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Sample records for barleria lupulina lindl

  1. Evaluation of anti-HSV-2 activities of Barleria lupulina and Clinacanthus nutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosook, C; Panpisutchai, Y; Chaichana, S; Santisuk, T; Reutrakul, V

    1999-11-01

    Barleria lupulina Lindl. and Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau, both belonging to the family Acantaceae, are well-known medicinal plants used in Thai folklore medicine. Virucidal effects of organic extracts of these two plants against herpes simplex virus type 2 strain G, HSV-2 (G), the standard HSV-2 strain were noted. The extracts were assessed for intracellular activities against HSV-2 (G) and five clinical HSV-2 isolates. B. lupulina extract exhibited activity against all five isolates but not the standard strain while that of C. nutans did not show any activity against these viruses as determined by plaque inhibition assay. When the activities were verified by yield reduction assay, anti-HSV-2 activities of B. lupulina extract were observed against HSV-2 (G) as well. The results suggest a therapeutic potential of B. lupulina but not C. nutans against HSV-2. PMID:10619382

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXTRACT OF SUCCULENT LEAVES OF LIVING PLANT WITH METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BERLERIA LUPULINA LINDL. AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROBES BY DISC DIFFUSION AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berleria lupulina Lindl. was evaluated for its reported antimicrobial activity in a novel way. The extract of succulent leaves collected from living plant was studied along with conventional methanolic and watery extracts made from the dry leaves of the plant. The extracts were tested on three pathogenic bacteria and the antimicrobial activity was tested both by conventional single disc diffusion method and a novel Spectrophotometric method. In disc diffusion study, it was found that the methanolic extract (100 mg/ml. and 200 mg/ ml. diluted in 70% of methanol and extract of succulent leaves can induce 12 mm, 13 mm and 14 mm diameter zone of inhibition comparable with 24 mm of Ceftriaxone against Escherichia coli. The zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus were 13 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 25 mm and against Salmonella enteritides were 12 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 28 mm correspondingly. The watery extract made from the dry plant and the methanolic extract diluted in water failed to induce any inhibition in growth of the organisms. In spectrophotometric study, the methanolic extract showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 10 mg/ml. or above against Salmonella enteritides and Staphylococcus aureus. But against Escherichia coli, effective control was found in 20 mg/ml concentration. The fresh extract of the plant showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 16.5%. The anti microbial efficacy above that concentration cannot be detected in the available spectrophotometrical method for presence of color material in that fresh extract.

  3. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 4. Variation in the saponin content of M. lupulina

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    Piotr M. Górski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The saponin content in the tops of black medic trefoil cv. Renata as well as in some botanical and breeding lines of M. lupulina was analysed. It was found that the concentration of biologically active (hemolytically active saponins in the tops of M. lupulina cv. Renata was 2.5% of dry matter. Total saponin content was 3.5% of dry matter. Among 500 individually analysed plants of the Renata variety, the saponin contents ranged from 0.07 to 0.5% in the leaf sap. No saponin-free plant was found. The saponin content was additionally analysed in 300 breeding and 11 botanical lines of M. lupulina. Great differences in that material were found but no saponin-free line was present. The saponin content in the particular plant parts as well as in the whole tops of M. lupulina throughout the vegetation season was also measured. The possibility and necessity of the selection for a low saponin population of M. lupulina is discussed.

  4. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 4. Variation in the saponin content of M. lupulina

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr M. Górski; Marian Jurzysta; Stanisław Burda; Wiesław A. Oleszek; Michał Płoszyński

    2014-01-01

    The saponin content in the tops of black medic trefoil cv. Renata as well as in some botanical and breeding lines of M. lupulina was analysed. It was found that the concentration of biologically active (hemolytically active) saponins in the tops of M. lupulina cv. Renata was 2.5% of dry matter. Total saponin content was 3.5% of dry matter. Among 500 individually analysed plants of the Renata variety, the saponin contents ranged from 0.07 to 0.5% in the leaf sap. No saponin-free plant was foun...

  5. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 1. Isolation and identification of sapogenins from M. lupulina tops

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    Piotr M. Górski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Saponins from M. lupulina tops were investigated for the first time. Eight aglycones were found in the acid hydrolysates of saponins. All of the aglycones were isolated. On the basis of chromatography, mass spectrometry and infrared spectrometry the aglycanes were identified as soyasapogenols B, C, D, E, F and medicagenic acid. Two new aglycones were also isolated and identified as pentacyclic triterpens of β-amyrin structure. Both possess a methyl ester group which is rarely present in nature.

  6. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 1. Isolation and identification of sapogenins from M. lupulina tops

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr M. Górski; Marian Jurzysta; Stanisław Burda; Wiesław A. Oleszek; Michał Płoszyński

    2014-01-01

    Saponins from M. lupulina tops were investigated for the first time. Eight aglycones were found in the acid hydrolysates of saponins. All of the aglycones were isolated. On the basis of chromatography, mass spectrometry and infrared spectrometry the aglycanes were identified as soyasapogenols B, C, D, E, F and medicagenic acid. Two new aglycones were also isolated and identified as pentacyclic triterpens of β-amyrin structure. Both possess a methyl ester group which is rarely present in nature.

  7. BARLERIA CRISTATA LINN.: PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND HPTLC ANALYSIS

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    Rajasekaran Narmadha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical examination (qualitative and quantitative and HPTLC analysis of phytochemicals of the crude extract Barleria cristata Linn. leaves were investigated. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of the leaves revealed the presence of compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, proteins, phenolic groups, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. HPTLC finger printing analysis support the presence of alkaloids and phenolic compounds (Quercetin in this plant extract. The present study provides information with respect to phytochemicals of Barleria cristata L.

  8. BARLERIA CRISTATA LINN.: PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND HPTLC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran Narmadha; Kanakasabapathi Devaki

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical examination (qualitative and quantitative) and HPTLC analysis of phytochemicals of the crude extract Barleria cristata Linn. leaves were investigated. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of the leaves revealed the presence of compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, proteins, phenolic groups, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. HPTLC finger printing analysis support the presence of alkaloids and phenolic compounds (Quercetin) in this...

  9. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 3. Effect of M. Iupulina saponins on the growth and feed utilization by mice

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr M. Górski; Marian Jurzysta; Stanisław Burda; Wiesław A. Oleszek; Michał Płoszyński

    2014-01-01

    The effect of M. lupulina saponins on the growth of mice and feed utilization was investigated. The nutritive value of diets containing different amounts of M. lupulina meal or saponins was evaluated using a diet containing clover meal as the control. Feeding expermients revealed that M. lupulina meal in concentrations higher than 5% in the diet caused significant growth depression in mice. The diet containing 30% M. lupulina meal was toxic to mice. It was shown that the fraction of saponins ...

  10. Assessment of effectiveness of Barleria prionitis on oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Devanand Gupta; Rajendra Kumar Gupta; Ankita Jain; Suresh Bindhumadhav; Sangeeta; Purnima Garg; Saurabh Chaturvedi; Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Barleria prionitis extract mouthwash in comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on the oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups, B. prionitis group and the CHX gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesk...

  11. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 6. Some chemical characteristics and biological activity of root saponins

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    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The saponin fraction of black medic trefoil (Medicago lupulina roots was isolated and purified. Its hydrolysis afforded several aglycones that have been identified by spectral and chemical properties as medicagenic acid, hederagenine and soyasapogenols: B, C, D, E and F. They made up, respectively. 46.9 and 45% of total sapogenins isolated. Two-dimensional TLC of M. lupulina root saponins revealed fourteen compounds, two of which were medicagenic acid glycosides. The haemolytic, antifungal and allelopathic activities of M. lupulina and M. media roots are compared and discussed.

  12. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SAPONIN FRACTION FROM THE LEAVES OF BARLERIA CRISTATA L.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Victor Arokia Doss et al

    2012-01-01

    A simple HPTLC method was used to determine the saponin profile of Barleria cristata L. crude leaf extract. The antimicrobial activity of saponin fraction from the leaves of Barleria cristata L. was studied in-vitro against four bacterial species and four fungal species by agar disc diffusion method. Klebsiella Pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus parasites were the most inhibited microorganism. The present study suggests that the saponin fraction possess significant antimic...

  13. ANTIHEPATOTOXIC EFFECT OF BARLERIA MONTANA LEAVES AGAINST ANTI-TB DRUGS INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY

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    Jyothi Basini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective activity of 95% hydroalcoholic extract of Barleria Montana leaves against anti-TB drugs induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced by anti-TB drugs once daily for 35 days and simultaneously 95% hydroalcoholic extract of Barleria Montana (250 & 500 mg/kg p.o. was administered one hour prior administration of anti-TB drugs. Silymarin was used as standard drug (100 mg/kg p.o.. Results: Elevated levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TB & total cholesterol and decreased total HDL following anti-TB drugs administration. Pretreatment of 95% hydroalcoholic extract of Barleria Montana with anti-TB drugs were significantly reduced biochemical markers and increased total HDL. In vivo antioxidant parameters such as SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx and GRx were suppressed in hepatic control animals. Pre treatment of 95% hydroalcoholic extract of Barleria Montana with anti-TB drugs significantly reduced lipid per oxidation and increased antioxidant activities. Conclusion: The result of the present study was indicated that Barleria Montana showed protective effect on liver toxicity induced by anti-TB drugs might be attributed to its antioxidant activity.

  14. ANTIHEPATOTOXIC EFFECT OF BARLERIA MONTANA LEAVES AGAINST ANTI-TB DRUGS INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY

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    Jyothi Basini; S. Mohana lakshmi; K.Anitha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective activity of 95% hydroalcoholic extract of Barleria Montana leaves against anti-TB drugs induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced by anti-TB drugs once daily for 35 days and simultaneously 95% hydroalcoholic extract of Barleria Montana (250 & 500 mg/kg p.o.) was administered one hour prior administration of anti-TB drugs. Silymarin was used as standard drug (100 mg/kg p.o.). Results: Elevated levels of...

  15. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SAPONIN FRACTION FROM THE LEAVES OF BARLERIA CRISTATA L.

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    D. Victor Arokia Doss et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple HPTLC method was used to determine the saponin profile of Barleria cristata L. crude leaf extract. The antimicrobial activity of saponin fraction from the leaves of Barleria cristata L. was studied in-vitro against four bacterial species and four fungal species by agar disc diffusion method. Klebsiella Pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus parasites were the most inhibited microorganism. The present study suggests that the saponin fraction possess significant antimicrobial activity and can be used to develop a potential antimicrobial agent.

  16. Assessment of Effectiveness of Barleria prionitis on Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devanand; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Jain, Ankita; Bindhumadhav, Suresh; Sangeeta; Garg, Purnima; Chaturvedi, Saurabh; Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Barleria prionitis extract mouthwash in comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on the oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups, B. prionitis group and the CHX gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the effect of the two drug regime. Results: Our result showed that the CHX and the B. prionitis were statistically equally effective against dental plaque. Although the action of CHX was more pronounced. Conclusions: This study has confirmed antimicrobial potential of the plant B. prionitis, thus supporting its folklore application as preventive remedy against oral microbial diseases. SUMMARY Within the limitation of this trial, herbal mouthwash has been shown to demonstrate similar effects on plaque as compared to the standard drug CHX. Further long term research needs to be done to check the efficacy and effectiveness of herbal products over standard drug regime. PMID:27365983

  17. In vitro antioxidant activity of Barleria noctiflora L. f.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangilimuthu Alagar Yadav; Anitha Jabamalai Raj; R Sathishkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of defatted methanol extract of Barleria noctiflora (B. noctiflora) L.f. leaf and root using in vitro models. Methods: DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferrous reducing power, Fe2+ chelating activity assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity ABTS.+ radical cation decolourisation assay, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities were studied. Results: The extracts showed good antioxidant capacity in DPPH radical scavenging assay, when compared to other in vitro models and the IC50 value were found to be 150 μg/mL in leaf extract and 140 μg/mL in root extract. The total phenolic content using Folin's-Ciocalteu reagent indicated that 1 mg of leaf and root extracts contain 368 μg and 481 μg with gallic acid equivalent and also the total flavonoid content found to be 240 μg and 410μg respectively with quercetin equivalence. Conclusion: The results showed that the antioxidant potential of the extracts is high in root extract compared to the leaf extract. This is the first ever report of antioxidant studies in B. noctiflora L. f.

  18. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 5. Isolation and chemical characterization of blossom saponins

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Jurzysta; Stanisław Burda; Wiesław Oleszek; Piotr Górski; Michał Płoszyński

    2014-01-01

    The separation of saponins derived from Medicago lupulina L. flowers yielded two saponin fractions. The first one, made up of crystalline saponins, readily precipitable from water solution, was a mixture of three glycosides of soyasapogenol B. Acid hydrolysis of these saponins yielded soyasapogenol B and its three artifacts: soyasapogenols C. D and F. Xylose, rhamnose, galactose, glucose and glucuronic acid were found as sugar constituents. The second fraction obtained by cholesterol precipit...

  19. Micromorphology of leaf surface of Coelogyne Lindl. species (Orchidaceae Juss.) in greenhouse conditions

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    Alexander G. Gyrenko

    2013-01-01

    The micromorphological characteristics of both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of the plants of five Coelogyne Lindl. species (C. assamicaLinden & Rchb.f., C. brachyptera Rchb.f., C. cumingii Lindl., C. fimbriataLindl., C. lentiginosaLindl.) under glasshouse conditions have been described.

  20. Micromorphology of leaf surface of Coelogyne Lindl. species (Orchidaceae Juss. in greenhouse conditions

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    Alexander G. Gyrenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphological characteristics of both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of the plants of five Coelogyne Lindl. species (C. assamicaLinden & Rchb.f., C. brachyptera Rchb.f., C. cumingii Lindl., C. fimbriataLindl., C. lentiginosaLindl. under glasshouse conditions have been described.

  1. Chemical constituents of Habenaria petalodes Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Betania B.; Siqueira, Ezequias P.; Alvesa, Tania M.A.; Zani, Carlos L. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: zani@cpqrr.fiocruz.br; Magalhaes, Alvicler [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeirop, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico de Farmacos; Pimenta, Adriano M.C. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    2008-07-01

    Habenarioside, a new natural product identified as [(2R)-2-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-(2-methylpropyl) -1,4- dioxo-1,4-butanediyl]bis(oxymethylene-4,1-phenylene) bis-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, along with two known related metabolites, loroglossin and militarin, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant Habenaria petalodes Lindl. (Orchidaceae). The flavonoids isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, and isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated. The structures of all compounds were established by analysis of their MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and comparison with published data. (author)

  2. Chemical constituents of Habenaria petalodes Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habenarioside, a new natural product identified as [(2R)-2-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-(2-methylpropyl) -1,4- dioxo-1,4-butanediyl]bis(oxymethylene-4,1-phenylene) bis-β-D-glucopyranoside, along with two known related metabolites, loroglossin and militarin, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant Habenaria petalodes Lindl. (Orchidaceae). The flavonoids isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated. The structures of all compounds were established by analysis of their MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and comparison with published data. (author)

  3. [Development of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Highly Responsive and Mycotrophic Host Plant-Black Medick (Medicago lupulina L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkova, A P; Jacobi, L M; Gapeeva, N E; Stepanova, G V; Shishova, M F

    2015-01-01

    The main phases of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) development were analyzed in black medick (Medicago lupulina) with Glomus intraradices. Methods of light and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate AM. The first mycorrhization was identified on the seventh day after sowing. M. lupulina with AM-fungus Glomus intraradices formed Arum type of AM. Roots of black medick at fruiting stage (on the 88th day) were characterized by the development of forceful mycelium. The thickness of mycelium was comparable with the vascular system of root central cylinder. The development of vesicules into intraradical spores was shown. Micelium, arbuscules, and vesicules developed in close vicinity to the division zone of root tip. This might be evidence of an active symbiotic interaction between partners. All stages of fungal development and breeding, including intraradical spores (in inter-cellular matrix of root cortex), were identified in the roots of black medick, which indicated an active utilization of host plant nutrient substrates by the mycosymbiont. Plant cell cytoplasm extension was identified around young arbuscular branches but not for intracellular hyphae. The presence of active symbiosis was confirmed by increased accumulation of phosphorus in M. lupulina root tissues under conditions of G. intraradices inoculation and low phosphorus level in the soil. Thus, black medick cultivar-population can be characterized as an ecologically obligate mycotrophic plant under conditions of low level of available phosphorus in the soil. Specific features of AM development in intensively mycotrophic black medick, starting from the stage of the first true leaf until host plant fruiting, were evaluated. The obtained plant-microbe system is a perspective model object for further ultracytological and molecular genetic studies of the mechanisms controlling arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiotic efficiency, including selection and investigation of new symbiotic plant mutants. PMID

  4. In Vivo Assessment of Antioxidants and Antihyperglycemic Effect of Barleria cristata leaves in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Narmadha Rajasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many new bioactive drugs isolated from plants having hypoglycaemic effects showed anti diabetic activity equal and sometimes even more potent than known oral hypoglycaemic agents. In this present study, designed to evaluate antihyperglycermic and antioxidants effect on ethanolic leaf extracts Barleria cristata (EtBc in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at dose level 400mg/kg body weight for the treatment of 45 days. Method and materials: The experimental rats were randomly divided into five groups as a control, streptozotocin induced with diabetes (45mg/kg bw without any treatment, treated with standard drug glibenclamide (1.25 mg/kg bw, EtBc (400 mg/kg bw in diabetic induced rats and treated with EtBc alone without diabetic rats. At the end of 45th day animals were sacrificed, collect the serum, liver, kidney and pancreas for estimate the glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin in serum, protein, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in tissues. Results: After the administration of EtBc, blood glucose levels were showed significantly reduction (P<0.05 in diabetic rats and it has been observed alternation occured in body and organ weight and it was also normalized the serum level of glycemic profile like insulin, C-peptide, total hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin levels similar to that of control rats. Antioxidants enzymes were return to back their levels as control in different tissues when compared to diabetic rats and also observed no significance difference between control and EtBc alone group rats at the end of 45th day. Therefore it was suggested that Barleria cristata may act by potentiation of pancreatic secretion of insulin or increasing glucose uptake by muscle cells. Conclusion: In this study, suggested the efficacy of Barleria cristata proved the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and may be used as a therapeutic agent in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  5. CONSTITUENTS OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF CHIMONANTHUS ERA GRANCE LINDLE

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    KATAYOUN JAVIDN1A; RAMTN MIRI; MARYAM CHERIKI ABBAS SHAFIEE

    1999-01-01

    The constituent of the essential oil ofChimonanthus fragrance Lindle (Calycanthaceae) were characterized by GLC and GC/MS. Twenty components representing 97% of the oil composition of which fifteen were sesquiterpenes were identified. The major components were p-Elemene, p-Caryophyllene, y-Cadinene, y-Bisabolene, p-EIemenone and a-Eudesmol.

  6. Evaluation of three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea for Phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Amer, Nasser; Bitar, Lina Al; Mondelli, Donato; Dumontet, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The success of phytoremediation depends upon the identification of suitable plants species that hyperaccumulate/tolerate heavy metals and produce large amounts of biomass. In this study, three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea, were grown hydroponically to assess their potential use in phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn and biomass production. The objective of this research is to improve phytoremediation procedures by searching for a new endemic Mediterranean plant species which can be used for phytoremediation of low/moderate contamination in the Mediterranean arid and semiarid conditions and bioenergy production. The hydroponics experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using half strength Hoagland's solution as control (CTR) and 5 concentrations for Pb and Zn (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) and 3 concentrations for Ni (1, 2, and 5 mg L-1). Complete randomized design with five replications was adopted. Main growth parameters (shoot and root dry weight, shoot and root length and chlorophyll content) were determined. Shoots and roots were analyzed for their metals contents. Some interesting contributions of this research are: (i) plant metal uptake efficiency ranked as follows: A. halimus > M. lupulina > P. oleracea, whereas heavy metal toxicity ranked as follows: Ni > Zn > Pb, (ii) none of the plant species was identified as hyperaccumulator, (iii) Atriplex halimus and Medicago lupulina can accumulate Ni, Pb and Zn in their roots, (iv) translocate small fraction to their above ground biomass, and (v) indicate moderate pollution levels of the environment. In addition, as they are a good biomass producer, they can be used in phytostabilisation of marginal lands and their above ground biomass can be used for livestock feeding as well for bioenergy production.

  7. Facile biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Barleria cristata: mosquitocidal potential and biotoxicity on three non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of important pathogens and parasites, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic mosquitocides often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular biosynthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, the impact of these nanomosquitocides against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. In this research, we biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the Barleria cristata leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of Ag NP was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of Ag NP. The presence of silver was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may also act as Ag NP capping agents. The acute toxicity of B. cristata leaf extract and biosynthesized Ag NP was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with lethal concentration (LC)50 values of 12.46, 13.49, and 15.01 μg/mL, respectively. Notably, biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus, Anisops bouvieri, and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 633.26 to 866.92 μg/mL. Overall, our results highlight that B. cristata-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against young instar populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance. PMID:26555876

  8. Re-Establishment of the Genus Ania Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Yan, Hai-Fei; Niu, Miao; Tu, Tie-Yao; Li, Shi-Jin; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Ania Lindl. is a small genus of the tribe Collabieae subtribe Collabiinae (Orchidaceae). For the last 150 years, it has generally been treated as a synonym of Tainia Blume. In this study, we critically re-examined morphological characters that have been used to distinguish Ania from Tainia, and assessed the phylogeny of Tainia using morphological and palynological characters. Sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS, chloroplast trnL intron and combined DNA data sets were analysed to clarify the delimitation and the phylogeny of these groups. The morphological and palynological survey revealed a number of useful diagnostic characters which permit a clear definition of Ania, after the exclusion of a single taxonomically questionable species. Results confirmed that Ania is distinct from Tainia. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on molecular data provided the greatest resolution and produced a morphologically well differentiated clade of Ania. In addition to morphological and suggested palynological characters, the phylogenies were also supported by karyological evidence. Our results support the independent generic status of Ania. The genus name Ania is revived and re-established. PMID:25047255

  9. A Novel Flavonoid Glucoside from Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Eight compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate- and n-butanol-soluble fractions of the ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Anoectochilus roxburghii(Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae). On the basis of spectroscopic methods,the structures of these compounds were elucidated as quercetin-7-O-β-D-[6"-O-(trans-feruloyl)]-glucopyranoside (compound 1), 8-C-p-Hydroxybenzylquercetin (compound 2), isorhamnetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 4), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 5), kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 6), 5-hydroxy-3',4',7-trimethoxyflavonol-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (compound 7), and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (compound 8). Of the compounds isolated, compound 1 was a new flavonoid glucoside and exhibited strong scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, whereas the ethanolic extract showed weak activity. Compounds 2-8 were obtained from this family for the first time.

  10. Cryopreservation of Dendrobium heterocarpum Lindl. via encapsulation-dehydration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witaya Pimda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The species Dendrobium heterocarpum Lindl., a wild orchid native to north and northeastThailand, creates an aura of mystique and grandeur with their intricate flower appearance which enthralsmany collectors within the country. An increase in collection for trade or any orther purposes may lead toa dramatic decrase in the population of this species, thus becoming rare or endangered species in thenear future. Cryopreservation is an alternative means for conservation of plant genetic resourceswhich can be applied to this species. This study, therefore, was aimed to optimize the conditions forencapsulation-dehydration method in D. heterocarpum. The protocorms were successfully cryopreservedas the following protocol. The protocorms were encapsulated with Ca-alginate, precultured on solid NDmedium supplemented with 0.25 M sucrose for 1 week in the dark at 0°C and subsequently preculturedin liquid ND medium supplemented with 0.25 M sucrose for 2 days in the dark at 0°C. Then, they weredehydrated by air-drying for 12 hours and plunged into LN for 1 day. Recovery percentage was 8.33%after 2 weeks of regrowth. However, preculture with ABA was found to insufficiently enhance freezingand thawing tolerance. TTC staining was negative and further regrowth on solid ND medium confirmedno survival of the cryopreserved protocorms.

  11. Syringa oblata Lindl var. alba as a source of oleuropein and related compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenadis, N.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Tsimidou, M.Z.

    2007-01-01

    The leaf methanol extract of Syringa oblata Lindl var. alba was investigated as a source of oleuropein and related compounds. The extract had a high total phenol content and a radical scavenging activity similar to that of the respective extract from Olea europaea leaves. HPLC-DAD characterisation o

  12. Factors affecting seed germination and protocorm development of Vandopsis gigantea (Lindl.) Pfitz. in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Thibul, S.; Jantasilp, A.

    2006-01-01

    Seeds of Vandopsis gigantea (Lindl.) Pfitz. germinated with highest percentage of 60.62±7.24% on modified VW (Vacin and Went, 1949) medium supplemented with coconut water under light condition. Light not only caused seed germination percentage significantly higher than in darkness (p

  13. De sectie Corylifolii Lindl. en verwanten van het genus Rubus L. in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van de Bram

    2014-01-01

    In het kader van het voorbereiden van de checklist van de Nederlandse bramen was er dringend behoefte aan een herziening van de sectie Corylifolii Lindl.. Dit artikel voorziet daarin. De volgende nieuwe taxa werden beschreven: — Nieuwe sectie: Subidaei (Focke) A.Beek. Omdat de Subidaei in een andere

  14. UJI VIABILITAS BENIH ANGGREK HITAM (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl. DENGAN MASA SIMPAN YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEMY CLAUDIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl. is an epiphytic orchid spesies that iscurrently endangered. To protect and maintain the genetic resources it is necessary to find theproper way to store seeds in a long time. The purpose this study is to determine the viability ofthe black orchid seeds sowed in organic medium with different storage period. The result showedthat the seeds sown in fresh condition has the highest percentage of growth up to 60%, seedswith storage period of 2 weeks has growth percentage of 20%, while the storage period of 4weeks has growth percentage of 2.5%. The growth phase of sowed seeds in fresh condition andseeds storage in 2 weeks periode is phase 4 (second leaf formed embryo and seeds storage in 2weeks periode is phase 2 (green embryo. This suggest that the storage condition of black orchidseeds is influence physiology and seed viability.Keywords: Coelogyne pandurata Lindl., seed viability, storage periode

  15. AKLIMATISASI ANGGREK HITAM (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl.) HASIL PERBANYAKAN IN VITRO PADA MEDIA BERBEDA

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Kade Ayu Purnama Adi; Ida Ayu Astarini; Ni Putu Adriani Astiti

    2014-01-01

    Black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl.) is an orchid endemic to the island ofBorneo. However, its existence is increasingly threatened with extinction. Conventionalpropagation efforts require a long time. Therefore in vitro propagation was performed. Thepurpose of this study was to determine the growth response of black orchids on the media anddifferent planting techniques. Black orchid plantlets that have been sub-cultured wasacclimatized in four different media types ie moss, fern, wood c...

  16. UJI VIABILITAS BENIH ANGGREK HITAM (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl.) DENGAN MASA SIMPAN YANG BERBEDA

    OpenAIRE

    VEMY CLAUDIA; IDA AYU ASTARINI; SANG KETUT SUDIRGA

    2013-01-01

    The black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl.) is an epiphytic orchid spesies that iscurrently endangered. To protect and maintain the genetic resources it is necessary to find theproper way to store seeds in a long time. The purpose this study is to determine the viability ofthe black orchid seeds sowed in organic medium with different storage period. The result showedthat the seeds sown in fresh condition has the highest percentage of growth up to 60%, seedswith storage period of 2 weeks has...

  17. Agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Marchezi Mora; Adriane Marinho de Assis; Lilian Yukari Yamamoto; Kathia Fernandes Lopes Pivetta; Ricardo Tadeu Faria

    2015-01-01

    For orchid cultivation in containers is essential to select the right substrate, since this will influence the quality of the final product, it serve as a support for the root system of the plants. This study aimed to evaluate different agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation. The plants were subjected to treatments: pinus husk + carbonized rice husk, pinus husk + coffee husk, pinus husk + fibered coconut, pecan nut husk, expanded clay, fibered coc...

  18. Characterization and antioxidant activity of a novel polysaccharide from Pholidota chinensis Lindl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haihua; Wu, Yongjie; Gan, Chunji; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong

    2016-03-15

    A novel polysaccharide (PP) was isolated and purified from Pholidota chinensis Lindl. The structure of PP was investigated by HPLC, IR, NMR, etc. and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion assay. Results showed Pholidota chinensis Lindl. contained 3.35% (dry weight) of polysaccharides. The salt-out assay was better than sevag assay for removing protein from crude polysaccharides. The intrinsic viscosity of PP was 1.55dL/g and its average molecular weight was 45,200Da. The monosaccharide composition analysis showed that PP consisted of mannose only. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that PP was mainly composed of α-1,3 and α-1,4 linked d-mannose units with some 2-O- and 3-O-acetyl groups. Moreover, PP can scavenge superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that PP may be a potential nature antioxidant and may contribute to the analgesic activity of Pholidota chinensis Lindl. PMID:26794769

  19. AKLIMATISASI ANGGREK HITAM (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl. HASIL PERBANYAKAN IN VITRO PADA MEDIA BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Kade Ayu Purnama Adi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl. is an orchid endemic to the island ofBorneo. However, its existence is increasingly threatened with extinction. Conventionalpropagation efforts require a long time. Therefore in vitro propagation was performed. Thepurpose of this study was to determine the growth response of black orchids on the media anddifferent planting techniques. Black orchid plantlets that have been sub-cultured wasacclimatized in four different media types ie moss, fern, wood charcoal, wood charcoal andcoconut fiber mixture and different planting techniques namely compot (community pot andthe individual, were allowed to grow for three months. Randomized block design (RBD wasutilised, obtained 8 combination treatments, with 7 replicates. The results showed blackorchid has a good growth response in the media moss, ferns, and a mixture of wood charcoaland coconut fiber, while the wood charcoal media showed unfavorable results. Differentplanting techniques showed no significant results. Percentage of high life shown in mixedmedia wood charcoal and coconut fiber and compot techniques.Keyword : Black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl., acclimatization, media

  20. Biomorphologische und Umwelt Arten der Gattung Marribium L., der Familie der Lamiaceae Lindl., Weit verbreitet in der Flora der Autonomen Republik Nachitschewan

    OpenAIRE

    Alekperow Ramiz

    2015-01-01

    (Lamiaceae Lindl) Dieser Beitrag stellt biomorphologische, Umwelteigenschaften, Lebensraumtypen und die Perspektiven der zur Gattung Marrubium L., Familie der Lippenblütler gehörenden Arten, gemeinsame in der Flora der Autonomen Republik Nachitschewan.

  1. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

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    Rossana Podestá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  2. In vitro seed germination and seedling growth of Calanthe discolor Lindl

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    Bae Kee Hwa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and culture medium on embryo swelling and germination of Calanthe discolor Lindl., and established a method for determining the swelling and protocorm formation of C. discolor seeds via in vitro examination of immature seeds. Treatment of immature seeds with NaOCl greatly enhanced the extent of embryo swelling and protocorm formation of immature zygote embryos compared to seeds without NaOCl treatment. The effects of the culture media were also evaluated with regard to embryo swelling and protocorm formation of in vitro cultured seeds with and without NaOCl treatment. Additionally, the effects of white fluorescent light and red and blue LED lights on seedling growth in in vitro culture were examined. The most suitable condition for seedling growth after 12 weeks of culture was the red LED light with POM medium. These results show effective asymbiotic germination and growth of C. discolor.

  3. Bioguided identification of antifungal and antiproliferative compounds from the Brazilian orchid Miltonia flavescens Lindl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Leticia F; Santin, Silvana M O; Chiavelli, Lucas U R; Silva, Cleuza C; Faria, Terezinha J; Faria, Ricardo T; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Carvalho, João E; Pomini, Armando M

    2014-01-01

    The Orchidaceae family is appreciated worldwide for the beauty of its flowers, and hundreds of species of this family occur in Brazil. Yet little is known about the potential of orchids for therapeutic application. We have investigated bioactive compounds produced by the South Brazilian orchid Miltonia flavescens Lindl. Bioguided studies with the fungus Cladosporium herbarum allowed the identification of hydrocinnamic acid as the active antifungal compound. In addition, the chloroform fraction exhibited an interesting activity against human cancer cells, and 5,7-dihydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyflavone isolated from this fraction was found to be active against seven human cancer cell lines, including NCI/ADR-RES ovary sarcoma, with an IC50 value of 2.6 microg/mL. This is the first report on the cytostatic activity of this flavone against human ovary sarcoma. PMID:24772822

  4. Extraction optimization of polyphenols, antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities from Prunus salicina Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin LI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Optimization of polyphenols extraction from plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. was evaluated using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken experimental results showed the optimal conditions involved an extraction temperature of 59 °C, a sonication time of 47 min, and an ethanol concentration of 61% respectively. The maximum extraction yield of total polyphenols was 44.74 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dried plum at optimal conditions. Polyphenol extracts exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than Vc by evaluating of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, polyphenol extracts (IC50 = 179 g/mL showed obvious inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase. These findings suggest that polyphenol extracts from P. salicina can be potentially used as natural antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory agents.

  5. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol–water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat ass...

  6. Effects of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of four crop and weed plants

    OpenAIRE

    AYEB, Asma EL; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2013-01-01

    The aqueous and organic extracts of the roots, stems, phyllodes, flowers, legumes, and seeds of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. were assayed at different concentrations to assess their allelopathic potential. The extracts were tested on the seeds of 2 crops (Triticum aestivum L. and Lactuca sativa L.) and 2 weeds (Peganum harmala L. and Silybum marianum L.) species. The final germination percentages and the seedling shoot and root lengths were significantly reduced by the A. cyanophylla extracts as...

  7. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Parkash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o. and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o. were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana.

  8. Long-term preservation of Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. using encapsulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarat Khonkayan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl., a wild orchid native to north and northeastThailand, is rapidly depopulated in its natural stand by ingathering for trade within the country. Thiscauses it to become a rare or endangered species in the near future. Long-term preservation is analternative approach for conservation of plant genetic resources which can be applied to this species.This study was aimed to optimize the conditions for seed germination, protocorm induction andproliferation, and preserving D. chrysotoxum protocorms via encapsulation-dehydration method. Seedssuccessfully germinated on solid ND medium in the absence of plant growth regulators. Solid ND mediumsupplemented with 4 mg/l BA was found to promote protocorm proliferation. The proliferation rate was85%. The seed-derived protocorms were successfully cryopreserved as the following protocol. Theprotocorms were encapsulated with Ca-alginate and then precultured in liquid ND medium supplementedwith 0.25 M sucrose for 1 week in the dark at 4 °C. They were further precultured in liquid ND mediumsupplemented with 0.75 M sucrose for 2 days in the dark at 4 °C and dehydrated by air-drying for 5 hand subsequently placed in a freezer at -80 °C for 2 weeks. TTC staining exhibited viability rate of 64%.

  9. Improvement of grafting procedures for the ornamental species: II. Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The achieved results concerning the grafting silver-fir - Abiesconcolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl] scions on white-fir (Abies alba Mill.rootstocks are reporting in this article. The double-side-veneer grafting method and the plastic tape and the ecological Ceraltin® wax were applied in four experimental variants. The side-veneer-grafting method and the classic materials, such as raffia and the hot wax were used at the two controls involved in this experiment. The grafting success expressed in percents, were transformed in arcsin square root of percent values, and a two-way analysis of variance was performed. Highly significant (p <0.001 statistical differences were found between grafting variants, including controls. The Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that the four experimental grafting variants were highly significantly (p < 0.01 better than the two controls. The grafting success of the best experimental variant has surpassed the two controls by 129 and 153%, respectively.Consequently, the double-side-veneer grafting method, the new developed plastic tape and the ecological Ceraltin® wax have contributed to this grafting success owing to which they are recommended to be used for grafting silver-fir ornamental trees.

  10. Micropropagation of Chinese Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. Using Mature Stem Segments

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    Ying-Ning ZOU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective in vitro culture system for mature stem segments of Chinese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. �Gulf-ruby� was established. The nodal segments of 1 cm were cut from young shoots in open field, sterilized and established in vitro. The successfully induced culture was achieved on woody plant medium (WPM supplemented with 0.05-0.1 mg/l IBA, 0.5-1.0 mg/l BA, 30 g/l glucose, 5 g/l agar and 1.0 g/l Vc. The successful shoot multiplication was achieved on WPM with 0.05-0.1 mg/l IBA, 0.2 mg/l BA, 0.3 mg/l KT and 1.0 g/l casein hydrolysate. Elongation of the shoot in vitro was facilitated on WPM with 0.05 mg/l IBA, 0.3 mg/l KT/BA and 1.0 g/l casein hydrolysate. The shoots from microcuttings were rooted in 1/2 MS (half strength MS supplemented with 0.2-0.5 mg/l IBA, 15 g/l sucrose and 20-40 mg/l phloroglucinol (PG. Regenerated shoots successfully acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and grew vigorously with no apparent phenotypic aberrations.

  11. Improvement of grafting procedures for the ornamental species: II. Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The achieved results concerning the grafting silver-fir - Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl] scions on white-fir (Abies alba Mill. rootstocks are reporting in this article. The double-side-veneer grafting method and the plastic tape and the ecological CeraltinŽ wax were applied in four experimental variants. The side-veneer-grafting method and the classic materials, such as raffia and the hot wax were used at the two controls involved in this experiment. The grafting success expressed in percents, were transformed in arcsin square root of percent values, and a two-way analysis of variance was performed. Highly significant (p < 0.001 statistical differences were found between grafting variants, including controls. The Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that the four experimental grafting variants were highly significantly (p < 0.01 be-tter than the two controls. The grafting success of the best experimental variant has surpassed the two controls by 129 and 153%, respectively. Consequently, the double-side-veneer grafting method, the new developed plastic tape and the ecological CeraltinŽ wax have contributed to this grafting success owing to which they are recommended to be used for grafting silver-fir ornamental trees.

  12. Agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Marchezi Mora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For orchid cultivation in containers is essential to select the right substrate, since this will influence the quality of the final product, it serve as a support for the root system of the plants. This study aimed to evaluate different agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation. The plants were subjected to treatments: pinus husk + carbonized rice husk, pinus husk + coffee husk, pinus husk + fibered coconut, pecan nut husk, expanded clay, fibered coconut, coffee husk, carbonized rice husk, pinus husk. After eleven months of the experiment, the following variables were evaluated: plant height; largest pseudo-bulb diameter; number of buds; shoot fresh dry matter; the longest root length; number of roots; root fresh matter; root dry matter; and electric conductivity; pH and water retention capacity of the substrates. Except the expanded clay, the other substrates showed satisfactory results in one or more traits. Standing out among these substrates pinus husk + coffee husk and pine bark + fibered coconut, which favored the most vegetative and root characteristic of the orchid. The mixture of pinus husk + coffee husk and pinus husk + fibered coconut, provided the best results in vegetative and root growth of the orchid Oncidium baueri and the expanded clay did not show favorable results in the cultivation of this species.

  13. Extracción de ADN y una prueba inical de primers en Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. Para marcadores AFLP

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Orozco Gutiérrez; Ramón del Val Díaz; Mario González Chavira; Hipólito Jesús Muñoz Flores; Víctor M. Coria Avalos; J. Jesús García Magaña

    2010-01-01

    Se desarrollo un método de extracción de ADN simple, rápido y de alto rendimiento para Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. del área semillera establecida en Jerahuaro, Michoacán para la producción de semilla de calidad. Se implementaron herramientas moleculares (AFLP) para identificar su relación genética inter-especie. Es muy importante contar con el protocolo de extracción y purificación de ADN estandarizado para la especie de interés, debido a que este proceso constituye una etapa clave en todos lo...

  14. Anatomia foliar de quatro espécies do gênero Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae do Planalto Central Brasileiro Foliar anatomy of four species of genus Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae of the Brazilian Central Planalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Zanenga-Godoy

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available As espécies analisadas (Cattleya araguaiensis Pabst, C. bicolor Lindl., C. nobilior Rchb. e C. walkeriana Gardn. apresentam epiderme uniestratificada em ambas as faces da lâmina foliar, ocorrendo estômatos na face abaxial; deposição de cera epicuticular em crostas, escamas, flocos e plaquetas; em C. araguaiensis ocorrem estegmatas incrustados nas células epidérmicas; em todas as espécies ocorre hipoderme com células de paredes espessadas; mesofilo bifacial, compacto; células paliçádicas atípicas, com barras de espessamento; feixes vasculares colaterais dispostos alternadamente, acompanhados por bainha de fibras; cordões fibrosos acompanhados por estegmatas ocorrem longitudinalmente na lâmina foliar; presença de ráfides. Os aspectos descritos revelam acentuada xeromorfia, em função de economia de água.The analyzed species (Cattleya araguaiensis Pabst, C. bicolor Lindl., C. nobilior Rchb. e C. walkeriana Gardn. present unistratified epidermis at both surfaces with stomata at abaxial surface; deposition of epicuticular wax in crusts, scales, granules and plates; C. araguaiensis presents stegmata at epidermal cells; others characteristics present at all species are: hypodermis cells with thick walls; bifacial and compact mesophyll; atipic cells ofpalisade parenchyma with thichness bars; collateral vascular bundles alternate accompanied by sheath fibers; cordon fibers accompanied by stegmata in the foliar blade; raphids. The described aspects reveal accentuate xeromorphy for water economy.

  15. Efeito do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de plantas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl. Effect of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus sofrena, Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kersten

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de quatro concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA, no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl., coletadas de plantas tratadas com bórax e sulfato de zinco e controle, executado em quatro épocas. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em viveiros, sob condição de nebulização artificial intermitente. Os resultados obtidos mostram a influência de cultivar, época e concentração de IBA, não sendo verificado efeito de bórax ou sulfato de zinco na percentagem de estacas enraizadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus salicina, Lindl. collected from plants treated with borax and zinc sulfate, in four periods. The experiments were conducted in a nursery with intermitent artificial mist conditions. The results showed a positive effect of cultivars, periods and IBA concentrations, and there was no effect of either borax or zinc sulfate on rooting of branch cuttings.

  16. A re-collection of Diplocentrum recurvum lindl. (Orchidaceae after a lapse of 100 years or more from Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Mitta Mahendranath

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diplocentrumrecurvum Lindl. (Orchidaceae has been recollected from the Horsley hills of Chittoor districts from Andhra Pradesh after a lapse of 100 years or more. The present paper provides a detailed description, photographs of old herbarium specimens and distribution of the species. 

  17. Low soil water and nutrient availability below New Zealand kauri ( Agathis australis (D. Don) Lindl.) trees increase the relative fitness of kauri seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, E.; Berendse, F.; Gardner, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    Tree species can affect the soil they are growing on and this might influence their fitness. The New Zealand gymnosperm tree species kauri (Agathis australis (D. Don) Lindl.) which grows in mixed angiosperm¿gymnosperm forests has a substantial effect upon the soil. We studied the hypotheses that: (1

  18. Simulation of water-limited growth of the forage shrub saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lindl.) in a low-rainfall environment of southern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Smith, A.P.; Robertson, M.J.; Whitbread, A.; Huth, N.I.; Davoren, W.; Emms, J.; Llewellyn, R.

    2014-01-01

    Old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lindl.) is a useful forage shrub for livestock in the low-rainfall areas of the world, and particularly in Australia. In these semi-arid and arid environments, saltbush is valuable for increasing the production from otherwise marginal areas of the farm and durin

  19. Polar extracts from (Tunisian Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubaker Jihed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD, and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA and benzo[a]pyrene (B(aP were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(aP (7.5 μg/plate, 2-AA (5 μg/plate, MMS (1.3 mg/plate and NOPD (10 μg/plate. Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Syringa oblata Lindl. Inflorescence Identifies Genes Associated with Pigment Biosynthesis and Scent Metabolism.

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    Jian Zheng

    Full Text Available Syringa oblata Lindl. is a woody ornamental plant with high economic value and characteristics that include early flowering, multiple flower colors, and strong fragrance. Despite a long history of cultivation, the genetics and molecular biology of S. oblata are poorly understood. Transcriptome and expression profiling data are needed to identify genes and to better understand the biological mechanisms of floral pigments and scents in this species. Nine cDNA libraries were obtained from three replicates of three developmental stages: inflorescence with enlarged flower buds not protruded, inflorescence with corolla lobes not displayed, and inflorescence with flowers fully opened and emitting strong fragrance. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq technique, 319,425,972 clean reads were obtained and were assembled into 104,691 final unigenes (average length of 853 bp, 41.75% of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Among the annotated unigenes, 36,967 were assigned to gene ontology categories and 19,956 were assigned to eukaryoticorthologous groups. Using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database, 12,388 unigenes were sorted into 286 pathways. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at different flower stages and that were related to floral pigment biosynthesis and fragrance metabolism. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis provides fundamental information on the genes and pathways involved in flower secondary metabolism and development in S. oblata, providing a useful database for further research on S. oblata and other plants of genus Syringa.

  1. INVASIVE PLANTS IN MOUNTAINOUS REMNANT FOREST: RECOMMENDATION FOR CHOOSING BEST DECISION FOR INVASIVE SPECIES MANAGEMENT OF Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl.

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    Decky Indrawan Junaedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl. is an exotic species found in native remnant forest of GPNP which is located inside the Cibodas Botanic Garden (CBG. Risk assessment is an important tool to choose best decision for invasive plant management.  Risk assessment analysis on C. aurantiacum in Cibodas Botanic Garden was conducted using Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method.  Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP used in the valuation process. Three sub-criteria used: minimizing the ecological impact, minimizing the management cost, and maximizing the public acceptance. Five management alternatives were used: do nothing (DN, eradication (E, containment (C, bio-control (BC and harvesting (H. Harvesting (H recommended as the best management decision for C. aurantiacumin at CBG remnant forest. This harvesting decision is not only creating environment/ ecosystem remediation but also as sources of fund in the management activity of the area.

  2. Effects of different factors on immature embryo culture, PLBs differentiation and rapid mass multiplication of Coelogyne suaveolens (Lindl.) Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkumlong; Deb, Chitta Ranjan

    2008-04-01

    In vitro mass production of C. suaveolens (Lindl.) Hook, an endangered orchid with its snowy white flowers having horticultural potential was accomplished through immature seed culture, and subsequent plant regeneration. The developmental stage of the immature seeds and nutrient media significantly influenced the germination frequency. Seeds at 13 months after pollination cultured on 3% sucrose containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 9 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 15% coconut water exhibited 93% germination after 40 days of culture. Upon subculture, the germinated shoots on MS medium with 9 microM BA, 6 microM NAA, 3% casein hydrolysate and 0.1% activated charcoal (AC) yielded >12 shoots per shoot or bud. Addition of AC favoured the enlargement of pseudobulbs and better rooting. The plantlets transferred to community potting mix after in vitro hardening (8-10 wk) displayed 85% survival. PMID:18512333

  3. Short-term and long-term effects of tannins on nitrogen mineralisation and litter decomposition in kauri (Agathis australis (D. Don) Lindl.) forests

    OpenAIRE

    Verkaik, E.; Jongkind, A.G.; Berendse, F.

    2006-01-01

    Kauri (Agathis australis (D. Don) Lindl.) occurs naturally in the warm temperate forest of northern New Zealand where it grows mixed with angiosperm tree species. Below mature kauri trees thick organic layers develop in which large amounts of nitrogen are accumulated. This nitrogen seems to be inaccessible to plants. While litter quality can explain the low decomposition rate below kauri, it is not known what causes the accumulation of nitrogen. We hypothesised that kauri tannins reduce nitro...

  4. Characterisation of Phenolic Compounds in South African Plum Fruits (Prunus salicina Lindl.) using HPLC Coupled with Diode-Array, Fluorescence, Mass Spectrometry and On-Line Antioxidant Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dalene de Beer; Elizabeth Joubert; Alet Venter

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are abundant secondary metabolites in plums, with potential health benefits believed to be due to their antioxidant activity, amongst others. Phenolic characterisation of South African Prunus salicina Lindl. plums is necessary to fully evaluate their potential health benefits. An HPLC method using diode-array detection (DAD) for quantification of phenolic compounds was improved and fluorescence detection (FLD) was added for quantification of flavan-3-ols. Validation of the ...

  5. The effect of some organic compounds and NAA application on the in vitro growth of the black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl.)

    OpenAIRE

    RINI UNTARI; DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2006-01-01

    Coelogyne pandurata Lindl. is a lowland epiphytic orchid that has pale green flowers with typically black markings on the lips. This species conventionally propagated asexually by rhizome. This orchid is now facing a great conservation problem and threatened to extinction due to human exploitation. That is why conservation activities such as developing proper cultivation, are urgently required. An in vitro experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Tissue Culture at Bogor Botanic Garden. T...

  6. Morfoanatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae = Morphoanatomic characterization of the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Aline Dettke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar os tecidos especializados que tornam Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. capaz de ocupação do ambiente epifítico, seus órgãos vegetativos foram analisados morfoanatomicamente. As folhas estão recobertas por cutícularelativamente fina, e os estômatos estão presentes apenas na face abaxial. A hipoderme adaxial está formada por uma camada de células e o parênquima clorofiliano é do tipo homogêneo. Nos feixes vasculares foliares, do tipo colateral, há calotas de fibras em ambosos polos de tecidos condutores, enquanto que, nos pseudobulbos e rizoma, mostram-se com calota mais evidente junto ao polo floemático. Compondo o parênquima fundamental dos pseudobulbos, estão células de dimensões variadas, sempre com paredes finas. Nas raízes, ocorrem 3-5 camadas de velame e 5-8 camadas corticais. A exoderme apresenta paredes pouco espessadas, enquanto que, na endoderme, são espessadas em “U” ou “O” quando maduras.The objective of this study was to morphologically and anatomically analyze the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f., in order to characterize the specialized tissues that enable thisspecies to thrive in epiphytic environments. The leaves are covered by a relatively thin cuticle, with the stomata present only in the abaxial surface. A single layer of cells makes up the adaxial hypodermis, and the chlorenchyma is homogeneous. In the collateral vascular bundles, there are fiber sheaths on both poles of conductor tissues, while pseudobulbs and rhizomes present a more evident sheath of fibers only by the phloematic pole. Cells of various dimensions, with thin walls, compose the fundamental parenchyma of thepseudobulb. Roots are composed of three to seven velamen layers and five to eight cortical layers. The exodermis features thin walls, while in the endoderm they are thickened in a “U” or “O” shape when mature.

  7. Phylogeography of Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl.) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA: insights into evolutionary patterns and demographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T; Chen, Q; Luo, Y; Huang, Z-L; Zhang, J; Tang, H-R; Pan, D-M; Wang, X-R

    2015-07-01

    Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl.) is a commercially valuable fruit crop in China. In order to obtain new insights into its evolutionary history and provide valuable recommendations for resource conservation, phylogeographic patterns of 26 natural populations (305 total individuals) from six geographic regions were analyzed using chloroplast and nuclear DNA fragments. Low levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were found in these populations, especially in landrace populations. It is likely that a combined effect of botanical characteristics impact the effective population size, such as inbreeding mating system, long life span, as well as vegetative reproduction. In addition, strong bottleneck effect caused by domestication, together with founder effect after dispersal and subsequent demographic expansion, might also accelerate the reduction of the genetic variation in landrace populations. Interestingly, populations from Longmen Mountain (LMM) and Daliangshan Mountain (DLSM) exhibited relatively higher levels of genetic diversity, inferring the two historical genetic diversity centers of the species. Moreover, moderate population subdivision was also detected by both chloroplast DNA (GST = 0.215; NST = 0.256) and nuclear DNA (GST = 0.146; NST = 0.342), respectively. We inferred that the episodes of efficient gene flow through seed dispersal, together with features of long generation cycle and inbreeding mating system, were likely the main contributors causing the observed phylogeographic patterns. Finally, factors that led to the present demographic patterns of populations from these regions and taxonomic varieties were also discussed. PMID:25521479

  8. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol–water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol–water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the β-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol–water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques. PMID:25987992

  9. Effect of Organic and Conventional Management on Bio-Functional Quality of Thirteen Plum Cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl..

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    Francisco Julián Cuevas

    Full Text Available In this study, thirteen Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl. grown under conventional and organic conditions were compared to evaluate the influence of the culture system on bioactive compounds. Their organic acids content (malic, citric, tartaric, succinic, shikimic, ascorbic and fumaric acid, total polyphenols, total anthocyanins, total carotenoids and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, ABTS were evaluated. The study was performed during two consecutive seasons (2012 and 2013 in two experimental orchards located at the IFAPA centre Las Torres-Tomejil (Seville, SW Spain. The culture system affected all the studied parameters except for total carotenoid content. The organic plums had significantly higher polyphenol and anthocyanin concentrations and a greater antioxidant capacity. Additionally, significant differences between cultivars were also found. 'Showtime' and 'Friar' were the cultivars with the highest polyphenol concentration and antioxidant capacity. 'Black Amber' had the highest anthocyanin content and 'Larry Ann' and 'Songold' the highest carotenoid content. 'Sapphire' and 'Black amber' were the cultivars with the highest concentration of ascorbic acid. Our results showed a strong year effect. In conclusion, organic management had an impact on the production of phytochemical compounds in plums.

  10. Ex Vitro Seedling Development from In Vitro Rhizome-Like Bodies in Eulophia promensis Lindl.: A New Technique for Orchid Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Musharof Hossain

    2015-01-01

    This communication describes in vitro seed germination, embryo differentiation, and ex vitro seedling production from in vitro rhizome-like bodies of a terrestrial orchid, Eulophia promensis Lindl. Effects of two nutrient media, namely, Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Phytotechnology Orchid Seed Sowing medium (P723) supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 0.5–1.0 mgL−1) and/or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 0.5–1.0 mgL−1) and activated charcoal (2.0 gL−1), were studied on seed germination a...

  11. Morphology and stucture of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill..common pear (Pyrus cofnmunis L. and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb Lindl. seeds

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    Stanisław Pelc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The outer and inner structure of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill., common pear (Pyrus communis L. and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb. Lindl. seeds was investigated. It was found that the outer structure exhibits good diagnostic features expressed in the first place in the relief of the seed coat and further in the arrangement and appearance of the site of attachment of the free end of the funiculus and the shape of the seeds. In ripe seeds there is, under the thick seed coat, an endosperm layer completely surrounding the embryo which has large cotyledons and a thick rootlet.

  12. Caracterização molecular dos alelos-S de incompatibilidade gametofítica em Prunus salicina Lindl. Molecular identification of S-alleles of gametophytic incompatibility in Prunus salicina Lindl.

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    Monalize Salete Mota

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pomares comerciais de ameixeira-japonesa devem conter pelo menos duas cultivares para obter boa fertilização, devido à presença do sistema de incompatibilidade gametofítica, que inibe a autofecundação da grande maioria das cultivares. No presente trabalho, buscou-se identificar e caracterizar molecularmente os alelos-S de 11 cultivares de ameixeira-japonesa (Prunus salicina Lindl. e verificar a compatibilidade entre os genótipos avaliados. As cultivares Santa Rosa, Santa Rita, Reubennel, Pluma 7, América, Rosa Mineira, Amarelinha, The First, Gulfblaze (Clone São Paulo, Gulfblaze (Clone Guaiba e Harry Pickstone foram analisadas por meio de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR com três pares de iniciadores específicos para alelos-S. As condições da PCR utilizadas, bem como as combinações de iniciadores, permitiram a identificação de alelos-S nas cultivares de P. salicina estudadas, bem como a indicação dos polinizadores mais compatíveis com algumas das principais cultivares utilizadas na produção de frutas. O sequenciamento de alguns dos alelos-S amplificados revelou elevada similaridade com sequências de nucleotídeos já identificados em outros trabalhos com Prunus spp.. Entretanto, a obtenção de sequências completas de maior número de alelos-S faz-se necessária para o estabelecimento de uma relação de identidade precisa entre os mesmos.Commercial plum orchards must contain at least two cultivars, in order to ensure good fruit set and thus high economic yields, because its carries the gametophytic incompatibility system, that inhibits the selfing in a great number of cultivares. The aim of this work was to identify by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction the S-alleles related to gametophytic incompatibility in eleven Prunus salicina (Lindl. cultivars. The Santa Rosa, Santa Rita, Reubennel, Pluma 7, América, Rosa Mineira, Amarelinha, The First, Gulfblaze (Clone São Paulo, Gulfblaze (Clone Guaíba e Harry Pickstone

  13. Distribuição espacial de Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae em uma floresta ribeirinha em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Spatial distribution of Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae in a riparian forest, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

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    Jean Carlos Budke

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesadenella cuspidata é uma orquídea terrícola encontrada no interior de florestas no Sul do Brasil. Apesar de seu valor ecológico e ornamental, pouco se conhece sobre a biologia desta espécie. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar o padrão de distribuição espacial de M. cuspidata e verificar se há correlação entre o número de indivíduos jovens e adultos em uma floresta ribeirinha. Para o levantamento, foram amostradas 60 parcelas de 16m² cada. Durante agosto e setembro/2001 foram inventariados os indivíduos jovens e adultos das parcelas. Para identificar-se o padrão de distribuição espacial, utilizaram-se o índice de Morisita (MI e a razão de variância/média (R. Foram encontrados 463 indivíduos jovens e 178 adultos. Indivíduos jovens e adultos apresentaram distribuição espacial agrupada, sendo que os adultos (IM = 2,17; R = 4,52 estão mais agrupados que os jovens (IM = 1,82; R = 7,82. O coeficiente de correlação linear encontrado r = 0,61, demonstrou que a densidade de indivíduos adultos está altamente relacionada à densidade de indivíduos jovens.Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay is a terrestrial orchid found inside Southern Brazilian forests. In spite of its ecological and ornamental value, little information is aviable on its biology. The aim of this work was the identification of the spatial distribution patterns of M. cuspidata in a riparian forest. We have sampled 60 quadrats of 16m² each. All the young and adult individuals of the quadrats were included. To identify the pattern of spatial distribution, the Morisita Index (MI and the variance/mean Reason (R were used. The linear correlation coefficient was used to verify if there is correlation between populations of the juvenils and adults. From 641 individuals sampled, 463 were juvenils and 178 were adults. Juvenils and adult individuals presented gregarious spatial distribution, but the adults (MI = 2,17; R = 4,52 were more gregarious than the

  14. Efecto del carbón activado y ácido indol acético en el desarrollo de protocormos de Masdevallia coccinea Linden ex Lindl. y Maxillaria nutans Lindl.. In vitro

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    Jaime Alonso Pedroza-Manrique

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Effect of activated charcoal indol and acetic acid in the development of Masdevallia coccinea Linden ex Lindl y Maxillaria nutans Lindl. protocorm like bodies under in vitro. Resumen En esta investigación se pretende estimular el desarrollo de protocormos de Masdevallia coccinea y Maxillaria nutans bajo condiciones in vitro utilizando diferentes concentraciones de ácido indol acético y carbón activado. El protocolo obtenido es una alternativa de la conservación de orquídeas que se encuentran en vías de extinción, y además permite contribuir con el mejoramiento medioambiental. En la evaluación del desarrollo vegetativo bajo condiciones in vitro de los protocormos de Masdevallia coccinea y Maxillaria nutans, orquídeas en vías de extinción, se obtuvo que solamente Maxillaria nutans alcanzará su desarrollo exitoso mediante el cultivo in vitro en el medio Murashige y Skoog (1962, donde se evaluó el efecto de la interacción entre el carbón activado (0,0; 0,5, 1,0 % (p/v y el ácido indol acético (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 mg/L-1. El medio de cultivo empleado fue enriquecido con sacarosa al 3% y el Myo inositol al 0,1 g/L-1. Los protocormos de Masdevallia coccinea evidenciaron que se encontraban inmaduros, situación por la cual no lograron su desarrollarlo vegetativo en el experimento planteado, en atención a que se encontraban en el periodo de latencia. Por esta razón, es de gran importancia tener en cuenta que las cápsulas de las orquídeas deben estar bien maduras, a fin de garantizar que los protocormos que se forman in vitro sean maduros y completen con facilidad su morfofisiológía. Mientras que los protocormos de Maxillaria nutans dieron un mayor rendimiento en su desarrollo vegetativo. En esta investigación se determinó que el efecto de la interacción de 0,5% de carbón activado con 0,5 mg/L-1 de AIA es positivo sobre la tasa de crecimiento para el desarrollo de los protocormos de Maxillaria nutans bajo

  15. Biogeografia do gênero Galeandra lindl. (Orchidaceae : Catasetinae) no neotrópico e estudo taxonômico para o estado do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Thuane Bochorny de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: A região neotropical abriga a maior diversidade de espécies do planeta, contendo aproximadamente 37% de todas as plantas conhecidas atualmente. Explicar esta extraordinária diversidade tem sido um grande desafio, que requer identificar padrões de distribuição geográfica dos táxons e compreender quais processos podem ter influenciado sua diversificação. Galeandra Lindl. é um gênero de orquídeas neotropicais, que possui 18 espécies de forma de vida epífita ou terrícola. Suas espécies sã...

  16. Morfoanatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1407 Morphoanatomic characterization of the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1407

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Fernandes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar os tecidos especializados que tornam Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. capaz de ocupação do ambiente epifítico, seus órgãos vegetativos foram analisados morfoanatomicamente. As folhas estão recobertas por cutícula relativamente fina, e os estômatos estão presentes apenas na face abaxial. A hipoderme adaxial está formada por uma camada de células e o parênquima clorofiliano é do tipo homogêneo. Nos feixes vasculares foliares, do tipo colateral, há calotas de fibras em ambos os polos de tecidos condutores, enquanto que, nos pseudobulbos e rizoma, mostram-se com calota mais evidente junto ao polo floemático. Compondo o parênquima fundamental dos pseudobulbos, estão células de dimensões variadas, sempre com paredes finas. Nas raízes, ocorrem 3-5 camadas de velame e 5-8 camadas corticais. A exoderme apresenta paredes pouco espessadas, enquanto que, na endoderme, são espessadas em “U” ou “O” quando madurasMiltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae. The objective of this study was to morphologically and anatomically analyze the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f., in order to characterize the specialized tissues that enable this species to thrive in epiphytic environments. The leaves are covered by a relatively thin cuticle, with the stomata present only in the abaxial surface. A single layer of cells makes up the adaxial hypodermis, and the chlorenchyma is homogeneous. In the collateral vascular bundles, there are fiber sheaths on both poles of conductor tissues, while pseudobulbs and rhizomes present a more evident sheath of fibers only by the phloematic pole. Cells of various dimensions, with thin walls, compose the fundamental parenchyma of the pseudobulb. Roots are composed of three to seven velamen layers and five to eight cortical layers. The exodermis features thin walls, while in the endoderm they are thickened in a “U” or “O” shape

  17. Study on the effects of gamma ray irradiation on the morphological variations of Brassia verrucosa Lindl. from in vitro bud clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of creating sources of morphological variation of Warty Brassia (Brassia verrucosa Lindl.) was made on the basis of using in vitro bud clusters by gamma ray irradiation, aimed at selecting varieties to overcome these limitations and enhance the value of Warty Brassia. The study consists of the following contents: determining doses of gamma radiation to create variation of Warty Brassia; evaluating the effect of gamma radiation to the formation changes of the trees; isolated and selective variations to generate material source for mutation breeding. The results showed that gamma ray irradiation treatment, Co-60 source at doses 10-50 Gy of Warty Brassia from in vitro bud clusters isolated 6 different morphological variation; the variant of morphology, structure and diameter of pseudobulb were very difference comparing to control; the variant types are good growth and development in green house. In particular, there are two lines of variation, with large pseudobulb, dark green leaves and round pseudobulb, short leaves, is very promising for the development of potential mutants. The types of variation will be analyzed using molecular biology techniques to prove mutations and are going to continue selective color, flower shape in green house. (author)

  18. In vitro symbiotic seed germination and molecular characterization of associated endophytic fungi in a commercially important and endangered Indian orchid Vanda coerulea Griff. Ex Lindl.

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    Simmi Aggarwal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The technique of symbiotic seed germination-using fungi to cultivate orchid seedlings in vitro leading to their reintroduction in situ has considerable potential for conservation as evidenced by studies mostly in Australia and North America. However, its use has yet to be fully realized throughout the world. On the Indian subcontinent, which harbors a considerable number of orchid species, symbiotic germination has been virtually unexplored. In the present studies, we provide a protocol for the symbiotic seed germination and ecorestoration of an endangered orchids Vanda coerulea Griff. ex Lindl., which is a floriculturally significant epiphyte used to progenate a vast variety of hybrids. Seeds were obtained from the mature un-dehisced capsules and sown on oat meal agar medium with the fungus isolated from the roots of mature V. coerulea plants in situ. Using molecular characterization techniques, cultures were assignable to Rhizoctonia zeae with teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris. All the seeds germinated within 5 wks of culture and very healthy, dark green protocorms were obtained in 5 month old cultures. Seedlings with 1–2 roots and 2–3 leaves were obtained in 8 months. These were acclimatized in the greenhouse for a year and introduced to their natural habitat at Manipur in North East India. Seedling growth and development was continuously monitored, demonstrating active growth during monsoon season (April–July. Out of 29 plants reintroduced, 23 survived and are growing well with the formation of new roots and leaves, observed after twelve months of reintroduction.

  19. The effect of some organic compounds and NAA application on the in vitro growth of the black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl.

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    RINI UNTARI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Coelogyne pandurata Lindl. is a lowland epiphytic orchid that has pale green flowers with typically black markings on the lips. This species conventionally propagated asexually by rhizome. This orchid is now facing a great conservation problem and threatened to extinction due to human exploitation. That is why conservation activities such as developing proper cultivation, are urgently required. An in vitro experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Tissue Culture at Bogor Botanic Garden. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design with two factors and ten replications. The treatments were the supplementation of the basal media i.e. Vacin and Went added with sugar, activated charcoal and agar, with 30 different combinations of organic compounds i.e., coconut water 250 mL/L, banana 150 g/L, potato 200 g/L, sweet potato 150 g/L, soybean 150 g/L and no organic compound as a control, and application of NAA (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ppm. The result showed that there was a significant effect of the organic compounds and NAA application on the length and the number of roots, height, number of leaves and number of shoots produced by the explants. The combination of sweet potato 150 g/L without NAA application showed the best result.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica lindl.) skin and the feasibility of their application to improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Kenari, Reza Esmaeilzadeh; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    The effects of ultrasound-assisted, supercritical CO2 and solvent extraction techniques on antioxidant activity of loqua (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin extract in oxidation stability of soybean oil was evaluated. The antioxidant efficacy of extracts was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging capacity, β-carotene/linoleic acid, and Rancimat test system. Results showed that solvent extract of loquat fruit skin at 400 ppm had the highest antioxidant activity compared to ultrasound-assisted and supercritical CO2 extracts. Further, solvent extraction was the most effective method for extraction of phenolic compounds. Protective effects of extracts in stabilization of soybean oil during both frying and storage conditions were tested and compared to tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) by measuring their peroxide value, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes and trienes value. During frying process solvent extract of skin at 400 ppm (SOEA) exhibited stronger antioxidant activity in oil compared to other oil samples, but this antioxidant potential was lower than TBHQ in storage conditions. Present study showed that loquat fruit skin is a good source of natural antioxidant compounds, and has the potential to be used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidants in vegetable oils. PMID:27407190

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Si; Chen, Juan; Li, Shu-Chao; Zeng, Xu; Meng, Zhi-Xia; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called "King Medicine". Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64%) sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis. PMID:26694378

  2. Effects of photoperiod, plant growth regulators and culture media on in vitro growth of seedlings of Cyrtochilum loxense (Lindl. Kraenzl. an endemic and endangered orchid from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira González

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtochilum loxense (Lindl. Kraenzl. is an endemic and seriously endangered orchid species endemic in the Loja Province (Southern Ecuador. The main goals of this research were to analyze how culture media, plant growth regulators and photoperiod affect the growth of C. loxense. Eight month old plants (approximate 1 – 1.5 cm in height obtained by in vitro germination, were cultivated on MS media or Knudson C; MS with three levels of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (2/0.5; 1/0.5 y 0.5/ 0.5 mg-1L; and three photoperiodic regimes (24/0, 16/8, 8/16 h on MS with and without plant growth regulators. No significant differences of shoot induction were observed on media with or without plant growth regulators, and all tested photoperiods. The highest growth (1.2 cm was observed in plantlets cultivated on growth regulator-free media with a 16/8 photoperiod. Also the shoot and root formation was better in this species in absence of plant growth regulators. Probably this response is due to the endogenous hormone levels in the tissues or due to the kind and concentrations of PGRs used were too low to induce positive morphogenetic responses.

  3. Characterisation of Phenolic Compounds in South African Plum Fruits (Prunus salicina Lindl. using HPLC Coupled with Diode-Array, Fluorescence, Mass Spectrometry and On-Line Antioxidant Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalene de Beer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are abundant secondary metabolites in plums, with potential health benefits believed to be due to their antioxidant activity, amongst others. Phenolic characterisation of South African Prunus salicina Lindl. plums is necessary to fully evaluate their potential health benefits. An HPLC method using diode-array detection (DAD for quantification of phenolic compounds was improved and fluorescence detection (FLD was added for quantification of flavan-3-ols. Validation of the HPLC-DAD-FLD method showed its suitability for quantification of 18 phenolic compounds, including flavan-3-ols using FLD, and phenolic acids, anthocyanins and flavonols using DAD. The method was suitable for characterisation of the phenolic composition of 11 South African plum cultivars and selections, including various types with yellow and red skin and flesh. The method was used in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS to identify 24 phenolic compounds. Neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were the major compounds in most of the plums, while cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was absent in Sun Breeze plums with yellow skin and flesh. Post-column on-line coupling of the ABTS•+ scavenging assay with HPLC-DAD enabled qualitative evaluation of the relative contribution of individual phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity. The flavan-3-ols, neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside displayed the largest antioxidant response peaks.

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall. Lindl. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Si Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall. Lindl. (Orchidaceae is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called “King Medicine”. Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64% sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis.

  5. Anti-HIV-1 integrase activity of medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Kummee; Supinya Tewtrakul; Sanan Subhadhirasakul

    2006-01-01

    The extracts of selected medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients were investigated for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (HIV-1 IN) using the multiplate integration assay (MIA). Of these, the water extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.8 μg/ml, followed by the methanol extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant, IC50 = 21.1 μg/ ml), the water extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 =...

  6. Ex Vitro Seedling Development from In Vitro Rhizome-Like Bodies in Eulophia promensis Lindl.: A New Technique for Orchid Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Musharof Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication describes in vitro seed germination, embryo differentiation, and ex vitro seedling production from in vitro rhizome-like bodies of a terrestrial orchid, Eulophia promensis Lindl. Effects of two nutrient media, namely, Murashige and Skoog (MS and Phytotechnology Orchid Seed Sowing medium (P723 supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 0.5–1.0 mgL−1 and/or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 0.5–1.0 mgL−1 and activated charcoal (2.0 gL−1, were studied on seed germination and subsequent development of embryos. Maximum seed germination (100% was recorded in P723 medium fortified with 1.0 mgL−1 BAP + 2.0 gL−1 activated charcoal. The different developmental stages of protocorm morphogenesis were traced out. In subsequent subcultures, the protocorms proliferated profusely and developed rhizome-like bodies (RLBs with numerous hair-like structures. These RLBs were transferred to pots containing potting mixture composed of humus + coir dust + saw dust (1 : 1 : 1 where ∼80% of RLBs survived and produced 1–3 seedlings per RLB. This is the first time report for in vitro germination of seeds and ex vitro seedling production from in vitro raised RLBs in Eulophia promensis. This is a time saving and cost effective protocol that could be extended to other economically important, rare, and endangered orchids for propagation and conservation.

  7. Asepsis Sowing and Rapid Propagation of Coelogyne fimbriata Lindl.%流苏贝母兰的无菌播种与快速繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小燕; 白茗洲; 彭德镇; 孔令杰; 杨柏云

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 植物名称 流苏贝母兰(Coelogyne fimbriataLindl.). 2 材料类别 种子. 3 培养条件 (1)种子萌发培养基:1/2MS+6-BA 0.5mg·L-1(单位下同)+NAA 0.5+0.1%AC(活性炭);(2)原球茎增殖培养基:B5+6-BA 1.2+NAA 0.6+15 g·L-1蔗糖;(3)分化成苗培养基:B5+6-BA 2.0+NAA 0.2+0.1%AC;(4)壮苗生根培养基:1/2MS+NAA 0.5+0.1%AC.以上除培养基(2)外均附加40 g·L-1蔗糖,用7 g·L-1琼脂固化.所有培养基pH为5.6~5.8,培养温度为(25±2)℃,光照强度为30~40 μmol·m-2·s-1,光照时间为12 h·d-1,悬浮培养时振荡的转速为110r·min-1.

  8. Efeitos do boro e zinco no teor de carboidratos solúveis, aminoácidos totais e no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de ameixeira (Prunus salicina Lindl Effect of boron and zinc in soluble carbohidrate content, total aminoacids and rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus salicina Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kersten

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do boro (B e do zinco (Zn no teor de carboidratos solúveis, aminoácidos totais e no enraizamento de estacas de ramos dos cultivares Carmesim e Grancuore de ameixeira (Prunas salicina Lindl.. Para a aplicação dos tratamentos houve uma fase preliminar que constou da seleção e identificação de quatro filas com vinte plantas cada uma e alternadas com filas de bordadora, que receberam os tratamentos com bórax (B, sulfato de zinco (Zn, bórax mais sulfato de zinco (B + Zn e controle. O experimento para enraizamento de estacas de ramos foi realizado em viveiros com nebulização intermitente, no município de Brotas,SP. A coleta de material para avaliação do efeito dos tratamentos com boro, zinco, boro mais zinco e controle, foi executada em maio de 1989, quando parte deste material foi utilizado para determinação de açúcares redutores, açúcares totais e aminoácidos totais e outra parte utilizada para o enraizamento de estacas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o cultivar Carmesim apresentou maior facilidade para enraizar e houve interação entre cultivar com produto (B, Zn, e B + Zn e aumento no teor de aminoácidos totais.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of boron and zinc on the rooting of branch cuttings of two plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivare Carmesim and Grancuore. In a previous phase four lines with twenty plants were selected for the application of boron, zinc, boron + zinc and control. The study on the rooting of branch cuttings was conducted at the Brotas County, São Paulo State, in a nursery with intermitent artificial mist conditions. Materials were collected in May/89, one part used to analyse reducing sugars, total sugars and total aminoacids and another part used for rooting test of branch cuttings. The results showed that Carmesin had a higher ability for rooting and

  9. Primula munroi 的产自东喜马拉雅的一个新亚种 --P. munroi ssp. schizocalyx%A new subspecies of Primula munroi Lindl. from the Eastern Himalaya--P. munroi ssp. schizocalyx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the course of revising the genus Primula Linn.(Primulaceae) in the Himalayas of Indian region, the authors came across a set of collections identified as P. involucrata Wall. gathered by the pioneer Himalayan travellers, merely written on determinavit slips as P. involucrata Wall. forma schizocalyx by I. B. Balfour without any date. Critical studies revealed that these specimens are quite distinct from the species proper so far described. The new taxon is described as a subspecies and illustrated. As P. involucrata Wall. ex Duby (1844) is a later homonym of P. involucrata Sweet (1839) and illegitimate, and its correct name is P. munroi Lindl. (1847), we name our new subspecies as P. munroi ssp. schizocalyx Balf. f. ex Basak et Maiti. 

  10. Study on polyploid induction of Pleione maculate Lindl.with colchicine%秋水仙素诱导秋花独蒜兰多倍化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成倩; 唐娅梅; 张伟; 胡晓丽; 魏兴强; 纳海燕

    2010-01-01

    以秋花独蒜兰(Pleione maculata Lindl.)拟原球茎为材料,研究不同浓度及时间条件下,对秋水仙素诱导秋花独蒜兰多倍化的诱变效果.实验结果表明:秋水仙素浓度为0.2%、处理时间为60 h时,诱导结果最佳,变异率为25.64%;细胞学鉴定表明,该方法诱导培育的植株具有多倍体表型特征,其体细胞染色体数多为2n=76~80条,而对照2n=38~40条.

  11. Assessment of effectiveness of Barleria prionitis on oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Within the limitation of this trial, herbal mouthwash has been shown to demonstrate similar effects on plaque as compared to the standard drug CHX. Further long term research needs to be done to check the efficacy and effectiveness of herbal products over standard drug regime

  12. Алелопатичні особливості ароматичних рослин родини Lamiaceae Lindl.

    OpenAIRE

    Котюк, Л. А.; Рахметов, Д. Б.; Kotyuk, L.; Rakhmetov, D.

    2014-01-01

    Allelopathic features of 13 aromatic plants of Lamiaceae Lindl. family are studied. Dracocephalum moldavica L., Lavandula vera D.C. and Lophanthus anisatus Adans. are showed the highest phytotoxic effect of aqueous extracts of lifetime emissions of aromatic plants relative to Triticum aestivum Linn., which reduced ermination rates, respectively, by 15.6; 4.9 and 1.7 times. Extracts of plant material of Nepeta transcaucasica Grossh showed the stimulating effect, while germination of wheat was ...

  13. Dinámica de polifenoles y estudio anatomo-histoquímico en Schinus longifolius (Lindl. Speg. (Anacardiaceae en respuesta a la infección por Calophya mammifex (Hemiptera - Calophyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio AGUDELO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los fenoles totales, taninos totales, proantocianidinas, flavonoides totales y ácidos hidroxicinámicos totales de hojas sanas y agallas de Schinus longifolius (Lindl. Speg. (Anacardiaceae infectado por Calophya mammifex (Hemiptera - Calophyidae. La agalla presenta una variación cuali-cuantitativa de los polifenoles estudiados, con una disminución de los fenoles, taninos, flavonoides y ácidos hidroxicinámicos y un aumento en el contenido de proantocianidinas, cuyo monómero se transforma en cianidina luego del clivaje ácido. Se realizó además un análisis anatómico de la agalla donde se encontraron acúmulos de esclereidas y un mayor desarrollo vascular respecto de la hoja sana y un ensayo histoquímico que mostró una expresión diferencial de metabolitos polifenólicos en sus tejidos. C. mammifex utiliza la agalla como refugio contra las condiciones climáticas adversas y predadores y provee además de alimento con menos compuestos potencialmente perjudiciales en las etapas tempranas de su desarrollo.

  14. Fungicide and germicide on contamination escaping in the in vitro propagation of Oncidium varicosum Lindl. (Orchidaceae Avaliação da fitotoxicidade de fungicidas e germicida na propagação in vitro de Oncidium varicosum Lindl. (Orchidaceae para o controle de microorganismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Lopes Silva

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problem of in vitro production of seedling is the contamination of the culture medium during the micropropagation stages. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fungicides and germicide on the plant growth and rooting, degree of phytotoxicity and control of contamination during in vitro cultivation of O. varicosum orchid. The flowers were pollinated artificially and the capsules seeds were sowed in MS culture medium modified with half of the macronutrients. The seedlings were transferred to the same culture medium uded for germination, added with the fungicides azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorothalonil ( 0 g.L-1 , 0.1 g.L-1 ; 0.2 g.L-1 ; 0.4 g.L-1 ; 0.6 g.L-1 and 0.8 g.L-1 or sodium hypochloride with 10% active chloride ( 0 mL. L-1 , 0,5 mL.L-1 ; 0,75 mL. L-1 ; 1,00 mL. L-1 ; 1,25 mL. L-1 ; 1,50 mL. L-1. A complete randomized block design was used with ten replications per treatment and five plantlets per flask. The treatment containing 1.5 mL L-1 sodium hypochloride was the best in preventing contamination by microorganisms and did not cause any apparent harm development and in vitro rooting of Oncidium varicosum plantlets.Um dos maiores problemas na produção de mudas in vitro, é a contaminação por fungos e bactérias do meio de cultura durante as etapas de micropropagação, mesmo havendo todos os cuidados de assepsia. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de fungicidas e germicida no crescimento vegetativo e enraizamento in vitro da orquídea Oncidium varicosum Lindl. As flores foram polinizadas artificialmente e as sementes foram germinadas no meio MS modificado com a metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. As plântulas obtidas foram subcultivadas no mesmo meio de germinação, adicionando-se os fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorothalonil nas concentrações: 0,1 g.L-1; 0,2 g.L-1 ; 0,4 g.L-1; 0,6 g .L-1 e 0,8 g.L-1 O germicida hipoclorito de sódio com 10% de cloro ativo foi

  15. 金钗石斛水煎剂对糖尿病肾病大鼠肾脏PPARγ表达的影响%Effect of Dendrobium Nobile Lindl Decoction on Expression of PPARγin Diabetic Nephropathy Rat Kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘园园; 张艳磊; 何晓然; 李小琼; 唐彦萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To exPlore the ProtectiVe mechanism of Dendrobium nobile lindl ( DNL ) decoction on the exPression of Peroxisome Proliferator actiVated recePtor gamma ( PPARγ) in the renal cortex of diabetic nePhroPathy ( DN) rats. Methods Sixty SD rats were randomly diVided into six grouPs (n=10 Per grouP) as follows: normal control grouP (NC), diabetic nePhroPathy control grouP ( DN) ,rosiglitazone grouP ( RGZ) ,the Dendrobium nobile lindl low ( LD) ,medium ( MD) and high ( HD) dose grouPs. After DN rat model was established, the rats were administrated with resPectiVe medications for 12 weeks,resPectiVely. The renal Pathology of rats was obserVed. The mRNA and Protein exPression of PPARγ in the renal cortex were detected via Real_time PCR and Western blotting,resPectiVely. Results High dose DNL decoction significantly alleViated thickening of kidney tissue basement membrane and fusion of foot Process in model rats. The leVels of PPARγmRNA and Protein exPression in the MD and HD grouPs were significantly increased as comPared with the DN grouP (P<0. 05,P<0. 01). Conclusion DNL decoction can effectiVely reduce kidney injury by uP_regulating the PPARγ mRNA and Protein exPression in diabetic nePhroPathy rats.%目的:通过观察金钗石斛水煎剂对糖尿病肾病( DN )大鼠肾皮质过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体γ( PPARγ)表达的影响,探讨其对DN的保护作用及相关机制。方法将60只健康 SD 大鼠随机分为6组,每组10只:正常对照组( NC组),模型对照组( DN组),罗格列酮组( RGZ组),金钗石斛小剂量( LD)、中剂量( MD)、大剂量( HD)干预组。在大鼠糖尿病造模成功后各组分别给药12周,观察大鼠肾脏病理、Real_time PCR法检测大鼠肾皮质PPARγ mRNA表达、Western blot法检测大鼠肾皮质中PPARγ蛋白表达的情况。结果金钗石斛水煎剂能明显改善糖尿病大鼠肾脏基底膜增厚及足突增粗融合;增加DN大鼠肾皮质中PPARγ m

  16. Ethylene, Enzymatic and Respiratory Pattern Evolution in Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl. cv. Golden Nugget in the Last four Sequential Stages of Maturation Evolución del Patrón Respiratorio, Enzimático y de Etileno del Níspero Japonés (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl. cv. Golden Nugget en los Últimos Cuatro Estadios Secuenciales de Madurez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L Undurraga M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some controversy regarding the respiratory pattern of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica [Thunb.] Lindl.. Thus in order to provide information on this aspect of loquat, fruit of 50-70 g, from cv. Golden Nugget were harvested in four stages of maturity: green (BBCH 709, color break (BBCH 801, yellow (BBCH 807, and orange (BBCH 809. The parameters evaluated in each stage were: soluble solids, titratable acidity, respiration, ethylene generation, and activity of the enzymes pectin methyl esterase (PME, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase (PPO, polygalacturonase (PG, and cellulose, and the soluble solids:acidity ratio was calculated. The results show that ethylene concentration increased at the time of color break, which was not the case for the change in the respiratory rate. The activity of the peroxidase enzyme increased from the green stage to color break, while the enzymes PME, cellulase, and PG showed a constant reduction from the green to the orange stage, and PPO showed no change over the four stages studied. With regards to quality, from color break onwards soluble solids increased to 11.8 °Brix and titratable acidity dropped from 0.67 to 0.28 g L-1 malic acid. Based on these results, the conclusion is that towards the end of its development loquat cv. Golden Nugget evidence enzymatic and ethylene behavior similar to that of climacteric fruits.Existe controversia sobre el patrón respiratorio del níspero (Eriobotrya japonica [Thunb.] Lindl.. Con el fin de aportar información sobre este aspecto, frutos del cv. Golden Nugget entre 50-70 g, fueron cosechados en cuatro estadios de madurez; verde (BBCH 709, quiebre de color (BBCH 801, amarillo (BBCH 807, y anaranjado (BBCH 809. Los parámetros evaluados en cada estadio fueron: sólidos solubles, acidez titulable, relación sólidos solubles acidez, respiración, generación de etileno y la actividad de las enzimas pectin metil esterasa (PME, peroxidasa, polifenoloxidasa (PPO, poligalacturonasa

  17. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  18. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Hassayoun, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH{sub 3}-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 {+-} 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) of CPD (0.664 versus 0.597, respectively for D1 and

  19. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH3-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 ± 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P 0.05). However, those supplemented with acacia without PEG (D3) had

  20. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 ± 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 ± 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those offered

  1. Sequencing and Bioinformatic Analysis for Transcriptome of Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. cv. merrillii%香榧转录组测序及生物信息学基础分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易官美; 包燕春

    2016-01-01

    Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. cv. Merrillii is an economically important plant on both agriculture and ecology. However, the genomic information of this species has been less studied, leading to limited researching progresses in both molecular biology and gene functions. In the present study, we have sampled different tissues of T. grandi to conduct a transcriptomic analysis using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 technical platform. As a result, a total of 37,349,086 reads were obtained with the whole base number of 4.35 G. Based on the assembling of high quality reads, we identified a total of 104,636 Unigenes with an average length of 784 nt and N50 was 1,702 nt. Comparing these Unigene sequences with those in the public database, 28,766 Unigenes were annotated in the Nr database, 24,003 Unigenes were in the NT database, and 21,401 Unigenes were in the Swiss-Prot database. Moreover, based on the COG database and the GO database, we also found 16,137 Unigenes and 11,410 Unigenes were in both databases respectively. We further classified 18,564 Unigenes into 256 pathways according to the KEGG annotation information. Finally, we identified 4,706 SSR loci in 4,217 Unigenes via SSR loci searching. The obtained transcriptome data was thus as the first genomic-wide database serving for future studies of T. grandis in terms of functional gene cloning, gene expression, fingerprint construction and molecular marker-assisted breeding.%香榧具有重要的经济价值,但其基因组信息相对匮乏,限制了其分子生物学和基因功能的研究。本文以不同组织的香榧作为研究对象,采用新一代高通量测序技术平台Illumina HiSeq™2000对香榧转录组进行测序和数据分析,共得到37,349,086个reads片段,总碱基数为4.35 G。利用组装软件,对获得的高质量序列进行组装,共得到104,636个Unigene,平均长度为784 nt,N50为1,702。将Unigene序列与公共数据库进行比对,28,766

  2. 香榧转录组测序及生物信息学基础分析%Sequencing and Bioinformatic Analysis for Transcriptome of Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. cv. merrillii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易官美; 包燕春

    2016-01-01

    香榧具有重要的经济价值,但其基因组信息相对匮乏,限制了其分子生物学和基因功能的研究。本文以不同组织的香榧作为研究对象,采用新一代高通量测序技术平台Illumina HiSeq™2000对香榧转录组进行测序和数据分析,共得到37,349,086个reads片段,总碱基数为4.35 G。利用组装软件,对获得的高质量序列进行组装,共得到104,636个Unigene,平均长度为784 nt,N50为1,702。将Unigene序列与公共数据库进行比对,28,766个Unigenes获得了注释。其中26,856个Unigene在NR蛋白数据库中获得注释,24,003个Unigenes在NT数据库中获得注释,21,401个Unigene在Swiss-Prot蛋白数据库中获得注释,16,137个Unigene在COG数据库中获得注释,11,410个Unigene在GO数据库中获得注释。根据KEGG注释信息,18,564个Unigene被划分到256个代谢途径中。SSR位点搜索发现,在4,217个Unigene中含有4,706个SSR位点。分析所获得的转录组数据,将为香榧功能基因的克隆,基因的表达,指纹图谱构建和分子标记辅助选育奠定基础。%Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. cv. Merrillii is an economically important plant on both agriculture and ecology. However, the genomic information of this species has been less studied, leading to limited researching progresses in both molecular biology and gene functions. In the present study, we have sampled different tissues of T. grandi to conduct a transcriptomic analysis using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 technical platform. As a result, a total of 37,349,086 reads were obtained with the whole base number of 4.35 G. Based on the assembling of high quality reads, we identified a total of 104,636 Unigenes with an average length of 784 nt and N50 was 1,702 nt. Comparing these Unigene sequences with those in the public database, 28,766 Unigenes were annotated in the Nr database, 24,003 Unigenes were in the NT database, and 21,401 Unigenes were in the Swiss

  3. Animal experiment of the fatigue-resisting and anoxia-resisting actions of pholidota chinensis lindl%石仙桃抗疲劳和耐缺氧作用的动物实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建新; 周俐; 周青; 连其深

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pholidota chinensis lindl (PCL) has been used in folk medicine to treat pulmonary edema, resolve phlegm, relieve cough and resist fatigue. However, its pharmacological effects on hypoxic-ischemic heart and brain damage remain to be unclear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of PCL extract on survival duration of 5 kinds of anoxia models as well as anti-fatigue and anti-hypoxia actions.DESIGN: Randomized and controlled experiment.SETTING: Pharmacological Department of Garnnan Medical College.MATERIALS: The experiment was performed in the Pharmacological Department of Gannan Medical College frgm March to June 2004. A total of 170 Kunming mice, 25 males and 95 females, weighing (20±2) g, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Gannan Medical College.METHODS:①Hypoxia-resisting test:Totally 40 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal saline group, hydrochloric propranolol group (0.02 g/kg), and 5 g/kg and 10 g/kg PCL extract groups, with 10 in each group. Twenty minutes after administration, the mice were put into hypoxic wide-mouthed bottles of 250 mL volume with sodalime for recording survival time with stopwatch. ② Test of specific anoxic myocardium: Totally 30 mice were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 in each, namely normal saline + isoproterenol group, 10 g/kg PCL extract + isoproterenol group, and hydrochloric propranolol (0.02 g/kg) + isoproterenol group.0.015 g/kg isoproterenol was given to mice in each group. Forty minutes after administration, the mice were put into hypoxic wide-mouthed bottles of 250 mL volume with sodalime for recording survival time with stopwatch. ③ Test of NaNO2-induced hypoxia: Forty mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal saline group, hydrochloric propranolol group (0.02 g/kg), 5 g/kg and 10 g/kg PCL extract groups, with 10 in each group. Forty minutes after administration, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 200 mg/kg NaNO2. The survival time was recorded.④Test of

  4. 三华李花色苷对D-半乳糖致衰小鼠皮肤组织的抗氧化作用%Antioxidation Effect of Anthocyanin from Prunus salicina Lindl.cv."Sanhua" on Skin Tissue of Aged Mice Induced by D-galactose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董桂红; 刘延吉

    2011-01-01

    研究三华李花色苷对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠皮肤组织的抗氧化能力。用D-半乳糖(1 000 mg/kg.d)建立小鼠衰老模型,同时分别灌胃不同剂量的三华李花色素溶液(20,50,100 mg/kg.d);30 d后,测定小鼠血清和背部皮肤组织匀浆中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力、丙二醛(MDA)含量和皮肤羟脯氨酸(Hyp)含量,并与正常组,衰老模型组,维生素C对照组(20 mg/kg.d)进行对比。三华李花色苷能使D-半乳糖致衰小鼠血清和皮肤中的SOD酶活性显著升高(p〈0.01)MDA含量显著降低(p〈0.05),皮肤中Hyp含量显著升高(p〈0.01)。三华李花色苷具有较强的抗氧化生物活性,在一定程度上,能够延缓皮肤衰老。%Investigated the antioxidative ability of anthocyanin from Prunus salicina Lindl.cv."sanhua"(APLS) on skin tissue of aged mice induced by D-galactose.The aged mice were induced by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose for 30 d and simultaneously received gastric infusion of APLS at different dosages(20,50,100 mg/kg·d);After 30 d,The activity of SOD,the content of MDA in serum and skin tissue as well as the content of hydroproline(Hyp) in skin tissue were measured,and compared with normal group,model group,vitamin C group.APLS can increase the activity of SOD significantly(p0.01)and decreased the content of MDA(p0.05)in serum and skin tissue;The content of Hyp in skin tissue also increased significantly(p0.01).APLS showed marked effect of antioxidation,and can delay the aging process of the skin.

  5. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  6. Cloning,Expression Analysis and Promoter Isolation of Chalcone-synthase Gene from Fruits of Nane,Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata%油果实中查尔酮合成酶基因 PsCHS 的克隆表达分析及其启动子的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠翠; 王玉珍; 叶新福

    2016-01-01

    Chalcone-synthase (CHS,EC 2.3.1.74)is an important enzyme involved inflavonoids synthesis pathway in plants.This study aimed to investigate the gene structure and expression profile of CHS gene in the fruits of nane (Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata).A full-length cDNA sequence harboring a CHS gene,named PsCHS ,was successfully separated from a normalized full-length cDNA library of matured nane fruits.The up-stream promoter sequence of PsCHS was separated by genome walking strategy using primer pair designed byPsCHS sequence.The length of PsCHS was 1 442 bp with ORF of 1 176 bp and deduced amino acid of 392 aa.From the prediction by an online software,the promoter sequence of PsCHS have typical structure element TATA-box and CAAT-box, photon-response element, anaerote-induced element, endosperm-related element, MYB-bingding element and hormone-response element,etc.RT-PCR indicated that PsCHS had higher expression level at the earlier stage of development of the fruit,especially 40 d after blossom,then decreased to a lower level at the maturing stage. PsCHS seperated in this study was a member of the CHS gene family.Since CHS is a key enzyme involved in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway,PsCHS might act with a regulatory role in biosynthesis of flavonoids.%从成熟果实均一化全长 cDNA 文库中分离了编码 CHS 基因的全长 cDNA 序列,命名为 PsCHS ,根据其序列设计引物,采用 Genome Walking 方法从基因组 DNA 中分离获得 PsCHS 基因上游的调控序列,命名为 PsCHSp ,PsCHS 基因全长1442 bp,其中 ORF 1176 bp,编码392个氨基酸;采用 APA-Walking 技术,获得该基因的5′端调控区,经在线软件预测,启动子序列含有典型的结构特征元件 TATA-box 和 CAAT-box,还包含光响应元件、厌氧诱导元件、胚乳表达相关元件、MYB 结合位点以及激素响应元件;RT-PCR 结果显示,PsCHS 基因在果实发育的前期表达量较高,花后40 d 表达量最高,随

  7. Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Narmadha

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

  8. Propagação in vitro de Baptistonia pubes (Lindl. Chiron & V.P. Castro (Oncidium pubes Lindl. (Orchidaceae Propagation in vitro of Baptistonia pubes (Lindl. Chiron & V.P. Castro (Oncidium pubes Lindl. - Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Wagner Coelho Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Baptistonia pubes é uma epífita que ocorre na Floresta Atlântica do Brasil, no Paraguai e norte da Argentina. É considerada espécie vulnerável e ameaçada de extinção. Nossos objetivos foram avaliar a eficácia da germinação de suas sementes e o crescimento em dois pHs utilizando-se dois meios de cultura: Murashige-Skoog (modificado - (MS e meio nutritivo à base de banana nanica acrescido de NPK 20-20-20 (Plant Prood® (BAN variando-se as concentrações de nutrientes e pH para a germinação e para o crescimento inicial das plântulas. As sementes germinaram em média 15 dias após a inoculação, em todas as condições. A porcentagem de germinação variou entre 2,6 a 11,6%, sendo que a maior porcentagem ocorreu no pH=5,2 BAN e a menor no pH=6,2 MS/2. O meio BAN foi mais eficiente na germinação. Os pHs, em cada meio, alteraram significativamente as médias das sementes germinadas. As plântulas cresceram mais no meio nutritivo à base de banana nanica no pH = 5,2.Baptistonia pubes is an epiphyte that grows in Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is considered vulnerable and threatened with extinction. Our aim was to verify seed germination efficiency and growth at two pHs, using two culture mediums: Murashige-Skoog (modified - (MS and banana pulp with added NPK 20-20-20 (Plant Prood® (BAN, with varied nutrient and pH concentrations for germination and for growth. The seeds germinated on average 15 days after the inoculation, at all conditions. The percentage of germination varied between 2.6 and 11.6 %. The highest percentage was at pH=5.2 BAN and the lowest at pH=6.2 MS/2. The banana pulp was most efficient for germination. The pHs, in each environment, altered significantly the averages of the germinated seeds. Seedling growth showed better results in the banana medium, pH = 5.2

  9. Tuber formation in the wild potato species Solanum demissum Lindl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.

    1994-01-01

    1. How does a potato plant form tubers?Potato plants produce sexual multiplication and survival structures, true seeds, and asexual multiplication and survival bodies, tubers. Berries of the potato plant contain a large number of minute seeds. Relatively large tubers are formed in t

  10. БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ РЕСУРСЫ СЕМЕЙСТВА LAMIACEAE LINDL. В УСЛОВИЯХ МЕЛОВОГО ЮГА СРЕДНЕРУССКОЙ ВОЗВЫШЕННОСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    ДУМАЧЕВА Е.В.; Чернявских, В.; БОРОДАЕВА Ж.А.

    2015-01-01

    Целью исследований было изучение биологических ресурсов семейства Lamiaceae Lindl. в условиях овражно-балочных комплексов мелового юга Среднерусской возвышенности. Установлено, что в условиях овражно-балочных комплексов произрастает 36 видов Lamiaceae Lindl., т.е. около 79 % от характерного для флоры региона разнообразия семейства. Наибольший интерес для изучения биологических ресурсов на территории Белгородской области представляют виды родов Hyssopus, Thymus, Salvia. Изучение онтогенетическ...

  11. Morfo-anatomia das folhas da nespereira Eriobotrya japonica Lindl., Rosaceae Leaf morpho-anatomy of loquat Eriobotrya japonica Lindl., Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. de Souza

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Eriobotrya japonica, Rosaceae, é uma espécie conhecida popularmente como nespereira, cujas folhas são empregadas na medicina tradicional como agente hipoglicemiante e no tratamento de doenças da pele. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar morfo-anatomicamente as folhas, a fim de fornecer subsídios farmacognósticos ao controle de qualidade da droga vegetal e taxonômicos à família. O material botânico foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia ótica e eletrônica de varredura. As folhas são simples, alternas, lanceoladas, de limbo inteiro e margem denteada. A epiderme foliar é uniestratificada e revestida por cutícula espessada e levemente estriada. Tricomas tectores unicelulares longos são encontrados em ambas as faces, sendo numerosos na abaxial. A folha é hipoestomática, revelando estômatos anomocíticos. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e os feixes vasculares de pequeno porte são colaterais e podem apresentar extensão de bainha. A nervura principal possui formato biconvexo e o pecíolo circular, sendo ambos percorridos por feixes vasculares anficrivais. Foram observados idioblastos contendo cristais de oxalato de cálcio, mucilagem e compostos fenólicos.The leaves of Eriobotrya japonica , Rosaceae, popularly known as loquat, are used in folk medicine for their hypoglycemic properties and to treat cutaneous diseases. The aim of this work was to study the leaf morpho-anatomy of the drug for pharmacognostic and taxonomic purposes. The botanical material was prepared for the usual optical and scanning microtechniques. The leaves are simple, alternate and lanceolate, with entire blade and dentate margins. The epidermis is uniseriate and coated by a thick and slightly striated cuticle. Both surfaces are hairy, particularly the lower, with long unicellular non-glandular trichomes. Anomocytic stomata occur exclusively on the lower surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the small bundles are collateral and may present sheath extensions. The midrib has got biconvex shape and the petiole round contour, both showing amphicrival bundles. Idioblasts containing calcium oxalate crystals, mucilage and phenolic compounds were observed.

  12. Enraizamento de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl. em diferentes épocas de coleta das estacas Rooting of stem cuttings of plum (Prunus salicina, Lindl. in different times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Kersten

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a melhor época de coleta das estacas para o enraizamento de ameixeira, cultivares Reubennel e Frontier, foram conduzidos experimentos em Pelotas - RS. As estacas foram retiradas de ramos do ano de 6 anos de idade, em três épocas diferentes (novembro de 1992, janeiro e março 1993. Foram utilizados tubetes plásticos, com substrato de cinza de casca de arroz e mantidos em nebulização intermitente. Pelos resultados observou-se que, para a cultivar Reubennel, a época de coleta das estacas não influenciou o percentual de enraizamento, que foi baixo em todas as épocas, porém, para a cultivar Frontier, a época que proporcionou o maior enraizamento foi novembro (94,9%, seguida de março e janeiro (34,8 e 25,8%, respectivamente.The objective of the present work was to verify the best time for cropping stem cuttings of plum for rooting. The experiment was conducted in Pelotas, RS with two cultivars: Reubennel and Frontier. The stem cuttings were taken from the season growth of six years old stem base in three different times: November of 1992, January and March of 1993. Cuttings from the other times were rooting in plastic tubets using rice hulls ash as substrato and kept under intermitent misting. The results showed no cropping time influence in the percentual rooting of Reubennel cultivar, which was low in each determination. However, the cultivar Frontier presented a greater percentual of rooting in November (94.9%, followed in March (34.8% and in January (25,8%.

  13. Qualidade de ameixas (Primus salicina, Lindl. 'Reubennel' após armazenamento refrigerado Quality of plums (Prunus salicina, Lindl 'Reubennel' after cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Kluge

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a qualidade de ameixas 'Reubemier após 30 e 40 dias de armazenagem a 0°C e 90-95% UR e 1, 2 e 3 dias de comercialização simulada em temperatura ambiente (25-26°C. As perdas de peso das frutas até os 30 dias de armazenamento e durante a comercialização foram de 0,57% e 2,0%, respectivamente, enquanto que, até os 40 dias e durante posterior comercialização, as perdas alcançaram 1,87% e 7,0%, respectivamente. As podridões aumentaram durante a comercialização simulada, principalmente após 40 dias de armazenamento. A firmeza de polpa e a acidez total titulável (ATT tiveram maiores decréscimos após 40 dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Poucas modificações ocorreram no teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST. Em virtude da alta incidência de podridões, desidratação e sobrematuração após 40 dias de armazenamento, recomenda-se armazenar esta cultivar até 30 dias, com comercialização até 2 dias.The purpose of this research was to verily the quality of 'Reubennel' plums after two periods of cold storage: 30 and 40 days at 0°C and 90-95% RH and thereafter submitted to 1, 2 and 3 days of simulated marketing, at room temperature (25-26°C. The weight loss at 30 days of cold storage and marketing were 0,57% and 2,0%, respectively. At 40 days the weigth loss reached 1,87% in cold storage and 7,0% in marketing. The decay increased during marketing, principally after 40 days of cold storage. The firmness and total titratable acidity had greater decrease after 40 days and there was no significant variation in total soluble solids during all cold storage and simulated marketing. Because of the high decay, weight loss and fruit overripening verified at 40 days, 30 days of cold storage and 2 days of marketing, are recommended for this cultivar.

  14. Morfo-anatomia das folhas da nespereira Eriobotrya japonica Lindl., Rosaceae Leaf morpho-anatomy of loquat Eriobotrya japonica Lindl., Rosaceae

    OpenAIRE

    W. M. SOUZA; C.A. de M. Santos; M. do R. Duarte; D. Bardal

    2003-01-01

    Eriobotrya japonica, Rosaceae, é uma espécie conhecida popularmente como nespereira, cujas folhas são empregadas na medicina tradicional como agente hipoglicemiante e no tratamento de doenças da pele. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar morfo-anatomicamente as folhas, a fim de fornecer subsídios farmacognósticos ao controle de qualidade da droga vegetal e taxonômicos à família. O material botânico foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia ótica e eletrônica de varredura....

  15. Seed Priming Effect on Germination, Seedling Growth and Salt Tolerance of Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.

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    FATEMEH SADEGHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of loquat seed germination, seedling growth was investigated using seed priming technique. The experiment was conducted in completely random design with 3 replications and 24 seeds in each replication. Treatments were different solutions of sodium chloride and potassium nitrate with electrical conductivity of 0, 4, 8, 12 and dS m-1. The results showed that the highest germination percentage (83% gained in 8 dS m-1 NaCl solution. The NaCl primed seeds showed higher stem length, root and shoot dry weight than control. The primid seedlings were transferred into a closed hydro culture system containing different level of salinity to assisset their salt tolerance. The activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and ascorbite peroxidase were enhanced in salt-stressed condition. Pre-treated seedlings had also higher proline content than control.

  16. Floral variability in selected species of the genus Coelogyne Lindl., Orchidaceae

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    Romuald Kosina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Correlations of the lip characters in the Coelogyne flower proved a synchronised development of this organ. The lip is a very interspecifically variable organ. A numerical taxonomy approach permitted to select in an ordination space some extreme species, based on a description of lip morphology, Coelogyne salmonicolor versus C. fuliginosa and C. quinquelamellata versus C. nitida. A hybrid C. lawrenceana × mooreana appeared to be close to its paternal species.

  17. Floral variability in selected species of the genus Coelogyne Lindl., Orchidaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Kosina; Marta Szkudlarek

    2015-01-01

    Correlations of the lip characters in the Coelogyne flower proved a synchronised development of this organ. The lip is a very interspecifically variable organ. A numerical taxonomy approach permitted to select in an ordination space some extreme species, based on a description of lip morphology, Coelogyne salmonicolor versus C. fuliginosa and C. quinquelamellata versus C. nitida. A hybrid C. lawrenceana × mooreana appeared to be close to its paternal species.

  18. Mikropropagasi Tunas Anggrek Hitam (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl) Dengan Pemberian Benzil Amino Purin dan Naftalen Asam Asetat

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Nanda Nurlela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research is to know the influence of Benzylamino purine (BAP) and Naphtalen-3-acetic acid (NAA) concentration on micropropagation black orchid buds. The research was carried out in the Tissue Culture laboratory, Department of Agronomy, Faculty at Agriculture North Sumatera University, Medan from January to March 2010. This research used Randomized Block Design with two factor. First factor was BAP concentration consist of four levels: 0 mg/l ; 1 mg/l; 2 mg/l dan 3 mg/l. The se...

  19. First report about pharmaceutical properties and phytochemicals analysis of Rosa abyssinica R. Br. ex Lindl. (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Mahmoud Fawzy; Alrumman, Sulaiman Abdullah

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of seven solvent extracts from leaves and hips of Saudi Arabian weed Rosa abyssinica against a variety of human pathogenic bacteria and Candida species have been evaluated using well diffusion methods. Phytochemicals present in the leaves and hips of Rosa abyssinica has been characterized using Gas Chromatogram Mass spectrometry analysis. The extracts comparative efficacy against tested microbes gained from the fresh and dry leaves exhibited more prominent activity than fresh and dry hips. The methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether, acetone and diethyl ether extracts have a greater lethal effect on pathogenic microbes than hot water extracts, while cold-water extracts showed no activity. Twenty-four phytochemicals have been characterized from ethanol extract of the leaves of Rosa abyssinica and fifteen from hips by GC-MS. The major compounds detected in the leaves were squalene (38.21%), ethane, 1,1-diethoxy- (9.65%), β-D-glucopyranose, 1,6-anhydro- (8.55%), furfural (5.50%) and 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (5.19%). The major compounds in the hips were 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (51.27%), β-D-glucopyranose, 1,6-anhydro- (8.18%), 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- (7.42%), 2,5-furandione, dihydro-3-methylene- (6.79%) and furfural (5.99%). Current findings indicate that extract from leaves and hips of Rosa abyssinica and the bioactive components present could be used as pharmaceutical agents. PMID:26639478

  20. Axenic Seed Culture and in vitro mass propagation of Malaysian Wild Orchid Cymbidium finlaysonianum LINDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under this study an efficient protocol on mass propagation of Cymbidium finlaysonianum an epiphytic Malaysian wild orchid has been established using axenic culture. To obtain an axenic seed culture, it is important to perform an adequate a disinfection procedure in tissue culture. Four nutrient media viz. MS, 0.5MS, KC and VW were evaluated on In vitro seed germination with callus initiation. The maximum seed germination with callus initiation (100 percentage) was recorded in MS basal medium with a short span of time (40 days after culture). After 45 days of callus initiation the effect of eight different treatments (T /sub 1/-T /sub 8/) on callus size and nature were also studied. The experiment revealed that in T /sub 3/ (MS + 2.0 mgl /sup -1/ BAP + 0.5 mg /sup -1/ NAA) was found to be the best for callus development (1.98 cm length and 1.01 cm breadth). The effect of different concentration of BAP was evaluated on protocorm formation and its proliferation. Maximum number (7.75) and percentage (81.40) of PLBs was recorded in MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg-1 BAP. Very good PLBs development was recorded also in MS + BAP 1.0 mg-1 + NAA 0.5 mg /sup -1/. The highest elongation of shoot (3.80 cm) was observed in MS + 1.0 mg-1 BAP + 0.50 mg /sup -1/ NAA. For root induction 1.0 mg-1 NAA has proven to the best in 0.5 MS medium. The In developed seedlings were finally transferred to pots by successive phases of acclimatization. (author)

  1. Fitorreguladores e espectros de luz na micropropagação de Oncidium baueri Lindl

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    Samila Silva Camargo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que algumas espécies de orquídeas estão ameaçadas de extinção, a micropropagação é uma alternativa para a produção de um grande número de mudas com qualidade, em curto espaço de tempo. Dentre os fatores que poderão interferir na eficácia dessa técnica, podem ser citados os fitorreguladores e o espectro da luz. Assim, o objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a multiplicação e o enraizamento in vitro da orquídea Oncidium baueri com uso de diferentes concentrações de fitorreguladores e distintos filtros modificadores da luz natural. Para a multiplicação dos explantes, foram avaliados dois fatores: diferentes concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP (0, 1,0 e 2,0mg L-1 e espectro de luz, com uso ou não de filtros (azul, vermelho, verde; no período de enraizamento, testaram-se duas concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB (0 e 0,1mg L-1 e os mesmos níveis de luz. Concluiu-se que, durante a multiplicação, a não utilização de BAP e filtros proporciona maior número de folhas, brotações e maior comprimento dessas brotações. Na etapa de enraizamento, obtiveram-se raízes mais desenvolvidas em meio de cultura com 0,1mg L-1 de AIB.

  2. The Dendrobium catenatum Lindl. genome sequence provides insights into polysaccharide synthase, floral development and adaptive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Xu, Qing; Bian, Chao; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Yeh, Chuan-Ming; Liu, Ke-Wei; Yoshida, Kouki; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Chang, Song-Bin; Chen, Fei; Shi, Yu; Su, Yong-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Li-Jun; Yin, Yayi; Lin, Min; Huang, Huixia; Deng, Hua; Wang, Zhi-Wen; Zhu, Shi-Lin; Zhao, Xiang; Deng, Cao; Niu, Shan-Ce; Huang, Jie; Wang, Meina; Liu, Guo-Hui; Yang, Hai-Jun; Xiao, Xin-Ju; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Wu, Wan-Lin; Chen, You-Yi; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Luo, Yi-Bo; Van de Peer, Yves; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Orchids make up about 10% of all seed plant species, have great economical value, and are of specific scientific interest because of their renowned flowers and ecological adaptations. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of a lithophytic orchid, Dendrobium catenatum. We predict 28,910 protein-coding genes, and find evidence of a whole genome duplication shared with Phalaenopsis. We observed the expansion of many resistance-related genes, suggesting a powerful immune system responsible for adaptation to a wide range of ecological niches. We also discovered extensive duplication of genes involved in glucomannan synthase activities, likely related to the synthesis of medicinal polysaccharides. Expansion of MADS-box gene clades ANR1, StMADS11, and MIKC(*), involved in the regulation of development and growth, suggests that these expansions are associated with the astonishing diversity of plant architecture in the genus Dendrobium. On the contrary, members of the type I MADS box gene family are missing, which might explain the loss of the endospermous seed. The findings reported here will be important for future studies into polysaccharide synthesis, adaptations to diverse environments and flower architecture of Orchidaceae. PMID:26754549

  3. Percepatan Perkecambahan dan Pertumbuhan Bibit Biwa (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) Akibat Perendaman Urin Hewan dan Pemotongan Benih

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Lely Wahidah

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to study the respond of animal urine and cutting of seed to support the seedling germination and growth of biwa. Animal urine contain growth control that influence the germination and cutting of seed that accelerate the germination of biwa seed. This research was conducted at experiment center of fruit three of Berastagi, subdistrict of dolat rakyat, regency of Karo since April up to July 2013. This research applies Factorial Random sampling with 2 factors, i.e. factor I: app...

  4. Ex situ conservation of Cymbidium eburneum Lindl.: a threatened and vulnerable orchid, by asymbiotic seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Gogoi, Kiran; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon,Pramod

    2012-01-01

    The population of many splendid orchids is reducing from their natural habitats at an alarming rate and their conservation is becoming a matter of global concern. Asymbiotic seed germination has been applied for ex situ conservation of rare, endangered and threatened orchid taxa and could provide rapid means their multiplication. In the present study reported here, seeds of an epiphytic and rare orchid, Cymbidium eburneum were germinated asymbiotically in different basal media viz., Murashige...

  5. Enzymatic changes in plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) subjected to some chemical treatments and cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Ruqiya; Jawandha, S K

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present work is to see the effect of different chemical treatments on pectin methylesterase (PME) activity and softening of the fruits. Purple plums (cv. Satluj) fruits were harvested at colour break stage and treated for 5- minutes in aqueous solutions of salicylic acid at 138, 276 and 414 ppm, Ascorbic acid at 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000 ppm, and Gibberelic acid at 20, 40 and 60 ppm. For control the fruits were dipped in distilled water. Treated fruits were stored at low temperature conditions for 40 days. Physico chemical characteristics and PME activity were determined at 10 day interval. The colour of the fruits improved with respect to a* and b* values progressively throughout the storage, whereas, fruit firmness decreased. Total sugars and PME activity increased before showing a declining trend. Pre-storage application of salicylic acid (414 ppm) significantly delayed colour development. Fruits treated with salicylic acid (414 ppm) retained highest firmness, total sugars and PME activity at the end of storage. PMID:27407203

  6. Chemical sterilization in in vitro propagation of Arundina bambusifolia Lindl. and Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth

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    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a great demand for simpler and less costly laboratory techniques and for more accessible procedures for orchid breeders who do not have the necessary theoretical basis to use the traditional seed and clone production methods of orchids in vitro. The aim of this study was to assess the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO as a decontaminant in the process of inoculating adult orchid explants of Arundina bambusifolia and Epidendrum ibaguenses. Solutions of NaClO (1.200, 2.400, 3.600, 4.800 and 6.000 mg L-1 - equivalent to 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mL L-1 of commercial bleach - CB were sprayed on the explants (1.0 mL and the culture medium (GB5, in the presence or absence of activated charcoal (2 g L-1. The explants used were nodal segments of field-grown adult plants. The procedures for inoculating the explants were conducted outside the laminar flow chamber (LFC, except for the control treatment (autoclaved medium and explant inoculation inside the LFC. The best results for fresh weight yield, height and number of shoots were obtained using NaClO in solution at 1.200 mg L-1 (equivalent to 50 mL L-1 commercial bleach with activated charcoal in the culture medium. Fresh weight figures were 1.10 g/jar for Arundina bambusifolia and 0.16 g/jar for Epidendrum ibaguenses. Spraying the NaClO solutions controls the contamination of the culture medium already inoculated with the explants.

  7. Effects of cadmium and copper on the biologic fixation of nitrogen by acacia cyanophylla lindl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seedlings of acacia cyanophylla were treated with different doses of Cu and Cd. The study of the accumulation of these heavy metals by the plant indicates that for the same dose, the endogenous levels are more elevated with Cd than with Cu. This indicates the strong mobility of Cd and constitutes one of the important reasons of its toxicity. The obtained results reveal that at low doses, Cu involves a strong decrease of the number and the weight of the nodules but the viability is affected only with the strong doses. On the other hand, Cd at low dose, affects both the processes of the nodulation and that of the viability of nodules. The measurement of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation, using the method of isotopic N dilution showed that at low doses (10 and 20 ppm), the N2 fixation is more affected by Cd than by Cu. At strong doses (50 ppm), the two types of metals inhibit completely the N2 fixation on acacia cyanophylla (author)

  8. Effects of hydric stress on the biological nitrogen fixation in acacia cyanophylla lindl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water stress was applied to the plant after a convenient watering relatively long period. the following suspension imposed brutally severe conditions. After the second day following the installation of water stress, the apparent signs of disruption of the physiological processes (leaf water potential, plant growth and nitrogen uptake) begin to appear. It is necessary to note that the experimentation was carried out on seedlings, in conditions completely different from those in natural conditions. The obtained results show that water stress induced a considerable viable nodule rate decrease. the symbiotic nitrogen fixation, as estimated by isotopic N dilution showed that the symbiotic fixation of Nitrogen 2 by acacia cyanophylla is strongly reduced as of the third day of water stress installation. It has been showed that the symbiotically fixed nitrogen remains for the most part confined in the roots (author)

  9. Flavonoids, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Capacity in the Flower of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhua Zhou; Chongde Sun; Xian Li; Kunsong Chen

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids and phenolics are abundant in loquat flowers. Methanol had the highest extraction efficiency among five solvents, followed by ethanol. Considering the safety and residue, ethanol is better as extraction solvent. The average content of flavonoids and phenolics of loquat flower of five cultivars were 1.59 ± 0.24 and 7.86 ± 0.87 mg/g DW, respectively, when using ethanol as extraction solvent. The contents of both bioactive components in flowers at different developmental stages and in...

  10. 假杜鹃提取物对小鼠镇静催眠作用的实验研究%Experimental study on effects of extracts from Barleria cristata on the sedation and hypnosis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨假杜鹃提取物对小鼠的镇静催眠作用.方法 小鼠腹腔注射给药,观察小鼠延长戊巴比妥钠的睡眠时间及自主活动次数.结果 假杜鹃提取物能显著延长小鼠戊巴比妥钠睡眠时间(P < 0.01),减少小鼠自主活动次数(P < 0.05).结论 假杜鹃提取物对小鼠有明显的镇静催眠作用.

  11. Efeito do substrato e da época de coleta dos ramos no enraizamento de estacas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina Lindl. Effect of substrate and time of cutting collection on rooting of cuttings of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ferreira Dutra

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diversos substratos no enraizamento de estacas de ameixeira em diferentes épocas de coleta dos ramos. Foram utilizadas estacas medianas da cultivar Frontier, com comprimento de 15cm e um par de folhas, coletadas nos meses de novembro de 1993, janeiro e março de 1994, obtidas em um pomar comercial com 8 anos de idade. Todas as estacas utilizadas foram tratadas com ácido indolbutirico na concentração de 3000ppm, introduziu-se em torno delem da base das estacas em ácido indolbutirico, na forma de pó e colocou-se em tubetes, acondicionados em bandejas de isopor, contendo diferentes substratos: areia média lavada; vermiculila de grânulos médios; cinza de casca de arroz e serragem de eucalipto, utilizados isolados e em misturas (1: 1v/v. O período de permanência das estacas na casa de vegetação foi de 60 dias. Observou-se maiores índices de enraizamento na coleta dos ramos realizadas em janeiro e março, e que o substrato areia + serragem proporcionou os maiores percentuais de estacas enraizadas com 68,22% e 65,99% nos meses de janeiro e março.This work was carried out in a greenhouse with intermittent mist out at the plant Science Department, Eliseu Maciel Agronomy College of Federal University of Pelotas (Brazil, aiming to evaluate the effect of different substratos and time of cutting on rooting of pium cuttings. Mild cuttings with 15cm length andapair of ieaves of Frontier cultivar were coilected from a commercial orchard eight years old in November 1993, January and March 1994. All cuttings were treated with indolbutiric acid (IBA at 3000ppm concentration introducing about 1.0cm of their basal end in IBA powder and placed in tubes on isopor trays containing different substratos: washed mild sand: vermiculite of medium grains; rice husk ash and saw dust, utilized as isolated or as mixtures (1:1 v/v. Cuttings were kept on substratos for 60 days. The results demonstrated that the higher rooted cuttings percentage were obtained for cuttings collected in January and in March. The mixture of sand and saw dust gave the higher number of cuttings rooting with 68.22% and 65.99% for January and March.

  12. Fitoextração de sais pela Atriplex nummularia lindl. sob estresse hídrico em solo salino sódico Phytoextraction of salts by Atriplex nummularia lindl. under water stress in saline sodic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivan R. de Souza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a extração de sais pela Atriplex cultivada em solo salino sódico sob condições de estresse hídrico e comparar propriedades do solo antes e após seu cultivo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação durante 134 dias, com cultivo em vasos com 20 kg de solo salino sódico em quatro níveis de umidade (35, 55, 75 e 95% da capacidade de campo, com um tratamento controle (sem cultivo, montado em blocos casualizados, com oito repetições. As altas concentrações de Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ e, especialmente Na+ e Cl- nas folhas de Atriplex nummularia, associadas à elevada produção de massa seca, caracterizam esta espécie como planta fitoextratora de sais, chegando a extrair, nas folhas e caule, o equivalente a: 644,25; 757,81; 1.058,55 e 1.182,00 kg ha-1 desses elementos, para 35, 55, 75 e 95% da capacidade de campo, respectivamente. As variáveis do complexo sortivo do solo (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, soma de bases e o carbono orgânico total, permaneceram estáveis entre o início e o final do experimento, em todos os tratamentos, enquanto o Na+ e a percentagem de sódio trocável diminuíram após o cultivo da planta. A Atriplex respondeu ao incremento de umidade do solo quando se considera a produção de biomassa e a extração de sais.This study aims to evaluate the growth, production and extraction of salts by Atriplex grown on saline-sodic soil under water stress conditions and to compare soil properties before and after their cultivation. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse during 134 days growing Atriplex nummularia in pots with 20 kg of saline sodic soil with four levels of soil moisture (35, 55, 75 and 95% of field capacity with a control (soil without plant. The experiment was performed in a randomized block with eight replications. The high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and especially Na+ and Cl- in leaves of Atriplex nummularia, associated with high dry matter production characterizes this species as phytoextraction of salts, extracting through leaf and stem: 644, 758, 1059 and 1182 kg ha-1 at 35, 55, 75 e 95% of field capacity, respectively. The variables of the exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, sum of bases and total organic carbon remained stable between the beginning and end of the experiment in all treatments, while Na+ and exchangeable sodium percentage decreased after cultivation of the plant. The Atriplex responded to soil moisture with respect to biomass production and salts extraction.

  13. Preliminary Ethnobotanical Study on Chaenomeles Lindl. of Yunnan%云南木瓜属(Chaenomeles Lindl.)植物的民族植物学初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高富; 裴盛基; 杨立新; 闵康; 孙杉

    2011-01-01

    Five species of Chaenomeles Lind1. (Rosaceae), originated in East Asia, and five species (three endemic) with diversity varieties of Chaenomeles in China, as one of the medicinal and ornamental plant resources, had been cultivated since from 2 000 years ago, usually considered as one of the Chinese Traditional Medicine materials. Four species ( and some varieties) of Chaenomeles growing in Yunnan province, have the higher potential used as medicines and nutritional food supplements. The ethnic minorities in Yunnan have accumulated enough experiences and indigenous knowledge of utilization of Chaenomeles fruits in aspects of medicine purposes, environmental conservation purpose and cash income increase; while in terms of the new variation of horticulture cultivation, new products industrialization, the gap still existed comparing with other developed area. The expected objectives of mountainous agriculture ecological environment improvement, rural people cash-income increase, and harmonious development of ethic region can be reached during the process of agriculture structural adjustment with the help of investigation, exploitation on indigenous knowledge system on Chaenomeles, coupled with modern chemical analytical techniques,or combining the both approaches, and the traditional Chaenomeles cultivation patter characterized with the proper environment benefits.%蔷薇科(Rosaceae)木瓜属(Chaenomeles)植物共有5种,我国全产.该属为重要观赏植物和果品,世界各地均有栽培.木瓜在我国栽培历史悠久,是重要的中药材品种.云南木瓜属植物4种,种下品种较多,大多品质优良,具有较高的药用、营养保健开发潜力.云南民族民间利用植物于医疗保健、生态防护和增加经济收入方面均十分看好木瓜资源的潜力;但与其他发达地区相比,在品种培育、产业开发方面仍然有一定的差距.进一步加快调查、整理、发掘云南民族民间开发利用木瓜资源的传统知识体系,与现代化学分析手段相结合,发挥木瓜传统栽培模式的生态和经济效益,促进云南木瓜资源综合开发利用技术进步,将会在农业结构调整中,为云南山区农业生态环境改善、农民增收、民族地区繁荣与和谐发展做出贡献.

  14. Eficiência de ésteres de sacarose em ameixas (Prunus salicina, Lindl. 'Santa Rosa' refrigeradas Efficiency of sucrose esters in plums (Prunus salcina, Lindl. 'Santa Rosa' cold stored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Kluge

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do TAL-PROLONG (ésteres de sacarose, ameixas 'Santa Rosa' foram armazenadas por 21 dias a 0°C e 90-95% UR (+ 3 dias de comercialização simulada em temperatura ambiente. As doses do TAL-PROLONG utilizadas foram 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0%, aplicadas antes do armazenamento por imersão das frutas. As frutas tratadas com TAL-PROLONG apresentaram menores perdas de peso durante o armazenamento e comercialização simulada. Houve menor incidência de podridões e desintegração interna de polpa nas frutas tratadas com TAL-PROLONG, o qual foi também eficiente na manutenção da coloração das frutas.Aiming to verify the efficiency of TAL-PROLONG (sucrose esters, plums 'Santa Rosa' were stored for 21 days at 0°C and 90-95% RH (+ 3 days of simulated marketing at room temperature. The fruits were immersed in a solution containing 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 and 2,0% of TAL-PROLONG, before storage. During cold storage and marketing, fruits treated with TAL-PROLONG presented less weight loss. The decay and internal breakdown incidence was reduced in fruits treated with TAL-PROLONG and it was efficient for maintening the fruit colour.

  15. Fontes de nitrogênio no crescimento in vitro de plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii Lindl. (Orchidaceae = Nitrogen sources in the in vitro development of the Cattleya loddigesii Lindl. (Orchidaceae

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    Danielle Zampiere Arce Zarraga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes concentrações de nitrato de cálcio e nitrato de amônio no crescimento in vitro de orquídea. Plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii oriundas de sementes germinadas in vitro, com 1,0 cm de comprimento, foram inoculadas em frascos contendo 60 mL de meio de cultura WPM modificado em suas concentrações de nitrato decálcio (0, 278, 556, 834 e 1112 mg L-1 e nitrato de amônio (0, 200, 400, 600 e 800 mg L-1. O meio foi acrescido de 20 g L-1 de sacarose, 150 g L-1 de polpa de banana ‘nanica’ madura e 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado, pH ajustado para 5,7 ± 0,1 e solidificado com 6 g L-1 de ágar, antes da autoclavagem a 121ºC e 1,5 atm, por 20 min. Após a inoculação, os frascos foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 25 ± 2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16h e 35 μmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Decorridos 90 dias, observaram-se melhores resultados para número de folhas e de brotos com 400 e 450 mg L-1 de nitrato de amônio, respectivamente, enquanto que o maior número de raízes foi obtido com 600 mg L-1 de nitrato de amônio e 278 mg L-1 de nitrato de cálcio. Recomenda-se a utilização do meio WPM em sua composição original, sem nitrato de cálcio na micropropagação desta espécie.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrationsof calcium and ammonium nitrate on the in vitro development of orchids. Cattleya loddigesii orchid plantlets, 1.0 cm in size produced by self pollinization and also by in vitro germinatedseeds, were inoculated in flasks containing 60 mL of WPM culture medium, modified with different concentrations of calcium nitrate (0, 278, 556, 834 and 1112 mg L-1 and ammonium nitrate (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg L-1. The culture medium was supplemented with 20 gL-1 of sucrose, 150 g L-1 of ‘nanica’ banana pulp, activated charcoal 2 g L-1, solidified with agar 6 g L-1, and pH adjusted to 5.7 ± 0.1 before being autoclaved at 121ºC, 1.5 atm pressure during 20 minutes. After inoculations, the flasks were transferred to a growth room with controlled temperature around 25 ± 2ºC, 16h photoperiod regime, with a light intensity of 35 μmol m-2 s-1. After 90 days, it was observed that the best results in terms of number of leaves was achieved with 400 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate, and the highest number of sprouts was obtained with 450 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate, but the majornumber of roots was verified in the treatment with 600 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate and 278 mg L-1 of calcium nitrate. In resume, it is recommended to use the WPM medium in its original composition, without calcium nitrate to micropropagate C. loddigesii orchidplantlets.

  16. Pertumbuhan Plantlet Anggrek Vanda tricolor Lindl. secara In Vitro dengan Penambahan Bubur Ubi Kayu pada Media MS

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    IDA AYU PUTRI DARMAWATI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth of Plantlets of Vanda tricolor Orchid In-Vitro on the Cassava Pulp-Enriched MS Medium.Addition of organic matter into the culture medium is commonly used for increasing the source of sugar, vitamins and amino acids. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the cassava pulp on the growth of Vanda tricolor plantlet, and to investigate appropriate dose for the optimal growth of plantlets. The experiment utilised a Randomized Completely Design with six treatments i.e. UO (MS medium without any organic matter, U1 (MS medium + 35 g/L cassava pulp, U2 (MS medium + 40 g/L cassava pulp, U3 (MS medium + 45 g/L cassava pulp, U4 (MS medium + 50 g/L cassava pulp, and U5 (MS medium + 45 g/L cassava pulp with five replicates. The result showed that addition of cassava pulp significantly increased number of leaf, number of root and dry weight of plantlets. The highest number of root (i.e. 5.8 was obtained with addition of 50 g/L cassava pulp, while the highest dry weight of plantlet (i.e. 0.28 g was on addition of 55 g/L cassava pulp.

  17. Pertumbuhan Plantlet Anggrek Vanda tricolor Lindl. secara In Vitro dengan Penambahan Bubur Ubi Kayu pada Media MS

    OpenAIRE

    IDA AYU PUTRI DARMAWATI; HESTIN YUSWANTI

    2015-01-01

    Growth of Plantlets of Vanda tricolor Orchid In-Vitro on the Cassava Pulp-Enriched MS Medium.Addition of organic matter into the culture medium is commonly used for increasing the source of sugar, vitamins and amino acids. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the cassava pulp on the growth of Vanda tricolor plantlet, and to investigate appropriate dose for the optimal growth of plantlets. The experiment utilised a Randomized Completely Design with six treatments i.e. UO (MS me...

  18. Establishment of an Efficient In Vitro Regeneration Protocol for Rapid and Mass Propagation of Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. Using Seed Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Potshangbam Nongdam; Leimapokpam Tikendra

    2014-01-01

    An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol from seed culture has been established successfully for Dendrobium chrysotoxum, an epiphytic orchid having tremendous ornamental and medicinal values. Seed germination response was encouraging in Mitra (M) medium enriched with different combinations of auxins and cytokinins. Medium supplemented with 0.4% activated charcoal (AC), 2 mg/L 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), and 2 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) produced best seed germination percentage in 2 w...

  19. The Occurrence of Hybrid in Nepenthes hookeriana Lindl. from Central Kalimantan can be Detected by RAPD and ISSR Markers

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    KUSUMADEWI SRI YULITA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nepenthes spp. (Nepenthaceae is one of the most popular ornamental plants in Southeast Asia. There are 97 species of Nepenthes to which 64 are found in Indonesia with the center of its diversity located in Borneo. N. x hookeriana was hypothesised to be a natural hybrid between N. ampullaria and N. rafflesiana on the basis of morphological characters. Several variants of each species were also known. This present study aimed to detect the occurrence of hybrid within N. x hookeriana ‘spotted’ and ‘green’ variant using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR. Five RAPD primers and three ISSR primers were used to amplify total DNA genome and produced 83 polymorphic bands ranging in size from 300-1700 bp. Clustering analysis was performed based on RAPD and ISSR profiles using the UPGMA method. The genetic similarity of the combined markers range between 0.30-0.75 indicating a narrow range of genetic similarity among the accessions. Results from cluster analyses suggested that N. x hookeriana was indeed a hybrid between N. ampullaria and N. Rafflesiana, however it was genetically more similar to N. raflessiana.

  20. Genetic stability and phytochemical analysis of the in vitro regenerated plants of Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an endangered medicinal orchid

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    Paromik Bhattacharyya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient genetically stable regeneration protocol with increased phytochemical production has been established for Dendrobium nobile, a highly prized orchid for its economic and medicinal importance. Protocorm like bodies (PLBs were induced from the pseudostem segments using thidiazuron (TDZ; 1.5 mg/l, by-passing the conventional auxin–cytokinin complement approach for plant regeneration. Although, PLB induction was observed at higher concentrations of TDZ, plantlet regeneration from those PLBs was affected adversely. The best rooting (5.41 roots/shoot was achieved in MS medium with 1.5 mg/l TDZ and 0.25% activated charcoal. Plantlets were successfully transferred to a greenhouse with a survival rate of 84.3%, exhibiting normal development. Genetic stability of the regenerated plants was investigated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and start codon targeted (SCoT polymorphism markers which detected 97% of genetic fidelity among the regenerants. The PIC values of RAPD and SCoT primers were recorded to be 0.92 and 0.76 and their Rp values ranged between 3.66 and 10, and 4 and 12 respectively. The amplification products of the regenerated plants showed similar banding patterns to that of the mother plant thus demonstrating the homogeneity of the micropropagated plants. A comparative phytochemical analysis among the mother and the micropropagated plants showed a higher yield of secondary metabolites. The regeneration protocol developed in this study provides a basis for ex-situ germplasm conservation and also harnesses the various secondary metabolite compounds of medicinal importance present in D. nobile.

  1. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl.

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    Chao Gu

    Full Text Available The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries.

  2. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chao; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Yang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Khan, Muhammad Awais; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype) was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries. PMID:23596519

  3. ESTUDO COMPARATIVO DA EVOLUÇÃO DO NÍVEL DE TRIPTOFANO EM RAMOS DE AMEIXEIRA (Prunus salicina Lindl.

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    ROSSAL P.A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletados ramos das cultivares de ameixa, "Sangall", "All producer", "Ace", "Beauty" e "Roxo Itaquera", em pomar da Fazenda Palma da UFPel, Pelotas, RS, para um estudo comparativo vizando a propagação por estaquia. As coletas foram realizadas em intervalos de 15 dias de julho à dezembro de 1994. Através da determinação dos níveis de triptofano nas estacas concluiu-se que a melhor época para retirada de ramos para estaquia é de 14 à 28 de setembro.

  4. Fruit bearing shoot characteristics of European plum (Prunus domestica L. and Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivars

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    Milatović Dragan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological properties of fruit bearing shoots: length, number of flower buds and vegetative buds and their ratio were studied in 11 cultivars of European plum and 11 cultivars of Japanese plum during a two-year period. Fruit bearing shoots were divided into two groups: long (shoots and short (spurs. For all studied traits, statistically significant differences between plum cultivars were found. Japanese plums had lesser thickness and shorter internodes of shoots in relation to European plums. They also had a significantly higher number of flower buds both on shoots and spurs. Based on obtained results, recommendations for pruning can be made. Cultivars with a higher number of flower buds per 1-m length and in relation to vegetative buds, like most varieties of Japanese plum and some varieties of European plum ("Stanley", "Topper", "Top", "Topking", require severe pruning. On the other hand, cultivars with lower density of flower buds, such as "Čačanska rana" and "Golden Plum", can be pruned slightly.

  5. Some nutritional properties of Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl and Rheum ribes L. stems growing wild in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Dursun, Nesim; Arslan, Derya

    2007-03-01

    In this study, some compositional properties and mineral contents of Prangos ferulacea and Rheum ribes stems growing wild in Ağri and Elaziğ province in Turkey were investigated. Mineral contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Moisture, crude oil, crude fiber, crude ash, crude protein, water-soluble and alcohol-soluble extract, pH and acidity values of samples were determined. Both plants contained high amounts of crude ash, crude fiber and water-soluble extract. According to results, aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and zinc values were very high in both samples. The levels of calcium (4,248.58 mg/kg), potassium (60,613.03 mg/kg) and phosphorus (5,827.71 mg/kg) of P. ferulacea in this work were found to be higher than those of other location plants (R. ribes). Potassium ranged from 32,730.82 mg/kg R. ribes (Elaziğ sample) to 60,613.03 mg/kg P. ferulacea (Ağri sample). The iron content ranged from 56.11 mg/kg R. ribes (Ağri sample) to 147.01 mg/kg R. ribes (Elaziğ sample). This work contributed to the nutritional properties of these plant species, and the information may be useful for the evaluation of dietary information. PMID:17469771

  6. Karyotype Study on Scilla scilloides (Lindl.) Druce in Yantai%烟台绵枣儿的核型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱云; 赵彦宏; 刘林德; 王丽娟

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the chromoseome number and the karyotype of Scilla scilloides in Yantai. [Method] Root tips of Scilla scilloides were pretreated by 8-hydroxyquinoline, then fixed, dissociated and stained for slice production. The chromosome number was ana-lyzed by microscopic examination, and then cells with good chromosomal morphology and dispersal chromosome were studied by microscopic photos. [Re-sult] The somatic chromosome number of Scilla scilloides in Yantai was 2n=16+1Bs, while the karyotype formula was K (2n)=2x=16+1Bs=6m+4sm (2SAT)+4st+2t+1Bs and the karyotype classification was "3B" type. [Conclusion] Karyotype comparison, division of cell type and evolution of Scilla scilloides in Yantai are discussed, which provides basis for cytogenetics, evolutionary genetics, modem taxonomy and genetic breeding.

  7. Aqueous Root Extract of the Anti-Malarial Herbal Cryptolepis sangunolenta (Lindl Schltr Inhibits Ovulation in Rabbits

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    Charles Ansah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the aqueous root extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (cryptolepis, a popular West Africa antimalarial agent on ovulation in rabbits. We demonstrated previously that the aqueous root extract of the plant inhibits reproduction and foetal development in mice. The possible mechanism involved in this reproductive effect and whether the effect is species dependent has yet to be elucidated. Using the rabbit, the present study examined the effect of cryptolepis on pre and post ovulatory events to explore further the mechanism of the reproductive toxicity of cryptolepis. Cryptolepis (62.5-500 mg/kg; p.o administered five hours before ovulation inhibited ovulation in rabbits as ovarian histology showed dilated but unraptured ovum. The effects of cryptolepis were similar to diclofenac, an NSAID used as a reference drug. Post ovulatory treatment with cryptolepis (62.5-500 mg/kg; p.o had little effect on ovarian histology but decreased the implantation index. This study shows that the anti-conceptive effects of cryptolepis involve inhibition of ovulation and early post ovulatory events in the rabbit.

  8. Stemflow: A Source of Nutrients in some Naturally Growing Epiphytic Orchids of the Sikkim Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Awasthi, O. P.; Sharma, E; Palni, L. M. S.

    1995-01-01

    A study on five naturally growing epiphytic orchids viz., Bulbophyllum affine Lindl., Coelogyne ochracea Lindl., Otochilus porrecta Lindl., Cirrhopetalum cornutum Lindl. and C. cornutum (var.) was carried out in the subtropical belt of Sikkim Himalaya. Stemflow leachates formed the main source of ammonium-N and nitrate-N for uptake by these orchids. Phosphorus concentration in the tissues of these orchids was high. Phosphate-P from stemflow does not seem to be a regular source of phosphorus f...

  9. Root anatomy of nine orchidaceae species

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    Virginia del Carmem Oliveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the root anatomy of nine Orchidaceae species presented a multisseriated velamen, a parenchymatous cortex and a definided endodermis, in all the studied species (Catasetum fimbriatum Lindl., Dichaea bryophila Rchb. f., Encyclia calamara(Lindl. Pabst, Epidendrum campestre Lindl., Epidendrum secundum Jacq., Miltonia flavescens Lindl., Pleurothallis smithiana Lindl., Stanhopea lietzei (Regel Schltr. and Vanda tricolor Lindl. Structural characters, which could be considered root adaptations to an epiphytic habit, were also common for all species.As raízes possuem um velame multisseriado, um córtex parenquimático e uma endoderme bem definida, em todas as Orchidaceae estudadas (Catasetum fimbriatum Lindl., Dichaea bryophila Rchb. f., Encyclia calamara (Lindl.Pabst, Epidendrum campestre Lindl., Epidendrum secundum Jacq., Miltonia flavescens Lindl., Pleurothallis smithiana Lindl., Stanhopea lietzei (Regel Schltr.e Vanda tricolor Lindl.. Caracteres estruturais, que podem ser considerados adaptações ao hábito epífito, são comuns nas raízes estudadas.

  10. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive. Microbial N supply was not affected by wood ash treatment. It is concluded that wood ash treatment is a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in acacia leaves, although additional energy is needed to ensure utilisation of the available N. (author)

  11. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive. Microbial N supply was not affected by wood ash treatment. It is concluded that wood ash treatment is a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in acacia leaves, although additional energy is needed to ensure utilisation of the available N. (author)

  12. Study on the in vitro Rapid Propagation System of Dendrobium nobile Lindl%金钗石斛的离体快繁体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗林会; 王勤

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] To study the in vitro rapid propagation system of D. nobile. f Method] The seeds of D. nobile were selected for the in vitro rapid propagation by tissue culture. [ Result] MS + I mg/L BA + 0.02 mg/L N AA + 2% potato juice + 3 % sucrose was suitable for the protocorm induction and hud differentiation of D. nobile. The inductive rate was 7 - 10. The most suitable rooting medium was 1/2 MS + 0. 2 mg/L BA + 0.2 mg/L NAA + 0.2 mg/L GA + 2% banana juice + 2% potato juice + 2% sucrose. The rooting rate was above 98% , and survival rate was above 90%. [ Conclusion ] The method studied the in vitro rapid propagation system of D. nobile and provided references for the tissue culture of its seedlings.%[目的]研究金钗石斛的离体快繁体系.[方法]以金钗石斛的种子为材料,采用组培法进行离体培养.[结果]适宜于金钗石斛圆球茎诱导增殖及茅分化的培养基为:MS+1 mg/L BA +0.02 mg/L NAA+浓度2%马铃薯+浓度3%白糖,增殖系数为7-10.生根培养基为1/2MS +0.2 mg/L BA +0.2 mg/L NAA +0.2 mg/L CA+浓度2%香蕉+浓度2%马铃薯+浓度2%白糖;生根率达98%以上,移栽成活率在90%左右.[结论]该方法对金钗石斛的离体快繁体系进行了研究,为组培繁殖金钗石斛种苗提供了参考.

  13. Appraisal of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of extract and fractions from the leaves of Torreya grandis Fort Ex. Lindl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad Khalid; Deng, Yulin; Dai, Rongji; Li, Wei; Yu, Yuhong; Iqbal, Zafar

    2010-02-01

    Torreya grandis (Taxaceae) was studied for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Leaves were extracted with 80% ethanol at 80 degrees C for 3h and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate and n-butanol. The aqueous ethanolic extract (aq.EE), ethylacetate fraction (EaF) and butanol fraction (BtF) at the doses of (100 and 200mg/kg, i.g.) body weight were used for study. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity was carried out by acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking time in the first and second phases of mice. The paw edema induced by formalin- and xylene-induced ear edema were used to assess anti-inflammatory activity. It was found that Torreya grandis extract and fractions at the doses of (100 and 200mg/kg, i.g.) were significantly attenuated the writhing responses induced by acetic acid and second phase of pain response induced by subplantar injection of formalin in mice. In addition, these extract and fractions inhibiting the formaldehyde-induced arthritis as well as xylene-induces edema prolifically. From acute oral toxicity studies no mortality was pragmatic even at highest dose (2500 mg/kg, i.g.). Furthermore, our phytochemical studies indicated that the aq. ethanolic extract of leaves contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. The results provide justification for the folkloric uses of Torreya grandis in the treatment of analgesic and inflammatory-based diseases across the China. PMID:19857564

  14. Identification, determination, and study of antioxidative activities of hesperetin and gallic acid in hydro-alcoholic extract from flowers of Eriobotrya japonica (Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Esmaeili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Eriobotrya japonica belongs to the Rosaceae. Studies have shown that the flowers of this plant are rich in phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Accorrdingly, the evaluation of antioxidative effects of Eriobotrya japonica Flower Extract (EJFE have been performed in vitro. Material and Methods: In this study, to investigate the influences of components of EJFE on its antioxidative activity, extract was prepared using hydro-alcoholic (25:75 V/V solvent and the antioxidative activity of the extract was evaluated based on the scavenging of various radicals (DPPH and H2O2 by spectrophotometric method and chelating of ferrous ions by ferrozine reagent. Results: HPLC analysis of the Eriobotrya japonica Flower Extract (EJFE revealed hesperetin and gallic acid as the major antioxidants. When the content of total flavonoid and polyphenolic compounds in the flower extract of this plant was examined, a significantly higher level of total polyphenols was found in Eriobotrya japonica flower extract. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that the high ability to scavenge free radicals, reducing power, and Fe+2chelating activity exerted by the EJFE were due to the high content of hesperetin and gallic acid in the flowers.

  15. Effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Prangos ferulacea (L. Lindle on histopathology of pancreas and diabetes treatment in STZ- induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Soltani band

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: The roots´ hydro-alcoholic extract of P.f seems to be capable to regenerate the islets of Langerhans in the treated rats in comparison with the untreated diabetic rats. This property can be due to some components of the plant that can increase insulin secretion.

  16. Ursachen und Auswirkungen der Ausbreitung von Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. im Bergwiesenökosystem der Rhön und Maßnahmen zu seiner Regulierung

    OpenAIRE

    Volz, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Das Naturschutzgebiet `Lange Rhön` (2666 ha) liegt im Grenzraum der Bundesländer Bayern, Hessen und Thüringen. Seit einigen Jahrzehnten überwächst dort die Stauden-Lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus) artenreiche Storchschnabel-Goldhaferwiesen und Borstgrasrasen und impliziert dadurch Habitatsveränderungen für die zentralen Leitarten der Rhön (Wiesenbrüter: Birkhuhn und Wachtelkönig). Die Erhaltung repräsentativer Ausschnitte dieser Kulturlandschaft wird damit gefährdet. In der vorliegenden Arbei...

  17. EFEITO DA APLICAÇÃO PRÉVIA DE ETHEPHON EM AMEIXEIRA (Prunus salicina Lindl E DO IBA NO ENRAIZAMENTO DE SUAS ESTACAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. DUTRA

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação com nebulização intermitente com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do ethephon, aplicado às plantas, e do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos das cultivares Frontier, Reubennel, Ace, Songold, Beauty e Roxa de Itaquera. As plantas foram pulverizadas com ethephon (ácido 2-cloroetil fosfônico nas concentrações de 0 (zero, 50 e 100 mg.l-1. Foram coletados ramos do ano e destes, retirou-se estacas medianas, com comprimento de 15cm e um par de folhas, as quais foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (IBA de formulação líquida nas concentrações de 0 (zero e 3000 mg.l-1, com tempo de imersão de 5 segundos. As estacas foram acondicionadas em sacos de polietileno contendo vermiculita como substrato. Observou-se que o ethephon aumentou o percentual de enraizamento da cultivar Beauty e o IBA aumentou o percentual de enraizamento das cultivares Roxa de Itaquera, Songold e Beauty. Concluiu-se ainda que existe diferença de potencial de enraizamento entre as cultivares de ameixeira, sendo que apresentaram maior enraizamento as cultivares Frontier e a Ace.The work was carried out in a greenhouse with intermitent mist to verify the effect of ethephon (2-chloroetyl phosphonic acid in plants, applied one week before of branch collection, and later treatment with indolebutyric acid (IBA on rooting of cuttings of Frontier, Reubennel, Ace, Songold, Beauty and Roxa de Itaquera cultivars. The plants were sprayed with ethephon at 0 (zero; 50 and 100 mg.l-1 concentrations. Branches of the year from eight years old plants were collected and from them median cuttings departed with 15cm lenght and two leaves. Later, they were treated with IBA at 0 (zero and 3000 mg.l-1 concentrations for 5 seconds immersion. The cuttings were packed in polietylene bags containing vermiculite with substrate. Ethephon increased the rooting percentage of Beauty cultivar and the IBA increased the rooting percentage of Roxa de Itaquera, Songold and Beauty cultivars. Different rooting potential among of plum cultivars was verified and the best ones were Frontier and Ace.

  18. ARMAZENAMENTO REFRIGERADO DE AMEIXAS `REUBENNEL' (Prunus salicina Lindl.: EFEITOS DO ESTÁDIO DE MATURAÇÃO E DO POLIETILENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluge R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar os efeitos do estádio de maturação e da embalagem de polietileno, ameixas `Reubennel' foram colhidas em dois estádios de maturação: verde (25-50% de coloração vermelha e semimaduro (50-75% de coloração vermelha e armazenadas à 0oC e 90-95% UR por 14, 28 e 42 dias (+ 3 dias de comercialização simulada à 25-26oC. A metade das frutas foi embalada em sacos de polietileno perfurado. O polietileno reduziu as perdas de peso das frutas durante o armazenamento, sem afetar outros parâmetros de qualidade estudados (firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e relação sólidos solúveis totais/acidez total titulável. As frutas deste cultivar conservaram-se bem até 42 dias e o melhor estádio de maturação para o armazenamento foi o verde.

  19. Nutraceutical Value of Yellow- and Red-Fleshed South African Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.: Evaluation of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alet Venter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten South African plum cultivars and selections, including yellow- and red-fleshed plums from two harvest seasons were evaluated in terms of nutraceutical value (phenolic composition, total polyphenol content (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC and fruit attributes (colour, fruit mass, etc.. Plums were evaluated at two maturity stages, i.e., directly after harvest (unripe and after a commercial cold storage and ripening regime (ripe. The phenolic composition of South African plums varied greatly, both qualitatively and quantitatively, between cultivars and selections. Neochlorogenic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid, anthocyanin and flavonol, respectively, although not present in all plums. The flavan-3-ols, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin and procyanidins B1 and B2, were present in all plums. Red-fleshed plums tended to display higher TAC and TPC than yellow-fleshed plums. The flavan-3-ol content was highly correlated with TAC. The effect of harvest season was cultivar-dependent, but cultivar differences were not obscured. In terms of maturity stage, the ripe fruits tended to contain higher levels of anthocyanins and some flavonol compounds, although the TPC and TAC were not affected in most cases. South African plums, especially the red-fleshed selections PR04-32 and PR04-35, were shown to provide generally high TAC and TPC compared to literature values.

  20. ARMAZENAMENTO REFRIGERADO DE AMEIXAS `REUBENNEL' (Prunus salicina Lindl.): EFEITOS DO ESTÁDIO DE MATURAÇÃO E DO POLIETILENO

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Kluge; A.B. Bilhalva; R.F.F. Cantillano

    1996-01-01

    Para verificar os efeitos do estádio de maturação e da embalagem de polietileno, ameixas `Reubennel' foram colhidas em dois estádios de maturação: verde (25-50% de coloração vermelha) e semimaduro (50-75% de coloração vermelha) e armazenadas à 0oC e 90-95% UR por 14, 28 e 42 dias (+ 3 dias de comercialização simulada à 25-26oC). A metade das frutas foi embalada em sacos de polietileno perfurado. O polietileno reduziu as perdas de peso das frutas durante o armazenamento, sem afetar outros parâ...

  1. Red dendrocronológica del pino de altura (Pinus hartwegii Lindl.) para estudios dendroclimáticos en el noreste y centro de México

    OpenAIRE

    José Villanueva Díaz; Julián Cerano Paredes; Lorenzo Vázquez Selem; Stahle, David W.; Peter Z. Fulé; Larissa L. Yocom; Osvaldo Franco Ramos; José Ariel Ruiz Corral

    2015-01-01

    Resumen. El bosque de Pinus hartwegii constituye el límite superior arbóreo en las montañas de México. En este estudio se desarrolló una red de cronologías de esta especie, localizadas en volcanes del Eje Neovolcánico Transversal, en el centro del país, y picos elevados de la Sierra Madre Oriental, en el noreste. El Análisis de Componentes Principales integró las cronologías en dos grupos, uno para el centro y otro para el noreste, con los que se desarrollaron dos cronologías regionales de 32...

  2. Polimorfismo isoenzimático en la población de Pinus hartwegii Lindl. del Cofre de Perote, Ver., México

    OpenAIRE

    L.G. Iglesias Andreu; M. Luna Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    Se utilizó la técnica electroforética en gel de poliacrilamida (PAGE) para evaluar la variación en la composición de cuatro sistemas isoenzimáticos (esterasas, fosfatasas ácidas, aspartato aminotransferasas y polifenoloxidasas) en la población de Pinus hartwegii del Parque Nacional Cofre de Perote en Veracruz, México, con el fin de contribuir a establecer futuros programas de conservación de este valioso recurso forestal. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la presencia de 29 isoformas. Esta...

  3. Polimorfismo isoenzimático en la población de Pinus hartwegii Lindl. del Cofre de Perote, Ver., México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Iglesias Andreu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó la técnica electroforética en gel de poliacrilamida (PAGE para evaluar la variación en la composición de cuatro sistemas isoenzimáticos (esterasas, fosfatasas ácidas, aspartato aminotransferasas y polifenoloxidasas en la población de Pinus hartwegii del Parque Nacional Cofre de Perote en Veracruz, México, con el fin de contribuir a establecer futuros programas de conservación de este valioso recurso forestal. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la presencia de 29 isoformas. Estas se presentaron en mayor número de bandas en los sistemas: esterasas, aspartato aminotransferasa y polifenoloxidasa, detectándose una variación intrapoblacional sustancial (86,2%.

  4. Red dendrocronológica del pino de altura (Pinus hartwegii Lindl. para estudios dendroclimáticos en el noreste y centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Villanueva Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El bosque de Pinus hartwegii constituye el límite superior arbóreo en las montañas de México. En este estudio se desarrolló una red de cronologías de esta especie, localizadas en volcanes del Eje Neovolcánico Transversal, en el centro del país, y picos elevados de la Sierra Madre Oriental, en el noreste. El Análisis de Componentes Principales integró las cronologías en dos grupos, uno para el centro y otro para el noreste, con los que se desarrollaron dos cronologías regionales de 320 años (1690-2009 y 590 años (1420- 2009, respectivamente. El fenómeno de El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENSO en su fase cálida (El Niño y fría (La Niña, mostró un impacto significativo en el comportamiento de la variabilidad hidroclimática descrita por ambas series. La Niña produjo condiciones climáticas contrastantes, es decir, secas en el noreste y húmedas en el centro, mientras que la fase de El Niño originó sequías en ambas regiones, pero solo durante eventos intensos de ENSO.

  5. Polimorfismo isoenzimático en la población de Pinus hartwegii Lindl. del Cofre de Perote, Ver., México

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Andreu, Lourdes Georgina; Luna Rodríguez, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    Se utilizó la técnica electroforética en gel de poliacrilamida (PAGE) para evaluar la variación en la composición de cuatro sistemas isoenzimáticos (esterasas, fosfatasas ácidas, aspartato aminotransferasas y polifenoloxidasas) en la población de Pinus hartwegii del Parque Nacional Cofre de Perote en Veracruz, México, con el fin de contribuir a establecer futuros programas de conservación de este valioso recurso forestal. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la presencia de 29 isofo...

  6. AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT OF THE ANTIMALARIAL HERBAL CRYPTOLEPIS SANGUINOLENTA (LINDL. SCHLTR DELAYS THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL LANDMARKS AND SENSORIMOTOR SYSTEMS IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Mensah and C. Ansah*

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We demonstrated previously that the aqueous root extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (cryptolepis, with cryptolepine as the major constituent adversely affect reproduction and foetal development in mice. However, very little is known on the effect of prenatal exposure of cryptolepis on the post-natal life of surviving animals. Using murine models, we report here, the effects of prenatal exposure to cryptolepis on the growth and development of physical landmarks and sensorimotor systems. Prenatal cryptolepis (62.5, 100, 500 mg/kg; p.o treatment of pregnant mice from gestation day 6 - 19 significantly caused a delay in eye opening and development of reflexes such as righting, mid-air righting, auditory startle and pinna reflex. Prenatal cryptolepis treatment also inhibited intrauterine growth but not post-natal growth. This study shows that prenatal cryptolepis treatment provokes functional toxicity by delaying the development of physical landmarks and sensorimotor systems in mice.

  7. 紫丁香花蕾化学成分研究%Chemical Constituents of the Alabastrum of Syringa oblata Lindl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽巍; 王金兰; 赵明; 张树军

    2011-01-01

    采用硅胶柱色谱和半制备高效液相色谱等从紫丁香花蕾乙酸乙酯溶液中分离得到8个单体化合物,经理化性质和波谱方法分别鉴定为:丁香苦素B(1)、齐墩果酸(2)、乌苏酸(3)、羽扇豆酸(4)、羽扇豆醇(5)、对羟基苯丙醇(6)、对羟基苯乙醇(7)和β-谷甾醇(8).其中化合物6首次从该种植物中分离得到,其余均为首次从该植物花蕾中分离得到.%Eight compounds were isolated by silica gel column cinematography and HPLC from ethyl acetate fraction of dried alabastrum of Syringa oblata. The structures were identified by means of physic-chemical and spectral data. They are Syringopicrogenin-B (1) ,oleandic acid (2) ,ursolic acid (3) .lupanic acid (4),luprol (5) ,p-hydroxy phenylpro-panol (6) ,p-hydroxy phenylethanol (7) ,and β-sitoaterol (8). Compound 6 is isolated from this plant for the first time. The other compounds are isolated from the alabastrum of S. Oblata Iindl. For the first time.

  8. Induction and identification of polyploids in Cattleya intermedia Lindl. (orchidaceae by in vitro techniques Indução e identificação de poliploides em Cattleya intermedia Lindl. (orchidaceae através de técnicas in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Artur Konzen Xavier de Mello e Silva

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of colchicine on the protocorm-like bodies of Cattleya intermedia L. (Orchidaceae cultured in vitro was studied. Different concentrations of the drug (0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20% as well as two times of culture (4 or 8 days were tested to determine the best treatment for the induction of tetraploid plants. Of the 3 colchicine levels applied, 0.05 and 0.10% of drug treatments appeared to be effective on the production of mixoploids and tetraploids and could be further used in breeding programs. The suitability of stomatal area and stomata density as criteria for the distinction between diploids and tetraploids was also tested. The results suggested that tetraploid plants could be identified with a fair amount of certainty when the screening was based on the density of stomata.No presente trabalho, foi estudado o efeito da colchicina em corpos semelhantes a protocormos de Cattleya intermedia L. (Orchidaceae. Diferentes concentrações da droga (0,00; 0,05; 0,10 e 0,20%, bem como diferentes tempos de cultura (4 ou 8 dias foram testados para determinar o melhor tratamento para a indução de plantas tetraplóides. Dos três níveis de colchicina aplicados, os tratamentos com 0,05 e 0,10% da droga parecem ser mais efetivos na produção de mixoplóides e tetraplóides, sendo que tais tratamentos podem ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento. Como critério para distinção entre diplóides e tetraplóides, foram realizadas medidas de área de estômatos e densidade de estômatos das folhas. Os resultados sugerem que as plantas tetraplóides podem ser identificadas com elevado grau de certeza quando a seleção é realizada com base na densidade de estômatos.

  9. Stemflow: A Source of Nutrients in some Naturally Growing Epiphytic Orchids of the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, O P; Sharma, E; Palni, L M

    1995-01-01

    A study on five naturally growing epiphytic orchids viz., Bulbophyllum affine Lindl., Coelogyne ochracea Lindl., Otochilus porrecta Lindl., Cirrhopetalum cornutum Lindl. and C. cornutum (var.) was carried out in the subtropical belt of Sikkim Himalaya. Stemflow leachates formed the main source of ammonium-N and nitrate-N for uptake by these orchids. Phosphorus concentration in the tissues of these orchids was high. Phosphate-P from stemflow does not seem to be a regular source of phosphorus for these orchids. Absorption/desorption results indicate that organic-N from stemflow leachates is not utilized by these orchids. PMID:21247907

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020, a Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont with Copper Tolerance Capability Isolated from Lead-Zinc Mine Tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhefei; Ma, Zhanqiang; Hao, Xiuli

    2012-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 was isolated from Medicago lupulina plants growing in lead-zinc mine tailings, which can establish a symbiotic relationship with Medicago species. Also, the genome of this bacterium contains a number of protein-coding sequences related to metal tolerance. We anticipate that the genomic sequence provides valuable information to explore environmental bioremediation. PMID:22328762

  11. Spectrometric Determination of Five Heavy Metals in Flowers of Eriobotrya Japonica (Thunb.) Lindl%枇杷花中重金属残留量的光谱测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓喻; 黄春萍; 张宏; 侯丽娟; 张万诚; 刘刚

    2007-01-01

    本文建立了原子荧光光谱法和火焰原子吸收光谱法测定枇杷花中重金属残留量的方法,并比较不同产地枇杷花中As、Hg、Pb、Cd、Cu等五种元素的含量.采用湿法消解法处理枇杷花样品,用原子荧光光谱法测定不同产地批杷花中As、Hg、Pb、Cd等四种元素的含量,用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定Cu的含量.结果表明五种元素线性关系良好,R在0.9891~0.9994(n=5),重现性好,RSD在2.20%~8.73%;加样回收率在81.58%~107.91%,RSD均小于20%,符合痕量分析中小于30%的要求.本法简便、准确、重现性好、灵敏度高,可作为枇杷花中重金属残留量的定量测定方法.测定结果显示,枇杷花中重金属含量均符合国家标准.

  12. Caracterización físico-química del membrillo japonés (Chaenomeles Sp. Lindl,). Desarrollo fisiológico y conservación frigorífica

    OpenAIRE

    Vila López, María Rosario

    2006-01-01

    El género Chaenomeles presenta una especial atención como potencial especie a cultivar y desarrollar en los países del Norte de Europa debido al alto rendimiento en frutos, que a su vez son ricos en zumo, aromas y fibra dietética. La propagación de plantas, es caro y largo en el tiempo, por lo interesa, antes de empezar a hacerlo, estimar el potencial de esta nueva cosecha, comprobar que producirá beneficios. Para esto es necesario un conocimiento profundo de la especie, de su respuesta a fac...

  13. Comments on the article A generalized scaling law for the ignition energy of inertial confinement fusion capsules by M.C. Herrmann, M. Tabak, J.D. Lindl, Nucl. Fusion 41 (2001) 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent article (details in the title) reported a generalized scaling law for the ignition energy of inertial confinement fusion targets in terms of the in-flight fuel adiabat, the peak implosion velocity, and the peak drive pressure. Previous scaling laws had not taken into account the scaling with the peak drive pressure. The key point of the analysis was the realization that the adiabat of the stagnated fuel is not simply given by the in-flight adiabat, as previously assumed implicitly, but instead depends on implosion history, and involves the drive pressure. In these comments it is pointed out that, while the simulations in said recent article account for complicated transport and equations of state, a simpler physical model based on ideal gas dynamics without heat conduction or any other transport physics advanced previously by one of the authors of these comments (for instance, Meyer-ter-Vehn, J. and Schalk, C., Z. Nat. forsch. 37A, 955 (1982)) yields quite similar scaling. This observation leads to a form of the scaling laws in terms of only the drive pressure and the Mach number, indicating the central importance of these variables, rather than the complicated transport and equations of state, for the determination of the ignition temperature

  14. Study on the Use of Colchicine to Induce Polyploidy of Dendrobium candidum Wall.ex Lindl%秋水仙碱诱导铁皮石斛多倍体研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青华; 李枝林; 唐敏; 许春城; 席会鹏

    2011-01-01

    采用浸泡法对铁皮石斛的拟原球茎、丛生芽进行多倍体诱导.结果表明:用0.09%秋水仙碱处理24h诱导丛生芽效果最佳,变异率达到48%,死亡率为10%.通过对叶、气孔、染色体的检测,证明变异芽为四倍体或嵌合体.四倍体较二倍体发生了显著变化且嵌合体需要分割培养为整倍体.二倍体细胞染色体数为2n=2x =38,四倍体细胞染色体数为2n=4x=76.%To induce polyploidy, the protocorm-like bodies and caespitose shoots of Dendrobium candi-dum were soaked with different concentrations of colchicine solution and different treating times. The results showed that the optimum condition was soaking shoots in 0. 09% colchicine solution for 24h, the highest induction rate was about 48% and the death rate was 10%. The characteristics of leaves, stoma and the number of chromosome of treated plants were checked and some plants were determined to be tetraploid, others were different chimeras needed to be separated, tetraploid were distinctly different from diploid. The number of chromosomes of tetraploids cells was 2n =4x =76, while that of dip-loid cells was 2n = 2x = 38.

  15. Conservation and reintroduction of native orchids of Singapore – the next phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim W. Yam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Some 226 species of native orchids have been recorded in Singapore. However, of these 178 are considered to be extinct, and only five are common. The orchid conservation programme aims to monitor existing species, explore ways to conserve their germplasm, and increase their number for subsequent re-introduction into appropriate habitats, including roadside trees, parks and nature areas. From 1999 to 2008, we carried out experiments and have successfully propagated and re-introduced 5 species of native orchids, namely Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume, Bulbophyllum vaginatum Rchb.f., Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm. and Binn., Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl. and Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. spp. pubescens (Lindl. Du Puy and Cribb. More than 80% of the plants are growing well and all that have survived have flowered. From 2009 to 2012, we expanded our reintroduction efforts by planting fifteen species: Bulbophyllum blumei (Lindl. J.J.Sm., Bulbophyllum medusae (Lindl. Rchb.f., Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm. and Binn., Bulbophyllum purpurascens (T. and B. J.J.Sm., Bulbophyllum vaginatum Rchb.f., Coelogyne mayeriana Rchb.f., Coelogyne rochussenii De Vr., Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl., Dendrobium aloifolium (Blume Rchb.f., Dendrobium leonis (Lindl. Rchb.f., Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume, Phalaenopsis cornu cervi (Breda Bl. and Rchb.f., Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. spp. pubescens (Lindl. Du Puy and Cribb, Thrixspermum amplexicaule Rchb.f., and Vanilla griffithii Rchb.f. is scheduled to be planted. One of our goals is that the reintroduced species would act as catalysts for the restoration of at least part of the original ecosystem. For example, pollinators may be attracted to sites where orchids have been re-introduced. Subsequently, orchid seeds that are produced from naturally pollinated flowers may be blown to the safe sites where appropriate mycorrhizal fungi are present; thus making germination and subsequent establishment of natural populations in

  16. ANTIACNE EFFECT OF POLYHERBAL GEL FORMULATION IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Thube; Patil, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the commonest skin disorder to affect humans, characterized by both non-inflammatory (comedones) and inflammatory lesions (papules, pustules, and nodulocystic lesions). Topical gel formulation has been developed containing Barleria prionitis, Butea monosperma, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Lagenaria siceraria. In vivo antiacne activity was performed for the formulations using male sprague dawley rats. Physical observations were carried out at regular intervals...

  17. Systematic positions of medicago edgeworthii and m. archiducis-nicolai (leguminosae) inferred from plastid trnk/matk, nuclear ga30x1 and its sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper characterizes the systematic positions of Medicago edgeworthii and M. archiducis-nicolai. The combined data set of chloroplast trnK/matK, nuclear GA3ox1 and ITS sequences provided a substantial amount of informative characters. The methods of Maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference, and Maximum likelihood were employed. The results showed that M. edgeworthii formed a monophyletic group with M. biflora and M. brachycarpa, both of which are members of section Lunatae; M. archiducis-nicolai is closely related to M. platycarpa and M. ruthenica. Our study supports the previous view that M. edgeworthii belongs to section Lunatae, and M. archiducis-nicolai belongs to section Platycarpae. In addition, the study suggests that M. lupulina is a member of a clade having M. tenoreana and M. minima, which indicates that M. lupulina and M. secundiflora should probably not be placed in the same section. (author)

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF UNDERSOWN CROPS AND STRAW BIOMASS ON YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF POTATO TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA PŁAZA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research carried out over 2001-2003 which aimed at describing the influence of undersown crops and spring barley straw fertilization on chemical composition of table potato tubers. Two factors were examined. I - undersown crops fertilization: control variant (without undersown crops fertilization, farmyard manure, black medic (Medicago lupulina, black medic (Medicago lupulina + Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum. II – straw fertilization (subblock without straw, subblock with straw. Obtained results allow to conclude that, fertilization with mixture of black medic with Italian ryegrass and black medic in combinations without straw or with straw in terms of size and quality of yield of potato tubers it equals or it even exceeds the farmyard manure fertilization. The increase of starch, vitamin C and true protein content in comparison with control variant was noted in potato tubers fertilizerd with undersown crops biomass and straw.

  19. Climate Extreme Effects on the Chemical Composition of Temperate Grassland Species under Ambient and Elevated CO2: A Comparison of Fructan and Non-Fructan Accumulators

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada AbdElgawad; Darin Peshev; Gaurav Zinta; Wim Van den Ende; Janssens, Ivan A; Han Asard

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 concentrations and extreme climate events, are two increasing components of the ongoing global climatic change factors, may alter plant chemical composition and thereby their economic and ecological characteristics, e.g. nutritional quality and decomposition rates. To investigate the impact of climate extremes on tissue quality, four temperate grassland species: the fructan accumulating grasses Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, and the nitrogen (N) fixing legumes Medicago lupulina a...

  20. CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATION AND PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Terek, Olga; Laphyna, Olga; Velychko, Oksana; Bunyo, Lyubov; Dovgaiuk-Semeniuk, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the physiological mechanisms of plant adaptation under crude oil contamination of soil. Different plant species used in the study sedge (Carex hirta L.), bean (Faba bona Medic.), alfalfa (Medicago lupulina L.) and clover (Trifolium pratense L.) showed various biochemical and morphological reactions under oil pollution. The effect of crude oil on root elongation, shoot growth and dry matter accumulation of the four species was evaluated. All invest...

  1. A Study of the Epiphytic Orchids in Jobolarangan Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADIANI VIVIATI

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to know the species of epiphytic orchids in Jobolarangan forest. The orchid samples were taken from all stand-plants. The plants were chosen randomly by considering the diversity and richness of orchids that attach on it. Each plant was sampled in three repetitions. Sampling of orchids existence in the plant’s stand were done using transect method through a zonation system. In this research 11 epiphytic-orchids such as Bulbophyllum bakhuizenii Stenn, Coelogyne miniata Lindl, Coelogyne rochussenii de Vr., Dendrobium bigibbum Lindl., Dendrobchilum longifolium, Eria bogoriensis, J.J.S. Liparis caespitosa (Thou. Lindl., Liparis pallida (Bl.. Pholidota globosa (Bl. Lindl., Polystachya flavescens (Bl. J.J.S., and Trichoglottis sp. were found. The host plant stand that was attached with most orchids was Schefflera fastigiata and Saurauia bracteosa, generally in zone three.

  2. Fontes de nitrogênio no crescimento in vitro de plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii Lindl. (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.309 Nitrogen sources in the in vitro development of the Cattleya loddigesii ‘Tipo’ orchid - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.309

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Zampiere Arce Zarraga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes concentrações de nitrato de cálcio e nitrato de amônio no crescimento in vitro de orquídea. Plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii oriundas de sementes germinadas in vitro, com 1,0 cm de comprimento, foram inoculadas em frascos contendo 60 mL de meio de cultura WPM modificado em suas concentrações de nitrato de cálcio (0, 278, 556, 834 e 1112 mg L-1 e nitrato de amônio (0, 200, 400, 600 e 800 mg L-1. O meio foi acrescido de 20 g L-1 de sacarose, 150 g L-1 de polpa de banana ‘nanica’ madura e 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado, pH ajustado para 5,7 ± 0,1 e solidificado com 6 g L-1 de ágar, antes da autoclavagem a 121ºC e 1,5 atm, por 20 min. Após a inoculação, os frascos foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 25 ± 2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16h e 35 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Decorridos 90 dias, observaram-se melhores resultados para número de folhas e de brotos com 400 e 450 mg L-1 de nitrato de amônio, respectivamente, enquanto que o maior número de raízes foi obtido com 600 mg L-1 de nitrato de amônio e 278 mg L-1 de nitrato de cálcio. Recomenda-se a utilização do meio WPM em sua composição original, sem nitrato de cálcio na micropropagação desta espécie.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of calcium and ammonium nitrate on the in vitro development of orchids. Cattleya loddigesii ‘Tipo’ orchid plantlets, 1.0 cm in size produced by self pollinization and also by in vitro germinated seeds, were inoculated in flasks containing 60 mL of WPM culture medium, modified with different concentrations of calcium nitrate (0, 278, 556, 834, and 1112 mg L-1 and ammonium nitrate (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg L-1. The culture medium was supplemented with 20 g L-1 of sucrose, 150 g L-1 of ‘Nanica’ banana pulp, activated charcoal 2 g L-1, solidified with agar 6 g L-1, and pH adjusted to 5.7 ± 0.1 before being autoclaved at 121ºC, 1.5 atm pressure during 20 minutes. After inoculations, the flasks were transferred to a growth room with controlled temperature around 25±2ºC, 16 h photoperiod regime, with a light intensity of 35 µmol m-2 s-1. After 90 days, it was observed that the best results in terms of number of leaves was achieved with 400 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate, and the highest number of sprouts was obtained with 450 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate, but the major number of roots was verified in the treatment with 600 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate and 278 mg L-1 of calcium nitrate. In resume, it is recommended to use the WPM medium in its original composition, without calcium nitrate to micropropagate Cattleya loddigesii ‘Tipo’ orchid plantlets. The best rooting was achieved with 600 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate and 278 mg L-1 of calcium nitrate added in the medium.

  3. Isolation of Rhizobium Spp. Bacteria which as Used Microbial Fertilizer from Wild Leguminosarum Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Öğütcü; Ömer Faruk Algur

    2014-01-01

    In our study used wild leguminous plants (Medicago sativa, M. lupulina and M. varia ) Erzurum belongs to the high altitude (2000 - 2500m ) regions ( Palandöken mountain, Alibaba mountain, Turnagöl mountain, Hasanbaba mountain, Eğerli mountain, Yıldırım mountain, Çubuklu mountain, Deveboynu locality, Kayakyolu locality, Telsizler and Dumlu hill ) were collected during the months of June and July. Nodules were obtained from this plant were sterilized, YMA (Yeast Mannitol Agar) plates were strea...

  4. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  5. [Allelopathic effects of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lingxiao; Chen, Xin; Tang, Jianjun

    2005-12-01

    With growth chamber method, this paper studied the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plant species. Different concentration S. canadensis root and rhizome extracts were examined, and the test plants were Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense, Medicago lupulina, Lolium perenne, Suaeda glauca, Plantago virginica, Kummerowia stipulacea, Festuca arundinacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea, and Amaranthus spinosus. The results showed that the allelopathic inhibitory effect of the extracts from both S. canadensis root and rhizome was enhanced with increasing concentration, and rhizome extracts had a higher effect than root extracts. At the lowest concentration (1:60), root extract had little effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. repens, but rhizome extract could inhibit the germination of all test plants though the inhibitory effect varied with different species. The inhibition was the greatest for grass, followed by forb and legume. 1:60 (m:m) rhizome extract had similar effects on seed germination and radicel growth, but for outgrowth, the extract could inhibit Kummerowia stipulacea, Amaranthus spinosus and Festuca arundinacea, had no significant impact on Lolium perenne, Plantago virginica, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea and Amaranthus spinosus, and stimulated Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense and Medicago lupulina. PMID:16515192

  6. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa J D; Ribeiro, Ester M; Luizi-Ponzo, Andrea P; Faria, Ana Paula G

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl.) Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell.) Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra) Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L.) L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family. PMID:27168370

  7. Total Synthesis of Three New Dihydrostilbenes from Bulbophllum odoratissimum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A total synthesis of three new dihydrostilbenes, 1, 2 and 3, which were isolated from Bulbophyllum odoratissimum Lindl. with significant cytotoxicity toward human cancer cell lines,was developed via Horner reaction etc. The natural products 1, 2 and 3 were obtained in 5.8%,6.6% and 5.9%, respectively.

  8. Revision of Coelogyne section Speciosae (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    1999-01-01

    Section Speciosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised. Sixteen species are recognized, including one new ( C. tommii) and one dubious species ( (C. dichroantha). Three former varieties are raised to subspecies level ( C. speciosa subsp. speciosa, subsp. incarnata and subsp. fimbriata). Two species formerly included in sect. Speciosae by several authors are excluded (C. eberhardtii and C. lawrenceana).

  9. Reasons of leaves withering in tropical plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Czerwiński; K. Czerwińska; J. Andrearczyk; B. Solińska-Górnicka

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the reasons of necrosis of exotic plants leaves cultivated in greenhouses plants belonging to ten following species were examined: Ceratozamia mexicana Brongn., Stangeria eriopus (Kunze) Nash (Cycadaceae), Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (Rosaceae), Camellia japonica L. (Theaceae), Phoenix roebeleni O'Brien (Palmae), Sequoia sempervirens Endl. (Taxodiaceae), Calathea bachemiana Morr. (Marantaceae), Cordyline terminalis Kunth (Agavaceae), Spathiphyllum wallisii Reg. and Anthur...

  10. Production of Pharmaceuticals from Papaver Cultivars In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    A methodology to clonally proliferate Iranian poppy (Papaver bracteatum Lindl.) and opium poppy (P. somniferum L.) shoots is presented employing an in vitro hydroponics system (i.e., automated plant culture system (APCS)). Temperature had a profound effect on growth and alkaloid production after 8-...

  11. In vitro antibacterial screening of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, A; Duarte, A; Gomes, E T

    1994-10-01

    The ethanol and aqueous crude extracts and five alkaloids isolated from the roots of Crytolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schlechter were screened for antibacterial activity against 7 reference strains by the twofold serial broth microdilution assay. The ethanol extract and the alkaloids cryptolepine and cryptoheptine inhibited the growth of all strains tested except that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:7853864

  12. Characterization of thirteen microsatellite loci from the Ghanian antimalarial plant Cryptolepis sanguinolenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schlechter (Periplocaceae) is an herbaceous plant used in traditional medicine to treat malaria and populations of the species are diminishing due to overharvesting and lack of conservation. Co-dominant microsatellite markers that can be used to characterize geneti...

  13. Вміст аскорбінової кислоти і каротину у сировині пряно-ароматичних рослин родини Lamiaceae Lindl.

    OpenAIRE

    Котюк, Л. А.; Kotyuk, L.

    2013-01-01

    The highest content of ascorbic acid in grass of annual aromatic plants grown in Zhytomyr Woodlands was found in blueflower form of Dracocephalum moldavica L., where this meaning amounted to 198.62±7.8 mg%, and the lowest – in Satureja hortensis L., with 45.46±1.58 mg% of the vitamin C in raw material. Among the perennial species maximum level of the ascorbic acid was found in raw Hyssopus angustifolius M.B. (308.91±4.78 mg%), and the lowest – in Origanum vulgare L. (38.11±1.88 mg%). The cont...

  14. ANTIACNE EFFECT OF POLYHERBAL GEL FORMULATION IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Thube

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is the commonest skin disorder to affect humans, characterized by both non-inflammatory (comedones and inflammatory lesions (papules, pustules, and nodulocystic lesions. Topical gel formulation has been developed containing Barleria prionitis, Butea monosperma, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Lagenaria siceraria. In vivo antiacne activity was performed for the formulations using male sprague dawley rats. Physical observations were carried out at regular intervals on the rat ear and progressive fading of comedo was found on treated animals. Test group showed significant improvement on comedo reduction of rat pinna observed photographically. Test group showed a significant improvement compared to standard. The present study scientifically evaluates the antiacne potential of the herbs as a single entity as well as in combination using in vivo methods. The results obtained will help in identification and isolation of bioactive constituents for treating the root causes of acne without side effects.

  15. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  16. Zeuxine flava, a newly recorded species of Orchidaceae from China%中国兰科线柱兰属一新记录种--黄花线柱兰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金效华; 覃海宁

    2005-01-01

    报道了中国兰科植物一新记录种,黄花线柱兰Zeuxine flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f..本种的唇瓣橘黄色并呈"T"形,前唇裂片成方形,长宽近相等,唇瓣基部囊内各具一枚钩状胼胝体.%Zeuxine flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f., a newly recorded species of Orchidaceae from China, is reported. This species is characterized by having flowers saffron, lip "T"-shaped, lobules of epichile squarish and not much longer than wide, and each side of sac with only one callus inside.

  17. Mycorrhizal synthesis of Lactarius indigo (Schw.) Fr. with five Neotropical pine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R; Díaz, G; Honrubia, M

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes for the first time the ectomycorrhiza synthesized between two Guatemalan strains of Lactarius indigo (Schw.) Fr. and the Neotropical species Pinus ayacahuite var. ayacahuite Ehren, P. hartwegii Lindl., P. oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl. var oocarpa, P. pseudostrobus Lindl. and P. rudis Endl. The synthesis was carried out in a controlled growth chamber using plastic containers with peat moss-vermiculite substrate and mycelial inoculum. Mycorrhiza were obtained 25 days after inoculation. A description of the morphology, appearance and structure of mantle and Hartig net is given for each combination. Mycorrhiza were saffron to cinnamon greenish with age, with a net of saffron laticifers visible through outer mantle; orange latex secreted when injured. Cystidia-like emanating hyphae were observed on the mantle surface of young mycorrhiza. Plectenchymatous mantle with abundant interhyphal gelatinous material. PMID:16133250

  18. Cotinus coggygria Scop.: An overview of its chemical constituents, pharmacological and toxicological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Matić; Snežana Stanić; Mirjana Mihailović; Desanka Bogojević

    2016-01-01

    The Anacardiaceae Lindl. family comprises of many species which are used in nutrition and in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of several human diseases. Cotinus coggygria Scop. commonly known as “smoke tree”, is a commercial ornamental plant with high medicinal usages, belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. The present review provides a comprehensive report of empirical investigations on important pharmacological activities and phytochemical screening of essential oils and extracts. ...

  19. Four New Flowering plant Records from Satpuda Range of Jalgaon District, (MS) India

    OpenAIRE

    Tanveer A. Khan; Vivek V Desai; N R Gawande

    2015-01-01

    Jalgaon is one of the districts in the Khandesh region of North Maharashtra India with great biodiversity of plants. The present paper deals with the addition of 4 taxa of flowering plants to the flora of Jalgaon districts, Maharashtra. These taxa are Habenaria plantaginea Lindl. (Orchidaceae), EuphorbiaserpensKunth. (Euphorbiaceae), Exacum tetragonum Roxb. (Gentianaceae), Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae). These species has been reported for the first time from Satpuda range of...

  20. Revision of Coelogyne section Verrucosae (Orchidaceae): a new sectional delimitation based on morphological and molecular evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, S.E.C.; Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    2000-01-01

    Section Verrucosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised using morphological and molecular data. Eight species are recognized, including two new ones ( C. marthae and C. verrucosa). One name is reduced to synonymy. Four species formerly included by several authors in sect. Verrucosae (C. brachyptera, C. papillosa, C. parishii and C. virescens) are excluded. A total evidence analysis of morphological characters and ITS and matK sequence data supports the monophyly of the ...

  1. Revision of Coelogyne section Fuliginosae (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pelser, P.B.; Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    2000-01-01

    Section Fuliginosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised. With the help of a pollen study, principal component and cluster analyses with morphological characters and a survey of some additional data, two species are recognized (C. fimbriata and C. triplicatula), including one dubious variety (C. fimbriata var. acuminata). Eleven names are reduced to synonymy. Three species formerly included in sect. Fuliginosae by several authors are excluded ( (C. micrantha, C. treutle...

  2. Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: estudio del esclerénquima

    OpenAIRE

    González, Elena; Díaz, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio histológico de las siguientes especies leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Aucuba japonica Thumb, Buddleja japonica Hemsley, Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon (L.) Burm, fil., Cydonia oblonga Miller, Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón) Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L. Populus nigra L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix viminalis L., Sambuc...

  3. Further observations on ecology of Blandfordia cunninghamii : flowering responses to rainfall and fire, and juvenile growth rates

    OpenAIRE

    Coleby, David

    2014-01-01

    A population of 700 Blandfordia cunninghamii Lindl. (family Blandfordiaceae) plants in the Blue Mountains, 100 km west of Sydney, New South Wales was monitored over a period of seven years, during which a part of the population area was burnt in a Hazard Reduction Burn (HRB). The survey measured flowering of Blandfordia cunninghamii in both the burnt and unburnt areas. In part of the unburnt area flowering (in December) was strongly correlated with previous September rainfall, but in another ...

  4. Targets for laser and ion beam drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the two previous heavy ion fusion symposia, researchers from Livermore presented their best estimates of target energy gain. The results presented at Tokyo differed significantly from those presented at Darmstadt. The Livermore estimates were again revised for this symposium. The new estimates are given in an accompanying paper by Lindl et al. and in additional detail in this paper. The new estimates are similar to the results presented at Darmstadt. The implications of the new results are discussed

  5. Description of male and immature stages of Eupalopsellus hamedaniensis et al. (Acari: Eupalopsellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ueckermann, Edward Albert; Khanjani, Mohammad; Rostami, Elaheh; Abassipour, Habib

    2011-01-01

    The male, deutonymph, protonymph and larva of Eupalopsellus hamedaniensis Khanjani et al., 2007. A new are described and illustrated, based on 36 larva, six protonymph, two deutonymph and seven male available specimens from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and plum (Prunus salicina Lindl) (Rosaceae ) in the type locality Hamedan, Hamedan province and other parts of western Iran. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01647954.2010.519724

  6. Effects of various host plants on nutritional indices and some biochemical compounds in green oak leaf roller, Tortrix viridana L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yazdanfar; M. Ghodskhah Daryaei; J. Jalali Sendi; H. Ghobari; B. Valizadeh

    2015-01-01

    The green oak leaf roller, Tortrix viridana L., is one of the most destructive pests, causing damages to various species of oak, feeding on different host plants including Quercus infectoria Oliv, Q. branti Lindl, and Q. libani Oliv. Nutritional indices, activity of enzymatic and non-enzymatic compounds of T. viridana were studied under laboratory conditions. In addition, chemical components were analysed in the leaves of the three host plants. Fourth instar larvae reared on Q. branti showed ...

  7. The Genus Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) with Special Reference to Hybridisation and Biodiversity in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A. Dönmez

    2004-01-01

    The genus Crataegus L. has approximately 200 species worldwide. However, the number of the species is increased to 1200 species by some taxonomists. Traditionally, the genus is placed in the subfamily Maloideae and it is closely related to the genera Pyracantha M.Roem., Mespilus L. and Hesperomeles Lindl. The latest phylogenetic analysis of the genus shows that it is closest to the genus Osteomeles Lind. Crataegus is divided into 40 sections by various taxonomists. The genetic diversity centr...

  8. Effects of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide on Phyllosphere Fungi from Three Tree Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mark E. Fenn; Dunn, Paul H.; Durall, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    Short-term effects of ozone (O3) on phyllosphere fungi were studied by examining fungal populations from leaves of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) and California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.). Chronic effects of both O3 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were studied by isolating fungi from leaves of mature Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L.) trees. In this chronic-exposure experiment, mature orange trees were fumigated in open-top chambers at the University of Califor...

  9. Identification of six Papilionaceae species by epidermal characteristics: Microanalysis of handcomposed mixtures Identificación de seis especies de Papilionaceae mediante características epidérmicas: microanálisis de mezclas compuestas a mano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Yagueddú

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The microhistological analysis quantifies the botanical composition of herbivore diets by the identification of the epidermal characters of ingested species. Many Papilionaceae form part of herbivore diets due to their high nutritive quality. Different species of this family are sometimes grouped together due to the difficulty to recognize them. In this study, the epidermis of Lotus tenuis, Medicago arabica, Medicago lupulina, Melilotus albus, Trifolium pratense and Trifolium repens was analysed. Also, it was tested if such descriptions could be useful to identify fragments of these species in hand-composed mixtures and then quantified by microanalysis. Descriptions and drawings are presented. Regressions were significant (p0.05 for Trifolium repens. The slopes of the significant regressions did not differ from 1 (p>0.05. The identification of these species when present in herbivore faeces or in digestive tract contents is possible.El análisis microhistológico cuantifica la composición botánica de la dieta de herbívoros mediante la identificación de los caracteres epidérmicos de las especies ingeridas. Dado su alto valor nutricional, muchas Papilionaceae forman parte de la dieta de los herbívoros. Diferentes especies de esta familia son a veces agrupadas debido a la dificultad para su reconocimiento. En este trabajo se analizaron las epidermis de Lotus tenuis, Medicago arabica, Medicago lupulina, Melilotus albus, Trifolium pratense y Trifolium repens. También, se testeó si dichas descripciones podrían ser útiles para identificar fragmentos de estas especies en mezclas compuestas a mano y luego cuantificadas por microanálisis. Se presentan descripciones y dibujos. Las regresiones resultaron significativas (p0.05 para Trifolium repens. Las pendientes de las regresiones significativas no difirieron de 1 (p>0.05. La identificación de estas especies cuando están presentes en las heces o en contenidos del tracto digestivo de los herb

  10. Karyological studies in Brazilian species of Lippia L. (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo M. Sousa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lippia (Verbenaceae comprise around 160 species spread out mainly in South and Central Americas with few African species, some of them with potential medicinal use. Brazil is one the most important centers of diversity with approximately 75% of the species described so far. Innumerous species are endemic and poorly studied especially at a cytological level. Here, chromosomal length, karyomorphology and chromosome asymmetry of twelve Brazilian species of Lippia were evaluated [L. alba (Miller N.E.Brown, L. diamantinensis Glaz., L. florida Cham., L. hermanioides Cham., L. lacunosa Mart. & Schauer, L. lupulina Cham., L. pohliana Schauer, L. pseudothea (St. Hil Schauer, L. rosella Moldenke, L. rotundifolia Cham., L. rubella Moldenke and L. sidoides Cham.]. The analysis suggested that the genus has a variable chromosome number (from 2n = 20 to 2n = 56 originated by dysploidy and polyploidy. This is the first description of chromosome morphology for 11 of the 12 Lippia species studied.O gênero Lippia (Verbenaceae possui cerca de 160 espécies distribuídas principalmente nas Américas Central e do Sul com poucas espécies Africanas, algumas delas com potencial uso medicinal. O Brasil é um dos mais importantes centros de diversidade com aproximadamente 75% das espécies descritas. Inúmeras espécies são endêmicas e pouco estudadas, principalmente a nível citológico. Aqui, o comprimento cromossômico, a cariomorfologia e a assimetria cromossômica de doze espécies brasileiras de Lippia foram avaliados [L. alba (Miller N.E.Brown, L. diamantinensis Glaz., L. florida Cham., L. hermanioides Cham., L. lacunosa Mart. & Schauer, L. lupulina Cham., L. pohliana Schauer, L. pseudothea (St. Hil Schauer, L. rosella Moldenke, L. rotundifolia Cham., L. rubella Moldenke e L. sidoides Cham.]. As análises sugeriram que o gênero tem um número cromossômico variável (de 2n = 20 a 2n = 56 originado por disploidia e poliploidia. Esta é a primeira

  11. Descomposición de hojarasca y reciclado del nitrógeno de frutales tropicales y subtropicales en terrazas de cultivo en la costa de Granada (SE España)

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Rocío Rodríguez Pleguezuelo; Víctor Hugo Durán Zuazo; José Luis Muriel Fernández; Dionisio Franco Tarifa

    2011-01-01

    El experimento se realizó en la costa de Granada (SE España). Se estudiaron la descomposición dela hojarasca y el reciclado del nitrógeno en cuatro tipos de hojas de frutales de origen subtropicaly tropical: mango (Mangifera indica L.), chirimoyo (Annona cherimola Mill.), níspero (Eriobotryajaponica Lindl.) y aguacate (Persea americana Mill.), empleando la técnica de las bolsas. Elchirimoyo tuvo las mayores tasas de descomposición de hojarasca, mientras que la de mangofue la más persistente. ...

  12. Four New Flowering plant Records from Satpuda Range of Jalgaon District, (MS India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer A Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jalgaon is one of the districts in the Khandesh region of North Maharashtra India with great biodiversity of plants. The present paper deals with the addition of 4 taxa of flowering plants to the flora of Jalgaon districts, Maharashtra. These taxa are Habenaria plantaginea Lindl. (Orchidaceae, EuphorbiaserpensKunth. (Euphorbiaceae, Exacum tetragonum Roxb. (Gentianaceae, Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae. These species has been reported for the first time from Satpuda range of Jalgaon district, Maharashtra. The study provides a detailed taxonomic description, photographs and relevant information based on fresh collections.

  13. A numerical taxonomy of the genus sedum l., from Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenetic relationship between the species of the genus Sedum L. was investigated. Data from macro and micro morphology, including pollen and seed morphology, chemistry and distribution pattern was utilized. Two distinct groups of taxa are recognized from which one group comprises S. multicaule Wall. ex Lindl., and S. hispanicum L., while other group consists of S. trullipetalum Hook. f. and Thomson S. fischeri Raym. - Hamet and S. oreades (Decne.) Raym. - Hamet. A key of the taxa is provided and distribution maps of the species are also presented. (author)

  14. Using Automated Point Dendrometers to Analyze Tropical Treeline Stem Growth at Nevado de Colima, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Biondi; Peter Hartsough

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between wood growth and environmental variability at the tropical treeline of North America was investigated using automated, solar-powered sensors (a meteorological station and two dendrometer clusters) installed on Nevado de Colima, Mexico (19° 35’ N, 103° 37’ W, 3,760 m a.s.l.). Pure stands of Pinus hartwegii Lindl. (Mexican mountain pine) were targeted because of their suitability for tree-ring analysis in low-latitude, high-elevation, North American Monsoon environments....

  15. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable

  16. Enxertia intergenérica de cultivares de nespereira no porta-enxerto de marmeleiro 'japonês' Intergeneric grafting of loquat cultivars using 'Japonese' quince tree as rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Pio; Edvan Alves Chagas; Wilson Barbosa; Guilherme Signorini; Nelson Pires Feldberg

    2010-01-01

    No Brasil, foram desenvolvidos alguns trabalhos pioneiros com a utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) como porta-enxertos para as nespereiras (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.). O sucesso da utilização dessa enxertia intergenérica está relacionado, principalmente, à redução do porte da planta. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho estudar técnicas de enxertia de cultivares de nespereiras, utilizando-se o marmeleiro 'Japonês' (Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne) como nova opção de porta...

  17. Ethylene signal transduction elements involved in chilling injury in non-climacteric loquat fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; ZHANG, BO; Li, Xian; Xu, Changjie; Yin, Xueren; Shan, Lanlan; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong

    2009-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical fruit, with some cultivars such as ‘Luoyangqing’ (LYQ) susceptible to chilling injury (CI), while others such as ‘Baisha’ (BS) are resistant. Although loquats are non-climacteric, modulation of ethylene has an effect on ripening-related post-harvest CI. Therefore the role of ethylene signalling in the development of CI was investigated in fruit of both the LYQ and BS cultivars. Three ethylene receptor genes, one CTR1-like gene, and one EIN3...

  18. 木瓜花期管理的关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    木瓜Chaenomeles sinensis(Touin)koehne是蔷薇科Rosaceae木瓜属Chaenomeles Lindl.落叶植物,全世界共有5个种,其中4种原产于中国,1种产于日本。木瓜果实中富含蛋白质、糖类、有机酸类、多种维生素和矿物质元素,是1种果中珍品,果实不仅是医药工业的重要原料,

  19. Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Xiumin; Kong, Wenbin; Peng, Gang; Zhou, Jingyi; Azam, Muhammad; Xu, Changjie; Grierson, Don; Chen, Kunsong

    2011-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation. The carotenoid content in the peel and flesh of LYQ was approximately 68 μg g−1 and 13 μg g−1 fresh weight (FW), respectively, and for BS 19 μg g−1 and 0.27 μg g−1 FW. The mRNA levels of 15 carote...

  20. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA; IDALIA VALERIO-CAMPOS; RONALD SÁNCHEZ-PORRAS; VÍCTOR MORA-CHAVES; VANESSA BAGNARELLO-MADRIGAL; LAURA MARTÍNEZ-ESQUIVEL; ANTONIETA GONZÁLEZ-PANIAGUA; JUAN CARLOS VANEGAS

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw.) Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae), Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché) K. Koch. (Araceae), Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae), Neurolaena lobata (L.) Cass. (Asteraceae), Lonchocarp...

  1. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 1...

  2. Los factores del sitio y su relación con el ataque del descortezador Dendroctonus adjunctus B. en un bosque de Pinus hartwegii L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Camacho, Martín

    2010-01-01

    Dendroctonus adjunctus Blandford es el principal descortezador de los bosques de coníferas de alturas mayores a 2600 m.s.n.m (Cibrián et al., 1980). En el bosque natural de Pinus hartwegii Lindl del Cerro Tláloc, Texcoco Estado de México, existe alta mortalidad de pinos a causa del descortezador mencionado. El control silvícola de la plaga no ha sido suficiente hasta el momento para mantener las poblaciones de descortezadores en niveles bajos. Una estrategia adecuada de control necesita del c...

  3. Introduction of two Chirita species in the botanical garden of Oles’ Gonchar dnipropetrovsk national university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Domnitskaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Chirita (D. Don Fritch. are introduced in the Botanical Garden of Oles’ Gonchar Dnіpropetrovsk National University. The basic morphological features of Ch. sinensis Lindl. and Ch. tamiana B. L. Burt are represented. The adaptation level to the conservatory soil is estimated. The terms of flowering periods were established. Data on morphological features of two Chirita species are important for the best understanding of their cultivation. It can be used in a selection, growing and reproduction of Chirita.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships among Acanthaceae: evidence from noncoding trnL-trnF chloroplast DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, L A; Moody, M L

    1999-01-01

    We used sequence data from the intron and spacer of the trnL-trnF chloroplast region to study phylogenetic relationships among Acanthaceae. This region is more variable than other chloroplast loci that have been sequenced for members of Acanthaceae (rbcL and ndhF), is more prone to length mutations, and is less homoplasious than these genes. Our results indicate that this region is likely to be useful in addressing phylogenetic questions among but not within genera in these and related plants. In terms of phylogenetic relationships, Elytraria (representing Nelsonioideae) is more distantly related to Acanthaceae sensu stricto (s.s.) than Thunbergia and Mendoncia. These last two genera are strongly supported as sister taxa. Molecular evidence does not support monophyly of Acanthaceae s.s., although there is strong morphological evidence for this relationship. There is strong support for monophyly of four major lineages within Acanthaceae s.s.: the Acanthus, Barleria, Ruellia, and Justicia lineages as here defined. The last three of these comprise a strongly supported monophyletic group, and there is weaker evidence linking the Ruellia and Justicia lineages as closest relatives. Within the Acanthus lineage, our results confirm the existence of monophyletic lineages representing Aphelandreae and Acantheae. Lastly, within the Justicia lineage, we develop initial hypotheses regarding the definition of sublineages; some of these correspond to earlier ideas, whereas others do not. All of these hypotheses need to be tested against more data. PMID:21680347

  5. Plant-Mediated Effects on Mosquito Capacity to Transmit Human Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Domonbabele F D S; Dabiré, Kounbobr R; Roche, Benjamin; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Yerbanga, Rakiswende S; Cohuet, Anna; Yameogo, Bienvenue K; Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Hopkins, Richard J; Ouedraogo, Georges A; Simard, Frédéric; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Ignell, Rickard; Lefevre, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    The ecological context in which mosquitoes and malaria parasites interact has received little attention, compared to the genetic and molecular aspects of malaria transmission. Plant nectar and fruits are important for the nutritional ecology of malaria vectors, but how the natural diversity of plant-derived sugar sources affects mosquito competence for malaria parasites is unclear. To test this, we infected Anopheles coluzzi, an important African malaria vector, with sympatric field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum, using direct membrane feeding assays. Through a series of experiments, we then examined the effects of sugar meals from Thevetia neriifolia and Barleria lupilina cuttings that included flowers, and fruit from Lannea microcarpa and Mangifera indica on parasite and mosquito traits that are key for determining the intensity of malaria transmission. We found that the source of plant sugar meal differentially affected infection prevalence and intensity, the development duration of the parasites, as well as the survival and fecundity of the vector. These effects are likely the result of complex interactions between toxic secondary metabolites and the nutritional quality of the plant sugar source, as well as of host resource availability and parasite growth. Using an epidemiological model, we show that plant sugar source can be a significant driver of malaria transmission dynamics, with some plant species exhibiting either transmission-reducing or -enhancing activities. PMID:27490374

  6. Plant-Mediated Effects on Mosquito Capacity to Transmit Human Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Domonbabele F. d. S.; Roche, Benjamin; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Yerbanga, Rakiswende S.; Cohuet, Anna; Yameogo, Bienvenue K.; Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Hopkins, Richard J.; Ouedraogo, Georges A.; Simard, Frédéric; Ignell, Rickard; Lefevre, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ecological context in which mosquitoes and malaria parasites interact has received little attention, compared to the genetic and molecular aspects of malaria transmission. Plant nectar and fruits are important for the nutritional ecology of malaria vectors, but how the natural diversity of plant-derived sugar sources affects mosquito competence for malaria parasites is unclear. To test this, we infected Anopheles coluzzi, an important African malaria vector, with sympatric field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum, using direct membrane feeding assays. Through a series of experiments, we then examined the effects of sugar meals from Thevetia neriifolia and Barleria lupilina cuttings that included flowers, and fruit from Lannea microcarpa and Mangifera indica on parasite and mosquito traits that are key for determining the intensity of malaria transmission. We found that the source of plant sugar meal differentially affected infection prevalence and intensity, the development duration of the parasites, as well as the survival and fecundity of the vector. These effects are likely the result of complex interactions between toxic secondary metabolites and the nutritional quality of the plant sugar source, as well as of host resource availability and parasite growth. Using an epidemiological model, we show that plant sugar source can be a significant driver of malaria transmission dynamics, with some plant species exhibiting either transmission-reducing or -enhancing activities. PMID:27490374

  7. Pollen flora of Pakistan--LXVII: acanthaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen morphology of 30 species of the family Acanthaceae belonging to 11 genera has been investigated using light and scanning electron microscope. Acanthaceae is a eurypalynous family. Pollen are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, sub-prolate to prolate rarely prolate-spheroidal or sub-oblate to oblate-spheroidal, generally tricolporate or heterocolporate rarely colpate or porate. Exine ornamentation varies from medium to coarse reticulate, or often lopho-reticulate with luminae perforated to baculate or scabrate. On the basis of apertural type, exine ornamentation and colpal membrane eight distinct pollen types have been recognized viz., Pollen type-I: Barleria cristata-type, Pollen type-II: Blepharis ciliaris-type, Pollen type-III: Hygrophila polysperma - type, Pollen type-IV: Justicia adhatoda-type, Pollen type-V:Lepidagathis incurva-type, Pollen type- VI: Peristrophe paniculata-type, Pollen type-VII: Ruellia patula-type and Pollen type-VIII: Strobilanthes atropurpureus - type. Within the family pollen diversity is significant enough for delimiting the tribes, subtribes and genera. (author)

  8. Water quality assessment and flora study of desert thar and nagarparkar district tharparkar, sindh Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of water samples (24) were collected from wells, water pumps, natural and artificial depressions from Naukot, Vajuto, Mithi, Islamkot, Virawah and Nagarparkar area and analyzed on the site and at the laboratories for 18 different parameters. There was a wide variation in water quality; conductivity 157 to 41400 micro S/m and total dissolved solids 100 to 26500 mg/L. The highest values were observed at Virawah area and lowest at an artificial depression of rainwater within Nagarparkar town. The higher vegetation of Thar region consists mainly of thorny or prickly shrubs and perennial herbs capable of drought resistance as Calligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica, Salvadora oleoides, Acacia senegal, Capparis decidua, Tamarix aphylla, Prosopis spicigera, Leptadenia pyrotechnica and Zizyphus nummularia. During rainy season when dunes are covered with grasses and other herbs Salvadora oleoides, Capparis decidua, and Tamarix aphylla were found scattered in Thar area. Acacia leucophloea, Acacia senegal, Salvadora oleoides, Commiphora mukul, Barleria prionitis, Blepharis sindica, Euphorbia caudicifolia were found on dry and rocky area. Rainwater pools contain total 83 algal sp; 37 sp belonging to Cyanophyta; 23 sp Volocothyta; 10 sp Chlorophyta; 3 sp Charophyta; 10 sp Bacillarophyta; some algal species found epiphytic on aquatic plants such as Chaetophora pisiformis, Stigeoclonium subsecundum, Oedogonium sp. Spirogyra rhizobrachialis, S. fluviatilis and Gloeotrichia natans attached to Najas minor, Nymphaea stellata, and Typha domingensis. (author)

  9. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study. PMID:25921562

  10. Isolation of Rhizobium Spp. Bacteria which as Used Microbial Fertilizer from Wild Leguminosarum Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Öğütcü

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In our study used wild leguminous plants (Medicago sativa, M. lupulina and M. varia Erzurum belongs to the high altitude (2000 - 2500m regions ( Palandöken mountain, Alibaba mountain, Turnagöl mountain, Hasanbaba mountain, Eğerli mountain, Yıldırım mountain, Çubuklu mountain, Deveboynu locality, Kayakyolu locality, Telsizler and Dumlu hill were collected during the months of June and July. Nodules were obtained from this plant were sterilized, YMA (Yeast Mannitol Agar plates were streaked and petri dishes 28+1ºC were incubated for 3-5 days. Colonies appear after incubation typically constitute (white, clear or slightly opaque, mucosity, round, raised 39 isolates were selected and transferred to tubes and refrigerated YMA were stored at +4ºC. In the next stage, cytological and biochemical analyzes of these isolates were studied to determine. For this purpose isolates; YMA containing bromothymol blue and congo red reproduction, gram stain reaction, movement and subjected to catalase and oxidase tests were evaluated. The cytological and biochemical analysis of results showed that 28 of 39 strains belonged to Rhizobium spp.

  11. Study of mineral content (Nutrients and Trace elements) in vine leaf and 4 weed species included in the vegetal cover in a Spanish vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, José Angel; Bravo, Sandra; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García-Navarro, Francisco; Higueras, Pablo; Campos, Juan Antonio; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The content of some mineral elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, V, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, Ce, La and Nd) has been studied in vine leaf and four weed species (Mendicago lupulina L.; Malva sylvestris L., Hordeum murinum L. and Scandix pecten-veneris L.) included in the natural vegetal cover of a vineyard sited in Ciudad Real province (Central Spain). Samples were taken in May 2015, dried and milled in order to analyze them using the X Ray Fluorescence Technique. The results obtained have been compared with those measured in a vineyard located in a different site and with those suggested by the literature consulted for plants in general all around the world. The results indicate that some differences in mineral content among the weed species can be drafted. Great differences have been found in K, Si, Ca and Zn, although other elements, such as Mg, P, S, Ba and Nd, remained almost constant despite of the species. Moreover, the influence of the type of soil (different site) can give a different composition of the vine leaf in some elements. This last point is especially evident in the case of the Sr (more present in calcareous soils and leaves of plants grown on them, reaching 377 mg kg-1 versus less than 86 mg kg-1 in the non-calcareous studied soil).

  12. PRELIMINARY FLORA OF ORCHIDACEAE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ABAETETUBA, PARÁ, BRAZIL

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    Edgar Augusto Lobato Afonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae is one of the largest plant families in the world with approximately 20,000 species, of which 2,462 Occur in Brazil and 421 in the Pará State. Despite this large number of species, many municipalities in the State have never been sampled floristically, among them is the municipality of Abaetetuba, located in the middle region northeast Pará. Thus, this work aimed to conduct the floristic and taxonomic preliminary study of the Orchidaceae species in the Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil. Were conducted 41 field collections between January 2012 and May 2014. For collection and specimens herborization were followed usual techniques for vascular plants, and species identification were consulted specific bibliography and experts. For all species recorded are provided descriptions, taxonomic and ecological comments, information on geographical distribution in Brazil. In addition, it presents an identification key for the species Orchidaceae of Abaetetuba. In the municipality Orchidaceae is represented by 23 species belonging to 17 genera, being Epidendrum L. the more rich with three species. The most frequent species were Catasetum macrocarpum Rich. ex Kunth and Polystachya concreta (Jacq. Garay & H.R.Sweet. Except to Vanilla mexicana Mill. and V. palmarum (Salzm. ex Lindl. Lindl. classified as hemiepiphytes, all the other species were classified as holoepiphytes. Keywords: Eastern Amazon; Epiphytes, Orchids; Nort region.

  13. Litter dynamics in two Sierran mixed conifer forests. II. Nutrient release in decomposing leaf litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    The factors influencing leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release patterns were investigated for 3.6 years in two mixed conifer forests in the southern Sierra Nevada of California. The giant sequoia–fir forest was dominated by giant sequoia (Sequoiadendrongiganteum (Lindl.) Buchh.), white fir (Abiesconcolor Lindl. & Gord.), and sugar pine (Pinuslambertiana Dougl.). The fir–pine forest was dominated by white fir, sugar pine, and incense cedar (Calocedrusdecurrens (Torr.) Florin). Initial concentrations of nutrients and percent lignin, cellulose, and acid detergent fiber vary considerably in freshly abscised leaf litter of the studied species. Giant sequoia had the highest concentration of lignin (20.3%) and the lowest concentration of nitrogen (0.52%), while incense cedar had the lowest concentration of lignin (9.6%) and second lowest concentration of nitrogen (0.63%). Long-term (3.6 years) foliage decomposition rates were best correlated with initial lignin/N (r2 = 0.94, p r2 = 0.92, p r2 = 0.80, p litter layer of these ecosystems. Nitrogen concentrations steadily increase in decomposing leaf litter, effectively reducing the C/N ratios from an initial range of 68–96 to 27–45 after 3.6 years.

  14. АДАПТАЦИЯ ФОТОСИНТЕТИЧЕСКОГО АППАРАТА ЕЛИ АЯНСКОЙ (PICEA AJANENSIS (LINDL. ET GORD. FISCH EX CARR.. К ДЕЙСТВИЮ ПОЧВЕННОЙ ЗАСУХИ И ЗАТЕНЕНИЮ В МОДЕЛИРУЕМЫХ УСЛОВИЯХ ВЕГЕТАЦИОННОГО ОПЫТА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ВЕРНИГОРА Е.Г.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available В статье приведены результаты исследования влияния стрессорных факторов-почвенной засухи и затенения на продукционные и структурно-функциональные характеристики хвои ели аянской. Действие стрессорных факторов вызывает существенные адаптивные перестройки фотосинтетического аппарата ели аянской, обеспечивающие экономичное использование ограниченных ресурсов света и влаги. В процессе адаптивных перестроек в условиях почвенной засухи формируется фотосинтетический аппарат ксероморфного типа с высокими потенциальными ассимиляционными способностями, обеспечивающий успешную успешную адаптацию к воздействию засушливого стресс-фактора.

  15. Pulp fruit added to culture medium for in vitro orchid developmentPolpa de frutos adicionada ao meio de cultivo no crescimento in vitro de orquídea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rostirolla Batista de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As an additive in in vitro culture media, fruits have a great potential for facilitating economical orchid production because of lower technology requirements and the ease of obtaining raw materials to formulate culture media. We studied the in vitro growth of Cattleya bicolor Lindl. grown in a simplified culture medium supplemented with different kinds of fruit pulp. The experimental design was completely randomised, with eight seedlings per replication and ten replications per treatment, for a total of 80 seedlings per treatment. The culture medium was made using 150 g L -1 of pulp (without peel or seed from the following fruits: ripe Santa Cruz tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L., dwarf bananas (Musa cavendishii L. of intermediate ripeness, light green chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw, ripe papaya (Carica papaya L. or green coconut (Cocos nucifera L..The treatment control was MS 50 %. The treatments and the control were kept in a growth chamber for seven months before evaluating seedling survival percentage, shoot height, number of leaves, rooting percentage, root number, root length and dry masses of shoot and roots. The highest percentages of seedling survival were obtained using MS 50 %, banana and coconut medium. The seedling survival and rooting percentages illustrate that it is possible to emphasise the culture medium MS 50% and the culture medium supplemented with coconut on the most traditional culture medium with banana or tomato pulp. For the in vitro development of Cattleya bicolor Lindl., a simplified culture medium supplemented with coconut pulp is the most suitable for use as an alternative to MS 50%. A simplified culture medium supplemented with papaya pulp is not recommended for the in vitro development of Cattleya bicolor Lindl. Os frutos apresentam potencial para serem utilizados na elaboração de meios de cultivo para facilitar a produção de orquídeas em pequenas propriedades, contribuindo para a rentabilidade do cultivo

  16. Structure, composition and diversity of the vegetation of hub dam catchment area, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of vegetation structure, composition and diversity of Hub-dam catchment area was conducted. A total of 106 species were recorded of which 57 were annuals while 49 were perennials. The vegetation was dominated by small trees and shrubs. Spatial patterns within-community of plant populations using variance/mean ratio and Morisita's index was also investigated. Of the 14 perennial species investigated seven (Barleria acanthoides, Grewia tenax, Indigofera oblongifolia, Aerva persica, Rhazya stricta, Iphiona grantioides and Cymbopogon jwarancusa) predominately exhibited aggregated pattern. Four species (Acacia senegal, Prosopis juliflora, Salvadora oleoides and Calotropis procera) usually exhibited random distribution but infrequently aggregated pattern. Three species (Senna holosericea, Zizyphus nummularia and Vernonia cinerescens) showed aggregated pattern or random distribution more or less equally often. The distribution pattern of vegetation composition and the underlying environmental gradients, correspondence analysis (CA) ordination and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were employed. Group structure inherent in the vegetation was disclosed using Ward's agglomerative cluster analysis. Species diversity was measured and diversity was averaged for each group. Diversity of group I (Acacia senegal and Prosopis juliflora community type) was highest because this community included a number of mid-succession species, while diversity was lowest for group 4 (Prosopis juliflora and Capparis decidua community type) as this community was highly disturbed. In the climax community (group 3), the diversity level slightly decreased, suggesting the monopolization of resources by this community. Four major community types were recognized by Ward's cluster analysis, each of which was associated with particular topographic-edaphic factors, while one was mainly governed by anthropogenic disturbance. Biological spectrum constructed for the flora showed dominance of

  17. Effect of leguminous forage rotations on soil microbe consortiums and enzyme activity in continuously cropped potato fields%轮作豆科牧草对连作马铃薯田土壤微生物菌群及酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹莉; 秦舒浩; 张俊莲; 师尚礼; 王蒂

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different leguminous forage rotations on soil microbe consortiums,quantitative distribution,and enzyme activity were studied in a continuously cropped potato field.The quantitative distributions of soil culturable bacteria and fungi,microbial activity,soil urease activity,the activities of alkaline phosphatase and catalase were significantly promoted in common vetch (Vicia sativa),Medicago lupulina,and Longdong alfalfa (Medicago sativa) rotation systems compared with continuously cropped potato fields.Fungal/ bacterial ratios decreased by 50.72 % after legumes were included in the rotations,showing that rotations with common vetch and Medicago lupulina,converted the soil microbe consortium of continuously cropped potato field from fungal to bacterial types.After the inclusion of legumes,the number of aerobic types of nitrogen-fixing bacteria increased by 283.69%,and urease activity increased by 6.4 times.There were also significant increases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase and catalase.However,the improving effect on the soil of continuously cropping potato field depends largely on leguminous forage species.The duration of continuously cropped soils depended on the different continuous cropping durations which showed different sensitivities to different types of forage legumes.%本试验研究了轮作不同种类豆科牧草对连作马铃薯田土壤微生物菌群、数量分布及酶活性的影响.结果表明,通过轮作箭筈豌豆、天蓝苜蓿和陇东苜蓿3种豆科牧草,对连作马铃薯田土壤可培养细菌和真菌数量分布,微生物活性,土壤脲酶活性,碱性磷酸酶活性及过氧化氢酶活性均有明显的促进作用,与种植牧草前相比,轮作牧草后土壤中真菌/细菌最高可降低50.72%,说明真菌数量下降,通过轮作不同连作年限马铃薯田土壤微生物菌群从真菌型向细菌型转化;与种植牧草前相比好气型固氮菌数量最高增加283.69

  18. Legacy of earthworms' engineering effects enlarges the actual effects of earthworms on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms were recognized as key factor responsible for changes from early to late successional plant communities. They incorporate organic matter into the soil and creates there persistent structures, which improves conditions for plant growth. Earthworm activity might be therefore expected to be more important in early stages of the succession, when earthworm colonization of previously earthworm free soil starts, than in the late stages of the succession, where the soil was previously modified by earthworms. However, earthworms affect plants also via other effects such as increase of nutrient availability. The relative importance of soil structure modification and other earthworm effects on plants is poorly known, despite it is important for both theoretical and applied ecology. To test the effect of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa) on plants we performed microcosm laboratory experiment, where earthworms were affecting early successional (Poa compressa, Medicago lupulina, and Daucus carota) and late successional (Arrhenatherum elatius, Lotus corniculatus, and Plantago laceolata) plat species in soil previously unaffected by earthworms and in soil with previous long term effect of earthworms. These soils were taken from the early and late successional monitoring sites of the Sokolov coal mining district with known history. Earthworms increased plant biomass proportionally more in late successional soil. It was mainly because they increased availability of nutrients (nitrate and potassium) and plants get higher advantage out of this in late successional soil. Earthworms increased plant biomass of both early and late successional species, but late successional species suppressed early successional species in competition. This suppression was more intensive in presence of earthworms and in late successional soil. We therefore found multiplicative effect between earthworm soil engineering activity and their other effects, which might be

  19. Climate extreme effects on the chemical composition of temperate grassland species under ambient and elevated CO2: a comparison of fructan and non-fructan accumulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada AbdElgawad

    Full Text Available Elevated CO2 concentrations and extreme climate events, are two increasing components of the ongoing global climatic change factors, may alter plant chemical composition and thereby their economic and ecological characteristics, e.g. nutritional quality and decomposition rates. To investigate the impact of climate extremes on tissue quality, four temperate grassland species: the fructan accumulating grasses Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, and the nitrogen (N fixing legumes Medicago lupulina and Lotus corniculatus were subjected to water deficit at elevated temperature (+3°C, under ambient CO2 (392 ppm and elevated CO2 (620 ppm. As a general observation, the effects of the climate extreme were larger and more ubiquitous in combination with elevated CO2. The imposed climate extreme increased non-structural carbohydrate and phenolics in all species, whereas it increased lignin in legumes and decreased tannins in grasses. However, there was no significant effect of climate extreme on structural carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and mineral contents and stoichiometric ratios. In combination with elevated CO2, climate extreme elicited larger increases in fructan and sucrose content in the grasses without affecting the total carbohydrate content, while it significantly increased total carbohydrates in legumes. The accumulation of carbohydrates in legumes was accompanied by higher activity of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase. In the legumes, elevated CO2 in combination with climate extreme reduced protein, phosphorus (P and magnesium (Mg contents and the total element:N ratio and it increased phenol, lignin, tannin, carbon (C, nitrogen (N contents and C:N, C:P and N:P ratios. On the other hand, the tissue composition of the fructan accumulating grasses was not affected at this level, in line with recent views that fructans contribute to cellular homeostasis under stress. It is speculated that quality losses will

  20. RESEARCH REGARDING THE MELLIFEROUS CHARACTHERISTICS OF LABIATES FROM XEROPHILE MEADOWS FROM DANUBE VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ION

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The xerophile meadows in the Danube Valley are dry meadows, located at a great distance from the Danube and with underground waters at greater depth. Their floral composition is characterized by a small number of species pertaining to both mezoxerophiles and to xerophiles, yet the highest percentage is covered by xerophile species, which are characterized by their small foliage surface, the very narrow and tough limb, and acute porosity etc.In the floral composition of these species, the graminaceae species are best represented, followed by leguminous and lamiaceae, known in beekeeping as good honey plants. Thus, the researches carried out have shown that Lamiaceae species have a good participation, with variation limits raging from 15% to 50-60%. Leguminous species are represented less on xerophile meadows than in hidrophile meadows. Among these we mention: Lotus corniculatus L., Trifolium repens L. si Medicago lupulina L., all these species being known in beekeeping as good honey plants. Among gramineae species the most representatives are: Lolium perene L. and Poa pratensis L., yet with no melliferous value. Likewise, the group of „various” plants varied a lot as participation in the structure of the vegetal cover of xerophile meadows, depending on the place of research, all these species having no melliferous value. The current paper describes the results o biometric and melliferous researches carried out over the period 2003- 2005 on 5 plant species pertaining to the Lamiaceae family, namely: Salvia nemerosa L. – sage; Salvia pratensis L. – meadow sage; Marrubium vulgare L. – horehound;Lamium purpureum L. – purple deatnettle;Lamium amplexicaule L. – henbit deadnettle.

  1. Research on the Changes of Cell Wall Composition in Different Varieties of Loquat Pulp During Fruit Development%不同枇杷品种果实发育过程中果肉细胞壁组分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 黄志明; 叶美兰; 吴锦程

    2012-01-01

    探讨不同发育时期,细胞壁组分的变化对不同品种枇杷果肉质地的影响。以果肉质地差异较大的'解放钟'(Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.cv.Jiefangzhong)和'白梨'枇杷(Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.cv.Baili)为试材,分析果实在生长发育过程中细胞壁组分的变化,分析果肉质地差异性与细胞壁成分之间的相关性。结果表明,果实生长发育过程中,'解放钟'和'白梨'枇杷果肉水溶性果胶(water solublepectin,WSP)含量均呈上升趋势;离子结合果胶(Ionic bound pectin,ISP)、共价结合果胶(covalently boundpectin,CSP)、纤维素(Cellulose)、半纤维素(semi-cellulose)、总钙和氯化钠溶性钙含量均呈下降趋势。在果实发育后期',解放钟'果肉WSP和细胞壁离子结合蛋白含量显著高于'白梨'(P〈0.05),但两者的细胞壁共价结合蛋白含量差异不大'。解放钟'果肉纤维素含量始终高于'白梨'且差异达显著水平(P〈0.05),而果肉半纤维素含量差异不显著(P〉0.05)。WSP、ISP、CSP、纤维素、半纤维素、离子结合蛋白与枇杷果肉质地形成相关,WSP、纤维素和离子结合蛋白是形成'解放钟'和'白梨'枇杷果肉质地差异的主要因素。%To discuss effects of cell wall composition on the pulp texture during fruit development. Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv.‘Jiefangzhong’and Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv.‘Baili’loquat were used as matierials to study relationship between pulp texture and cell wall composition during fruit development. The results indicated that the cotents of water soluble pectin (WSP) in loquat pulp showed an increasing tendency, and the cotents ionic bound pectin (ISP), covalently bound pectin (CSP), cellulose, semi-cellulose, total calcium and sodium chloride soluble calcium were downtrend during fruit development. During later-developing stage, the contents of WSP and cell wall

  2. Shrinkage of Grand Fir Wood and its Variability within the Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Lukášek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the experiment focused on assessment of the shrinkage of Grand fir (Abies grandis /Douglas/ Lindl. wood and its variability in relation to the position in the stem. The examined sample trees came from the Černokostelecka Area in the Czech Republic. Tangential shrinkage was 7.1 %, radial 3.3 % and volumetric shrinkage 10.5 %. The results show evident influence of the horizontal position on the evaluated features. The lowest shrinkage values are attained close to the pith; shrinkage toward the bark shows a rising trend. In terms of vertical position, the distribution of shrinkage in the stem did not show any apparent trend. Although the dependence of shrinkage on density proved to be statistically significant, density explains only a small portion of the shrinkage variability.

  3. Calculation of the photo-electrons angular distribution asymmetry parameter β2p near the (3s3p)Ip resonance of He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near the (3s3p)1p resonance of He, we have calculated the photo-electrons angular distribution asymmetry parameter β2p in the diagonalization approximation. Using the measured value of βn=2 near the (3s3p)1p level obtained by Lindle et al. in the resonance photo-ionization of He to He+(n=2), we have estimated the ratio R=σ2p/σ2s of the partial 2p photo-ionization cross section to the partial 2s photo-ionization cross section. Our calculation supports the result that in the resonance region, the formation of ions in the 2p level dominates over the 2s level. This is in good agreement with the experimental and most of the theoretical results reported to date. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Capsule performance optimization in the National Ignition Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] to substantially increase the probability of ignition by laser-driven hohlraums [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)]. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the OMEGA facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  5. Capsule performance optimization in the National Ignition Campaigna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landen, O. L.; Boehly, T. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Braun, D. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Dewald, E. L.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A.; Hicks, D. G.; Hoffman, N.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Kyrala, G. A.; Michel, P.; Milovich, J.; Munro, D. H.; Nikroo, A.; Olson, R. E.; Robey, H. F.; Spears, B. K.; Thomas, C. A.; Weber, S. V.; Wilson, D. C.; Marinak, M. M.; Suter, L. J.; Hammel, B. A.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Atherton, J.; Edwards, J.; Haan, S. W.; Lindl, J. D.; MacGowan, B. J.; Moses, E. I.

    2010-05-01

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] to substantially increase the probability of ignition by laser-driven hohlraums [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)]. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the OMEGA facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  6. Richtmyer - Meshkov instability in a spherical target with density variation

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Labakanta; Banerjee, Rahul; Khan, Manoranjan; Gupta, M R

    2011-01-01

    The motion of unstable fluid interface due to Richtmyer - Meshkov (RM) instability incorporating with density variation has been studied in a spherical target using Lagrangian formulation. During the compression in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF)process, the density of deuterium - tritium (DT) fuel increases 1000 times greater than the density of gaseous DT fuel within the core of spherical target. We have extended the feature of density variation [PRA,84-Mikaelian & Lindl] in spherical geometry.Due to convergent shock impingement, the perturbed interface will be nonspherical which leads to the density variation in both radial as well as in polar angle. We have shown that the interface of perturbed surface decreases with time to reach a minimum and then kick back to gradual increase. As the perturbed radius decreases, the density increases and reaches a maxima corresponding to a minima of perturbed radius. This is the practical situation of density characteristics during implosion of ICF. The numerical ...

  7. Morfoanatomia foliar de microorquídeas de Ornithocephalus Hook. e Psygmorchis Dodson & Dressler Leaf anatomy of micro-orchids of Ornithocephalus Hook. and Psygmorchis Dodson & Dressler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayza Carla Lopes Della Colleta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a morfoanatomia foliar de Ornithocephalus bicornis Lindl. ex Benth., Ornithocephalus myrticola Lindl., Psygmorchis pusilla (L. e Psygmorchis glossomystax (Rchb. f., a fim de identificar caracteres de valor taxonômico e significado ecológico. Folhas expandidas foram coletadas na região de Alta Floresta, MT. As amostras foram incluídas em metacrilato, cortadas em micrótomo de mesa e corados com azul de toluidina. As lâminas foram montadas em resina sintética ou gelatina glicerinada. Epidermes foliares foram dissociadas e testes histoquímicos aplicados. As plantas observadas neste estudo são epífitas, carnosas e não apresentam pseudobulbos. A epiderme é uniestratificada e delgada com exceção de O. bicornis que é espessa, apresentando cutícula delgada e lisa. As espécies estudadas apresentam folhas anfiestomáticas com os estômatos presentes no mesmo nível das células epidérmicas. Os estômatos geralmente são anomocíticos e tetracíticos em O. myrticola, P. pusilla e P. glossomystax. Em O. bicornis ocorrem tetracítico, anisocítico e actinocítico. As células-guarda são de paredes periclinais espessas e as câmaras subestomática são pequenas, exceto em P. pusilla. Com exceção de O. bicornis, o mesofilo das espécies é heterogêneo, sendo constituído de diferentes tipos de parênquima. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais. As espécies foram consideradas mesófilas.Leaf anatomy of O. bicornis Lindl. ex Benth., O. myrticola Lindl., P. pusilla (L. and P. glossomystax (Rchb. f. was analyzed to identify valuable taxonomic and ecological traits. Expanded leaves were collected in the Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, region. Leaf samples embedded in methacrylate were cut with a table microtome and stained with toluidine blue. Slides were mounted in synthetic resin or in glycerin gelatin. Leaf tissues were dissociated and histochemical tests applied. Plants observed in this study are succulent epiphytes without

  8. Plasma barodiffusion in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions: application to observed yield anomalies in thermonuclear fuel mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Peter; Landen, O L; Robey, H F; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

    2010-09-10

    The observation of large, self-generated electric fields (≥10(9)  V/m) in imploding capsules using proton radiography has been reported [C. K. Li, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 225001 (2008)]. A model of pressure gradient-driven diffusion in a plasma with self-generated electric fields is developed and applied to reported neutron yield deficits for equimolar D3He [J. R. Rygg, Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)] and (DT)3He [H. W. Herrmann, Phys. Plasmas 16, 056312 (2009)] fuel mixtures and Ar-doped deuterium fuels [J. D. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)]. The observed anomalies are explained as a mild loss of deuterium nuclei near capsule center arising from shock-driven diffusion in the high-field limit. PMID:20867580

  9. Interaction between a Dark Septate Endophytic Isolate from Dendrobium sp.and Roots of D.nobile Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qiang Hou; Shun-Xing Guo

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between an isolate of dark septate endophytas (DSE) and roots of Dendroblum nobile Lindl.seedlings are reported in this paper.The isolate was obtained from orchid mycorrhizas on Dendrobium sp.in subtropical forest.The fungus formed typical orchid mycorrhiza in aseptic co-culture with D.nobile seedlings on modified Murashige-Skoog (MMS)medium.Anatomic observations of the infected roots showed that the DSE hyphae invaded the velamen layer,passed through passage cells in exodermis,entered the cortex cells,and then formed fungal pelotons of orchid mycorrhiza.D.nobile seedlings' plant height,stem diameter,new roots number and biomass were greatly enhanced by inoculating the fungus to seedlings.The fungus was identified as Leptodontidium by sequencing the polymerase chain reaction-amplified rDNA ITSt-5.8S-ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) regions and comparison with similar taxa.

  10. Shock timing on the National Ignition Facility: The first precision tuning series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robey H.F.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignition implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF [Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004] are driven with a very carefully tailored sequence of four shock waves that must be timed to very high precision in order to keep the fuel on a low adiabat. The first series of precision tuning experiments on NIF have been performed. These experiments use optical diagnostics to directly measure the strength and timing of all four shocks inside the hohlraum-driven, cryogenic deuterium-filled capsule interior. The results of these experiments are presented demonstrating a significant decrease in the fuel adiabat over previously un-tuned implosions. The impact of the improved adiabat on fuel compression is confirmed in related deuterium-tritium (DT layered capsule implosions by measurement of fuel areal density (ρR, which show the highest fuel compression (ρR ∼ 1.0 g/cm2 measured to date.

  11. Improved traditional phytomedicines in current use for the clinical treatment of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Merlin

    2011-04-01

    Phytomedicines and "green pharmacies" are promoted by some NGOs and governments as part of their efforts to control malaria. "Improved traditional medicines" (ITMs) are standardised as regards preparation and dose, although not always according to the concentration of active compounds. A systematic literature search revealed that six such phytomedicines are currently government-approved in at least one country and used on a relatively large scale nationally or internationally: Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae), Cinchona bark (Rubiaceae), Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr. (Apocynaceae), "Ayush-64", "Malarial-5" and Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. f. ex Planch. (Bixaceae). One further ITM has been developed and is in the process of being approved: Argemone mexicana decoction. Their development, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials are reviewed, as well as priorities for future research. PMID:21204042

  12. A comparison of three-dimensional multimode hydrodynamic instability growth on various National Ignition Facility capsule designs with HYDRA simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinak, M.M.; Haan, S.W.; Dittrich, T.R.; Tipton, R.E.; Zimmerman, G.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Three similar cryogenic ignition capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility [J. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 3933 (1995)] are analyzed to determine surface roughness specifications required to mitigate the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. These capsule utilize brominated plastic, polyimid and copper-doped beryllium ablator materials respectively. Direct three-dimensional numerical simulations with the HYDRA radiation hydrodynamic code [M. M. Marinak {ital et al.}, Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 2070 (1996)] examine the growth of multimode perturbations seeded by roughness on the outer ablator and inner ice surfaces. The simulations, which showed weakly nonlinear behavior for optimized surfaces, were carried through ignition and burn. A three-dimensional multimode perturbation achieves somewhat larger amplitudes in the nonlinear regime than a corresponding two-dimensional simulation of the same rms amplitude. The beryllium and polyimid capsules exhibit enhanced tolerance of roughness on both the ice and ablator surfaces. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. A comparison of three-dimensional multimode hydrodynamic instability growth on various National Ignition Facility capsule designs with HYDRA simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three similar cryogenic ignition capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility [J. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)] are analyzed to determine surface roughness specifications required to mitigate the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. These capsule utilize brominated plastic, polyimid and copper-doped beryllium ablator materials respectively. Direct three-dimensional numerical simulations with the HYDRA radiation hydrodynamic code [M. M. Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2070 (1996)] examine the growth of multimode perturbations seeded by roughness on the outer ablator and inner ice surfaces. The simulations, which showed weakly nonlinear behavior for optimized surfaces, were carried through ignition and burn. A three-dimensional multimode perturbation achieves somewhat larger amplitudes in the nonlinear regime than a corresponding two-dimensional simulation of the same rms amplitude. The beryllium and polyimid capsules exhibit enhanced tolerance of roughness on both the ice and ablator surfaces. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  14. Petal anatomy of four Justicia (Acanthaceae) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Noraini, T.; Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2013-11-01

    Comparative anatomical study on flower petals was studied in four selected Justicia species from Peninsular Malaysia, i.e. J. comata (L.) Lam., J. carnea Lindl. J. betonica Linn. and J. procumbens L with the objective to provide useful data for species identification and differentiation within the genus of Justicia. Methods used in this study are mechanical scrapping on the leaf surfaces and observation under light microscope. Finding in this study has shown that all species are sharing similar type of anticlinal walls pattern, which is sinuous pattern. Two or more type of trichomes is present in all species studied and this character can be used to differentiate Justicia species. Simple multicellular trichomes are found to be present in all species studied. Justicia betonica can be isolated from other species by the existence of cyclo-paracytic stomata on the petal surfaces.

  15. 广东省野生树种地理分布新记录%The New Geographical Distribution Records of Wild Tree Species in Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩维栋; 陈杰

    2013-01-01

    对广东省雷州半岛各地野生木本植物实地踏查与标本采集鉴定,并参照相关文献,发现广东省地理分布新记录树种6个,分别是:硬骨藤(Pycnarrhena poilanei(Gagnep.)Forman)、光叶海桐(Pittosporum glabratum Lindl.)、台琼海桐(Pittosporum pentandrum (blanco) Merr.var.hainanense(Gagnep.)Li.)、铁线子(Manilkara hexandra(Roxb.)Dubard)、光叶柿(Diospyros diversilimba Merr.et Chun)、玉蕊(Barringtonia racemosa(Linn.)Spreng.).

  16. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions. PMID:25730368

  17. Tolerance of cut flowers to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cut flowers were gamma-irradiated with doses of 0, 200, 400, 600, and 1000 Gy. Dianthuscaryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae), Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae), Freesia sp (Iridaceae), Limonium sinuatum Mill. (Plumbaginaceae), L. latifolium Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae), Narcissus tazetta L. (Amaryllidaceae), Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. (Compositae) and Rhodanthe manglesii Lindl (Compositae) were tolerant up to 1000 Gy, without visible negative changes after irradiation and during the vase-life. Callistephus chinensis (Compositae) and Lilium longiflorum Thunb. (Liliaceae) were moderately tolerant, but were modified by high doses. Anthurium sp (Araceae), Strelitzia sp (Musaceae), Matthiola incana R. Br. (Cruciferae), Aechmea distichanta (Bromeliaceae), Consolida ajacis Niew (Ranunculaceae), Ranunculus sp (Ranunculaceae), Dendrobium phalenopsis (Orchidaceae) and Gerbera sp (Compositae) were not tolerant to a dose of 200 Gy. The most adequate flowers to be submitted to irradiation treatment for disinfestation purpose were those of the Caryophillaceae family and those which can be used as dried flowers, such as members of the Rhodanthe, Helichrysum and Limmonium genera. (author)

  18. Shock timing on the National Ignition Facility: The first precision tuning series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignition implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] are driven with a very carefully tailored sequence of four shock waves that must be timed to very high precision in order to keep the fuel on a low adiabat. The first series of precision tuning experiments on NIF have been performed. These experiments use optical diagnostics to directly measure the strength and timing of all four shocks inside the hohlraum-driven, cryogenic deuterium-filled capsule interior. The results of these experiments are presented demonstrating a significant decrease in the fuel adiabat over previously un-tuned implosions. The impact of the improved adiabat on fuel compression is confirmed in related deuterium-tritium (DT) layered capsule implosions by measurement of fuel areal density (ρR), which show the highest fuel compression (ρR ∼1.0 g/cm2) measured to date. (authors)

  19. Cryptolepis sanguinolenta activity against diarrhoeal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, A; Pimentel, M; Viegas, S; Pires, I; Duarte, A; Cabrita, J; Gomes, E T

    1994-10-01

    Cryptolepine is the main alkaloid of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schlechter, a plant used in traditional medicine in West Africa. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cryptolepine, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root were determined for 65 strains of Campylobacter jejuni, 41 strains of Campylobacter coli isolated from sporadic cases of gastroenteritis in Portugal and 86 strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from patients with enteric infections in Angola, Brazil and Portugal. The ethanol extract activity against Campylobacter strains (MIC90% = 25 micrograms/ml) is higher than that of co-trimoxazole and sulfamethoxazole and Campylobacter strains susceptibility for cryptolepine (MIC90% = 12.5 micrograms/ml) is equal for ampicillin. The ethanol extract and cryptolepine show some activity against the Vibrio cholerae strains, although their activities are lower than that of tetracycline. The results suggest that these roots could be a therapeutic alternative for bacterial etiologic diarrhoea in West Africa. PMID:7853867

  20. A review of the anticancer potential of the antimalarial herbal cryptolepis sanguinolenta and its major alkaloid cryptolepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, C; Mensah, K B

    2013-09-01

    Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr (Periplocaceae), has a longstanding traditional use in the treatment of malaria in the West African region. Recent evidence suggests that the aqueous extract from the roots and the major alkaloid from the plant, cryptolepine, have prospects as cancer chemotherapeutic agents on account of their potent cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the cytotoxic activities of the agents. However, emerging evidence from their anti-inflammatory actions suggest that the mechanism of the cytotoxicity may be closely related to its anti-inflammatory activity. This review looks at the mechanisms of cryptolepis-induced cytotoxicity, its link with inflammation and its potential as anticancer agent. The elucidation of these interwoven mechanisms may be useful in the development of cryptolepine or other analogues as new anticancer agents. PMID:24391229

  1. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of neocryptolepine, biscryptolepine and cryptoquindoline, alkaloids isolated from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimanga, K; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totte, J; Tona, L; Kambu, K; Berghe, D V; Vlietinck, A J

    1998-05-01

    From the 80% EtOH extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schlechter (Periplocaeae) root bark, a cryptolepine isomer named neocryptolepine, and two dimeric alkaloids named biscryptolepine and cryptoquindoline were isolated. These compounds were tested for their putative antibacterial and antifungal activities. Results have indicated that neocryptolepine showed an antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC < 100 μg/ml), but was less acive against Gram-negative bacteria. It also inhibited the growth of the yeast C. albicans. Biscryptolepine exhibited only an activity against some Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 62.5 or 31 μg/ml) while cryptoquindoline did not shown an activity against all selected microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of neocryptolepine and biscryptolepine is bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. No antifungal activity could be observed for all alkaloids in our test system at the highest test concentration of 100 μg/ml. PMID:23195843

  2. Growth and yield of nine pine species in Angola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristobal Delgado-Matas; Timo Pukkala

    2012-01-01

    A species introduction experiment including several tropical pines and eucalypts was established in 1966/1967 in the Tchianga research station in Angolan Highlands.Despite 27 years of political conflict (1975-2002) and lack of management,the research experiment has remained relatively well conserved.We measured the best conserved plots that were 41 years old in 2007 to obtain information on the growth of different pine species.We calculated stand characteristics including basal area,dominant height,mean diameter,and stand volume for Pinus patula Schiede ex Schiltdl.Et Cham.,Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl.,Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon,Pinus devoniana Lindl.,Pinus chiapensis (Martinez) Andresen,Pinus elliottii Engelm.,Pinus greggii Engelm.Ex ParL,Pinus montezumae Lamb.and Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl.The growing stock volume at 41 years was the highest in P.pseudostrobus,1,325 m3·ha-1,followed by P.kesiya with 1,200 m3·ha-1.The widely planted P.patula had a growing stock volume of 892 m3·ha-1.P.oocarpa and P.pseudostrobus had the highest stand basal area,over 80 m2·ha-1.Using increment core analyses we studied the temporal development of stand characteristics.Analysis of the mean annual increment (MAI) showed that rotation lengths of 20-30 years would maximize wood production.With these rotation lengths,the MAI of P.pseudostrobus would be 35 m3·ha-1.Other productive species were P.kesiya,P.oocarpa and P.chiapensis.P.patula had a maximum MAI of 20 m3·ha-1.P.greggii had the lowest mean annual volume production,only about 13 m3·ha-1.

  3. 浙江地产药材地龙藤基原考证与鉴定研究%Textual Research and Identification of Dilongteng Origin on Native Medicnal Materalse in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Native medicinal materials of Dilongteng in Zhejiang province were studied.Methods: We investigated the classification, resources, distribution and medicinal function of Native medicinal materials of Dilongteng. Results:4 species of Native medicinal materials is similar in plant morphology. i.e. It is Ficus pumila Linn, Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz., Hederae nepalensis K. Koch. var. sinensis (Tobl.) Rehd. and Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. Conclusion:Origin of Dilongteng is Hederae nepalensis K. Koch. var. sinensis (Tobl.) Rehd.%  目的:为了促进浙江地产药材研究,更好地利用本地资源。方法:利用历史典籍、地方志,考证和识别地龙藤的名称、起源、分布和用药;同时通过实地考察、利用防谈、调查编目、传统医药文化研究和定量评估。结果:地龙藤最为相似的种类有4种。即:桑科Moraceae薜荔Ficus pumila Linn;卫矛科Celastraceae扶芳藤Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz.;五加科Araliaceae中华常春藤Hederae nepalensis K. Koch. var. sinensis (Tobl.) Rehd.;夹竹桃科Apocynaceae络石藤Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem.。结论:地龙藤为五加科Araliaceae中华常春藤Hederae nepalensis K. Koch. var. sinensis (Tobl.) Re⁃hd.,理由是该植物从产地、生长习性和性味功效与原文献记载最为接近。

  4. In vitro Dendrobium nobile plant growth and rooting in different sucrose concentrations Crescimento e enraizamento in vitro de plântulas de Dendrobium nobile sob diversas concentrações de sacarose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo T. de Faria

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is a very important component in in vitro culture media, serving as a source of carbon and energy. In this paper, the rooting and in vitro growth of Dendrobium nobile Lindl (Orchidaceae were studied using different sucrose concentrations (0 g L-1; 5 g L-1; 10 g L-1; 20 g L-1; 30 g L-1 and 60 g L-1, in a modified MS medium containing half the regular concentration of macronutrients at pH 5.8. Greater increases in plant height (4.21±0.6 cm and high seedling multiplication (1:4 were observed in the 60 g L-1 sucrose treatment, even without the addition of plant hormones. Sucrose concentration in the culture medium did not influence in vitro plant rooting.A sacarose é um componente muito importante no meio de cultura servindo como fonte de carbono e energia. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o crescimento e enraizamento in vitro de plântulas de Dendrobium nobile Lindl. (Orchidaceae cultivadas em diferentes concentrações de sacarose (0 g L-1, 5 g L-1; 10 g L-1; 20 g L-1; 30 g L-1 e 60 g L-1, utilizando como base o meio MS com metade da concentração de macronutrientes e pH 5,8. No tratamento com 60 g L-1 de sacarose observou-se maior crescimento em altura (4,21 ± 0,9 cm assim como uma alta taxa de multiplicação de mudas (1:4 mesmo sem adição de fitorreguladores. O acréscimo de sacarose no meio de cultura não influenciou o enraizamento in vitro das plantas.

  5. Litter dynamics in two Sierran mixed conifer forests. I. Litterfall and decomposition rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Litterfall was measured for 4 years and leaf litter decomposition rates were studied for 3.6 years in two mixed conifer forest (giant sequoia-fir and fir-pine) in the southern Sierra Nevada of California. The giant sequoia-fir forest (GS site) was dominated by giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchh.), white fir (Abies concolor Lindl. & Gord.), and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.). The fir-pine forest (FP site) was dominated by white fir, sugar pine, and incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin). Litterfall, including large woody debris -1•year-1 compared with 4355 kg•ha-1•year-1 at the FP site (3.4:1). In the GS site, leaf litter decomposition after 3.6 years was slowest for giant sequoia (28.2% mass loss), followed by sugar pine (34.3%) and white fie (45.1%). In the FP site, mass loss was slowest for sugar pine (40.0%), followed by white fir (45.1%), while incense cedar showed the greatest mass loss (56.9%) after 3.6 years. High litterfall rates of large woody debris (i.e., 2.5-15.2 cm diameter) and slow rates of leaf litter decomposition in the giant sequoia-fir forest type may result in higher litter accumulation rates than in the fir-pine type. Leaf litter times to 95% decay for the GS and FP sites were 30 and 27 years, respectively, if the initial 0.7-year period (a short period of rapid mass decay) was ignored in the calculation. A mass balance approach for total litterfall (<15.2 cm diameter) decomposition yielded lower decay constants than did the litterbag study and therefore longer times to 95% decay (57 years for the GS site and 62 years for the FP site).

  6. Does Oeceoclades maculata (Orchidaceae reabsorb nectar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Robazzi Bignelli Valente Aguiar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nectar is the most common resource offered by orchid flowers. In some cases, flowers reabsorb nectar as part of a resource-recovery strategy. Nectar is present only in the morning in the widespread orchid Oececoclades maculata (Lindl. Lindl. To determine whether this is due to reabsorption or evaporation of water, the volume of nectar and its concentration in previously bagged flowers were determined throughout the day at two hourly intervals. In addition, the entrance to the nectary of flowers of cultivated plants was obstructed with petroleum jelly in the morning, to prevent the evaporation of water and, in the afternoon, the presence of nectar was recorded. Furthermore, manually self-pollinated flowers, also with the entrance to the nectary obstructed, had their nectary checked 24 hours after pollination to determine whether post-pollination reabsorption occurred. In addition, the period when the pollinators of O. maculata foraged for nectar was determined in order to establish whether it was associated with the period when nectar was available. The volume and concentration of nectar in O. maculata flowers vary from 0.82 μl (25.10% between 10–12 h and 0.36 μl (33.73% between 16–18 h and this difference is caused by evaporation of water. Post-pollination reabsorption does not occur in this species. Pollinators forage most actively between 10–12 h. Thus, O. maculata does not reabsorb nectar, but evaporative water loss is a significant factor determining the variation in the volume and concentration of this reward and this is positively correlated with butterfly visitation.

  7. Phytogenic silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles as novel antitubercular agents

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    Singh R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Richa Singh,1 Laxman Nawale,2 Manisha Arkile,2 Sweety Wadhwani,1 Utkarsha Shedbalkar,1 Snehal Chopade,1 Dhiman Sarkar,2 Balu Ananda Chopade1,3 1Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, 2Combichem-Bioresource Center, Organic Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, 3Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India Purpose: Multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB is a global threat to human health. It requires immediate action to seek new antitubercular compounds and devise alternate strategies. Nanomaterials, in the present scenario, have opened new avenues in medicine, diagnosis, and therapeutics. In view of this, the current study aims to determine the efficacy of phytogenic metal nanoparticles to inhibit mycobacteria. Methods: Silver (AgNPs, gold (AuNPs, and gold–silver bimetallic (Au–AgNPs nanoparticles synthesized from medicinal plants, such as Barleria prionitis, Plumbago zeylanica, and Syzygium cumini, were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays were designed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and half maximal inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles. Microscopic analyses were carried out to demonstrate intracellular uptake of nanoparticles in macrophages. Besides this, biocompatibility, specificity, and selectivity of nanoparticles were also established with respect to human cell lines. Results: Au–AgNPs exhibited highest antitubercular activity, with MIC of <2.56 µg/mL, followed by AgNPs. AuNPs did not show such activity at concentrations of up to 100 µg/mL. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays revealed the inhibition of both active and dormant stage mycobacteria on exposure to Au–AgNPs. These nanoparticles were capable of entering macrophage cells and exhibited up to 45% cytotoxicity at 30 µg/mL (ten times MIC concentration after 48 hours

  8. Phytogenic silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles as novel antitubercular agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Richa; Nawale, Laxman; Arkile, Manisha; Wadhwani, Sweety; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha; Chopade, Snehal; Sarkar, Dhiman; Chopade, Balu Ananda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global threat to human health. It requires immediate action to seek new antitubercular compounds and devise alternate strategies. Nanomaterials, in the present scenario, have opened new avenues in medicine, diagnosis, and therapeutics. In view of this, the current study aims to determine the efficacy of phytogenic metal nanoparticles to inhibit mycobacteria. Methods Silver (AgNPs), gold (AuNPs), and gold–silver bimetallic (Au–AgNPs) nanoparticles synthesized from medicinal plants, such as Barleria prionitis, Plumbago zeylanica, and Syzygium cumini, were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays were designed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and half maximal inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles. Microscopic analyses were carried out to demonstrate intracellular uptake of nanoparticles in macrophages. Besides this, biocompatibility, specificity, and selectivity of nanoparticles were also established with respect to human cell lines. Results Au–AgNPs exhibited highest antitubercular activity, with MIC of <2.56 μg/mL, followed by AgNPs. AuNPs did not show such activity at concentrations of up to 100 μg/mL. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays revealed the inhibition of both active and dormant stage mycobacteria on exposure to Au–AgNPs. These nanoparticles were capable of entering macrophage cells and exhibited up to 45% cytotoxicity at 30 μg/mL (ten times MIC concentration) after 48 hours. Among these, Au–AgNPs synthesized from S. cumini were found to be more specific toward mycobacteria, with their selectivity index in the range of 94–108. Conclusion This is the first study to report the antimycobacterial activity of AuNPs, AgNPs, and Au–AgNPs synthesized from medicinal plants. Among these, Au–AgNPs from S. cumini showed profound efficiency, specificity, and

  9. Establishment of three permanent cover crop seed mixtures in Hungarian vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglécz, Tamas; Valkó, Orsolya; Donkó, Ádám; Deák, Balázs; Török, Péter; Kelemen, András; Drexler, Dóra; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2015-04-01

    In organic vineyard farming sowing high diversity cover crop seed mixtures offers a great opportunity to overcome high-priority problems mitigating vineyard cultivation, such as gain erosion control, save soil fertility, improve soil microbial activity and control weeds. Furthermore, we can also improve the biodiversity and ecosystem services of vineyards. Mainly non-native or low diversity seed mixtures are used for cover cropping containing some grass, grain or Fabaceae species. We studied vegetation development after sowing native high-diversity seed mixtures in four vineyards in an on farm field trial. We compared the effects of 4 treatments: (i) Biocont-Ecowin mixture (12 species), (ii) Fabaceae mixture (9 species), (iii) Grass-forb mixture (16 species) and control (no seed sowing). Study sites were located in Tokaj wine region, East Hungary. Seed mixtures were sown in March, 2012. After sowing, we recorded the percentage cover of vascular plant species in the end of June 2012, 2013 and 2014 in altogether 80 permanent plots. In the first year the establishment and weed control of Biocont-Ecowin and Legume seed mixture was the best. For the second year in inter-rows sown with Grass-herb and Legume seed mixtures we detected decreasing weed cover scores, while in inter-rows sown with Biocont-Ecowin seed mixture and in control inter-rows we detected higher weed cover scores. In the third year we still detected lower weed cover scores in inter-rows sown with Grass-forb and Legume seed mixtures, however on several sites we also detected decreasing cover of sown species. All sown species were detected in our plots during the time of the study, however some species were present only with low cover scores or only in a few plots. Out of the sown species Lotus corniculatus, Medicago lupulina, Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium repens, T. pratense and Coronilla varia established the most successfully, and had high cover scores on most sites even in the second and third year

  10. Doses de extrato pirolenhoso no cultivo de orquídea

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    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O extrato pirolenhoso vem sendo utilizado para diversos fins na agricultura, como a melhoria do desenvolvimento vegetativo, a fertilização orgânica, o condicionamento do do solo e a indução de enraizamento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de extrato pirolenhoso no cultivo da orquídea Cattleya loddigesii Lindl. Utilizaram-se plantas propagadas in vitro, as quais foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato composto de fibra de coco, casca de pinus e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1:1 v/v/v. As regas foram realizadas manualmente duas vezes por semana, no outono e no inverno, e três vezes por semana, na primavera e no verão. Os tratamentos foram: 0,0 (controle, 0,1, 0,2, 0,3, 0,4, 0,5 e 0,6%, valores que correspondem a 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 e 6 mL L-1 de extrato pirolenhoso, respectivamente, aplicados utilizando-se o produto diluído em água, no volume de 50 mL por vaso a cada 30 dias. Após 12 meses do início do experimento, foram avaliados altura da parte aérea, número de brotos, número de folhas, número de pseudobulbos, comprimento da maior raiz, número de raízes, comprimento da maior folha, massa fresca total, massa seca da parte aérea e pH do substrato. A análise química foliar foi realizada para os elementos cálcio, magnésio, fósforo, potássio e nitrogênio. Observou-se que a aplicação do extrato pirolenhoso foi eficaz no cultivo da espécie Cattleya loddigesii Lindl., sendo recomendada a dose de 0,6%.

  11. Caracterização palinológica de espécies de Amaryllidaceae sensu stricto ocorrentes no nordeste brasileiro Pollen characterization of Amaryllidaceae sensu stricto species from northeastern Brazil

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    Anderson Alves-Araújo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve com objetivo realizar as descrições polínicas de espécies nordestinas de Amaryllidaceae s.s. e Alliaceae e relacioná-las visando a sua delimitação taxonômica. Foram analisadas as espécies: Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna var. bahiana Preuss & Meerow, Griffinia gardneriana (Herb. Ravenna, Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna, Habranthus robustus Herb, ex Sweet, Habranthus sylvaticus Herb., Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam. Kuntze, Hippeastrum stylosum Herb., Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury Zephyranthes cândida (Lindl. Herb, e Nothoscordum pernambucanum Ravenna. As descrições foram feitas a partir da análise de grãos de pólen acetolisados (ou não observados em microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura, os quais foram obtidos de espécimes recém-coletados. Todas as espécies apresentaram grãos de pólen em mônades, heteropolar-bilaterais, monossulcados e âmbito elíptico/elipsoidal. Foram detectadas características diagnosticas com relação ao padrão de ornamentação, destacando Hippeastrum stylosum Herb, e Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury por possuírem grãos de pólen com calotas equatoriais. As características polínicas analisadas foram suficientemente relevantes para a delimitação específica dentre os táxons analisados.The pollen of Amaryllidaceae s.s. and Alliaceae species from northeastern Brazil is described and related to taxonomic delimitation. The species analyzed were: Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna var. bahiana Preuss & Meerow, Griffinia gardneriana (Herb. Ravenna, Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna, Habranthus robustus Herb, ex Sweet, Habranthus sylvaticus Herb., Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam. Kuntze, Hippeastrum stylosum Herb., Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury, Zephyranthes cândida (Lindl. Herb, and Nothoscordum pernambucanum Ravenna. Descriptions of acetolyzed and non-treated pollen grains from fresh specimens were based on analysis in light and scanning electron microscopy. All species presented

  12. Palinologia do componente herbáceo na atmosfera de Caxias do Sul, RS, Brasil Palinology of the herbaceous component in the atmosphere of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Sandra Maria Vergamini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na cidade de Caxias do Sul de 1/janeiro/2001 a 31/dezembro/2002 e objetivou identificar os tipos polínicos de táxons herbáceos presentes na atmosfera e suas oscilações sazonais. A cidade está localizada na Encosta Superior Nordeste, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Seu clima é tropical pluvisazonal e apresenta três diferentes tipos de vegetação: Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Floresta Decidual e Campo. O monitoramento polínico foi realizado utilizando o captador volumétrico de sucção Burkard®, instalado no topo do Hospital Geral a uma altura aproximada de 20 m. Durante o período de estudo foram identificados 40 tipos polínicos, sendo 11 de táxons herbáceos, representando 23,22% do total de grãos coletados. A concentração máxima das táxons herbáceos registrou-se nos meses de outubro e novembro. O tipo polínico Poaceae R.Brown apresentou a maior incidência, seguido por Cyperaceae Juss., Plantago L., Amaranthus L., Rumex L., Iridaceae Juss., Brassicaceae Burnett, Apiaceae Lindl., Alternanthera Forssk., Convolvulaceae Juss. e Caryophyllaceae Juss.This study was carried out in the city of Caxias do Sul, from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 and aimed to identify pollen types and seasonal fluctuation of herbaceous taxa in the atmosphere. The city is located on the Upper Northeast Slopes in Rio Grande do Sul State. The climate is tropical with seasonal rainfall and there are three different types of vegetation: mixed ombrophilous forest, deciduous forest and grassland. Pollen monitoring was done with a Burkard® volumetric spore-trap sampler placed on top of the Hospital Geral, about 20m above ground level. During the study period 40 pollen types were identified, 11 from herbaceous taxa, which represents 23.22% of the total number of grains collected. Maximum concentration of herbaceous taxa was registered in October and November. The Poaceae R.Brown pollen type had the highest incidence, followed by

  13. Floristica da restinga de Camburi, Vitória, ES The flora of Camburi restinga, Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Oberdan José Pereira

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu no levantamento florístico e classificação da vegetação de restinga em Camburi, Vitória, ES. Foram realizadas coletas mensais na área de estudo, que totalizaram 211 espécies distribuídas em 70 famílias, sendo Fabaceae (19 espécies, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 e Lauraceae (7 as mais importantes quanto ao número de espécies. A região apresenta remanescentes das comunidades mata seca, aberta de Ericaceae e brejo herbáceo, além de áreas degradadas com espécies pioneiras. A maioria das espécies possui ampla distribuição pela costa brasileira, no entanto, outros padrões foram encontrados. Erythroxylum tênue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia plantaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade e Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. são citadas pela primeira vez para as restingas do Espírito Santo.The flora of the Camburi restinga in the municipality of Vitoria, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, was surveyed and vegetation types were classified. Monthly visits to the area resulted in a list of 211 species from 70 plant families of which the most important, according to species richness, were Fabaceae (19, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 and Lauraceae (7. This coastal plain still supports remnant patches of dry restinga forest, open Ericaceae scrub and sedge marsh, as well as disturbed areas dominated by pioneer species. Most of the species are widely distributed along the Brazilian coast other patterns, however, being found. Erythmxylum tenue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia pilntaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade and Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. are reported for the first time in the restingas of Espírito Santo.

  14. Zygostates alleniana (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Cymbidieae: Oncidiinae: estructura floral relacionada con la polinización

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    Gómiz, Natalia E.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprises about 20 species of small Neotropical epiphytic plants, represented in its southernmost limit by the species Z. alleniana. In this paper, we studied morphological and anatomical floral characteristics of this species related to pollination mechanism. We confirmed the presence of the unicellular trichomes on the base of the lip and side lobes secreting oil, constituting a trichomal elaiophore. The oil is deposited beneath the cuticle at the apex of the trichomes forming small blisters. The oil could represent a reward for the species Lophopedia nigrispinis, which would be a potential pollinator of Z. alleniana in a natural area within the geographic range of this plant species. Moreover, we prove that the reconfiguration of the pollinaruim is due to the dehydration of the walls cell. This reconfiguration could favor cross-pollination mechanism already described for other species of the family Orchidaceae. Finally, we discuss the floral characters present in Z. alleniana with closely related species.El género Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprende aproximadamente 20 especies de pequeñas plantas epífitas con distribución neotropical, representado en su límite más austral por la especie Z. alleniana. En el presente trabajo se estudian morfológica y anatómicamente las características florales de esta especie relacionadas con el mecanismo de polinización. Se confirma la presencia de tricomas unicelulares en la base del labelo y lóbulos laterales que actúan secretando aceite, constituyendo un elaióforo tricomatoso. El aceite se deposita por debajo de la cutícula en el ápice de los tricomas formando pequeñas ampollas. El aceite podría representar una recompensa para la especie Lophopedia nigrispinis, la cual sería un posible polinizador de Z. alleniana en un área natural dentro del rango de distribución geográfica de esta especie vegetal. Por otro lado, se comprueba que la

  15. ASSESSING THE NATURAL REGENERATION OF THREE SPECIES CONIFER NATURAL RANGE IN THE WESTERN HIGHLANDS OF GUATEMALA

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    Sergio Miguel Godínez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coniferous forests of the western highlands of Guatemala have been disturbed by human intervention and natural phenomena, which has allowed the occurrence of the phenomenon of natural regeneration. In this scenario the density of natural regeneration of conifers three species evaluated (Pinus oocarpa Schiede, P. pseudostrobus Lindl. and P. tecunumanii Eguiluz & Perry in 60 sites distributed in space and clear edge. The variables evaluated were the source of disturbance that caused its establishment, density variation of the source of seed and distance estimation range scattering adequate regeneration, using sampling units of 25 m2 for natural regeneration and 500 m2 seed source trees. Disturbance sources identified were logging 55%, 24% forest fires, pests 8%, agriculture, avalanche 5% each and hurricane 3%. The variation of the density of natural regeneration on the seed source, corresponds to the inverted J models for edges, and to clear variable subpopulations. Dispersal distances of natural regeneration was established for P.oocarpa 65 m in edges, and 160 m in the clears; P. pseudostrobus 75 m in edges, and 175 m in the clears; and P. tecunumanii was 70 m in edges, and 170 m in the clears. Dispersal distances with acceptable densities according National Forestry Institute-Regional Forestry Programme for Central American, for the three species vary from 65-175 m

  16. Chloroplast evolution in the Pinus montezumae complex: a coalescent approach to hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, J A; Schaal, B A

    2000-08-01

    This study addresses the evolutionary history of the chloroplast genomes of two closely related pine species, Pinus hartwegii Lindl. and P. montezumae Lamb (subsect. Ponderosae) using coalescent theory and some of the statistical tools that have been developed from it during the past two decades. Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae are closely related species in the P. montezumae complex (subsect. Ponderosae) of Mexico and Central America. Pinus hartwegii is a high elevation species, whereas P. montezumae occurs at lower elevations. The two species occur on many of the same mountains throughout Mexico. A total of 350 individuals of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae were collected from Nevado de Colima (Jalisco), Cerro Potosí (Nuevo León), Iztaccihuatl/Popocatepetl (México), and Nevado de Toluca (México). The chloroplast genome of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae was mapped using eight restriction enzymes. Fifty-one different haplotypes were characterized; 38 of 160 restriction sites were polymorphic. Clades of most parsimoniously related chloroplast haplotypes are geographically localized and do not overlap in distribution, and the geographically localized clades of haplotypes include both P. hartwegii and P. montezumae. Some haplotypes in the clades occur in only one of the two species, whereas other haplotypes occur in both species. These data strongly suggest ancient and/or ongoing hybridization between P. hartwegii and P. montezumae and a shared chloroplast genome history within geographic regions of Mexico. PMID:11005290

  17. Rapid identification of a narcotic plant Papaver bracteatum using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragane, Masako; Watanabe, Daisuke; Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Yoshida, Masao; Yoshizawa, Masao; Abe, Tomohiro; Nishiyama, Rei; Suzuki, Jin; Moriyasu, Takako; Nakae, Dai; Sudo, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hishida, Atuyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Makabe, So; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    In May 2011, numerous poppy plants closely resembling Papaver bracteatum Lindl., a type of narcotic plant that is illegal in Japan, were distributed directly from several large flower shops or through online shopping throughout Japan, including the Tokyo Metropolitan area. In order to better identify the narcotic plants, the relative nuclear DNA content at the vegetative stage was measured by flow cytometric (FCM) analysis in 3 closely-related species of the genus Papaver section Oxytona, namely P. orientale, P. pseudo-orientale, and P. bracteatum, based on the difference between the chromosome numbers of these species. The results showed that the nuclear DNA content differed between these 3 species, and that most of the commercially distributed plants examined in this study could be identified as P. bracteatum. The remaining plants were P. pseudo-orientale, a non-narcotic plant. In addition, the FCM results for the identification of P. bracteatum completely agreed with the results obtained by the morphological analysis, the inter-genic spacer sequence of rpl16-rpl14 (PS-ID sequence) of chloroplast DNA, and the presence of thebaine. These results clearly indicate the usefulness of FCM analysis for the identification of P. bracteatum plants, including when they are in their vegetative stage. PMID:24952707

  18. Acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting Alkaloids from Zephyranthes concolor

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    Sebastien Arseneau

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The bulbs and aerial parts of Zephyranthes concolor (Lindl. Benth. & Hook. f. (Amaryllidaceae, an endemic species to Mexico, were found to contain the alkaloids chlidanthine, galanthamine, galanthamine N-oxide, lycorine, galwesine, and epinorgalanthamine. Since currently only partial and low resolution 1H-NMR data for chlidanthine acetate are available, and none for chlidanthine, its 1D and 2D high resolution 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra were recorded. Unambiguous assignations were achieved with HMBC, and HSQC experiments, and its structure was corroborated by X-ray diffraction. Minimum energy conformation for structures of chlidanthine, and its positional isomer galanthamine, were calculated by molecular modelling. Galanthamine is a well known acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; therefore, the isolated alkaloids were tested for this activity. Chlidanthine and galanthamine N-oxide inhibited electric eel acetylcholinesterase (2.4 and 2.6 × 10−5 M, respectively, indicating they are about five times less potent than galanthamine, while galwesine was inactive at 10−3 M. Inhibitory activity of HIV-1 replication, and cytotoxicity of the isolated alkaloids were evaluated in human MT-4 cells; however, the alkaloids showed poor activity as compared with standard anti-HIV drugs, but most of them were not cytotoxic.

  19. The effect of laser spot shapes on polar-direct-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilacher, F. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Radha, P. B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Collins, T. J. B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Marozas, J. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623, USA

    2015-03-01

    Ongoing polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl and E. I. Moses, Phys. Plasmas 18, 050901 (2011)] use existing NIF hardware, including indirect-drive phase plates. This limits the performance achievable in these implosions. Spot shapes are identified that significantly improve the uniformity of PDD NIF implosions; outer surface deviation is reduced by a factor of 7 at the end of the laser pulse and hot-spot distortion is reduced by a factor of 2 when the shell has converged by a factor of 10. As a result, the neutron yield increases by approximately a factor of 2. This set of laser spot shapes is a combination of circular and elliptical spots, along with elliptical spot shapes modulated by an additional higher-intensity ellipse offset from the center of the beam. This combination is motivated in this paper. It is also found that this improved implosion uniformity is obtained independent of the heat conduction model. This work indicates that significant improvement in performance can be obtained robustly with the proposed spot shapes.

  20. The effect of laser spot shapes on polar-direct-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilacher, F.; Radha, P. B., E-mail: rbah@lle.rochester.edu; Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Ongoing polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl and E. I. Moses, Phys. Plasmas 18, 050901 (2011)] use existing NIF hardware, including indirect-drive phase plates. This limits the performance achievable in these implosions. Spot shapes are identified that significantly improve the uniformity of PDD NIF implosions; outer surface deviation is reduced by a factor of 7 at the end of the laser pulse and hot-spot distortion is reduced by a factor of 2 when the shell has converged by a factor of ∼10. As a result, the neutron yield increases by approximately a factor of 2. This set of laser spot shapes is a combination of circular and elliptical spots, along with elliptical spot shapes modulated by an additional higher-intensity ellipse offset from the center of the beam. This combination is motivated in this paper. It is also found that this improved implosion uniformity is obtained independent of the heat conduction model. This work indicates that significant improvement in performance can be obtained robustly with the proposed spot shapes.

  1. Leaf Litter Decomposition of two Central Himalayan Oaks

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    Kirtika Padalia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in two natural oak forest of Nainital (Uttarakhand India, during 2012-2013 to determine the weight loss pattern in leaf litter of two Central Himalayan Oaks (i.e., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus. and Quercus floribunda Lindl. with the help of litter bag technique. The present study concluded that weight loss proceeded throughout the study period and relatively higher within 60 days after the placement of litter bags into the soil. Among these two species, higher weight loss observed in Q. floribunda as compared to Q. leucotrichophora across both the sites. Within 365 days, average weight loss observed about 60% in Q. leucotrichophora and 62% in Q. floribunda. Decay rate coefficient rate ranged from 0.0596- 0.0014 for Q. leucotrichophora while it varies from 0.0558 to 0.0013 for Q. floribunda. The monthly relative decomposition rate (RDR ranged between 0.0598-0.0014 g/g/day and 0.0208-0.0050 g/g/day for Q. leucotrichophora and Q. floribunda, respectively. Climatic factors (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity also influenced the rate of decomposition.

  2. Using Automated Point Dendrometers to Analyze Tropical Treeline Stem Growth at Nevado de Colima, Mexico

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    Franco Biondi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between wood growth and environmental variability at the tropical treeline of North America was investigated using automated, solar-powered sensors (a meteorological station and two dendrometer clusters installed on Nevado de Colima, Mexico (19° 35’ N, 103° 37’ W, 3,760 m a.s.l.. Pure stands of Pinus hartwegii Lindl. (Mexican mountain pine were targeted because of their suitability for tree-ring analysis in low-latitude, high-elevation, North American Monsoon environments. Stem size and hydroclimatic variables recorded at half-hour intervals were summarized on a daily timescale. Power outages, insect outbreaks, and sensor failures limited the analysis to non-consecutive months during 2001–2003 at one dendrometer site, and during 2002–2005 at the other. Combined data from the two sites showed that maximum radial growth rates occur in late spring (May, as soil temperature increases, and incoming short-wave radiation reaches its highest values. Early season (April–May radial increment correlated directly with temperature, especially of the soil, and with solar radiation. Stem expansion at the start of the summer monsoon (June–July was mostly influenced by moisture, and revealed a drought signal, while late season relationships were more varied.

  3. Using automated point dendrometers to analyze tropical treeline stem growth at Nevado de Colima, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Franco; Hartsough, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between wood growth and environmental variability at the tropical treeline of North America was investigated using automated, solar-powered sensors (a meteorological station and two dendrometer clusters) installed on Nevado de Colima, Mexico (19° 35' N, 103° 37' W, 3,760 m a.s.l.). Pure stands of Pinus hartwegii Lindl. (Mexican mountain pine) were targeted because of their suitability for tree-ring analysis in low-latitude, high-elevation, North American Monsoon environments. Stem size and hydroclimatic variables recorded at half-hour intervals were summarized on a daily timescale. Power outages, insect outbreaks, and sensor failures limited the analysis to non-consecutive months during 2001-2003 at one dendrometer site, and during 2002-2005 at the other. Combined data from the two sites showed that maximum radial growth rates occur in late spring (May), as soil temperature increases, and incoming short-wave radiation reaches its highest values. Early season (April-May) radial increment correlated directly with temperature, especially of the soil, and with solar radiation. Stem expansion at the start of the summer monsoon (June-July) was mostly influenced by moisture, and revealed a drought signal, while late season relationships were more varied. PMID:22219689

  4. Observation of reduced beam deflection using smoothed beams in gas-filled hohlraum symmetry experiments at Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Execution and modeling of drive symmetry experiments in gas-filled hohlraums have been pursued to provide both a better understanding of radiation symmetry in such hohlraums and to verify the accuracy of the design tools which are used to predict target performance for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)]. In this paper, the results of a series of drive symmetry experiments using gas-filled hohlraums at the Nova laser facility [C. Bibeau et al., Appl. Opt. 31, 5799 (1992)] at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are presented. A very important element of these experiments was the use of kineform phase plates (KPP) to smooth the Nova beams. The effect of smoothing the ten Nova beams with KPP phase plates is to remove most of the beam bending which had been observed previously, leaving a residual bending of only 1.5 degree sign , equivalent to a 35 μm pointing offset at the hohlraum wall. The results show that the symmetry variation with pointing of implosions in gas-filled hohlraums is consistent with time integrated modeling. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  5. Coupling SFE to uterotonic bioassay: an on-line approach to analysing medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewram, V; Raynor, M W; Raidoo, D M; Mulholland, D A

    1998-11-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction has been directly coupled on-line to a uterotonic bioassay, using guinea pig uterine smooth muscle in vitro. This technique was developed for the detection of uterotonic compounds present in medicinal plants used during pregnancy to induce or augment labour. The direct passage of CO2 into the muscle chamber led to adiabatic cooling of the physiological fluid and inhibition of muscle contraction. This was alleviated by the construction of a CO2 reduction interface together with the passage of carbogen which aided in the rapid displacement of excess CO2. The on-line system was evaluated with four plants (Clivia miniata (Lindl.) Regel, Ekebergia capensis Sparrm., Grewia occidentalis L. and Asclepias fruticosa L.) that are currently used during pregnancy by some black South African women. Extractions were performed with water modified supercritical CO2. Fractions of supercritical fluid extracts, obtained by sequentially increasing the pressure from 200 to 300 and 400 atm at constant temperature were transferred directly to the muscle chamber to identify the active fractions. The 400 atm extracts of C. miniata, A. fruticosa and E. capensis displayed maximum uterotonic activity while only the 300 atm extract of G. occidentalis induced uterine muscle contraction. This technique proved to be a safe and sensitive method for analyzing medicinal plants that contain uterotonic substances hence assisting in rapidly validating the uterotonic properties and detecting any toxic effects of these extracts. PMID:10096825

  6. Rostellularia REICHB, A NEWLY RECORDED GENUS IN ACANTHACEAE IN HEBEI PROVINCE%河北爵床科一新记录属--爵床属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金库

    2000-01-01

    @@ 爵床科植物在河北省记载有4属4种,均为栽培植物.即:穿心莲属的穿心莲Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.)Nees.;珊瑚花属的珊瑚花Cyrtanthera carnea (Lindl.) Bremek.;狐尾木属的虾衣草Beloperone guttata Brand.;牛舌兰属的牛舌兰 Adhatoda vasica Nee s..爵床属植物尚未见报道.作者在河北农大林学院校园内雪松下发现了爵床属的爵床(六角英),经过 3年的观察,每年都能正常开花结实,营正常生活.这一发现不仅丰富了河北省的植物种类和资源植物,而且为修订再版时的补遗和植物资源的开发利用提供了新信息 .

  7. Space-time modelling of lightning-caused ignitions in the Blue Mountains, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Avalos, Carlos; Peterson, D.L.; Alvarado, Ernesto; Ferguson, Sue A.; Besag, Julian E.

    2001-01-01

    Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to study the effect of vegetation cover, elevation, slope, and precipitation on the probability of ignition in the Blue Mountains, Oregon, and to estimate the probability of ignition occurrence at different locations in space and in time. Data on starting location of lightning-caused ignitions in the Blue Mountains between April 1986 and September 1993 constituted the base for the analysis. The study area was divided into a pixela??time array. For each pixela??time location we associated a value of 1 if at least one ignition occurred and 0 otherwise. Covariate information for each pixel was obtained using a geographic information system. The GLMMs were fitted in a Bayesian framework. Higher ignition probabilities were associated with the following cover types: subalpine herbaceous, alpine tundra, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.), and grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl.) Lindl.). Within each vegetation type, higher ignition probabilities occurred at lower elevations. Additionally, ignition probabilities are lower in the northern and southern extremes of the Blue Mountains. The GLMM procedure used here is suitable for analysing ignition occurrence in other forested regions where probabilities of ignition are highly variable because of a spatially complex biophysical environment.

  8. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cameron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  9. Essential oil constituents of Chimonanthus fragrans flowers population of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farsam H.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Chimonanthus fragrans Lindle (Calycanthaceae is an aromatic plant which little information has been reported so far on the composition of its essential oil.  In this study the essential oil of flower of this plant was obtained by hydrodistillation  and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Forty nine components were identified corresponding to ca. 98.12 % of the total components of the essential oil with 0.12 % yield. The major components were elemol (20.06%, caryophyllene (9.51%, elemene (8.65%, bicyclogermacrene (8.15%, elemene (7.2%, germacrene-D (5.65%, transocimene (5.5%, sabinene (3.65%, linalool (2.6%, caryophyllene oxide (2.3%, and cadinene (1.95%. Comparison of the data of this study with other data including recent report by HS-SPME-GC-MS showed quantitative and qualitative differences due to geographical, agricultural, and technical factors. 

  10. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer

  11. Ignition energy scaling of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaling of the ignition energy threshold Eig with the implosion velocity υim and isentrope parameter α of imploding spherical DT shells is investigated by performing one dimensional (1-D) hydrodynamic simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation dynamics. It is found that the a and b exponents in the power law approximation Eig ∝ αaυim-b depend crucially on the subset of initial configurations chosen to establish the scaling law. When the initial states are generated in the same way as in the Livermore study (W.K. Levedahl, J.D. Lindl, Nucl. Fusion 37 (1997) 165), the same scaling, Eig ∝ α1.7υim-5.5, is recovered. If, however, the initial states are generated by rescaling the parent configuration according to the hydrodynamic similarity laws, a different scaling is obtained, Eig ∝ α3.0υim-9.1, which is very close to the α3υim-10 dependence predicted by the simple isobaric model for assembled fuel states. The latter is more favourable than the Livermore scaling when rescaling the fusion capsules to higher implosion velocities, but requires the peak drive pressure to be increased as P ∝ υim5. (author)

  12. A simulation-based and analytic analysis of the off-Hugoniot response of alternative inertial confinement fusion ablator materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Prisbrey, Shon; Baker, Kevin L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Fry, Jonathan; Dittrich, Thomas R.; Wu, Kuang-Jen J.; Kervin, Margaret L.; Schoff, Michael E.; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Hurricane, Omar A.

    2016-09-01

    The attainment of self-propagating fusion burn in an inertial confinement target at the National Ignition Facility will require the use of an ablator with high rocket-efficiency and ablation pressure. The ablation material used during the National Ignition Campaign (Lindl et al. 2014) [1], a glow-discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile (Robey et al., 2012). We investigate the performance of two other ablators, boron carbide (B4C) and high-density carbon (HDC) compared to the performance of GDP under the same hohlraum conditions. Ablation performance is determined through measurement of the shock speed produced in planar samples of the ablator material subjected to the identical multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environments that are similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. Simulations are in better agreement with the off-Hugoniot performance of B4C than either HDC or GDP, and analytic estimations of the ablation pressure indicate that while the pressure produced by B4C and GDP is similar when the ablator is allowed to release, the pressure reached by B4C seems to exceed that of HDC when backed by a Au/quartz layer.

  13. The Identification of Suberosin from Prangos pabularia Essential Oil and Its Mosquito Activity against Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayat Tabanca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of Prangos pabularia Lindl. (Apiaceae fruit oil was performed by gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Bicyclogermacrene (21%, (Z- b -ocimene (19%, a -humulene (8%, a -pinene (8% and spathulenol (6% were the main constituents of the oil. One compound with 1.8% at RI 3420 remained unidentified or tentatively identified as suberosin from the Wiley GC-MS Library. T he assumed compound, suberosin was synthesized in two steps and its structure was confirmed by 1D NMR and GC- MS analyses. As part of our continued research to discover new chemicals for use in mosquito control agents as repellents and larvicides, suberosin and its parent compound coumarin were investigated for the mosquito biting deterrent and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Both suberosin and coumarin showed biting deterrent activity but the activity was lower than the positive control, DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide. In larval bioassays, suberosin with LC 50 value of 8.1 ppm was significantly more toxic than c oumarin (LC 50 = 49.6 ppm at 24-h post treatment. These results indicate that suberosin may be useful for use as mosquito larvicidal agent .

  14. Osthole attenuates doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells through inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoohinia, Yalda; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Moieni-Arya, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent, broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic drug used for treatment of several types of cancers. Despite its effectiveness, it has a wide range of toxic side effects, many of which most likely result from its inherent prooxidant activity. It has been reported that DOX has toxic effects on normal tissues, including brain tissue. In the current study, we investigated the protective effect of osthole isolated from Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. on oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 as a neuronal model cell line. PC12 cells were pretreated with osthole 2 h after treatment with different concentrations of DOX. 24 h later, the cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the activity of caspase-3, the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and the generation of intracellular ROS were detected. We found that pretreatment with osthole on PC12 cells significantly reduced the loss of cell viability, the activity of caspase-3, the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and the generation of intracellular ROS induced by DOX. Moreover, pretreatment with osthole led to an increase in MMP in PC12 cells. In conclusion, our results indicated that pretreatment with nontoxic concentrations of osthole protected PC12 cells from DOX-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of ROS production. PMID:25013759

  15. Reasons of leaves withering in tropical plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Czerwiński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the reasons of necrosis of exotic plants leaves cultivated in greenhouses plants belonging to ten following species were examined: Ceratozamia mexicana Brongn., Stangeria eriopus (Kunze Nash (Cycadaceae, Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (Rosaceae, Camellia japonica L. (Theaceae, Phoenix roebeleni O'Brien (Palmae, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. (Taxodiaceae, Calathea bachemiana Morr. (Marantaceae, Cordyline terminalis Kunth (Agavaceae, Spathiphyllum wallisii Reg. and Anthurium magnificum Lind. (Araceae. Chemical analysis were performed in soil samples in which these plants grow, in samples of tap-water applied for watering and in samples of decaying and healthy leaves. In order to examine the process of withdrawal of mineral components from necrotic leaves, both: necrotic and green parts of decaying leaves were subjected to examination. On the basis of the research it was concluded, that - in spite of generally low level of salinity of the water used for watering - some ions content, particularity that of CI-, was unfavourable to plants. Unfavourable ionic composition was discovered in water extracts derived from some of the breeding-ground soils. A comparison of healthy and decaying, necrotic leaves chemism proves that CI- assimilated by the plants from the breeding-grounds and accumulated in leaves, affects them toxically.

  16. Paleodistribución del alerce y ciprés de las Guaitecas durante períodos interestadiales de la Glaciación Llanquihue: provincias de Llanquihue y Chiloé, Región de Los Lagos, Chile Paleodistribution of the alerce and cypres of the Guaitecas during the interstadial stages of the Llanquihue Glaciation: Llanquihue and Chiloé provinces, Los Lagos Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Villagrán

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como propósito dar a conocer recientes hallazgos paleobotánicos en el Seno de Reloncaví y costas oriental y norte de la isla Grande de Chiloé. Se trata de ocho sitios con troncos subfósiles de alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides (Mol. Johnst. y ciprés de las Guaitecas (Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don Florin, in situ y en muy buen estado de preservación. De acuerdo a seis dataciones radiocarbónicas preliminares, con edades finitas entre 42.600 y 49.780 C14 años AP, los depósitos con los troncos corresponderían a lapsos interestadiales del período Llanquihue medio de la última glaciación (estadio isotópico 3. Se analizó la estratigrafía y el contenido de polen fósil de dos de estos sitios, Isla Tenglo en la Provincia de Llanquihue (41°30'S y Punta Pirquén, en la costa oriental de la isla Grande de Chiloé (42°13'S. En ambos sitios los troncos de coníferas se encuentran asociados a depósitos de limo orgánico y turba, los cuales subyacen a potentes secuencias (2-4 m de limo gris laminado (ritmitas lacustres, seguidos de la arena y grava glaciofluvial del Último Máximo Glacial. El espectro polínico, contenido en el depósito orgánico con troncos de la base de las secuencias, exhibe dominancia de polen arbóreo, principalmente representado por Nothofagus tipo dombeyi y una serie de especies de coníferas, como Fitzroya cupressoides (Mol. Johnst., Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don Florin, Saxe-gothaea conspicua Lindl, Podocarpus nubigena Lindl. y Lepidothamnus fonkii (Phil. Ball. El espectro sugiere que durante los interestadiales relativamente cálidos y húmedos del período medio de la glaciación Llanquihue, los bosques con coníferas habrían tenido una distribución más amplia y continua que en la actualidad, poblando los sitios bajos de la Depresión Intermedia de las provincias de Llanquihue y Chiloé, antes de los lapsos estadiales fríos del período Llanquihue tardío (30.000-14.000 14C años AP

  17. Origin and relationships of Saintpaulia (Gesneriaceae) based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, M; Cronk, Q

    1997-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of eight species of Saintpaulia H. Wendl., 19 species of Streptocarpus Lindl. (representing all major growth forms within the genus), and two outgroups (Haberlea rhodopensis Friv., Chirita spadiciformis W. T. Wang) were examined using comparative nucleotide sequences from the two internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The length of the ITS 1 region ranged from 228 to 249 base pairs (bp) and the ITS 2 region from 196 to 245 bp. Pairwise sequence divergence across both spacers for ingroup and outgroup species ranged from 0 to 29%. Streptocarpus is not monophyletic, and Saintpaulia is nested within Streptocarpus subgenus Streptocarpella. Streptocarpus subgenus Streptocarpus is monophyletic. The ITS sequence data demonstrate that the unifoliate Streptocarpus species form a clade, and are also characterized by a unique 47-bp deletion in ITS 2. The results strongly support the monophyly of (1) Saintpaulia, and (2) Saintpaulia plus the African members of the subgenus Streptocarpella of Streptocarpus. The data suggest the evolution of Saintpaulia from Streptocarpus subgenus Streptocarpella. The differences in flower and vegetative characters are probably due to ecological adaptation leading to a relatively rapid radiation of Saintpaulia. PMID:21708650

  18. Comparative tree growth, penology and fruit yield of several Japanese plum cultivars in two newly established orchards, organic and conventionally managed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, F. T.; Jimenez-Bocanegra, J. A.; Garcia-Galavis, P. A.; Santamaria, C.; Camacho, M.; Castejon, M.; Perez-Romero, L. F.; Daza, A.

    2013-05-01

    The growth, penology and fruit yield of 14 Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl) were studied in two newly established experimental orchards under organic and conventional management. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2011 in the province of Seville (SW Spain), an important region of Japanese plum culture. Trunk cross-section areas (TCSA), flowering, yield and tree defoliation before winter dormancy were analysed over several years. After one year, TCSA were larger in the organically managed orchard (OMO) for most of the cultivars, in the next two years they were equal, and from the fourth year, several cultivars showed significantly larger TCSA in the conventionally managed orchard (CMO). Flowering in the conventional orchard started from 2 to 6 days before and lasted for 3 to 5 days more than in the OMO. Several cultivars produced significantly more fruit in the CMO, being the average fruit yield in the organic orchard about 72% of the conventionally managed orchard. Autumn defoliation was significantly advanced in the organic orchard, especially in cultivars highly susceptible to rust (Tranzschelia pruni spinosae), a disease not adequately controlled in the organic orchard. (Author) 35 refs.

  19. Comparative tree growth, phenology and fruit yield of several Japanese plum cultivars in two newly established orchards, organic and conventionally managed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Arroyo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth, phenology and fruit yield of 14 Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl were studied in two newly established experimental orchards under organic and conventional management. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2011 in the province of Seville (SW Spain, an important region of Japanese plum culture. Trunk cross-section areas (TCSA, flowering, yield and tree defoliation before winter dormancy were analysed over several years. After one year, TCSA were larger in the organically managed orchard (OMO for most of the cultivars, in the next two years they were equal, and from the fourth year, several cultivars showed significantly larger TCSA in the conventionally managed orchard (CMO. Flowering in the conventional orchard started from 2 to 6 days before and lasted for 3 to 5 days more than in the OMO. Several cultivars produced significantly more fruit in the CMO, being the average fruit yield in the organic orchard about 72% of the conventionally managed orchard. Autumn defoliation was significantly advanced in the organic orchard, especially in cultivars highly susceptible to rust (Tranzschelia pruni spinosae, a disease not adequately controlled in the organic orchard.

  20. Occurrence of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Agudo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Batistella Pasini

    2012-03-01

    Resumo. Este trabalho faz menção ao primeiro registro de Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae encontrado na zona rural do município de Agudo, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os adultos da mosca foram encontrados primeiramente em frutos de ameixa (Prunus salicina Lindl posteriormente em figos maduros (Ficus carica L. em dois pomares. No primeiro pomar cerca de 80% dos figos coletados apresentaram ataque de Z. indianus e, no segundo pomar 50% dos figos da cv. “Pingo de mel” e 80% da variedade “Roxo de Valinhos” foram infestados. No período correspondente a emergência dos adultos, coletou-se um total de 1364 indivíduos. Os figos da cv “Roxo de Valinhos” apresentaram maior emergência de adultos. Além de estar presente em restos culturais de figo, Z. indianus foi visualizada sobrevoando restos culturais de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham., Cucumis melo L., Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. e Vitis vinifera L., associada a outros drosofilídeos. Ressalta-se que medidas de monitoramento e controle da praga deverão ser adotadas no município para garantir figos de alta qualidade e sadios.

  1. Cotinus coggygria Scop.: An overview of its chemical constituents, pharmacological and toxicological potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Matić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Anacardiaceae Lindl. family comprises of many species which are used in nutrition and in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of several human diseases. Cotinus coggygria Scop. commonly known as “smoke tree”, is a commercial ornamental plant with high medicinal usages, belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. The present review provides a comprehensive report of empirical investigations on important pharmacological activities and phytochemical screening of essential oils and extracts. Relevant information was collected from scientific journals, books, and reports via library and electronic search using Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus. The plant has been extensively investigated in a broad range of studies to provide scientific evidence for folklore claims or to find new therapeutic uses. Numerous activities namely antioxidative, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antigenotoxic, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory have been demonstrated for all parts of these plants by in vivo and in vitro studies. Essential oils and extracts showed various pharmacological and biological properties which make them an effective remedy for various kinds of illnesses. Considering data from the literature, it could be demonstrated that C. coggygria possesses diverse bioactive properties and immense utilization in medicine, health care, cosmetics and as health supplements.

  2. Cotinus coggygria Scop.: An overview of its chemical constituents, pharmacological and toxicological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Sanja; Stanić, Snežana; Mihailović, Mirjana; Bogojević, Desanka

    2016-07-01

    The Anacardiaceae Lindl. family comprises of many species which are used in nutrition and in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of several human diseases. Cotinus coggygria Scop. commonly known as "smoke tree", is a commercial ornamental plant with high medicinal usages, belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. The present review provides a comprehensive report of empirical investigations on important pharmacological activities and phytochemical screening of essential oils and extracts. Relevant information was collected from scientific journals, books, and reports via library and electronic search using Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus. The plant has been extensively investigated in a broad range of studies to provide scientific evidence for folklore claims or to find new therapeutic uses. Numerous activities namely antioxidative, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antigenotoxic, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory have been demonstrated for all parts of these plants by in vivo and in vitro studies. Essential oils and extracts showed various pharmacological and biological properties which make them an effective remedy for various kinds of illnesses. Considering data from the literature, it could be demonstrated that C. coggygria possesses diverse bioactive properties and immense utilization in medicine, health care, cosmetics and as health supplements. PMID:27298577

  3. Descomposición de hojarasca y reciclado del nitrógeno de frutales tropicales y subtropicales en terrazas de cultivo en la costa de Granada (SE España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rocío Rodríguez Pleguezuelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El experimento se realizó en la costa de Granada (SE España. Se estudiaron la descomposición dela hojarasca y el reciclado del nitrógeno en cuatro tipos de hojas de frutales de origen subtropicaly tropical: mango (Mangifera indica L., chirimoyo (Annona cherimola Mill., níspero (Eriobotryajaponica Lindl. y aguacate (Persea americana Mill., empleando la técnica de las bolsas. Elchirimoyo tuvo las mayores tasas de descomposición de hojarasca, mientras que la de mangofue la más persistente. Las constantes de descomposición (k para mango, níspero, aguacate ychirimoyo fueron 0,64, 0,84, 0,80 y 1,30 años-1, respectivamente. El nitrógeno en níspero y mangofue inmovilizado durante los primeros meses en un 73 y 21%, respectivamente, siendo liberado mástarde. En contraste con la hojarasca de chirimoyo y aguacate, que no experimentaron periodosde inmovilización. El estudio de la dinámica de liberación de nutrientes en un suelo agrícola y enparticular en terrazas de cultivo es muy importante para predecir la disponibilidad y el reciclado denutrientes para las plantas y en consecuencia, sus implicaciones medioambientales.

  4. Effects of various host plants on nutritional indices and some biochemical compounds in green oak leaf roller, Tortrix viridana L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yazdanfar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The green oak leaf roller, Tortrix viridana L., is one of the most destructive pests, causing damages to various species of oak, feeding on different host plants including Quercus infectoria Oliv, Q. branti Lindl, and Q. libani Oliv. Nutritional indices, activity of enzymatic and non-enzymatic compounds of T. viridana were studied under laboratory conditions. In addition, chemical components were analysed in the leaves of the three host plants. Fourth instar larvae reared on Q. branti showed the highest values of relative consumption rate (RCR, approximate digestibility, and consumption index (48.73±6.22; 90.45±1.06 and 97.45±12.44 respectively, while the lowest values were observed on Q. libani. Efficiency of conversion of ingested food in the fourth instar larvae was the highest (3.17±0.661 on Q. libani and the lowest (1.53±0.164 on Q. branti. The fifth instar larvae fed on Q. libani had the highest RCR (15.64±2.51. The highest amounts of triglycerides, uric acid, glucose, protein and the lowest activity of alkaline phosphatase were observed in the fifth instar larvae reared on Q. libani. The leaves of Q. libani highlighted the highest amounts of total nitrogen, total protein, water, potassium, magnesium and total carbohydrate. The present research suggested that the nutritional quality of the host plants have crucial effects on T. viridana larvae.

  5. ВИДЫ РОДОВ БОЯРЫШНИК ( CRATAEGUS L., ROSACEAE) И ЯСЕНЬ ( FRAXINUS L., OLEACEAE) В Г. ПЕРМИ

    OpenAIRE

    МОЛГАНОВА НАТАЛЬЯ АЛЕКСАНДРОВНА; ОВЕСНОВ СЕРГЕЙ АЛЕКСАНДРОВИЧ

    2015-01-01

    В литературных источниках приводилось для г. Перми по 4 вида из родов Crataegus L. ( Rosaceae ) и Fraxinus L. ( Oleaceae ). При изучении видового состава этих родов было подтверждено произрастание 2 видов рода Crataegus ( C. sanguinea Pall., C. maximowiczii Schneid.) и 3 видов рода Fraxinus ( F. pennsylvanica Marshall., F. americana L. и F. lanceolata Borkh.). В роде Crataegus обнаружено 5 видов ( C. chrysocarpa Asche, C. сhlorocarpa Lenne et C. Koch, C. chlorosarca Maxim., C. douglasii Lindl...

  6. Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberoumand, Ali

    2009-01-01

    In this research, we present preliminary nutritional data for traditional vegetables and fruits including their content of mineral elements (calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and iron) and antioxidant phenolic compounds levels. Eight vegetables and vegetables were studied. Plant foods Asparagus officinalis DC, Chlorophytum comosum Linn., Cordia myxa Roxb., Portulaca oleracia Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. were collected in Behbehan, south Iran, and also Alocacia indica Sch., Eulophia ocherata Lindl. and Momordica dioica Roxb. were collected from the south of India. Nutrients were measured with food analytical standard methods. The results of this study provide evidence that these local traditional vegetables, which do not require formal cultivation, could be important contributors to improving the nutritional content of Pune and Behbehan people. Results indicate that 50% of the vegetables have significant energy values ranging from 281.4 to 303.9 kcal/100 g. From this study, it was determined that five vegetables, namely A. officinalis, C. comosum, E. ocherata, P. oleracia and S. indicum, provide mineral concentrations exceeding 2% of the plant dry weight and are much higher than typical mineral concentrations in conventional edible vegetables; they are thus recommended for future commercial cultivation. High levels of antioxidant compounds were noticed in P. oleracia and S. indicum. The three plants S. indicum, A. officinalis and P. oleracia are suitable for high-temperature food processes. PMID:19274594

  7. Selecting matched root architecture in tree pairs to be used for assessing N 2 fixation based on soil- 15N-labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Hafedh; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib; Wallander, Håkan; Dommergues, Yvon René

    2005-03-01

    It is commonly assumed that soil- 15N-labelling provides reliable estimates of N 2 fixation in trees by matching N 2-fixing and non-N 2-fixing tree pairs. As root system is a key parameter in determining suitability of the tree pairs, we compared root architecture of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. and Casuarina glauca Sieber ex. Spreng. (two N 2-fixing trees) with Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Ceratonia siliqua L. (two non-N 2-fixing trees) at 4-year-old in Mediterranean-semiarid zone. The rhizobium strain used appeared more motile than Frankia strain. A. cyanophylla and E. camaldulensis had extensive rooting area and volume of fine roots, and both species tended to develop marked horizontal rooting, compared to C. glauca and C. siliqua. Characteristics of fine- and horizontal-root components can be used in selecting matched root systems of N 2-fixing and reference-paired trees. Root architecture of C. glauca was more similar to C. siliqua, than to E. camaldulensis, and that of A. cyanophylla was more similar to E. camaldulensis than to C. siliqua. Accordingly, E. camaldulensis is an appropriate reference to estimate actual N 2 fixation by A. cyanophylla, and C. siliqua is an appropriate reference for C. glauca, when using soil- 15N-labelling method in the prevailing site environment.

  8. Inventory and habitat study of orchids species in Lamedai Nature Reserve, Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI AYU LESTARI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lestari DA, Santoso W (2011 Inventory and habitat study of orchids species in Lamedai Nature Reserve, Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi. Biodiversitas 12: 28-33. Orchid is one of the ornamental plants which have been high commercial value. Therefore, orchid often has been over exploitation. Finally, some of orchid species are becoming threatened or even endangered. Purwodadi Botanical Garden as an institute of ex-situ conservation play role with it. The aim of this research is to inventory orchid’s species in Lamedai Nature Reserve, Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi by explorative method. Observation for habitat study was focused on some ecological factors supported to orchids growth like host tree, zone growth on host tree, abundance of sunlight, thickness of substrate (moss, orchid species and number of invidual species. The result showed that there were 27 orchids species, consist of, 25 species (16 genera epiphytic orchid and 2 species terrestrial orchid such as Eulophia keitii var. celebica and Goodyera rubicunda (Blume Lindl. The host preference for the epiphytic orchid are the group of Myrtaceae family like Syzygium sp., Metrosideros vera Niederen and Metrosideros sp. They mostly grow on the main stem of the tree zone 1 on thick substrate (moss and get a little abundance of sunlight (calm.

  9. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Thunbergia laurifolia supercritical carbon dioxide extract in rats with second-degree burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juthaporn Kwansang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl (TL has been traditionally used as an antidote, anti-inflammatory, and anti-drug addiction. This study investigated the burn wound healing activity of TL leaf extract (TLL from supercritical CO 2 extraction in rats. The extract was prepared to 2.5%, 5%, and 10% gel (TLL gel. Rats were induced to second-degree burn wounds. They were randomly divided into six groups (six rats/group, which five groups were topically applied gel base, 1% silver sulfadiazine gel, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% TLL gel, respectively, for 14 days. Six untreated burn rats were used as the control group. The rats in each group were evaluated for wound healing rate, histological parameters, and wound collagen content. Rats treated with 10% TLL gel had a higher wound healing rate than rats in the control and untreated groups. An increase in collagen content, which indicates good regeneration of wound skin, was observed in the TLL treated rats from a pathological study by Masson′s trichrome and collagen content assay. The results from this study suggest that T. laurifolia leaf extract obtained by supercritical CO 2 extraction promotes the recovery of wound skin by shortening the inflammation phase, increasing collagen content, and stimulating fibroblasts proliferation and migration in wound healing.

  10. Comparison of species-rich cover crop mixtures in Hungarian vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkó, Adam; Miglécz, Tamas; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Peter; Deák, Balazs; Kelemen, Andras; Zanathy, Gabor; Drexler, Dora

    2014-05-01

    In case of vine growing, agricultural practices of the past decades - as mechanical cultivation on steep vineyard slopes - can endanger the soil of vineyards. Moreover, climate change scenarios predict heavier rainstorms, which can also promote the degradation of the soil. These are some of the reasons why sustainable floor management plays an increasingly important role in viticulture recently. The use of cover crops in the inter-row has a special importance, especially on steep slopes and in case of organic farming to provide conditions for environmental friendly soil management. Species-rich cover crop seed mixtures may help to prevent erosion and create easier cultivation circumstances. Furthermore they have a positive effect on soil structure, soil fertility and ecosystem functions. However, it is important to find suitable seed mixtures for specific production sites, consisting ideally of native species from local provenance, adapted to the local climate/vine region/vineyard. Requirements for suitable cover crop species are as follows: they should save the soil from erosion and also from compaction caused by the movement of workers and machines, they should not compete significantly with the grapevines, or influence produce quality. We started to develop and apply several species-rich cover crop seed mixtures in spring 2012. During the experiments, three cover crop seed mixtures (Biocont-Ecovin mixture, mixture of legumes, mixture of grasses and herbs) were compared in vineyards of the Tokaj and Szekszárd vine regions of Hungary. Each mixture was sown in three consecutive inter-rows at each experimental site (all together 10 sites). Besides botanical measurements, yield, must quality, and pruning weight was studied in every treatment. The botanical survey showed that the following species of the mixtures established successfully and prospered during the years 2012 and 2013: Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, Medicago lupulina, Onobrychis viciifolia

  11. Contenido de nutrientes e inoculación con hongos ectomicorrízicos comestibles en dos pinos neotropicales Nutrient contents and inoculation with edible ectomycorrhizal fungi on two neotropical pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA CARRASCO-HERNÁNDEZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Un alto porcentaje de mortalidad se presenta en plántulas de pinos que son trasplantados de vivero a campo, debido a que no poseen hongos ectomicorrízicos los cuales forman simbiosis obligada con las plantas de forma natural en los bosques. Estos hongos facilitan la absorción de nutrientes y agua, además de estimular su crecimiento. Debido a la importancia ecológica y fisiológica de los hongos ectomicorrízicos, el presente trabajo evaluó el efecto en crecimiento, peso seco, porcentaje de colonización y contenido de nutrientes de la inoculación de seis especies ectomicorrízicas comestibles de los géneros Lacearía y Hebeloma en Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham. y P. pseudostrobus Lindl., en condiciones de invernadero. Después de 397 días de la siembra se observó un efecto benéfico en el crecimiento de ambos pinos como resultado de la inoculación en términos de peso seco en parte aérea y radical, así como un mayor contenido de N, P y K. El porcentaje de micorrización en plantas inoculadas con las especies fúngicas varió de 57 % a 90 %. Cuando se efectuó inoculación combinada de especies ectomicorrízicas, se registró dominancia de una de las especies inoculadas, en términos de colonización radical. En estos tratamientos con inoculación simultánea, los efectos benéficos registrados en los hospederos fueron comparables a los observados cuando se inoculó de manera individual a las especies fúngicas dominantes. En función de los resultados encontrados se recomienda en el establecimiento de plantaciones forestales la inoculación de ambas especies de pinos con especies de hongos de los géneros Laccaria y Hebeloma.A high percentage of mortality appears in pine seedlings transplanted from nursery to field, due to the fact that they lack ectomycorrhizal fungi which form obligated symbiosis with plants in natural conditions in the forests. These fungi facilitate the absorption of nutrients and water, and therefore

  12. 榧树种质资源调查与评价%Investigation and evaluation of Torreya grandis germplasm resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓建; 黎章矩; 戴文圣; 喻卫武; 曾燕如

    2009-01-01

    The seeds of Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl are a peculiar nut fruit in China. In order to effectively protect, develop and utilize the germplasm resources of this species, a systematic investigation of its germplasm resources in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian provinces was conducted through field investigation, specimen collection, indoor seed examination and ingredient analysis. The results showed that the resources of T. grandis was unevenly distributed and only conserved well in a few regions. The single seed weight, single kernel weight, kernel rate, kernel shape index and nutrient content varied greatly among individual trees, but some superior individual trees in integrated traits and quality had discovered, which could be grouped into seven major varieties and types. Those individual trees with seeds of integrated good traits, good quality, special traits or potential utilization value should be collected and preserved, especially focusing on those of high and stable yield and special high traits. The old trees or their population should be protected.%榧树(Torreyagrandis Fort.ex Lindl)种子是我国特有的著名干果,为了对榧树种质资源进行有效保护和开发利用,采用实地调查、采集标本、室内烤种、成分分析等方法,对浙江、安徽、江西、福建等榧树分布区的种质资源进行了系统研究.结果表明.榧树资源分布不均,仅少数地方资源保存较好;榧树种内性状变异复杂,不同单株间种子的单粒质量、种核单粒质量、出核率、核形指数及营养成分等变异大,存在一些综合性状优良、品质达到或超过香榧的优株:将香榧和榧树中的优良株系、类型分归于7个主要品种和类型.在榧树中应主要收集一些种子具有综合优良性状、特殊性状和有潜在利用价值的单株;香榧则重点在于收集种子高产、稳产、优质和具特殊性状的优株,对古树及古树群也应加以保护.

  13. The effects of canopy cover on throughfall and soil chemistry in two forest sites in the Mexico City air basin; Los efectos de la cobertura de dosel en disminucion y la quimica del suelo en dos lugares de bosque en la cuenca de aire de la Ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Suarez, M. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICYT), San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)]. E-mail: marlin@ipicyt.edu.mx; Fenn, M.E. [United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Fire Laboratory, Riverside, California (United States); Cetina-Alcala, V.M.; Aldrete, A. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillo, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Throughfall and soil chemistry were compared in two sites with differing atmospheric deposition: Desierto de los Leones National Park (high atmospheric deposition) and Zoquiapan National Park (low atmospheric deposition). Throughfall fluxes of NO{sub 3}-, SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-, Ca, Mg and K were compared under two canopy cover types: Abies religiosa Schl. (fir) and Pinus hartwegii Lindl. (pine), in comparison with sites without cover canopy, e.g. forests clearings. Throughfall fluxes decreased in the following order: fir > pine > forest clearing. Nitrogen balance under canopy of fir and pine resulted in negative values for net throughfall of NH{sub 4}+ at Desierto de los Leones and Zoquiapan, while NO{sub 3}-, only resulted in negative values under canopy cover at the low deposition site. With few exceptions, concentrations of total C, N and S, soluble SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-, and Ca{sub 2}+ were higher in soil under fir canopies than under pine or in forest clearings. In polluted sites, the densely foliated fir canopies generally resulted in higher throughfall fluxes and soil accumulation of N, S and Mg compared to pine canopies or open areas. The elevated atmospheric depositions affect the functional process of forest ecosystem, particularly the throughfall and nutrients intern cycle, and these effects depend of the cover and present tree species. [Spanish] El escurrimiento foliar y la quimica del suelo fueron comparados en dos sitios con diferente deposito atmosferico: el Parque Nacional Desierto de los Leones (alto deposito atmosferico) y el Parque Nacional Zoquiapan (bajo deposito atmosferico). Se compararon los flujos de NO{sub 3}-, SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-, Ca, Mg y K en el escurrimiento foliar bajo el dosel de dos especies de arboles: Abies religiosa Schl. (oyamel) y Pinus hartwegii Lindl. (pino), en comparacion con sitios sin cobertura, es decir en claros del bosque. Los flujos disminuyeron en el siguiente orden: oyamel >pino >claros. El consumo de N del dosel resulto en

  14. Enxertia intergenérica de cultivares de nespereira no porta-enxerto de marmeleiro 'japonês' Intergeneric grafting of loquat cultivars using 'Japonese' quince tree as rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, foram desenvolvidos alguns trabalhos pioneiros com a utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga Mill. como porta-enxertos para as nespereiras (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl.. O sucesso da utilização dessa enxertia intergenérica está relacionado, principalmente, à redução do porte da planta. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho estudar técnicas de enxertia de cultivares de nespereiras, utilizando-se o marmeleiro 'Japonês' (Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin Koehne como nova opção de porta-enxerto. Mudas de marmeleiro 'Japonês' com um ano de idade (altura próxima a 110 cm e diâmetro de 0,85 cm na região de enxertia, a 15 cm acima do colo, mantidos em sacos plásticos com dimensões de 18 x 30 cm (capacidade de 3 L, foram enxertados pelos métodos de borbulhia em placa e garfagem em fenda cheia, em duas diferentes épocas: outono (abril e inverno (julho. Utilizaram-se cinco cultivares de nespereira de importância econômica no Brasil: 'Mizuho', 'Néctar de Cristal' (IAC 866-7, 'Mizauto' (IAC 167-4, 'Mizumo' (IAC 1567-411 e 'Centenária' (IAC 1567-420. Pelo método de borbulhia, não houve nenhuma borbulha brotada quando esta foi realizada no outono, apenas duas borbulhas da 'Mizauto', 'Néctar de Cristal' e 'Centenária' brotaram quando esta foi realizada no inverno, no entanto, com baixo crescimento. Já, por garfagem, maiores porcentagens de brotação e crescimento dos enxertos foram obtidas quando a enxertia foi realizada no inverno, com destaque para as nespereiras 'Mizuho', 'Centenária' e 'Néctar de Cristal'.In Brazil, some pioneer studies were carried out using quince seedlings (Cydonia oblonga Mill. as rootstock for loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl.. The main advantage of this intergeneric grafting use is plant size reduction. The success of using this intergeneric grafting is related mainly to plant size reduction. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study grafting techniques of loquat cultivars using

  15. TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS DIPTACUS KEIFER (ERIOPHYOIDEA, DIPTILOMIOPIDAE, DIPTILOMIOPINAE)FROM SHAANXI PROVINCE, CHINA%中国陕西双羽爪瘿螨属二新种(瘿螨总科,羽爪瘿螨科,羽爪瘿螨亚科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢满超

    2013-01-01

    Two new species,Diptacus brevichaetus sp.nov.on Lindera glauca (Sieb.et Zucc.) Bl.(Lauraceae) and Diptacus shangzhous sp.nov.on Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lind.) G.Don (Rosaceae),are described and illustrated from Shaanxi Province,China.Type specimens are deposited in the College of Agriculture and Life Science,Ankang University,Ankang City,Shaanxi Province,China.%记述在陕西发现的双羽爪瘿螨属2新种:短毛双羽爪瘿螨 Diptacus brevichaetus sp.nov.,寄主是山胡椒Lindera glauca(Sieb.et Zucc.)Bl.(樟科Lauraceae);商州双羽爪瘿螨Diptacus shangzhous sp.nov.,寄主是樱桃Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.)G.Don(蔷薇科Rosaceae).模式标本保存在安康学院农学与生命科学学院.短毛双羽爪瘿螨,新种Diptacus brevichaetus sp.nov.(图1~6)正模♀;副模:7♀♀,5♂♂,2008-07-24,陕西省商南县(33°31′N,110°53′E;海拔780m),金丝峡、谢满超采.寄主为山胡椒Lindera glauca(Sieb.et Zucc.)Bl.(樟科Lauraceae).新种与黄肉楠双羽爪瘿螨Diptacus actinodaphne Wang et Wei,2009相似,但新种背盾板饰有网格;足Ⅰ基节间光滑;生殖盖片基部饰有颗粒,端部饰有12短线予以区别(黄肉楠双羽爪瘿螨D.actinodaphne背盾板饰有不规则短线;足Ⅰ基节饰有线条;雌生殖盖片饰有8~10条纵肋).商州双羽爪瘿螨,新种Diptacus shangzhous sp.nov.(图7~12)正模♀;副模:9♀♀,7 ♂ ♂,2008-08-26,陕西省商州市(33°47′N,109°40′E;海拔870 m),秦王山、谢满超采.寄主为樱桃Cerasus pseudocerasus(Lindl.)G.Don(蔷薇科Rosaceae).新种与樱桃双羽爪瘿螨Diptacus pseudocerasis Kuang et Hong,1990相似,但新种具前叶突;足Ⅰ基节分离,无胸线;基节饰有颗粒和少量短线;雌生殖器盖片基部饰有颗粒,端部光滑予以区别(樱桃双羽爪瘿螨D.pseudocerasis无前叶突;足Ⅰ基节间具胸线,基节光滑;雌生殖器盖片光滑).

  16. Influência do estádio de maturação e da embalagem de polietileno na frigoconservação de ameixa Influence of ripening stage and polyethylene packaging on cold storage of plum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alfredo Kluge

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento visando verificar a influência do estádio de maturação e da embalagem de polietileno, durante o armazenamento de ameixa (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Amarelinha, foi realizado na Embrapa - Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado (CPACT, em Pelotas, RS. Foram utilizadas frutas em três estádios de maturação: verde, semimaduro e maduro, embaladas ou não em sacos de polietileno. O armazenamento refrigerado realizou-se a 0ºC e 90-95% UR, por 14, 28 e 42 dias, seguido da comercialização simulada por três dias a 25-26ºC. As frutas semimaduras foram as que perderam menos peso ao longo da frigoconservação e comercialização simulada. A embalagem de polietileno reduziu as perdas de peso para menos de 1% ao longo do armazenamento. As frutas não embaladas perderam até 7% em peso, apresentando sintomas de murchamento a partir dos 28 dias, principalmente as do estádio maduro. A firmeza de polpa e a acidez total titulável decresceram ao longo do experimento nos três estádios de maturação, e a perda elevada de acidez resultou em sobrematuração das frutas, principalmente aos 42 dias de armazenamento. Não ocorreu desintegração interna nas frutas e a incidência de podridões aumentou aos 42 dias. Conclui-se que o armazenamento refrigerado deve ser feito até os 28 dias.Aiming to verify the influence of ripening stage and polyethylene packaging on cold storage of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. Amarelinha cultivar, an experiment was conducted in Embrapa - Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado (CPACT, Pelotas, RS State Brazil. Three ripening stage fruits were used: green, semi-ripe and ripe, packed or not with polyethylene bags. Fruits were cold stored at 0ºC and 90-95% RH during 14, 28 and 42 days, followed by three days of market simulation at ambient temperature (25-26ºC. Polyethylene bags reduced weight loss for less than 1% during cold storage while unwrapped fruits lost up to 7% of

  17. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  18. New Records of Seed Plants from Some Provinces in China (Ⅰ)%中国种子植物省级分布新记录(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相银龙; 周磊; 丛义艳; 刘克明

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen species and two varieties are reported as new records to four provinces in China, ie Impatiens sulcata Wall. (Balsaminaceae), Impatiens racemosa DC. (Balsaminaceae) and Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f. et L. K. Dai ex P. C. Li. (Leguminosae) for Sichuan, Impatiens tubulosa Hemsl.(Balsaminaceae), Impatiens macrovexilla var. yaoshanensis S. X. Yu, Y. L. Chen & H. N. Qin,(Balsaminaceae), Impatiens monticoia Hook. f. (Balsaminaceae), Eutrema tenue Makino (Brassicaceae),Hilliella changhuaensis Y. H. Zhang (Brassicaceae), Desmodium heterocarpon (Linn) DC. (Leguminosae),Ficus sarmentosa Buch. -Ham. ex J. E. SM. Var. thunbergii (Maxim.) Corner (Moraceae), A mpelopsis delavayana Planch. var. glabra (Diels & Gilg) C. L. Li (Vitaceae), Tetrastigrna erubescens Planch.(Vitaceae), Ilex tutcheri Merr. (Aquifoliaceae) and Peristylus densus (Lindl.) Santap. et Kapad.(Orchidaceae) for Hunan, Impatiens napoensis Y. L. Chen(Balsaminaceae) and Impatiens chiulungensis Y.L. Chen, (Balsaminaceae) for Yunnan, Impatiens yui S. H. Huang (Balsaminaceae) for Xizang.%报导了凤仙花科、十字花科、豆科、桑科、葡萄科、冬青科和兰科共15种2变种植物在我国4个省区的分布新记录.其中四川分布新记录有槽茎凤仙花(Impatiens sulcata Wall.)、总状凤仙花(Impatiens racemosa DC.)和云南甘草(Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f.et L.K.Dai ex P.C.Li.);湖南分布新记录有管茎凤仙花(Impatiens tubulosa Hemsl.)、瑶山凤仙花(Impatiens macrovexilla var.yaoshanensis S.X.Yu,Y.L.Chen & H.N.Qin,)、山地凤仙花(Impatiens monticoia Hook.f.)、日本山嵛菜(Eutrema tenue Makino)、昌化泡果荠(Hilliella changhuaensis Y.H.Zhang)、糙毛假地豆(Desmodium heterocarpon(Linn)DC.)、少脉爬藤榕(Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham.ex J.E.SM.var.thunbergii(Maxim.)Corner)、掌裂蛇葡萄(Ampelopsis delavayana Planch.var.glabra(Diels & Gilg)C.L.Li)、红枝崖爬藤(Tetrastigma erubescens Planch.)、罗浮冬青(Ilex tutcheri Merr

  19. Fuel wood properties of some oak tree species of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetei, Shougrakpam Bijen; Singh, E J; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Five indigenous oak tree species, i.e., Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A.DC., Lithocarpus fenestratus (Roxb.) Rehder, Lithocarpus pachyphyllus (Kurz) Rehder, Lithocarpus polystachyus (Wall. ex A.DC.) Rehder and Quercus serrata Murray were estimated for their wood properties such as calorific value, density, moisture content and ash content from a sub-tropical forest of Haraothel hill, Senapati District, Manipur. Wood biomass components were found to have higher calorific value (kJ g(-)) than bark components. The calorific values for tree species were found highest in L. pachyphyllus (17.99 kJ g(-1)) followed by C. indica (17.98 kJ g1), L. fenestratus (17.96 kJ g"), L. polystachyus (17.80 kJ g(-1)) and Q. serrata (17.49 kJ g(-1)). Calorific values for bole bark, bole wood and branch bark were found significantly different (F > 3.48 at p = 0.05) in five oak tree species. Percentage of ash on dry weight basis was found to be highest in Q. serrata (4.73%) and lowest in C. indica (2.19%). Ash content of tree components gives a singnificant factor in determining fuelwood value index (FVI). Of all the five oak tree species, Q. serrata exhibited highest value of wood density (0.78 g cm-) and lowest was observed in C. indica (0.63 g cm(-3)). There was significant correlation between wood density (p L. pachyphyllus (898.41)> L. polystachyus (879.02)> L. fenestratus (824.61)> Q. serrata (792.50). Thus, the present study suggests that C. indica may be considered as a fuelwood oak tree species in Manipur. PMID:26364482

  20. Cover Image Identification of Plant Species for Crop Pollinator Habitat Enhancement in the Northern Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bizecki Robson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild pollinators have a positive impact on the productivity of insect-pollinated crops. Consequently, landowners are being encouraged to maintain and grow wildflower patches to provide habitat for important pollinators. Research on plant-pollinator interaction matrices indicates that a small number of “core” plants provide a disproportionately high amount of pollen and nectar to insects. This matrix data can be used to help design wildflower plantings that provide optimal resources for desirable pollinators. Existing interaction matrices from three tall grass prairie preserves in the northern prairies were used to identify core plant species that are visited by wild pollinators of a common insect-pollinated crop, namely canola (Brassica napus L.. The wildflower preferences of each insect taxon were determined using quantitative insect visitation and floral abundance data. Phenology data were used to calculate the degree of floral synchrony between the wildflowers and canola. Using this information I ranked the 41 wildflowers that share insect visitors with canola according to how useful they are for providing pollinators with forage before and after canola flowers. The top five species were smooth blue aster (Symphyotrichum laeve (L. A. & D. Löve, stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida L., wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa L., purple prairie-clover (Dalea purpurea Vent. and Lindley’s aster (Symphyotrichum ciliolatum (Lindl. A. & D. Löve. By identifying the most important wild insects for crop pollination, and determining when there will be “pollen and nectar gaps”, appropriate plant species can be selected for companion plantings to increase pollinator populations and crop production.

  1. Семенное размножение дичающих из культуры видов растений в условиях Южной Карелии

    OpenAIRE

    РОХЛОВА ЕЛЕНА ЛЕОНИДОВНА; АНТИПИНА ГАЛИНА СТАНИСЛАВОВНА

    2014-01-01

    Одним из показателей жизнеспособности интродуцентов является семенная продуктивность. Цель работы изучение показателей семенного возобновления дичающих из культуры травянистых интродуцентов в условиях севера и оценка их потенциальной инвазионности. Исследование выполнено на примере Echinocystis lobata (Michaux) Torr. & A. Gray, Lupinuspolyphyllus Lindl., Xanthoxalis stricta (L.) Small, Symphytum asperum Lepech., Calendula officinalis L., Centaurea montana L., Helianthus tuberosus L., кото...

  2. ФЛОРИСТИЧЕСКИЕ НАХОДКИ АДВЕНТИВНЫХ И РАРИТЕТНЫХ ВИДОВ РАСТЕНИЙ НА ЮГО-ЗАПАДЕ СРЕДНЕРУССКОЙ ВОЗВЫШЕННОСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Курской, А.; Тохтарь, В.; Чернявских, В.

    2014-01-01

    В ходе проведенного авторами статьи флористического обследования в природных экотопах Белгородской области отмечено 4 новых для Белгородской обл. вида: Psysalis philadelphica Lam. (= Psysalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Hornem.), Solidago gigantea Ait., Hippophaё rhamnoides L., Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl., а также выявлено свыше 30 новых местообитаний инвазионных и раритетных видов, таких как: Aster salignus Willd., Echinocystis lobata (Mich.) Torr. et Gray., Impatiens glandulifera Royle, Impatiens parv...

  3. Metabolic analysis of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berries from extreme genotypes reveals hallmarks for fruit starch metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardozza, Simona; Boldingh, Helen L; Osorio, Sonia; Höhne, Melanie; Wohlers, Mark; Gleave, Andrew P; MacRae, Elspeth A; Richardson, Annette C; Atkinson, Ross G; Sulpice, Ronan; Fernie, Alisdair R; Clearwater, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Tomato, melon, grape, peach, and strawberry primarily accumulate soluble sugars during fruit development. In contrast, kiwifruit (Actinidia Lindl. spp.) and banana store a large amount of starch that is released as soluble sugars only after the fruit has reached maturity. By integrating metabolites measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, enzyme activities measured by a robot-based platform, and transcript data sets during fruit development of Actinidia deliciosa genotypes contrasting in starch concentration and size, this study identified the metabolic changes occurring during kiwifruit development, including the metabolic hallmarks of starch accumulation and turnover. At cell division, a rise in glucose (Glc) concentration was associated with neutral invertase (NI) activity, and the decline of both Glc and NI activity defined the transition to the cell expansion and starch accumulation phase. The high transcript levels of β-amylase 9 (BAM9) during cell division, prior to net starch accumulation, and the correlation between sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity and sucrose suggest the occurrence of sucrose cycling and starch turnover. ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is identified as a key enzyme for starch accumulation in kiwifruit berries, as high-starch genotypes had 2- to 5-fold higher AGPase activity, which was maintained over a longer period of time and was also associated with enhanced and extended transcription of the AGPase large subunit 4 (APL4). The data also revealed that SPS and galactinol might affect kiwifruit starch accumulation, and suggest that phloem unloading into kiwifruit is symplastic. These results are relevant to the genetic improvement of quality traits such as sweetness and sugar/acid balance in a range of fruit species. PMID:24058160

  4. THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTIVATION AND UTILIZATION OF THE NEW LEGUMINOUS GRASSES SPECIES IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru TELEUŢĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development and modernization of our country’s agriculture is related to the revitalization of the animal breeding sector along with the implementation of new genotypes of animals and diversification of fodder production, balanced in terms of quantity and quality throughout the year, suitable for the physiological requirements of animals, and qualitative products as required in the market. Scientific research conducted in the Botanical Garden (Institute of the ASM over decades was aimed at mobilization, improvement and implementation of new non-traditional plant species that use efficiently photosynthetic active radiation and land resources to obtain fodder with a high level of vegetable protein, the fodder leguminous grasses (fam. Fabaceae Lindl. play an important role. We have studied the biological peculiarities, productivity, chemical composition and nutritional value of new fodder leguminous plant species Astragalus galegiformis, Onobrychis inermis and Medicago tianschanica of the collection of non-traditional fodder plants of the Botanical Garden (Institute of the ASM, the traditional forage crop alfalfa served as control variant. The nutritional value of fresh mass accounts: the Astragalus galegiformis - 0.27 nutritive units, 3.26 MJ metabolizable energy and 146g digestible protein/nutritive unit; Onobrychis inermis - 0.25 nutritive units, 2.56 MJ metabolizable energy and 154 g digestible protein/nutritive unit; Medicago tianschanica - 0.24 nutritive units, 2.86 MJ metabolizable energy and 173 g digestible protein/nutritive unit and alfalfa - 0.21 nutritive units, 2.28 MJ metabolizable energy and 164 g digestible protein/nutritive unit. Due to the productivity and high and stable quality of fodder, use of the plantation for a long period of time, capacity of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, the new fodder leguminous species Astragalus galegiformis, Onobrychis inermis and Medicago tianschanica can serve as initial material for enriching

  5. The investigation of growing and using of tall perennial grasses as energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper provides the results of tests on tall-growing perennial grass biomass suitability for use as fuel, as well as findings on the energy potential of swards and energy efficiency of biofuel production from herbaceous plants. The tests were carried out for 3 years. Eight swards differing in species composition were grown. Two of them consisted of pure rhizomatous grasses-reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and awnless bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyser.)-treated with mineral fertilisers, applying N60 split in two applications. The other swards consisted of the above-mentioned grass mixtures with legumes-sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis Lam.), perennial lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.) and goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.). The mixtures did not receive nitrogen fertilisers. The soil of the experimental site is light loam with a humus content of 1.5-1.9%. The productivity of swards under good weather conditions ranged between 6.3 and 8.8 t DM ha-1, while under adverse conditions between 2.8 and 6.5 t ha-1. The net calorific value of dry biomass ranged from 17.1 to 18.5 MJ kg-1 and depended on sward composition, growing conditions and cutting time. Combustion temperature ranged from 770 to 955 deg. C. In Lithuanian climatic conditions, the energy potential of tall-growing grass swards cultivated on light soils low in humus content was 115-153 GJ ha-1, and energy input for biofuel production amounted to 8.0-19.2 GJ ha-1

  6. PROSPECTS OF USING INVASIVE LEGUMES IN HERBAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelepova O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose to consider alien invasive species as new bioresources. These plants form powerful (usually single-species thickets in the secondary range and their size are larger than at the native cenosis. The territory occupied by invasive species, especially in disturbed habitats, is quite high, so their possible yield is very high. The main problem of using alien species in the pharmacological purposes is the lack of information about the dynamics of the chemicals accumulation. Available data on the biochemistry in its natural habitat is inadaptable for the same taxon in the secondary range because of significant microevolutionary changes. In this work we present the results of phytochemical screening four legume species, formed invasive populations in the Middle Russia - Galega orientalis Lam., Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl., Robinia pseudoacacia L. & Caragana arborescens Lam. Information about these species as traditional medicine plants is given. Original data on the concentration phenolic compounds and biophile silicon in leaves and inflorescences are presented. Information on the fractional composition of the flavonoid complex is done. Taking into consideration the high adaptability of invasive species, the chemical analysis of the samples from different ecotypes was made. It is shown that accumulation of bioactive agents and biophile silicon isn’t depended on the environmental conditions. Concentrations of polyphenolic compounds were at the average level in comparison with medicinal plants. Thus, the combination of flavonoid complex with biophile silicon provides pharmacological significance of studied species, and justifies the needing the further study of invasive plant species in order to create new herbal medicines

  7. Using hyperspectral imaging to determine germination of native Australian plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Zhao, Genpin; Dakin, Nicole; Zhao, Chunhui; Turner, Shane R

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the ability to accurately and non-destructively determine the germination of three native Australian tree species, Acacia cowleana Tate (Fabaceae), Banksia prionotes L.F. (Proteaceae), and Corymbia calophylla (Lindl.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson (Myrtaceae) based on hyperspectral imaging data. While similar studies have been conducted on agricultural and horticultural seeds, we are unaware of any published studies involving reflectance-based assessments of the germination of tree seeds. Hyperspectral imaging data (110 narrow spectral bands from 423.6nm to 878.9nm) were acquired of individual seeds after 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50days of standardized rapid ageing. At each time point, seeds were subjected to hyperspectral imaging to obtain reflectance profiles from individual seeds. A standard germination test was performed, and we predicted that loss of germination was associated with a significant change in seed coat reflectance profiles. Forward linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to select the 10 spectral bands with the highest contribution to classifications of the three species. In all species, germination decreased from over 90% to below 20% in about 10-30days of experimental ageing. P50 values (equal to 50% germination) for each species were 19.3 (A. cowleana), 7.0 (B. prionotes) and 22.9 (C. calophylla) days. Based on independent validation of classifications of hyperspectral imaging data, we found that germination of Acacia and Corymbia seeds could be classified with over 85% accuracy, while it was about 80% for Banksia seeds. The selected spectral bands in each LDA-based classification were located near known pigment peaks involved in photosynthesis and/or near spectral bands used in published indices to predict chlorophyll or nitrogen content in leaves. The results suggested that seed germination may be successfully classified (predicted) based on reflectance in narrow spectral bands associated with the primary metabolism

  8. Overwintering hosts for the exotic leafroller parasitoid, Colpoclypeus florus: implications for habitat manipulation to augment biological control of leafrollers in pome fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannenstiel, R S; Unruh, T R; Brunner, J F

    2010-01-01

    Thirty sites of managed and native habitats were surveyed for leafrollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the apple producing region of central Washington State and northern Oregon from September through November 1997-2000 to discover species that supported overwintering by the parasitoid Colpoclypeus florus (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). C. florus, a species introduced from Europe, requires medium to large host larvae late in autumn on which to overwinter, and few leafroller species display this biology. Over the four years, five potential C. florus hosts were collected, including: Ancylis comptana (Froelich), Xenotemna pallorana (Robinson), and Syndemis sp. (Tortricidae), Filatima sp. (Gelechiidae), and Caloptilia burgessiellia (Zeller) (Gracillariidae). Of these, A. comptana, Syndemis sp., and Filatima sp. have been confirmed as overwintering hosts for C. florus. During the four years, the Syndemis sp. was rare and observed at only one location feeding on redosier dogwood, Cornus sericea L. (Cornales: Cornaceae) although, at this location, many of the larvae collected were parasitized by C. florus. Filatima sp. was common in the Yakima valley feeding on balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L. ssp. trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray ex Hook) Brayshaw (Malpighiales: Salicaceae) but was rarely parasitized. A. comptana, however, was collected at many locations in central Washington and was frequently found as an overwintering host for C. florus. A. comptana was found feeding on two Rosaceae: Wood's rose, Rosa woodsii Lindl., and strawberry, Fragaria ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Based on the number of host larvae collected, A. comptana appears to be the primary overwintering host for C. florus in Washington. Introduction of A. comptana populations to near-orchard habitats may facilitate biological control of leafrollers that are orchard pests. PMID:20673193

  9. The potential role of electric fields and plasma barodiffusion on the inertial confinement fusion database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of strong, self-generated electric fields (GV/m) in direct-drive, inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) capsules has been reported [Rygg et al., Science 319, 1223 (2008); Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 225001 (2008)]. A candidate explanation for the origin of these fields based on charge separation across a plasma shock front was recently proposed [Amendt et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51 124048 (2009)]. The question arises whether such electric fields in imploding capsules can have observable consequences on target performance. Two well-known anomalies come to mind: (1) an observed ≅2x greater-than-expected deficit of neutrons in an equimolar D3He fuel mixture compared with hydrodynamically equivalent D [Rygg et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)] and DT [Herrmann et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056312 (2009)] fuels, and (2) a similar shortfall of neutrons when trace amounts of argon are mixed with D in indirect-drive implosions [Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)]. A new mechanism based on barodiffusion (or pressure gradient-driven diffusion) in a plasma is proposed that incorporates the presence of shock-generated electric fields to explain the reported anomalies. For implosions performed at the Omega laser facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], the (low Mach number) return shock has an appreciable scale length over which the lighter D ions can diffuse away from fuel center. The depletion of D fuel is estimated and found to lead to a corresponding reduction in neutrons, consistent with the anomalies observed in experiments for both argon-doped D fuels and D3He equimolar mixtures. The reverse diffusional flux of the heavier ions toward fuel center also increases the pressure from a concomitant increase in electron number density, resulting in lower stagnation pressures and larger imploded cores in agreement with gated, self-emission, x-ray imaging data.

  10. Highly-resolved 2D HYDRA simulations of Double-Shell Ignition Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovich, J L; Amendt, P; Hamza, A; Marinak, M; Robey, H

    2006-06-30

    Double-shell (DS) targets (Amendt, P. A. et al., 2002) offer a complementary approach to the cryogenic baseline design (Lindl, J. et al., 2004) for achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Among the expected benefits are the ease of room temperature preparation and fielding, the potential for lower laser backscatter and the reduced need for careful shock timing. These benefits are offset, however, by demanding fabrication tolerances, e.g., shell concentricity and shell surface smoothness. In particular, the latter is of paramount importance since DS targets are susceptible to the growth of interface perturbations from impulsive and time-dependent accelerations. Previous work (Milovich, J. L. et al., 2004) has indicated that the growth of perturbations on the outer surface of the inner shell is potentially disruptive. To control this instability new designs have been proposed requiring bimetallic inner shells and material-matching mid-Z nanoporous foam. The challenges in manufacturing such exotic foams have led to a further evaluation of the densities and pore sizes needed to reduce the seeding of perturbations on the outer surface of the inner shell, thereby guiding the ongoing material science research efforts. Highly-resolved 2D simulations of porous foams have been performed to establish an upper limit on the allowable pore sizes for instability growth. Simulations indicate that foams with higher densities than previously thought are now possible. Moreover, while at the present time we are only able to simulate foams with average pore sizes larger than 1 micron (due to computational limitations), we can conclude that these pore sizes are potentially problematic. Furthermore, the effect of low-order hohlraum radiation asymmetries on the growth of intrinsic surface perturbations is also addressed. Highly-resolved 2D simulations indicate that the transverse flows that are set up by these low-order mode features (which can excite Kelvin

  11. Highly-resolved 2D HYDRA simulations of Double-Shell Ignition Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double-shell (DS) targets (Amendt, P. A. et al., 2002) offer a complementary approach to the cryogenic baseline design (Lindl, J. et al., 2004) for achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Among the expected benefits are the ease of room temperature preparation and fielding, the potential for lower laser backscatter and the reduced need for careful shock timing. These benefits are offset, however, by demanding fabrication tolerances, e.g., shell concentricity and shell surface smoothness. In particular, the latter is of paramount importance since DS targets are susceptible to the growth of interface perturbations from impulsive and time-dependent accelerations. Previous work (Milovich, J. L. et al., 2004) has indicated that the growth of perturbations on the outer surface of the inner shell is potentially disruptive. To control this instability new designs have been proposed requiring bimetallic inner shells and material-matching mid-Z nanoporous foam. The challenges in manufacturing such exotic foams have led to a further evaluation of the densities and pore sizes needed to reduce the seeding of perturbations on the outer surface of the inner shell, thereby guiding the ongoing material science research efforts. Highly-resolved 2D simulations of porous foams have been performed to establish an upper limit on the allowable pore sizes for instability growth. Simulations indicate that foams with higher densities than previously thought are now possible. Moreover, while at the present time we are only able to simulate foams with average pore sizes larger than 1 micron (due to computational limitations), we can conclude that these pore sizes are potentially problematic. Furthermore, the effect of low-order hohlraum radiation asymmetries on the growth of intrinsic surface perturbations is also addressed. Highly-resolved 2D simulations indicate that the transverse flows that are set up by these low-order mode features (which can excite Kelvin

  12. Saccharose action on chrysanthemum cut inflorescences, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, after exposition to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years the Brazilian floriculture expanded and it is expected to achieve a prominent role in near future. The national territory has many favorable regions, with adequate climate for the development of commercially important cultures. Flower exportation is not expressive yet, but the country has conditions to become a great exotic tropical plants exporter. On the other hand, developed countries, as USA and Japan, have a rigorous phyto sanitary inspection to prevent the introduction of new plagues and diseases through fresh products. Ionizing radiation is considered a reliable disinfestation method to control numerous fruit and flower plagues. The aim of of this work was to verify the tolerance of some Compositae family flowers to ionizing radiation and the effects to sucrose action in protecting the flowers against the gamma-radiation induced damages. This was done by measuring biochemical and physiological parameters as a function of time after irradiation. The chrysanthemum flowers were sensitive to gamma radiation, but when the inflorescences were supplied after irradiation with preservative solution containing 2% sucrose, protection against the damaging effects of radiation was achieved. The dose of 750 Gy, considered appropriate for disinfestation purpose, did not modify the protein and lipid levels, nor plasma, tonoplast and mitochondria membrane ATPase or mitochondria cytochrome-c oxidase activities. The ethylene and carbonic gas rate production increased soon after the irradiation, but decreased one day later. The decrease of the microsomal membrane fluidity and the increase of the chrysanthemum were the most sensitive parameters to measure the irradiation treatment changes. The sucrose supply was able to maintain the irradiated flowers membrane fluidity level close to the unirradiated control. Rhodante manglesii Lindl and Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. were tolerant up to 1 KGy, thus being adequate to be disinfected by gamma radiation. (author)

  13. Rooting and acclimatization of the Japanese plum tree, cv. América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Magalhães Bandeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooting and acclimatization are limiting steps in plant micropropagation, especially in woody plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the IAA and IBA effect on the in vitro rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated shoots of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. América. Shoots from 3 to 4 cm long were inoculated in MS medium with half salt and vitamin concentrations (MS/2 added with IAA and IBA (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg L-1. After a 20-day period in in vitro cultivation, the shoots were evaluated, and then transferred to a greenhouse, and evaluated after 30 days. At the end of the in vitro cultivation period, no significant interactions were observed for number of roots per shoot and rooting percentage, but a significant effect was recorded for auxin type only, for which shoots grown in media added with IBA showed high values - 0.87 and 41.95%, respectively. A linear increase response from 1.45 to 5.75 cm was verified for root length of shoots cultivated in IBA medium; however, no significant effect was observed, and a 0.86 cm average root length per shoot grown in medium added with IAA was found. After 30 days of acclimatization period, the largest survival percentage was obtained from shoots cultivated in medium with 1 mg L-1 of IBA and IAA (88% and 92%, respectively. Although, IBA provided the highest in vitro rooting, most of the surviving shoots were those originated in IAA-added medium, probably because IBA promoted longer fibrous roots, less appropriate for transplant and soil fixation, as they are easily damaged. It was concluded that in vitro rooting with the addition of the highest IAA concentration (1 mg L-1 provided the greatest plant survival during the acclimatization period of the Japanese plum cv. América.

  14. Novel inter-series hybrids in Solanum, section Petota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, I I; Hayes, R J; Kynast, R G; Phillips, R L; Thill, C A

    2005-02-01

    Sexual hybrids between distantly related Solanum species can undergo endosperm failure, a post-zygotic barrier in inter-species hybridizations. This barrier is explained by the endosperm balance number (EBN) hypothesis, which states that parents must have corresponding EBNs for viable seed formation. Tests for inter-crossability were made involving the Mexican species Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal. (series Pinnatisecta, ApiApi, 1EBN), autotetraploids of this species, Solanum verrucosum Schlechtd. (series Tuberosa, AA, 2EBN), haploids (2x, 2EBN) of the South American S. tuberosum L. (series Tuberosa, A1A1A2A2, 4EBN), and F2 haploid-species hybrids with South American species (AA, 2EBN) S. berthaultii Hawkes, S. sparsipilum (Bitter.) Juz. and Bukasov and S. chacoense Bitter. The development of hybrid endosperms was investigated for these combinations by confocal microscopy with regard to cell-division timing and tissue collapse. Novel sexual diploid (AApi) and triploid (AApiApi) inter-series hybrids were generated from S. verrucosum x S. pinnatisectum crosses by using post-pollination applications of auxin. F1 embryos were rescued in vitro. The hybrid status of recovered plants was verified by microsatellite marker analysis, and the ploidy was determined by chromosome counting. The application of phytohormones in inter-ploidy S. pinnatisectum x S. tuberosum crosses, however, did not delay endosperm collapse, and embryos were not formed. Other diploid, 1EBN species tested in remote hybridizations with Group Tuberosum were S. cardiophyllum Lindl., S. trifidum Correll, and S. tarnii Hawkes and Hjert., series Pinnatisecta, and S. bulbocastanum Dunal., series Bulbocastana. Based on the analysis of post-zygotic reproductive barriers among isolated species of section Petota, we propose strategies to overcome such incompatibilities. PMID:15517147

  15. Caracterização anatômico-fisiológica da compatibilidade reprodutiva de ameixeira-japonesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Conti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar fisiologicamente a compatibilidade reprodutiva de sete cultivares de ameixeira-japonesa (Prunus salicina Lindl por meio de hibridações, análise de frutificação efetiva e do crescimento de tubos polínicos (CTP. O frui set foi determinado 40 dias após as hibridações controladas, realizadas a campo. O grau de compatibilidade foi avaliado invivo, para determinar o CTP. A cv. América apresentou bom fruit set quando polinizada com as cvs. Rosa Mineira (26,7%, Amarelinha (8,7% e Reubennel (12,7%. Os cruzamentos 'Gulf Blaze' x 'Gulf Rubi', 'Gulf Rubi' x 'Gulf Rubi' e 'Gulf Rubi' x 'Gulf Blaze' obtiveram um fruit set de 11,36%, 3,84% e 9,94%, respectivamente. Na polinização em laboratório, os tubos polínicos atingiram o óvulo ou ovário nesses cruzamentos, com exceção da autopolinização da 'Gulf Rubi'. No campo, não houve frutificação efetiva na autopolinização da 'América' e 'Gulf Blaze' e no cruzamento da 'América' x 'Pluma 7'. Os tubos polínicos nesses cruzamentos não chegaram a atingir o óvulo, com exceção da autopolinização da 'Gulf Blaze'. Concluiu-se que apenas os cruzamentos entre 'América' x 'Pluma 7' são incompatíveis, e a cultivar América é autoincompatível.

  16. Improvement of non-isobaric model for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, improved relations of total fuel energy, fuel gain, hot-spot radius and total areal density in a non-isobaric model of fuel assembly have been derived and compared with the numerical results of [J. Schmitt, J.W. Bates, S.P. Obenschain, S.T. Zalesak, D.E. Fyfe, Phys. Plasmas 17, 042701 (2010); S. Atzeni, A. Marocchino, A. Schiavi, G. Schurtz, New J. Phys. 15, 045004 (2013)] and several simulations performed by MULTI-1D radiation hydrodynamic code for shock ignition scenario. Our calculations indicate that the approximations made by [M.D. Rosen, J.D. Lindl, A.R. Thiessen, LLNL Laser Program Annual Report, UCRL-50021-83, pp. 3-5 (1983); J. Schmitt, J.W. Bates, S.P. Obenschain, S.T. Zalesak, D.E. Fyfe, Phys. Plasmas 17, 042701 (2010)] for the calculation of burn-up fraction are not accurate enough to give results consistent with simulations. Therefore, we have introduced more appropriate approximations for the burn-up fraction and total areal density of the fuel that are in more agreement with simulation results of shock ignition. Meanwhile, it is shown that the related formulas of the non-isobaric model for total fuel energy, fuel gain and also hot-spot radius cannot determine the model parameters independently, but improved model choose a better selection and less restrictions on determination of the parameters for the non-isobaric model. Such derivations can be used in theoretical studies of the ignition conditions and burn-up fraction of the fuel in shock ignition scenario. (authors)

  17. Phenological observations on shrubs to predict weed emergence in turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, Roberta; Zuin, Maria Clara; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic biological events. If we can find easily recognizable events in common plants that precede or coincide with weed emergences, these plants could be used as indicators. Weed seedlings are usually difficult to detect in turf, so the use of phenological indicators may provide an alternative approach to predict the time when a weed appears and consequently guide management decisions. A study was undertaken to determine whether the phenological phases of some plants could serve as reliable indicators of time of weed emergence in turf. The phenology of six shrubs (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Sambucus nigra L., Syringa vulgaris L., Rosa multiflora Thunb., Ziziphus jujuba Miller) and a perennial herbaceous plant [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] was observed and the emergence dynamics of four annual weed species [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner, Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] were studied from 1999 to 2004 in northern Italy. A correlation between certain events and weed emergence was verified. S. vulgaris and F. viridissima appear to be the best indicators: there is a quite close correspondence between the appearance of D. sanguinalis and lilac flowering and between the beginning of emergence of E. indica and the end of lilac flowering; emergences of S. glauca and S. viridis were predicted well in relation to the end of forsythia flowering. Base temperatures and starting dates required to calculate the heat unit sums to reach and complete the flowering phase of the indicators were calculated using two different methods and the resultant cumulative growing degree days were compared.

  18. Symbiotic germination of three species of epiphytic orchids susceptible to genetic erosion, from Soconusco (Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bertolini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soconusco region of southeast Mexico has almost a quarter of the orchid species registered in Mexico and 37 threatened species (NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001, many with severely reduced and non-viable populations. We chose two of the most threatened species, Rossioglossum grande (Lindl. Garay and G. C. Kenn. and Cuitlauzina convallarioides (Schltr. Dressler and N. H. Williams and a rare species recently discovered in the region, Rhynchostele bictoniensis (Bateman Soto Arenas and Salazar, to study the mycorrhizal fungi associated with the roots, isolate them and use them to induce seed germination and promote development in asymbiotically produced protocorms, in the laboratory. We isolated ten strains of Rhizoctonia-like orchid mycorrhizal fungi from Rossioglossum grande and three from Cuitlauzina convallarioides. Using selected fungal strains from the same species, we tested for the promotion of further development of asymbiotically pre-germinated protocorms of R. grande and the promotion of seed germination of C. convallarioides. In the case of R. bictoniensis, we studied the effects on seed germination of nine strains of Rhizoctonia-like fungi isolated from other orchid species. For R. grande, after 10 months, one strain of Rhizoctonia promoted development of the pre-germinated protocorms, and almost 90% of the protocorms produced rhizoids. For C. convallarioides, after 3 months, one fungal strain promoted protocorm development to the stage where they produced green tissue under illumination, suggesting the onset of photosynthesis. For R. bictoniensis three of the fungal strains (from other orchid species promoted germination and, after 4 months, autotrophic protocorms.

  19. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

  20. Qualidade pós-colheita de nêsperas submetidas ao armazenamento sob baixa temperatura e atmosfera modificada Postharvest quality of loquat stored at a low temperature and modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Tavares de Campos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A curta vida-de-prateleira da nêspera (Eryobotria japonica Lindl. é um dos fatores que encarecem o preço final deste fruto constituindo um obstáculo para o aumento da sua produção e popularização de seu consumo. Neste contexto, o investimento em estratégias de armazenamento representa uma contribuição para a cadeia de produção da nêspera. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma alternativa de baixo custo para a extensão do tempo de armazenamento deste fruto. Nêsperas da cultivar Precoce de Itaquera, maduras, foram acondicionadas em bandejas de poliestireno teraftalato e embaladas com filme de polivinilcloreto de 14 µm de espessura. Os frutos foram armazenados em diferentes temperaturas (18 e 6 °C na presença e ausência de sachês de permanganato de potássio para remoção do etileno. Durante o armazenamento, os frutos foram periodicamente analisados quanto à produção de etileno e à respiração. Os frutos amostrados para análises posteriores foram descascados e a polpa congelada. Os frutos foram também monitorados quanto à perda de massa fresca e analisados os teores de glicose, frutose, sacarose e sorbitol por HPAEC-PAD. Os teores de etileno nos grupos armazenados na presença dos sachês foram significativamente menores em comparação aos demais grupos, independente da temperatura de armazenamento. A respiração mostrou dependência da temperatura, sendo menor nos frutos armazenados a 6 °C, independente da presença dos sachês. Os teores de açúcares solúveis apresentaram flutuações durante o armazenamento a baixa temperatura, mas sem alterações significativas em relação aos teores iniciais, com exceção do sorbitol que aumentou. Os efeitos do armazenamento à baixa temperatura, combinados com a presença de sachês absorvedores de etileno, sobre a respiração e os teores de etileno podem ser apontados como relevantes para o aumento na vida-de-prateleira das nêsperas, sem alterações nos n

  1. Attempts to deactivate tannins in fodder shrubs with physical and chemical treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Saghrouni, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Chopping, water sprinkling, storage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, urea, wood ash, activated charcoal and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) treatments were evaluated for their efficiency in deactivating tannins in shrub foliage. In a first trial, fresh leaves of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (acacia) were stored after chopping or without chopping and spraying or without spraying with water under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The plant material was stored for 1, 7 and 14 days and analysed thereafter for extractable total phenols (TP), extractable total tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT) contents. Chopping and water spraying substantially decreased the levels of TP, TT and CT of acacia. The rate of tannin deactivation increased in acacia stored under anaerobic conditions. Acacia stored for 7 days exhibited lower TP, TT and CT contents than that stored for only 1 day. Compared to the 7-day storage period, there was a further non-significant decrease in the level of these phenolic compounds when the storage duration was extended to 14 days. The highest level of rumen degradation of crude protein (CP) in sheep rumen was obtained with chopped, water sprinkled acacia leaves stored under anaerobic conditions. The second trial investigated the effect of increasing levels of urea (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g/kg) and treatment duration (7, 14, 21 and 28 days) on CP, TP, TT and CT in acacia leaves. The 20 g/kg urea level was sufficient to totally deactivate tannins in acacia even with the shortest storage period, i.e. 7 days. However, urea treatment increased ash-free neutral detergent fibre content and did not improve in sacco acacia degradation. In the third trial air-dried 1 mm ground samples of acacia and kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) leaves were added to water (control), acacia wood ash, activated charcoal or PEG solutions (100 g/kg) at 1:10 (w/v) and shaken for 20 min. All these four treatments decreased TP, TT and CT contents and could be classified

  2. Eriobotrya japonica Water Extract Characterization: An Inducer of Interferon-Gamma Production Mainly by the JAK-STAT Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Z. Matalka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl. (Loquat (EJ has been used as a medicinal plant to treat chronic bronchitis, coughs, phlegm, high fever and gastro-enteric disorders. Since the traditional use of EJ is related to modulating inflammation processes, our earlier studies on EJ leaves were performed on the water extract to investigate specific cytokines’ modulation. These earlier studies, however, have shown that EJ leaf water extract (WE and the water phase (WP induce cytokines’ production in in vitro and in vivo models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to specify the group(s of compounds in EJ leaves that have this immunomodulatory activity and their mechanism of action. WE was obtained from boiling the leaves followed by butanol extraction, yielding a butanol-water phase (WP. WP was then subjected to methanol:acetone fractionation, yielding upper (MAU and lower (MAL phases. For further fractionation, MAU was subjected to column chromatography followed by elution with ethanol:water (EW, methanol:ethanol (ME and, lastly, acetone:water (AW, respectively, to reveal three sub-fractions; MAU-EW, MAU-ME and MAU-AW. MAU-AW significantly increased IFN-γ production from unstimulated and stimulated mouse spleen cells, as well as CD3+ T cells and natural killer cells. Furthermore, the fold increase of IFN-γ production by MAU-AW was concentration dependent, higher than the parent extract or any of the other sub-fractions, and such an IFN-γ increase was reversed by two JAK-STAT inhibitors. In addition, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the extracts and sub-fractions showed compounds with molecular weights of >500 Daltons. The MAU-AW sub-fraction contained more polar compounds, such as flavonol and caffeic glycosides. In conclusion, these polar compounds in the EJ extract are responsible for inducing IFN-γ production. Further chemical elucidation is warranted to lead to a specific IFN-γ inducer and an immunomodulator in polarizing immune cells and balancing

  3. Eriobotrya japonica Water Extract Characterization: An Inducer of Interferon-Gamma Production Mainly by the JAK-STAT Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalka, Khalid Z; Abdulridha, Nada A; Badr, Mujtaba M; Mansoor, Kenza; Qinna, Nidal A; Qadan, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (Loquat) (EJ) has been used as a medicinal plant to treat chronic bronchitis, coughs, phlegm, high fever and gastro-enteric disorders. Since the traditional use of EJ is related to modulating inflammation processes, our earlier studies on EJ leaves were performed on the water extract to investigate specific cytokines' modulation. These earlier studies, however, have shown that EJ leaf water extract (WE) and the water phase (WP) induce cytokines' production in in vitro and in vivo models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to specify the group(s) of compounds in EJ leaves that have this immunomodulatory activity and their mechanism of action. WE was obtained from boiling the leaves followed by butanol extraction, yielding a butanol-water phase (WP). WP was then subjected to methanol:acetone fractionation, yielding upper (MAU) and lower (MAL) phases. For further fractionation, MAU was subjected to column chromatography followed by elution with ethanol:water (EW), methanol:ethanol (ME) and, lastly, acetone:water (AW), respectively, to reveal three sub-fractions; MAU-EW, MAU-ME and MAU-AW. MAU-AW significantly increased IFN-γ production from unstimulated and stimulated mouse spleen cells, as well as CD3+ T cells and natural killer cells. Furthermore, the fold increase of IFN-γ production by MAU-AW was concentration dependent, higher than the parent extract or any of the other sub-fractions, and such an IFN-γ increase was reversed by two JAK-STAT inhibitors. In addition, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the extracts and sub-fractions showed compounds with molecular weights of >500 Daltons. The MAU-AW sub-fraction contained more polar compounds, such as flavonol and caffeic glycosides. In conclusion, these polar compounds in the EJ extract are responsible for inducing IFN-γ production. Further chemical elucidation is warranted to lead to a specific IFN-γ inducer and an immunomodulator in polarizing immune cells and balancing immune

  4. Attempts to deactivate tannins in fodder shrubs with physical and chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopping, water sprinkling, storage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, urea, wood ash, activated charcoal and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) treatments were evaluated for their efficiency in deactivating tannins in shrub foliage. In a first trial, fresh leaves of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (acacia) were stored after chopping or without chopping and spraying or without spraying with water under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The plant material was stored for 1, 7 and 14 days and analysed thereafter for extractable total phenols (TP), extractable total tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT) contents. Chopping and water spraying substantially decreased the levels of TP, TT and CT of acacia. The rate of tannin deactivation increased in acacia stored under anaerobic conditions. Acacia stored for 7 days exhibited lower TP, TT and CT contents than that stored for only 1 day. Compared to the 7-day storage period, there was a further non-significant decrease in the level of these phenolic compounds when the storage duration was extended to 14 days. The highest level of rumen degradation of crude protein (CP) in sheep rumen was obtained with chopped, water sprinkled acacia leaves stored under anaerobic conditions. The second trial investigated the effect of increasing levels of urea (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g/kg) and treatment duration (7, 14, 21 and 28 days) on CP, TP, TT and CT in acacia leaves. The 20 g/kg urea level was sufficient to totally deactivate tannins in acacia even with the shortest storage period, i.e. 7 days. However, urea treatment increased ash-free neutral detergent fibre content and did not improve in sacco acacia degradation. In the third trial air-dried 1 mm ground samples of acacia and kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) leaves were added to water (control), acacia wood ash, activated charcoal or PEG solutions (100 g/kg) at 1:10 (w/v) and shaken for 20 min. All these four treatments decreased TP, TT and CT contents and could be classified

  5. Dinâmica de íons em solo salino-sódico sob fitorremediação com Atriplex nummularia e aplicação de gesso Dynamics of ions in saline-sodic soil under phytoremediation with Atriplex nummularia and gypsum applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaliza A. dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho em um Cambissolo salino sódico do Perímetro Irrigado Cachoeira II, Serra Talhada, PE, com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica de cátions e ânions básicos em um solo salino sódico submetido a fitorremediação com Atriplex nummularia e correção com aplicação de gesso. Realizaram-se amostragens semestrais com quatro coletas de solo (0, 6, 12 e 18 meses. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso avaliando-se quatro tratamentos: controle (sem nenhum manejo do solo, correção química com gesso (sem cultivo e dois com cultivo de Atriplex nummularia Lindl (espaçamentos 1 x 1 m e 2 x 2 m, com quatro repetições. Os resultados das análises do solo revelaram a contribuição da aplicação de gesso, especialmente do cultivo de plantas de atriplex na redução dos teores de sais no solo.The study was conducted in a saline-sodic Inceptisol from the Cachoeira II Irrigation Perimeter, Serra Talhada (PE, with the objective of evaluating the dynamics of basic cations and anions in a saline-sodic soil subjected to phytoremediation with Atriplex nummularia and correction with application of gypsum. Samples were taken every six months, at four times (0, 6, 12 and 18 months. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, the four Treatments evaluated were: control (without any management practice, chemical correction with gypsum (no crop and two Atriplex nummularia cultivation (1 x 1 m and 2 x 2 m plant spacing, with four replications. The results of soil analysis revealed the contribution of gypsum application and especially the cultivation of Atriplex plants in reducing the levels of salts in the soil.

  6. Roles of the plasma membrane and the cell wall in the responses of plant cells to freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomoyoshi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Jitsuyama, Yutaka; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2002-09-01

    In an effort to clarify the responses of a wide range of plant cells to freezing, we examined the responses to freezing of the cells of chilling-sensitive and chilling-resistant tropical and subtropical plants. Among the cells of the plants that we examined, those of African violet ( Saintpaulia grotei Engl.) leaves were most chilling-sensitive, those of hypocotyls in mungbean [ Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilcz.] seedlings were moderately chilling-sensitive, and those of orchid [ Paphiopedilum insigne (Wallich ex Lindl.) Pfitz.] leaves were chilling-resistant, when all were chilled at -2 degrees C. By contrast, all these plant cells were freezing-sensitive and suffered extensive damage when they were frozen at -2 degrees C. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) confirmed that, upon chilling at -2 degrees C, both chilling-sensitive and chilling-resistant plant cells were supercooled. Upon freezing at -2 degrees C, by contrast, intracellular freezing occurred in Saintpaulia leaf cells, frost plasmolysis followed by intracellular freezing occurred in mungbean seedling cells, and extracellular freezing (cytorrhysis) occurred in orchid leaf cells. We postulate that chilling-related destabilization of membranes might result in the loss of the ability of the plasma membrane to act as a barrier against the propagation of extracellular ice in chilling-sensitive plant cells. We also examined the role of cell walls in the response to freezing using cells in which the plasma membrane had been disrupted by repeated freezing and thawing. In chilling-sensitive Saintpaulia and mungbean cells, the cells with a disrupted plasma membrane responded to freezing at -2 degrees C by intracellular freezing. By contrast, in chilling-resistant orchid cells, as well as in other cells of chilling-resistant and freezing-resistant plant tissues, including leaves of orchard grass ( Dactylis glomerata L.), leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and cortical tissues of mulberry ( Morus

  7. Seleção de ameixeiras promissoras para a Serra da Mantiqueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano de Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A ameixeira é espécie frutífera, cultivada comercialmente em regiões de inverno ameno a rigoroso, o que torna necessária a seleção de cultivares adequados quanto à adaptação climática. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de selecionar materiais genéticos superiores, adaptados às condições edafoclimáticas da região sul de Minas Gerais, nas terras altas da Serra da Mantiqueira. As avaliações foram realizadas em cultivares de ameixeiras da espécie japonesa (Prunus salicina Lindl, 'Pretinha', 'Irati', 'Gema de Ouro', 'Reubennel', 'Roxa de Delfim Moreira', 'Gulfblaze', 'Frontier', 'Santa Rosa', e nove seleções (seleção I, seleção II, seleção III, seleção IV, seleção V, seleção VI, seleção VII, seleção VIII e seleção IX, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto 'Okinawa'. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com oito cultivares e nove seleções de ameixeira, com quatro repetições. Avaliou-se o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas, aos 18 e 24 meses após o plantio, no ciclo produtivo 2007/2008, além dos dados fenológico de brotação, florescimento, frutificação e colheita. Conclui-se que as seleções III e IX apresentaram-se como precoces, as seleções VII, VIII, 'Gema de Ouro' e 'Reubennel' apresentaram-se como de meia-estação e os cultivares 'Irati' e 'Gulfblaze' como tardios. Os cultivares Irati, Gema de Ouro e Reubennel demonstraram adaptação às condições edafoclimáticas da região das terras altas da Serra da Mantiqueira de Minas Gerais.

  8. Screening of highly-effective rhizobial strains on Alfalfa (Medicago polymorpha)in soil%南苜蓿高效共生根瘤菌土壤的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓云; 郭振国; 李乔仙; 刘桂霞; 薛世明; 王易鹏

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa ( Medicago polymorpha) is an annual herbal plant in the pea family Fabaceae, has the highest feeding value as forage for its soft and highly digestible fiber and high protein content fiber up to 24. 5%. Therefore, it recommended to cultivate widely and productively as an ideal forage plant. Inoculated with thizobia, alfalfa ( Medicago polymorpha) can formed effective symbiotic system to fix nitrogen, and subsequently produce high plant growth dry weigh. The inoculation effect on alfalfa ( Medicago polymorpha) was performed in three different type of soils from Yingjiang county of Yunnan province by using twelve distinct thizobial strains such as SWF67523, SWF67409, SWF67456, SWF67394, SWF67501 , etc. respectively which were isolated from root nodules of Medicago polymorpha , M. sativa and M. lupulina from Yingjiang and other area of Yunnan. The results showed that the thizobial nodulation rate, plant height, dry weight and total nitrogen content of plant were all increased significantly after harvested in condition that plant were inoculated with thizobia ( P<O. 05 ) , the thizobial nodulation rate are up to 98. 41% , 97. 78% , 97. 50% and 96. 56% by inoculated with strain SWF67523, SWF67501, SWF67394 and SWF67350, respectively; Contrasting to the control, the plant height increasing 40. 2% , 27. 3% and 25. 0% by SWF67523 , SWF67409 and SWF67394 respectively ; The dry weight per plant was raised up 106. 5% by inoculated with SWF67409 and raised 100. 1% , 78. 3% and 74. 3% by the other strains SWF67523, SWF67394 and HBU07001 respectively; Besides, the inoculated strains increased the nitrogen content obviously as well, the alfalfa plant have higher nitrogen content by inoculated with strain SWF67409, SWF67523 and SWF67394 than other test strains. Among 12 strains grew in three types of soils revealed by the whole production of the plant inoculation, strain SWF67523 ,SWF67409 and SWF67394 were more effective than others; Of the three

  9. Insects Carrying Damage to Plants of the Gentts Syringa%危害丁香属植物的昆虫种类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程红; 严善春

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted on insects that cause damage to 13 species (variations) of plants of the genus Syringa in Heilongjiang Forest Botanical Garden and on the Campus of two universities (Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine and Northeast Forestry. Universitv) in Harbin. At least 11 species of insects are harmful to the investigated Syringa plants. The trunk borer Phassus excrescens Butler can cause injury and damage to nine species or variations, namely S. oblata Lindl. ,S. villosa Vahl. , S. emodi, S. microphylla Diels, S. vulgaris Linn. , S. velutina Kom. , S. vu!garis dahua' , S. reticu/ara (Blume) Ham var. mandshurica (Maxim.) Hara and S. dilatata, which indicates that P. excrescens attacks an extremely wide range of host plants. The defoliator Psilogranma increta ( Walker, [ 1865 ] ) can damage S. oblata. S. villosa, S. emodi, S. microphylla Diels, S. velutina Diels Linn. and S. uudgaris ev. ‘zihong'. The phloem-sucking insect Coccurra ussuriensis (Borchs) was found only to cause damage to S. reticulata var. mandshurica. Pseudococcus comstocki ( Kuwana, 1902) ) is harmful to S reticulata var. nandshurica and S. microphylla. Lepidosaphes salicina Borchsenius can cause great damage to S. oblata, S. villosa, S. emodi, Syringa oblata Lindl. var. a/ba Hort. ex Rehd. , Syringa dilatata Nakai, Syriaga vulgaris and its variations, and occasionally can be fonnd causing damage to S. reticulata var. mandshurica. Moreover, Dendrothrips ornatus (Jablonowsky, 1894) was found to damage the leaves of Syringa spp. , two unidentified lepidopterous larvae feed on .S oblate, and two species of unidentified thrips and one species of aphid feed on .S retictdata var. mandshurica.%为了明确丁香属(Syringa spp.)植物虫害的防治对象.对黑龙江省森林植物园丁香园、黑龙江中医药大学校园、东北林业大学校园及部分家属区的绿化带内丁香属13种(变种)植物进行了整株虫害调查,系统地分析、总结了危害丁香属的

  10. 铁线莲属黄花铁线莲组修订%A revision of Clematis sect. Meclatis (Ranunculaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文采

    2006-01-01

    Clematis sect. Meclatis is revised in this paper. Brief taxonomic history and geographical distribution of the section are given, its systematic position and the relationships among the species are discussed, and the evolutionary trends of some characters in the section are evaluated. Clematis akebioides (Maxim.) Veitch and C. tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh. are considered the primitive species in the section, whereas C. caudigera W. T. Wang and C. corniculata W. T. Wang are considered the advanced ones. The western edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) plateau with the Pamirs and the adjacent mountains, the highest land mass in the world, where 10 species of the section are concentrated, is regarded as the distribution center, and the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) plateau, where the two primitive species, C. akebioides and C. tangutica, sympatrically occur, may be the center of origin of the section. The inclusion of C. ispahanica Boiss. and C. graveolens Lindl. in sect. Meclatis by some authors is not accepted, with the former being a member of sect. Clematis, and the latter a member of sect. Brachiatae Snoeijer. A new variety, C. intricata Bunge var. intrapuberula W. T. Wang, is described, and two new combinations, C. tangutica var. mongolica (Grey-Wilson) W. T. Wang and C. tibetana Kuntze var. pamiralaica (Grey-Wilson) W. T. Wang, is proposed. As a result, 13 species and 13 varieties are recognized in sect. Meclatis. They are keyed, described, and illustrated.%对毛茛科铁线莲属Clematis的黄花铁线莲组sect. Meclatis进行了全面修订, 确定此属含13种和13变种(包括1新变种和2新变种等级);写出了此组的分类学简史和地理分布, 并对其在铁线莲属中的系统位置和组内诸种的亲缘关系进行了讨论;还写出了此组的分种、分变种检索表, 以及各种植物的形态描述、地理分布、生长环境等, 并附有各种的插图.此组的花构造与对枝铁线莲组sect. Brachiatae

  11. Effect of PGPR Fertilizer on Biological Characteristics in Cerasus pseudocerasus Rhizosphere%PGPR生物肥对甜樱桃(Cerasus pseudocerasus)根际土壤生物学特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方春; 邢尚军; 马海林; 杜振宇; 马丙尧; 陈波; 杜秉海

    2012-01-01

    利用保绿法和萝卜子叶增重法从7年生甜樱桃[Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.)G.Don]根际土壤中,筛选具有促生作用的植物根际促生细菌YT-3(PGPR),以发酵好的鸡粪(DCM)为吸附载体制成甜樱桃专用的PGPR生物肥料(YMF),对比研究了YMF、普通生物肥(NMF)和DCM对樱桃根系和根际土壤生物学特征的影响.结果表明:YMF显著增加了根际土壤中细菌数量和微生物总量,真菌数量明显减少,但对放线菌数量影响差异不显著.YMF处理根系活力分别比NMF、DCM和CK提高了22.49%、13.25%和15.33%.PGPR生物肥料对樱桃根系生长和构建影响显著,YMF处理0~40 cm土壤剖面中根系重量尤其是毛细根重量显著增加,同NMF处理相比,YMF处理根际土壤的pH降低8.61%,阳离子代换能力显著提高.此外,YMF处理显著增加了根际土壤中养分离子的有效性,速效磷和有效钾含量分别增加17.21%和9.56%,但碱解氮含量差异不显著.因此,PGPR生物肥的施用在一定程度上改善了根际土壤的生态环境,提高了根际土壤中养分离子的有效性和养分保持能力,提高了根系活力,促进了表层土壤中(主要为0~40 cm)根系尤其是毛细根的生长.%The aim of this research was to determine the effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) fertilizer on the biological characteristics, root activity, growth and construction of Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.) G. Don (sweet cherry). To prepare sweet cherry biological-fertilizer (YMF), dominant bacteria YT-3, a type of PGPR, was extracted from rhizosphere soil of C. pseudocerasus trees by keeping green method and radish cotyledon weight increase method. Sweet cherry biological-fertilizer was prepared by compounding YT-3 and decomposed chicken manure (DCM). The effects of YMF, normal biological fertilizer (NMF) and DCM on biological characteristics of C. pseudocerasus rhizosphere soil were studied in Yiyuan sweet cherry orchards. And the

  12. РОЛЬ Н.И. ВАВИЛОВА В СОЗДАНИИ КОЛЛЕКЦИИ ГЕНЕТИЧЕСКИХ РЕСУРСОВ ЗЕРНОБОБОВЫХ КУЛЬТУР

    OpenAIRE

    Вишнякова, М.

    2012-01-01

    Проанализировано значение вклада Н.И. Вавилова в создание коллекции зернобобовых ВИР (Всероссийский НИИ растениеводства). Проанализировано значение вклада а роль Н.И. Вавилова в основание и созданииумножение коллекции генетических ресурсов зернобобовых культур ВИР (Всероссийский НИИ растениеводства). Семейство Бобовые (Fabaceae Lindl.) включает — важнойые в хозяйственном отношении группы культуры — продовольственные, кормовые, декоративные, технические, а также растений, используемые мых в ка...

  13. Ignition on the National Ignition Facility: a path towards inertial fusion energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Edward I.

    2009-10-01

    the world's attention on the possibility of an ICF energy option. NIF experiments to demonstrate ignition and gain will use central-hot-spot (CHS) ignition, where a spherical fuel capsule is simultaneously compressed and ignited. The scientific basis for CHS has been intensively developed (Lindl 1998 Inertial Confinement Fusion: the Quest for Ignition and Energy Gain Using Indirect Drive (New York: American Institute of Physics)) and has a high probability of success. Achieving ignition with CHS will open the door for other advanced concepts, such as the use of high-yield pulses of visible wavelength rather than ultraviolet and fast ignition concepts (Tabak et al 1994 Phys. Plasmas 1 1626-34, Tabak et al 2005 Phys. Plasmas 12 057305). Moreover, NIF will have important scientific applications in such diverse fields as astrophysics, nuclear physics and materials science. This paper summarizes the design, performance and status of NIF, experimental plans for NIC, and will present laser inertial confinement fusion-fission energy (LIFE) as a path to achieve carbon-free sustainable energy.

  14. Ignition on the National Ignition Facility: a path towards inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the world's attention on the possibility of an ICF energy option. NIF experiments to demonstrate ignition and gain will use central-hot-spot (CHS) ignition, where a spherical fuel capsule is simultaneously compressed and ignited. The scientific basis for CHS has been intensively developed (Lindl 1998 Inertial Confinement Fusion: the Quest for Ignition and Energy Gain Using Indirect Drive (New York: American Institute of Physics)) and has a high probability of success. Achieving ignition with CHS will open the door for other advanced concepts, such as the use of high-yield pulses of visible wavelength rather than ultraviolet and fast ignition concepts (Tabak et al 1994 Phys. Plasmas 1 1626-34, Tabak et al 2005 Phys. Plasmas 12 057305). Moreover, NIF will have important scientific applications in such diverse fields as astrophysics, nuclear physics and materials science. This paper summarizes the design, performance and status of NIF, experimental plans for NIC, and will present laser inertial confinement fusion-fission energy (LIFE) as a path to achieve carbon-free sustainable energy.

  15. 不同浓度1-MCP处理对采后油(木奈)果实的保鲜效应%Effects of Different Concentrations of 1-MCP Treatments on Freshness of Harvested Younai Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 林河通; 袁芳; 林艺芬; 陈艺晖

    2012-01-01

    探讨了不同浓度1-MCP处理对采后油(木奈)果实保鲜效应的影响.采后油榇果实分别用0、0.3、0.6、0.9和1.2 μL/L的1-MCP处理12h后,在(25±1)℃下贮藏.贮藏期间测定果实呼吸强度、细胞膜相对渗透率、果实表面色调角h.和果皮叶绿素含量、果实硬度、可溶性固形物和可滴定酸含量、果实好果率、失重率及感官品质等指标的变化.结果表明:与对照果实相比,1 -MCP处理都可降低油(木奈)果实呼吸强度和呼吸峰值,延缓果实细胞膜相对渗透率升高,抑制果实表面色调角h°下降,保持较高的果实硬度、可滴定酸和果皮叶绿素含量,延迟果实外观颜色转变,减少果实失重和腐烂;其中1.2 μL/L 1-MCP处理12h的保鲜效果最佳,在(25±1)℃下贮藏20 d时,果实好果率达87%,果实仍保持鲜绿色、果肉质地脆硬、果实酸甜适口、香气浓郁.%Effects of different concentrations of 1-MCP on freshness of harvested Younai ( Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Younai)fruits were investigated. The harvested fruits were treated with 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1. 2 μ L/L 1-MCP for 12 h, respectively, and then stored at (25 ± 1)℃. During storage, the changes of respiration rate and cell membrane relative leakage rate of fruits, hue angle(h°) value of fruit surface, content of pericarp chlorophyll, fruit firmness, contents of total soluble solids and titratable acid of fruit, healthy fruit percentage, weight loss and organoleptic evaluation of quality of fruit were determined. The results showed that compared with the control fruits, the treatments with 1-MCP lowered respiration rate and respiratory peak, delayed the increase of cell membrane relative leakage rate , inhibited the decrease of hue angle(h°) value of fruit surface, kept higher fruit firmness, and kept higher contents of titratable acid in fruit and chlorophyll in pericarp, retarded the change of apparent color of fruit, and decreased fruit weight loss and fruit

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Inertial confinement fusion: The quest for ignition and energy gain using indirect drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1999-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an alternative way to control fusion which is based on scaling down a thermonuclear explosion to a small size, applicable for power production, a kind of thermonuclear internal combustion engine. This book extends many interesting topics concerning the research and development on ICF of the last 25 years. It provides a systematic development of the physics basis and also various experimental data on radiation driven implosion. This is a landmark treatise presented at the right time. It is based on the article ``Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain'' by J.D. Lindl, published in Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, November 1995, pp. 3933-4024. As is well known, in the United States of America research on the target physics basis for indirect drive remained largely classified until 1994. The indirect drive approaches were closely related to nuclear weapons research at Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories. In Japan and other countries, inertial confinement fusion research for civil energy has been successfully performed to achieve DT fuel pellet compression up to 1000 times normal density, and indirect drive concepts, such as the `Cannon Ball' scheme, also prevailed at several international conferences. In these circumstances the international fusion community proposed the Madrid Manifesto in 1988, which urged openness of ICF information to promote international collaboration on civil energy research for the future resources of the human race. This proposal was also supported by some of the US scientists. The United States Department of Energy revised its classification guidelines for ICF six years after the Madrid Manifesto. This first book from the USA treating target physics issues, covering topics from implosion dynamics to hydrodynamic stability, ignition physics, high-gain target design and the scope for energy applications is

  17. Isotopic cycling in a tropical treeline environment: North American monsoon dynamics at Nevado de Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsough, Peter Christopher

    High elevation sites are especially sensitive to environmental change. One way to get a longer perspective on global change in mountain regions is paleoenvironmental records from tree rings. Data on the response of high elevation species to climatic events is sparse and records used for reconstruction often necessarily come from lower elevation, higher latitude stations. We have set up a unique field site where we are co-monitoring tree growth and weather in real time. In May 2001 we established a monitoring site at 3770m (12,370ft) on Nevado de Colima (19° 34.8'N, 103° 37.3'W) at the western end of the trans-volcanic belt in Southwestern Mexico. The monitoring site consists of an automated weather station and two dendrometer networks for the simultaneous measurement of climate and tree growth parameters. Although we have experienced several equipment setbacks due to the challenging environment, important results relating to growth dynamics and response to climate have surfaced. This field site, near the edge of the tropics, is an important monitoring location for both intra and extra tropical circulation systems. Historical records in the area are of short duration (less than 60 years) so determining the nature of decadal or longer scale fluctuations requires the use of proxy records. Mexican Mountain Pines (Pinus hartwegii Lindl.) growing on Nevado de Colima are under the influence of several large-scale climate features---most notably the North American Monsoon and ENSO. Dendrochronology studies in the region have shown a sensitivity of tree growth to warm season precipitation. The North American Monsoon is still a poorly understood system and an historical perspective is needed for increased confidence in predictive models and forecasting. Careful measurement of tree growth over the five years of the project has led to a clearly defined dormant period over the relatively arid winter. Dendrometer data have shown onset of growth to be closely tied to soil

  18. Cost-effective and environmentally friendly options to improve livestock performance in dry areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruminant production is the main source of income for rural population living in dry areas. The lack of adequate year-round feed resources is the most important factor contributing to the low productive and reproductive performances of the farm animals. Rangeland degradation, increasing use of some concentrate feeds in biofuel industry, global warming, recent leap in the prices of concentrate feeds and the international economical crisis are seriously threatening the sustainability of livestock-based production systems. Some promising cost-effective and environmentally friendly options, which could overcome this situation, are discussed in this paper. Rumen manipulation with secondary compounds - The possible use of natural plant products as a growth promoter provides cheaper, safer and more consumer acceptable alternatives to synthetic compounds. Recent studies showed that the association of a small amount of a tanniniferous legume shrub, i.e. Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., with soya bean meal (SBM) resulted in a significant increase in daily gain of lambs (67 vs. 43 g/d) on oaten hay. This effect was obtained when total tannins to dietary protein ratio averaged 0.021 and SBM (200 g/d) was distributed immediately after the entire consumption of the Acacia leaves (100 g/d) by animals. Sulla (Hedysarum coronarium), a mediterranean legume, contains a moderate level of condensed tannins (CT) and is relatively high in crude protein. Due to these characteristics, sulla grazing lambs grew better (150 vs. 110 g/d) than those on the same pasture but drenched with polyethylene glycol, a tannin deactivating reagent. The presence of gastrointestinal parasites (GIP) in ruminants decreases mainly protein utilization. This results in decreased growth of ruminants harbouring high number of parasites. Recent studies showed that the incorporation of CT-containing feedstuffs in the diet reduce GIP. Tannins might interfere directly with the biology of various nematode stages and they

  19. 九种蔷薇科植物叶片的傅里叶红外光谱与亲缘关系分析%Analysis of Leave FTIR of Nine Kinds of Plants from Rosaceae with Genetic Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱璐; 李晓勇; 刘鹏; 范树国; 谢美华; 刘仁明; 周林宗; 王静

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of nine kinds of plants from three subfamily of Rosaceae were used as materials .Genetic relationship was ana-lyzed and species were identified through studying FTIR of nine kinds of plants .Leaves mainly contain large amounts of carbohy-drates ,proteins ,lipids ,nucleic acids and other substances .The peaks of carbohydrates are mainly between 1 440 and 775 cm -1 . The vibration peaks of the cellulose and lignin are between 1 440 and 1 337 cm -1 .The peaks between 1 000 and 775 cm -1 are stretching vibration of ribose .The vibration peaks of protein are between 1 620 and 1 235 cm-1 .The peak at 1 620 cm -1 is sen-sitive to CO stretching vibration of protein amide Ⅰ .The peak at 1 523 cm -1 is assigned to N -H and C-N stretching vi-bration of protein amide Ⅱ .Peaks of lipids mainly appeared between 2 930 and 1 380 cm-1 .The peak at 2 922 cm -1 is CH2 stretching vibration of fat .The peak at 1 732 cm-1 is CO stretching vibration of fatty acids .The mark peak of the nucleic acid appears in the region between 1 250 and 1 000 cm -1 .The peak at 1 068 cm -1 is due to the symmetric stretching vibration of PO2 - group of the phosphodiester-deoxyribose backbone ,and the peak at 1 246 cm -1 is associated to the asymmetric stretch vi-bration of PO2 - group .The results showed that the cluster model is established by smoothing ,standardizing ,the second deriva-tive ,principal component analysis and Hierarchical cluster analysis .It is accordant with the traditional classification .The result of cluster shows that Prunus armeniaca L .and Prunus seudocerasus Lindl .were clustered into one (Prunoideae) . Potentilla fulgens Wall.Rosachinensis Jacdand Fragaria ananassa Duchesnevar.were clustered into the second(Rosoideae).Pyracan-tha fortuneana Li ,Malus pumila Mill .Eriobotrya bengalensis Hook .f .and Malus hallianna Koehne were clustered into the third (Pomoideae) .The correct rate of cluster at subfamily is 100% .The correct rate of cluster at genus is 55.56% .The

  20. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-03-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 150 ha at altitude of 1,320 m. The Zagros collection has about 3-ha area and it has been designed for showing a small pattern of natural Zagros forests in west of Iran. Brant's oak (Q. brantii) and oak manna tree (Q. infectoria) are the main woody species in Zagros collection, which have been planted in 1989. A nematological survey on Zagros forest collection in NBGI revealed heavily infection of 24-yr-old Q. brantii and Q. infectoria to RKN, Meloidogyne hapla. The roots contained prominent galls along with egg sac on the surface of each gall. The galls were relatively small and in some parts of root several galls were conjugated, and all galls contained large transparent egg masses. The identification of M. hapla was confirmed by morphological and morphometric characters and amplification of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene. The obtained sequences of large-subunit rRNA gene from M. hapla was submitted to the GenBank database under the accession number KP319025. The sequence was compared with those of M. hapla deposited in GenBank using the BLAST homology search program and showed 99% similarity with those KJ755183, GQ130139, DQ328685, and KJ645428. The second stage juveniles of M. hapla isolated from Brant's oak (Q. Brantii) showed the following morphometric characters: (n = 12), L = 394 ± 39.3 (348 to 450) µm; a = 30.9 ± 4 (24.4 to 37.6); b = 4.6 ± 0.44 (4 to 5.1); b΄ = 3.3 ± 0.3 (2.7 to 3.7), c = 8.0 ± 1 (6.2 to 10.3), ć = 5.3 ± 0.8 (3.5 to 6.3); Stylet = 12

  1. 熊果酸和齐墩果酸在枇杷叶枇杷花中的分布及动态变化%Distribution of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid in the Leaves and Flowers of Erobotrya japonica and Changes of Triterpene Acids Contents in the Leaves at Different Harvest Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圣龙; 谢晓梅; 程菁菁; 沈盼盼

    2013-01-01

    目的 考察熊果酸(UA)、齐墩果酸(OA)在枇杷落叶、树叶和枇杷花中的分布,并探索其在枇杷叶中含量的动态变化规律.方法 采用超高效液相色谱法(UPLC)测定熊果酸和齐墩果酸含量,色谱柱为Acquity BEH C1s (2.1 mm×100 mm,1.7μm);流动相为甲醇-水-冰醋酸三乙胺(体积比为250∶ 50∶0.10∶0.05),流速:0.25 mL·min-1;检测波长210 nm,柱温25℃.结果 熊果酸和齐墩果酸在枇杷叶中含量显著高于枇杷花;落叶中熊果酸和齐墩果酸的含量高于树叶;一年里每个月采摘的枇杷叶中熊果酸和齐墩果酸的总含量变化范围在0.874% ~0.988%.结论 熊果酸和齐墩果酸在枇杷花、枇杷树叶和落叶中有不同的含量分布;不同采收时期枇杷叶中两个三萜酸总量随月份发生小幅波动,该波动主要来源熊果酸;研究结果支持2010年版《中国药典》对枇杷叶“全年均可采收”的规定;同时提示枇杷叶采收在自然落叶前后为佳.%OBJECTIVE To find out the distribution of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid in fresh leaves, fallen leaves and flowers of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl, and to explore the variation in contents of the triterpene acids in the leaves at different harvest time. METHODS Samples were collected in the campus once every month for 12 months. Determination of ursolic and oleanolic acid was carried out by ultra-high performance liquid cromatography (UPLC) with an acquity BEH C18 column(2. 1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μn) using methanol-water-glacial acetic acid-triethylamine(250:50: 0.10:0. 05) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0. 25 mL · min-1. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm. RESULTS The contents of ursolic and oleanolic acids in Erobotrya japonica leaves were significantly higher compared with those in Erobotrya japonica flowers. The contents of the two triterpene acids in the fallen leaves were higher than those in the fresh leaves. The annual curves of dynamic

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Inertial confinement fusion: The quest for ignition and energy gain using indirect drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1999-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an alternative way to control fusion which is based on scaling down a thermonuclear explosion to a small size, applicable for power production, a kind of thermonuclear internal combustion engine. This book extends many interesting topics concerning the research and development on ICF of the last 25 years. It provides a systematic development of the physics basis and also various experimental data on radiation driven implosion. This is a landmark treatise presented at the right time. It is based on the article ``Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain'' by J.D. Lindl, published in Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, November 1995, pp. 3933-4024. As is well known, in the United States of America research on the target physics basis for indirect drive remained largely classified until 1994. The indirect drive approaches were closely related to nuclear weapons research at Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories. In Japan and other countries, inertial confinement fusion research for civil energy has been successfully performed to achieve DT fuel pellet compression up to 1000 times normal density, and indirect drive concepts, such as the `Cannon Ball' scheme, also prevailed at several international conferences. In these circumstances the international fusion community proposed the Madrid Manifesto in 1988, which urged openness of ICF information to promote international collaboration on civil energy research for the future resources of the human race. This proposal was also supported by some of the US scientists. The United States Department of Energy revised its classification guidelines for ICF six years after the Madrid Manifesto. This first book from the USA treating target physics issues, covering topics from implosion dynamics to hydrodynamic stability, ignition physics, high-gain target design and the scope for energy applications is

  3. Exon Deletion Pattern in Duchene Muscular Dystrophy in North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BARZEGAR

    2015-01-01

    correlations of deletions leading to Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. Neurology 1989; 39(4:465-474.Koenig M1, Beggs AH, Moyer M, Scherpf S, Heindrich K, Bettecken T, Meng G, Müller CR, Lindlöf M, Kaariainen H, et al. The molecular basis for Duchenne versus Becker muscular dystrophy: correlation of severity with type of deletion. Am J Hum Genet 1989; 45(4:498-506.Helderman-van den E, Straathof CSM, Aartsma A, Dendunnen JT, Verbist BM, Bakker E, Verschuuren JJJM, Ginjaar HB. Becker muscular dystrophy patients with deletions around exon 51; a promising outlook for exon skipping therapy in Duchenne patients. Neuromuscular disorders 2010; 20:251-254.   Artsma-Rus A, Fokkema I, Verschuuren J, Ginjaar L, Deutekom GV, Ommen GJV et al. Theoretic applicability of antisense-mediated exon skipping for duchenne muscular dystrophy mutations. hummutat 2009; 30:293-9.Van Deutekom JC, Janson AA, Ginjaar LB, Frankhuizen WS, Artsma-Rus A, Bremmer-Bout Mattie et al. Local dystrophin restoration with antisense oligonucleotide PRO051. N Engl Med 2007; 357:2677-86.