared to brewing with 100% barley. The use of barley, rather than malt, in the brewing process and the consequences for selected beer quality attributes (foam formation, colloidal stability and filterability, sensory differences, protein content and composition) was considered. The quality attributes of barley, malt, kettle-full-wort, cold wort, unfiltered beer and filtered beer were assessed. A particular focus was given to monitoring changes in the barley protein composition during the brewing process and how the exogenous OndeaPro® enzymes influenced wort protein composition. All analyses were based on standard brewing methods described in ASBC, EBC or MEBAK. To monitor the protein changes two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used. It was shown that by brewing beer with 100% barley and an appropriate addition of exogenous Ondea® Pro enzymes it was possible to efficiently brew beer of a satisfactory quality. The production of beers brewed with 100% barley resulted in good process efficiency (lautering and filtration) and to a final product whose sensory quality was described as light, with little body and mouthfeel, very good foam stability and similar organoleptic qualities compared to conventional malt beer. In spite of the sensory evaluation differences could still be seen in protein content and composition. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  19. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

  20. Rapid cultivar identification of barley seeds through disjoint principal component modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Iain; Munoz, Alicia; Becker, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Classification of barley varieties is a crucial part of the control and assessment of barley seeds especially for the malting and brewing industry. The correct classification of barley is essential in that a majority of decisions made regarding process specifications, economic considerations, and the type of product produced with the cereal are made based on the barley variety itself. This fact combined with the need to promptly assess the cereal as it is delivered to a malt house or production facility creates the need for a technique to quickly identify a barley variety based on a sample. This work explores the feasibility of differentiating between barley varieties based on the protein spectrum of barley seeds. In order to produce a rapid analysis of the protein composition of the barley seeds, lab-on-a-chip micro fluid technology is used to analyze the protein composition. Classification of the barley variety is then made using disjoint principle component models. This work included 19 different barley varieties. The varieties consisted of both winter and summer barley types. In this work, it is demonstrated that this system can identify the most likely barley variety with an accuracy of 95.9% based on cross validation and can screen summer barley with an accuracy of 95.2% and a false positive rate of 0.0% based on cross validation. This demonstrates the feasibility of the method to provide a rapid and relatively inexpensive method to verify the heritage of barley seeds.

  1. Using microfluidics to study programmed cell death: A new approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    This project focuses on applying microfluidic tissue culture for electrochemical or optical measurements during programmed cell death (PCD) in barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of PCD in plants. Microfluidic tissue culture enables in vitro experiments...... a double-fluorescent probe-system also used by Fath et al5. Future challenges include integrating both these systems into a microfluidic device for plant tissue culture....

  2. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    that i) spots increasing in intensity in the infected plants included fungal proteins and proteolytic fragments of plant proteins, ii) spots decreasing in intensity contained plant proteins possibly degraded by fungal proteases, iii) greater spot volume changes in response to the fungus were observed......-wall-degrading enzymes and proteases. Besides Tri5 gene, ten selected genes encoding protein expressed in vitro were also expressed in the F. graminearum-infected wheat and barley from 2-6 day after inoculation (dai), suggesting the in vitro proteome approach may be an ideal strategy to discover pathogenicity factors....... In addition, sharper increase in fungal biomass was observed in barley than in wheat and fungal induced proteolytic fragments of - amylases were only observed in barley not in wheat. Furthermore, a barley PR17 protein and a fungal hypothetical protein were expressed in E. coli and purified in Chapter 5...

  3. Behaviour Of Saline Irrigation Water Components In Pakistani Barley And Calcareous Soil Under Scheduling Irrigation Using Neutron Scattering Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIZK, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the behaviour of cation uptake by Pakistani barley (genotype PK-30163) as affected by saline irrigation water, as well as cation distribution within the soil profile. This experiment was carried out at Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The soil was transferred from Wadi Sudr (South Sinai, Egypt). It is salted affected soil (calcareous soil, EC = 4.3 dS/m) and was irrigated using ground water irrigation (12.5 dS/m). Nine used lysimeters were irrigated with three artificial saline water (0.3, 4 and 8 dS/m) using drip irrigation system. The irrigation schedule was carried out using neutron scattering technique according to the hydro physical properties of the soil. Pakistani barley (halophytic plant) was used to remove salts from the soil especially sodium cations. The cation uptake and cation distribution (Na, K, Ca, Mg) within the soil profile were studied.The data indicated that roots of barley collected within 0-15 cm layer showed high cation uptake that made the salt concentrations in this layer low. Sodium uptake ratio was 43, 37 and 47% from total cation uptake by using fresh water (0.3 dS/m), 4 and 8 dS/m, respectively. The maximum uptake for Na, K, Ca and Mg was 20.51, 19.13, 3.98 and 12.81 g/lys at 5.69, 3.05, 6.56 and 4.15 dS/m, respectively. It was found that Pakistani barley preferred Mg uptake rather than Ca uptake.

  4. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  5. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The distances between nine loci on barley chromosome 5 have been studied in five two-point tests, three three-point tests, and one four-point test. Our previous chromosome 5 linkage map, which contained eleven loci mapped from literature data (Jensen and Jørgensen 1975), is extended with four loci......: wst5 (white streaks), necl (necrotic leaf spots), Ml-nn (powdery mildew resistance), and Pa4 (leaf rust resistance). Further, the two sections of the map are united, and the precision of the map is improved. A system for designating the positions of the loci on the linkage map is proposed. A 0......-position is fixed on the map by a locus (necl), which has a good marker gene located centrally in the linkage group. The positions of the other loci are their distances in centimorgans from the 0-position; loci in the direction of the short chromosome arm are assigned positive values and those...

  6. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  7. Development of endosperm transfer cells in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eThiel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endosperm transfer cells (ETCs are positioned at the intersection of maternal and filial tissues in seeds of cereals and represent a bottleneck for apoplasmic transport of assimilates into the endosperm. Endosperm cellularization starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the highly specialized ETCs. During differentiation barley ETCs develop characteristic flange-like wall ingrowths to facilitate effective nutrient transfer. A comprehensive morphological analysis depicted distinct developmental time points in establishment of transfer cell morphology and revealed intracellular changes possibly associated with cell wall metabolism. Embedded inside the grain, ETCs are barely accessible by manual preparation. To get tissue-specific information about ETC specification and differentiation, laser microdissection(LM-based methods were used for transcript and metabolite profiling. Transcriptome analysis of ETCs at different developmental stages by microarrays indicated activated gene expression programs related to control of cell proliferation and cell shape, cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism reflecting the morphological changes during early ETC development. Transporter genes reveal distinct expression patterns suggesting a switch from active to passive modes of nutrient uptake with the onset of grain filling. Tissue-specific RNA-seq of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial stage until functionality in nutrient transfer identified a high number of novel transcripts putatively involved in ETC differentiation. An essential role for two-component signaling (TCS pathways in transfer cell development of barley emerged from this analysis. Correlative data provide evidence for ABA and ethylene influences on ETC differentiation and hint at a crosstalk between hormone signal transduction and TCS phosphorelays. Collectively, the data expose a comprehensive view on ETC development, associated pathways and identified candidate genes for

  8. High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snape John W

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low ( Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley.

  9. ALTERATIONS IN BARLEY PROTEOME UPON FUNGAL INFECTION AND TRICYCLAZOLE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar a,b

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The barley proteome was investigated upon fungal infection and subsequent treatment by tricyclazole (TCZ, which is known to have applications in spot blotch disease management in barley.Significantly enhanced chlorophyll content was recorded in TCZ treated plants. The disease severity was significantly reduced after TCZ application in pathogen inoculated plants by reducing the appressoria formation at infection site in barley leaves. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE revealed the expression profile of proteins from (I control plants (healthy barley leaves; application with sterile water,(II plants after foliar application of TCZ (100 µg/ml, (III plants inoculated with B. sorokiniana and (IV plants treated with TCZ (72 h after B. sorokiniana inoculation. A set of 33 proteins expressed differentially after TCZ treatment. Out of this 19 had known functions, while others were unknown or hypothetical proteins. These differentially expressed proteins were related to redox-activity and gene expression, electron transfer,cell division and chromosome partitioning, cell envelop biogenesis, energy metabolism and conversion, respiration and pathogenesis related functions in the barley plants. The study provides a platform and documents the proteins that might be involved in disease management in barley following TCZ application. It is expected that the study will provide boost in understanding proteome regulation upon fungal infection and subsequent anti-fungal treatment and will attract researchers for further validation leading to better pest management.

  10. The knottin-like Blufensin family regulates genes involved in nuclear import and the secretory pathway in barley-powdery mildew interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weihui; Meng, Yan; Surana, Priyanka; Fuerst, Greg; Nettleton, Dan; Wise, Roger P.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms to control a multi-layered defense response to microbial attack. Both temporal and spatial gene expression are tightly regulated in response to pathogen ingress, modulating both positive and negative control of defense. BLUFENSINs, small knottin-like peptides in barley, wheat, and rice, are highly induced by attack from fungal pathogens, in particular, the obligate biotrophic fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causal agent of barley powdery mildew. Previous research indicated that Blufensin1 (Bln1) functions as a negative regulator of basal defense mechanisms. In the current report, we show that BLN1 and BLN2 can both be secreted to the apoplast and Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-mediated overexpression of Bln2 increases susceptibility of barley to Bgh. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays signify that BLN1 and BLN2 can interact with each other, and with calmodulin. We then used BSMV-induced gene silencing to knock down Bln1, followed by Barley1 GeneChip transcriptome analysis, to identify additional host genes influenced by Bln1. Analysis of differential expression revealed a gene set enriched for those encoding proteins annotated to nuclear import and the secretory pathway, particularly Importin α1-b and Sec61 γ subunits. Further functional analysis of these two affected genes showed that when silenced, they also reduced susceptibility to Bgh. Taken together, we postulate that Bln1 is co-opted by Bgh to facilitate transport of disease-related host proteins or effectors, influencing the establishment of Bgh compatibility on its barley host. PMID:26089830

  11. The knottin-like Blufensin family regulates genes involved in nuclear import and the secretory pathway in barley-powdery mildew interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihui eXu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms to control a multi-layered defense response to microbial attack. Both temporal and spatial gene expression are tightly regulated in response to pathogen ingress, modulating both positive and negative control of defense. BLUFENSINs, small knottin-like peptides in barley, wheat, and rice, are highly induced by attack from fungal pathogens, in particular, the obligate biotrophic fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh, causal agent of barley powdery mildew. Previous research indicated that Blufensin1 (Bln1 functions as a negative regulator of basal defense mechanisms. In the current report, we show that BLN1 and BLN2 can both be secreted to the apoplast and Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV-mediated overexpression of Bln2 increases susceptibility of barley to Bgh. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC assays signify that BLN1 and BLN2 can interact with each other, and with calmodulin. We then used BSMV-induced gene silencing to knock down Bln1, followed by Barley1 GeneChip transcriptome analysis, to identify additional host genes influenced by Bln1. Analysis of differential expression revealed a gene set enriched for those encoding proteins annotated to nuclear import and the secretory pathway, particularly Importin α1-b and Sec61 γ subunits. Further functional analysis of these two affected genes showed that when silenced, they also reduced susceptibility to Bgh. Taken together, we postulate that Bln1 is co-opted by Bgh to facilitate transport of disease-related host proteins or effectors, influencing the establishment of Bgh compatibility on its barley host.

  12. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  13. Effect of Supplemental Dietary Fat and Processed Barley Grain on Performance of Lactating Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A Alijoo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on performance of lactating dairy cows were studied in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Eight Holstein cows with mean body weight (BW of 572 ± 71 kg and 45 ± 10 days in milk were allocated to 4 dietary treatments including 1 ground barley with cottonseed 2 pelleted barley with cottonseed 3 ground barley with canola seed 4 pelleted barley with canola seed. The nitrogen intake and fecal N were higher in cows fed ground barley in comparison with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat or barley processing had no effect on milk fat and milk protein contents. Milk SNF yield was higher in cows fed canola as supplemental fat source and ground barley (P < 0.05. Milk yield was affected by method of barley grain processing and was 0.64 to 1.9 kg/d higher in cows fed ground barley compared with those fed pelleted barley (P = 0.04. Plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood urea nitrogen were similar in all treatments. Dry matter intake was affected by barley grain processing. The cows fed ground barley consuming 1.15 to 2.18 kg/d more DM compared with those fed pelleted barley (P = 0.04.Total tract digestibilities of DM, crude fat, ADF, NDF and OM were not affected by the barley grain processing as well as source of oilseed. The results indicated that interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat can improve the performance of lactating dairy cows, However, more detailed studies are required

  14. Phytochemical Pharmacokinetics and Bioactivity of Oat and Barley Flour: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleigh M. Sawicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While dietary fiber plays an important role in the health benefits associated with whole grain consumption, other ingredients concentrated in the outer bran layer, including alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols, may also contribute to these outcomes. To determine the acute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the major phytochemicals found in barley and oats, we conducted a randomized, three-way crossover trial in 13 healthy subjects, aged 40–70 years with a body mass index (BMI of 27–35.9 kg/m2. After a two-day run-in period following a diet low in phytochemicals, subjects were randomized to receive muffins made with either 48 g whole oat flour, whole barley flour, or refined wheat flour plus cellulose (control, with a one-week washout period between each intervention. At the same time, an oral glucose tolerance test was administered. In addition to plasma phytochemical concentrations, glucose and insulin responses, biomarkers of antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodeling were determined over a 24-h period. There was no significant effect on acute bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of major phytochemicals. Administered concurrently with a glucose bolus, the source of whole grains did not attenuate the post-prandial response of markers of glucoregulation and insulin sensitivity, inflammation, nor vascular remodeling compared to the refined grain control. No significant differences were observed in the bioavailability or postprandial effects between whole-oat and whole-barley compared to a refined wheat control when administered with a glucose challenge. These null results may be due, in part, to the inclusion criteria for the subjects, dose of the whole grains, and concurrent acute administration of the whole grains with the glucose bolus.

  15. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  16. Colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) with Salmonella enterica and Listeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutter, Stefan; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Colonization of barley plants by the food-borne pathogens Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and three Listeria spp. (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. innocua) was investigated in a monoxenic system. Herbaspirillum sp. N3 was used as a positive control and Escherichia coli HB101 as a negative control for endophytic root colonization. Colonization of the plants was tested 1-4 weeks after inoculation by determination of CFU, specific PCR assays and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with fluorescently labelled oligonucleotide probes in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Both S. enterica strains were found as endophytic colonizers of barley roots and reached up to 2.3 x 10(6) CFU per g root fresh weight after surface sterilization. The three Listeria strains had 10-fold fewer cell numbers after surface sterilization on the roots and therefore were similar to the results of nonendophytic colonizers, such as E. coli HB101. The FISH/CSLM approach demonstrated not only high-density colonization of the root hairs and the root surface by S. enterica but also a spreading to subjacent rhizodermis layers and the inner root cortex. By contrast, the inoculated Listeria spp. colonized the root hair zone but did not colonize other parts of the root surface. Endophytic colonization of Listeria spp. was not observed. Finally, a systemic spreading of S. enterica to the plant shoot (stems and leaves) was demonstrated using a specific PCR analysis and plate count technique.

  17. Specificity and levels of nonhost resistance to nonadapted Blumeria graminis forms in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghnoum, R.; Niks, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    • The genetic basis of nonhost resistance of barley to nonadapted formae speciales of Blumeria graminis is not known, as there is no barley line that is susceptible to these nonadapted formae speciales, such as the wheat powdery mildew pathogen, Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt). • Barley

  18. Effects of Net Blotch ( Pyrenophora teres ) on Malt Barley Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production is constrained by diseases such as net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechsl. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of net blotch disease on malt barley yield and grain quality under natural infection. Four malt barley varieties (Beka, HB 120, HB 52 and Holker), ...

  19. Effect of Different Levels of Germinated Barley on Live Performance and Carcass Traits in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastar B

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of germinated barley (GB on live performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. The experiment lasted for 5 weeks starting from 7 days of age and ending at 42 days of age. Chicks (Ross 308 were fed six dietary treatments including a corn–soy diet (corn diet, a barley–soy diet (barley diet, a barley diet plus enzymes (enzyme barley diet, and 3 other diets in which GB was replaced with barley at levels of 33%, 66%, and 100% in the barley diet (33% GB diet, 66% GB diet, and GB diet, respectively. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. Results indicated that birds fed a barley diet had significantly lower performance than those fed other diets (P. Supplementing of the barley diet with β-glucanase enzyme as well as replacing GB with barley improved the performance of broilers. Birds fed a GB diet had a significantly higher carcass yield those fed other diets (P. The lowest abdominal fat percentage was observed in birds fed a barley diet or a corn diet. Thus, it is concluded that replacing GB with barley, especially at 33% level, is more effective than supplementing barley diets with β-glucanase enzyme in improving live performance of broiler chickens.

  20. Fusarium infection and trichothecenes in barley and its comparison with wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.M.; Liu, C.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Barley is a small-grain cereal that can be infected by Fusarium spp. resulting in reduced quality and safety of harvested barley (products). Barley and other small-grain cereals are commonly studied together for Fusarium infection and related mycotoxin contamination, since the infection and its

  1. Aggressiveness of powdery mildew on 'ml-o'- resistant barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Lars

    1990-01-01

    The ml-o genes in barley are important sources in breeding for resistance against the barley powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis). The resistance mechanism is a rapid formation of a large callose containing cell wall apposition at the site of the pathogen's infection attempt. This reduces the chances of infection to almost nil in all epidermal cells, except in the small subsidiary cells, in which appositions are rarely formed. Small mildew colonies from infections in subsidiary cells may be seen on the otherwise resistant leaf. This is described by the infection type 0/(4). Mildew isolate HL 3 selected by SCHWARZBACH has increased aggressiveness. No ml-o-virulent isolates are known. However, ml-o-resistant varieties when grown extensively in Europe, will introduce field selection for mildew pathotypes with aggressiveness or virulence to ml-o resistance. Studies on increased aggressiveness require new methods. The material comprises two powdery mildew isolates: GE 3 without ml-o aggressiveness and the aggressive HL 3/5; and two near-isogenic barley lines in Carlsberg II: Riso 5678(R) with the recessive mutant resistance gene ml-o5 and Riso 5678(S) with the wild-type gene for susceptibility. Latent period and disease efficiency show no significant differences between the two isolates on the susceptible barley line (S) but the isolates differ from each other on the resistant barley line

  2. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  3. Water uptake in barley grain: Physiology; genetics and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, Suong; Collins, Helen M; Betts, Natalie S; March, Timothy J; Janusz, Agnieszka; Stewart, Doug C; Skadhauge, Birgitte; Eglinton, Jason; Kyriacou, Bianca; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Water uptake by mature barley grains initiates germination and is the first stage in the malting process. Here we have investigated the effects of starchy endosperm cell wall thickness on water uptake, together with the effects of varying amounts of the wall polysaccharide, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan. In the latter case, we examined mutant barley lines from a mutant library and transgenic barley lines in which the (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthase gene, HvCslF6, was down-regulated by RNA interference. Neither cell wall thickness nor the levels of grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan were significantly correlated with water uptake but are likely to influence modification during malting. However, when a barley mapping population was phenotyped for rate of water uptake into grain, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified specific regions of chromosomes 4H, 5H and 7H that accounted for approximately 17%, 18% and 11%, respectively, of the phenotypic variation. These data indicate that variation in water uptake rates by elite malting cultivars of barley is genetically controlled and a number of candidate genes that might control the trait were identified under the QTL. The genomics data raise the possibility that the genetic variation in water uptake rates might be exploited by breeders for the benefit of the malting and brewing industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 11C-methionine translocation in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Bughio, Naimatullah; Shigeta Ishioka, Noriko

    2000-01-01

    11 C-methionine was supplied to barley plants through a single leaf or via the roots and real time 11 C movement was monitored using a PETIS (positron emitting tracer imaging system). In Fe-deficient plants, 11 C-methionine was translocated from the tip of the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center' at the basal part of the shoot and then retranslocated to all the chlorotic leaves, while a negligible amount was retranslocated to the roots. In Fe-sufficient plants, methionine was translocated from the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center and then only to the newest leaf on the main shoot. A negligible amount was also retranslocated to the roots. Although, in Fe-sufficient plants, methionine translocation was observed from absorbing roots to shoots, in Fe-deficient plants, only a little amount was translocated from roots to shoots. In conclusion, methionine from the upper portion of a plant is not used as a precursor of mugineic acid under Fe-deficiency conditions. (author)

  5. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  6. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Hassan, S.W.; Abid, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  7. Barley yellow dwarf virus in barley crops in Tunisia: prevalence and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma NAJAR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted in Tunisia in the North-Eastern regions (Bizerte, CapBon and Zaghouan, the North-Western region (Kef and the Central-Eastern region (Kairouan during the 2011/2012 growing season, in order to determine the incidence and the geographic distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDVs in barley fields. Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA showed that BYDV was most common in Zaghouan (incidence 14%, Cap Bon (14% and Bizerte (35%, in randomly collected samples from these three locations.Among the different BYDVs identified, BYDV-PAV (64% was the most common followed by BYDV-MAV (16% and CYDV-RPV (3%. The coat protein gene sequences of six isolates collected from different regions shared >98% pairwise similarity. In comparisons with other BYDV sequences from around the world, the Tunisian sequences shared greatest homology with isolates 109 and ASL1 from the United States of America and Germany (≈97%, and <90% with all other isolate sequences available in public databases.

  8. Improvement of quinoa and barley through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siles, A.Z.; Miranda, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The main cropping problems in the Bolivian highlands are the long growing period of barley, high degree of environmental influence on the performance of quinoa, and low soil moisture at sowing time, leading to low germination rate and poor stands, and frost or chilling damages. The program aimed to establish protocols for induction of mutations with X rays and chemical mutagens (NaN 3 , MNH, EMS) in quinoa, barley, native forage species and forest plants and to obtain mutant lines, especially in barley and quinoa; and to establish callus regeneration in quinoa and micropropagation of kenua (Polilepis). The project is still in its study stages, hence further evaluations are needed before firm conclusions are drawn. (author)

  9. Microgeographic Edaphic Differentiation in Hordein Polymorphisms of Wild Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevo, E.; Beiles, A.; Storch, N.

    1983-01-01

    Genetic diversity in the storage protein hordein encoded by two loci, Horl and Hor2, was analyzed electrophoretically in seeds from 123 individual plants of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitor of cultivated barley. The test was conducted in two topographically different 100 meter...... transects in Israel, each equally divided into basalt and terra rossa soil types. Altogether 15 Horl and 16 Hor2 phenotypes were detected; 7 phenotypes in Horl and 5 in Hor2 were common. Significant differentiation of both Horl and Hor2 phenotypes and their associations was found with soil type...... and topography. Likewise, significant correlations were found between hordein phenotypes and allozyme types detected in a previous study. Our results suggest that at least part of the hordein polymorphisms in wild barley is adaptive and selected by soil and topographic differences over very short distances....

  10. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by accumul......An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected...

  11. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  12. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2011-01-01

    Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  13. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained...... by solubilization of the lamellae in phenol/acetic acid/8 M urea. Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein....

  14. The experience of induction of mutation on barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Loli, M.; Pozo Cardenas, M.; Gomez Pando, L.

    1984-01-01

    Work on induced mutation of barley was started in 1978 under the Programme of Cereal Improvement. Barley was irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 Krad. Radiation doses of 18 and 21 Krad gave the highest frequency of albino and cloroticos mutants. Induced mutation is being carried out in different parts of the country to develop mutants having early germination property. These mutants will play an important role in the late cultivation in the mountain areas of Peru

  15. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M. H.; Awad, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory qu...

  16. Evaluation of Some Chemical Characteristics of barley Mutants induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Ali, H.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of acetonic extract from some barley mutations (P1, P2 and P3 varieties) induced by gamma irradiation as compared with local barley variety (Hordeum vulgare L.) as control. Barley samples were obtained from Plant Breeding Unit, Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. The measurements of the antioxidant activity using a radical scavenging capacity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene bleaching assay were assessed in the barley acetonic extract. Furthermore, amino acids composition of barley mutant samples was determined. The results indicated that the acetonic extract of barley varieties under investigation possess marked antioxidant and anti radical capacities. The data showed that the acetonic extract of barley mutant P1 possessed the higher antioxidant activity as compared with the antioxidant activities of acetonic extract from control and other barley mutant samples. Meanwhile, the flour of barley mutations under investigation contained trace elements of iron, copper and manganese. GC and mass analyses were used to identify the active compound of extract of control and mutant barley samples. The results illustrated that the main components of the control sample of barely extract was pentane, 3 methyl (47.73%) while gamma irradiation caused noticeable change in the relative percentage of some components of acetonic extract from barley mutant samples. Moreover, the results presented that changes were disappeared, and some compounds of the acetonic extract from mutant barley samples were appeared. Furthermore, the results exhibited that barley flour supplemented with wheat flour at 30% level produced acceptable cookies. Accordingly, the phenolic constituents of barley acetonic extract induced by gamma irradiation, especially samples of P1 mutant, may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  17. Comparison of stability statistics for yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Key words: Barley, genotype x environment interaction, parametric and nonparametric measures, dynamic and static stability. INTRODUCTION ... evaluated in multi-environment trials (METs) to test their performance over different ...... (2) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and pea (Pisum sativum. L.). Adugna and ...

  18. Genetic diversity of some Saudi barley (Hordeum Vulgare L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Genetic diversity of some Saudi barley (Hordeum. Vulgare L.) landraces based on microsatellite markers. El-Awady A. M. Mohamed 1,2 and El-Tarras A. E. Adel1,2. 1Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Research Unit, Scientific Research Center, College of Medicine, Taif.

  19. The proteomic analysis of barley albumins and globulins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovičková, Markéta; Bobálová, Janette

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 15 (2008), s709-s711 ISSN 1803-2389. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /4./. Brno, 09.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley * albumins * globulins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  20. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight i...

  1. Durum wheat and barley productivity in saline-drought environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Mastrorilli, M.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Lahmer, F.Z.; Hamdy, A.; Oweis, T.

    2009-01-01

    In two Successive years, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum Desf.) and barley (Hodeum vulgare L.) were tested in a factorial salinity-drought experiment, combining three levels of salinity and two levels of drought. The two drought treatments were obtained by applying irrigation water when the pre-dawn

  2. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View

  3. Genetic variability in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 44 barley landraces comprising collections and farmers' cultivars from north Shewa, Ethiopia were studied for variability in morphological characters and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seed storage proteins. The phenotypic frequencies of morphological characters ...

  4. Barley breeding for quality improvement in Tunisia | Medimagh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was initiated to assess the effectiveness of three selection procedures applied in the early segregating generations of barley crosses for quality traits. The selection procedures were pedigree selection (PS), bulk selection (BS) and single seed descent selection (SSD). Selection was operated in F2's crosses.

  5. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing

    2007-01-01

     Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed ...

  6. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptid...

  7. Registration of Guta Barley (Hordeium vulgare L.) Variety for Bale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the variety has shown high mean grain yield and relatively stable across locations and years. ... On the other hand, as observed during evaluation Guta possess resistance or tolerance to barley shoot fly insect than Shage; and exhibit compensatory growth after shootfly damage and these needs further research.

  8. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger

    2011-01-01

    imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel’s lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis...

  9. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...

  10. Registration of ‘Muir’ spring feed barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Muir’ (Reg. No. CV-357, PI 674172) is a two-row, spring, hulled feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed and evaluated as 07WA-601.6, and released in 2013 by Washington State University (WSU). Muir was derived from the cross ‘Baronesse’/‘Bob’ and selected through singleseed descent from ...

  11. Analysis of Genetic diversity and reltionships in local Tunisian barley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    Genetic diversity and environmental associations of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, in Turkey. Genetica, 68: 203-213. Nagaoka T, Ogihara Y (1997). Applicability of inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphism in wheat for use as DNA markers in comparison to RFLP and RAPD markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 94: 597-602.

  12. Two barley yellow dwarf luteovirus serotypes associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV) serotypes PAV and RPV were identified from irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples from three provinces of Zambia by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera. Nine wheat cultivars were surveyed in 11 wheat ...

  13. The Mutation Frequency in Different Spike Categories in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenberg, O.; Doll, Hans; Sandfær, J.

    1964-01-01

    After gamma irradiation of barley seeds, a comparison has been made between the chlorophyll-mutant frequencies in X1 spikes that had multicellular bud meristems in the seeds at the time of treatment (denoted as pre-formed spikes) and X1 spikes having no recognizable meristems at the time...

  14. Genetic analysis on the competitive ability of barley ( Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis on the competitive ability of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) recombinant inbred lines intercropped with oat ( Avena sativa L.) weeds. ... Furthermore, the commonly used herbicide price is soaring from time to time and out of the reach of the poor farmers in the developing countries. Therefore, this method is an ...

  15. GENETIC ANALYSIS ON THE COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF BARLEY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    serious problem to control both in mechanical or chemical methods ... competition/suppressing ability. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant material. The plant materials used for this experiment were. 98 barley recombinant inbred lines including their two parents ... Randomised incomplete block design was used to layout ...

  16. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  17. Grain Yield and Economic Benefit of Intercropping Barley and Faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, a study was conducted during 2011 and 2012 years to evaluate the effect of barley (Ba)-faba bean (Fb) intercrop on yield, yield related traits and economic benefit in the highlands of southern Ethiopia. The treatments consisted of planting patterns of one (1Fb), two (2Fb) and three (3Fb) rows of faba bean combined ...

  18. Response of barley plants to foliar application of growth regulators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The obtained results revealed that either foliar spraying by the growth regulators mixture or Zinc concentrations had a significant promotive effect on the studied growth and yield as well as the physiological and chemical parameters of barley when compared with the control treatment. While the highest values of the previous ...

  19. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    -transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that the Prx7 protein and mRNA accumulated abundantly in barley coleoptiles and in leaf epidermis inoculated with powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis). Two isoperoxidases with isoelectric points of 9.3 and 7.3 (P9.3 and P7.3, respectively) were purified to homogeneity...

  20. Registration of Food Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Variety HB 1307 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six-rowed food type barley, HB 1307, was developed by Holetta Agricultural Research Center (HARC) from a cross between a landrace line and exotic germplasm (Awra gebs-1 x IBON93/91) and released in 2006 for mid and high altitude areas. The three consecutive years\\' (2002-2004) tests proved its superiority in grain ...

  1. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) growing at Wollo Highland areas by using hordein and agro-morphological traits. Twenty (20) varieties were laid down in randomized complete block design (RCBD) design with three replications; they were ...

  2. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  3. Inhibition of coagulation factors by recombinant barley serpin BSZx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren Weis; Rasmussen, S.K.; Petersen, L..C.

    1996-01-01

    Barley serpin BSZx is a potent inhibitor of trypsin and chymotrypsin at overlapping reactive sites (Dahl, S.W., Rasmussen, S.K. and Hejgaard, J. (1996) J. Biol, Chem., in press), We have now investigated the interactions of BSZx with a range of serine proteinases from human plasma, pancreas and l...

  4. Leaf rust of cultivated barley: pathology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert F; Golegaonkar, Prashant G; Derevnina, Lida; Sandhu, Karanjeet S; Karaoglu, Haydar; Elmansour, Huda M; Dracatos, Peter M; Singh, Davinder

    2015-01-01

    Leaf rust of barley is caused by the macrocyclic, heteroecious rust pathogen Puccinia hordei, with aecia reported from selected species of the genera Ornithogalum, Leopoldia, and Dipcadi, and uredinia and telia occurring on Hordeum vulgare, H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum, Hordeum bulbosum, and Hordeum murinum, on which distinct parasitic specialization occurs. Although Puccinia hordei is sporadic in its occurrence, it is probably the most common and widely distributed rust disease of barley. Leaf rust has increased in importance in recent decades in temperate barley-growing regions, presumably because of more intensive agricultural practices. Although total crop loss does not occur, under epidemic conditions yield reductions of up to 62% have been reported in susceptible varieties. Leaf rust is primarily controlled by the use of resistant cultivars, and, to date, 21 seedling resistance genes and two adult plant resistance (APR) genes have been identified. Virulence has been detected for most seedling resistance genes but is unknown for the APR genes Rph20 and Rph23. Other potentially new sources of APR have been reported, and additivity has been described for some of these resistances. Approaches to achieving durable resistance to leaf rust in barley are discussed.

  5. Diversity analysis of the developed qingke (hulless barley) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity among 68 accessions of the developed qingke (hulless barley) cultivars from Sichuan, Gansu, Tibet, Qinghai and Yunnan provinces of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China was evaluated by using a newly developed sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) marker system. The results showed that, ...

  6. Reclamation of Sodic-Saline Soils. Barley Crop Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at assessing the salinity and sodicity effects of two soil types submitted to correction on barley crop. The two soils, contained in cylindrical pots (0.40 m in size and 0.60 m h supplied with a bottom valve for the collection of drainage water and located under shed to prevent the leaching action of rainfall, were clay-textured and saline and sodic-saline at barley seeding, as they had been cultivated for 4 consecutive years with different herbaceous species irrigated with 9 types of brackish water. In 2002-2003 the 2 salinized and sodium-affected soils (ECe and ESP ranging respectively from 5.84-20.27 dSm-1 to 2.83-11.19%, submitted to correction, were cultivated with barley cv Micuccio, and irrigated with fresh water (ECw = 0.5 dS m-1 and SAR = 0.45 whenever 30% of the maximum soil available moisture was lost by evapotranspiration. Barley was shown to be a salt-tolerant species and did not experience any salt stress when grown in soils with an initial ECe up to 11 dS m-1. When it was grown in more saline soils (initial ECe of about 20 dS m-1, despite the correction, it showed a reduction in shoot biomass and kernel yield by 26% and 36% respectively, as compared to less saline soils.

  7. Influence of ultrasonic stimulation on the germination of barley seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the influence of ultrasonic stimulation was investigated on the germination of barley and alpha-amylase activity grains in the dry state before steeping. All experiments have been performed using an ultrasonic horn operating at a fixed frequency of 20 KHz in 3 different ultrasonic power (20, 60 and 100% setting ...

  8. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  9. 108-110 Registration of Guta Barley (Hordeium vulgare L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adoption potential by the local farmers. Keywords: Guta; Barley (Hordeium vulgare L); Yield ... evaluated along with Aruso and Shage as the local and standard variety, respectively at altitudinal range of 2400- ... 6. Farmers Evaluation of the Variety. To evaluate the perception and preferences of the local farmers, farmers' ...

  10. Expression of lipoxygenase isoenzymes in developing barley grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, N.F.; Mechelen, J.R. van

    1997-01-01

    Expression of lipoxygenase was studied in whole developing barley grains from 5 days after flowering (DAF) to full maturity. Lipoxygenase showed two distinct peaks of activity. The first peak of activity occurred in the early stages of grain development from 5 until 20 DAF, whereas the second peak

  11. Substituting maize grain with barley grain in concentrates fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of substituting maize grain with barley grain in the diet of lactating Jersey cows grazing kikuyu-ryegrass pasture. Sixty Jersey cows were blocked in terms of number of days in milk, lactation number, milk yield and live weight and randomly assigned to one of five treatments (n ...

  12. Isolating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene Promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... Isolating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene. Promoter and Using Sequencing Analaysis. For The Identification of Conserved Regulatory. Elements By Bioinformatic Tools. Kobra Nalbandi1, Bahram Baghban Kohnehrouz2*, Khalil Alami Saeed1 and Ashraf. Gholizadeh3. 1Ramin Agricultural ...

  13. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  14. Diversity analysis of the developed qingke (hulless barley) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Genetic diversity among 68 accessions of the developed qingke (hulless barley) cultivars from Sichuan,. Gansu, Tibet, Qinghai and Yunnan provinces of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China was evaluated by using a newly developed sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) marker system.

  15. Effect of drought stress on barley-wheat intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeamlak, A.; Kropff, M.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of drought or moisture stress (MS1- no stress; MS2- stress at seedling stage and MS3- stress at heading stage) was studied for different crop ratios of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) mixtures sown in additive and replacement series at Halhale Research Station

  16. Transcriptome of barley under three different heavy metal stress reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kintlová, Martina; Blavet, Nicolas; Cegan, R.; Hobza, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, SEP (2017), s. 15-17 ISSN 2213-5960 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : plants * Barley * RNA-Seq * Transcriptome * Heavy metal * Copper * Zinc * Cadmium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  17. Replacement of barley grains and dehydrated alfalfa by Sulla Hay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replacement of barley grains and dehydrated alfalfa by Sulla Hay (Hedysarum flexuosum) and common reed leaves (Phragmites australis) in fattening rabbits diet. S.A. Kadi, A. Mouhous, F. Djellal, ... was valuable for fattening rabbit. Keywords: Rabbit, Growth performances, Phragmites australis, Hedysarum flexuosum.

  18. analysis and correlation of stability parameters in malting barley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Interaction principal component axis (IPCA) scores,. Additive .... TABLE 1. Additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) analysis of variance for grain yield of 20 genotypes of ... BLE 2. Mean grain yield and genotypic stability parameters for 20 malting barley genotypes grown over 12 environments in Ethiopia.

  19. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat,...

  20. MS based proteomic approaches for analysis of barley malt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovičková, Markéta; Bobálová, Janette

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2012), s. 519-530 ISSN 0733-5210 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/12/P395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley * malt * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.088, year: 2012

  1. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  2. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  3. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The uptake of soil-derived N by a test crop (N catch crop) of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown in the autumn was higher after pea than after barley. The N uptake in the test crop was reduced by 27% and 34% after pea and barley residue incorporation, respectively, probably due to N immobilization....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  4. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    Introduction: Cereals are normally stored dry at low moisture content (digestible. The objective is to investigate the effect...... of reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49......: Reconstituted barley had higher soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and lower phytate P (0.93 g/ kg DM) compared with dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM, respectively). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed increased P absorption (52%) and decreased P excretion in feces (21%) (P

  5. The influence of flooding on soil proportion and plant growth. 1. The influence on root development and growth of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to study the extent of root and shoot of barley exposed to flooding at various time of flooding. Several parameters were used in the experiment, namely the percentage of 86 Rb in the root system, dry weight of root as well as shoot, increase of leaf size, number of leaves and tillers and nitrogen content in leaf tissue. Radioactive 86 Rb-Cl was used in the experiment and injected into the plant 24 hours before harvest. The plants were harvested 2, 6, and 20 days after flooding. From the result obtained, it turned out that flooding conditions apparently reduced root development in the lower part of soil layer, while in the top layer a proper development of root was concentrated. Injury symptoms were mainly observed in the shoot; where leaf yellowing occured and started with the first leaf five days after flooding and subsequently reduced the number of leaves and tillers. (author)

  6. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Svensson, Birte

    sensors and detection systems is that they can be miniaturized, multiplexed and automated without losing their performance making them suitable for integration with microfluidic devices1,2. Combining microfluidics with electrochemical and optical detection allows implementation of a wide range of assays......, that the H2O2 concentration changes depending on phytohormone activation or inactivation of aleurone layer metabolism and subsequent PCD3. Currently, we are working on the optimization of an intracellular whole-cell redox activity (NADP:NADPH ratio) assay5 to be able to detect possible changes...... to improve reproducibility of the measurements and to find the optimal parameters suitable for its application in the microfluidic device. Meanwhile, we successfully detected PCD induced by phytohormones in barley aleurone layer using a double-fluorescent probe-system also used by Fath et al6...

  7. Use of Barley for the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater in a Hydroponics System

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Snow; Abdel E. Ghaly

    2008-01-01

    Barley was examined for its ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater. The effects of seed sterilization using ethanol and bleach and seed density on germination and plant growth were investigated. Surface sterilization of barley seeds had a negative impact on germination. Increasing the ethanol concentration and/or the bleach concentration reduced the germination percentage. Barley seeds were first germinated in water in the hydroponics system. The seedlings then received waste...

  8. Volatile compound-mediated interactions between barley and pathogenic fungi in the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiers, Marie; Lognay, Georges; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Jijakli, M Haïssam

    2013-01-01

    Plants are able to interact with their environment by emitting volatile organic compounds. We investigated the volatile interactions that take place below ground between barley roots and two pathogenic fungi, Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium culmorum. The volatile molecules emitted by each fungus, by non-infected barley roots and by barley roots infected with one of the fungi or the two of them were extracted by head-space solid phase micro extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The effect of fungal volatiles on barley growth and the effect of barley root volatiles on fungal growth were assessed by cultivating both organisms in a shared atmosphere without any physical contact. The results show that volatile organic compounds, especially terpenes, are newly emitted during the interaction between fungi and barley roots. The volatile molecules released by non-infected barley roots did not significantly affect fungal growth, whereas the volatile molecules released by pathogenic fungi decreased the length of barley roots by 19 to 21.5% and the surface of aerial parts by 15%. The spectrum of the volatiles released by infected barley roots had no significant effect on F. culmorum growth, but decreased C. sativus growth by 13 to 17%. This paper identifies the volatile organic compounds emitted by two pathogenic fungi and shows that pathogenic fungi can modify volatile emission by infected plants. Our results open promising perspectives concerning the biological control of edaphic diseases.

  9. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  10. The non-touching method of the malting barley quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raba, B.; Nowakowski, K.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.

    2014-04-01

    The first important stage of the malt production processes is the malting barley quality evaluation. Presented project was focused on the visual features of malting barley grains. The principal aim was to elaborate complete methodology to determine the level of grains contamination. The article describes the mechanisms of choosing parameters which can distinguish useful for the malt production grains from defects and impurities. Original computer system 'Hordeum v 3.1' helped obtain graphical data from images of contaminated barley samples. Research carried out in this area can improve the quality evaluation process of malting barley.

  11. Volatile compound-mediated interactions between barley and pathogenic fungi in the soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Fiers

    Full Text Available Plants are able to interact with their environment by emitting volatile organic compounds. We investigated the volatile interactions that take place below ground between barley roots and two pathogenic fungi, Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium culmorum. The volatile molecules emitted by each fungus, by non-infected barley roots and by barley roots infected with one of the fungi or the two of them were extracted by head-space solid phase micro extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The effect of fungal volatiles on barley growth and the effect of barley root volatiles on fungal growth were assessed by cultivating both organisms in a shared atmosphere without any physical contact. The results show that volatile organic compounds, especially terpenes, are newly emitted during the interaction between fungi and barley roots. The volatile molecules released by non-infected barley roots did not significantly affect fungal growth, whereas the volatile molecules released by pathogenic fungi decreased the length of barley roots by 19 to 21.5% and the surface of aerial parts by 15%. The spectrum of the volatiles released by infected barley roots had no significant effect on F. culmorum growth, but decreased C. sativus growth by 13 to 17%. This paper identifies the volatile organic compounds emitted by two pathogenic fungi and shows that pathogenic fungi can modify volatile emission by infected plants. Our results open promising perspectives concerning the biological control of edaphic diseases.

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF SPRING BARLEY VARIETIES WITH DIFFERENT POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANCES IN DENMARK FROM 1960 TO 1976

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J.

    1978-01-01

    In Denmark powdery mildew susceptible spring barley varieties were replaced by major gene resistant varieties in between 1963-1974. Varieties with resistance from Hordeum laevigatum covered about 1/3 of the barley area in 1968-1974, and 51 and 71% in 1975 and 1976, respectively. The severity...... each spring from overwintering barley crops in Germany and the UK, the distribution of the resistances on the barley area in Denmark, and the selective advantage of the matching virulences. Because the virulences matching the above 3 resistances apparently are present in the initial inoculum...

  13. Molecular Chemical Structure of Barley Proteins Revealed by Ultra-Spatially Resolved Synchrotron Light Sourced FTIR Microspectroscopy: Comparison of Barley Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2007-01-01

    Barley protein structure affects the barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals among other factors such as protein matrix. Publications show various biological differences among barley varieties such as Valier and Harrington, which have significantly different degradation behaviors. The objectives of this study were to reveal the molecular structure of barley protein, comparing various varieties (Dolly, Valier, Harrington, LP955, AC Metcalfe, and Sisler), and quantify protein structure profiles using Gaussian and Lorentzian methods of multi-component peak modeling by using the ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron light sourced Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM). The items of the protein molecular structure revealed included protein structure α-helices, β-sheets, and others such as β-turns and random coils. The experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, US Department of Energy, NY). The results showed that with the SFTIRM, the molecular structure of barley protein could be revealed. Barley protein structures exhibited significant differences among the varieties in terms of proportion and ratio of model-fitted α-helices, β-sheets, and others. By using multi-component peaks modeling at protein amide I region of 1710-1576 cm -1 , the results show that barley protein consisted of approximately 18-34% of α-helices, 14-25% of β-sheets, and 44-69% others. AC Metcalfe, Sisler, and LP955 consisted of higher (P 0.05). The ratio of α-helices to others (0.3 to 1.0, P < 0.05) and that of β-sheets to others (0.2 to 0.8, P < 0.05) were different among the barley varieties. It needs to be pointed out that using a multi-peak modeling for protein structure analysis is only for making relative estimates and not exact determinations and only for the comparison purpose between varieties. The principal component analysis showed that protein amide I Fourier

  14. Simulation of geospatial production changes of barley due to the impacts of climate change in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J.; Seungtaek, J.

    2016-12-01

    Determining effective measures to alleviate or adjust the changing climate for crops is a prominent issue to be delivered in the upcoming years. Impacts of global change on crops are considered to appear geographically different aspects from region to region and area to area. The objectives of this study are to apply a grid crop simulation modeling (GCSM) system for geospatial projection of the climate change impacts on barley (Hordeum vulgare) in order to determine likely current and future remedial measures using the developed simulation design for South Korea. The barley GCSM scheme was formulated using the Decision Support System for Agricultural Technology (DSSAT) crop model package version 4.6, in which crop models can be used to conduct grid data runs based on shell scripting in a Linux operating system. We used twelve years (1999-2011) climate data with a 3 km pixel resolution as the baseline climate and projected data of the specific future climate changes for the climate change scenarios of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 according to the IPCC's fifth assessment report. Four soil layers containing different soil physical and chemical properties for the corresponding region were aggregated in order to use as the model input data as well. We will further report the current projection outcomes and discuss potential remedial measures that can be used to adjust the future impacts of climate change on barley production of South Korea. We assume that the current GCSM system could be used as a promising tool to simulate geospatial production changes of crops due to the climate change impacts and to search for likely solutions to the forthcoming food insecurity.

  15. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  16. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary...... chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an alpha-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio...... in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition...

  17. Barley grain enrichement with essential elements by agronomic biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grain is rich in mineral nutrients, but their bioavailability to humans depends on antinutrients that restrain bioavailability and promoters that promote bioavailability. The aim of this study was to examine composition of barley grain, including phytate and phenolics as antinutrients, carotenoids and glutathione as promoters and mineral elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Si, Zn and Mn influenced by various non-standard foliar fertilizers (Zircon, Chitosan, Siliplant, Propikonazole, including some hormonal growth-stimulators (Epin Extra, Benzyladenine, as potential biofortification measure. Chitosan increased glutathione concentration in grain. Unfavorable meteorological conditions were partly mitigated by application of Benzyladenine and Siliplant, reflected through increased potential bioavailability of P, Mg, Ca and Fe. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31037

  18. Identification of Microbial Metabolites Elevating Vitamin Contents in Barley Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Anam; Qadir, Abdul; Anjum, Tehmina; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2015-08-19

    The current investigation analyzes metabolites of Acetobacter aceti to explore chemical compounds responsible for the induction of vitamins in barley seeds. A bioactivity guided assay of bacterial extracts and chromatographic analyses of barley produce revealed 13 chemical compounds, which were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA determined four chemical compounds (i.e., quinolinic acid, pyridoxic acid, p-aminobenzoate, and α-oxobutanoic acid) highly associated with increased quantities of vitamins. Further experimentations confirmed that quinolinic acid and p-aminobenzoate were the most efficient vitamin inducers. The results indicated chloroform/ethanol (4:1) as the best solvent system for the extraction of active compounds from crude metabolites of A. aceti. Significant quantities of mevalonic acid were detected in the extracted fraction, indicating the possible induction of the isoprenoid pathway. Altogether, the current investigation broadens the frontiers in plant-microbe interaction.

  19. Uptake and distribution of 232U in peas and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of 232 U from soil and its distribution in peas and barley were examined under conditions which isolated root uptake from deposition on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground plant parts were harvested at maturity and analyzed for 232 U content by alpha-energy-analysis. The ratio of concentration (CR) of 232 U in the dry barley seeds to dry soil was 1.6 x 10 -4 while the CR values of the stem/leaf to dry soil fraction was 3.6 x 10 -3 . The Cr values for the pea seed, stem/pod and leaf components were 5.4 x 10 -4 , 3.3 x 10 -3 and 1.7 x 10 -2 , respectively. This indicates that the CR values used in certain radiological dose-assessment models may be high by about a factor of 100 when evaluating the consumption of seeds of legumes or cereal grains by man. (author)

  20. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly...... impaired digestibilities; these findings were partially verified in a repeated field trial, but were not confirmed in vivo. In vitro digestibilities of barleys grown in pots at various N-levels were positively correlated with protein or hordein content. In vitro digestibility was negatively correlated...... with the fibre content in decortification fractions of Bomi and the high-lysine mutant Risø 1508. The digestibility was positively correlated with the hordein concentration for the Bomi fractions, but not for the 1508 fractions....

  1. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H.; Ha, P.T.L.; Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T.

    2001-01-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10 5 to ca. 6 x 10 3 by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of 62 Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  2. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  3. Radiation Hybrid Map of Barley Chromosome 3H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mazaheri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Assembly of the barley ( L. genome is complicated by its large size (5.1 Gb and proportion of repetitive elements (84%. This process is facilitated by high resolution maps for aligning bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC contigs along chromosomes. Available genetic maps, however, do not provide accurate information on the physical position of a large portion of the genome located in recombination-poor regions. Radiation hybrid (RH mapping is an alternative approach, which is based on radiation-induced deletions along the length of chromosomes. In this study, the first RH map for barley chromosome 3H was developed. In total, 373 in vivo RH lines were generated by irradiating wheat ( L.–barley chromosome 3H addition lines and crossing them to a normal wheat cultivar. Each RH informative line (containing deletions had, on average, three deletions. The induced deletion size varied from 36.58 Kb to 576.00 Mb, with an average length of 52.42 Mb. This initial chromosome 3H radiation hybrid (3H-RH map had a 9.53× higher resolution than an analogous genetic map, reaching a maximum of >262.40× resolution in regions around the centromere. The final RH map was 3066.1 cR in length, with a 0.76 Mb resolution. It was estimated that the map resolution can be improved to an average of 30.34 Kb by saturating the 3H-RH map with molecular markers. The generated RH panel enabled alignment of BAC and sequenced contigs as small as 1.50 Kb in size. The high resolution and the coverage of poor-recombination regions make RH maps an ideal resource for barley genome assembly, as well as other genetic studies.

  4. Genomic Regions Influencing Seminal Root Traits in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.. Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH population (ND24260 × ‘Flagship’ comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical and root number under controlled environmental conditions. A high degree of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel of 30 genotypes: 13.5 to 82.2 and 3.6 to 6.9° for root angle and root number, respectively. A similar range was observed in the DH population: 16.4 to 70.5 and 3.6 to 6.5° for root angle and number, respectively. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL for seminal root traits (root angle, two QTL; root number, five QTL were detected in the DH population. A major QTL influencing both root angle and root number (/ was positioned on chromosome 5HL. Across-species analysis identified 10 common genes underlying root trait QTL in barley, wheat ( L., and sorghum [ (L. Moench]. Here, we provide insight into seminal root phenotypes and provide a first look at the genetics controlling these traits in barley.

  5. Aminopeptidases of Germinated and Non-Germinated Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Vukelić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In processes of barley plant development, various endo- and exopeptidases are involved. To determine the type and number of aminopeptidases that could participate in barley seed germination and tissue growth, their activities in extracts of non-germinated and germinated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Angora grains and young tissues have been examined, and some of their properties determined. Aminopeptidases (AP hydrolysing 2-naphthylamides of various amino acids were present in dry and germinated grains, roots, seedlings and leaves, showing preferences for amino acids phenylalanine (Phe, arginine (Arg, leucine (Leu and methionine (Met, and lower activity towards alanine (Ala, proline (Pro, glycine (Gly and histidine (His. Levels and ratios of AP activities changed during germination and tissue development, indicating that APs of different specificities are required at different stages of germination and in young tissues. Thus, the increase of all aminopeptidase activities during the first 24 hours of germination and subsequent decrease show significant involvement in seed primary metabolism restoration. The activities of Arg- and HisAP are equally important in green malt. Seedlings and leaves have pronounced substrate specificity for Phe, Leu, Ala and Pro, while roots have the lowest AP specific activities. From the activities and determined properties, the presence of at least six aminopeptidases optimally active at pH=7.4–8.2 could be discerned in dry and germinated grains, and young tissues of Angora barley. Two aminopeptidases are most probably of broad substrate specificity, three show narrow preference with dominating Leu, Phe, or Pro/His, while one is specific for Arg.

  6. The Barley Grain Thioredoxin System – an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eHägglund

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type thioredoxin facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. This review presents a summary of the research conducted during the last ten years to elucidate the structure and function of the barley seed thioredoxin system at the molecular level combined with proteomic approaches to identify target proteins.

  7. Determination of Local Barley (Hordeum Vulgare) Crop Coefficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average economic water productivity (EWP) of barley for the very wet, wet, normal, dry and very dry seasons scenario were 0.99, 0.7, 0.65, 0.57, and 0.44 USD m-3, respectively, whereas the corresponding crop water productivity (CWP) values for grain were 1.53, 1.08, 1.0, 0.88 and 0.68 kg m-3, respectively. The EWP ...

  8. Yield improvement in barley by using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamer, Ibrahim Mohammed

    1990-01-01

    Breeding work for barley improvement in Libya is very rare. All varieties grown here are foreign varieties. Yield per hectare is low compared with other countries having similar climatic conditions. Productivity, lodging, disease resistance, drought and salt tolerance are the main characteristics that need to be improved. A mutation breeding programme for barley improvement was initiated at the Tajoura Nuclear Research Centre in 1983-1984. The objectives of this programme are the development of new lines that could be used directly or indirectly in the development of new varieties. The locally adapted barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) variety ''California Mariout'' was used as a parent material. Grains with 14% moisture were exposed to 200 Gy gamma-ray from 60 Co source at the Centre. Three experiments were conducted during 1986-1989. From the first experiment (1986-1987), 62 mutant lines were evaluated. From the second and third experiments (1987-1989), only seven mutant lines were evaluated. In the 1988-1989 experiment, the crop was irrigated and fertilised with 0, 100 and 200 kgN/ha. Lodging score was low in 0 kgN/ha and increased significantly by the increase in N level. None of the mutant lines more lodging resistant than the parent or the control. However, yield differences were significant and the application of 100 kgN/ha increased the grain yield

  9. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  10. Variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dyulgerov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley. For this purpose, 22 lines from the ICARDA High Input Barley Program for favorable environment and 3 check varieties (Rihane-03, VMorales and Veslets were tested in an alpha-lattice design with two replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Bulgaria in 2014 and 2015 growing season. The traits days to heading, plant height, number of tillers per plant, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, spike length, awn length, peduncle length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei infection were studied. Significant differences between lines for all studied traits were found. The number of fertile tillers per plant was significantly positively correlated with grain yield. Lines expressed higher grain yields, shorter stem, better tolerance to net blotch and stripe rust than Bulgarian check variety Veslets were identified. These genotypes can, therefore, be used as parents for the improvement of spring barley.

  11. Structure and molecular characterization of barley nudix hydrolase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Kihara, Makoto; Sugimoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Putative nudix hydrolase (NUDX) genes, which encode amino acid sequences showing homology with those of Arabidopsis NUDXs and conserve nudix motif, were identified from barley. The 14 deduced barley NUDXs (HvNUDX1-14) were classified into established subfamilies, except for 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) pyrophosphohydrolase and mRNA decapping enzyme subfamilies, and three substrate-unknown subfamilies. Drought and UV-C stresses, respectively, up-regulated 7 and 4 HvNUDX genes, but some homologs of Arabidopsis NUDXs showed different responses to abiotic stress. HvNUDX12 gene, belonging to diadenosine tetraphosphates (Ap₄A) pyrophosphohydrolase subfamily gene and up-regulated by UV-C, was expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant protein showed 8-oxo-dGTP, Ap₄A, and guanosine-3',5'-tetraphosphate (ppGpp) pyrophosphohydrolase activities, and the suppression of the lacZ amber mutation in a mutT-deficient E. coli cells caused by the incorporation of 8-oxo-GTP into mRNA was prevented to a significant degree. These results suggest that barley NUDXs have unique constitution and response of NUDX to abiotic stress.

  12. Molecular characterization of barley yellow dwarf virus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallegue, M; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Bouktila, D; Makni, H; Makni, M

    2014-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf disease is a worldwide ubiquitous virus disease of cereal crops. In order to characterize the B/CYDV isolates occurring in Tunisia, 240 barley leaves were randomly sampled from 6 fields following a North-South trend and analyzed by serological and molecular tests. DAS-ELISA results showed 40 positive samples with a prevalence of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-PAV (77.5%), followed by cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV)-RPV (25%) and BYDV-MAV (15%). Studies of the geographic distribution showed a high incidence of B/CYDV in the Tunisian Southern provinces. RT-PCR assays were performed to amplify the viral coat protein gene (CP) and sequence analyses revealed six BYDV-PAV haplotypes named PAV-TN1 to PAV-TN6. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the six Tunisian haplotypes were close to BYDV-PAV-II subspecies and had a strong similarity with Moroccan, Czech, French and German haplotypes. Although PAV-TN2 and PAV-TN5 showed up to 10% divergence from BYDV-PAV-II at the amino acid level, it seems to belong to the same subspecies but in a separated cluster. Our results will be important in developing appropriate control measures against BYDV disease in Tunisia.

  13. BarleyBase—an expression profiling database for plant genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lishuang; Gong, Jian; Caldo, Rico A.; Nettleton, Dan; Cook, Dianne; Wise, Roger P.; Dickerson, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    BarleyBase (BB) (www.barleybase.org) is an online database for plant microarrays with integrated tools for data visualization and statistical analysis. BB houses raw and normalized expression data from the two publicly available Affymetrix genome arrays, Barley1 and Arabidopsis ATH1 with plans to include the new Affymetrix 61K wheat, maize, soybean and rice arrays, as they become available. BB contains a broad set of query and display options at all data levels, ranging from experiments to individual hybridizations to probe sets down to individual probes. Users can perform cross-experiment queries on probe sets based on observed expression profiles and/or based on known biological information. Probe set queries are integrated with visualization and analysis tools such as the R statistical toolbox, data filters and a large variety of plot types. Controlled vocabularies for gene and plant ontologies, as well as interconnecting links to physical or genetic map and other genomic data in PlantGDB, Gramene and GrainGenes, allow users to perform EST alignments and gene function prediction using Barley1 exemplar sequences, thus, enhancing cross-species comparison. PMID:15608273

  14. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacak, Andrzej; Geisler, Katrin; Jørgensen, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    -expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created...... a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation...... the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too weak to be of practical use. The new BSMV vectors modified for ligation-free cloning will allow rapid insertion of plant gene fragments for future experiments....

  15. The wheat Lr34 gene provides resistance against multiple fungal pathogens in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, Joanna M; Selter, Liselotte L; Chauhan, Harsh; Krattinger, Simon G; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz; Viccars, Libby A; Richardson, Terese M; Buesing, Gabriele; Troller, Anna; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

    2013-09-01

    The Lr34 gene encodes an ABC transporter and has provided wheat with durable, broad-spectrum resistance against multiple fungal pathogens for over 100 years. Because barley does not have an Lr34 ortholog, we expressed Lr34 in barley to investigate its potential as a broad-spectrum resistance resource in another grass species. We found that introduction of the genomic Lr34 sequence confers resistance against barley leaf rust and barley powdery mildew, two pathogens specific for barley but not virulent on wheat. In addition, the barley lines showed enhanced resistance against wheat stem rust. Transformation with the Lr34 cDNA or the genomic susceptible Lr34 allele did not result in increased resistance. Unlike wheat, where Lr34-conferred resistance is associated with adult plants, the genomic Lr34 transgenic barley lines exhibited multipathogen resistance in seedlings. These transgenic barley lines also developed leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in young seedlings, which correlated with an up-regulation of senescence marker genes and several pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. In wheat, transcriptional expression of Lr34 is highest in adult plants and correlates with increased resistance and LTN affecting the last emerging leaf. The severe phenotype of transgenic Lr34 barley resulted in reduced plant growth and total grain weight. These results demonstrate that Lr34 provides enhanced multipathogen resistance early in barley plant development and implies the conservation of the substrate and mechanism of the LR34 transporter and its molecular action between wheat and barley. With controlled gene expression, the use of Lr34 may be valuable for many cereal breeding programmes, particularly given its proven durability. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Molecular phylogeography of domesticated barley traces expansion of agriculture in the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D

    2007-11-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided into six clusters and that barley landraces from 10 different geographical regions of Eurasia and North Africa show distinct patterns of distribution across these clusters. Using haplotype frequency data, it appears that the Europe/North Africa landraces are most similar to the Near East population (F ST = 0.15) as well as to wild barley (F ST = 0.11) and are strongly differentiated from all other Asian populations (F ST = 0.34-0.74). A neighbor-joining analysis using these F ST estimates also supports a division between European, North African, and Near East barley types from more easterly Asian accessions. There is also differentiation in the presence of a naked caryopsis and spikelet row number between eastern and western barley accessions. The data support the differential migration of barley from two domestication events that led to the origin of barley--one in the Fertile Crescent and another farther east, possibly at the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau--with European and North African barley largely originating from the former and much of Asian barley arising from the latter. This suggests that cultural diffusion or independent innovation is responsible for the expansion of agriculture to areas of South and East Asia during the Neolithic revolution.

  17. Lactobacilli Are Prominent Members of the Microbiota Involved in the Ruminal Digestion of Barley and Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee E. Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of barley grain can vary among barley varieties (Fibar, Xena, McGwire, and Hilose and result in different digestion efficiencies in the rumen. It is not known if compositional differences in barley can affect the microbiota involved in the ruminal digestion of barley. The objective of this study was to characterize the in situ rumen degradability and microbiota of four barley grain varieties and to compare these to corn. Three ruminally cannulated heifers were fed a low (60% barley silage, 37% barley grain, and 3% supplement or high grain (37% barley silage, 60% barley grain, and 3% supplement diet. One set of bags was used to estimate dry matter (DM, starch and crude protein (CP degradability. A second set was used to extract DNA from the adherent microbiota and visualize grain after incubation using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. DNA was subjected to amplicon 16S rRNA gene sequencing followed by analysis using QIIME. In the low grain diet, McGwire had the highest effective degradability (ED of DM (P < 0.01. The ED of starch was highest (P < 0.01 for Fibar, McGwire, and Xena, but the ED of CP was not affected by variety. For the high grain diet, Xena and McGwire had the highest ED of DM (P < 0.01. The ED of starch was highest (P < 0.01 for Xena and Fibar. The ED of protein was highest (P < 0.01 for Xena and McGwire. Although the microbiota did not differ among barley varieties, they did differ from corn and with incubation time. Lactobacilli were dominant members of the mature biofilms associated with corn and barley and were accompanied by a notable increase in the lactic acid utilizing genera, Megasphaera. As none of the cattle exhibited subclinical or clinical acidosis during the study, our results suggest that lactobacilli play a more prominent role in routine starch digestion than presently surmised.

  18. The Effect of Monensin or Protexin on Gas Production Parameters of Alfalfa and Barley in the Ruminal Fungi Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid sobhanirad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the legislation of European Union has prohibited the use of growth-promoting antibiotics such as: monensin, there is an interest in alternatives to manipulate the rumen fermentation. The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in animal feeds is banned in Europe due to having potential risks such as the spread of antibiotic resistance genes or the contamination of milk or meat with antibiotic residues. Recently, probiotics have been increasingly evaluated to replace or facilitate reductions in the use of antibiotics. Thus, the aim of this study was investigating the comparison of antibiotic (sodium monensin and probiotic (protexin on the gas production parameters and organic matter digestibility of feedstuffs (alfalfa hay, barley grain, and alfalfa+ barley mixture Materials and Methods Experimental treatments were included control (basal feeds without additive, basal feeds supplemented with sodium monensin or protexin probiotic at levels of 500 or 1000 mg per kg of DM in a rumen fungi culture. Ruminal fluid was collected from two fistulated sheep (49.5±2.5 kg and all samples were withdrawn 2 h after the morning ration had been consumed. Collected ruminal contents were strained through four layers of cheesecloth and brought immediately to the laboratory. To have a pure ruminal fungi culture, whole ruminal fluid was centrifuged at 1000 g for 10 min and added 0.100 mg/ml antibacterial agent (streptomycin sulfate, penicillin G, and chloramphenicol (14, 35. Gas production technique was used to detect the fermentation parameters of the treatments (16.Three parallel syringes of each treatment were prepared in this experiment. To measure the total gas production (A and the rate of gas production (c, cumulative gas production, organic digestibility and metabolizable energy of treatments until 120 h. Gas production was measured directly from the volume of the syringes at 0, 3, 6, 16, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Statistical analysis of data

  19. 78 FR 44075 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Barley Under the RFS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... lifecycle GHG emissions of the 2005 gasoline baseline and of barley ethanol that is produced in 2022 in a... Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Barley Under the RFS Program AGENCY: Environmental... is produced using barley as a feedstock. EPA's draft analysis indicates that ethanol produced from...

  20. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  1. A genome-wide association study of malting quality across eight U.S. barley breeding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study leverages the breeding data of 1,862 breeding lines evaluated in 97 field trials for genome-wide association study of malting quality traits in barley. The breeding lines were six-row and two-row barley advanced breeding lines from eight barley breeding populations established at six pub...

  2. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.

    1986-01-01

    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...

  3. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  4. 76 FR 61287 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... barley marketing and define U.S. barley quality in the domestic and global marketplace. The standards define commonly used industry terms; contain basic principles governing the application of standards... standards using approved methodologies and can be applied at any point in the marketing chain. Furthermore...

  5. Characterizing the Pyrenophora teres f. maculata – barley interaction using pathogen genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrenophora teres f. maculata is the cause of the foliar disease spot form net blotch (SFNB) on barley. To evaluate pathogen genetics underlying the P. teres f. maculata- barley interaction, we developed a 105-progeny population by crossing two globally diverse isolates, one from North Dakota, USA a...

  6. Transformation of Barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) by Agrobacterium tumefasciens Infection of In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of in vitro cultured barley ovules is an attractive alternative to well-established barley transformation methods of immature embryos. The ovule culture system can be used for transformation with and without selection and has successfully been used to transform...

  7. The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2015-01-27

    The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley.

  8. Thioredoxin reductase from barley: Structure, recognition of thioredoxin, protein engineering and catalytic mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine Groth

    from barley and E. coli Finally, the expression levels of HvNTR1, HvNTR2, HvTrxh1, HvTrxh2 and α‐amylase during imbibition was examined in different tissues of barley seeds by Q‐PCR and micro‐ array data analysis. The effects of the plant hormone gibberellic acid, dormancy/after‐ ripening, light...

  9. Malt barley yield and quality affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the comparison of management practices on malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and quality in irrigated and non-irrigated cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on malt barley yield and quality in a sandy loam s...

  10. Microarray Analysis of Late Response to Boron Toxicity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, M.T.; Yilmaz, R.; Eyidogan, F.; Graaff, de L.H.; Yucel, M.; Oktem, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays, being high-density and high-throughput, allow quantitative analyses of thousands of genes and their expression patterns in parallel. In this study, Barley1 GereChip was used to investigate transcriptome changes associated with boron (B) toxicity in a sensitive barley cultivar

  11. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...

  12. Immunomodulatory properties of oat and barley β-glucan populations on bone marrow derived dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosch, Christiane; Meijerink, Marjolein; Delahaije, Roy J.B.M.; Taverne, Nico; Gruppen, Harry; Wells, Jerry M.; Schols, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Specific structures of oat and barley β(1,3)(1,4)-glucans induced different in vitro immunomodulatory effects in bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from TLR2/4 knock out mice. All barley β-glucan fractions induced larger amounts of cytokines in BMDCs than their oat equivalents. The

  13. Effect of pulsed electric field on the germination of barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Dejmek, Petr; Panarese, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores metabolic responses of germinating barley seeds upon the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Malting barley seeds were steeped in aerated water for 24 h and PEF-treated at varying voltages (0 (control), 110, 160, 240, 320, 400 and 480 V). The seeds were then allowed...

  14. Effect of microwave freeze drying on quality and energy supply in drying of barley grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhong, Qifeng; Wang, Zhushang

    2018-03-01

    Young barley grass leaves are well-known for containing the antioxidant substances flavonoid and chlorophyll. However, low product quality and energy efficiency exist with respect to the dehydration of barley grass leaves. To improve energy supply and the quality of barley grass, microwave heating instead of contact heat was applied for the freeze drying of barley grass at a pilot scale at 1, 1.5 and 2 W g -1 , respectively; After drying, energy supply and quality parameters of color, moisture content, chlorophyll, flavonoids, odors of dried barley grass were determined to evaluate the feasibility of the study. Microwave freeze drying (MFD) allowed a low energy supply and high contents of chlorophyll and flavonoids. A lightness value of 60.0, a green value of -11.5 and an energy supply of 0.61 kW h -1  g -1 were observed in 1.5 W g -1 MFD; whereas drying time (7 h) decreased by 42% compared to contact heating. Maximum content of flavonoid and chlorophyll was 11.7 and 12.8 g kg -1 barley grass. Microwave heating leads to an odor change larger than that for contact heating observed for the freeze drying of barley grass. MFD retains chlorophyll and flavonoids, as well as colors and odors of samples, and also decreases energy consumption in the freeze drying of barley grass. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. High-resolution mapping of the barley Ryd3 locus controlling tolerance to BYDV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüpken, T.; Stein, N.; Perovic, D.; Habekuss, A.; Serfling, A.; Krämer, I.; Hähnel, U.; Steuernagel, B.; Scholz, U.; Ariyadasa, R.; Martis, M.; Mayer, K.; Niks, R.E.; Collins, N.C.; Friedt, W.; Ordon, F.

    2014-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf disease (BYD) is transmitted by aphids and is caused by different strains of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV). Economically it is one of the most important diseases of cereals worldwide. Besides chemical control of the vector, growing of

  16. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of morphological, resistance, and other agronomically relevant traits in modern spring barley cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, A.T.W.; Martinez, F.; Mussiraliev, B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Niks, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    A set of 148 modern spring barley cultivars was explored for the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genes governing traits and nearby marker alleles. Associations of agronomically relevant traits (days to heading, plant height), resistance traits (leaf rust, barley yellow dwarf virus

  17. Barley uptake of N deposited in the rhizosphere of associated field pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    vulgare L.) was determined in three pot experiments using a direct split-root N-15-labelling technique. The donor (pea) and receiver (barley) plants were grown with their root systems either mixed within the same soil compartment or separated by a 20 mu m mesh bag. Pea-derived N was detected in barley...

  18. Determinants of barley grain yield in a wide range of Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Li Destri Nicosia, O.; Akar, T.; Grando, S.; Al-Yassin, A.; Benkelkacim, A.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pechionni, N.

    2011-01-01

    Barley grain yield in rainfed Mediterranean regions can be largely influenced by terminal drought events. In this study the ecophysiological performance of the ‘Nure’ (winter) × ‘Tremois’ (spring) barley mapping population (118 Doubled Haploids, DHs) was evaluated in a multi-environment trial of

  19. Malt quality of 4 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... (TKMWL) was 11 to 13% and is in the range for desirably modified barley grain on malting. The varieties ... Key words: Diastatic tendency, malt extract, FAN, malt barley qualities, net blotch, propiconazole, starch flour pasting. ... phate was applied at the rate of 100 kg/ha (blanket recommen- dation). Weeds ...

  20. Comparison of functional and nutritional characteristics of barley and oat mixed linkage ß-glucans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Skau

    -glucans were compared in a human intervention study. The work first focussed on large-scale extraction and physico-chemical characterisation of barley and oat β-glucans. The second step was to investigate the in vitro health effects of barley and oat β-glucans in relation to their physico-chemical properties....... Finally, health effects from barley and oat β-glucans were studied in vivo in humans using traditional biomarkers and plasma metabolomics. Results from Papers I demonstrated that structural characteristics and viscous properties of barley and oat β-glucans dominate the functional traits over the presence...... studies were that small molecule interaction with barley and oat β-glucans is influenced by degree of polymerisation and β-glucan fine structure whereas β-glucan solubility and aggregation are key elements for understanding their immune modulating capacity. Results from the Paper V in vivo human study...

  1. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...... the complete incubation period of 84 days. The maximum rate of N immobilization was found to 12 and 18 mg soil-derived N g(-1) added C after incorporation of pea and barley residues, respectively. After 7 days of incubation, 21% of the pea and 17% of the barley residue N were assimilated by the soil microbial...... the decomposition of the barley residue. The net mineralization of residue-derived N was 2% in the barley and 22% in the pea residue treatment after 84 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that even if crop residues have a relative low C/N ratio (15), transient immobilization of soil N in the microbial...

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  3. Effects of process parameters on the properties of barley containing snacks enriched with brewer's spent grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjoranta, Satu; Tenkanen, Maija; Jouppila, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG), a by-product of malting of barley in the production of malt extract, was used as an ingredient in extruded barley-based snacks in order to improve the nutritional value of the snacks and widen the applications of this by-product in food sector. The effects of the extrusion parameters on the selected properties of the snacks were studied. Snacks with different ingredients including whole grain barley flour, BSG, whey protein isolate (WPI), barley starch and waxy corn starch were produced in 5 separate trials using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Extrusion parameters were water content of the mass (17-23 %), screw speed (200-500 rpm) and temperature of the last section and die (110-150 °C). Expansion, hardness and water content of the snacks were determined. Snacks containing barley flour and BSG (10 % of solids) had small expansion and high hardness. Addition of WPI (20 % of solids) increased expansion only slightly. Snacks with high expansion and small hardness were obtained when part of the barley flour was replaced with starch (barley or waxy corn). Yet, the highest expansion and the smallest hardness were achieved when barley flour was used with barley starch and WPI without BSG. Furthermore, expansion increased by increasing screw speed and decreasing water content of the mass in most of the trials. This study showed that BSG is a suitable material for extruded snacks rich in dietary fiber. Physical properties of the snacks could be improved by using barley or waxy corn starch and WPI.

  4. Soluble sugar availability of aerobically germinated barley, oat and rice coleoptiles in anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Yasuda, Yukihiro; Sasaki, Ryosuke

    2010-12-15

    Physiological and metabolic responses to anoxia were compared for aerobically germinated seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa) and rice (Oryza sativa). Coleoptile growth of barley, oat and rice seedlings was suppressed by a 24 h-anoxic stress, but the growth of the rice coleoptiles was much greater than that of the barley and oat coleoptiles. ATP concentration in the anoxic rice coleoptiles was greater than that in the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles. Concentrations of ethanol and activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the anoxic rice coleoptiles were also greater than those of the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles, suggesting that ethanolic fermentation may be more active in the rice coleoptiles than in the barley and oat coleoptiles, where glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation are the main source of ATP production. Soluble sugar concentration in the anoxic rice coleoptiles was greater than that of the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles. However, α-amylase, which catabolizes reserve starch to soluble sugars, was active in anoxic barley, oat and rice endosperms, and soluble sugar concentration in the anoxic barley, oat and rice endosperms was not significantly different. Therefore, anoxia stress may inhibit soluble sugar transport from the endosperms to the coleoptiles in barley and oat more than in rice. Since the availability of soluble sugar is essential for operation of glycolysis and fermentation in plant cells, ability for sugar transport from the endosperms to the coleoptiles may be one means to distinguish the coleoptile growth of these plant species in anoxia and anoxia tolerance of these plants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. treatment on nutrient composition and ruminal fermentability of barley straw, barley rootless, and a mixture of the two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Soto-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and its derivatives, ranks fourth in cereal production worldwide, and the Pleurotus species are among the most efficient types of lignocellulolytic white-rot fungi. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the degradation of barley straw and barley rootless with an inoculum of Pleurotus to improve their nutritional availability as a food source for ruminants. Two experiments were conducted; the first was to determine the effects of inoculation of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. (PS in barley straw (BS, barley rootless (BR, and a 75% BS and 25% BR mixture (M. The second experiment was to evaluate the same substrates in vitro ruminal fermentation. Barley rootless had better organic matter (OM degradability than BS after 24 h incubation with PS. The protein content in BR was higher than in BS (P < 0.01. Enzyme activities had the highest concentration from the start of fermentation, and in vitro dry matter (DM degradability in BS and BR increased after 8 and 24 d fermentation, respectively (P < 0.05. Propionic acid concentration was enhanced after 16 d fermentation in BR (P < 0.5. The use of BS combined with BR exhibited better fermentation; this result provides relevant information for integrating BR with other substrates and improving the use of straw, which can be more nutritionally available for feeding ruminants.

  6. The barley apoptosis suppressor homologue BAX inhibitor-1 compromises nonhost penetration resistance of barley to the inappropriate pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Ruth; Schultheiss, Holger; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2004-05-01

    BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1) proteins have been characterized as suppressors of programmed cell death in mammals and plants. The barley BI-1 is a suppressor of nonspecific background resistance and mlo-mediated penetration resistance to the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei when overexpressed in epidermal cells of barley. We report here that BI-1 expression is also slightly up-regulated during interaction with the inappropriate wheat pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici. Significantly, overexpression of BI-1 in single epidermal cells of barley by microprojectile-mediated transformation rendered cells susceptible to penetration by inappropriate B. graminis f. sp. tritici. The degree of transgene-induced accessibility to B. graminis f. sp. tritici was thereby similar to the effect achieved by overexpression of the defense suppressor gene Mlo and could not be further enhanced by double expression of both BI-1 and Mlo. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to locate a functional green fluorescing GFP:BI-1 fusion protein in endomembranes and the nuclear envelope of barley epidermal cells. Together, enhanced expression of barley BI-1 suppresses penetration resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici, linking barley nonhost resistance with cell death regulation.

  7. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oram, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  8. Thiamine treatments alleviate aphid infestations in barley and pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Afaf M; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V

    2013-10-01

    Treatment of plants with thiamine (Vitamin B1) has before been shown to activate plant defence against microorganisms. Here, we have studied the effects of thiamine treatments of plants on aphid reproduction and behaviour. The work was mainly carried out with bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Aphid population growth and aphid acceptance on plants grown from seeds soaked in a 150μM thiamine solution were reduced to ca. 60% of that on control plants. R. padi life span and the total number of offspring were reduced on barley plants treated with thiamine. Healthy aphids and aphids infected with the R. padi virus were similarly affected. Spraying or addition of thiamine at 150μM to nutrient solutions likewise resulted in reduced aphid population growth to ca. 60%, as did plant exposure to thiamine odour at 4mM. Thiamine treatments resulted in reduced aphid population growth also when tested with grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) on barley and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum H.) on pea (Pisum sativum L.). There was no direct effect of thiamine on aphid reproduction or thiamine odour on aphid behaviour, as evaluated using artificial diets and by olfactometer tests, respectively. Two gene sequences regulated by salicylic acid showed higher transcript abundance and one gene sequence regulated by methyl jasmonate showed lower transcript abundance in thiamine-treated plants but not in control plants after aphid infestation. These results suggest that the aphid antibiosis and antixenosis effects may be related to priming of defence, but more studies are needed to explain the effects against aphids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated phosphorus impedes manganese acquisition by barley plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai ePedas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of manganese (Mn deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Addition of a pulse of KH2PO4 rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a similar P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn-P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels.

  10. Objectives and results of barley breeding in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparrow, D.H.B.

    1990-01-01

    An important current development in Australian barley improvement is the release of semi-dwarf cultivars. These are derived from Abed Deba, Triumph or Aapo which are believed to have an allelic series of mutant genes. A common problem with these genes is their association with relatively late maturity and small grain, limiting current cultivars to rainfall areas above 450mm per annum. The first release 'Skiff' (S.A., N.S.W. 1988) is to be followed by selections from 'Forrest' x 'Aapo' in Western Australia and 'Grimmett' x 'Triumph' in Queensland, whilst 'Triumph' is already being grown in Tasmania. (author)

  11. Salt Stress and Homobrassinosteroid Interactions during Germination in Barley Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgi MARAKLI; Aslihan TEMEL; Nermin GOZUKIRMIZI

    2014-01-01

    Potential alleviation effects of Homobrassinosteroid (HBR) (0.5 and 1 µM HBR) on root germination, cell division and antioxidant system enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. ‘Hilal’) roots grown under different salt concentrations (150 mM and 250 mM) were investigated during 48 and 72 h at dark with their controls. Salt applications decreased primary root lengths, seminal root lengths, number of roots from one seed, mitotic activity and induced mitotic ...

  12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated barley and wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    feeding strategy to increase the substrate loading in the hydrolysis reaction. The substrate for the enzymatic hydrolysis was primarily steam pretreated wheat and barley straw since these substrates were the primary feedstocks for the Babilafuente Bioethanol process. The initial work showed...... addition of hemicellulase activities to complement the cellulase activities found in Celluclast. Further improving the hydrolysis process in relation to the Babilafuente Bioethanol process might be achieved applying a substrate fed-batch strategy, if optimised in relation to timing of the substrate...

  13. Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.; Al-Safadi, B.; Mir Ali, N.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

  14. Decision Support System for Optimized Herbicide Dose in Spring Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Mette; Kudsk, Per; Mathiassen, Solvejg K

    2014-01-01

    for herbicide application in spring barley in Denmark were validated through field experiments targeting three levels of weed control requirement. Satisfactory weed control levels at harvest were achieved by a medium control level requirement generating substantial herbicide reductions ( 60% measured...... as the Treatment Frequency Index (TFI)) compared to a high level of required weed control. The observations indicated that the current level of weed control required is robust for a range of weed scenarios. Weed plant numbers 3 wk after spraying indicated that the growth of the weed species were inhibited...

  15. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anjali, E-mail: joshianjali1982@gmail.com; Sharma, Arti [Centre For Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Nayyar, Harsh [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Verma, Gaurav [Dr. SS Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-08-28

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  16. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  17. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds

  18. Genetic diversity and structure analysis in wild and landraces of barley from Jordan by using ISJ markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A. W.; Balogh, M. J.; Baloch, M.; Baloch, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure in cultivated and wild barley populations collected from Jordan which is considered as primary gene pool of barley. In a total, 94 cultivated barley accessions composed of 4 populations and 52 wild barley accessions consisted of 3 populations were used for genetic analysis using 7 Intron Splice Junction (ISJ) markers. The genetic diversity index (He) of cultivated barley ranged between 0.049 and 0.060; whereas that of wild barley populations ranged between 0.084 and 0.146, suggesting that wild resources of barley harbored greater genetic diversity than its domesticated counterpart, reflecting that barley domestication occurred with genetic bottleneck. Analysis of molecular variance showed high genetic variations among rather than within populations, referring that high genetic differentiation of barley populations caused by genetic and geographical separation of the populations in the harsh growing conditions of Fertile Crescent. Principal coordinate, clustering and structure analysis not only separated cultivated and wild barley, but also each single population, showing their genetic basis and original sample site. The obtained Results also revealed that there is lesser genetic communication between cultivated and wild barley under natural environments. The current findings can better be exploited for collection and utilization of plant germplasms. (author)

  19. Classification of Fusarium-Infected Korean Hulled Barley Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Oh, Kyoungmin; Yoo, Hyeonchae; Ham, Hyeonheui; Kim, Moon S

    2017-09-30

    The purpose of this study is to use near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy equipment to nondestructively and rapidly discriminate Fusarium -infected hulled barley. Both normal hulled barley and Fusarium -infected hulled barley were scanned by using a NIR spectrometer with a wavelength range of 1175 to 2170 nm. Multiple mathematical pretreatments were applied to the reflectance spectra obtained for Fusarium discrimination and the multivariate analysis method of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used for discriminant prediction. The PLS-DA prediction model developed by applying the second-order derivative pretreatment to the reflectance spectra obtained from the side of hulled barley without crease achieved 100% accuracy in discriminating the normal hulled barley and the Fusarium -infected hulled barley. These results demonstrated the feasibility of rapid discrimination of the Fusarium -infected hulled barley by combining multivariate analysis with the NIR spectroscopic technique, which is utilized as a nondestructive detection method.

  20. Mycotoxin production of Alternaria strains isolated from Korean barley grains determined by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong T T; Kim, Jueun; Jeon, Sun Jeong; Lee, Chul Won; Magan, Naresh; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2018-03-02

    Twenty-four Alternaria strains were isolated from barley grain samples. These strains were screened for the production of mycotoxins on rice medium using thin layer chromatography. All 24 strains produced at least one of the five mycotoxins (ALT, AOH, ATX-I, AME, and TeA). Three representative strains, namely EML-BLDF1-4, EML-BLDF1-14, and EML-BLDF1-18, were further analyzed using a new LC-MS/MS-based mycotoxin quantification method. This method was used to detect and quantify Alternaria mycotoxins. We used positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry with multiple reaction mode (MRM) for the simultaneous quantification of various Alternaria mycotoxins produced by these strains. Five Alternaria toxins (ALT, ATX-I, AOH, AME, and TeA) were detected and quantified. Sample preparation included methanol extraction, concentration, and injection into LC-MS/MS. Limit of detection ranged from 0.13 to 4μg/mL and limit of quantification ranged from 0.25 to 8μg/mL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Barley fibre and wet distillers' solubles in the diet of growing cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ROOT

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight bulls were used in a 3 × 2 factorial design to study the effects of two by-products from the integrated starch-ethanol process, barley fibre and distillers' solubles, as supplements for grass silage. The animals were divided into five blocks and slaughtered when the average live weight (LW of each block reached 500 kg. The three energy supplements were barley (B, a mixture (1:1 on a dry matter (DM basis of barley and barley fibre (BF, and barley fibre (F, fed without (DS- or with (DS+ wet distillers' solubles (200 g kg-1 concentrate on DM basis. Concentrates were given at the rate of 95 g DM kg-1 LW0.6. Including barley fibre in the diet did not affect feed intake, but distillers' solubles tended to increase both silage and total DM intakes as well as amino acids absorbed in the intestine and energy intake. The protein balance in the rumen increased with the inclusion of barley fibre (P

  2. Physiological basis of barley yield under near optimal and stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Average barley yield fall below its potential due to incidence of stresses. Water stress is the main environmental factor limiting yield. The component a priori more sensitive to most stresses is the amount of radiation absorbed. The effect of stresses influence on the total amount of radiation absorbed by barley crop during its vegetation and the photosynthetic efficiency of radiation conversion. Growth inhibition is accompanied by reductions in leaf and cell wall extensibility. Grain yield under drought conditions is source limited. Supply of assimilates to the developing inflorescence plays a critical role in establishing final grain number and grain size. Grain weight is negatively affected by drought, high temperature, and any other factors that may reduce grain filling duration and grain filling rate. Awns and glaucousness confer better performance of barley under drought stress conditions. Barley responds with an increased accumulation of a number of proteins when subjected to different stress inducing cell dehydration. Screening techniques that are able to identify desirable genotypes based on the evaluation of physiological traits related to stress evasion and stress resistance maybe useful in breeding barley for resistance to stress, particularly drought stress. Crop management and breeding can reduce the incidence of stress on yield. The effect of these practices is sustained by an understanding of their physiology. In this paper the physiological basis of the processes determining barley yield and the incidence of stresses on photosynthetic metabolism that determine grain yield of barley is discussed. .

  3. A fermented barley and soybean formula enhances skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sein; Kim, Jong-Eun; Suk, Sujin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Seo, Sang Gwon; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kim, Dae Eung; Lee, Miyeong; Chung, Dae Kyun; Jeon, Jong Eun; Cho, Dong Woon; Hurh, Byung Serk; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-01

    Skin hydration is one of the primary aims of beauty and anti-aging treatments. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and soybean (Glycine max) are major food crops, but can also be used as ingredients for the maintenance of skin health. We developed a natural product-based skin treatment using a barley and soybean formula (BS) incorporating yeast fermentation, and evaluated its skin hydration effects as a dietary supplement in a clinical study. Participants ingested a placebo- (n = 33) or BS- (3 g/day) containing drink (n = 32) for 8 weeks. A significant increase in hydration in the BS group as compared to the placebo group was observed on the faces of subjects after 4 and 8 weeks, and on the forearm after 4 weeks. Decreases in stratum corneum (SC) thickness were also observed on the face and forearm. BS enhanced hyaluronan (HA) and skin barrier function in vitro and reduced Hyal2 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). BS also recovered ultraviolet (UV) B-induced downregulation of HA in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BS has promising potential for development as a health functional food to enhance skin health.

  4. Estimating Leaching Requirements for Barley Growth under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Busaidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of marginal water resources for agriculture is receiving considerable attention. The lands irrigated with saline water are required to reduce salt accumulations through leaching and/or drainage practices. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of saline irrigation and leaching fraction on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. growth. For this purpose highly saline water was diluted to the salinity levels of 3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 and applied by drip irrigation at 0.0, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 leaching fractions (LF. The results of the experiment showed that both quantity and quality of water regulated salts distribution within the soil in the following manner: a the salts were found higher near or immediate below the soil surface; b an enhanced LF carried more salts down the soil horizon but there was no significant difference in plant yield between different treatments of leaching fractions. Salinity of water significantly impaired barley growth. The good drainage of sandy soil enhanced the leaching process and minimized the differences between leaching fractions. The increment in saline treatments (3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 added more salts and stressed plant growth. However, the conjunctive use of marginal water at proportional LF could be effective in enhancing the yield potential of crops in water-scarce areas.

  5. Physiological responses in barley to applications of lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, N.; Maheswaran, J.; Peverill, K.; Meehan, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Chinese research and glasshouse investigations carried out in Victoria by the authors have shown that several plant species, when treated with Rare Earth Elements (REEs), retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. The physiological adaptation of the plant to retain moisture in response to REE treatment however, has not been investigated. A glasshouse trial is currently in progress to study the physiological and agronomic responses of barley (cv. Schooner) grown in pots to application of lanthanum (0, 5 and 10 kg/ha), at a concentration of 0.05%, under well-watered (field capacity) and water-deficit (25 - 30% field capacity) conditions. Lanthanum was applied both directly to the soil and as a foliar spray. The physiological measurements include, photosynthetic rate, leaf water potential, osmotic potential, relative water content, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency. Measured agronomic parameters include plant height, tiller production, leaf area development, total grain weight, total biomass, root and shoot ratio and harvest index. Analysis of plant tissue for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and La to study the relationship between application of REE and nutrient uptake is also being carried out. The paper discusses physiological and agronomic changes in barley plants in response to treatment with lanthanum, under conditions of water stress

  6. Modelling phytate degradation kinetics in soaked wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, A B; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify an appropriate mathematical function describing the in vitro phytate degradation profile of soaked wheat or barley (20 °C; 1 cereal: 2.75 water (w/w)) as affected by heat-treatment (stem pelleting at 90 °C) and phytase addition (Phytase 1: 0, 250, 500......) function, a first-order (FO) function and a Generalised Michaelis Menten (GMM) function were considered. The GMM fitted the data best. The GMM function was used to derive the relative instantaneously degradable fraction of phytate (F0) and the half-life (t1/2) of phytate in hours (K). Addition of Phytase 1...... or Phytase 2 had no effect on the degradation of phytate. The F0 was greater in the heat-treated barley compared with the heat-treated wheat (0.19 vs. 0.14; P=0.02; Phytase 1). Heat-treatment of the cereals increased the F0 from 0.05 to 0.15 (P=0.0007; Phytase 2). The K was lower in the non...

  7. Barley: a translational model for adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ian K; Russell, Joanne; Powell, Wayne; Steffenson, Brian; Thomas, William T B; Waugh, Robbie

    2015-05-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) is an excellent model for understanding agricultural responses to climate change. Its initial domestication over 10 millennia ago and subsequent wide migration provide striking evidence of adaptation to different environments, agro-ecologies and uses. A bottleneck in the selection of modern varieties has resulted in a reduction in total genetic diversity and a loss of specific alleles relevant to climate-smart agriculture. However, extensive and well-curated collections of landraces, wild barley accessions (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and other Hordeum species exist and are important new allele sources. A wide range of genomic and analytical tools have entered the public domain for exploring and capturing this variation, and specialized populations, mutant stocks and transgenics facilitate the connection between genetic diversity and heritable phenotypes. These lay the biological, technological and informational foundations for developing climate-resilient crops tailored to specific environments that are supported by extensive environmental and geographical databases, new methods for climate modelling and trait/environment association analyses, and decentralized participatory improvement methods. Case studies of important climate-related traits and their constituent genes - including examples that are indicative of the complexities involved in designing appropriate responses - are presented, and key developments for the future highlighted. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Barley Stem Rust Resistance Genes: Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andris Kleinhofs

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Rusts are biotrophic pathogens that attack many plant species but are particularly destructive on cereal crops. The stem rusts (caused by have historically caused severe crop losses and continue to threaten production today. Barley ( L. breeders have controlled major stem rust epidemics since the 1940s with a single durable resistance gene . As new epidemics have threatened, additional resistance genes were identified to counter new rust races, such as the complex locus against races QCCJ and TTKSK. To understand how these genes work, we initiated research to clone and characterize them. The gene encodes a unique protein kinase with dual kinase domains, an active kinase, and a pseudokinase. Function of both domains is essential to confer resistance. The and genes are closely linked and function coordinately to confer resistance to several wheat ( L. stem rust races, including the race TTKSK (also called Ug99 that threatens the world's barley and wheat crops. The gene encodes typical resistance gene domains NBS, LRR, and protein kinase but is unique in that all three domains reside in a single gene, a previously unknown structure among plant disease resistance genes. The gene encodes an actin depolymerizing factor that functions in cytoskeleton rearrangement.

  9. Genomic Prediction of Manganese Efficiency in Winter Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Leplat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Manganese efficiency is a quantitative abiotic stress trait controlled by several genes each with a small effect. Manganese deficiency leads to yield reduction in winter barley ( L.. Breeding new cultivars for this trait remains difficult because of the lack of visual symptoms and the polygenic features of the trait. Hence, Mn efficiency is a potential suitable trait for a genomic selection (GS approach. A collection of 248 winter barley varieties was screened for Mn efficiency using Chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence in six environments prone to induce Mn deficiency. Two models for genomic prediction were implemented to predict future performance and breeding value of untested varieties. Predictions were obtained using multivariate mixed models: best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP and genomic best linear unbiased predictor (G-BLUP. In the first model, predictions were based on the phenotypic evaluation, whereas both phenotypic and genomic marker data were included in the second model. Accuracy of predicting future phenotype, , and accuracy of predicting true breeding values, , were calculated and compared for both models using six cross-validation (CV schemes; these were designed to mimic plant breeding programs. Overall, the CVs showed that prediction accuracies increased when using the G-BLUP model compared with the prediction accuracies using the BLUP model. Furthermore, the accuracies [] of predicting breeding values were more accurate than accuracy of predicting future phenotypes []. The study confirms that genomic data may enhance the prediction accuracy. Moreover it indicates that GS is a suitable breeding approach for quantitative abiotic stress traits.

  10. Comparison of agrobacterium mediated wheat and barley transformation with nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NDPK2) gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, U.; Shah, M.M.; Smedley, M.; Harwood, W.

    2016-01-01

    An efficient and reliable transformation system is imperative for improvement of important crop species like barley and wheat. Wheat transformation is complex due to larger genome size and polyploidy while barley has a limitation of genotypic dependency. The objective of current study was to compare the relative transformation efficiency of wheat and barley using specific expression vector pBRACT 214-NDPK2 constructed through gateway cloning carrying Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase 2 (NDPK2) gene. The vector was used to compare the transformation response in both crops using immature embryos through Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Both wheat and barley showed different responses towards callus induction and regeneration. Immature embryos of 1.5 to 2 mm in diameter was found optimum for wheat callus induction while 1 to 1.5 mm for barley. Both embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli were found in wheat with significantly greater tendency for embryogenecity in barley. The overall regeneration response was found different for all transformed wheat and barley cultivars. Wheat cultivars showed good response initially that drastically slowed down in later stages with the exception of Fielder that reached to the green shoots with good roots. The barley transformed lines showed good regeneration response as compared to wheat. PCR analysis of putative transformants using genomic DNA showed a maximum of 27% transformation efficiency in barely. No true transformation response was obtained in all cultivars of wheat used in this study. The protocol developed for wheat and barley transformation will greatly be helpful in crop improvement programme through genetic engineering especially in diploid relatives of cereals. (author)

  11. Spring Barley Yield Parameters after Lignite, Sodium Humate and Nitrogen Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a small number of publications dealing with the impact of solid sodium humate and lignite on the quantity and quality of grown crops was the reason for establishing the field experiment. The objective of this experiment was to detect the impact of solid lignite and solid sodium humate on the quantity and quality of spring barley yield. These substances were applied into the soil either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser. The next objective was to determine the impact of foliar application of sodium humate water solution applied either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser on the quality and quantity of spring barley yield. The achieved results showed that the autumn application of solid lignite and the presowing application of solid sodium humate into the soil tended to decrease the yield of both grain and straw of spring barley, crude protein content in grain, proportion of the first-class grains and volume weight of grain, whereas the impact of humate was more negative. Lignite and sodium humate in the solid form should be used along with nitrogen fertiliser. The application of sodium humate in liquid form during the growth season of barley tended to increase the yield of both grain and straw. The joint application of nitrogen and liquid sodium humate during the growth season of barley increased the grain yield of barley significantly. A lower dose of nitrogen, applied during the growth season of barley (growth season BBCH 23, increased the grain yield of barley considerably more than a higher N dose, applied into the soil before barley sowing.

  12. Structural Basis for Specificity of Propeptide-Enzyme Interaction in Barley C1A Cysteine Peptidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Inés; Hernández, David; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    C1A cysteine peptidases are synthesized as inactive proenzymes. Activation takes place by proteolysis cleaving off the inhibitory propeptide. The inhibitory capacity of propeptides from barley cathepsin L and B-like peptidases towards commercial and barley cathepsins has been characterized. Differences in selectivity have been found for propeptides from L-cathepsins against their cognate and non cognate enzymes. Besides, the propeptide from barley cathepsin B was not able to inhibit bovine cathepsin B. Modelling of their three-dimensional structures suggests that most propeptide inhibitory properties can be explained from the interaction between the propeptide and the mature cathepsin structures. Their potential use as biotechnological tools is discussed. PMID:22615948

  13. Comparison of functional and nutritional characteristics of barley and oat mixed linkage ß-glucans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Skau

    showed that consumption of 3.3 g/day extracted barley and oat β-glucan for 3 weeks does not significantly lower total and LDL cholesterol levels in young and healthy adults. However, an indicated potential effect of oat suggests the importance of solubility for β-glucan interference with the cholesterol....... Finally, health effects from barley and oat β-glucans were studied in vivo in humans using traditional biomarkers and plasma metabolomics. Results from Papers I demonstrated that structural characteristics and viscous properties of barley and oat β-glucans dominate the functional traits over the presence...

  14. Distinct developmental defense activations in barley embryos identified by transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, ME; Lok, F; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    analyses of > 22,000 genes, which together with measurements of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid during embryo development provide new information on the initiation in the developing barley embryo of at least two distinct types of developmental defense activation (DDA). Early DDA is characterized by the up......-regulation of several PR genes is notable. Throughout barley embryo development, there are no indications of an increased biosynthesis of either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Collectively, the results help explain how the proposed DDA enables protection of the developing barley embryo and grain for purposes...

  15. Structural basis for specificity of propeptide-enzyme interaction in barley C1A cysteine peptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Inés; Hernández, David; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    C1A cysteine peptidases are synthesized as inactive proenzymes. Activation takes place by proteolysis cleaving off the inhibitory propeptide. The inhibitory capacity of propeptides from barley cathepsin L and B-like peptidases towards commercial and barley cathepsins has been characterized. Differences in selectivity have been found for propeptides from L-cathepsins against their cognate and non cognate enzymes. Besides, the propeptide from barley cathepsin B was not able to inhibit bovine cathepsin B. Modelling of their three-dimensional structures suggests that most propeptide inhibitory properties can be explained from the interaction between the propeptide and the mature cathepsin structures. Their potential use as biotechnological tools is discussed.

  16. Differential accumulation of callose, arabinoxylan and cellulose in nonpenetrated versus penetrated papillae on leaves of barley infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Jamil; Henderson, Marilyn; Schweizer, Patrick; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Little, Alan

    2014-11-01

    In plants, cell walls are one of the first lines of defence for protecting cells from successful invasion by fungal pathogens and are a major factor in basal host resistance. For the plant cell to block penetration attempts, it must adapt its cell wall to withstand the physical and chemical forces applied by the fungus. Papillae that have been effective in preventing penetration by pathogens are traditionally believed to contain callose as the main polysaccharide component. Here, we have re-examined the composition of papillae of barley (Hordeum vulgare) attacked by the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) using a range of antibodies and carbohydrate-binding modules that are targeted to cell wall polysaccharides. The data show that barley papillae induced during infection with Bgh contain, in addition to callose, significant concentrations of cellulose and arabinoxylan. Higher concentrations of callose, arabinoxylan and cellulose are found in effective papillae, compared with ineffective papillae. The papillae have a layered structure, with the inner core consisting of callose and arabinoxylan and the outer layer containing arabinoxylan and cellulose. The association of arabinoxylan and cellulose with penetration resistance suggests new targets for the improvement of papilla composition and enhanced disease resistance. © 2014 University of Adelaide. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...... was obtained.The absence of cluster sharing allows the recognition in the barley plant of 8 mutually exclusive mutant sectors which never had a mutant cluster in common. The anatomical analysis proves that the barley embryo contains at least 6 separate shoot meristems or prospective shoot meristems, which...... in the embryo of the seed. These will, however, not appear in plants under normal development.There are, according to the present analysis, 6 spikes for which 1 or 2 functional initial cells for their sporogenous tissue are already established in the embryo, i.e. at the time of mutagenic treatment. Except...

  18. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  19. Proteome analysis of dissected barley seed tissue during germination and radicle elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine

    2007-01-01

    by mass spectrometry based on the 2D gel pattern of APX in germinated barley embryos, which indicated the presence of several APX forms with different pI values. The barley limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) is thought to be at least partly responsible for the presence of non-fermentable branched dextrins...... at the protein or the DNA level. In addition, germination of barley seeds is of interest for the brewing industry since this process corresponds to the steeping process that starts the industrial malting. In the present study a proteomics approach was employed to understand the initial changes in the water...... elongation. These proteins had different tissue distribution and most of them either remained constant or decreased in abundance during radicle elongation, except for ascorbate peroxidase (APX) which was only present in the germinating barley embryo after 24 h. Other proteins involved in osmotic and salinity...

  20. Expression of a defence-related intercellular barley peroxidase in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Brandt, J.; Bojsen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana benthamiana L.) have been transformed with a T-DNA vector construct carrying the cDNA pBH6-301, encoding the major pathogen induced leaf peroxidase (Prx8) of barley, under control of an enhanced CaMV 35S promoter. Progeny from three independent transformants were analyzed...... genetically, phenotypically and biochemically. The T-DNA was steadily inherited through three generations. The barley peroxidase is expressed and sorted to the intercellular space in the transgenic tobacco plants. The peroxidase can be extracted from the intercellular space in two molecular forms from both...... barley and transgenic tobacco. The tobacco expressed forms are indistinguishable from the barley expressed forms as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing (pI 8.5) and Western-blotting. Staining for N-glycosylation showed that one form only was glycosylated. The N-terminus of purified Prx8 from...

  1. A study on the qualitative and quantitative traits of barley ( Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the qualitative and quantitative traits of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) and narbon vetch ( Vicia narbonensis L.) in intercropping and sole cropping system under the interference and control of weeds in dry land farming...

  2. Functional and structural characterization of plastidic starch phosphorylase during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Ruzanski, Christian; Krucewicz, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    (HvPho1) for starch biosynthesis in barley endosperm, we analyzed HvPho1 protein production and enzyme activity levels throughout barley endosperm development and characterized structure-function relationships of HvPho1. The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of starch granule biosynthesis......,4-glucans using HvPho1 from G1P as the sole substrate. The structural properties of HvPho1 provide insights into the low affinity of HvPho1 for large polysaccharides like starch or amylopectin. Our results suggest that HvPho1 may play a role during the initiation of starch biosynthesis in barley.......The production of starch is essential for human nutrition and represents a major metabolic flux in the biosphere. The biosynthesis of starch in storage organs like barley endosperm operates via two main pathways using different substrates: starch synthases use ADP-glucose to produce amylose...

  3. Microfluidic monitoring of programmed cell death in living plant seed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Zor, Kinga

    , et al., (2006), BioEssays, 28, p. 1091). Microfluidic cell culture enables in vitro experiments to approach in vivo conditions. Combining microfluidics with the Lab-On-a-Chip concept allows implementing a wide range of assays for real-time monitoring of effects in a biological system of factors...... such as concentration of selected compounds, external pH, oxygen consumption, redox state and cell viability. The aleurone layer of the barley seed is a 2-3 single cell type thick tissue that can be dissected from the embryo and starchy endosperm. During incubation in vitro this mechanically very robust maintains...

  4. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  5. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Hove, Runyararo M.; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive se...

  6. Expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Bingham, Gail; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir

    Plants are exposed to the extreme environment in space, especially space radiation is suspected to induce oxidative stress by generating high-energy free radicals and microgravity would enhance the effect of space radiation, however, current understandings of plant growth and responses on this synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity is limited to a few experiments. In this study, expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment was analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA microarray experiments to understand plant responses and adaptation to space environment and to develop the space stress-tolerant plants. The seeds of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Haruna nijo, kept in the international space station (ISS) over 4 months, were germinated after 3 days of irrigation in LADA plant growth chamber onboard Russian segment of ISS and the final germination ratio was over 90 %. The height of plants was about 50 to 60 cm and flag leaf has been opened after 26 days of irrigation under 24 hr lighting, showing the similar growth to ground-grown barley. Expression levels of stress/defense-related genes in space-grown barley were compared to those in ground-grown barley by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In 17 stress/defense-related genes that are up-regulated by oxidative stress or other abiotic stress, only catalase, pathogenesis-related protein 13, chalcone synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes were increased in space-grown barley. DNA microarrya analysis with the GeneChip Barley Genome Array showed the similar expression profiles of the stress/defense-related genes to those by RT-PCR experiment, suggesting that the barley germinated and grown in LADA onboard ISS is not damaged by space environment, especially oxidative stress induced by space radiation and microgravity.

  7. Mechanistic and genetic overlap of barley host and non-host resistance to Blumeria graminis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Marco; Troeger, Marcus; Niks, Rients E; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2004-09-01

    SUMMARY Non-host resistance of barley to Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt), an inappropriate forma specialis of the grass powdery mildew fungus, is associated with formation of cell wall appositions (papillae) at sites of attempted fungal penetration and a hypersensitive cell death reaction (HR) of single attacked cells. Penetration resistance and HR are also typical features of race-non-specific and race-specific resistance of barley to the appropriate Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh), raising the question of whether genotypic differences in the cellular response of barley to Bgt are detectable. First, we analysed fungal penetration frequencies and HR in different barley accessions known to show altered non-host resistance. In genotypes with limited resistance to inappropriate cereal rust fungi, we concomitantly detected low penetration resistance to Bgt and significant differences of HR rates during attack from Bgt. Second, we tested barley mutants known to show altered host responses to Bgh. The rar1-mutation that suppresses many types of race-cultivar-specific resistances did not influence the non-host response of the Bgt-isolate used in this study. However, mutants of Ror1 and Ror2, two genes required for full race non-specific penetration resistance of mlo-barley to barley powdery mildew fungus, exhibited altered defence response to Bgt, including higher frequencies of fungal penetration. On these mutants, growth of the inappropriate fungus was arrested subsequent to penetration by HR. Together, the data show that barley defence response to the wheat powdery mildew fungus is determined by similar factors as race-specific and race-non-specific resistance to appropriate Bgh.

  8. CDNA cloning, characterization and expression of an endosperm-specific barley peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Welinder, K.G.; Hejgaard, J.

    1991-01-01

    A barley peroxidase (BP 1) of pI ca. 8.5 and M(r) 37000 has been purified from mature barley grains. Using antibodies towards peroxidase BP 1, a cDNA clone (pcR7) was isolated from cDNA expression library. The nucleotide sequence of pcR7 gave a derived amino acid sequence identical to the 158 C...

  9. LINE'S OF MANUFACTURE OF KISSELS ON THE BASIS OF BUCKWHEAT AND BARLEY STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ermolaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to development of a production line of kissels on the basis of grechishny and barley крахмалов, allowing to use their structural and mechanical and chemical properties, investigating rheological characteristics of solutions buckwheat and barley крахмалов, to receive the dry granulated drinks on the basis of vegetative raw materials which will partially solve problems of equation of a food.

  10. Localization to Chromosomes of Structural Genes for the Major Protease Inhibitors of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Bjørn, S.E.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Wheat-barley chromosome addition lines were compared by isoelectric focusing of protein extracts to identify chromosomes carrying loci for the major immunochemically distinct protease inhibitors of barley grains. Structural genes for the following inhibitors were localized: an inhibitor of both...... endogenous α-amylase 2 and subtilisin (ASI) on chromosome 2, two chymotrypsin/subtilisin inhibitors (CI-1 and CI-2) on chromosome 5 (long arm) and the major trypsin inhibitor (TI-1) on chromosome 3....

  11. Preventive and Therapeutic Role of Functional Ingredients of Barley Grass for Chronic Diseases in Human Beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grass powder is the best functional food that provides nutrition and eliminates toxins from cells in human beings; however, its functional ingredients have played an important role as health benefit. In order to better cognize the preventive and therapeutic role of barley grass for chronic diseases, we carried out the systematic strategies for functional ingredients of barley grass, based on the comprehensive databases, especially the PubMed, Baidu, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI, between 2008 and 2017. Barley grass is rich in functional ingredients, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, flavonoids, saponarin, lutonarin, superoxide dismutase (SOD, K, Ca, Se, tryptophan, chlorophyll, vitamins (A, B1, C, and E, dietary fiber, polysaccharide, alkaloid, metallothioneins, and polyphenols. Barley grass promotes sleep; has antidiabetic effect; regulates blood pressure; enhances immunity; protects liver; has anti-acne/detoxifying and antidepressant effects; improves gastrointestinal function; has anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antigout effects; reduces hyperuricemia; prevents hypoxia, cardiovascular diseases, fatigue, and constipation; alleviates atopic dermatitis; is a calcium supplement; improves cognition; and so on. These results support that barley grass may be one of the best functional foods for preventive chronic diseases and the best raw material of modern diet structure in promoting the development of large health industry and further reveal that GABA, flavonoids, SOD, K-Ca, vitamins, and tryptophan mechanism of barley grass have preventive and therapeutic role for chronic diseases. This paper can be used as a scientific evidence for developing functional foods and novel drugs for barley grass for preventive chronic diseases.

  12. Epigenetic chromatin modifications in barley after mutagenic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka; Tylikowska, Marta; Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Szymanowska-Pulka, Joanna

    2014-11-01

    In addition to their normal developmental processes, plants have evolved complex genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms to cope with various environmental stresses. It has been shown that both DNA methylation and histone modifications are involved in DNA damage response to various types of stresses. In this study, we focused on the involvement of two mutagenic agents, chemical (maleic acid hydrazide; MH) and physical (gamma rays), on the global epigenetic modifications of chromatin in barley. Our results indicate that both mutagens strongly influence the level of histone methylation and acetylation. Moreover, we found that gamma irradiation, in contrast to MH, has a more robust influence on the DNA methylation level. This is the first study that brings together mutagenic treatment along with its impact at the level of epigenetic modifications examined using the immunohistochemical method.

  13. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS...... define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis...... and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has...

  14. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  15. Approaches to improving the nutritional quality of barley seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewry, P.R.; Bright, S.W.J.; Burgess, S.R.; Miflin, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The poor nutritional quality of barley grain is determined by the low level of lysine in the prolamin storage proteins (hordein). These account for between 35 to 50% of the total grain nitrogen, depending on the nutritional status of the plant. There is a reduced proportion of hordein in mutant high lysine lines but these also have reduced synthesis of storage carbohydrates and hence low yields. Three strategies for improvement are discussed. Increases in the lysine content of hordein may be difficult to achieve because of the presence of complex families of structural genes. It would also be necessary to insert a large number of additional lysine residues. Two more promising approaches are to increase the level of expression of genes coding for lysine-rich globulin storage proteins and to increase the pool of free lysine by selecting mutant lines with relaxed feedback regulation of lysine synthesis. (author)

  16. Micro-PIXE evaluation of Fe distribution in barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Povh, B.; Strasser, O.; Gierth, M.; Przybylowicz, W.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Churms, C.; Schuessler, A.

    1999-01-01

    High Fe concentrations were reported from roots of plants grown in soil. This has been discussed as a possible Fe source for plants, since the concentrations shown in the roots were much higher than in the shoots. There are, however, also some indications that soil contamination at the root surface of soil grown plants could have led to an overestimation of the Fe concentration in roots. Fe distribution in root cross sections of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Alexis) has been studied to investigate this hypothesis. Micro-PIXE analyses in point and mapping mode were complemented by the STIM technique. Based on the correlation between Fe and soil-related elements (Ti, Al and Si), most of Fe located at the root surface could be attributed to soil contamination. It could also be shown that this soil contamination leads to an overestimation of Fe concentration in roots. (author)

  17. Efflux of inorganic substances from young barley roots, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Kojima, Shigeru

    1977-01-01

    The root system of young barley was almost halved, and the two portions were planted in culture grounds with different composition after severing the capillary connection between both root groups. With one portion in the acid medium solution of various compositions and the other in the 22 Na-absorbing medium solution, the sodium absorbed from one root group moved to and flowed out from the other root group, and this state was observed. Also, the efflux of potassium from the root was observed. (1) The Na efflux was small in the culture ground with dilute hydrochloric acid, and larger in that with AlCl 3 or phosphate. (2) The K efflux was large under short-day condition. (3) Under short-day condition, in the culture ground with soluble Al, the K efflux was promoted by nitrogen-source addition, but the Na efflux was suppressed. (Mori, K.)

  18. Cyclitols in maturing grains of wheat, triticale and barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the feeding of stem-flag leaf-ear explants of wheat, triticale and barley with d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol was used for modification of the composition of soluble carbohydrates in grains without genetic transformation of plants. Maturing grains indicated ability to uptake exogenously applied cyclitols, not occurring naturally in cereal plants, and synthesized their a-d-galactosides. The pattern of changes in soluble carbohydrates during grain maturation and germination was not disturbed by the uptake and accumulation of cyclitols. Both, d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol as well as their a-d-galactosides can be an additional pool of soluble carbohydrates accumulated by maturing grains, without decreasing seeds viability. This is the first report indicating the possibility of introduction of cyclitols with potentially human health benefits properties into cereal grains.

  19. Evolution and Intensity of Hail in Wheat and Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaldo de Quirós, I.; Saa Requejo, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Burgaz, F.

    2009-04-01

    The cereals have represented a very important place in the agriculture along the history. The current expansion and growth of the energetic markets are changing the role of the agriculture. The cereals, with other crops, are becoming more significant as suppliers of raw material for the production of biofuels. The purpose of the present project is to carry out a study about the hail in cereals. The survey is focus in wheat and barley as they both represent the highest cereal production of Spain. Four provinces have been chosen (those with the values of production are higher): Burgos and Zaragoza for the wheat and Cuenca and Valladolid for the barley. The materials and methods that we had available for the study of the evolution and intensity of the damages for hail include an analysis of the correlation between the ratios of agricultural insurances provided by ENESA and the number of days of annual hail (from 1981 to 2007). At the same time, one weather station per province was selected by the longest more complete data recorded (from 1963 to 2007) to perform an analysis of monthly time series of the number of hail days (HD). The results of the study show us that there is no relation between the ratio of the agricultural insurances and the number of hail days. This can be due to the large area of which the ratio refers to and the low density of meteorological stations to cover the hail that is registered in every of the four provinces. On the other hand, it is observed that monthly HD time series don't show a change in pattern except in one of the stations studied. Therefore with the information available we cannot state that there are clear changes in the evolution of the hail registered for each province.

  20. Early maturing mutations as germplasm stocks for barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Yasuo

    1985-01-01

    A total of 102 early maturing mutations have been isolated after various treatments of seeds or plants with ionizing radiations or chemicals from a barley cultivar 'Chikurin Ibaraki 1' or its mutants. Fifty of them were evaluated as regards responses to internal physiological factors. The mutants were found to have a mutational alteration in vernalization and/or photoperiodic response. Earliness in a narrow sense was not noticeably changed. The original genotype is a winter and long-day type. By mutation four different degrees of change in vernalization requirement i.e. complete (V 1 ) and incomplete (V 2 ) spring habit and winter habit with reduced requirement to varying degrees (V 3 , V 4 ) have been produced. Photoperiodic response was also changed into at least three types i.e. complete (P 1 ) and incomplete (P 2 ) loss of sensitivity to short photoperiod and a slight reduction in critical daylength for heading. P 1 and P 2 type mutants were all characterized by marked earliness in heading time in field. Thirty seven mutants were located in seven separate loci. Allelism test of the mutated genes to spontaneous ones revealed that the genes carried by P 1 type mutants were all allelic to an earliness gene ea sub(k) on chromosome 5 and the gene involved in P 2 type mutants to ea 7 on chromosome 6. On the contrary, the gene commonly involved in all V 1 type mutants and one V 2 type mutant was not allelic to spring habit gene Sh 2 or Sh 3 . It seemed likely that the gene was not allelic to, either, but closely linked with sh on chromosome 4. The diversity in terms of genetic and physiological properties of the early maturing mutants arising from common ancestry emphasizes the importance of induced mutation in broadening of germplasm of barley breeding. (author)

  1. Meat bone meal as fertiliser for barley and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. CHEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional production of mineral N and P fertilisers is unsustainable due its reliance on fossil fuels in the case of N, and on limited mineral resource stocks in the case of P. The use of alternative or complementary fertilisers that originate from organic waste materials is gaining interest. Organic farms, especially arable organic farms without livestock, need usable sources of plant nutrients. Meat bone meal (MBM, a potential organic fertiliser for agricultural crops, contains considerable amounts of nutrients (on average 8% N, 5% P, 1% K and 10% Ca. In EU countries, Commission regulation (EC No 181/2006 authorised the use of MBM as an organic fertiliser. In this study, MBM was compared to conventional mineral NPK fertiliser. Two randomised complete block split-plot field experiments were conducted: one with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare in two years; and another with oat (Avena sativa for three years, including a fourth year of testing for residual effect. Compared to mineral fertiliser (20% N, 3% P and 9% K, MBM was applied at three N levels: 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1. The grain yield of both cereal species supported by MBM, did not differ from the yield obtained with the mineral fertiliser at any N level. At 120 kg N ha-1, the grain yield level with either type was ca. 4500 kg ha-1 of barley and 5000 kg ha-1 of oat, representing fair averages for Finnish conditions. Moreover, MBM and mineral fertilisation showed no differences in quality in terms of 1000-grain weight, test-weight, protein content and protein yield. Since MBM has a low N/P ratio, P was applied in surplus to attain comparable N levels. Therefore MBM fertilisation should be fitted for crop rotation and for meeting environmental requirements.;

  2. Combinatorial pooling enables selective sequencing of the barley gene space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lonardi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For the vast majority of species - including many economically or ecologically important organisms, progress in biological research is hampered due to the lack of a reference genome sequence. Despite recent advances in sequencing technologies, several factors still limit the availability of such a critical resource. At the same time, many research groups and international consortia have already produced BAC libraries and physical maps and now are in a position to proceed with the development of whole-genome sequences organized around a physical map anchored to a genetic map. We propose a BAC-by-BAC sequencing protocol that combines combinatorial pooling design and second-generation sequencing technology to efficiently approach denovo selective genome sequencing. We show that combinatorial pooling is a cost-effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when preparing sequencing libraries for hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as in this case gene-bearing minimum-tiling-path BAC clones. The novelty of the protocol hinges on the computational ability to efficiently compare hundred millions of short reads and assign them to the correct BAC clones (deconvolution so that the assembly can be carried out clone-by-clone. Experimental results on simulated data for the rice genome show that the deconvolution is very accurate, and the resulting BAC assemblies have high quality. Results on real data for a gene-rich subset of the barley genome confirm that the deconvolution is accurate and the BAC assemblies have good quality. While our method cannot provide the level of completeness that one would achieve with a comprehensive whole-genome sequencing project, we show that it is quite successful in reconstructing the gene sequences within BACs. In the case of plants such as barley, this level of sequence knowledge is sufficient to support critical end-point objectives such as map-based cloning and marker-assisted breeding.

  3. Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diverse barley cultivars fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongliang; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Shi, Meng; Piao, Xiangshu

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical composition, ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of barley varieties and to develop equations to predict the AA digestibility based on the chemical characteristics of individual barley. A wide selection of nine barley varieties in the main growing regions of China was used in the experiment. Ten crossbred pigs (30.9 ± 1.8 kg) were allotted to a 6 × 10 Youden Square. The treatments included a nitrogen-free diet and nine barley test diets. Considerable variation was observed in the content of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude protein (CP) and all AAs among the barley samples. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of indispensable AAs with the exception of arginine, phenylalanine and threonine were different (P digestibility of CP and AAs among barley varieties. It is difficult to predict the SID of most of the amino acids in barely based upon chemical characteristics. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Effect of barley flour on the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Diana June; Adhikari, Koushik; Lewis, Douglas S

    2011-10-01

    The present study explored the possibility of using barley flour as an ingredient to incorporate soluble fibre (β-glucan) in chocolate-chip cookies. Some clinical studies have shown that β-glucan might reduce the serum cholesterol levels. The objective of this study was to determine the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies partly substituted with barley flour at different levels. Physical characteristics (water activity and L*a*b* colour) and sensory characteristics (descriptive and consumer analysis) were evaluated on the experimental cookies substituted with 0, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70% barley flour for all-purpose flour. There were increases in the baked-barley aroma and flavour, thickness, colour intensity, dryness and graininess with increasing barley flour content. Consumer data showed that cookies made with 30% (0.5 g β-glucan/serving) and 50% (0.8 g β-glucan/serving) barley flour substitution were comparable in liking to the control (0% substitution) cookie and a commercial cookie. The presence of β-glucan in our chocolate-chip cookies might make them a healthier option for many consumers.

  5. Divergence of barley and oat varieties according to their content of β-glucan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Stefan M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley and oat have been promoted for years as good sources of dietary fiber, especially β-glucan. Studies have shown a positive effect of barley and oat β-glucan on human health and as a result, there has been an increasing demand for β-glucans in the past decade. Thus, the variability of the β-glucan content was investigated in the grain of 10 barley and 10 oat varieties. The β-glucan contents were determined by the ICC Standard Method No 168. The content of β-glucan in the analyzed barley varieties were within the range 3.52–7.81% and in analyzed oat varieties, the content of β-glucan were within the range of 3.15–7.28%. Among analyzed barley varieties, Novosadski 314 contained the highest content of β-glucan (7.81%, while Tomba had the highest content of β-glucan (7.28% in the analyzed oat varieties. Based on the results, it could be concluded that there is genetic diversity of oat and barley varieties with respect to their β-glucan content. This fact enables varieties with a high a nutritional capacity to be selected.

  6. Diversity for seedling vigor in wild barley (hordeum vulgare L. subs. simpatina) germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, K.; Park, M.R.; Lee, H.J.; Lee, C.A.; Rehman, S.; Steffenson, B.; Lee, K.J.; Yun, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Seedling vigor is important for improving stand establishment of barley crops, particularly in arid regions and areas where the soil temperature is low at sowing time. Three hundred and fifteen wild barley accessions from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) were evaluated for nine seedling vigor traits in a poly house and growth chamber under hydroponic conditions. The accessions exhibited significant differences for all traits investigated. Traits showing greatest phenotypic variation were seedling visual score, plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and shoot length. Seed weight exhibited the least variation. Seed weight was significantly correlated with visual seedling score and shoot and seedling fresh and dry weight. Correlation analysis showed that the visual seedling score was a reliable method for estimating seedling vigor in wild barley. The first three principal components (PC) explained 82.3% of the variation present in the WBDC with PC1(54.0%) associated with shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling fresh weight, shoot length and seedling length. Accessions from the southwest portion of the Fertile Crescent, like WBDC020 (Turkey), WBDC238 (Jordan) and WBDC244 (Jordan) exhibited the highest positive values for most of the plant vigor traits investigated. These wild barley accessions likely carry alleles that will be useful for the improvement of plant vigor traits in cultivated barley. (author)

  7. Heterogeneity of Powdery Mildew Resistance Revealed in Accessions of the ICARDA Wild Barley Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiseitl, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    The primary genepool of barley comprises two subspecies – wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) and cultivated barley H. vulgare. subsp. vulgare. The former originated 5.5 million years ago in southwest Asia and is the immediate ancestor of cultivated barley, which arose around 10,000 years ago. In this study, the specific resistance of a set of 146 wild barley accessions, maintained by the International Center for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), to 32 isolates of barley powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei was evaluated. The set comprised 146 heterogeneous accessions of a previously tested collection. Seed was obtained by single seed descent and each accession was usually represented by five single plant progenies. In total, 687 plant progenies were tested. There were 211 phenotypes of resistance among the accessions, 87 of which were found in single plants, while 202 plants contained the eight most common phenotypes. The most frequent phenotype was found in 56 plants that were susceptible to all pathogen isolates, whereas the second most frequent phenotype, which occurred in 46 plants, was resistant to all isolates. The broad resistance diversity that was revealed is of practical importance and is an aid to determining the extent and role of resistance in natural ecosystems. PMID:28261253

  8. Survey of Barley and Wheat Diseases in the Central Highlands of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Yahyaoui

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Annual surveys of barley and wheat diseases were conducted in Eritrea from 2000 to 2002. The surveys covered six zones of the central highlands where barley and wheat are grown. The main diseases of barley were netform net blotch, spot-form net blotch, leaf rust and scald. Other, less important diseases were loose smut, covered smut, barley stripe and septoria leaf blotch. Wheat was mainly affected by yellow rust and leaf rust. Loose smut, septoria leaf spot and tan spot diseases were less prevalent. The average incidence of these diseases varied according to the zone. Among barley diseases, net blotch incidence was high in four of the six zones surveyed. Leaf rust occurred at medium incidence in five zones. Loose smut was more severe in the southern highland plains, while covered smut was more common in the south-eastern highland terraces. For wheat, yellow rust incidence was high in two zones. Areas with a high incidence of yellow rust were not necessarily those with a high incidence of leaf rust. Leaf rust was important in the south-eastern and western highland terraces and in the western highland plains. The number of diseases found in the same field varied from 2 to 5. The south eastern highland terraces, the western highland terraces and the northern highland terraces had the highest proportions of individual barley fields with three or more diseases.

  9. Allelopathic effect of ryegrass (lolium persicum) and wild mustard (sinapis arvensis) on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baziar, M.R.; Farahvash, F.; Mirshekari, B.; Rashidi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Most crop plants and weeds have allelopathic effects and analysis of these effects on plants in crop alteration and successive planting is very important. In this research the allelopathic ability of different parts and concentrations of two weeds, Lolium Persicum (Ryegrass) and Sinapis arvensis (wild mustered), on growth characteristics of two barley varieties was studied in the greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. Test factors consisted of two barley varieties (Valfajr and Rehane), three weed organs (root, stalk, leaf) and four concentrations of extracts of weed organs (25, 50, 75 and control or distilled water). After the preparation of extracts of different weed organs with different concentrations, their effect on growth characteristics of barley plant was evaluated. Finally, seedling length, rootlet length caulicle length, wet weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling were measured. Also, the above two seeds had significant effects on the two strains of barley and could influence growth characteristics of barley. Based on the results of present study, one can argue that Ryegrass (Lolium Persicum) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) can strongly affect germination, growth and performance of barley through production of chemical materials with allelopathic properties, leading unfavorable growth and product yield. (author)

  10. Barley ROP Binding Kinase1 Is Involved in Microtubule Organization and in Basal Penetration Resistance to the Barley Powdery Mildew Fungus1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, Christina; Reiner, Tina; Hoefle, Caroline; Preuss, Jutta; Jurca, Manuela E.; Domoki, Mónika; Fehér, Attila; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Certain plant receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases were reported to interact with small monomeric G-proteins of the RHO of plant (ROP; also called RAC) family in planta and to be activated by this interaction in vitro. We identified a barley (Hordeum vulgare) partial cDNA of a ROP binding protein kinase (HvRBK1) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid screenings with barley HvROP bait proteins. Protein interaction of the constitutively activated (CA) barley HvROPs CA HvRACB and CA HvRAC1 with full-length HvRBK1 was verified in yeast and in planta. Green fluorescent protein-tagged HvRBK1 appears in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm, but CA HvRACB or CA HvRAC1 can recruit green fluorescent protein-HvRBK1 to the cell periphery. Barley HvRBK1 is an active kinase in vitro, and activity is enhanced by CA HvRACB or GTP-loaded HvRAC1. Hence, HvRBK1 might act downstream of active HvROPs. Transient-induced gene silencing of barley HvRBK1 supported penetration by the parasitic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, suggesting a function of the protein in basal disease resistance. Transient knockdown of HvRBK1 also influenced the stability of cortical microtubules in barley epidermal cells. Hence, HvRBK1 might function in basal resistance to powdery mildew by influencing microtubule organization. PMID:22415513

  11. Classification of Fusarium-Infected Korean Hulled Barley Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jongguk Lim; Giyoung Kim; Changyeun Mo; Kyoungmin Oh; Hyeonchae Yoo; Hyeonheui Ham; Moon S. Kim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy equipment to nondestructively and rapidly discriminate Fusarium-infected hulled barley. Both normal hulled barley and Fusarium-infected hulled barley were scanned by using a NIR spectrometer with a wavelength range of 1175 to 2170 nm. Multiple mathematical pretreatments were applied to the reflectance spectra obtained for Fusarium discrimination and the multivariate analysis method of partial least squares discri...

  12. Advances in the use of mutation induction for genetic improvement of barley and native grains in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Loli, M.; Luz Gomez, P.; Jorge Jimenez, D.; Agripina Roldan, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    Barley seeds of two varieties were treated with several doses of gamma rays and sodium azide. Seeds of a quinoa (Chenopodium) variety were treated with three doses of gamma rays. Yield trials were conducted also for doubled haploid lines of barley derived from earlier mutagenic treatments. Some promising new barley mutant lines were identified in the yield trials. The results from the Chenopodium trials facilitate the determination of the optimum dose of gamma rays for the PRQ-22 variety. (author)

  13. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-AtPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finni, Christine; Andersen, Claus H; Borch, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    , or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H......14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved proteins with central roles in many eukaryotic signalling networks. In plants, they bind to and activate the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, creating a binding site for the phytotoxin fusicoccin. Barley 14-3-3 transcripts accumulate in the epidermis upon...

  14. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability.

  15. Comparisons of modern United States and Canadian malting barley cultivars with those from pre-prohibition: III. Wort sugar production during mashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to compare wort sugar production during mashing of barley malts of pre-Prohibition varieties and modern elite cultivars. Four of the five modern cultivars utilized were significantly higher (PProhibition barley varieties at al...

  16. Effects of Added Enzymes on Sorted, Unsorted and Sorted-Out Barley: A Model Study on Realtime Viscosity and Process Potentials Using Rapid Visco Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Olsen, Rasmus Lyngsø

    2017-01-01

    Barley sorting is an important step for selecting grain of required quality for malting prior to brewing. However, brewing with unmalted barley with added enzymes has been thoroughly proven, raising the question of whether traditional sorting for high quality malting-barley is still necessary....... To gain more insight on this, we examine realtime viscosity of sorted-out and unsorted barley during downscaled mashing with added enzymes in comparison with malting quality sorted barley. A rapid visco analyser was used to simulate brewery mashing process at lab scale together with two commercial enzymes...... (Ondea®-Pro and Cellic®-CTec2). During downscaled mashing, viscosity profile of sorted-out barley was markedly different from others, irrespective of enzyme type, whereas a small difference was observed between the sorted and un-sorted barley. Furthermore, whilst sorted-out barley generated lowest sugar...

  17. A Genome Wide Association Study of arabinoxylan content in 2-row spring barley grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saleh Hassan

    Full Text Available In barley endosperm arabinoxylan (AX is the second most abundant cell wall polysaccharide and in wheat it is the most abundant polysaccharide in the starchy endosperm walls of the grain. AX is one of the main contributors to grain dietary fibre content providing several health benefits including cholesterol and glucose lowering effects, and antioxidant activities. Due to its complex structural features, AX might also affect the downstream applications of barley grain in malting and brewing. Using a high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC method we quantified AX amounts in mature grain in 128 spring 2-row barley accessions. Amounts ranged from ~ 5.2 μg/g to ~ 9 μg/g. We used this data for a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS that revealed three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with grain AX levels which passed a false discovery threshold (FDR and are located on two of the seven barley chromosomes. Regions underlying the QTLs were scanned for genes likely to be involved in AX biosynthesis or turnover, and strong candidates, including glycosyltransferases from the GT43 and GT61 families and glycoside hydrolases from the GH10 family, were identified. Phylogenetic trees of selected gene families were built based on protein translations and were used to examine the relationship of the barley candidate genes to those in other species. Our data reaffirms the roles of existing genes thought to contribute to AX content, and identifies novel QTL (and candidate genes associated with them potentially influencing the AX content of barley grain. One potential outcome of this work is the deployment of highly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms markers in breeding programs to guide the modification of AX abundance in barley grain.

  18. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Aquaporin Gene Family.

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    Runyararo M Hove

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare. The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

  19. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Runyararo M; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  20. Barley Leaf Area and Leaf Growth Rates Are Maximized during the Pre-Anthesis Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Alqudah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf developmental traits are an important component of crop breeding in small-grain cereals. Surprisingly, little is known about the genetic basis for the differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. leaf development. The two barley row-type classes, i.e., two- and six-rowed, show clear-cut differences in leaf development. To quantify these differences and to measure the genetic component of the phenotypic variance for the leaf developmental differences in both row-type classes we investigated 32 representative spring barley accessions (14 two- and 18 six-rowed accessions under three independent growth conditions. Leaf mass area is lower in plants grown under greenhouse (GH conditions due to fewer, smaller, and lighter leaf blades per main culm compared to pot- and soil-grown field plants. Larger and heavier leaf blades of six-rowed barley correlate with higher main culm spike grain yield, spike dry weight, and harvest index; however, smaller leaf area (LA in two-rowed barley can be attributed to more spikes, tillers, and biological yield (aboveground parts. In general, leaf growth rate was significantly higher between awn primordium and tipping stages. Moderate to very high broad-sense heritabilities (0.67–0.90 were found under all growth conditions, indicating that these traits are predominantly genetically controlled. In addition, our data suggests that GH conditions are suitable for studying leaf developmental traits. Our results also demonstrated that LA impacts single plant yield and can be reconsidered in future breeding programs. Six-rowed spike 1 (Vrs1 is the major determinate of barley row-types, the differences in leaf development between two- and six-rowed barleys may be attributed to the regulation of Vrs1 in these two classes, which needs further testing.

  1. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-12-01

    In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and wheat straw of three different pretreatment procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose concentrations obtained after enzymatic hydrolyses were related to the potential glucose present in the pretreated residues, the highest yield, approximately 48% (g g-1), was obtained with hot water extraction pretreatment of barley straw; this pretreatment also produced highest yields for wheat straw, producing a glucose yield of approximately 39% (g g-1). Addition of extra enzyme (Celluclast 1.5 L+Novozyme 188) during enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the highest total glucose concentrations from barley straw, 32-39 g L-1, but the relative increases in glucose yields were higher on wheat straw than on barley straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid-impregnated samples.

  2. Effect of Enzyme Supplementation and Irradiation of Barley on Broiler Chicks Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, D.H.M.; Abd El-Hakeim, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to study the influence of irradiation treatment at dose levels of 0.20 and 60 kGy on barley beta-glucan and the effect of enzyme supplementation and irradiation of barley on broiler chicks performance. The amount of total and water-soluble beta-glucan in raw barley was 36 kg -1 , respectively. The effect of irradiation treatment on total beta-glucan was insignificant while the level of soluble beta-glucan was increased with increasing the dose levels of irradiation. The effect of irradiation treatment and enzyme supplementation of barley diets on growth and conversion performance of broiler chicks indicated that birds fed raw barley diet had lower body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion than those fed control diet throughout the experimental period. Irradiation of barley at dose of 20 kGy did not affect the chick performance (feed consumption, weight gain feed-gain ratio) that received the B 20 diet from 7 to 21 days of age, but when bird maintained on B 20 diet from 7 28 days of age, only feed-gain ratio was improved by 14.4%. The results indicate that there was a significant effect of irradiation of barley at 60 kGy (B 60) on feed -gain ratio of chicks when were fed B 60 diet from 7 to 21 days of age. The corresponding improvement in feed-gain ratio was 16.4%. When birds were fed B 60 diet from 7-28 days of age, the improvement in body weight and feed-gain ratio was 25.5 and 19.6%, respectively

  3. Mapping genes in barley for resistance to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and to P. striiformis from brome, wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Alemu, Sisay K.; Marcel, T.C.; Heyzen, van Skye

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mapping populations have been developed that are useful to study the inheritance of quantitative resistance to adapted and unadapted rust fungi. In a recent host range study, we found that the parents of those mapping populations also differed in their resistance to

  4. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-ATPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, C.; Andersen, C.H.; Borch, J.

    2002-01-01

    , or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H...

  5. Barley yellow mosaic virus VPg is the determinant protein for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance in barley plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huangai Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV, genus Bymovirus factor(s responsible for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance genes (rym4/5/6 in barley. Genome mapping analysis using chimeric infectious cDNA clones between rym5-breaking (JT10 and rym5-non-breaking (JK05 isolates indicated that genome-linked viral protein (VPg is the determinant protein for breaking the rym5 resistance. Likewise, VPg is also responsible for overcoming the resistances of rym4 and rym6 alleles. Mutational analysis identified that amino acids Ser-118, Thr-120 and His-142 in JT10 VPg are the most critical residues for overcoming rym5 resistance in protoplasts. Moreover, the rym5-non-breaking JK05 could accumulate in the rym5 protoplasts when eIF4E derived from a susceptible barley cultivar was expressed from the viral genome. Thus, the compatibility between VPg and host eIF4E determines the ability of BaYMV to infect barley plants.

  6. Observed and predicted changes over eight years in frequency of barley powdery mildew avirulent to spring barley in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousset, L.; Hovmøller, M.S.; Caffier, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aerial populations of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei were studied in two French and two Danish regions from 1991 to 1999, at a time of year when only winter barley was present. A high frequency of genotypes not able to grow on the spring-sown crop of the previous growing season (denoted 'spring-a...

  7. Effect of feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, V; Burns, J C; Marshall, D S

    2008-05-01

    Increased demands for corn grain warrant the evaluation of alternative grain types for ruminant production systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hulled and hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars compared with corn (Zea mays L.) as an alternative grain type on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between 2 feedings) consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay pellets (40% of dry matter) and 1) ground corn, 2) hulled barley, or 3) hull-less barley concentrate (60% of dry matter) in each fermentor. Following an adaptation period of 5 d, culture samples were taken at 2 h after the morning feeding on d 6, 7, and 8 of each period for analysis. A second run of the fermentors followed the same treatment sequence to provide replication. Culture pH was reduced with corn (5.55) and did not differ between barley cultivars (average pH 5.89). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and acetate to propionate ratio were not different across grain type or barley cultivar with the exception of greater total volatile fatty acid concentrations with hull-less barley. Corn produced less methane (14.6 mmol/d) and ammonia-N (7.3 mg/100 mL) compared with barley (33.1 mmol/d and 22 mg/100 mL, respectively); methane was greater with hull-less barley but ammonia-N concentration was similar between the 2 barley cultivars. Hull-less barley had greater digestibility compared with hulled barley, and corn had reduced digestibility compared with barley. Concentrations of C18:0 were greater and those of C18:1 and C18:2 lesser in cultures fed hulled and hull-less barley compared with corn. Our data indicate that grain type and barley cultivar have an impact on ruminal fermentation. The lesser starch concentration of barley minimized the drop in culture pH and improved digestibility.

  8. Comparative energy content and amino acid digestibility of barley obtained from diverse sources fed to growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liang Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Two experiments were conducted to determine the content of digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME as well as the apparent ileal digestibility (AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID of crude protein (CP and amino acids (AA in barley grains obtained from Australia, France or Canada. Methods In Exp. 1, 18 growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 31.5±3.2 kg were individually placed in stainless-steel metabolism crates (1.4×0.7×0.6 m and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 test diets. In Exp. 2, eight crossbred pigs (30.9±1.8 kg were allotted to a replicate 3×4 Youden Square designed experiment with three periods and four diets. Two pigs received each diet during each test period. The diets included one nitrogen-free diet and three test diets. Results The relative amounts of gross energy (GE, CP, and all AA in the Canadian barley were higher than those in Australian and French barley while higher concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and β-glucan as well as lower concentrations of GE and ether extract were observed in the French barley compared with the other two barley sources. The DE and ME as well as the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine in Canadian barley were higher (p<0.05 than those in French barley but did not differ from Australian barley. Conclusion Differences in the chemical composition, energy content and the SID and AID of AA were observed among barley sources obtained from three countries. The feeding value of barley from Canada and Australia was superior to barley obtained from France which is important information in developing feeding systems for growing pigs where imported grains are used.

  9. Fermentation of barley by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: examination of barley as a feedstock for bioethanol production and value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Curtis, Jonathan M; Bressler, David C

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility.

  10. Genetic Diversity in Barley and Wheat for Tolerance to Soil Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash P. Dang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface soil sodicity as well as subsoil salinity, acidity, and phytotoxic concentrations of chloride (Cl are major soil constraints to crop production in many soils of sub-tropical, north-eastern Australia. The identification of genotypes tolerant to these soil constraints may be an option to maintain and improve productivity on these soils. We evaluated performance of 11 barley and 17 wheat genotypes grown on two sites <0.5 km apart. Compared to the non-sodic site, the sodic site had significantly higher Cl concentration (>800 mg·Cl·kg−1 in the subsoil (0.9–1.3 m soil depth and higher exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP (>6% in the surface and subsoil. Barley grain yield and plant available water capacity (PAWC were reduced between 5%–25% and 40%–66%, respectively, for different genotypes at the sodic site as compared to the non-sodic site. For wheat genotypes, grain yield was between 8% and 33% lower at the sodic site compared to the non-sodic site and PAWC was between 3% and 37% lower. Most barley and wheat genotypes grown at the sodic site showed calcium (Ca deficiency symptoms on younger leaves. Analysis of the youngest fully mature leaf (YML confirmed that genotypes grown at the sodic site with Ca concentration < 0.2% exhibited deficiency symptoms. Grain yields of both barley and wheat genotypes grown on the sodic and non-sodic sites increased significantly with increasing Ca and K in YML and decreased significantly with increasing Na and Cl concentrations in YML. Sodium (Na concentrations in YML of wheat genotypes grown at the sodic site were 10-fold higher than those from the non-sodic site whereas this increase was only two-fold in barley genotypes. In step-wise regression, the PAWC of barley and wheat genotypes grown on sodic and non-sodic sites was the principal determinant of variability of barley and wheat grain yield. Including the Ca concentration in the YML of wheat genotypes and K:Na ratio in the YML of barley

  11. Production of Ethanol From Newly Developed and Improved Winter Barley Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Brooks, Wynse S; Griffey, Carl A; Toht, Matthew J

    2017-05-01

    Winter barley has attracted strong interest as a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production in regions with mild winter climate such as the mid-Atlantic and northeastern USA. Ten recently developed and improved winter barley cultivars and breeding lines including five hulled and five hull-less lines were experimentally evaluated for potential ethanol production. The five hulled barley lines included three released cultivars (Thoroughbred, Atlantic, and Secretariat) and two breeding lines (VA09B-34 and VA11B-4). The five hull-less lines also included three released cultivars (Eve, Dan, and Amaze 10) and two breeding lines (VA08H-65 and VA13H-34). On the average, the hull-less barley cultivars produced more ethanol per unit mass because of their higher starch and β-glucan contents. However, since the hulled barley cultivars had higher agronomic yield, the potential ethanol production per acre of land for the two types were approximately equal. Among the ten cultivars tested, the hull-less cultivar Amaze 10 was the best one for ethanol production. The ethanol yield values obtained for this cultivar were 2.61 gal per bushel and 292 gal per acre.

  12. Effects of heating procedures on deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone levels in naturally contaminated barley and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumbe-Guevara, B E; Imoto, T; Yoshizawa, T

    2003-12-01

    The influence of heating temperature and time on deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEA) contents in naturally co-contaminated barley and wheat was investigated intending to establish the basis for a decontamination model of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals. The standard toxins and whole barley powder samples were heated in a convection oven at 140, 160, 180, 200, or 220 degrees C, and kernel subsamples (200 g each) were roasted in an experimental rotary gas-fired roaster at 150, 180 or 220 degrees C. All treatments resulted in a time-temperature-dependent decomposition of the toxins; the logarithm of the toxin remaining % presented a linear relationship with heating time. The lines equations were used to estimate the half (H) and decimal (D) decomposition times (time required to destroy 50 or 90% of the toxin, respectively). DON and NIV H and D decomposition times were similar and 50% shorter for heated standards than for whole barley powder. ZEA standard values were considerably longer, while whole barley powder values were comparable with those of DON and NIV. At 220 degrees C, D decomposition times of DON, NIV and ZEA heated standards were 11, 10 and 85 min, respectively, while the values obtained in whole barley powder were the same for the three toxins (25 min). The determination of H and D decomposition values constitutes a basis to understand the heating stability nature of each toxin.

  13. Density Stress has Minimal Impacts on the Barley or Maize Seedling Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer St. Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High planting density affects the morphology and productivity of many crop species. Our objectives were to examine the phenotypic and transcriptomic changes that occur during plant density stress in barley ( L. and maize ( L. seedlings. In maize and barley seedlings, density stress impacted several morphological traits. Gene expression profiles were examined in four barley and five maize genotypes grown at low and high plant densities. Only 221 barley and 35 maize genes exhibited differential expression in response to plant density stress. The majority of the gene expression changes were observed in a subset of the genotypes and reflected minor changes in the level of expression, indicating that the plant density stress imposed in this study did not result in major changes in gene expression. Also, little overlap was observed within barley or maize genotypes in gene expression during density stress, indicating that genotypic differences play a major role in the response to density stress. While it is clear that gene expression differences are involved in morphological changes induced by high plant densities, it is likely that many of these gene expression differences are subtle and restricted to particular tissues and developmental time.

  14. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  15. Boron Stress Responsive MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhuner, Esma; Eldem, Vahap; Ipek, Arif; Okay, Sezer; Sakcali, Serdal; Zhang, Baohong; Boke, Hatice; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    Boron stress is an environmental factor affecting plant development and production. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be involved in several plant processes such as growth regulation and stress responses. In this study, miRNAs associated with boron stress were identified and characterized in barley. miRNA profiles were also comparatively analyzed between root and leave samples. A total of 31 known and 3 new miRNAs were identified in barley; 25 of them were found to respond to boron treatment. Several miRNAs were expressed in a tissue specific manner; for example, miR156d, miR171a, miR397, and miR444a were only detected in leaves. Additionally, a total of 934 barley transcripts were found to be specifically targeted and degraded by miRNAs. In silico analysis of miRNA target genes demonstrated that many miRNA targets are conserved transcription factors such as Squamosa promoter-binding protein, Auxin response factor (ARF), and the MYB transcription factor family. A majority of these targets were responsible for plant growth and response to environmental changes. We also propose that some of the miRNAs in barley such as miRNA408 might play critical roles against boron exposure. In conclusion, barley may use several pathways and cellular processes targeted by miRNAs to cope with boron stress. PMID:23555702

  16. Specificity and levels of nonhost resistance to nonadapted Blumeria graminis forms in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghnoum, Reza; Niks, Rients E

    2010-01-01

    The genetic basis of nonhost resistance of barley to nonadapted formae speciales of Blumeria graminis is not known, as there is no barley line that is susceptible to these nonadapted formae speciales, such as the wheat powdery mildew pathogen, Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt). Barley accessions with rudimentary susceptibility to an isolate of the nonadapted Bgt were identified. Those accessions were intercrossed in two cycles and two lines, called SusBgt(SC) and SusBgt(DC), with substantial susceptibility to Bgt at the seedling stage were selected. The quantitative variation among barley accessions and in the progenies after convergent crossing suggests a polygenic basis for this nonhost resistance. Both lines allowed an unusually high level of haustorium formation and colony development by Bgt. The SusBgt lines and their ancestor lines also allowed haustorium formation and conidiation by four out of seven isolates of other nonadapted B. graminis forms. Analysis of the infection process suggested that nonhost resistance factors are specific to the form and developmental stage of B. graminis. Resistances to establishment (first haustorium), colonization (subsequent haustoria) and conidiation are not associated. The lines developed will be of use in elucidating the genetic basis of nonhost resistance to Bgt in barley, and in gene expression and complementation studies on nonhost resistance.

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of barley and malt hemicellulose during brewing and mashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogurtsov, V.E.; Lifshits, D.B.; Kondratenko, N.V.; Babicheva, L.K.; Yarovenko, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    A study was made of the hydrolysis of hemicellulose as beer wort is produced during the mashing of malt and barley. The hydrolysis of hemicellulose was found to be insignificant (5 to 6%) as the barley is mashed (fine and course grain) under the influence of its enzymes. The hydrolysis is more intense (by 30%) when endosperm is mashed. The hydrolysis of hemicellulose does not occur during the mashing of malt. The mashing of barley endosperm with enzymatic preparations containing hemicellulose (cytorosemin P10kh, xylonigrin P10kh, amylorisin P10kh, and amylosubtilin G10kh), increases the hydrolysis of hemicellulose by 10 to 20% depending on the amount of hemicellulose. The utilization of the raw material extract is simultaneously increased significantly. The mashing of barley with the same enzyme preparations increases the degree of hemicellulose hydrolysis by 6 to 18% and the use of the raw extract by 14 to 27% by 3 to 10% for the fine grain, and by 9 to 25% for the course grain. The degree of hemicellulose hydrolysis during the production of barley wort is influenced not only by the composition of the mash (endosperm or whole grain), but also by the degree of grain pulverization. 7 references, 5 tables.

  18. Structural comparison of arabinoxylans from two barley side-stream fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Leena; Tuomainen, Päivi; Virkki, Liisa; Aseyev, Vladimir; Tenkanen, Maija

    2008-07-09

    The structures of barley ( Hordeum vulgare) arabinoxylans isolated from two industrial side fractions, barley husks (BH) and barley fiber (BF), were characterized. Arabinoxylans were extracted with saturated barium hydroxide after enzymatic pretreatment. Barium hydroxide was selective toward arabinoxylans, and only a minor amount of glucose-containing material was coextracted. Acid methanolysis followed by gas chromatography, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and specific enzymatic treatments followed by anion exchange chromatography with pulse amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) revealed that the chemical structure of barley husk arabinoxylan (BHAX) clearly differed from that of barley fiber arabinoxylan (BFAX). BFAX was more branched, containing more beta-D-xylopyranosyl (beta-D-Xylp) residues carrying alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl (alpha-L-Araf) units at both O-2 and O-3 positions. BHAX, on the other hand, contained more 2-O-beta-D-Xyl p-alpha-L-Ara f substituents than BFAX. BHAX and BFAX also differed with respect to the hydrodynamic properties investigated with multidetector size exclusion chromatography. BFAX had a higher weight-average molar mass and larger hydrodynamic volume, the latter indicating less dense conformation than BHAX. Mn, Mw /Mn, Rh, and the Mark-Houwink a value were also determined for both arabinoxylans.

  19. Comparison of mobile and stationary spore-sampling techniques for estimating virulence frequencies in aerial barley powdery mildew populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmøller, M.S.; Munk, L.; Østergård, Hanne

    1995-01-01

    Gene frequencies in samples of aerial populations of barley powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei), which were collected in adjacent barley areas and in successive periods of time, were compared using mobile and stationary sampling techniques. Stationary samples were collected from trap ...

  20. Synthesis of Salt Soluble Proteins in Barley. Pulse-Labeling Study of Grain Filling in Liquid-Cultured Detached Spikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation of salt-soluble proteins in the endosperm of developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains was examined. Detached spikes of barley were cultured at different levels of nitrogen nutrition and pulse-labeled with [14C] sucrose at specific times after anthesis. Proteins were extracte...

  1. Association mapping of grain hardness, polyphenol oxidase, total phenolics, amylose content, and ß-glucan in US barley breeding germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A renewed interest in breeding barley specifically for food end-uses is being driven by increased consumer interest in healthier foods. We conducted association mapping on physicochemical properties of barley that play a role in food quality and processing including, grain hardness, polyphenol oxid...

  2. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    Barley and rape seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture with increasing concentrations of CrO3 (Cr(VI)) or CrCl3 (Cr(III)). The chitinase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spennidine and spermine were determined in the third leaf of barley seed-lings and in the second leaf of rape...

  3. Haplotype divergence and multiple candidate genes at Rphq2, a partial resistance QTL of barley to Puccinia hordei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo Kuok San, Freddy; Wang, Y.; Vozabova, Tereza; Huneau, C.; Leroy, P.; Chalhoub, B.; Qi, X.Q.; Niks, R.E.; Marcel, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Key message: Rphq2, a minor gene for partial resistance toPuccinia hordei, was physically mapped in a 188 kbp introgression with suppressed recombination between haplotypes ofrphq2andRphq2barley cultivars.Abstract: Partial and non-host resistances to rust fungi in barley (Hordeum vulgare) may be

  4. Genome-wide association mapping of barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance in spring oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is one of the most destructive diseases of cereal crops worldwide. Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-t...

  5. Influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of normal and waxy barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Avi; Annor, George; Vamadevan, Varatharajan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, molecular composition, crystallinity, and gelatinization properties of normal barley starch (NBS) and waxy barley starch (WBS) granules from plants cultivated in a greenhouse under normal diurnal (16h light...

  6. Isolate specificity and polygenic inheritance of resistance in barley to the heterologous rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dracatos, P.M.; Nansamba, M.; Berlin, A.; Park, R.F.; Niks, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    Barley is a near-nonhost to numerous heterologous (nonadapted) rust pathogens because a small proportion of genotypes are somewhat susceptible. We assessed 66 barley accessions and three mapping populations (Vada x SusPtrit, Cebada Capa x SusPtrit, and SusPtrit x Golden Promise) for response to

  7. The untranslated leader sequence of the barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene confers embryo-specific expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouster, J.; Mechelen J. van; Cameron-Mills, V.

    1998-01-01

    The barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene encodes a protein expressed in embryos during grain development and germination and in leaves after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Transient gene expression assays in germinating barley embryos were used to identify cis-regulatory elements involved in the

  8. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye...

  9. The viscoelastic properties of the protein-rich materials from the fermented hard wheat, soft wheat and barley flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    The linear and non-linear rheological properties of the suspensions for the hard red spring wheat (HRS) flour, soft wheat (Pastry) flour, barley flour, as well as the remain residues of HRS flour, Pastry flour, and barley flour after fermentation were investigated. The linear and non-linear rheologi...

  10. Registration of STARS 1501B and STARS 1502B barley germplasm with Rsg2 resistance to greenbug

    Science.gov (United States)

    STARS 1501B (Reg. No. GP- , PI 675335) greenbug-resistant, six-rowed, spring, feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and STARS 1502B (Reg. No. GP-, PI 675336) greenbug-resistant, six-rowed, winter, feed barley germplasm, tested as GR 001 and GR 010 respectively, were developed and released by US...

  11. Biosynthesis of the leucine derived α-, β- and γ-hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2016-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) produces five leucine-derived hydroxynitrile glucosides (HNGs), of which only epiheterodendrin is a cyanogenic glucoside. The four non-cyanogenic HNGs are the β-HNG epidermin and the γ-HNGs osmaronin, dihydroosmaronin and sutherlandin. By analyzing 247 spring barley...

  12. Effectiveness of rabbit manure biofertilizer in barley crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Valdez, Samira; Lucho-Constantino, Carlos A; Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa I; Gómez-Mercado, René; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela A; Herrera, Juan M; Jiménez-González, Angélica

    2017-11-01

    The quality of biofertilizers is usually assessed only in terms of the amount of nutrients that they supply to the crops and their lack of viable pathogens and phytotoxicity. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a liquid biofertilizer obtained from rabbit manure in terms of presence of pathogens, phytotoxicity, and its effect on the grain yield and other agronomic traits of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Environmental effects of the biofertilizer were also evaluated by following its influence on selected soil parameters. We applied the biofertilizer at five combinations of doses and timings each and in two application modes (foliar or direct soil application) within a randomized complete block design with three replicates and using a chemical fertilizer as control. The agronomic traits evaluated were plant height, root length, dry weight, and number of leaves and stems at three growth stages: tillering, jointing, and flowering. The effectiveness of the biofertilizer was significantly modified by the mode of application, the growth stage of the crop, and the dose of biofertilizer applied. The results showed that the foliar application of the biofertilizer at the tillering stage produced the highest increase in grain yield (59.7 %, p biofertilizer caused significant changes in soil, particularly concerning pH, EC, Ca, Zn, Mg, and Mn. It is our view that the production and use of biofertilizers are a reliable alternative to deal with a solid waste problem while food security is increased.

  13. The impact of stubble crop on spring barley weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Wrzesińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The condition and degree of weed infestation were determined in a spring barely crop grown in a short-term monoculture after mulching the soil with plants grown as a stubble crop (the control treatment without cover crop – lacy phacelia, white mustard, sunflower. The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2013 on good rye soil complex using a split-block design in four replications. The obtained results (the mean from all years of the experiment showed that the stubble crop, especially sunflower, reduced the diversity of weed species without causing at the same time changes in weed species dominance. In all the control treatments of the experiment, Chenopodium album and Fallopia convolvulus were the dominant species. The degree of spring barley weed infestation depended on the species grown in the cover crop. White mustard and lacy phacelia slightly increased the number of weeds but their fresh matter significantly increased. However, the sunflower cover crop significantly increased the number of weeds without any substantial differentiation of their fresh mass.

  14. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-03-23

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  15. Structural lability of Barley stripe mosaic virus virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V Makarov

    Full Text Available Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed.

  16. Dynamic viscosity study of barley malt and chicory concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to find optimal conditions for dispersing and subsequent dehydration of liquid food environments in the nozzle spray drying chamber through the study of dynamic changes in viscosity according to temperature, velocities gradients and dry residue content. The objects of study were roasted chicory and malt barley concentrates with dry residue content of 20, 40, 60 and 80%. Research of dynamic viscosity were carried out at the measuring complex based on the rotational viscometer Rheotest II, analog-to-digital converter, module Laurent and a personal computer with a unique software that allows to record in real time (not only on a tape recorder, but also in the form of graphic files the behavior of the viscosity characteristics of concentrates. Registration of changes of dynamic viscosity was carried out at a shear rate gradient from 1,0 с -1 to 27,0 с -1 and the products temperature thermostating : 35, 55, 75˚ C. The research results are presented in the form of graphic dependences of effective viscosity on shear rate and flow curves (dependencies of shear stresses on the velocity gradient, which defined flow regimes, the optimal modes of dispersion concentrates into spray dryer chambers in obtaining of powdered semi-finished products and instanting were found: dry residue content - 40 %, concentrate temperature - 75 ˚C, velocity gradient in the air channel of the nozzle at least 20 c-1

  17. Plasma membrane and salinity tolerance of barley plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rahmani, F. H.; Al-Mashhadani, M. S.; Al-Delemee, N. H.

    1997-01-01

    Barley cultivar, California Mario ut, was grown in a nutrient solution containing increasing Nacl concentrations up to 250 mm. The effect of Nacl on growth, mineral compost ion ant integrity of the plasma membrane was studied. Growth of the shoot'and root was stimulated or little affected by 10 and 20 ml Nacl. Further increase in Nacl concentrations depressed the growth. The depression was conspicuous between 100 and 250 mm Nacl. Increasing Nacl concentration decreased potassium content in the shoots and roots and led to steep increase in sodium accumulation. The integrity of the plasma membrane was measured in term of potassium leakage from the root tips. Rapid leakage of potassium was obtained at Nacl concentrations ranging from 100 to 250 mm. At the same concentrations of Nacl, adenosine triphosphatase activity in the root tips was increased. Results indicate that the plasma membrane of root cells was damaged by the increased levels of salinity. It was concluded that the plasma membrane of root cells is the primary site of salinity toxicity. (authors). 40 refs., 5 tabs. 3 figs

  18. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedas, Pai Rosager; Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 , which encode membrane-bound pro......Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 , which encode membrane...... in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts......8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi...

  19. Long-term reconstitution with water of dry barley before feeding increases phosphorus digestibility in pigs1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    Cereals are normally stored dry at low moisture content (digestible. The objective was to investigate the effect of reconstitution...... compared to dry stored barley on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P in pigs. Dry barley (12% moisture; total P, 3.3 g/kg DM; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions...... numerically more soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and less phytate P (0.93 g/kg DM) than dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed an increase in P absorption (54%, P

  20. Genomic analysis of 6,000-year-old cultivated grain illuminates the domestication history of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Martin; Schuenemann, Verena J; Davidovich, Uri; Marom, Nimrod; Himmelbach, Axel; Hübner, Sariel; Korol, Abraham; David, Michal; Reiter, Ella; Riehl, Simone; Schreiber, Mona; Vohr, Samuel H; Green, Richard E; Dawson, Ian K; Russell, Joanne; Kilian, Benjamin; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Waugh, Robbie; Fahima, Tzion; Krause, Johannes; Weiss, Ehud; Stein, Nils

    2016-09-01

    The cereal grass barley was domesticated about 10,000 years before the present in the Fertile Crescent and became a founder crop of Neolithic agriculture. Here we report the genome sequences of five 6,000-year-old barley grains excavated at a cave in the Judean Desert close to the Dead Sea. Comparison to whole-exome sequence data from a diversity panel of present-day barley accessions showed the close affinity of ancient samples to extant landraces from the Southern Levant and Egypt, consistent with a proposed origin of domesticated barley in the Upper Jordan Valley. Our findings suggest that barley landraces grown in present-day Israel have not experienced major lineage turnover over the past six millennia, although there is evidence for gene flow between cultivated and sympatric wild populations. We demonstrate the usefulness of ancient genomes from desiccated archaeobotanical remains in informing research into the origin, early domestication and subsequent migration of crop species.

  1. Wall Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-14

    Mathematical Sciences Institute. Ithaca, NY: Cornell. Guckenheimer, J. & Labouriau, 1. 1990. Bifurcation of the Hodgkin - Huxley equations: a new vt.vist. In...olm es -____ II_ John Guckenheimer Avwi tI.,,ti 1it y ’odes ,Av9L! an.,I/or Dist Special •D L 2 Narrative Philip Holmes is continuing to study the...not localized in spae like the structur observed in the turbulent baft y layer. Wavelet bases, having compact support, seem much more appropriate. J

  2. Identification of AFLP molecular linked to row- type gene in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed- Tabatabaei, B.E.

    2005-01-01

    Formation of the two-and six-rowed types in barley is predominantly controlled by alleles at a single locus (vrzl) which is located in long armn of chromosome 2H. This gene is a key character on the study of barley domestication and yield. Near-isogenic lines of barley were produced from crosses between Kanto Nakate Gold (tow-rowed) and Azumamugi (six-rowed). The selected lines were used for screening of AFLP polymorphic bands which are linked to vrs1 locus. After screening of a total of 1792 primer combination, five polymorphic bands were identified. A construction of high resolution map around the vrs1 locus was made using recombinant inbred lines. These markers can be used for a map-based cloning of the genes at the vrsl locus

  3. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose...... procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L (R) from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw...... concentrations obtained after enzymatic hydrolyses were related to the potential glucose present in the pretreated residues, the highest yield, similar to 48% (g g(-1)), was obtained with hot water extraction pretreatment of barley straw; this pretreatment also produced highest yields for wheat straw, producing...

  4. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the major crops cultivated worldwide and constitutes an important basis for animal feed. However, the production is facing a number of challenges that will be accentuated in the years to come, in particular restrictions on the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In order to improve...... the N use efficiency in barley, we are developing a new generation of genetically modified plants based on the concept of cisgenesis. In this approach, plants are transformed only with their own genetic material. The genes encoding the cytosolic isoform of the glutamine synthetase (GS1...... into the pGreenII binary vector. The genes have been inserted into barley by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene for selection of transformed lines on hygromycin. In this system, the resistance gene is placed on the helper plasmid pSoup allowing for separate...

  5. [Hordein locus polymorphism in near eastern local populations of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

    2008-06-01

    Electrophoresis in starch gel has been used to study the polymorphism of hordeins encoded by loci Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd F in 140 local barley populations from the Near East, including 60, 34, 33, 8, and 5 populations from Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Palestine, and Israel, respectively. Fifty-seven Hrd A, 87 Hrd B, and 5 Hrd F alleles have been found. The alleles of these loci considerably differ in frequencies and distribution in populations from different Near Eastern countries. Cluster analysis of the matrix of the frequencies of hordein locus alleles in barley populations from the Near East, North Africa, Ethiopia, and South Arabia has yielded two clusters. The first cluster includes barley populations from Israel, Palestine, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Egypt; the second cluster, populations from Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Yemen, and Ethiopia.

  6. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardic, M.; Sezer, O.; Ozgdsd, K.; Yaylaci, O. K.; Koyuncu, O.; Olgun, M.; Bascdftcd, Z. B.; Ayter, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  7. Effect of crop density on competition by wheat and barley with Agrostemma githago and other weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, H.; Holm, U.; Søgaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Agrostemma githago L. and other naturally occurring weeds on biomass production and grain yield was studied in winter wheat and winter barley. Naturally occurring weeds had only a negligible effect on barley, but reduced wheat grain yield by 10% at a quarter of normal crop density....... The interaction between the cereals and A. githago was studied in additive series employing different crop densities. Growth of this weed species was strongly dependent on crop density, which was more important for controlling weed growth than it was for obtaining a normal grain yield. Wheat and especially barley...... had a better competitive ability than A. githago. Wheat and A. githago utilized resources for growth better when grown in mixture than when grown in pure stands as the relative yield totals were significantly larger than unity....

  8. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  9. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  10. Identification Of Barley Grain Mycoflora By Next Generation Sequencing And Videometer Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Søren, Knudsen

    Seeds of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) are infected by a high number of fungi, including pathogens such as Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, F. avenaceum and Pyrenophora teres. Fusarium spp. is a widely distributed fungus causing yield reduction in a range of agricultural crops and many...... species in the genus produce mycotoxins responsible for serious quality deterioration. In malting barley, Fusarium also has a negative effect by causing gushing in beer. A number of barley seeds (app. 200) assumed to be infected by fungal from different origins and years of cultivation were tested by NGS...... sequencing the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region from total DNA. Approximately 2-4000 sequences were obtained from each seed and these were subsequently identified to species level in order to give an exact identification of fungal genera on each seed. The main fungal genera identified were Fusarium...

  11. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irradiation on barley susceptibility to net blotch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.; Al-safadi, B.; Charbaji, T.

    2000-11-01

    Isolates of Drechslera teres f. sp. teres that cause net blotch symptoms on barley were collected from fields in different regions of Syria. there virulence spectra were determined using 11 barley cultivars. Cultivars exhibited a continuos range of response from very susceptible to moderately resistant. Isolate Raqa 13 had the highest mean virulence, then Halap 2, whereas ICARDA 3 was the lowest virulent. The effect of three concentrations (1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) of nitrogen (Urea 45%) fertilizer, and two doses of gamma ray (10 and 20 Gy), on susceptibility to infection by Drechslera teres were studied. Two barley cultivars (Thibaut and Furia) were used in this study. Results showed that 1000 ppm (N) and 15 Gy dose treatment had a positive effect on decreasing the susceptibility. (author)

  12. Pyricularia pennisetigena and P. zingibericola from invasive grasses infect signal grass, barley and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Teodora de Assis Reges

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal species from the Pyricularia genus are associated with blast disease in plants from the Poaceae family, causing losses in economically important crops such as rice, oat, rye, barley, wheat and triticale. This study aimed at characterizing the pathogenicity spectrum of P. pennisetigena and P. zingibericola to signal grass, barley and wheat, as well as comparing them with those from the species P. grisea and P. oryzae pathotype Triticum, which occur widely in the Brazilian agroecosystem. Twenty isolates of Pyricularia spp. were obtained from infected leaf samples of invasive plant species from wheat fields. The isolates classification into distinct Pyricularia species was done using molecular phylogeny based on actin and calmodulin genes. Pyricularia pennisetigena and P. zingibericola inoculated on plant leaves, at a concentration adjusted to 105 conidia mL-1, were pathogenic to signal grass, barley and wheat, with varying levels of aggressiveness.

  13. Evaluation of the Effect of Two Volatile Organic Compounds on Barley Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Kaddes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs on some pathogens, these VOCs were emitted during interactions of barley with Fusarium culmorum Schltdl and/or Cochliobolus sativus Shoemaker, two common root rot pathogens. Our work shows that two organic esters: methyl propanoate (MP and methyl prop-2-enoate (MA significantly reduced the development of fungi in vitro. Additional tests showed that the esters significantly inhibited spore germination of these pathogens. The activity of these VOCs on a wide range of fungal and bacterial pathogens was also tested in vitro and showed inhibitory action. The effect of the VOCs on infected barley seeds also showed plantlets growing without disease symptoms. MA and MP seem to have potential value as alternative plant protection compounds against barley bioagressors.

  14. Structural basis for specificity of propeptide-enzyme interaction in barley C1A cysteine peptidases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Cambra

    Full Text Available C1A cysteine peptidases are synthesized as inactive proenzymes. Activation takes place by proteolysis cleaving off the inhibitory propeptide. The inhibitory capacity of propeptides from barley cathepsin L and B-like peptidases towards commercial and barley cathepsins has been characterized. Differences in selectivity have been found for propeptides from L-cathepsins against their cognate and non cognate enzymes. Besides, the propeptide from barley cathepsin B was not able to inhibit bovine cathepsin B. Modelling of their three-dimensional structures suggests that most propeptide inhibitory properties can be explained from the interaction between the propeptide and the mature cathepsin structures. Their potential use as biotechnological tools is discussed.

  15. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  16. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewayrga, Hailemichael; Sopade, Peter A

    2011-06-28

    Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

  17. phiC31 integrase-mediated site-specific recombination in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Kapusi

    Full Text Available The Streptomyces phage phiC31 integrase was tested for its feasibility in excising transgenes from the barley genome through site-specific recombination. We produced transgenic barley plants expressing an active phiC31 integrase and crossed them with transgenic barley plants carrying a target locus for recombination. The target sequence involves a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP, which is flanked by the attB and attP recognition sites for the phiC31 integrase. This sequence disruptively separates a gusA coding sequence from an upstream rice actin promoter. We succeeded in producing site-specific recombination events in the hybrid progeny of 11 independent barley plants carrying the above target sequence after crossing with plants carrying a phiC31 expression cassette. Some of the hybrids displayed fully executed recombination. Excision of the GFP gene fostered activation of the gusA gene, as visualized in tissue of hybrid plants by histochemical staining. The recombinant loci were detected in progeny of selfed F(1, even in individuals lacking the phiC31 transgene, which provides evidence of stability and generative transmission of the recombination events. In several plants that displayed incomplete recombination, extrachromosomal excision circles were identified. Besides the technical advance achieved in this study, the generated phiC31 integrase-expressing barley plants provide foundational stock material for use in future approaches to barley genetic improvement, such as the production of marker-free transgenic plants or switching transgene activity.

  18. Proteins in intercellular washing fluid from noninoculated and rust-affected leaves of wheat and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, D W; Rohringer, R

    1985-08-01

    Proteins in intercellular washing fluid (IWF) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves were separated by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) or silver. Intracellular protein from the cut ends of leaves accounted for only a small proportion of total protein in IWF from wheat leaves. When these were heavily infected with the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and grown at 19 degrees C, four infection-related CBB-stainable proteins were detected in IWF.To compare IWF proteins from wheat and barley leaves infected with the same pathogen, conditions were established that permitted luxuriant growth of stem rust of wheat in barley (exposure to chloroform before inoculation and maintenance at 25 degrees C thereafter). Under these conditions, at least 10 infection-related silver-stainable proteins were detected in IWF from infected wheat in addition to the more than 50 that were of host origin. The electrophoretic properties of 8 of the infection-related proteins were the same as those of 8 infection-related proteins in IWF from barley.IWF from wheat and barley grown under these conditions was analyzed for Concanavalin A-binding glycoproteins immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane replicas made from gels. Of the many infection-related glycoproteins that were detected in IWF from stem rust-affected wheat, approximately 20 occupied the same positions as those from stem rust-affected barley. The glycoprotein pattern of IWF prepared from wheat leaves grown at 19 degrees C and infected with the leaf rust fungus (P. recondita f. sp. tritici) was markedly different to that of IWF from the same host infected with the stem rust fungus. We conclude that IWF from rust-affected cereal leaves may be a useful source of surface or extracellular proteins from the parasitic mycelium.

  19. Post-prandial responses to cereal products enriched with barley beta-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Garsetti, Marcella; Testolin, Giulio; Brighenti, Furio

    2006-08-01

    High amounts of soluble beta-glucan in barley products may exert beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and blood lipids. To investigate the acute postprandial response on plasma glucose, insulin and lipids after consumption of two experimental products made from barley flour enriched with beta-glucan in comparison with similar products made from whole-wheat flour. A group of 10 healthy volunteers (5 males, age 25.4 +/- 0.5 y, BMI 22.6 +/- 0.7 Kg/m(2)) received at breakfast, in random order and in different days, portions (40g of available carbohydrate) of different cereal products or white bread consumed together with a load of 90000 UI retinol. Products were crackers and cookies made either from barley or whole-wheat flour in a 2 x 2 design, where the two factors were the cereal source of dietary fiber (DF), and the food processing. Barley products supplied 12 g DF, 50% soluble, with 3.5 g of beta-glucan per portion. Whole-wheat products supplied about 14 g of dietary fiber, mainly in the insoluble form, with negligible amount of beta-glucan. Fasting and post-prandial glucose and insulin were evaluated for 180 min after the meals; retinyl-palmitate (RP) and triacylglycerol (TAG) were evaluated hourly over 8 hours. Glycemic (GI) and Insulinemic (II) indexes of products were also assessed, using white bread as reference. Glucose curves were significantly different between types of food processing (p whole-wheat crackers (WWCr), whole-wheat cookies (WWc), barley crackers (BCr) and barley cookies (Bc) respectively. Insulin curves were significantly different both between type of processing and fiber source (p flour enriched with beta-glucan exhibit favourable responses on glucose metabolism, and particularly on insulinemic responses. In general, cookies responded better to the addition of barley fiber than crackers. Our results highlight the complexity of the effect that barley fiber may exert when added to different food products in reducing postprandial metabolic

  20. Effect of Barley and Enzyme on Performance, Carcass, Enzyme Activity and Digestion Parameters of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid kalantar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Corn has been recently used for producing ethanol fuel in the major corn-producing countries such as the US and Brazil. Recent diversion of corn for biofuel production along with the increased world's demand for this feedstuff has resulted in unprecedented rise in feed cost for poultry worldwide. Alternative grains such as wheat and barley can be successfully replaced for corn in poultry diets. These cereal grains can locally grow in many parts of the world as they have remarkably lower water requirement than corn. Wheat and barley are generally used as major sources of energy in poultry diets. Though the major components of these grains are starch and proteins, they have considerable content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs, derived from the cell walls (Olukosi et al. 2007; Mirzaie et al. 2012. NSPs are generally considered as anti-nutritional factors (Jamroz et al. 2002. The content and structure of NSP polymers vary between different grains, which consequently affect their nutritive value (Olukosi et al. 2007.Wheat and barley are generally used as major sources of energy in poultry diets. The major components of these grains are starch and proteins, they have considerable content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs, derived from the cell walls. NSPs are generally considered as anti-nutritional factors. The content and structure of NSP polymers vary between different grains, which consequently affect their nutritive value. The major part of NSPs in barley comprises polymers of (1→3 (1→4-β- glucans which could impede growth factors and consequently carcass quality through lowering the rate and amount of available nutrients in the mucosal surface of the intestinal. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of corn and barley based diets supplemented with multi-enzyme on growth, carcass, pancreas enzyme activity and physiological characteristics of broilers. A total number of 375 one day old

  1. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS...... with a granular component. Particles with the same structure were present in the protein body preparation from the mutant, where, however, the granular component was the most prominent. Amino-acid composition and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins from the protein body preparation revealed...

  2. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana

    2016-01-01

    silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7 % reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS-PAGE...... electrophoresis, the protein band were excised and the proteins identified by quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Subsequent SDS-PAGE separation and analysis of the prolamin fraction of the transgenic lines revealed a reduction in the amounts of C-hordeins and increases in the content of other hordein...

  3. Vulnerability of Barley to African Pathotypes of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and Sources of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenson, B J; Case, A J; Pretorius, Z A; Coetzee, V; Kloppers, F J; Zhou, H; Chai, Y; Wanyera, R; Macharia, G; Bhavani, S; Grando, S

    2017-08-01

    The emergence of widely virulent pathotypes (e.g., TTKSK in the Ug99 race group) of the stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Africa threatens wheat production on a global scale. Although intensive research efforts have been advanced to address this threat in wheat, few studies have been conducted on barley, even though pathotypes such as TTKSK are known to attack the crop. The main objectives of this study were to assess the vulnerability of barley to pathotype TTKSK and identify possible sources of resistance. From seedling evaluations of more than 1,924 diverse cultivated barley accessions to pathotype TTKSK, more than 95% (1,844) were found susceptible. A similar high frequency (910 of 934 = 97.4%) of susceptibility was found for the wild progenitor (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) of cultivated barley. Additionally, 55 barley lines with characterized or putative introgressions from various wild Hordeum spp. were also tested against pathotype TTKSK but none was found resistant. In total, more than 96% of the 2,913 Hordeum accessions tested were susceptible as seedlings, indicating the extreme vulnerability of the crop to the African pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. In total, 32 (1.7% of accessions evaluated) and 13 (1.4%) cultivated and wild barley accessions, respectively, exhibited consistently highly resistant to moderately resistant reactions across all experiments. Molecular assays were conducted on these resistant accessions to determine whether they carried rpg4/Rpg5, the only gene complex known to be highly effective against pathotype TTKSK in barley. Twelve of the 32 (37.5%) resistant cultivated accessions and 11 of the 13 (84.6%) resistant wild barley accessions tested positive for a functional Rpg5 gene, highlighting the narrow genetic base of resistance in Hordeum spp. Other resistant accessions lacking the rpg4/Rpg5 complex were discovered in the evaluated germplasm and may possess useful resistance genes. Combining

  4. RFLP markers linked to the durable stem rust resistance gene Rpg1 in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, A; Steffenson, B J; Saghai Maroof, M A; Kleinhofs, A

    1994-01-01

    The gene, Rpg1, conferring stable resistance in barley to the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) was mapped using two doubled haploid populations. Rpg1 mapped to the extreme subteleomeric region of barley chromosome 1P 0.3 and 1.1 cM proximal from the molecular markers ABG704 and plastocyanin (Plc), respectively, and 2.2 cM distal from MWG036B. The closest marker, ABG704, was sequenced and PCR-based markers were developed.

  5. Comparative Studies on Callose Formation in Powdery Mildew Compatible and Incompatible Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Lilholt, Ulla

    1984-01-01

    penetration Ml-(La) resistant varieties and near-isogenic lines in 'Manchuria' with resistance genes in 5 other loci showed only a tendency to a larger callose formation than their susceptible counterparts after inoculation with avirulent as well as virulent powdery mildew. The callose formation in ml......Callose formation in barley mutants, lines and varieties with different genes for resistance to powdery mildew in seven different loci was compared. Only barley with resistance genes in the ml-o locus showed so early a callose formation passing off at such a high rate that it prevented fungal...

  6. Subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw in fresh water and recycled aqueous phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on the investigation of addition of aqueous phase in the production of biofuel from biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a wet thermal conversion process, which can convert all kinds of biomass to fuels. In this study, barley....... With the addition of recycling aqueous phase in HTL process, it is expected that the amount of the waste water and energy consumption can be reduced. The effect of water recirculation on product yield and properties was investigated in this study. The results showed that bio-oil yield was 34.85 wt% when the barley...

  7. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... and T1) of transgenic grains was tenfold higher than from vector control and wild type grains. Amylose content was not affected in hyper-phosphorylated grains. Hyper-phosphorylated starch granules had several pores on the surfaces, similar to pores seen on enzymatically semi-degraded granules...

  8. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... and T1) of transgenic grains was tenfold higher than from vector control and wild type grains. Amylose content was not affected in hyper-phosphorylated grains. Hyper-phosphorylated starch granules had several pores on the surfaces, similar to pores seen on enzymatically semi-degraded granules...

  9. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunitz...... Ca2+-modulated kinetics of the AMY2/BASl interaction and found that the complex formation involves minimal structural changes. The modulation of the interaction by calcium ions makes it unique among the currently known binding mechanisms of proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors....

  10. A rapid non-destructive method for quantification of fungal infection on barley and malt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodevin, Sabrina; Larsen, Tone Glarborg; Lok, Finn

    Description of topic: Barley harvest 2007 in Europe has seen the resurgence of crops highly infected by filamentous fungi. Hence the evaluation of fungal infection on barley and malt kernels by conventional optical measurement methods lacks accuracy and can be tedious. Here we are presenting a new...... vision system to rapidly perform this task using the VideometerLab®. This system provides a rapid colour, shape and texture measurement, ideal to analyze kernels surfaces. The principle employed is a high-intensity sphere illuminated by light emitting diodes together with a highresolution black and white...

  11. Effects of fenpropimorph on bacteria and fungi during decomposition of barley roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirup, L.; Johnsen, K.; Torsvik, V.

    2001-01-01

    fertility. The diversity of total bacterial DNA measured by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was unaffected by fenpropimorph treatment, there being a clear and highly reproducible succession in bacterial diversity during decomposition of the barley roots. The diversity in the hotspot......The study examined the effects of the fungicide fenpropimorph (in the formulation Corbel) on primary decomposer organisms in soil. Bacterial and fungal succession was followed on dead young barley roots buried in fungicide-treated or untreated soil, Fenpropimorph was added to the soil...

  12. Hordein polypeptide patterns in relation to malting quality in Brazilian barley varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echart-Almeida Cinara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since there is evidence that malting quality is related to the storage protein (hordein fraction, in the present work the hordein polypeptide patterns from 13 barley (Hordeum vulgare L. varieties of different malting quality were analysed in order to explore the feasibility of using hordein electrophoresis to assist in the selection of malting barleys. The formation of clusters separating the varieties with higher malting quality from the others with lower quality suggests that there is a relationship between the general hordein polypeptide pattern and malting quality in the varieties analysed. By the Sperman's correlation test three hordein bands correlated negatively with malting quality in the germplasm studied.

  13. Oligosaccharide and Substrate Binding in the Starch Debranching Enzyme Barley Limit Dextrinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie; Windahl, Michael Skovbo; Sim, Lyann

    2015-01-01

    Complete hydrolytic degradation of starch requires hydrolysis of both the α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in amylopectin. Limit dextrinase (LD) is the only endogenous barley enzyme capable of hydrolyzing the α-1,6-glucosidic bond during seed germination, and impaired LD activity inevitably...... reduces the maltose and glucose yields from starch degradation. Crystal structures of barley LD and active-site mutants with natural substrates, products and substrate analogues were sought to better understand the facets of LD-substrate interactions that αconfine high activity of LD to branched...... starch synthesis....

  14. Purification and characterization of recombinant high pI Barley α-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Bojsen, Kirsten; Svensson, Birte

    (MACGREGOR & sissons). recently expression and characterization of the recombinant full length and fully functional barley high pi α-glucosidase in pichia pastoris has been achieved. in order to facilitate protein yield in the mg range, a clone representing an n-terminal hexa histidine tagged recombinant...... of the native enzyme purified from malt (frandsen et al.). the kinetic values km, vmax and kcat are determined to 1.7 mm, 139 nm s-1 and 85 s-1 using maltose as substrate. the presented data illustrate the first successful production of enzymatically active full length recombinant high pi barley α...

  15. Influence of tannin on protein utilization in feedstuffs with special reference to barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggum, Bj.O.; Christensen, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tannins on protein utilization, increasing amounts of tannin were added to diets fed to rats. Soybean meal was used as protein source. Tannin was found to exert a severe negative effect on protein digestibility. With tannin in the diet, availability of all amino acids decreased significantly, but to different degrees. Tannins are present in a number of plant materials at different levels, including barley. In feeding experiments using 29 barley samples varying in tannin content from 0.55 to 1.23%, tannin showed a significant negative correlation with protein digestibility. (author)

  16. Fermentation profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis as starter cultures on barley malt medium

    OpenAIRE

    Alloue-Boraud, Wazé Aimée Mireille; N’Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Djeni, N’Dédé Théodore; Hiligsmann, Serge; Djè, Koffi Marcellin; Delvigne, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae C8-5 and Candida tropicalis F0-5 isolated from traditional sorghum beer were tested for kinetic parameters on barley malt extract, YPD (863 medium) and for alcohol production. The results showed that C. tropicalis has the highest maximum growth rate and the lowest doubling time. Values were 0.22 and 0.32 h−1 for maximum growth rate, 3 h 09 min and 2 h 09 min for doubling time respectively on barley malt extract and YPD. On contrary, glucose consumption was the fastest...

  17. Influence of alkali catalyst on product yield and properties via hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Z.; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Barley straw was successfully converted to bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction at temperature of 280 e400 C using an alkali catalyst (K2CO3) in our previous work, and the maximum bio-crude yield was obtained at 300 C. This paper extends previous work on studying liquefaction behavior of barley...... straw without and with K2CO3 at 300 C. The effect of alkali catalyst on product distribution was investigated, and a detailed analysis of characteristic properties of bio-crude and solid residue has been performed by an elemental analyzer, FTIR (Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy), TGA...

  18. Genes involved in barley yellow dwarf virus resistance of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Frederike; Habekuß, Antje; Stich, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    The results of our study suggest that genes involved in general resistance mechanisms of plants contribute to variation of BYDV resistance in maize. With increasing winter temperatures in Europe, Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is expected to become a prominent problem in maize cultivation. Breeding for resistance is the best strategy to control the disease and break the transmission cycle of the virus. The objectives of our study were (1) to determine genetic variation with respect to BYDV resistance in a broad germplasm set and (2) to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers linked to genes that are involved in BYDV resistance. An association mapping population with 267 genotypes representing the world's maize gene pool was grown in the greenhouse. Plants were inoculated with BYDV-PAV using viruliferous Rhopalosiphum padi. In the association mapping population, we observed considerable genotypic variance for the trait virus extinction as measured by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and the infection rate. In a genome-wide association study, we observed three SNPs significantly [false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.05] associated with the virus extinction on chromosome 10 explaining together 25 % of the phenotypic variance and five SNPs for the infection rate on chromosomes 4 and 10 explaining together 33 % of the phenotypic variance. The SNPs significantly associated with BYDV resistance can be used in marker assisted selection and will accelerate the breeding process for the development of BYDV resistant maize genotypes. Furthermore, these SNPs were located within genes which were in other organisms described to play a role in general resistance mechanisms. This suggests that these genes contribute to variation of BYDV resistance in maize.

  19. Calcium and proton transport in membrane vesicles from barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, F.M.; Windle, J.J.; Bush, D.S.; Jones, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Ca 2+ uptake by membrane fractions from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM72) roots was characterized. Uptake of 45 Ca 2+ was measured in membrane vesicles obtained from continuous and discontinuous sucrose gradients. A single, large peak of Ca 2+ uptake coincided with the peak of proton transport by the tonoplast H + -ATPase. Depending on the concentration of Ca 2+ in the assay, Ca 2+ uptake was inhibited 50 to 75% by those combinations of ionophores and solutes that eliminated the pH gradient and membrane potential. However, 25 to 50% of the Ca 2+ uptake in the tonoplast-enriched fraction was not sensitive to ionophores but was inhibited by vanadate. The results suggest that 45 Ca uptake was driven by the low affinity, high capacity tonoplast Ca 2+ /nH + antiporter and also by a high affinity, lower capacity Ca 2+ -ATPase. The Ca 2+ -ATPase may be associated with tonoplast, Golgi or contaminating vesicles of unknown origin. No Ca 2+ transport was specifically associated with the distinct peak of endoplasmic reticulum that was identified by NADH cytochrome c reductase, choline phosphotransferase, and dolichol-P-mannosyl synthase activities. A small shoulder of Ca 2+ uptake in the plasma membrane region of the gradient was inhibited by vanadate and erythrosin B and may represent the activity of a separate plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase. Vesicle volumes were estimated using electron spin resonance techniques, and intravesicular Ca 2+ concentrations were estimated to be as high as 5 millimolar. ATP-driven uptake of Ca 2+ created 800- to 2,000-fold concentration gradients within minutes. Problems in interpreting the effects of Ca 2+ on ATP-generated pH gradients are discussed and the suggestion is made that Ca 2+ dissipates pH gradients by a different mechanism than is responsible for Ca 2+ uptake into tonoplast vesicles

  20. Uptake of proline by the scutellum of germinating barley grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeisaenen, E.; Sopanen, T.

    1986-01-01

    Scutella separated from germinating grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) took up 1 millimolar L-[ 14 C]proline at an initial rate of about 6.5 micromoles gram -1 fresh weight hour -1 (pH 5, 30 0 C). The uptake had a pH optimum at 5. The bulk of the uptake (93%) was via carrier-mediated active transport. All of the 19 L-amino acids tested at 10 millimolar concentration inhibited the mediated uptake of 1 millimolar proline, the inhibitions varying from 18 to 76%. By studying how large a fraction of the mediated uptake was inhibitable by asparagine, alanine, glutamine, and leucine, the mediated uptake was shown to be due to three components. Two of these are most probably attributable to the two nonspecific uptake systems proposed earlier to act in the uptake of glutamine and leucine. The third component was not inhibited by glutamine, asparagine, or alanine, but was inhibited by unlabeled proline and leucine. The uptake by this system was apparently carrier-mediated active transport. D-Proline inhibited this system as strongly as L-proline. Nine of the 16 L-amino tested at 50 millimolar concentrations did not inhibit the uptake of 1 millimolar proline by this system. Valine, leucine, isoleucine, and the basic amino acids were inhibitory, but in spite of this, they did not appear to be taken up by this system. It seems therefore that in addition to two nonspecific amino acid uptake systems the scutella have an uptake system which is specific for proline. It is likely that this proline-specific system accounts for the bulk of proline uptake in a germinating grain

  1. The thickness of the intestinal mucous layer in the colon of rats fed various sources of non-digestible carbohydrates is positively correlated with the pool of SCFA but negatively correlated with the proportion of butyric acid in digesta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette S; Theil, Peter K; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment aimed to study the influence of six sources of non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) on the mucous layer in the colon of rats. The NDC sources used were as follows: cellulose (C); pectin (P); inulin; resistant starch (RS); barley hulls. The diets contained 108-140g NDC/kg DM...

  2. Effect of pH and Recombinant Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Endoprotease B2 on Degradation of Proteins in Soaked Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    .3. Solubilized and degraded proteins evaluated by biuret, SDS-PAGE, and differential proteomics revealed that pH 4.3 had the greatest impact on both solubilization and degradation. In order to boost proteolysis, the recombinant barley endoprotease B2 (rec-HvEP-B2) was included after 8 h using the pH 4.3 regime....... Proteolysis evaluated by SDS-PAGE and differential proteomics confirmed a powerful effect of adding rec-HvEP-B2 to the soaked barley, regardless of the genotype. Our study addresses the use of rec-HvEP-B2 as an effective feed enzyme protease. HvEP-B2 has the potential to increase the digestibility of protein...

  3. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh

    2017-01-01

    , the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2-generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase...... activities were increased significantly by 110-fold (52 000 FTU/kg) and 57-fold (51 000 FTU/kg), respectively. The HvPAPhy_a-transformed barley plants with high phytase activities possess triple potential utilities for the improvement of phosphate bioavailability. First of all, the utilization of the mature...... grains as feed to increase the release of bio-available phosphate and minerals bound to the phytate of the grains; secondly, the utilization of the powdered straw either directly or phytase extracted hereof as a supplement to high phytate feed or food; and finally, the use of the stubble to be ploughed...

  4. Molecular diversity of the coat protein-encoding region of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV from Latvia and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisnieks, M; Kvarnheden, A; Sigvald, R; Valkonen, J P T

    2004-04-01

    The sequence variability of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (PAV) and Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV (MAV) was studied by comparing 502 nucleotides from the coat protein-encoding region of six isolates from Latvia and four from Sweden. The diversity within MAV was low (>97% sequence identity), also when compared to isolates from USA and China. In contrast, the variability among PAV isolates was greater and phylogenetic analysis including isolates of a wide geographic origin detected two major clusters, of which both contained isolates from Latvia and Sweden. A new distinct variant of BYDV-PAV was discovered in Latvia, and because of the sequence difference it is proposed to belong to a new species (BYDV-OYV).

  5. Influence of barley grain particle size and treatment with citric acid on digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Salem, A Z M; López, S

    2017-08-01

    Chemical and physical treatments of barley grain increase ruminally resistant starch and can improve the rumen fermentation pattern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chemical (addition of citric acid, CA) and physical (grinding to two different particle sizes, PS) treatment of barley grain on performance, rumen fermentation, microbial protein yield in the rumen and selected blood metabolites in growing calves. In all, 28 male Holstein calves (172±5.1 kg initial BW) were used in a complete randomised design with a factorial arrangement of 2 barley grain particle sizes×2 levels of citric acid. The diets were as follows: (i) small PS (average 1200 µm) barley grain soaked in water (no CA addition); (ii) small PS barley grain soaked in a CA solution (adding 20 g CA/kg barley); (iii) large PS (average 2400 µm) barley grain soaked in water (no citric acid addition) and (iv) large PS barley grain soaked in a citric acid solution (adding 20 g CA/kg barley). Barley grain was then incorporated at 35% in a total mixed ration and fed to the calves for 11 weeks. Feeding small PS barley decreased feed intake (P=0.02) and average daily weight gain (P=0.01). The addition of CA to barley grain did not affect intake but increased weight gain (P0.05). However, the molar proportion of propionate was increased (P=0.03) when barley was more finely ground, and that of acetate was increased (P=0.04) when CA was added to barley grain. The ruminal concentration of ammonia nitrogen was increased (Pcitric acid increased fibre digestibility of total mixed rations, attenuated the decrease in ruminal pH, and improved weight gain and feed efficiency in male Holstein growing calves fed a high-cereal diet (550 g cereal grain/kg diet).

  6. Evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. yield in different density and mixture intercropping via competition indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Eslami Khalili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intercropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications at Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resources University during 2009. The first factor was two seed ratios include D1: 75 and 150 kg.ha-1 of faba bean and barley, respectively (optimum seed ratio and D2: 100 and 200 kg.ha-1 of faba bean and barley, respectively (high seed ratio and the second factor consisted of different planting ratio, P1: sole cropping of faba bean, P2: 50% faba bean + 50 % barley, P3: 75% faba bean + 25% barley, P4: 25% faba bean + 75% barley, P5: sole cropping of barley. Land equivalent ratio (LER indicated that intercropping of 25% faba bean + 75% barley was better than 50% faba bean + 50% barley. According to significant interaction effects of density and intercropping ratio in terms of seed yield and some competitive indices for both crop species, the highest barley and faba bean yield (3306.66 and 4884.56 kg.ha-1, respectively were observed in sole cropping with high density. In this experiment, the 75 % faba bean + 25 % mixture with high density was recorded highest intercropping yield, barley aggressivity value and 27% yield increases of barley in mix-proportion compared to sole crops. Also, the most of faba bean aggressivity value and faba bean yield increases in mix-proportion compared to sole crop were obtained when 25% faba bean + 75% barley mixture with optimum density was used. Furthermore the 75% faba bean + 25% barley treatment plus optimum seed ratio had highest system productivity index.

  7. Community dynamics and metabolite target analysis of spontaneous, backslopped barley sourdough fermentations under laboratory and bakery conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Henning; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-07-02

    Barley flour is not commonly used for baking because of its negative effects on bread dough rheology and loaf volume. However, barley sourdoughs are promising ingredients to produce improved barley-based breads. Spontaneous barley sourdough fermentations were performed through backslopping (every 24h, 10days) under laboratory (fermentors, controlled temperature of 30°C, high dough yield of 400) and bakery conditions (open vessels, ambient temperature of 17-22°C, low dough yield of 200), making use of the same batch of flour. They differed in pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species composition. After ten backsloppings, the barley sourdoughs were characterized by the presence of the LAB species Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis in the case of the laboratory productions (fast pH decrease, pHbakery productions (slow pH decrease, pH4.0 after eight backslopping steps). In both sourdough productions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole yeast species. Breads made with wheat flour supplemented with 20% (on flour basis) barley sourdough displayed a firmer texture, a smaller volume, and an acceptable flavour compared with all wheat-based reference breads. Hence, representative strains of the LAB species mentioned above, adapted to the environmental conditions they will be confronted with, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable barley sourdoughs and flavourful breads. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The effect of interspecies interactions and water deficit on spring barley and red clover biomass accumulation at successive growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in Olsztyn, Poland, in the period 2010–2012. The aim of the study was to examine whether soil water deficit would change biomass volume and distribution of pure sown spring barley and red clover as well as growth rate during their joint vegetation and mutual interactions. The interactions between spring barley and red clover were of a competitive character, and the cereal was the stronger crop. The strength of this competition increased in time with the growing season. Through most of the growing season, the competition was poorer in water deficit conditions. The impact of clover on barley before the heading stage showed facilitation symptoms. Interspecific competition reduced the rate of barley biomass accumulation and decreased stem and leaf biomass towards the end of the growing season. Intensified translocation of assimilates from the vegetative parts to grain minimized the decrease in spike biomass. Water deficit stress had a more inhibitory effect on the biomass and growth rate of barley than competition, and competition did not exacerbate the adverse influence of water deficit stress on barley. Competition from barley significantly reduced the biomass and biomass accumulation rate of clover. Water deficit stress did not exacerbate barley’s competitive effect on clover, but it strongly inhibited the growth of aboveground biomass in pure-sown clover.

  9. A Barley ROP GTPase ACTIVATING PROTEIN Associates with Microtubules and Regulates Entry of the Barley Powdery Mildew Fungus into Leaf Epidermal Cells[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefle, Caroline; Huesmann, Christina; Schultheiss, Holger; Börnke, Frederik; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the function of host factors involved in disease susceptibility. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) ROP (RHO of plants) G-protein RACB is required for full susceptibility of the leaf epidermis to invasion by the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei. Stable transgenic knockdown of RACB reduced the ability of barley to accommodate haustoria of B. graminis in intact epidermal leaf cells and to form hairs on the root epidermis, suggesting that RACB is a common element of root hair outgrowth and ingrowth of haustoria in leaf epidermal cells. We further identified a barley MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED ROP-GTPASE ACTIVATING PROTEIN (MAGAP1) interacting with RACB in yeast and in planta. Fluorescent MAGAP1 decorated cortical microtubules and was recruited by activated RACB to the cell periphery. Under fungal attack, MAGAP1-labeled microtubules built a polarized network at sites of successful defense. By contrast, microtubules loosened where the fungus succeeded in penetration. Genetic evidence suggests a function of MAGAP1 in limiting susceptibility to penetration by B. graminis. Additionally, MAGAP1 influenced the polar organization of cortical microtubules. These results add to our understanding of how intact plant cells accommodate fungal infection structures and suggest that RACB and MAGAP1 might be antagonistic players in cytoskeleton organization for fungal entry. PMID:21685259

  10. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Yield and yield structure of spring barley (Hodeum vulgare L. grown in monoculture after different stubble crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2006- 2008 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The experimental factor was the type of stubble crop ploughed in each year after harvest of spring barley: white mustard, lacy phacelia, winter rape, and a mixture of narrow-leaf lupin with field pea. In the experiment, successive spring barley crops were grown one after the other (in continuous monoculture. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of stubble crops used on the size and structure of barley yield. The three-year study showed an increasing trend in grain yield of spring barley grown after the mixture of legumes, lacy phacelia, and white mustard compared to its size in the treatment with no cover crop. Straw yield was significantly higher when barley was grown after the mixture of narrowleaf lupin with field pea than in the other treatments of the experiment. The type of ploughed-in stubble crop did not modify significantly plant height, ear length, and grain weight per ear. Growing the mixture of leguminous plants as a cover crop resulted in a significant increase in the density of ears per unit area in barley by an average of 14.7% relative to the treatment with winter rape. The experiment also showed the beneficial effect of the winter rape cover crop on 1000-grain weight of spring barley compared to that obtained in the treatments with white mustard and the mixture of legumes. All the cover crops caused an increase in the number of grains per ear of barley relative to that found in the control treatment. However, this increase was statistically proven only for the barley crops grown after lacy phacelia and the mixture of legumes.

  12. Interaction of barley powdery mildew effector candidate CSEP0055 with the defence protein PR17c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Pedersen, Carsten; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J

    2012-01-01

    A large number of effector candidates have been identified recently in powdery mildew fungi. However, their roles and how they perform their functions remain unresolved. In this study, we made use of host-induced gene silencing and confirmed that the secreted barley powdery mildew effector candid...

  13. A Japanese powdery mildew isolate with exceptionally large infection efficience on Mlo-resistant barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Jensen, H.P.; Østergård, Hanne

    1995-01-01

    A Japanese field isolate (Race I) of Erysiphe graminis f,sp. hordei was tested on 17 barley lines carrying the mlo powdery mildew resistance gene. Race I produced many successful infections with infection type larger than or equal to 2 on six lines (M66, MC20, SR1, SR7, Atem and Totem). On the re...

  14. An Integrated Resource for Barley Linkage Map and Malting Quality QTL Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Szűcs

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Barley ( L. is an economically important model plant for genetics research. Barley is currently served by an increasingly comprehensive set of tools for genetic analysis that have recently been augmented by high-density genetic linkage maps built with gene-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. These SNP-based maps need to be aligned with earlier generation maps, which were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL detection, by integrating multiple types of markers into a single map. A 2383 locus linkage map was developed using the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB Mapping Population to allow such alignments. The map is based on 1472 SNP, 722 DArT, and 189 prior markers which include morphological, simple sequence repeat (SSR, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP, and sequence tagged site (STS loci. This new OWB map forms, therefore, a useful bridge between high-density SNP-only maps and prior QTL reports. The application of this bridge concept is shown using malting-quality QTLs from multiple mapping populations, as reported in the literature. This is the first step toward developing a Barley QTL Community Curation workbook for all types of QTLs and maps, on the GrainGenes website. The OWB-related resources are available at OWB Data and GrainGenes Tools (OWB-DGGT (.

  15. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu; Ahokas, Jukka [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Pahkala, Katri [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Crop Science and Technology, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input-output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (author)

  16. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  17. Methods for the genetic improvement of quality and quantity in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, G.

    1984-01-01

    Improvements of endosperm protein in barley are apparently difficult to combine with high grain yield. The reasons are discussed and the breeding approaches are suggested by which satisfactory yields and good grain quality may be achieved. Considerations are also given to input requirements and stress tolerance. (author)

  18. Simulation of spring barley yield variability in different climatic zones of Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rötter, R P; Palosuo, T; Kersebaum, K C

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the performance of nine widely used and accessible crop growth simulation models (APES-ACE, CROPSYST, DAISY, DSSAT-CERES, FASSET, HERMES, MONICA, STICS and WOFOST) was compared during 44 growing seasons of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at seven sites in Northern and Central...

  19. Fractionation of barley flour using a combination of sieving and air classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of winter barley in areas of the US that are not well suited to grow corn (such as the Mid Atlantic states), makes it a feedstock of choice for fuel ethanol production in those regions. Recently, it was found that the Elusieve process, the combination of sieving and elutriation (air...

  20. Effect of barley roller milling on fractionation of flour using sieving and air classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separation of hulls prior to fermentation of barley flour could increase fuel ethanol productivity and the hulls would be an additional coproduct. In a recent study, it was found that the Elusieve process, a combination of sieving and elutriation (air classification) was effective in separating hul...

  1. Phytochelatin-metal(loid) transport into vacuoles shows different substrate preferences in barley and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Yong; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Lee, Youngsook; Schroeder, Julian I; Ahn, Sang-Nag; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Wicker, Thomas; Martinoia, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) are toxic to all living organisms, including plants and humans. In plants, Cd and As are detoxified by phytochelatins (PCs) and metal(loid)-chelating peptides and by sequestering PC-metal(loid) complexes in vacuoles. Consistent differences have been observed between As and Cd detoxification. Whereas chelation of Cd by PCs is largely sufficient to detoxify Cd, As-PC complexes must be sequestered into vacuoles to be fully detoxified. It is not clear whether this difference in detoxification pathways is ubiquitous among plants or varies across species. Here, we have conducted a PC transport study using vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis and barley. Arabidopsis vacuoles accumulated low levels of PC2 -Cd, and vesicles from yeast cells expressing either AtABCC1 or AtABCC2 exhibited negligible PC2 -Cd transport activity compared with PC2 -As. In contrast, barley vacuoles readily accumulated comparable levels of PC2 -Cd and PC2 -As. PC transport in barley vacuoles was inhibited by vanadate, but not by ammonium, suggesting the involvement of ABC-type transporters. Interestingly, barley vacuoles exhibited enhanced PC2 transport activity when essential metal ions, such as Zn(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II), were added to the transport assay, suggesting that PCs might contribute to the homeostasis of essential metals and detoxification of non-essential toxic metal(loid)s. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Phytochelatin–metal(loid) transport into vacuoles shows different substrate preferences in barley and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Yong; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Lee, Youngsook; Schroeder, Julian I.; Ahn, Sang-Nag; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Wicker, Thomas; Martinoia, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) are toxic to all living organisms, including plants and humans. In plants, Cd and As are detoxified by phytochelatins (PCs) and metal(loid)-chelating peptides and by sequestering PC–metal(loid) complexes in vacuoles. Consistent differences have been observed between As and Cd detoxification. Whereas chelation of Cd by PCs is largely sufficient to detoxify Cd, As–PC complexes must be sequestered into vacuoles to be fully detoxified. It is not clear whether this difference in detoxification pathways is ubiquitous among plants or varies across species. Here, we have conducted a PC transport study using vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis and barley. Arabidopsis vacuoles accumulated low levels of PC2–Cd, and vesicles from yeast cells expressing either AtABCC1 or AtABCC2 exhibited negligible PC2–Cd transport activity compared with PC2–As. In contrast, barley vacuoles readily accumulated comparable levels of PC2–Cd and PC2–As. PC transport in barley vacuoles was inhibited by vanadate, but not by ammonium, suggesting the involvement of ABC-type transporters. Interestingly, barley vacuoles exhibited enhanced PC2 transport activity when essential metal ions, such as Zn(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II), were added to the transport assay, suggesting that PCs might contribute to the homeostasis of essential metals and detoxification of non-essential toxic metal(loid)s. PMID:24313707

  3. Mildew-resistant mutants induced in North American two- and six-rowed malting barley cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Cano, J.L.; Simiand, J.P.; Sopena, A.

    2003-01-01

    Mildew-resistant mutants were induced with sodium azide in three North American malting barley cultivars, two in the six-rowed Ursula (URS1 and URS2), one in the six-rowed Gertrud (GER1), and one in the two-rowed Prudentia (PRU1). Two of the mutants, URS1 and PRU1, showed complete resistance...

  4. Investigation of the indigenous fungal community populating barley grains: Secretomes and xylanolytic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Andersen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    on medium containing barley flour or wheat arabinoxylan as sole carbon source. Their secretomes and xylanase activities were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and enzyme assays and were found to vary according to species and carbon source. Secretomes were dominated by cell wall degrading enzymes with xylanases...

  5. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  6. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    the supernatant were performed by Ni2+-affininty chromatography. The purified fractions were analyzed via SDS-PAGE, western blotting for confirming the presence of HvEPB2 and via activity assaying. Incubation of purified HvEPB2 with Osborne fractionated barley seed storage proteins for 12 hrs revealed after SDS-PAGE...

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation (60CO) on quatitative characters of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, T.C.; Gonzalez, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Seeds od f a barley line were irradiated with doses ranging from O to 64 Kr of gamma radiation for three consecutive generations (R1,R2 and R3). From these, several mutant generations were obtained in the field, planting at a commercial density and without selection. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Identification of quantitative trait loci for ion homeostasis and salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Long, L.; Ribot, S.A.; Dolstra, O.; Niks, R.E.; Visser, R.G.F.; Linden, van der C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Ion homeostasis is considered to be one of the most important mechanisms underlying salt stress tolerance. We used the Steptoe × Morex barley doubled haploid population to screen for genetic variation in response to salinity stress at an early development stage in a hydroponics system, focusing on

  9. Drought and salt tolerances in wild relatives for wheat and barley improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Eviatar; Chen, Guoxiong

    2010-04-01

    Drought and salinity are the major abiotic stresses that dramatically threaten the food supply in the world. Tribe Triticeae, including wheat and barley, possesses tremendous potential for drought and salt tolerance that has been extensively and practically identified, tested, and transferred to wheat cultivars with proven expression of tolerance in experimental trials. Triticum dicoccoides and Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitors of cultivated wheat and barley, have adapted to a broad range of environments and developed rich genetic diversities for drought and salt tolerances. Drought- and salt-tolerant genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified in T. dicoccoides and H. spontaneum and have great potential in wheat and barley improvement. Advanced backcross QTL analysis, the introgression libraries based on wild wheat and wild barley as donors, and positional cloning of natural QTLs will play prevailing roles in elucidating the molecular control of drought and salt tolerance. Combining tolerant genes and QTLs in crop breeding programs aimed at improving tolerance to drought and salinity will be achieved within a multidisciplinary context. Wild genetic resistances to drought and salinity will be shifted in the future from field experiments to the farmer.

  10. Automated Analysis of Barley Organs Using 3D Laser Scanning: An Approach for High Throughput Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Paulus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rise of laser scanning the 3D geometry of plant architecture is easy to acquire. Nevertheless, an automated interpretation and, finally, the segmentation into functional groups are still difficult to achieve. Two barley plants were scanned in a time course, and the organs were separated by applying a histogram-based classification algorithm. The leaf organs were represented by meshing algorithms, while the stem organs were parameterized by a least-squares cylinder approximation. We introduced surface feature histograms with an accuracy of 96% for the separation of the barley organs, leaf and stem. This enables growth monitoring in a time course for barley plants. Its reliability was demonstrated by a comparison with manually fitted parameters with a correlation R2 = 0:99 for the leaf area and R2 = 0:98 for the cumulated stem height. A proof of concept has been given for its applicability for the detection of water stress in barley, where the extension growth of an irrigated and a non-irrigated plant has been monitored.

  11. Calibration and validation of the crop growth model daisy for spring barley in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohanková, Eva; Hlavinka, Petr; Takáč, J.; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 4 (2015), s. 1177-1186 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Tolar * Crop growth model * daisy * Field experiments * Growth dynamics * Phenology * Spring barley Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Effect of Sorghum -Barley Brewer's Spent Grain as a Feed Ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine if the inclusion of Sorghum-Barley Brewer's Spent Grain (SBBSG) in broiler diets will affect growth performance and carcass characteristics. A total of 380 Ross broiler chicks were brooded on a common diet without SBBSG for 28 days after which they were randomly assigned to ...

  13. Effects of partial replacement of barley with sugar beet pulp on pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen Zel ewes (BW = 37 ± 3.10 kg) were used in a completely randomized design to determine the effects of partial replacement of barley grain with beet pulp (BP), during late pregnancy and early lactation, on litter weight, lamb's daily gain, milk yield and milk composition. Dietary treatments were initiated approximately ...

  14. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes under Salinity Stress during the Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runhong Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop productivity. Identification of the potential novel genes responsible for salt tolerance in barley will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of barley responses to salt stress. We compared changes in transcriptome between Hua 11 (a salt-tolerant genotype and Hua 30 (a salt sensitive genotype in response to salt stress at the seedling stage using barley cDNA microarrays. In total, 557 and 247 salt-responsive genes were expressed exclusively in the shoot and root tissue of the salt-tolerant genotype, respectively. Among these genes, a number of signal-related genes, transcription factors and compatible solutes were identified and some of these genes were carefully discussed. Notably, a LysM RLK was firstly found involved in salt stress response. Moreover, key enzymes in the pathways of jasmonic acid biosynthesis, lipid metabolism and indole-3-acetic acid homeostasis were specifically affected by salt stress in salt tolerance genotype. These salt-responsive genes and biochemical pathways identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of salt tolerance in barley.

  15. miR172 down-regulates the translation of cleistogamy 1 in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floret opening in barley is induced by the swelling of the lodicule, a trait under the control of the cleistogamy1 (cly1) gene. The product of cly1 is a member of the APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factor family, which inhibits lodicule development. A sequence polymorphism at the miR172 target site wi...

  16. Regeneration of the Barley Zygote in In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2010-01-01

    and regeneration frequencies. Fifty plants of each cultivar were randomly chosen and grown to maturity in the greenhouse and all developed to phenotypically normal and fertile plants. We have used the system to develop an Agrobacterium mediated transformation procedure for barley ovules, which is largely genotype...

  17. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas Michel René; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager

    2009-01-01

    into the pGreenII binary vector. The genes have been inserted into barley by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene for selection of transformed lines on hygromycin. In this system, the resistance gene is placed on the helper plasmid pSoup allowing for separate...

  18. Abscisic acid and 14-3-3 proteins control K+ channel activity in barley embryonic root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wijngaard, P.W.J.; Sinnige, M.P.; Roobeek, I.; Reumer, C.G.; Mol, J.N.M.; Wang, M.; de Boer, A.H.; Schoonheim, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Germination of seeds proceeds in general in two phases, an initial imbibition phase and a subsequent growth phase. In grasses like barley, the latter phase is evident as the emergence of the embryonic root (radicle). The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits germination because it prevents the embryo

  19. Influence of Sowing, Nitrogen Nutrition and Weather Conditions on Stand Structure and Yield of Spring Barley

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, J.; Klem, Karel; Svobodová, I.; Míša, P.; Lukas, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2015), s. 326-335 ISSN 0133-3720 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI111A133 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : spring barley * yield formation * tillers formation and differentiation * genotype plasticity * grain quality Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2015

  20. Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the availability of metals and their accumulation in maize and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, E.; Alonso-Azcarate, J.; Rodriguez, L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. on metal availability in two mining soils was assessed by means of chemical extraction methods and a pot experiment using crop plants. Results from single and sequential extractions showed that L. terrestris had a slight effect on metal fractionation in the studied soils: only metals bound to the soil organic matter were significantly increased in some cases. However, we found that L. terrestris significantly increased root, shoot and total Pb and Zn concentrations in maize and barley for the soil with the highest concentrations of total and available metals. Specifically, shoot Pb concentration was increased by a factor of 7.5 and 3.9 for maize and barley, respectively, while shoot Zn concentration was increased by a factor of 3.7 and 1.7 for maize and barley, respectively. Our results demonstrated that earthworm activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. - Research highlights: → Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. → Earthworm activity can significantly increase total, shoot and root metal concentrations for crop plants. → Both bioassays and chemical extraction methods are necessary for assessing the bioavailability of metals in contaminated soils. - Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils and total, shoot and root metal concentrations for maize and barley.