WorldWideScience

Sample records for bark beetle species

  1. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  2. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

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    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  3. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

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    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization.

  4. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground bark beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jun; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    the Great Lakes region. Here we examine the impact of two bark beetle groups, red turpentine beetles and pine engraver bark beetles, on tree mortality and the subsequent gap formation over time in a plantation in Wisconsin. We construct spatial-temporal statistical models that quantify the relations among...

  5. The Banded Elm Bark Beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae in North America: a taxonomic review and modifications to the Wood (1982 key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy in North and Central America

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    James LaBonte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, an Asian bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, the banded elm bark beetle, was detected for the first time in North America. This paper modifies the Wood (1982 key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy to enable identification of S. schevyrewi in North and Central America. Variation of diagnostic characters in S. schevyrewi is discussed.

  6. The Banded Elm Bark Beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America: a taxonomic review and modifications to the Wood (1982) key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy in North and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    James LaBonte

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In 2003, an Asian bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), the banded elm bark beetle, was detected for the first time in North America. This paper modifies the Wood (1982) key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy to enable identification of Scolytus schevyrewi in North and Central America. Variation of diagnostic characters in Scolytus schevyrewi is discussed.

  7. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  8. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

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    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  9. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

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    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  10. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

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    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  11. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

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    Davide Rassati

    Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall, forest (cover area, composition, geographical (distance, and human-related (import variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have

  12. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

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    Rassati, Davide; Faccoli, Massimo; Haack, Robert A; Rabaglia, Robert J; Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Battisti, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall), forest (cover area, composition), geographical (distance), and human-related (import) variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have on climate

  13. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassati, Davide; Faccoli, Massimo; Haack, Robert A.; Rabaglia, Robert J.; Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Battisti, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall), forest (cover area, composition), geographical (distance), and human-related (import) variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have on climate

  14. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

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    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. PMID:27387908

  15. Associations of Conifer-Infesting Bark Beetles and Fungi in Fennoscandia

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    Michael J. Wingfield

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae have a widespread association with fungi, especially with ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota that cause blue staining of wood, and in some cases, serious tree diseases. In Fennoscandia, most studies of these fungi have focused on economically important bark beetle species and this is likely to have led to a biased view of the fungal biodiversity in the region. Recently, the associations between fungi and bark beetles in Fennoscandia have been shown to be more diverse than previously thought. Furthermore, they form complex and dynamic associations that are only now beginning to emerge. This review examines the current knowledge of the rather poorly known interactions between bark beetles, fungi and their conifer host trees in Fennoscandia. The diversity of ophiostomatoid species is discussed and the possible factors that influence the assemblages of fungal associates are considered for all species that are known to occur in the region. For many ophiostomatoid species found in Fennoscandia, little or nothing is known regarding their pathogenicity, particularly if they were to be transferred to new environments. We, therefore, draw attention to the possible threats of timber trade and climate change-induced invasions of new habitats by bark beetles and the fungi that can be moved along with them.

  16. Are bark beetles chewing up our forests? What about our coffee?

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    A write-up for the Elsevier SciTech Connect blog on the recently published book entitled "Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species," edited by Fernando E. Vega and Richard W. Hofstetter. The book was published by Academic Press in January 2015....

  17. Resin duct characteristics associated with tree resistance to bark beetles across lodgepole and limber pines.

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    Ferrenberg, Scott; Kane, Jeffrey M; Mitton, Jeffry B

    2014-04-01

    Bark beetles have recently killed billions of trees, yet conifer defenses are formidable and some trees resist attack. A primary anti-insect defense of pines is oleoresin from a system of resin ducts throughout the tree. Resin defense traits are heritable, and evidence suggests that resin duct characteristics are associated with resistance to insects. However, comparisons of resin ducts in trees killed by bark beetles to trees that resisted attack are unavailable. We compared vertical resin duct characteristics (number, density, and size) and growth rates from trees that were "resistant" (survived mass attack) versus "susceptible" (killed by attack) to bark beetles in lodgepole (Pinus contorta) and limber (Pinus flexilis) pines. Resistant trees of both species had significantly more resin ducts in recent growth than susceptible trees. Discriminant analysis (DA) correctly categorized 84% of lodgepole and 92% of limber pines as susceptible/resistant based on combinations of resin duct and growth characteristics from recent 5- through 20-year growth intervals. DA models using measures from only the most recent 5 years of growth correctly categorized 72 and 81% of lodgepole and limber pines, respectively. Comparing resistant to susceptible trees independent of species identity led to the correct categorization of 82% of trees based on factors from 5- to 20-year intervals, and 73% of trees using only resin duct counts from the most recent 5 years. We conclude that resin duct characteristics can be used to assess tree resistance to bark beetles across pine species, and offer a metric for management to enhance pest resistance.

  18. Predisposition to bark beetle attack by root herbivores and associated pathogens: Roles in forest decline, gap formation, and persistence of endemic bark beetle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aukema, Brian H.; Zhu, Jun; Møller, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    , in that the proportion of killed trees that were not first colonized by root organisms increases. This positive feedback is very weak, however, and we propose the slope between beetle population density and reliance on host stress as a quantitative distinction along a gradient from noneruptive through eruptive species...... within the primary stem, root weevils that breed in root collars, and bark beetles that breed in basal stems. We quantify the sequence of events that drive this decline syndrome, with the primary emergent pattern being an interaction between below- and above-ground herbivores and their fungal symbionts...

  19. Erwinia typographi sp. nov., isolated from bark beetle (Ips typographus) gut.

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    Skrodenyte-Arbaciauskiene, V; Radziute, S; Stunzenas, V; Būda, V

    2012-04-01

    Gram-negative-staining bacteria that were resistant to monoterpene myrcene (7-methyl-3-methylene-1.6-octadiene, C10H16, at concentrations of up to 10 µl ml(-1) in TSB) were isolated from the gut contents of adult bark beetles Ips typographus (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). The beetles were collected from the bark of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Lithuania. Bark beetles feed on conifers, which produce myrcene among many other defensive compounds. It has been suggested that the micro-organisms present within the beetles' guts could be involved in their resistance towards this plant defensive compound. The most resistant bacterial strains were isolated and characterized by phenotypic assays as well as fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) based on the rpoB, atpD and infB genes and DNA-DNA hybridization. Biochemical characterization indicated that the bacteria belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences and MLSA of the novel strains revealed that they belonged to the genus Erwinia, but represented a novel species. The dominant cellular fatty acids were C16:0 and C17:0 cyclo. The DNA G+C content was 49.1 mol%. The results obtained in this study indicated that these bacteria from the bark beetle gut represented a novel species, for which the name Erwinia typographi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DSM 22678T (=Y1T=LMG 25347T).

  20. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

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    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported. PMID:27470760

  1. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported.

  2. Linking Increasing Drought Stress to Scots Pine Mortality and Bark Beetle Infestations

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    Matthias Dobbertin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dry Swiss Rhone Valley, Scots pine forests have experienced increased mortality in recent years. It has commonly been assumed that drought events and bark beetles fostered the decline, however, whether bark beetle outbreaks increased in recent years and whether they can be linked to drought stress or increasing temperature has never been studied.

  3. Bark beetles and pinhole borers (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, Platypodinae alien to Europe

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    Lawrence Kirkendall

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive bark beetles are posing a major threat to forest resources around the world. DAISIE’s web-based and printed databases of invasive species in Europe provide an incomplete and misleading picture of the alien scolytines and platypodines. We present a review of the alien bark beetle fauna of Europe based on primary literature through 2009. We find that there are 18 Scolytinae and one Platypodinae species apparently established in Europe, from 14 different genera. Seventeen species are naturalized. We argue that Trypodendron laeve, commonly considered alien in Europe, is a native species; conversely, we hypothesize that Xyleborus pfeilii, which has always been treated as indigenous, is an alien species from Asia. We also point out the possibility that the Asian larch bark beetle Ips subelongatus is established in European Russia. We show that there has been a marked acceleration in the rate of new introductions to Europe, as is also happening in North America: seven alien species were first recorded in the last decade. We present information on the biology, origins, and distributions of the alien species. All but four are polyphagous, and 11 are inbreeders: two traits which increase invasiveness. Eleven species are native to Asia, six to the Americas, and one is from the Canary Islands. The Mediterranean is especially favorable for invasives, hosting a large proportion of the aliens (8/18. Italy, Spain and France have the largest numbers of alien species (15, 10 and 7 respectively. We point out that the low numbers for at least some countries is likely due to under-reporting. Finally, we discuss the difficulties associated with identifying newly invasive species. Lack of good illustrations and keys hinder identification, particularly for species coming from Asia and Oceania.

  4. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

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    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization. METHODS: To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark. RESULTS: Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  5. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts.

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    Cale, Jonathan A; Collignon, R Maxwell; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Kanekar, Sanat S; Hussain, Altaf; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs) help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle's fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success. PMID:27583519

  6. Host-Tree Monoterpenes and Biosynthesis of Aggregation Pheromones in the Bark Beetle Ips paraconfusus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm developed in the 1970s that Ips bark beetles biosynthesize their aggregation pheromone components ipsenol and ipsdienol by hydroxylating myrcene, a host tree monoterpene. Similarly, host α-pinene was hydroxylated to a third pheromone component cis-verbenol. In 1990, however, we reported that amounts of ipsenol and ipsdienol produced by male Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae feeding in five host pine species were nearly the same, even though no detectable myrcene precursor was detected in one of these pines (Pinus sabiniana. Subsequent research showed ipsenol and ipsdienol are also biosynthesized from smaller precursors such as acetate and mevalonate, and this de novo pathway is the major one, while host tree myrcene conversion by the beetle is the minor one. We report concentrations of myrcene, α-pinene and other major monoterpenes in five pine hosts (Pinus ponderosa, P. lambertiana, P. jeffreyi, P. sabiniana, and P. contorta of I. paraconfusus. A scheme for biosynthesis of ipsdienol and ipsenol from myrcene and possible metabolites such as ipsenone is presented. Mass spectra and quantities of ipsenone are reported and its possible role in biosynthesis of aggregation pheromone. Coevolution of bark beetles and host trees is discussed in relation to pheromone biosynthesis, host plant selection/suitability, and plant resistance.

  7. Mechanisms of Odor Coding in Coniferous Bark Beetles: From Neuron to Behavior and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Andersson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coniferous bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae locate their hosts by means of olfactory signals, such as pheromone, host, and nonhost compounds. Behavioral responses to these volatiles are well documented. However, apart from the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs detecting pheromones, information on the peripheral olfactory physiology has for a long time been limited. Recently, however, comprehensive studies on the ORNs of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, were conducted. Several new classes of ORNs were described and odor encoding mechanisms were investigated. In particular, links between behavioral responses and ORN responses were established, allowing for a more profound understanding of bark beetle olfaction. This paper reviews the physiology of bark beetle ORNs. Special focus is on I. typographus, for which the available physiological data can be put into a behavioral context. In addition, some recent field studies and possible applications, related to the physiological studies, are summarized and discussed.

  8. Semiochemical Diversity in Practice: Antiattractant Semiochemicals Reduce Bark Beetle Attacks on Standing Trees—A First Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Schlyter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of tree mortality caused by bark beetle attacks is not only important for forestry, but also essential for the preservation of biodiversity and forest carbon sinks in the face of climate change. While bark beetle mass trapping (a “pull” approach is implemented in practice, few studies exist to estimate its effect. The more complex “push-pull” tactic has, in contrast, been repeatedly tested during the last decade. I analysed published data from 32 experiments in 9 papers published during 2000–2011 on Ips typographus and Dendroctonus ponderosae, to test if there was an overall effect of antiattractant semiochemicals, that is, if treatments reduced the number of attacks on standing trees at the habitat or stand scale. This meta-analysis showed a substantial overall effect size (treatment-control means divided by their SD of −0.96, with some heterogeneity but little evidence of publication bias. There was no effect of beetle species or publication year. Heterogeneity resulted from different designs and beetle population levels (as year of study. The conventional “% Reduction” measure correlated well with effect size (2=0.7. Recommendations include more precise reporting of responses (avoiding dichotomous data, more unified experimental designs, and further meta-analyses that include “grey literature” and more beetle species.

  9. Using lake sediment records to reconstruct bark beetle disturbances in western North America

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    Jesse Lee Morris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of native bark beetles in western North America is unprecedented in severity and scale, at least during the historical period. The aim of this work is to develop a proxy-based methodology to understand how bark beetle disturbances are recorded in lake sediments. Three hypotheses are tested to determine how the ecological impacts of severe spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis disturbances are recorded following mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii. Outbreaks are hypothesized to: (1 decrease the ratio of spruce to fir pollen; (2 increase soil erosion and mobilize terrestrial C; and (3 leach foliar N, enhancing algal productivity. To test these hypotheses, sediment cores from spruce beetle-affected basins were analyzed for pollen, insect remains, organic and minerogenic content, and isotopic and elemental concentrations. The dataset was tested statistically using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs to determine if the response variables differed significantly between outbreak and non-outbreak periods. 

  10. Recent bark beetle outbreaks have little impact on streamflow in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinski, Kimberly M.; Hogue, Terri S.; Porter, Aaron T.; McCray, John E.

    2016-07-01

    In the Western United States (US), the current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected more than five million hectares since its start in 1996, including headwater catchments that supply water to much of the Western US. There is widespread concern that the hydrologic consequences of the extensive pine tree die-off will impact water supply across the Western US. While forest disturbance studies have shown that streamflow increases in response to tree harvest, the actual effect of bark beetle infestations on water supply remains widely debated. The current study evaluates watershed-level response following bark beetle outbreak for 33 watersheds in seven western states. Streamflow records were investigated to assess whether the timing and amount of stream discharge during bark beetle outbreak and early recovery periods were significantly different to pre-outbreak conditions. Results show no significant modification in peak flows or average daily streamflow following bark beetle infestation, and that climate variability may be a stronger driver of streamflow patterns and snowmelt timing than chronic forest disturbance.

  11. The Response of Subalpine Vegetation to Climate Change and Bark Beetle Infestations: A Multi-Scale Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, A.; Shuman, J. K.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Negrón, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mean annual temperatures in the western United States have increased in the last few decades, and are predicted to continue warming. In the subalpine zone of the Rocky Mountains, this warming is also predicted to increase the frequency and severity of spruce beetle outbreaks. Climate change itself may affect this vegetation, potentially leading to shifts in species compositions. These forests are a crucial part of the US's carbon budget, thus it is important to analyze how climate change and bark beetles in conjunction will affect the biomass and species composition of vegetation in subalpine zone. UVAFME is an individual-based gap model that simulates biomass and species composition of a forest. This model has been quantitatively tested at various Rocky Mountain sites in the Front Range, and has been shown to accurately simulate the vegetation dynamics in the region. UVAFME has been updated with a spruce beetle subroutine that calculates the probability for beetle infestation of each tree on a plot. This probability is based on site, climate, and individual tree characteristics, such as temperature; stand structure; and tree stress level, size, and age. These governing characteristics are based on data from the US Forest Service, and other studies on spruce susceptibility and spruce beetle phenology. UVAFME is then run with multiple climate change and beetle scenarios to determine the net effect of both variables on subalpine vegetation. These results are compared among the different scenarios and to current forest inventory data. We project that increasing temperatures due to climate change will cause an increase in the frequency and severity of spruce beetle outbreaks, leading to a decrease in the biomass and dominance of Engelmann spruce. These results are an important step in understanding the possible futures for the vegetation of subalpine zone in the Rocky Mountains.

  12. Contrasting Patterns of Diterpene Acid Induction by Red Pine and White Spruce to Simulated Bark Beetle Attack, and Interspecific Differences in Sensitivity Among Fungal Associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Charles J; Klepzig, Kier D; Kopper, Brian J; Kersten, Philip J; Illman, Barbara L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-06-01

    Conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle - fungal complexes. These defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. Studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. We assessed induction of diterpene acids in white spruce (Picea glauca) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) to fungal associates of two bark beetles, and the responses of four spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis)-associated fungi to three diterpene acids. Constitutive phloem contents differed between species, in that red pine had extremely low concentrations of diterpene acids, whereas white spruce had substantial constitutive levels. Induction differed quantitatively. Both red pine and white spruce exhibited marked increases, but red pine underwent greater increases and achieved higher concentrations than white spruce. Induction also differed qualitatively in that red pine showed lower diversity and fewer compositional changes during induction than white spruce. In red pine,fungal inoculation accompanying wounding elicited greater increases than wounding alone, but in white spruce total concentrations were higher following wounding alone. Spruce beetle fungal symbiont growth varied among species and compounds. Some diterpenes elicited both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on fungi, depending on concentration. All four fungi exhibited higher tolerances compared to those associated with pine bark beetles in previous studies. Variation in tolerances to, and potentially metabolism of, diterpene acids by symbionts may reflect differences in constitutive levels between spruce and pine, and partially explain differences in concentrations achieved during induction.

  13. Bark Beetles, Pityogenes bidentatus, Orienting to Aggregation Pheromone Avoid Conifer Monoterpene Odors When Flying but Not When Walking

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    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies and data presented here suggest that odors from healthy host Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris and nonhost Norway spruce (Picea abies, as well as major monoterpenes of these trees at natural release rates, significantly reduce the attraction of flying bark beetles, Pityogenes bidentatus, of both sexes to their aggregation pheromone components grandisol and cis-verbenol in the field, as tested by slow rotation of trap pairs. In contrast, P. bidentatus males and females walking in an open-arena olfactometer in the laboratory did not avoid monoterpene vapors at release rates spanning several orders of magnitude in combination with aggregation pheromone. The bark beetle may avoid monoterpenes when flying as a mechanism for avoiding nonhost species, vigorous and thus unsuitable host trees, as well as harmful resinous areas of hosts. Inhibition of this flight avoidance response in beetles after landing would allow them to initiate, or to find and enter, gallery holes with high monoterpene vapor concentrations in order to feed and reproduce.

  14. Morphological and biological investigation of two pioneer Ips bark beetles in natural spruce forests in Qinghai Province, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li; WU Jian; LUO You-qing; LI Zhen-yu; WANG Guo-cang; HAN Fu-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetle species in natural stands of spruce, Picea crassifolia (Kom.) were investigated in Maixiu Forest Park, Qinghai Province, northwest China, during 2005 and 2007. Two pioneer lps species, Ips nitidus Eggers and lps shangrila Cognato and Sun were found. L nitidus occurs naturally in northwest China. L shangrila is a new species in the world. In the past, it was confused with I. mannsfeldi Wachtl in China. The damage of these two Ips species has been very severe in Maixiu and the morphological and biological characteristics were studied. L nitidus starts to fly in early May and prefers the mid to lower part of the host tree to colonize as its habitat. L shangrila always infests from the top of the trunk, especially in branches larger than 3 em in diameter in the crowns and sometimes even colonizes entire young trees. The two Ips species are the most destructive secondary bark beetles on P. crassifolia and always cause mortality of trees by their cooperation.

  15. Conifer stored resources and resistance to a fungus associated with the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus.

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    Eleanor C Lahr

    Full Text Available Bark beetles and associated fungi are among the greatest natural threats to conifers worldwide. Conifers have potent defenses, but resistance to beetles and fungal pathogens may be reduced if tree stored resources are consumed by fungi rather than used for tree defense. Here, we assessed the relationship between tree stored resources and resistance to Ceratocystis polonica, a phytopathogenic fungus vectored by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. We measured phloem and sapwood nitrogen, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, and lipids before and after trees were attacked by I. typographus (vectoring C. polonica or artificially inoculated with C. polonica alone. Tree resistance was assessed by measuring phloem lesions and the proportion of necrotic phloem around the tree's circumference following attack or inoculation. While initial resource concentrations were unrelated to tree resistance to C. polonica, over time, phloem NSC and sapwood lipids declined in the trees inoculated with C. polonica. Greater resource declines correlated with less resistant trees (trees with larger lesions or more necrotic phloem, suggesting that resource depletion may be caused by fungal consumption rather than tree resistance. Ips typographus may then benefit indirectly from reduced tree defenses caused by fungal resource uptake. Our research on tree stored resources represents a novel way of understanding bark beetle-fungal-conifer interactions.

  16. Surveying the endomicrobiome and ectomicrobiome of bark beetles: The case of Dendroctonus simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Audrey-Anne; Bergeron, Amélie; Constant, Philippe; Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Déziel, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2015-11-26

    Many bark beetles belonging to the Dendroctonus genus carry bacterial and fungal microbiota, forming a symbiotic complex that helps the insect to colonize the subcortical environment of the host tree. However, the biodiversity of those bacteria at the surface of the cuticle or inside the body parts of bark beetles is not well established. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome associated with the eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The ecto- and endomicrobiome and the subcortical galleries were investigated. Several bacterial genera were identified, among which Pseudomonas, Serratia and Yersinia are associated with the surface of the beetle cuticle, and genera belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and Gammaproteobacteria with the interior of the insect body. The index of dissimilarity indicates that the bacterial microbiome associated with each environment constitutes exclusive groups. These results suggest the presence of distinct bacterial microbiota on the surface of the cuticle and the interior of D. simplex body. Additionally, the bacterial diversity identified in the galleries is substantially different from the ectomicrobiome, which could indicate a selection by the insect. This study reports for the first time the identification of the eastern larch beetle microbiome.

  17. Non-host volatile blend optimization for forest protection against the European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rikard Unelius

    Full Text Available Conifer feeding bark beetles (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae pose a serious economic threat to forest production. Volatiles released by non-host angiosperm plants (so called non-host volatiles, NHV have been shown to reduce the risk of attack by many bark beetle species, including the European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus. However, the most active blend for I. typographus, containing three green leaf volatiles (GLVs in addition to the key compounds trans-conophthorin (tC and verbenone, has been considered too expensive for use in large-scale management. To lower the cost and improve the applicability of NHV, we aim to simplify the blend without compromising its anti-attractant potency. Since the key compound tC is expensive in pure form, we also tested a crude version: technical grade trans-conophthorin (T-tC. In another attempt to find a more cost effective substitute for tC, we evaluated a more readily synthesized analog: dehydro-conophthorin (DHC. Our results showed that 1-hexanol alone could replace the three-component GLV blend containing 1-hexanol, (3Z-hexen-1-ol, and (2E-hexen-1-ol. Furthermore, the release rate of tC could be reduced from 5 mg/day to 0.5 mg/day in a blend with 1-hexanol and (--verbenone without compromising the anti-attractant activity. We further show that T-tC was comparable with tC, whereas DHC was a less effective anti-attractant. DHC also elicited weaker physiological responses in the tC-responding olfactory receptor neuron class, providing a likely mechanistic explanation for its weaker anti-attractive effect. Our results suggest a blend consisting of (--verbenone, 1-hexanol and technical trans-conophthorin as a cost-efficient anti-attractant for forest protection against I. typographus.

  18. Composition and Elevation of Spruce Forests Affect Susceptibility to Bark Beetle Attacks: Implications for Forest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Faccoli; Iris Bernardinelli

    2014-01-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is one of the most destructive insects infesting spruce forests in Europe. Data concerning infestations of I. typographus occurring over the last 19 years (1994–2012) on the Southern Alps were analyzed in seven spruce forest types: (1) pure spruce plantations; (2) pure spruce reforestations; (3) pure spruce mountain forests; (4) pure spruce alpine forests; (5) spruce-conifer mixed forests; (6) spruce-broad...

  19. Preferential host switching and codivergence shaped radiation of bark beetle symbionts, nematodes of Micoletzkya (Nematoda: Diplogastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susoy, V; Herrmann, M

    2014-05-01

    Host-symbiont systems are of particular interest to evolutionary biology because they allow testable inferences of diversification processes while also providing both a historical basis and an ecological context for studies of adaptation. Our investigations of bark beetle symbionts, predatory nematodes of the genus Micoletzkya, have revealed remarkable diversity of the group along with a high level of host specificity. Cophylogenetic analyses suggest that evolution of the nematodes was largely influenced by the evolutionary history of beetles. The diversification of the symbionts, however, could not be attributed to parallel divergence alone; our results indicate that adaptive radiation of the nematodes was shaped by preferential host shifts among closely related beetles along with codivergence. Whereas ecological and geographic isolation have played a major role in the diversification of Micoletzkya at shallow phylogenetic depths, adaptations towards related hosts have played a role in shaping cophylogenetic structure at a larger evolutionary scale.

  20. The flat bark beetles (Coleoptera, Silvanidae, Cucujidae, Laemophloeidae of Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the present investigations 18 species of flat bark beetles are known to occur in Atlantic Canada, 10 in New Brunswick, 17 in Nova Scotia, four on Prince Edward Island, six on insular Newfoundland, and one in Labrador. Twenty-three new provincial records are reported and nine species, Uleiota debilis (LeConte, Uleiota dubius (Fabricius, Nausibius clavicornis (Kugelann, Ahasverus advena (Waltl, Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr, Cryptolestes turcicus (Grouvelle, Charaphloeus convexulus (LeConte, Charaphloeus species nr. adustus, and Placonotus zimmermanni (LeConte are newly recorded in the region, one of which C. sp. nr. adustus, is newly recorded in Canada as a whole. Eight species are cosmopolitan species introduced to the region and North America, nine are native Nearctic species, and one, Pediacus fuscus Erichson, is Holarctic in distribution. All the introduced species except for one (Silvanus bidentatus (Fabricius, a saproxylic species are found on various stored products, whereas all the native species are saproxylic. Ahasverus longulus (Blatchley, is removed from the species list of New Brunswick and Charophloeus adustus (LeConte is removed from the species list of Nova Scotia. One tropical Asian species, Cryptamorpha desjardinsi (Guérin-Méneville, has been intercepted in the region in imported produce, but is not established. The substantial proportion (44% of the fauna that is comprised of introduced species is highlighted, almost all of which are synanthropic species associated with various dried stored products. The island faunas of Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and insular Newfoundland are diminished in comparison to the mainland fauna, that of Prince Edward Island being exceptionally so in comparison to other saproxylic groups found there. Of the ten native species, four can be categorized as 'apparently rare' (i.e., comprising ≤ 0.005% of specimens examined from the region. It is possibly that the

  1. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  2. New record and extension of the distribution range of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Nuevo registro y ampliación del área de distribución del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Armendáriz-Toledano; Verónica Torres-Banda; María Fernanda López; Jaime Villa-Castillo; Gerardo Zúñiga

    2012-01-01

    After several exploratory surveys to the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC), the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright, 1970 was recorded in 2 geographic localities of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. These new records extend the range of distribution of this beetle a further 250 km south along the SMOC from the southernmost site recorded in the state of Durango. These records indicate that this species may be present in almost any area of the SMOC ...

  3. The biophysical controls on tree defense against attacking bark beetles in managed pine forests of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, K. A.; Miniat, C. F.; Denham, S. O.; Ritger, H. M.; Williams, C.; Guldin, J. M.; Bragg, D.; Coyle, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bark beetles are highly damaging pests capable of destroying large areas of southern pine forests, with significant consequences for regional timber supply and forest ecosystem carbon dynamics. A number of recent studies have shown that following bark beetle outbreak, significant effects on ecosystem carbon and water cycling can occur. Relatively few studies have explored how ecosystem carbon and water cycling interact with other factors to control the hazard or risk of bark beetle outbreaks; these interactions, and their representation in conceptual model frameworks, are the focus of this study. Pine trees defend against bark beetle attacks through the exudation of of resin - a viscous compound that deters attacking beetles through a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms. Constitutive resin flow (CRF, representing resin produced before attack) is assumed to be directly proportional to the balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) according to the Growth-Differentiation Balance theory (GDB). Thus, predictions for tree mortality and bark beetle dynamics under different management and climate regimes may be more accurate if a model framework describing the biophysical controls on resin production (e.g., GDB) were employed. Here, we synthesize measurements of resin flow, bark beetle dynamics, and ecosystem C flux from three managed loblolly pine forests in the Southeastern U.S.: the Duke Forest in Durham, NC; the Savannah River DOE site near Aiken, SC; and the Crossett Experimental Forest in southern Arkansas. We also explore the relationship between CRF and induced resin flow (IRF, representing the de novo synthesis of resin following stem wounding) in the latter two sites, where IRF was promoted by a novel tree baiting approach and prescribed fire, respectively. We assimilate observations within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 1) test whether observations conform to the GDB hypothesis, and 2) explore effects

  4. Early Detection of Bark Beetle Green Attack Using TerraSAR-X and RapidEye Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Kändler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles cause widespread damages in the coniferous-dominated forests of central Europe and North America. In the future, areas affected by bark beetles may further increase due to climate change. However, the early detection of the bark beetle green attack can guide management decisions to prevent larger damages. For this reason, a field-based bark beetle monitoring program is currently implemented in Germany. The combination of remote sensing and field data may help minimizing the reaction time and reducing costs of monitoring programs covering large forested areas. In this case study, RapidEye and TerraSAR-X data were analyzed separately and in combination to detect bark beetle green attack. The remote sensing data were acquired in May 2009 for a study site in south-west Germany. In order to distinguish healthy areas and areas affected by bark beetle green attack, three statistical approaches were compared: generalized linear models (GLM, maximum entropy (ME and random forest (RF. The spatial scale (minimum mapping unit was 78.5 m2. TerraSAR-X data resulted in fair classification accuracy with a cross-validated Cohen’s Kappa Coefficient (kappa of 0.23. RapidEye data resulted in moderate classification accuracy with a kappa of 0.51. The highest classification accuracy was obtained by combining the TerraSAR-X and RapidEye data, resulting in a kappa of 0.74. The accuracy of ME models was considerably higher than the accuracy of GLM and RF models.

  5. Elm bark beetle in Holocene peat deposits and the northwest European elm decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah H. E.; Edwards, Kevin J.

    2004-09-01

    The elm decline of 5000 14C yr ago has been the most widely discussed phenomenon in post-glacial vegetation history. This pan-European reduction of elm populations, echoed in the decimation of elmwoods in Europe during the twentieth century, has attracted a series of interrelated hypotheses involving climate change, human activity, disease and soil deterioration. The elm bark beetle (Scolytus scolytus L.) is an essential component of disease explanations. We present evidence for the presence of the beetle over a prolonged period (ca. 7950-4910 yr BP [8800-5660 cal. yr BP]) from a lowland raised mire deposit in northeast Scotland, with its final appearance at this site, and the first and only appearance in another mire of a single scolytid find, around the time of the elm decline. The subfossil S. scolytus finds are not only the first from Scotland, but they also represent the most comprehensive sequence of finds anywhere. Copyright

  6. Climate change induced effects on the predisposition of forests of the water protection zone Wildalpen to disturbances by bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, P.; Pennerstorfer, J.; Schopf, A.

    2012-04-01

    The provision of drinking water of high quality is a precious service of forests. Large-scale disturbances like forest fires, wind throws, pest outbreaks and subsequent clear cutting may lead to changes in hydrology (runoff as well as percolation). Furthermore, water quality can be negatively influenced by increased erosion, increased decomposition of litter and humus and leaching of nitrate. Large-scale epidemics of forest pests may induce forest decline at landscape scale with subsequent long-lasting negative effects on water quality. The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.), is one of the most significant sources of mortality in mature spruce forest ecosystems in Eurasia. The objective of this study was to apply a complex predisposition assessment system for hazard rating and for the evaluation of climate change impacts for the water protection forests of the City of Vienna in Wildalpen. The following steps have been done to adapt/apply the bark beetle phenology model and the hazard rating system: -application, adaptation and validation of the bark beetle phenology model PHENIPS concerning start of dispersion, brood initiation, duration of development, beginning of sister broods, voltinism and hibernation - spatial/temporal modelling of the phenology and voltinism of I. typographus using past, present as well as projected climate data - application and validation of the stand- and site related long-term predisposition assessment system using forest stand/site data, annual damage reports and outputs of phenology modelling as data input - mapping of endangered areas and assessment of future susceptibility to infestations by I. typographus and other disturbing agents based on climate scenarios using GIS. The assessment of site- and stand-related predisposition revealed that the forest stands in Wildalpen are highly susceptible to bark beetle infestation. More than 65% of the stands were assigned to the predisposition classes high/very high. Only 10% of

  7. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S.; Sullivan, Brian T.; Ayres, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  8. Semiochemical-mediated flight strategies of two invasive elm bark beetles: a potential factor in competitive displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Negrón, José F; Witcosky, Jeffrey J; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    A seven-state survey showed that the recently detected invasive Asian banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus (Marsham), was not as abundant. In one of a series of studies to evaluate whether S. schevyrewi is competitively displacing S. multistriatus in their North American zone of sympatry, we characterized long-range flight responses infested or uninfested to small cut logs of American, Chinese, and Siberian elm, Ulmus americana, U. parvifolia, and U. pumila. Trials were conducted in Colorado and Wyoming to test the flight response of S. schevyrewi; in California to test the response of S. multistriatus; and in Nevada to test the responses of both species simultaneously. Studies with S. schevyrewi showed that males and females aggregated toward Ulmus spp. host volatiles but provided no evidence of a putative aggregation pheromone during the 0- to 48- or 48- to 96-h period of infestation. In contrast, S. multistriatus was attracted to U. pumila over unbaited controls, more to U. pumila infested with conspecific females than without, and more during the 48- to 96- versus 0- to 48-h period of infestation. This confirmed that male and female S. multistriatus aggregated toward host volatiles and that females produced an aggregation pheromone. In a cross-attraction study, S. schevyrewi displayed neither flight preference nor interruption to U. pumila infested with conspecifics, heterospecifics, or a mix of both species. Response of S. multistriatus was too low to draw conclusions. Although S. multistriatus aggregates moderately to host volatiles and strongly to female-derived pheromones emitted after a few days, S. multistriatus may have a relative disadvantage by selecting elm hosts more slowly than S. schevyrewi, which aggregates very strongly to host volatiles. The differential long-range host location strategy may be one factor in a

  9. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  10. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  11. Testing remote sensing estimates of bark beetle induced mortality in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce with ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Ewers, B. E.; Sivanpillai, R.; Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetles have caused widespread regional mortality in both lodgepole and Engelmann spruce forests across western North America, and while studies have addressed the impact on water partitioning caused by the mountain pine beetle, spruce beetle which often occur at high elevations with larger snowpack might have a disproportional impact. Beetle caused mortality can have significant effects on the hydrology of a watershed and therefore needs to be considered when evaluating increased runoff. The objective of this project was to generate maps showing beetle caused mortality for lodgepole pine and spruce fir forests that capture changes to the landscape to improve hydrologic models. Our study area in southeast Wyoming covered an area of approximately 2 by 4 km from 2700 to 2800m elevation range. High spatial resolution (0.5m) aerial imagery acquired by the Airborne Environmental Research Observational Camera (AEROCam) in fall 2011, provided by the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), was manually classified into four conifer thematic classes: live and dead lodgepole pine, and live and dead spruce/fir. The classified high resolution image was then verified by tree surveys conducted July-September, 2012 documenting species, tree diameter at breast height (dbh), and the stage of beetle infestation for each tree. After verification the high resolution aerial images were used to train and evaluate the accuracy of a supervised classification of a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image from the same time period and area. The preliminary results of a supervised classification show that map accuracy was 57%, 77%, 44%, and 83% for lodgepole live and dead, and spruce/fir live and dead respectively. The highest commission error, 24%, was for dead lodgepole pine being falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The second highest commission error, 22%, was for live spruce/fir falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The results indicate high spectral overlap between dead spruce/fir and dead

  12. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  13. Riparian zones attenuate nitrogen loss following bark beetle-induced lodgepole pine mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joel A.; Meixner, Thomas; Harpold, Adrian A.; Reed, David E.; Gutmann, Ethan D.; Gaun, Janelle A.; Brooks, Paul D.

    2016-03-01

    A North American bark beetle infestation has killed billions of trees, increasing soil nitrogen and raising concern for N loss impacts on downstream ecosystems and water resources. There is surprisingly little evidence of stream N response in large basins, which may result from surviving vegetation uptake, gaseous loss, or dilution by streamflow from unimpacted stands. Observations are lacking along hydrologic flow paths connecting soils with streams, challenging our ability to determine where and how attenuation occurs. Here we quantified biogeochemical concentrations and fluxes at a lodgepole pine-dominated site where bark beetle infestation killed 50-60% of trees. We used nested observations along hydrologic flow paths connecting hillslope soils to streams of up to third order. We found soil water NO3 concentrations increased 100-fold compared to prior research at this and nearby southeast Wyoming sites. Nitrogen was lost below the major rooting zone to hillslope groundwater, where dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) increased by 3-10 times (mean 1.65 mg L-1) and NO3-N increased more than 100-fold (3.68 mg L-1) compared to preinfestation concentrations. Most of this N was removed as hillslope groundwater drained through riparian soils, and NO3 remained low in streams. DON entering the stream decreased 50% within 5 km downstream, to concentrations typical of unimpacted subalpine streams (~0.3 mg L-1). Although beetle outbreak caused hillslope N losses similar to other disturbances, up to 5.5 kg ha-1y-1, riparian and in-stream removal limited headwater catchment export to <1 kg ha-1y-1. These observations suggest riparian removal was the dominant mechanism preventing hillslope N loss from impacting streams.

  14. Mattesia weiseri sp. nov., a new neogregarine (Apicomplexa: Lipotrophidae) pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Radek, Renate

    2015-08-01

    A new neogregarine pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is described based on light microscopy and ultrastructural characteristics. The pathogen infects the fat body and the hemolymph of the beetle. The infection was nonsynchronous so that different developmental stages could be observed simultaneously in the hemolymph. All life stages from sporozoite to oocyst of the pathogen including micronuclear and macronuclear merozoites were detected. The sporozoites measured about 8.7 × 1.9 μm and trophozoites, 11.9 × 3.3 μm. Micronuclear merozoites seen in the hemolymph were motile, elongate, slightly broader at the anterior pole, and measured 18.4 × 2.0 μm. Macronuclear merozoites had a size of ca. 16.4 × 2.3 μm. Gametogamy results in the formation of two paired oocysts within a gametocyst. The lemon-shaped oocyst measured 10.9 × 6.1 μm and had a very thick wall (375-450 nm). All morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the life cycle stages indicate that the described neogregarine in D. micans is clearly different from known Mattesia species infecting bark beetles, and from any other described Mattesia spp. Therefore, we create a new species, Mattesia weiseri sp. nov.

  15. Nor-hopanes from Zanha africana root bark with toxicity to bruchid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Philip C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Farrell, Iain W; Kusolwa, Paul; Belmain, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Zanha africana (Radlk.) Exell (Sapindaceae) root bark is used by farmers throughout sub-Saharan Africa to protect stored grain from bruchid beetles, such as Callosobruchus maculatus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Z. africana root bark inhibited oviposition and caused significantly higher mortality of C. maculatus at a rate of application equivalent to that applied by farmers compared to control insects. The chloroform extract contained nor-hopanes rarely found in plants of which seven were isolated, one of which was previously known. Two of the most abundant nor-hopanes 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-21αH-24-norhopa-4(23),22(29)-diene and 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-24-norhopa-4(23),17(21)-diene were toxic to and reduced oviposition of C. maculatus in a dose dependent manner. Z. africana root bark is rich in insecticidal compounds that account for its effective use by smallholder farmers as an alternative to conventional insecticides. PMID:26803395

  16. Menzbieria chalcographi, a new neogregarine pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann) (Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Radek, Renate

    2012-09-01

    This study concerns a new neogregarine parasitic in the great spruce bark beetle Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann) (Curculionidae, Scolytinae). The rate of infection was high, reaching 27.3%. There was no difference in the rate of infection of male and female beetles. The life-cycle stages of the pathogen were described by light and electron microscopy. Each gametocyst of the neogregarine included 8-16 actinocephalid oocysts measuring 11.19 ± 0.42 × 4.99 ± 0.25 μm. The described pathogen has the typical characteristics of members of the genus Menzbieria within the order Neogregarinida and it was identified as Menzbieria chalcographi. This is the first record of an infection of D. micans by M. chalcographi. Possibly, this pathogen could be useful for the biological control of this destructive bark beetle.

  17. Spatial characterization of bark beetle infestations by a multidate synergy of SPOT and Landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Hooman; Schumann, Bastian; Kautz, Markus; Dech, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Biological infestations in forests, e.g. the insect outbreaks, have been shown as favoured by future climate change trends. In Europe, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) is one of the main agents causing substantial economic disturbances in forests. Therefore, studies on spatio-temporal characterization of the area affected by bark beetle are of major importance for rapid post-attack management. We aimed at spatially detecting damage classes by combining multidate remote sensing data and a non-parametric classification. As study site served a part of the Bavarian Forest National Park (Germany). For the analysis, we used 10 geometrically rectified scenes of Landsat and SPOT sensors in the period between 2001 and 2011. The main objective was to explore the potential of medium-resolution data for classifying the attacked areas. A further aim was to explore if the temporally adjacent infested areas are able to be separated. The random forest (RF) model was applied using the reference data drawn from high-resolution aerial imagery. The results indicate that the sufficiently large patches of visually identifiable damage classes can be accurately separated from non-attacked areas. In contrast to those, the other mortality classes (current year, current year 1 and current year 2 infested classes) were mostly classified with higher commission or omission errors as well as higher classification biases. The available medium-resolution satellite images, combined with properly acquired reference data, are concluded to be adequate tools to map area-based infestations at advanced stages. However, the quality of reference data, the size of infested patches and the spectral resolution of remotely sensed data are the decisive factors in case of smaller areas. Further attempts using auxiliary height information and spatially enhanced data may refine such an approach.

  18. An attempt to use the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in forest protection against the bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) in the field

    OpenAIRE

    Grodzki Wojciech; Kosibowicz Mieczysław

    2015-01-01

    In 2011–2013, trials on the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against bark beetle (Ips typographus) populations were carried out under open field conditions in Norway spruce stands suffering from an outbreak in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. in Poland. Modified pheromone traps were deployed to capture and thereafter release fungus-infected bark beetles to the forest environment. Infested spruce trees felled next to the traps remained unaffected by the transmission of the fungus ...

  19. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, J.; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper;

    the Great Lakes Region. Here we examine the impact of two bark beetle groups, namely red turpentine beetles and pine engraver bark beetles, on tree mortality and the subsequent gap formation over time in a plantation in Wisconsin. We construct spatial-temporal statistical models that quantify the relations...

  20. Gene discovery for the bark beetle-vectored fungal tree pathogen Grosmannia clavigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Gordon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grosmannia clavigera is a bark beetle-vectored fungal pathogen of pines that causes wood discoloration and may kill trees by disrupting nutrient and water transport. Trees respond to attacks from beetles and associated fungi by releasing terpenoid and phenolic defense compounds. It is unclear which genes are important for G. clavigera's ability to overcome antifungal pine terpenoids and phenolics. Results We constructed seven cDNA libraries from eight G. clavigera isolates grown under various culture conditions, and Sanger sequenced the 5' and 3' ends of 25,000 cDNA clones, resulting in 44,288 high quality ESTs. The assembled dataset of unique transcripts (unigenes consists of 6,265 contigs and 2,459 singletons that mapped to 6,467 locations on the G. clavigera reference genome, representing ~70% of the predicted G. clavigera genes. Although only 54% of the unigenes matched characterized proteins at the NCBI database, this dataset extensively covers major metabolic pathways, cellular processes, and genes necessary for response to environmental stimuli and genetic information processing. Furthermore, we identified genes expressed in spores prior to germination, and genes involved in response to treatment with lodgepole pine phloem extract (LPPE. Conclusions We provide a comprehensively annotated EST dataset for G. clavigera that represents a rich resource for gene characterization in this and other ophiostomatoid fungi. Genes expressed in response to LPPE treatment are indicative of fungal oxidative stress response. We identified two clusters of potentially functionally related genes responsive to LPPE treatment. Furthermore, we report a simple method for identifying contig misassemblies in de novo assembled EST collections caused by gene overlap on the genome.

  1. Declining Bark Beetle Densities (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Scolytinae from Infested Norway Spruce Stands and Possible Implications for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Angst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The eight-toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus is the most serious insect pest in Central European forests. During the past two decades, extreme meteorological events and subsequent beetle infestations have killed millions of cubic meters of standing spruce trees. Not all the infested stands could be cleared in time, and priorities in management had to be set. Natural or man-made buffer zones of about 500 meters in width are frequently defined to separate differently managed stands in Central Europe. While the buffer zones seem to be effective in most of the cases, their impact has not been studied in detail. Beetle densities were therefore assessed in three case studies using pheromone traps along transects, leading from infested stands into spruce-free buffer zones. The results of the trap catches allow an estimation of the buffer zone influence on densities and the dispersal of Ips typographus. Beetle densities were found to decrease rapidly with increasing distance from the infested spruce stands. The trap catches were below high-risk thresholds within a few hundred meters of the infested stands. The decrease in catches was more pronounced in open land and in an urban area than in a broadleaf stand. Designed buffer zones of 500 m width without spruce can therefore very probably help to reduce densities of spreading beetles.

  2. Resiliency of an Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest to Bark Beetle Infestations Following Fuel-Reduction and Forest-Restoration Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in California. Twelve experimental plots, ranging in size from 77–144 ha, were established to create two distinct forest structural types: mid-seral stage (low structural diversity; LoD and late-seral stage (high structural diversity; HiD. Following harvesting, half of each plot was treated with prescribed fire (B. A total of 16,473 trees (8.7% of all trees died during the 10-year period. Mortality was primarily attributed to bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae (10,655 trees, specifically fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, pine engraver, Ips pini (Say, and, to a much lesser extent, Jeffrey pine beetle, D. jeffreyi Hopkins. Trees of all ages and size classes were killed, but mortality was concentrated in the smaller-diameter classes (19–29.2 and 29.3–39.3 cm at 1.37 m in height. Most mortality occurred three to five years following prescribed burns. Higher levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality were observed on LoD + B (8.7% than LoD (4.2%. The application of these and other results to the   management of interior P. ponderosa forests are discussed, with an emphasis on the maintenance of large trees.

  3. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). PMID:26496952

  4. CONTRIBUTION FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND CONTROL OF THE BARK BEETLES OF GENUS IPS (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE IN THE PINE FOREST OF CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Alberto López Castilla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are four pines species endemic from Cuba with width importance, from the Conservation of the Forest Genetic Resources at regional level to the mitigation of the climatic change. Their economical importance is due to forming pure forest stand of fast growth and of straight trunk. The bark beetle of the genus Ips De Geer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and the associate mushrooms from the complex Ophiostomatoid (Ceratocystidaceae: Microascales Phylum Ascomycotina are those that cause the biggest damages in the plantations of pines in Cuba. The damage management was based mainly on the logging of all the infested trees and the application of organosintetic insecticides with the consequent affectations to the environment apart from economic losses. In this work were determined the most noxious Ips species and the most vulnerable pine species by means of the development of experiments with randomized design on logging of pines and systematic samplings in pine trees in the western region. It was also defined a threshold of damage index and the most effective treatment with biological products in the central region. These results were integrated and introduced like a methodology of bark beetle management in a plantations area of Pinus caribaea Morelet. var caribaea (Punta Felipe, Villa Clara, Cuba after the development of an outbreak of this noxious complex and it was demonstrated that it was possible to control this forest pest without carrying out the logging of all the affected trees neither the application of organosintetic insecticides. As what this work has a positive environmental impact, contributing to the healthy conservation of the pine forests and an economic impact due to the saving of foreign currencies for concept of insecticides left of applying and also to diminish the losses of wooden increase.

  5. Using UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Hyperspectral Imaging for Mapping Bark Beetle Damage at Tree-Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope Näsi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost, miniaturized hyperspectral imaging technology is becoming available for small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV platforms. This technology can be efficient in carrying out small-area inspections of anomalous reflectance characteristics of trees at a very high level of detail. Increased frequency and intensity of insect induced forest disturbance has established a new demand for effective methods suitable in mapping and monitoring tasks. In this investigation, a novel miniaturized hyperspectral frame imaging sensor operating in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm was used to identify mature Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. trees suffering from infestation, representing a different outbreak phase, by the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.. We developed a new processing method for analyzing spectral characteristic for high spatial resolution photogrammetric and hyperspectral images in forested environments, as well as for identifying individual anomalous trees. The dense point clouds, measured using image matching, enabled detection of single trees with an accuracy of 74.7%. We classified the trees into classes of healthy, infested and dead, and the results were promising. The best results for the overall accuracy were 76% (Cohen’s kappa 0.60, when using three color classes (healthy, infested, dead. For two color classes (healthy, dead, the best overall accuracy was 90% (kappa 0.80. The survey methodology based on high-resolution hyperspectral imaging will be of a high practical value for forest health management, indicating a status of bark beetle outbreak in time.

  6. Host suitability analysis of the bark beetle Scolytus amygdali (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiri, A; Ahmed, M Z; Braham, M; Qiu, B-L

    2015-08-01

    Scolytus amygdali is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on fruit trees and forest trees. Our study assessed the host preference and reproductive potential of S. amygdali on four tree species: almond (Prunus dulcis), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica). Females of S. amygdali produced maternal galleries that were longer on peach than the other three trees, and female fecundity was highest on peach. Females with longer maternal galleries produced more eggs, indicating a positive correlation between maternal gallery length and female fertility. The under-bark development time of S. amygdali is significantly shorter on plum (45 days) and almond (56 days) than on apricot (65 days) and peach (64 days). Despite this longer development time on peach, our results still suggest that, of the four types of tree tested, peach is the most preferred host for S. amygdali.

  7. Factors controlling bark decomposition and its role in wood decomposition in five tropical tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Gbadamassi G. O.; Paudel, Ekananda; Cao, Kunfang; Schaefer, Douglas; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter decomposition represents a vital ecosystem process by which nutrients are made available for plant uptake and is a major flux in the global carbon cycle. Previous studies have investigated decomposition of different plant parts, but few considered bark decomposition or its role in decomposition of wood. However, bark can comprise a large fraction of tree biomass. We used a common litter-bed approach to investigate factors affecting bark decomposition and its role in wood decomposition for five tree species in a secondary seasonal tropical rain forest in SW China. For bark, we implemented a litter bag experiment over 12 mo, using different mesh sizes to investigate effects of litter meso- and macro-fauna. For wood, we compared the decomposition of branches with and without bark over 24 mo. Bark in coarse mesh bags decomposed 1.11–1.76 times faster than bark in fine mesh bags. For wood decomposition, responses to bark removal were species dependent. Three species with slow wood decomposition rates showed significant negative effects of bark-removal, but there was no significant effect in the other two species. Future research should also separately examine bark and wood decomposition, and consider bark-removal experiments to better understand roles of bark in wood decomposition. PMID:27698461

  8. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  9. Bark ecology of twigs vs. main stems: functional traits across eighty-five species of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Castorena, Matiss; Laws, Claire A; Westoby, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Although produced by meristems that are continuous along the stem length, marked differences in bark morphology and in microenvironment would suggest that main stem and twig bark might differ ecologically. Here, we examined: (1) how closely associated main stem and twig bark traits were, (2) how these associations varied across sites, and (3) used these associations to infer functional and ecological differences between twig and main stem bark. We measured density, water content, photosynthesis presence/absence, total, outer, inner, and relative thicknesses of main stem and twig bark from 85 species of angiosperms from six sites of contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regimes. Density and water content did not differ between main stems and twigs across species and sites. Species with thicker twig bark had disproportionately thicker main stem bark in most sites, but the slope and degree of association varied. Disproportionately thicker main stem bark for a given twig bark thickness in most fire-prone sites suggested stem protection near the ground. The savanna had the opposite trend, suggesting that selection also favors twig protection in these fire-prone habitats. A weak main stem-twig bark thickness association was observed in non fire-prone sites. The near-ubiquity of photosynthesis in twigs highlighted its likely ecological importance; variation in this activity was predicted by outer bark thickness in main stems. It seems that the ecology of twig bark can be generalized to main stem bark, but not for functions depending on the amount of bark, such as protection, storage, or photosynthesis.

  10. A Population Genetic Model of Evolution of Host-Mate Attraction and Nonhost Repulsion in a Bark Beetle Pityogenes bidentatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the bark beetle Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae avoids volatiles of nonhost trees (Norway Spruce, birch, and oak and healthy host Scotch Pine when orienting to aggregation pheromone. A population genetic model of two behavioral genes was hypothesized where AA, Aa, and aa were allele combinations regulating orientation to host tree and pheromone odors, and BB, Bb, and bb were combinations allowing avoidance of nonhost and unsuitable host odors. The nine possible genotypes were assigned different survival factors that remained constant during simulation. The initial proportion of aabb genotype (little aggregation/host response and little avoidance of nonhosts was ~1.0 when a mutation was hypothesized that caused better orientation to host/beetle odors (Aabb and another mutation causing more efficient avoidance of nonhosts (aaBb. After these initial mutations, the model used indiscriminate mating of genotypic proportions and subsequent survival as input for each successive generation. The results indicate that AABB eventually fixates in the populations in some scenarios, while AABB and other genotypes reach stable equilibriums in other models depending on genotypic survival values supported by ecologically sound assumptions. The models indicate how development of insecticide resistance in pest insects may proceed.

  11. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Erin W Hodgson; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  12. A Tale of Two Forests: Simulating Contrasting Lodgepole Pine and Spruce Forest Water and Carbon Fluxes Following Mortality from Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Mackay, D. S.; Pendall, E.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Reed, D. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, bark beetle infestation in western North America has reached epidemic levels. The resulting widespread forest mortality may have profound effects on present and future water and carbon cycling with potential negative consequences to a region that relies on water from montane and subalpine watersheds. We simulated stand-level ecosystem fluxes of water and carbon at two bark beetle-attacked conifer forests in southeast Wyoming, USA. The lower elevation site dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was attacked by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) during 2008-2010. The high elevation Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) dominated site was attacked by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) during roughly the same time period. Both beetle infestations resulted in >60% canopy mortality in the footprint of eddy covariance towers located at each site. However, carbon and water fluxes responses to mortality depended on the forest type. Using data collected at the sites, we scaled simulated plant hydraulic conductivity by either percent canopy mortality or loss of live tree basal area during infestation. We also simulated a case of no beetle attack. At the lodgepole site, the no-beetle model best fit the data and showed no significant change in growing season carbon flux and a 15% decrease in evapotranspiration (ET). However, at the spruce site, the simulation that tracked canopy loss agreed best with observations: carbon flux decreased by 72% and ET decreased by 31%. In the lodgepole stand, simulated soil water content agreed with spatially distributed measurements that were weighted to reflect overall mortality in the tower footprint. Although these two forest ecosystems are only 20 km apart, separated by less than 300m in elevation, and have been impacted by similar mortality agents, the associated changes in carbon and water cycling are significantly different. Beetle effects on hydrologic cycling were greatest at high elevation

  13. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearup, Lindsay A; Mikkelson, Kristin M; Wiley, Joseph F; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M; Sharp, Jonathan O; McCray, John E

    2014-10-15

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid-liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of water

  14. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearup, Lindsay A; Mikkelson, Kristin M; Wiley, Joseph F; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M; Sharp, Jonathan O; McCray, John E

    2014-10-15

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid-liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of water

  15. 小蠹识别信息化合物的嗅觉机制%Olfactory mechanism of bark beetle recognizing the semiochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦浩; 于艳雪; 张俊华; 叶保华; 陈乃中

    2013-01-01

    小蠹是全球森林生态系统最具危害性的森林害虫类群之一,具有十分突出的检疫重要性.本文从昆虫周缘嗅觉信号的传导过程入手,阐述了小蠹识别信息化合物的类别、小蠹嗅觉编码机制以及小蠹嗅觉定位机制3个方面,提出了探索小蠹识别外界信息化合物分子机制的必要性.%The bark beetle is one of the most dangerous forest pests in global forest ecological system, which plays an important role in the plant quarantine. This review begin with the transmitting progress of the peripheral olfactory signal, and amplify the types of semiochemicals of bark beetles recognizing. Mechanism of olfactory code, and localization are subsequently summarized. It is necessary to explore the molecular mechanism of bark beetle recognizing the semiochemicals.

  16. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearup, Lindsay A., E-mail: lbearup@mines.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Mikkelson, Kristin M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Wiley, Joseph F. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M. [Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Sharp, Jonathan O.; McCray, John E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid–liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of

  17. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid–liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of

  18. Hydrological effects of forest transpiration loss in bark beetle-impacted watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearup, Lindsay A.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Clow, David W.; McCray, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The recent climate-exacerbated mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has resulted in tree death that is unprecedented in recorded history. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity inherent in insect infestation creates a complex and often unpredictable watershed response, influencing the primary storage and flow components of the hydrologic cycle. Despite the increased vulnerability of forested ecosystems under changing climate1, watershed-scale implications of interception, ground evaporation, and transpiration changes remain relatively unknown, with conflicting reports of streamflow perturbations across regions. Here, contributions to streamflow are analysed through time and space to investigate the potential for increased groundwater inputs resulting from hydrologic change after infestation. Results demonstrate that fractional late-summer groundwater contributions from impacted watersheds are 30 ± 15% greater after infestation and when compared with a neighbouring watershed that experienced earlier and less-severe attack, albeit uncertainty propagations through time and space are considerable. Water budget analysis confirms that transpiration loss resulting from beetle kill can account for the relative increase in groundwater contributions to streams, often considered the sustainable flow fraction and critical to mountain water supplies and ecosystems.

  19. Beetle species diversity in the Lesser Antilles islands: How many species are really there?

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, Stewart B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent extensive and intensive field work by the team of M. A. Ivie on the Lesser Antillean island of Montserrat suggests that a mean of 827 beetle species may be expected on that island. This datum makes possible the generation of hypotheses of the probable beetle species diversity on other islands of the Lesser Antilles as a function of the areas of the islands. Figures are given for the presently known, estimated total, and estimated number of unknown species for each principal island. Thi...

  20. 四川铁路口岸首次从美国白蜡木中截获刺海小蠹%The first interception of eastern ash bark beetle in Sichuan railway port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁昕; 刘洋洋

    2014-01-01

    Eastern ash bark beetle was been intercepted for the first time from the American imported ash wood by the port of Sichuan. This article describes the identification characters,the biological characteristics,the damage situation of Eastern ash bark beetle, and the methods of control.%四川口岸从美国进口白蜡木板材中首次截获外来有害生物刺海小蠹。本文叙述了刺海小蠹的鉴定特征、生物学特性、危害情况,并对防治进行了介绍。

  1. Species radiation of carabid beetles (broscini: mecodema in new zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Goldberg

    Full Text Available New Zealand biodiversity has often been viewed as Gondwanan in origin and age, but it is increasingly apparent from molecular studies that diversification, and in many cases origination of lineages, postdate the break-up of Gondwanaland. Relatively few studies of New Zealand animal species radiations have as yet been reported, and here we consider the species-rich genus of carabid beetles, Mecodema. Constrained stratigraphic information (emergence of the Chatham Islands and a substitution rate for Coleoptera were separately used to calibrate Bayesian relaxed molecular clock date estimates for diversification of Mecodema. The inferred timings indicate radiation of these beetles no earlier than the mid-Miocene with most divergences being younger, dating to the Plio-Pleistocene. A shallow age for the radiation along with a complex spatial distribution of these taxa involving many instances of sympatry implicates recent ecological speciation rather than a simplistic allopatric model. This emphasises the youthful and dynamic nature of New Zealand evolution that will be further elucidated with detailed ecological and population genetic analyses.

  2. Impact of bark beetle calamity on soil moisture dynamics during floods and droughts in 2013 - case study of Rokytka Brook catchment, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Kocum, Jan; Jansky, Bohumir; Sefrna, Ludek

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of soil moisture in the experimental catchment of Rokytka Brook, Otava River basin, Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. This area has a long-term problems with bark beetle which results predominantly in the spruce forest perdition. This phenomenon has resulted not only in a change of a vegetation composition, but also it has impacted the development of local land cover, soil moisture dynamics or the storage capacity of soils and the potential retention conditions within the basin . The experimental catchment, where the research was carried out, consists by 2/3 of terrestrial soil (Entic Podzol). The soil is covered by the dead forest (former spuce forest before bark beetle calamity) and by the beech forest (former spruce-beech forest). The rest of the basin consists of well-developed peatbogs that represents a typical example of a peatbog in Šumava Mts. In terms of vegetation, the area can be divided into a lower part consisting of healthy waterlogged spruce forest, the mountain pine covers the middle part and the upper part is covered mostly by the cotton grass. In the part where terrestrial soils predominate, measuring of soil pressures and temperatures at two depths (20 and 60 cm) at two sites (former spruce-beech and spruce forest) has been carried out since 2012. Due to the bark beetle calamity, the spruce forest has become withered and thus the vegetation cover has changed. Meteorological data (precipitation, air temperature, humidity) are collected by meteorological stations located within the basin or used from nearby stations (solar radiation, wind speed). The outflow from the experimental catchment is also measured. The aim of this paper is to simulate the dynamics of a soil moisture condition before bark beetle outbreak, to compare the differences and changes of a soil moisture and retention ability of a typical soil type in the case of a characteristic headwater catchment in Šumava Mts. For the simulation of a soil

  3. New record and extension of the distribution range of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae Nuevo registro y ampliación del área de distribución del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Armendáriz-Toledano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After several exploratory surveys to the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright, 1970 was recorded in 2 geographic localities of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. These new records extend the range of distribution of this beetle a further 250 km south along the SMOC from the southernmost site recorded in the state of Durango. These records indicate that this species may be present in almost any area of the SMOC where conditions are suitable for its development.Después de varios viajes de exploración a los estados de Jalisco y Zacatecas en la sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, se registró la presencia del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas y Bright, 1970 en 2 localidades en el Municipio de Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. Estos nuevos registros amplían el área de distribución del descortezador 250 km hacia el sur de la SMOC, a partir del punto más sureño registrado en el estado de Durango. Asimismo, estos registros indican que esta especie puede estar presente en prácticamente cualquier área de la SMOC que reúna las condiciones adecuadas para su desarrollo.

  4. Historical demography and phylogeography of a specialist bark beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Enrico A; Rinehart, John E; Hayes, Jane L; Zuñiga, Gerardo

    2010-10-01

    Contemporary distribution of North American species has been shaped by past glaciation events during the Quaternary period. However, their effects were not as severe in the southern Rocky Mountains and Northern Mexico as elsewhere in North America. In this context, we test hypotheses about the historical demography of Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, based on 136 haplotypes of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I. The phylogenetic analysis yielded four haplogroups corresponding to northwestern United States and southwestern Canada (NUS), southwestern United States (Arizona, SUS), northwestern Mexico (Sierra Madre Occidental, SMOC), and northeastern Mexico (Sierra Madre Oriental, SMOR). Predictions of demographic expansion were examined through neutrality tests against population growth and mismatch distribution. Results showed that the NUS and SMOC haplogroups have experienced demographic expansion events, whereas the SUS and SMOR haplogroups have not. Divergence times between pairs of haplogroups were estimated from early to middle Pleistocene. The longer divergence time between NUS and all other haplogroups could be the result of refugia within the Pacific Northwest and northern Rocky Mountains and long-term isolation from southernmost populations in Mexico. The results obtained in this study are in agreement with the evolutionary history of the host Douglas-fir, as the warmer climates of interglacial periods pushed conifers northward of Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, whereas environmental changes reduced the population size of Douglas-fir and forced fragmentation of distribution range southward into northern Mexico. PMID:22546468

  5. Saproxylic Beetle Assemblage Selection as Determining Factor of Species Distributional Patterns: Implications for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    García López, Alejandra; Galante, Eduardo; Micó, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the distributional patterns of saproxylic beetles is essential for conservation biology due to the relevance of this fauna in the maintenance of ecological processes and the endangerment of species. The complex community of saproxylic beetles is shaped by different assemblages that are composed of species linked by the microhabitats they use. We evaluate how different the species distribution patterns that are obtained can be, depending on the analyzed assemblage and to what ...

  6. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. PMID:26547588

  7. Analysis of the Wing Mechanism Movement Parameters of Selected Beetle Species (Coleoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler T.; Topczewska S.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a structural and functional analysis of the wing bending and folding mechanism of a selected beetle species. Insect motility studies, with regard to the anatomical structure, were performed. The main inner wing structures were highlighted and their mechanical properties and functions were determined. The structure parameters as mechanisms bodies that allow wings of various beetle species to bend and fold were defined.

  8. Analysis of the Wing Mechanism Movement Parameters of Selected Beetle Species (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisler T.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a structural and functional analysis of the wing bending and folding mechanism of a selected beetle species. Insect motility studies, with regard to the anatomical structure, were performed. The main inner wing structures were highlighted and their mechanical properties and functions were determined. The structure parameters as mechanisms bodies that allow wings of various beetle species to bend and fold were defined.

  9. Carbon isotopic composition of forest soil respiration in the decade following bark beetle and stem girdling disturbances in the Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Gregory E; Chan, Allison M; Trahan, Nicole A; Moore, David J P; Bowling, David R

    2016-07-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks are widespread in western North American forests, reducing primary productivity and transpiration, leading to forest mortality across large areas and altering ecosystem carbon cycling. Here the carbon isotope composition (δ(13) C) of soil respiration (δJ ) was monitored in the decade after disturbance for forests affected naturally by mountain pine beetle infestation and artificially by stem girdling. The seasonal mean δJ changed along both chronosequences. We found (a) enrichment of δJ relative to controls (<1 ‰) in near-surface soils in the first 2 years after disturbance; (b) depletion (1‰ or no change) during years 3-7; and (c) a second period of enrichment (1-2‰) in years 8-10. Results were consistent with isotopic patterns associated with the gradual death and decomposition of rhizosphere organisms, fine roots, conifer needles and woody roots and debris over the course of a decade after mortality. Finally, δJ was progressively more (13) C-depleted deeper in the soil than near the surface, while the bulk soil followed the well-established pattern of (13) C-enrichment at depth. Overall, differences in δJ between mortality classes (<1‰) and soil depths (<3‰) were smaller than variability within a class or depth over a season (up to 6‰). PMID:26824577

  10. Intraspecific and interspecific attraction of three Tomicus beetle species during the shoot-feeding phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Kong, X; Wang, H; Zhang, S

    2015-04-01

    The shoot beetles Tomicus minor, Tomicus yunnanensis, and Tomicus brevipilosus have been decimating Pinus yunnanensis trees for more than 30 years in Southwestern China. To understand the chemical ecological relationship between pines and Tomicus, and among the three beetle species, we compared the attraction of these beetles to damaged shoots, extracts from damaged shoots, and volatiles from damaged shoots collected by the dynamic headspace sampling method. Experiments were performed using a modified open-arena olfactometer. The male T. minor and both sexes of T. brevipilosus were more strongly attracted to damaged shoots than to undamaged shoots and they showed attraction to shoots damaged by the same species. Female T. minor and both sexes of T. yunnanensis were attracted to shoots damaged by female T. brevipilosus. The three beetle species were attracted to shoot extracts and dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by the same species and sex. Female T. minor and male T. yunnanensis were also attracted to dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by both sexes of T. brevipilosus. The results suggested that specific semiochemicals that are induced or produced by T. brevipilosus also attract T. minor and T. yunnanensis. The semiochemicals in damaged shoots affect the attraction of the three beetle species and play an important chemical communication role in weakening the host trees during the beetles' shoot-feeding phase. PMID:25632972

  11. Three new species of tiger beetles and new data on Cicindelina species from Angola (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Artur R M; Capela, Rúben A; Oesterle, Andreas

    2015-10-15

    Three new species of tiger beetles, two of the genus Trichotaenia Rivalier, 1957 and one of the genus Cylindera Westwood, 1831, subgenus Ifasina Jeannel, 1946 are described from Angola. An annotated list of species of Cicindelina sampled in this country is provided also. Records for three species previously unknow from Angola are given: Ophryodera smrzi Werner, 2005, Lophyra clatharta (Dejean, 1825) and Lophyra sumlini Cassola, 1976. Some considerations on the distribution and general ecology of these beetles in Angola are also presented. Further, two dichotomic keys are made available for the identification of Trichotaenia species with marked shoulders and Cylindera (Ifasina) species of western and southwestern Africa, respectively.

  12. Field responses of the Asian larch bark beetle, Ips subelongatus, to potential aggregation pheromone components: disparity between two populations in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Wen Song; Qing-He Zhang; Yue-Qu Chen; Tong-Tong Zuo; Bing-Zhong Ren

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses of the Asian larch bark beetle, Ips subelongatus Motsch. to three potential aggregation pheromone components, ipsenol (racemic or [-]-enantiomer), ipsdienol (racemic or [+]-enantiomer) and 3-methyl-3-buten-1 -ol, were tested using partial or full factorial experimental designs in two provinces (Inner Mongolia and Jilin) of northeastern China. Our field bioassays in Inner Mongolia (Larix principis- rupprechtii Mayr. plantation) clearly showed that ipsenol, either racemic or 97%-(-)-enantiomer, was the only compound that significantly attracted both sexes of I. subelongatus, while all other compounds (singly or in combinations) were unattractive. There were no two- or three-way synergistic interactions. However, in Jilin Province (L. gmelini [Rupr.] Rupr. Plantation), all the individual compounds tested were inactive, except a very weak activity by 97%-(-)-ipsenol in 2004 when the beetle population was very high. While a combination of ipsenol and ipsdienol (racemates or enantiomerically pure natural enantiomers) showed a significant attraction for both sexes of I. subelongatus, indicating a two-way synergistic interaction between these two major components, addition of 3-methyl-3-buten-l-ol to these active binary blend(s) did not have any effects on trap catches, suggesting that ipsenol and ipsdienol are the synergistic aggregation pheromone components of I. subelongatus in Jilin Province. It seems that 97%-(-)-ipsenol in Inner Mongolia or the binary blend of 97%-(-)-ipsenol and 97%-(+)-ipsdienol in Jilin Province are superior to their corresponding racemates, which might be due either to weak inhibitory effects of the antipode enantiomers or to reduced release rates of the active natural enantiomers) in the racemate(s). Our current bioassay results suggest that there is a strong geographical variation in aggregation pheromone response of I. subelongatus in northeastern China. Future research on the pheromone production and response of I

  13. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spier, L. [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dobben, H. van, E-mail: han.vandobben@wur.n [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dort, K. van [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH. - Tree species, rather than bark pH determines the occurrence of acidophytes and nitrophytes on trees.

  14. Winklerites serbicus, a new endogean species of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini) from southeastern Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ćurčić S.; Antić D.; Rađa T.; Makarov S.; Ćurčić B.; Ćurčić Nina; Lučić L.

    2013-01-01

    A new endogean bembidiine ground beetle species, Winklerites serbicus sp. n., from a cave in the southeastern part of Serbia is both described and diagnosed. Male and female genital structures and other taxonomically important characters are illustrated. The new species is clearly distinct from its closest congeners. Fifteen species of the genus so far known are arranged in six groups. The new species is both endemic and relict, inhabiting southeastern Serbia only. [Projekat Ministarstv...

  15. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanen, Duur K; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics against an antagonist of the beetles' mutualistic fungus. In addition to highlighting the ecological complexity of bark-beetle-microbial symbioses, this work reveals a potential source of novel antibiotics.

  16. Urwald relict species – Saproxylic beetles indicating structural qualities and habitat tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Jörg; Bußler, Heinz; Bense, Ulrich; Brustel, Hervé; Flechtner, Günther

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the list of saproxylic beetles of Germany, the authors present a definition and list of “Urwald relict species”, comprising 115 beetles that are considered to be associated with primeval forest (“Urwald”) structures and features. We use the term “habitat tradition” to describe a continuity in supply of old growth dead wood and forest structures. The selection of species is made on behalf of the following criteria: relict records in Central Europe; attachment to continuity of d...

  17. Saproxylic Beetle Assemblage Selection as Determining Factor of Species Distributional Patterns: Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, A; Galante, E; Micó, E

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the distributional patterns of saproxylic beetles is essential for conservation biology due to the relevance of this fauna in the maintenance of ecological processes and the endangerment of species. The complex community of saproxylic beetles is shaped by different assemblages that are composed of species linked by the microhabitats they use. We evaluate how different the species distribution patterns that are obtained can be, depending on the analyzed assemblage and to what extent these can affect conservation decisions. Beetles were sampled using hollow emergence and window traps in three protected areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Species richness, composition, and diversity turnover were analyzed for each sampling method and showed high variation depending on the analyzed assemblage. Beta diversity was clearly higher among forests for the assemblage captured using window traps. This method collects flying insects from different tree microhabitats and its captures are influenced by the forest structuring. Within forests, the assemblages captured by hollow emergence traps, which collect the fauna linked to tree hollows, showed the largest turnover of species, as they are influenced by the characteristics of each cavity. Moreover, the selection of the forest showing the highest species richness strongly depended on the studied assemblage. This study demonstrates that differences in the studied assemblages (group of species co-occurring in the same habitat) can also lead to significant differences in the identified patterns of species distribution and diversity turnover. This fact will be necessary to take into consideration when making decisions about conservation and management. PMID:27252483

  18. Mechanical and Frictional Properties of the Elytra of Five Species of Beetles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yu; Ilja Hermann; Zhendong Dai; Norm Gitis

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical and frictional properties of different parts of the elytra of five species of beetle were measured using a nano-indenter and a micro-tribometer.The surface microstructures of the elytra were observed by optical microscopy and scanning white light interferometry.The surface microstructures of the elytra of all five species are characterized as non-smooth concavo-convex although specific morphological differences demonstrate the diversity of beetle elytra.Young's modulus and the hardness of the elytral materials vary with the species of beetle and the sampling locations,ranging from 1.80 GPa to 12.44 GPa,and from 0.24 GPa to 0.75 GPa,respectively.In general,both the Young's modulus and the hardness are lower in samples taken from the center of the elytra than those taken from other regions,which reflects the functional heterogeneity of biological material in the process of biological evolution.The elytra have very low friction coefficient,ranging from 0.037 to 0.079,which is related to their composition and morphology.Our measurements indicate that the surface texture and its microstructural size of beetle elytra contribute to anti-friction effects.

  19. FLEA BEETLES (CHRYSOMELIDAE: ALTICINAE) SPECIES OCCURRING ON AMARANTHUS spp. IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cagán, L.; Vráblová, M; Tóth, P.

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT Occurrence and abundance of flea beetle species associated with Amaranthus spp. was studied in Slovakia with the aim to assess their potential as biological control agents. Insects were collected by sweeping/catching at 10 localities three times during the growing season. Together 13 species from the subfamily Alticinae were collected on A. retroflexus L. and A. caudatus L. plants by sweeping net. They were Altica oleracea (L.), Chaetocnema concinna (Marsh.), C. leavicolis Thoms., C....

  20. Effects of biotic and abiotic stress on induced accumulation of terpenes and phenolics in red pines inoculated with bark beetle-vectored fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepzig, K D; Kruger, E L; Smalley, E B; Raffa, K F

    1995-05-01

    This study characterized the chemical response of healthy red pine to artificial inoculation with the bark beetle-vectored fungusLeptographium terebrantis. In addition, we sought to determine whether stress altered this induced response and to understand the implications of these interactions to the study of decline diseases. Twenty-five-year-old trees responded to mechanical wounding or inoculation withL. terebrantis by producing resinous reaction lesions in the phloem. Aseptically wounded and wound-inoculated phloem contained higher concentrations of phenolics than did constitutive tissue. Trees inoculated withL. terebrantis also contained higher concentrations of six monoterpenes,α-pinene,β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, camphene, and myrcene, and higher total monoterpenes than did trees that were mechanically wounded or left unwounded. Concentrations of these monoterpenes increased with time after inoculation. Total phenolic concentrations in unwounded stem tissue did not differ between healthy and root-diseased trees. Likewise, constitutive monoterpene concentrations in stem phloem were similar between healthy and root-diseased trees. However, when stem phloem tissue was challenged with fungal inoculations, reaction tissue from root-diseased trees contained lower concentrations ofα-pinene, the predominant monoterpene in red pine, than did reaction tissue from healthy trees. Seedlings stressed by exposure to low light levels exhibited less extensive induced chemical changes when challenge inoculated withL. terebrantis than did seedlings growing under higher light. Stem phloem tissue in these seedlings contained lower concentrations ofα-pinene than did nonstressed seedlings also challenge inoculated withL. terebrantis. It is hypothesized that monoterpenes and phenolics play a role in the defensive response of red pine against insect-fungal attack, that stress may predispose red pine to attack by insect-fungal complexes, and that such interactions are involved

  1. The history of endemic Iberian ground beetle description (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae): which species were described first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.

    2007-01-01

    iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.

  2. Winklerites serbicus, a new endogean species of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini from southeastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new endogean bembidiine ground beetle species, Winklerites serbicus sp. n., from a cave in the southeastern part of Serbia is both described and diagnosed. Male and female genital structures and other taxonomically important characters are illustrated. The new species is clearly distinct from its closest congeners. Fifteen species of the genus so far known are arranged in six groups. The new species is both endemic and relict, inhabiting southeastern Serbia only. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038 i br. 47007

  3. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  4. Species richness - Energy relationships and dung beetle diversity across an aridity and trophic resource gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshikae, B. Power; Davis, Adrian L. V.; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2013-05-01

    Understanding factors that drive species richness and turnover across ecological gradients is important for insect conservation planning. To this end, we studied species richness - energy relationships and regional versus local factors that influence dung beetle diversity in game reserves along an aridity and trophic resource gradient in the Botswana Kalahari. Dung beetle species richness, alpha diversity, and abundance declined with increasing aridity from northeast to southwest and differed significantly between dung types (pig, elephant, cattle, sheep) and carrion (chicken livers). Patterns of between-study area species richness on ruminant dung (cattle, sheep) differed to other bait types. Patterns of species richness between bait types in two southwest study areas differed from those in four areas to the northeast. Regional species turnover between study areas was higher than local turnover between bait types. Patterns of southwest to northeast species loss showed greater consistency than northeast to southwest losses from larger assemblages. Towards the southwest, similarity to northeast assemblages declined steeply as beta diversity increased. High beta diversity and low similarity at gradsect extremes resulted from two groups of species assemblages showing either northeast or southwest biogeographical centres. The findings are consistent with the energy hypothesis that indicates insect species richness in lower latitudes is indirectly limited by declining water variables, which drive reduced food resources (lower energy availability) represented, here, by restriction of large mammals dropping large dung types to the northeast and dominance of pellet dropping mammals in the arid southwest Kalahari. The influence of theoretical causal mechanisms is discussed.

  5. No Effect of Host Species on Phenoloxidase Activity in a Mycophagous Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Formica

    Full Text Available Ecological immunology is an interdisciplinary field that helps elucidate interactions between the environment and immune response. The host species individuals experience have profound effects on immune response in many species of insects. However, this conclusion comes from studies of herbivorous insects even though species of mycophagous insects also inhabit many different host species. The goal of this study was to determine if fungal host species as well as individual, sex, body size, and host patch predict one aspect of immune function, phenoloxidase activity (PO. We sampled a metapopulation of Bolitotherus cornutus, a mycophagous beetle in southwestern Virginia. B. cornutus live on three species of fungus that differ in nutritional quality, social environment, and density. A filter paper phenoloxidase assay was used to quantify phenoloxidase activity. Overall, PO activity was significantly repeatable among individuals (0.57 in adult B. cornutus. While there was significant variance among individuals in PO activity, there were surprisingly no significant differences in PO activity among subpopulations, beetles living on different host species, or between the sexes; there was also no effect of body size. Our results suggest that other factors such as age, genotype, disease prevalence, or natal environment may be generating variance among individuals in PO activity.

  6. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SPECIES OF BEETLES (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA FROM WHEAT CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera between in wheat crops from Tişiţa, in Vrancea county. The observations were made in a crop of wheat in 2013, who were placed the soil traps type Barber, during the two months, May and June. It was used three variants: • Variant 1 - consumption wheat untreated • Variant 2 - consumption wheat treaty • Variant 3 - treated wheat seed The gathering of samples from the traps was done periodically, every 12-15 days. The most species frequent gathered was: Pentodon idiota, Epicometis hirta, Opatrum sabulosum, Phyllotreta atra, Phyllotreta nemorum, Tanymecus dilaticollis.

  7. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum.

  8. Extraction and evaluation of condensed tannins from bark of eleven species of trees from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made regarding the nature and the amount of condensed tannin which can extract of bark from 11 tree species present in Costa Rica: guanacaste (Enterolobium cyclocarpum), cork oak (Licania arborea), jobo (Spondias mombin), pochote (Pachira quinata), loquat (Manilkara chicle), almond (Andira inermis), oak (Tabebuia rosea), cedar (Cedrela odorata), cenizaro (Samanea saman), pine (Pinus caribaea) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica). The cortex samples were prepared, dried and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were analyzed for condensed tannin content through the number of Stiasny, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The species with the highest proportion of extracted material were: guanacaste (9.5841% w/w), pochote (15.0066% w/w), pine (19.3400% w/w) and cypress (10.5300% w/w). The extracts with a higher proportion of condensed tannins have been: cork oak (61.9% w/w), jobo (66.1% w/w), pochote (72.8% w/w), loquat (50.5% w/w), cedar (72.7% w/w) and pine (70.7% w/w). (author)

  9. Parasitism of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by a New Species of Hairworm (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) in Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Crystal M; Hanelt, Ben; Buddle, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    The host-parasite associations between ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) collected from the Arctic (an understudied and ecologically important region) is described. Carabids and their parasites were collected from 12 sites spanning the 3 northernmost ecoclimatic zones of Canada (north boreal, subarctic, and high Arctic) using standardized methods. The beetles and hairworms were identified using traditional morphological approaches. Seven beetle species are recorded as hosts: Amara alpina, Pterostichus caribou, Pterostichus brevicornis, Pterostichus tareumiut, Pterostichus haematopus, Patrobus septentrionis, and Notiophilus borealis. All represent new host records (increasing the known North American host list from 14 to 21), and this is the first record of hairworm infection in the genus Notiophilus. Beetles from Banks Island, Northwest Territory, were infected in high numbers (11-19% per sampling period) and were used as an ecological case study. There was no significant relationship between infection status and host species, body size, or sex. Beetles collected in yellow pan traps and in wet habitats were more likely to be infected, likely due to water-seeking behavior induced by the parasites. Morphological examinations indicate that the hairworms collected from all locations represent a single, new species of Gordionus, making it only the sixth hairworm species and the third species of that genus found in Canada. Hosts are unknown for all other Canadian (and 1 Alaskan) Gordionus species.

  10. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.

  11. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  12. Expansion of the Candida tanzawaensis yeast clade: 16 novel Candida species from basidiocarp-feeding beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Oui; McHugh, Joseph V; Blackwell, Meredith

    2004-11-01

    A major clade of new yeast taxa from the digestive tract of basidiocarp-feeding beetles is recognized based on rRNA gene sequence analyses. Almost 30 % of 650 gut isolates formed a statistically well-supported clade that included Candida tanzawaensis. The yeasts in the clade were isolated from 11 families of beetles, of which Tenebrionidae and Erotylidae were most commonly sampled. Repeated isolation of certain yeasts from the same beetle species at different times and places indicated strong host associations. Sexual reproduction was never observed in the yeasts. Based on comparisons of small- and large-subunit rRNA gene sequences and morphological and physiological traits, the yeasts were placed in Candida ambrosiae and in 16 other undescribed taxa. In this report, the novel species in the genus Candida are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. The novel species and their type strains are as follows: Candida guaymorum (NRRL Y-27568(T)=CBS 9823(T)), Candida bokatorum (NRRL Y-27571(T)=CBS 9824(T)), Candida kunorum (NRRL Y-27580(T)=CBS 9825(T)), Candida terraborum (NRRL Y-27573(T)=CBS 9826(T)), Candida emberorum (NRRL Y-27606(T)=CBS 9827(T)), Candida wounanorum (NRRL Y-27574(T)=CBS 9828(T)), Candida yuchorum (NRRL Y-27569(T)=CBS 9829(T)), Candida chickasaworum (NRRL Y-27566(T)=CBS 9830(T)), Candida choctaworum (NRRL Y-27584(T)=CBS 9831(T)), Candida bolitotheri (NRRL Y-27587(T)=CBS 9832(T)), Candida atakaporum (NRRL Y-27570(T)=CBS 9833(T)), Candida panamericana (NRRL Y-27567(T)=CBS 9834(T)), Candida bribrorum (NRRL Y-27572(T)=CBS 9835(T)), Candida maxii (NRRL Y-27588(T)=CBS 9836(T)), Candida anneliseae (NRRL Y-27563(T)=CBS 9837(T)) and Candida taliae (NRRL Y-27589(T)=CBS 9838(T)).

  13. Assessing forest vulnerability and the potential distribution of pine beetles under current and future climate scenarios in the Interior West of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, P.H.; Kumar, S.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Young, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate forest vulnerability and potential distribution of three bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) under current and projected climate conditions for 2020 and 2050. Our study focused on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis), and pine engraver (Ips pini). This study was conducted across eight states in the Interior West of the US covering approximately 2.2millionkm2 and encompassing about 95% of the Rocky Mountains in the contiguous US. Our analyses relied on aerial surveys of bark beetle outbreaks that occurred between 1991 and 2008. Occurrence points for each species were generated within polygons created from the aerial surveys. Current and projected climate scenarios were acquired from the WorldClim database and represented by 19 bioclimatic variables. We used Maxent modeling technique fit with occurrence points and current climate data to model potential beetle distributions and forest vulnerability. Three available climate models, each having two emission scenarios, were modeled independently and results averaged to produce two predictions for 2020 and two predictions for 2050 for each analysis. Environmental parameters defined by current climate models were then used to predict conditions under future climate scenarios, and changes in different species' ranges were calculated. Our results suggested that the potential distribution for bark beetles under current climate conditions is extensive, which coincides with infestation trends observed in the last decade. Our results predicted that suitable habitats for the mountain pine beetle and pine engraver beetle will stabilize or decrease under future climate conditions, while habitat for the western pine beetle will continue to increase over time. The greatest increase in habitat area was for the western pine beetle, where one climate model predicted a 27% increase by 2050. In contrast, the predicted habitat of the

  14. Effects of knowledge of an endangered species on recreationists' attitudes and stated behaviors and the significance of management compliance for ohlone tiger beetle conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Tara M; Duane, Timothy P

    2013-12-01

    Recreation is a leading cause of species decline on public lands, yet sometimes it can be used as a tool for conservation. Engagement in recreational activities, such as hiking and biking, in endangered species habitats may even enhance public support for conservation efforts. We used the case of the endangered Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone) to investigate the effect of biking and hiking on the beetle's behavior and the role of recreationists' knowledge of and attitudes toward Ohlone tiger beetle in conservation of the species. In Inclusion Area A on the University of California Santa Cruz (U.S.A.) campus, adult Ohlone tiger beetles mate and forage in areas with bare ground, particularly on recreational trails; however, recreation disrupts these activities. We tested the effect of recreation on Ohlone tiger beetles by observing beetle behavior on trails as people walked and road bikes at slow and fast speed and on trails with no recreation. We also surveyed recreationists to investigate how their knowledge of the beetle affected their attitudes toward conservation of the beetle and stated compliance with regulations aimed at beetle conservation. Fast cycling caused the beetles to fly off the trail more often and to fly farther than slow cycling or hiking. Slow cycling and hiking did not differ in their effect on the number of times and distance the beetles flew off the trail. Recreationists' knowledge of the beetle led to increased stated compliance with regulations, and this stated compliance is likely to have tangible conservation outcomes for the beetle. Our results suggest management and education can mitigate the negative effect of recreation and promote conservation of endangered species. Efectos del Conocimiento de una Especie en Peligro sobre las Actitudes y Comportamientos Declarados de los Recreacionistas y el Significado del Manejo de la Conformidad para la Conservación del Escarabajo Tigre de Ohlone. PMID:23869997

  15. Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Carina; Månsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2008-10-01

    Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory

  16. Redefinition of the genus Silphitrombium (Trombidiformes: Neothrombiidae) with description of two new species parasitizing beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae, Tenebrionidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashakor, Samaneh; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Saboori, Alireza

    2013-11-15

    Two new species of Silphitrombium Fain, 1992 (Acari: Prostigmata: Neothrombiidae), ectoparasites of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera), are described from Sistan and Baluchestan Province, eastern Iran: S. elateridum sp. nov. on Heteroderes heideni Reitter, 1891 (Col.: Elateridae) and S. iranicum sp. nov. on Opatroides punctulatus Brullé, 1832 (Col.: Tenebrionidae) and the genus Silphitrombium is redefined. It is the first record of the relationship between beetles of the families Elateridae and Tenebrionidae, and mites of the genus Silphitrombium. A key to the species of the genus is presented.

  17. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J.; Labrecque,Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new...

  18. Rapid Divergence of Nesting Depth and Digging Appendages among Tunneling Dung Beetle Populations and Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macagno, Anna L M; Moczek, Armin P; Pizzo, Astrid

    2016-05-01

    Many dung beetle communities are characterized by species that share very similar morphological, ecological, and behavioral traits and requirements yet appear to be stably maintained. Here, we document that the morphologically nearly indistinguishable, sympatric, and syntopic tunneling sister species Onthophagus taurus and Onthophagus illyricus may be avoiding competitive exclusion by nesting at remarkably different soil depths. Intriguingly, we also find rapid divergence in preferred nesting depth across native and recently established O. taurus populations. Furthermore, geometric morphometric analyses reveal that both inter- and intraspecific divergences in nesting depth are paralleled by similar changes in the shape of the primary digging appendages, the fore tibiae. Collectively, our results identify preferred nesting depth and tibial shape as surprisingly evolutionarily labile and with the potential to ease interspecific competition and/or to facilitate adaptation to local climatic conditions. PMID:27105002

  19. Influence of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels, Foliar Fuel Moisture Content, and Litter and Volatile Terpenes in Whitebark Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Toone, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has caused extensive tree mortality in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm) forests. Previous studies conducted in various conifer forests have shown that fine surface fuels are significantly altered during a bark beetle outbreak. Bark beetle activity in conifer stands has also been shown to alter foliar fuel moisture content and chemistry over the course of the bark beetle rotation.The objective of this study was to evaluate changes ...

  20. Species limits in polymorphic mimetic Eniclases net-winged beetles from New Guinean mountains (Coleoptera, Lycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocek, Matej; Bocak, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp. n., Eniclases pseudoapertus sp. n., Eniclases pseudoluteolus sp. n., Eniclases tikapurensis sp. n., and Eniclases variabilis sp. n. Different levels of genetic and morphological diversification were identified in various sister-species pairs. As a result, both morphological and molecular analyses are used to delimit species. Sister-species with uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence as low as 0.45% were morphologically distinct not only in color pattern, but also in the relative size of eyes. Conversely, differences in color pattern regardless of their magnitude did not necessarily indicate genetic distance and intraspecific mimicry polymorphism was common. Additionally, genetic divergence without morphological differentiation was detected in one sister-species pair. Low dispersal propensity, diverse mimicry patterns, and mimetic polymorphism resulted in complex diversification of Eniclases and uncertain species delimitation in recently diversified lineages.

  1. Two new species and new provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W; Bourdon, Caroline; Gilbert, Amélie; Labrecque, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Two new species, Atheta pseudovestita Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., Silusa prettyae Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., are described, and 16 new provincial records, including one new country record, of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, bionomics information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A new checklist with 189 species of aleocharines recorded from the province is presented.

  2. Role of dung beetle feeding mechanisms in limiting the suitability of species as hosts for the nematode Spirocerca lupi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Toit, C. A.; Holter, P.; Lutermann, H.;

    2012-01-01

    Various species of dung beetle serve as intermediate hosts after ingesting the embryonated eggs (1115 x 3037 mu m) of Spirocerca lupi (Spirurida: Spirocercidae) in dog faeces. The feeding mechanisms of coprophagous dung beetles restrict the size of the food particles they can ingest and hence may...

  3. Rhodotorula subericola sp. nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast species isolated from bark of Quercus suber (cork oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloch, C; Villa-Carvajal, M; Alvarez-Rodríguez, M L; Coque, J J R

    2007-07-01

    Two yeasts strains, Y-31(T) and Y-20B, pertaining to a previously unknown yeast species were isolated from bark of cork oak in Spain. Physiological characterization revealed a pattern of assimilation of carbon and nitrogen compounds compatible with members of the genus Rhodotorula. From sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene, Rhodotorula cycloclastica and Rhodotorula philyla were related to the unknown species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene showed that the novel species clustered in a branch together with R. cycloclastica. The name Rhodotorula subericola sp. nov. is proposed, with isolate Y-31(T) (=CECT 11976(T)=CBS 10442(T)) the type strain of this novel taxon in the Microbotryum lineage, subclass Microbotryomycetidae, class Urediniomycetes of basidiomycetous yeasts.

  4. Significance of hind wing morphology in distinguishing genera and species of cantharid beetles with a geometric morphometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Junyan Su; Kaile Guan; Jiaxu Wang; Yuxia Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There remain some difficulties in delimitation of related genera or sibling species for cantharid beetles, because the traditionally taxonomic method and morphological characters have not been updated or introduced. In the present study, we firstly use the landmark-based geometric morphometrics to analyze and compare the hind wings of nine species belonging to three genera of Cantharinae to ascertain whether this approach may be used as a reliable method in the study of the taxonomy ...

  5. Crop Type and Management Effects on Ground Beetle Species (Coleoptera, Carabidae) Activity in an Extensive Plot Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Eyre, Dr M.D.; Shotton, P. N.; Leifert, Prof C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of crop type, and of fertility and crop protection management within crops, on ground beetle species activity were investigated using the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison Experiment, using pitfall traps in 2005. Thirteen species gave significant responses to crop type, with seven showing a preference for cereals and none for grass/clover. There were 22 significant responses to fertility and six to crop protection within crop types. Sixteen of the responses to fertility and f...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens—eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.

  7. The origin of widespread species in a poor dispersing lineage (diving beetle genus Deronectes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, David

    2016-01-01

    In most lineages, most species have restricted geographic ranges, with only few reaching widespread distributions. How these widespread species reached their current ranges is an intriguing biogeographic and evolutionary question, especially in groups known to be poor dispersers. We reconstructed the biogeographic and temporal origin of the widespread species in a lineage with particularly poor dispersal capabilities, the diving beetle genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae). Most of the ca. 60 described species of Deronectes have narrow ranges in the Mediterranean area, with only four species with widespread European distributions. We sequenced four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of 297 specimens of 109 different populations covering the entire distribution of the four lineages of Deronectes, including widespread species. Using Bayesian probabilities with an a priori evolutionary rate, we performed (1) a global phylogeny/phylogeography to estimate the relationships of the main lineages within each group and root them, and (2) demographic analyses of the best population coalescent model for each species group, including a reconstruction of the geographical history estimated from the distribution of the sampled localities. We also selected 56 specimens to test for the presence of Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted parasite that can alter the patterns of mtDNA variability. All species of the four studied groups originated in the southern Mediterranean peninsulas and were estimated to be of Pleistocene origin. In three of the four widespread species, the central and northern European populations were nested within those in the northern areas of the Anatolian, Balkan and Iberian peninsulas respectively, suggesting a range expansion at the edge of the southern refugia. In the Mediterranean peninsulas the widespread European species were replaced by vicariant taxa of recent origin. The fourth species (D. moestus) was proven to be a composite of unrecognised lineages with

  8. Bark- and wood-borer colonization of logs and lumber after heat treatment to ISPM 15 specifications: the role of residual bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Petrice, Toby R

    2009-06-01

    Wood packaging material (WPM) is a major pathway for international movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. ISPM 15, the first international standard for treating WPM, was adopted in 2002 and first implemented in the United States in 2006. ISPM 15 allows bark to remain on WPM after treatment, raising concerns that insects could infest after treatment, especially if bark were present. We conducted field studies to evaluate insect infestation of green logs and lumber with varying amounts of bark after heat treatment. In a log study, Cerambycidae and Scolytinae (ambrosia beetles and bark beetles) readily infested and developed in logs with bark after heat treatment. In a lumber study, Cerambycidae and bark beetles laid eggs in all sizes of bark patches tested (approximately 25, 100, 250, and 1,000 cm2) after heat treatment but did not infest control or heat-treated lumber without bark. Cerambycidae completed development only in boards with bark patches of 1,000 cm2, whereas bark beetles completed development on patches of 100, 250, and 1,000 cm2. Survival of bark beetles was greater in square patches (10 by 10 cm) versus rectangular patches (2.5 by 40 cm) of the same surface area (100 cm2). In surveys at six U.S. ports in 2006, 9.4% of 5,945 ISPM 15-marked WPM items contained bark, and 1.2% of 564 ISPM 15-marked WPM items with bark contained live insects of quarantine significance under the bark. It was not possible to determine whether the presence of live insects represented treatment failure or infestation after treatment.

  9. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  10. Elevational gradient in species richness pattern of epigaeic beetles and underlying mechanisms at east slope of Balang Mountain in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Lü, Liang; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2013-01-01

    We report on the species richness patterns of epigaeic beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) along a subtropical elevational gradient of Balang Mountain, southwestern China. We tested the roles of environmental factors (e.g. temperature, area and litter cover) and direct biotic interactions (e.g. foods and antagonists) that shape elevational diversity gradients. Beetles were sampled at 19 sites using pitfall traps along the studied elevational gradient ranging from 1500 m-4000 m during the 2004 growing season. A total of 74416 specimens representing 260 species were recorded. Species richness of epigaeic beetles and two families showed unimodal patterns along the elevational gradient, peaking at mid-elevations (c. 2535 m), and the ranges of most beetle species were narrow along the gradient. The potential correlates of both species richness and environmental variables were examined using linear and second order polynomial regressions. The results showed that temperature, area and litter cover had strong explanatory power of beetle species richness for nearly all richness patterns, of beetles as a whole and of Carabidae and Staphylinidae, but the density of antagonists was associated with species richness of Carabidae only. Multiple regression analyses suggested that the three environmental factors combined contributed most to richness patterns for most taxa. The results suggest that environmental factors associated with temperature, area and habitat heterogeneity could account for most variation in richness pattern of epigaeic beetles. Additionally, the mid-elevation peaks and the small range size of most species indicate that conservation efforts should give attention to the entire gradient rather than just mid-elevations. PMID:23874906

  11. Elevational gradient in species richness pattern of epigaeic beetles and underlying mechanisms at east slope of Balang Mountain in southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Yu

    Full Text Available We report on the species richness patterns of epigaeic beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae along a subtropical elevational gradient of Balang Mountain, southwestern China. We tested the roles of environmental factors (e.g. temperature, area and litter cover and direct biotic interactions (e.g. foods and antagonists that shape elevational diversity gradients. Beetles were sampled at 19 sites using pitfall traps along the studied elevational gradient ranging from 1500 m-4000 m during the 2004 growing season. A total of 74416 specimens representing 260 species were recorded. Species richness of epigaeic beetles and two families showed unimodal patterns along the elevational gradient, peaking at mid-elevations (c. 2535 m, and the ranges of most beetle species were narrow along the gradient. The potential correlates of both species richness and environmental variables were examined using linear and second order polynomial regressions. The results showed that temperature, area and litter cover had strong explanatory power of beetle species richness for nearly all richness patterns, of beetles as a whole and of Carabidae and Staphylinidae, but the density of antagonists was associated with species richness of Carabidae only. Multiple regression analyses suggested that the three environmental factors combined contributed most to richness patterns for most taxa. The results suggest that environmental factors associated with temperature, area and habitat heterogeneity could account for most variation in richness pattern of epigaeic beetles. Additionally, the mid-elevation peaks and the small range size of most species indicate that conservation efforts should give attention to the entire gradient rather than just mid-elevations.

  12. Virulence of, and interactions among mountain pine beetle associated blue-stain fungi on two pine species and their hybrids in Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, A V; M.N. Thormann; Langor, D W

    2007-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (MPB) is the most serious pest of lodgepole pine in western Canada, and it is predicted to spread into boreal jack pine within the next few years. Colonization of host trees by MPB-associated blue-stain fungi appears to be required for successful beetle reproduction. Three species of blue-stain fungi, Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffery and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer, and Wingfield (≡ Ophiostoma clavigerum (Robinson-Jeffery and Davidson) Harrington), Ophiostoma montium ...

  13. Elevational Gradient in Species Richness Pattern of Epigaeic Beetles and Underlying Mechanisms at East Slope of Balang Mountain in Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Dong Yu; Liang Lü; Tian-Hong Luo; Hong-Zhang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    We report on the species richness patterns of epigaeic beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) along a subtropical elevational gradient of Balang Mountain, southwestern China. We tested the roles of environmental factors (e.g. temperature, area and litter cover) and direct biotic interactions (e.g. foods and antagonists) that shape elevational diversity gradients. Beetles were sampled at 19 sites using pitfall traps along the studied elevational gradient ranging from 1500 m-4000 m d...

  14. Ecological niche modelling and nDNA sequencing support a new, morphologically cryptic beetle species unveiled by DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Hawlitschek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA sequencing techniques used to estimate biodiversity, such as DNA barcoding, may reveal cryptic species. However, disagreements between barcoding and morphological data have already led to controversy. Species delimitation should therefore not be based on mtDNA alone. Here, we explore the use of nDNA and bioclimatic modelling in a new species of aquatic beetle revealed by mtDNA sequence data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aquatic beetle fauna of Australia is characterised by high degrees of endemism, including local radiations such as the genus Antiporus. Antiporus femoralis was previously considered to exist in two disjunct, but morphologically indistinguishable populations in south-western and south-eastern Australia. We constructed a phylogeny of Antiporus and detected a deep split between these populations. Diagnostic characters from the highly variable nuclear protein encoding arginine kinase gene confirmed the presence of two isolated populations. We then used ecological niche modelling to examine the climatic niche characteristics of the two populations. All results support the status of the two populations as distinct species. We describe the south-western species as Antiporus occidentalis sp.n. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to nDNA sequence data and extended use of mitochondrial sequences, ecological niche modelling has great potential for delineating morphologically cryptic species.

  15. How do low dispersal species establish large range sizes? The case of the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Rannap, Riinu; Thomsen, Philip Francis;

    2013-01-01

    important than species phylogeny or local spatial attributes. In this study we used the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus a philopatric species of conservation concern in Europe as a model to explain large range size and to support effective conservation measures for such species that also have limited...... systems and wetlands which used to be highly connected throughout the central plains of Europe. Our data suggest that a broad habitat niche can prevent landscape elements from becoming barriers for species like G. bilineatus. Therefore, we question the usefulness of site protection as conservation...... measures for G. bilineatus and similar philopatric species. Instead, conservation actions should be focused at the landscape level to ensure a long-term viability of such species across their range....

  16. Diversidad, fluctuación poblacional y plantas huésped de escolitinos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México Diversity, dynamic population and host plants of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pérez-De La Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la diversidad de escolitinos asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México durante el año 2007. Los insectos adultos fueron recolectados en 4 localidades con trampas de alcohol etílico, trampas de atracción luminosa y captura directa sobre sus plantas huésped. Se recolectaron 19 263 ejemplares, pertenecientes a 51 especies y 26 géneros. Araptus hymenaeae y Cnesinus squamosus son nuevos registros para México. La máxima diversidad de insectos capturados con los 3 métodos de recolecta se obtuvo en El Bajío (H'=2.45 y Dmg=4.83, la mínima en Río Seco (H'=2.29 y Km. 21 (Dmg=3.85, y el máximo valor de equidad (J lo obtuvo El Bajío (0.67. El índice de similitud de Sorensen (Is mostró que los sitios de estudio tienden a presentar la misma composición de especies. Los índices de diversidad, equidad y similitud, aplicados a la fauna de escolitinos capturados con cada uno de los métodos empleados, mostraron diferencias, excepto en las trampas de alcohol. La fluctuación presenta picos poblacionales marcados al inicio y al final del año de estudio. Las plantas en las que se recolectó el mayor número de especies fueron Theobroma cacao (16 y Swietenia macrophylla (13.The bark and ambrosia beetle diversity in cocoa agroecosystems was studied during 2007 in Tabasco, Mexico. Adult insects were gathered in 4 localities with ethanol and light traps and by direct collecting in their host plants. 19 263 specimens were gathered, belonging to 51 species and 26 genera. Araptus hymenaeae and Cnesinus squamosus are new records for Mexico. The maximum diversity of insects captured with the 3 collecting methods was obtained in El Bajío (H'=2.45 and Dmg=4.83, the minimum in Río Seco (H'=2.29 and Km. 21 (Dmg=3.85, and the maximum value of justness (J was obtained in El Bajío (0.67. The Sorensen similarity index (Is showed that the study places present the same species composition. The diversity, justness and similarity indices

  17. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed. PMID:27231258

  18. New species and new records of Pterosthetops: eumadicolous water beetles of the South African Cape (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, David T

    2014-06-05

    Pterosthetops is one of a number of hydraenid genera endemic to the Cape of South Africa, whose minute moss beetle fauna is amongst the most diverse on earth. Here seven species are described as new: Pterosthetops baini sp. nov., Pterosthetops coriaceus sp. nov., Pterosthetops indwei sp. nov., Ptersothetops pulcherrimus sp. nov., Pterosthetops swartbergensis sp. nov., Pterosthetops tuberculatus sp. nov. and Pterosthetops uitkyki sp. nov., all from mountains in the Western Cape region. New collection records are also provided for all five previously described members of the genus, together with a revised key. Pterosthetops appear to be specialist inhabitants of seepages over rock faces (hygropetric/madicolous habitats), rarely being found outside such situations.

  19. Sucinolivolia torpida--a new genus and species of flea-beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukejs, Andris; Biondi, Maurizio; Alekseev, Vitalii I

    2015-12-15

    Sucinolivolia torpida gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) is described and illustrated from Eocene Baltic amber. The new monotypic genus is compared with fossil and extant flea-beetle genera. Sucinolivolia gen. nov. is similar to the extant Livolia Jacoby and Orthaltica Crotch, but difference include the absence of an antebasal pronotal sulcus, not crenulate lateral pronotal margins, possessing very short genae, more robust legs, and the shape of tibiae. Including this new record, six described species of Alticini are known from Baltic amber.

  20. Cenoses and species phenology of Carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in three stages of vegetational succession in upper Pivka karst (SW Slovenia):

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Slavko

    2004-01-01

    The Carabid beetle cenoses in three stages of vegetational succession in selected karst area were studied. Year-round phenology of all species present is presented. Species richness of the habitats, total number of individuals trapped and the nature conservation aspects of the vegetational succession of the karst grasslands are discussed.

  1. A new species of Anomognathus and new Canadian and provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W; Hammond, H E James; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Anomognathus athabascensis Klimaszewski, Hammond & Langor, sp. n., and nine new provincial records including one new country record of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Alberta. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, natural history information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A checklist for all recorded aleocharines from Alberta is updated.

  2. Epuraea imperialis (Reitter, 1877). New invasive species of Nitidulidae (Coleoptera) in Europe, with a checklist of sap beetles introduced to Europe and Mediterranean areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínek, Josef; Audisio, Paolo; Hájek, Jiří; Baviera, Cosimo; Moncoutier, Bernard; Barnouin, Thomas; Brustel, Hervé; GENÇ, Hanife; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Australian species Epuraea imperialis (Reitter, 1877), previously introduced to New Zealand, is recorded as a new invasive species from the Canary Islands, Continental Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, and Italy. It is redescribed and figured, and its taxonomic position in the genus Epuraea Erichson, 1843 is discussed. A tentative checklist of sap beetles introduced to Europe and the Mediterranean areas is finally included.

  3. Pressurised Fluid Extraction of Bioactive Species in Tree Barks : Analysis using Hyphenated Electrochemical Mass Spectrometric Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Co, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Analytical chemistry has developed throughout time to meet current needs. At present, the interest in biorefinery is growing, due to environmental awareness and the depletion of fossil resources. Biomass from agricultural and forestry industries has proven to be excellent raw material for different processes. Biorefinering valuable species such as bioactive species from biomass, without compromising the primary process of the biomass is highly desirable. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) usi...

  4. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetles (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed, but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

  5. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetle (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge {Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF GROUND BEETLES (COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE IN SPECIES AND GENERA USING ASC-ANALYSIS OF THEIR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From a huge number of the organisms inhabiting our planet, insects make 70%, being the most numerous of the invertebrate animal classes numbering more than 2 million types. It is difficult to find such place where it would be impossible to meet representatives of this huge class. They completely took over the entire environment - water, the land, air. For them, it is the common characteristic: complex instincts, omnivorous, high fecundity, and for some of them – a public way of life. Insects can be found at tremendous heights, reaching the level of 5000 meters, and they inhabit the desert where it practically never rains, not to mention the absence of any vegetation. Deep caves where no sunlight, nor the conditions for food and existence of living organisms — it is also the habitat of insects, they can be found far beyond the Arctic circle, and even on many Islands of Antarctica, where in addition to lifeless rock, it would seem that there is nothing else. Among insects, one of the largest and most numerous families are the ground beetles (Carabidae. They subtly respond to changes in soil and vegetation, hydrothermal and micro-climatic conditions of the environment, which makes them a convenient model subject to various environmental and Zoological researches. Ground beetles belong to a large number of genera and species, often difficult to see, in this regard, we use many different signs to diagnose. We have taken into consideration the coloration, body shape, external structure, surface structure, size, and arrangement of the genitals and chaetotaxy. Due to the fact, that the number of ground beetles is enormous, and, using their appearance, it is very difficult to determine their generic identity, there is a need of automation of the identification process, due to which we require a special mechanism that would increase the accuracy of these insects. In the previous work of the authors (http://ej.kubagro.ru/2016/05/pdf/01.pdf we

  7. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Klimaszewski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszew­ski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey, Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin, Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say, Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605, Candida mesenterica (Geiger Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362, Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763, Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073, Candida sp. (accession number AY498864, Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246, Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345, Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581, Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630, Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501, Acremonium psammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287, Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946, Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750, and Aspergillus amstelodami (L. Mangin Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (KirchnerJordan (accession number BA000040 and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in

  8. Enhancing Stand Structure through Snag Creation in Northeastern U.S. Forests: Using Ethanol Injections and Bark Beetle Pheromones to Artificially Stress Red Maple and White Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Dodds

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated two methods to create white pine and red maple snags in a forested setting. The first involved injecting trees with ethanol at two times (single Ethanol (ETOH and double ETOH injections to increase attractiveness to insects and elicit attacks on trees. The second method was unique to white pines and involved both injection treatments in combination with baiting trees with Ips-specific pheromones. Three of five white pines from the double ETOH treatment died in the second year. Species including Ips pini (Say, Ips grandicollis Eichhoff, Orthotomicus caelatus Eichhoff, Crypturgus borealis Swaine and Monochamus notatus (Drury responded more strongly to at least one of the treatments over control trees. However, there were no differences found in individual Scolytinae or Cerambycidae species response to treatments in red maple. Fitness (FV/FM and vitality (PIabs were both significantly reduced in both ETOH treatments compared to controls in white pine. In red maple, fitness was reduced in the double ETOH treated trees but the final mean FV/FM values were within the approximate optimal of health. Ethanol injections, in combination with Ips-specific semiochemicals, show promise for creating standing coarse woody debris (CWD in white pine. Injecting ethanol was not effective for stressing red maple.

  9. PCR multiplexes discriminate Fusarium symbionts of invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetles that inflict damage on numerous tree species throughout the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Euwallacea ambrosia beetles vector Fusarium mutualists. The ambrosial fusaria are all members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). Several Euwallacea-Fusarium mutualists have been introduced into non-native regions and have caused varying degr...

  10. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as potential hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff) is a non-native invasive forest pest and vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States (U.S.). Concern exists that X. glabratus and its fungal symbiont cou...

  11. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spier, L.; Dobben, van H.F.; Dort, van K.W.

    2010-01-01

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement poi

  12. Attaching lures to multiple-funnel traps targeting saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera) in pine stands: inside or outside funnels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel R; Crowe, Christopher M; Barnes, Brittany F; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Duerr, Donald A

    2013-02-01

    We conducted two field trapping experiments with multiple-funnel traps in 2008 and one experiment in 2010 to determine the effects of lure placement (inside or outside funnels) on catches of saproxylic species of beetles (Coleoptera). The experiments were conducted in southern pine (Pinus spp.) stands in central Georgia using combinations of ethanol, alpha-pinene, ipsenol, and ipsdienol lures. We report on a modification to the multiple-funnel trap that allows placement of large lures inside the confines of the funnels with minimal blockage. In general, catches of five species of common longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae), two species of regeneration weevils (Curculionidae), four species of bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and seven species of beetle predators and ectoparasites (Cleridae, Histeridae, Tenebrionidae, Trogossitidae, and Zopheridae) were higher in funnel traps with lures attached inside the funnels than in those with lures attached outside of the funnels. Catches of the remaining species were unaffected by lure placement. In no instance were catches of any species lower in funnel traps with lures attached inside the funnels than in those with lures attached outside of the funnels. For most species, catches in modified funnel traps with ethanol, alpha-pinene, ipsenol, and ipsdienol lures attached inside funnels were comparable with those in cross-vane panel traps.

  13. Can Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS and Forest Estimates Derived from Satellite Images Be Used to Predict Abundance and Species Richness of Birds and Beetles in Boreal Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lindberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In managed landscapes, conservation planning requires effective methods to identify high-biodiversity areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning (ALS and forest estimates derived from satellite images extracted at two spatial scales for predicting the stand-scale abundance and species richness of birds and beetles in a managed boreal forest landscape. Multiple regression models based on forest data from a 50-m radius (i.e., corresponding to a homogenous forest stand had better explanatory power than those based on a 200-m radius (i.e., including also parts of adjacent stands. Bird abundance and species richness were best explained by the ALS variables “maximum vegetation height” and “vegetation cover between 0.5 and 3 m” (both positive. Flying beetle abundance and species richness, as well as epigaeic (i.e., ground-living beetle richness were best explained by a model including the ALS variable “maximum vegetation height” (positive and the satellite-derived variable “proportion of pine” (negative. Epigaeic beetle abundance was best explained by “maximum vegetation height” at 50 m (positive and “stem volume” at 200 m (positive. Our results show that forest estimates derived from satellite images and ALS data provide complementary information for explaining forest biodiversity patterns. We conclude that these types of remote sensing data may provide an efficient tool for conservation planning in managed boreal landscapes.

  14. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J.; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey. PMID:27587977

  15. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey.

  16. New insights into the consequences of post-windthrow salvage logging revealed by functional structure of saproxylic beetles assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Simon; Bässler, Claus; Gottschalk, Thomas; Hothorn, Torsten; Bussler, Heinz; Raffa, Kenneth; Müller, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Windstorms, bark beetle outbreaks and fires are important natural disturbances in coniferous forests worldwide. Wind-thrown trees promote biodiversity and restoration within production forests, but also cause large economic losses due to bark beetle infestation and accelerated fungal decomposition. Such damaged trees are often removed by salvage logging, which leads to decreased biodiversity and thus increasingly evokes discussions between economists and ecologists about appropriate strategies. To reveal the reasons behind species loss after salvage logging, we used a functional approach based on four habitat-related ecological traits and focused on saproxylic beetles. We predicted that salvage logging would decrease functional diversity (measured as effect sizes of mean pairwise distances using null models) as well as mean values of beetle body size, wood diameter niche and canopy cover niche, but would increase decay stage niche. As expected, salvage logging caused a decrease in species richness, but led to an increase in functional diversity by altering the species composition from habitat-filtered assemblages toward random assemblages. Even though salvage logging removes tree trunks, the most negative effects were found for small and heliophilous species and for species specialized on wood of small diameter. Our results suggested that salvage logging disrupts the natural assembly process on windthrown trees and that negative ecological impacts are caused more by microclimate alteration of the dead-wood objects than by loss of resource amount. These insights underline the power of functional approaches to detect ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance and form a basis for management decisions in conservation. To mitigate negative effects on saproxylic beetle diversity after windthrows, we recommend preserving single windthrown trees or at least their tops with exposed branches during salvage logging. Such an extension of the green-tree retention

  17. New insights into the consequences of post-windthrow salvage logging revealed by functional structure of saproxylic beetles assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Thorn

    Full Text Available Windstorms, bark beetle outbreaks and fires are important natural disturbances in coniferous forests worldwide. Wind-thrown trees promote biodiversity and restoration within production forests, but also cause large economic losses due to bark beetle infestation and accelerated fungal decomposition. Such damaged trees are often removed by salvage logging, which leads to decreased biodiversity and thus increasingly evokes discussions between economists and ecologists about appropriate strategies. To reveal the reasons behind species loss after salvage logging, we used a functional approach based on four habitat-related ecological traits and focused on saproxylic beetles. We predicted that salvage logging would decrease functional diversity (measured as effect sizes of mean pairwise distances using null models as well as mean values of beetle body size, wood diameter niche and canopy cover niche, but would increase decay stage niche. As expected, salvage logging caused a decrease in species richness, but led to an increase in functional diversity by altering the species composition from habitat-filtered assemblages toward random assemblages. Even though salvage logging removes tree trunks, the most negative effects were found for small and heliophilous species and for species specialized on wood of small diameter. Our results suggested that salvage logging disrupts the natural assembly process on windthrown trees and that negative ecological impacts are caused more by microclimate alteration of the dead-wood objects than by loss of resource amount. These insights underline the power of functional approaches to detect ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance and form a basis for management decisions in conservation. To mitigate negative effects on saproxylic beetle diversity after windthrows, we recommend preserving single windthrown trees or at least their tops with exposed branches during salvage logging. Such an extension of the green

  18. The biology of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, Coleoptera: Nitidulidae): Gaps in our knowledge of an invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Peter; Elzen, Patti

    2004-01-01

    International audience Small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, are honeybee parasites native to Africa, where they are a minor pest only. In contrast, the beetles can be harmful parasites of European honeybee subspecies. Resistance of African subspecies to infestations is probably due to quantitative differences in a series of behaviours such as absconding, aggression, removal of parasite eggs and larvae and social encapsulation. The beetles use counter-resistance tactics such as defence postu...

  19. Islands in the desert: Species delimitation and evolutionary history of Pseudotetracha tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae: Megacephalini) from Australian salt lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Alejandro; Hudson, Peter; Galián, José

    2016-08-01

    The Australian salt lakes are a natural archipelago-like laboratory for investigating evolutionary and population processes. Their environmental conditions have not undergone relevant changes since the aridification of Australia 10-5 million years ago. The genus Pseudotetracha, a group of nocturnal tiger beetles found on these remote salt lakes, includes 20 described species. Recent studies based on molecular markers and cytogenetics hinted at the existence of cryptic species within this group. Here we use various species delimitation algorithms to detect a high number of cryptic and undescribed taxa, and challenge the validity of the taxonomic characters traditionally used for discerning species in this group. Our analyses show that the divergence dates of the clades, between 10 and 5 million years ago, correspond to the period in which Australia was undergoing an aridification process that probably isolated the ancestral Pseudotetracha populations to individual lakes or palaeodrainage basins. This implies an important role of the isolation, produced by the aridification of Australia, in the speciation and divergence of Pseudotetracha, which underwent a remarkable radiation as the populations became geographically restricted. PMID:27223998

  20. Directional mitochondrial introgression and character displacement due to reproductive interference in two closely related Pterostichus ground beetle species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuda, S; Sasakawa, K; Ikeda, H

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive interference due to interspecific hybridization can lead to character displacement among related species with overlapping ranges. However, no studies have examined which reproductive traits are most important in reducing reproductive interference. We conducted molecular analyses of two nuclear genes (28S and Wingless) and a mitochondrial gene (COI) from two closely related ground beetle species, Pterostichus thunbergi and Pterostichus habui (Coleoptera: Carabidae), with overlapping distributions. In addition, we examined four reproductive traits (body size, organ morphologies of intromittent and non-intromittent male genital organs, and female reproductive period) in sympatric and allopatric habitats. We compared male genital morphology using geometric morphometric analysis. The species determined by morphology were classified into separate groups based on the phylogenetic tree constructed by the nuclear gene (Wingless). However, according to the mitochondrial genes examined, P. thunbergi was not monophyletic, whereas at the sympatric sites, these species formed a monophyletic clade. This incongruence suggests that interspecific hybridization and subsequent mitochondrial introgression from P. habui to P. thunbergi have occurred. Concerning genital morphology, both of the intromittent and nonintromittent organs of P. thunbergi differed more from P. habui at the sympatric sites than between allopatric sites, suggesting reproductive character displacement. Pterostichus thunbergi, which likely arrived in P. habui habitat in small numbers, would have experienced stronger selection pressures than P. habui. PMID:26914395

  1. Molecular species identification of Central European ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae using nuclear rDNA expansion segments and DNA barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raupach Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of vast numbers of unknown organisms using DNA sequences becomes more and more important in ecological and biodiversity studies. In this context, a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene has been proposed as standard DNA barcoding marker for the identification of organisms. Limitations of the COI barcoding approach can arise from its single-locus identification system, the effect of introgression events, incomplete lineage sorting, numts, heteroplasmy and maternal inheritance of intracellular endosymbionts. Consequently, the analysis of a supplementary nuclear marker system could be advantageous. Results We tested the effectiveness of the COI barcoding region and of three nuclear ribosomal expansion segments in discriminating ground beetles of Central Europe, a diverse and well-studied invertebrate taxon. As nuclear markers we determined the 18S rDNA: V4, 18S rDNA: V7 and 28S rDNA: D3 expansion segments for 344 specimens of 75 species. Seventy-three species (97% of the analysed species could be accurately identified using COI, while the combined approach of all three nuclear markers provided resolution among 71 (95% of the studied Carabidae. Conclusion Our results confirm that the analysed nuclear ribosomal expansion segments in combination constitute a valuable and efficient supplement for classical DNA barcoding to avoid potential pitfalls when only mitochondrial data are being used. We also demonstrate the high potential of COI barcodes for the identification of even closely related carabid species.

  2. Islands in the desert: Species delimitation and evolutionary history of Pseudotetracha tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae: Megacephalini) from Australian salt lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Alejandro; Hudson, Peter; Galián, José

    2016-08-01

    The Australian salt lakes are a natural archipelago-like laboratory for investigating evolutionary and population processes. Their environmental conditions have not undergone relevant changes since the aridification of Australia 10-5 million years ago. The genus Pseudotetracha, a group of nocturnal tiger beetles found on these remote salt lakes, includes 20 described species. Recent studies based on molecular markers and cytogenetics hinted at the existence of cryptic species within this group. Here we use various species delimitation algorithms to detect a high number of cryptic and undescribed taxa, and challenge the validity of the taxonomic characters traditionally used for discerning species in this group. Our analyses show that the divergence dates of the clades, between 10 and 5 million years ago, correspond to the period in which Australia was undergoing an aridification process that probably isolated the ancestral Pseudotetracha populations to individual lakes or palaeodrainage basins. This implies an important role of the isolation, produced by the aridification of Australia, in the speciation and divergence of Pseudotetracha, which underwent a remarkable radiation as the populations became geographically restricted.

  3. A new species and new records of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae of wood boring beetles from southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Sureshan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitising wood boring beetles, Cleonymus kamijoi, and two species of Pteromalidae, Trigonoderus pulcher Walker and male of Heydenia tuberculata Sureshan are reported for the first time from the southern Western Ghats, Kerala. The genus Trigonoderus Westwood is reported for the first time from India and the male of Heydenia tuberculata Sureshan is reported and described for the first time.

  4. Comparison of the protection effectiveness of acrylic polyurethane coatings containing bark extracts on three heat-treated North American wood species: Surface degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaefe, Duygu; Saha, Sudeshna

    2012-04-01

    High temperature heat-treatment of wood is a very valuable technique which improves many properties (biological durability, dimensional stability, thermal insulating characteristics) of natural wood. Also, it changes the natural color of wood to a very attractive dark brown color. Unfortunately, this color is not stable if left unprotected in external environment and turns to gray or white depending on the wood species. To overcome this problem, acrylic polyurethane coatings are applied on heat-treated wood to delay surface degradations (color change, loss of gloss, and chemical modifications) during aging. The acrylic polyurethane coatings which have high resistance against aging are further modified by adding bark extracts and/or lignin stabilizer to enhance their effectiveness in preventing the wood aging behavior. The aging characteristic of this coating is compared with acrylic polyurethane combined with commercially available organic UV stabilizers. In this study, their performance on three heat-treated North American wood species (jack pine, quaking aspen and white birch) are compared under accelerated aging conditions. Both the color change data and visual assessment indicate improvement in protective characteristic of acrylic polyurethane when bark extracts and lignin stabilizer are used in place of commercially available UV stabilizer. The results showed that although acrylic polyurethane with bark extracts and lignin stabilizer was more efficient compared to acrylic polyurethane with organic UV stabilizers in protecting heat-treated jack pine, it failed to protect heat-treated aspen and birch effectively after 672 h of accelerated aging. This degradation was not due to the coating adhesion loss or coating degradation during accelerated aging; rather, it was due to the significant degradation of heat-treated aspen and birch surface beneath this coating. The XPS results revealed formation of carbonyl photoproducts after aging on the coated surfaces and

  5. Multiple Glacial Refugia of the Low-Dispersal Ground Beetle Carabus irregularis: Molecular Data Support Predictions of Species Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburg, Katharina; Drees, Claudia; Gossner, Martin M.; Rakosy, László; Vrezec, Al; Assmann, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Classical glacial refugia such as the southern European peninsulas were important for species survival during glacial periods and acted as sources of post-glacial colonisation processes. Only recently, some studies have provided evidence for glacial refugia north of the southern European peninsulas. In the present study, we combined species distribution models (SDMs) with phylogeographic analyses (using mitochondrial DNA = mtDNA) to investigate if the cold-adapted, stenotopic and flightless ground beetle species, Carabus irregularis, survived the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in classical and/or other refugia. SDMs (for both a western European and for a Carpathian subgroup) were calculated with MAXENT on the basis of 645 species records to predict current and past distribution patterns. Two mtDNA loci (CO1 and ND5, concatenated sequence length: 1785 bp) were analyzed from 91 C. irregularis specimens to reconstruct the phylogeography of Central and eastern European populations and to estimate divergence times of the given lineages. Strong intra-specific genetic differentiation (inter-clade ΦST values ranged from 0.92 to 0.99) implied long-term isolation of major clades and subsclades. The high divergence between the nominate subspecies and the Carpathian subspecies C. i. montandoni points to two independent species rather than subspecies (K-2P distance 0.042 ± 0.004; supposed divergence of the maternal lineages dated back 1.6 to 2.5 million years BP) differing not only morphologically but also genetically and ecologically from each other. The SDMs also inferred classical as well as other refugia for C. irregularis, especially north of the Alps, in southeastern Europe and in the Carpathians. The coincidences between the results of both methods confirm the assumption of multiple glacial refugia for the studied species and the usefulness of combining methodological approaches for the understanding of the history of low-dispersal insect species. PMID:23593425

  6. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  7. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and

  8. Fusarium euwallaceae, a novel species cultivated by a Euwallacea ambrosia beetle that threatens avocado production in Israel and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado production in Israel and California, USA is facing a serious threat due to damage caused by an invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetle and a novel Fusarium that it cultivates as a source of food. Adult female beetles possess mandibular mycangia within which they carry the Fusarium symbiont. At l...

  9. Evaluating Predators and Competitors in Wisconsin Red Pine Forests for Attraction to Mountain Pine Beetle Pheromones for Anticipatory Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Krause, Adam; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an irruptive tree-killing species native to pine forests of western North America. Two potential pathways of spread to eastern forests have recently been identified. First, warming temperatures have driven range expansion from British Columbia into Albertan jack pine forests that are contiguous with the Great Lakes region. Second, high temperatures and drought have fostered largescale outbreaks within the historical range, creating economic incentives to salvage killed timber by transporting logs to midwestern markets, which risks accidental introduction. We evaluated the extent to which local predators and competitors that exploit bark beetle semiochemicals would respond to D. ponderosae in Wisconsin. We emulated D. ponderosae attack by deploying lures containing synthetic aggregation pheromones with and without host tree compounds and blank control traps in six red pine plantations over 2 yr. Predator populations were high in these stands, as evidenced by catches in positive control traps, baited with pheromones of local bark beetles and were deployed distant from behavioral choice plots. Only one predator, Thanasimus dubius F. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was attracted to D. ponderosae's aggregation pheromones relative to blank controls, and its attraction was relatively weak. The most common bark beetles attracted to these pheromones were lower stem and root colonizers, which likely would facilitate rather than compete with D. ponderosae. There was some, but weak, attraction of potentially competing Ips species. Other factors that might influence natural enemy impacts on D. ponderosae in midwestern forests, such as phenological synchrony and exploitation of male-produced pheromones, are discussed.

  10. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  11. Tree growth, wood and bark water content of 28 Amazonian tree species in response to variations in rainfall and wood density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias DP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pole diameter and wood density are variables commonly used in allometric equations to estimate tree biomass and carbon stocks in tropical forests. The effect of variations in tree water content on pole diameters is often disregarded in allometric equations. This study aimed to determine the effect of rainfall seasonality on tree growth, stem wood and bark water content and to assess the relationship between water content and wood density (dry mass to fresh mass volume ratio in 120 trees from 28 species in a terra-firme rain forest in the central Amazon. In 2006, stem wood and bark water content were gravimetrically determined in the dry season (August-September and rainy season (April-May. In the same year, growth in diameter was measured at monthly intervals in the 120 trees (DBH ≥ 10 cm with dendrometric bands previously adapted to the tree. Mean wood water content was lower in the dry season than the rainy season. On the contrary, bark water content was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. Wood densities higher than 0.75 g cm-3 were found in 64.3% of the trees. Trees with denser woods grew slower and had lower stem water content. Monthly rainfall did not affect tree growth in diameter, which was contrary to our initial expectation on the effect of rainfall seasonality on tree growth in central Amazonia. This finding supports the hypothesis that in central Amazonia, the mild dry season is not long enough to deplete soil water beyond the reach of the root system, which allows the trees to grow at quite constant rates over the year.

  12. Myrmecophilous rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) associated with Aenictus hodgsoni (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Thailand, with description of two new genera and three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Munetoshi; Komatsu, Takashi; Katayama, Yuji; Song, Xiao-Bin; Sakchoowong, Watana

    2014-05-19

    Three species of rove beetles (subfamily Aleocharinae) were collected from colonies of Aenictus hodgsoni Forel, 1901 in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. They are classified into three genera, including two new genera, and described herein as: Aenictobia siamensis Maruyama, sp. n. (tribe Aenictoteratini), Aenictosymbia cornuta Maruyama, gen. & sp. n. (tribe Lomechusini) and Aenictoxenides mirabilis Maruyama, gen. & sp. n. (tribe Pygostenini). The systematic positions of the new genera are discussed.

  13. Lachancea quebecensis sp. nov., a yeast species consistently isolated from tree bark in the Canadian province of Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freel, Kelle C; Charron, Guillaume; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R; Schacherer, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    A thorough sampling of maple, oak, birch, and apple tree bark in North America yielded a set of isolates that represent a yeast species not yet formally described. The strains obtained were all isolated from the Canadian province of Québec. These four isolates have identical electrophoretic karyotypes, distinct from other species of the genus Lachancea, and are most closely related to the formally recognized species Lachancea thermotolerans according to the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA gene and 5.8S–ITS region. Previous studies revealed the existence of a population of strains closely related to L. thermotolerans, with unique D1/D2 sequences and the ability to grow on melibiose, which is also true for these isolates. The sequences obtained here (for the D1/D2, and 5.8S–ITS region) are identical among the four strains, and in a phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 region, the strains form a distinct clade with the previously described population closely related to L. thermotolerans, composed of isolates from Japan, as well as from the provinces of Ontario and Québec in Canada. On the basis of select physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, a novel ascosporogenous yeast species, Lachancea quebecensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain LL11_022T ( = CBS 14138T = CLIB 1763T = UCDFST 15-106T) was isolated from maple tree bark in the Station Duchesnay, QC region of Québec, Canada. The MycoBank number is MB811749. PMID:26297665

  14. Ophiostoma species from Protea infructescences: Four way interactions between plants, fungi, mites and beetles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roets, F.; Dreyer, L.L.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Species of Ophiostoma include some of the world's best known fungal pathogens of trees. Most members are vectored by arthropods. One of the most unusual niches in which Ophiostoma species have been found is within the infructescences of Protea species in South Africa. Recent molecular phylogenetic r

  15. Molecular evidence of facultative intraguild predation by Monochamus titillator larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on members of the southern pine beetle guild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Erich N.; Husseneder, Claudia; Allison, Jeremy D.

    2012-11-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild (SPBG) is arguably the most destructive group of forest insects in the southeastern USA. This guild contains five species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Dendroctonus frontalis, Dendroctonus terebrans, Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis. A diverse community of illicit receivers is attracted to pheromones emitted by the SPBG, including the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). These woodborers have been traditionally classified as resource competitors; however, laboratory assays suggest that larval M. carolinensis may be facultative intraguild predators of SPBG larvae. This study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular gut content analyses to characterize subcortical interactions between M. titillator and members of the SPBG. The half-lives of SPBG DNA were estimated in the laboratory prior to examining these interactions in the field. A total of 271 field-collected M. titillator larvae were analyzed and 26 (9.6 %) tested positive for DNA of members of the SPBG. Of these larvae, 25 (96.2 %) tested positive for I. grandicollis and one (3.8 %) for I. calligraphus. Failure to detect D. terebrans and D. frontalis was likely due to their absence in the field. I. avulsus was present, but primers developed using adult tissues failed to amplify larval tissue. Results from this study support the hypothesis that larval Monochamus spp. are facultative intraguild predators of bark beetle larvae. Additionally, this study demonstrates the capabilities of PCR in elucidating the interactions of cryptic forest insects and provides a tool to better understand mechanisms driving southern pine beetle guild population fluctuations.

  16. Carpophilus zeaphilus, a new sap beetle species acclimatized in Italy (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Audisio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carpophilus zeaphilus Dobson, 1969 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae, Carpophilinae is an Afrotropical species that has become widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Mediterranean areas in recent years. The species was first recorded from Europe in Portugal and Spain nearly thirty years ago, and it was later intercepted in Sicily near Trapani in 1991. A few specimens of this species were collected in April, 2015 in a sparsely forested area near Rome, which suggests a recent acclimatization into peninsular Italy. Specimens were taken on flowering trees of Prunus spinosa L. (Rosaceae, an unusual occurrence for most introduced species of Carpophilinae that are normally associated with rotten fruit and other decomposing vegetal matter.

  17. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. PMID:26546596

  19. The Ophiostoma clavatum species complex: a newly defined group in the Ophiostomatales including three novel taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Jankowiak, Robert; Villari, Caterina; Kirisits, Thomas; Solheim, Halvor; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Two species of blue-stain fungi with similar morphologies, Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum and Ophiostoma clavatum, are associates of bark beetles infesting Pinus spp. in Europe. This has raised questions whether they represent distinct taxa. Absence of herbarium specimens and contaminated or mistakenly identified cultures of O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum have accentuated the uncertainty regarding their correct identification. The aim of this study was to reconsider the identity of European isolates reported as O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum by applying DNA-based identification methods, and to provide appropriate type specimens for them. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, βT, TEF-1α and CAL gene sequences revealed that the investigated isolates represent a complex of seven cryptic species. The study confirmed that ITS data is insufficient to delineate species in some Ophiostoma species clusters. Lectotypes and epitypes were designated for O. clavatum and O. brunneo-ciliatum, and three new species, Ophiostoma brunneolum, Ophiostoma macroclavatum and Ophiostoma pseudocatenulatum, are described in the newly defined O. clavatum-complex. The other two species included in the complex are Ophiostoma ainoae and Ophiostoma tapionis. The results suggest co-evolution of these fungi in association with specific bark beetles. The results also confirm the identity of the fungus associated with the pine bark beetle Ips acuminatus as O. clavatum, while O. brunneo-ciliatum appears to be mainly associated with another pine bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus. PMID:27142088

  20. Influence of Trap Height and Bait Type on Abundance and Species Diversity of Cerambycid Beetles Captured in Forests of East-Central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeelk, Thomas C; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-08-01

    We assessed how height of panel traps above the forest floor, and the type of trap bait used, influenced the abundance and diversity of cerambycid beetles caught in forested areas of east-central Illinois. Panel traps were suspended from branches of hardwood trees at three heights above the ground: understory (∼1.5 m), lower canopy (∼6 m), and midcanopy (∼12 m). Traps were baited with either a multispecies blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones or a fermenting bait mixture. Traps captured a total of 848 beetles of 50 species in the cerambycid subfamilies Cerambycinae, Lamiinae, Lepturinae, and Parandrinae, and one species in the closely related family Disteniidae. The species caught in highest numbers was the cerambycine Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), represented by 349 specimens. The 17 most abundant species (mean ± 1 SD: 45 ± 80 specimens per species) included 12 cerambycine and five lamiine species. Of these most abundant species, 13 (77%) were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone blend. Only the cerambycine Eburia quadrigeminata (Say) was attracted by the fermenting bait. Three species were captured primarily in understory traps, and another five species primarily in midcanopy traps. Variation among cerambycid species in their vertical distribution in forests accounted for similar overall abundances and species richness across trap height treatments. These findings suggest that trapping surveys of native communities of cerambycids, and quarantine surveillance for newly introduced exotic species, would be optimized by including a variety of trap baits and distributing traps across vertical strata of forests. PMID:27298428

  1. The invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicates vectors an exotic symbiotic Fusarium species that threatens avocado production in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea fornicatus Eichhoff) was first recorded in Israel in 2009, and it has been shown to vector an exotic fusarial pathogen. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that the pathogen represents a novel symbiotic Fusarium sp. within Clade 3 of the Fusar...

  2. Eight new species, a new record, and redescription of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904: The first record of termitophilous rove beetles in Cambodia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, Taisuke; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-11-18

    As the first record of the Cambodian termitophilous rove beetles, eight new species of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904 (Aleocharini: Compactopediina) are described, along with a redescription of the genus. Discoxenus katayamai Kanao & Maruyama, 2010, which was originally known from Thailand, is newly recorded from Cambodia and redescribed. Discoxenus species are morphologically divided into two species groups, namely the latiabdominalis and the assmuthi. The latiabdominalis species group includes D. latiabdominalis n. sp. and D. cambodiensis n. sp., and both species are associated with Odontotermes maesodensis Ahmad, 1965. The assmuthi species group comprises 11 species: D. assmuthi Wasmann, 1904, D. lepisma Wasmann, 1904, D. indicus Kistner, 1982, D. malaysiensis Kistner, 1982, D. phourini n. sp., D. kohkongensis n. sp., D. hirsutus n. sp., D. minutus n. sp., D. lucidus n. sp., D. kakizoei n. sp., and D. katayamai. The members in the assmuthi species group are associated with Odontotermes or Hypotermes termites. One of the unique morphological features of the assmuthi species group is the strongly developed distal crest of the male aedeagal median lobe while that observed in the latiabdominalis species group is not produced, which is general character state in the tribe Aleocharini. The character state of distal crest and several other morphological features such as mouthparts are considered to support the monophyly of respective species groups in Discoxenus.

  3. Seasonal variation in the content of tannins in barks of barbatimão species Variação sazonal dos teores de taninos em cascas de espécies de barbatimão

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana C. Santos; Wesley F. Costa; Fernando Batista; Lúcio R. Santos; Pedro H. Ferri; Heleno D. Ferreira; José C. Seraphin

    2006-01-01

    The contents of tannins in the barks of barbatimão species, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Cov. and S. polyphyllum (Mart.), were analysed monthly during one year. Results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity and mean temperature) by chemometric methods. Principal component analysis of the data showed a tendency for higher production of tannins in the warm and wet season, suggesting that environmental factors can affect the levels of tannins in those plants.A compos...

  4. A new species of Megalommum Szépligeti (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae; a parasitoid of the pistachio longhorn beetle (Calchaenesthes pistacivora Holzschuh; Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Achterberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Megalommum Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae, reared from the pistachio longhorn beetle (Calchaenesthes pistacivora Holzschuh; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, is described and illustrated. The genera Curreia Ashmead, 1900 and Endovipio Turner, 1922 are new synonyms of Megalommum Szépligeti, 1900. Notes on the biology of M. pistacivorae sp. n. and a key to the West Palaearctic and Oriental species are added. The following new combinations are given: M. xanthoceps (Fahringer, 1928, comb. n., M. jacobsoni (Tobias, 1968, comb. n., M. ayyari (Watanabe, 1950, comb. n., M. philippinense (Baker, 1917, comb. n., M. dodecanesi (Ferrière, 1922, comb. n., M. ceresense (Turner, 1922, comb. n., M. inareatum (Granger, 1949, comb. n., M. antefurcale (Szépligeti, 1915 comb. n. and M. tibiale (Ashmead, 1906, comb. n.  

  5. Chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaves and stem barks of four Vietnamese species of Fissistigma (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Tran D; Luu, Hoang V; Dung, Vo C; Tuan, Nguyen N; Hung, Nguyen H; Dai, Do N; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical profiles of essential oils from four Fissistigma species: Fissistigma bracteolatum Chatt., Fissistigma villosissimum Merr., Fissistigma latifolium (Dunal) Merr. and Fissistigma glaucescens (Hance) Merr. were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fissistigma essential oils consist mainly of sesquiterpenes (48.7-83.8%), monoterpenes (3.2-30.9%) and fatty acids (0.5-33.4%). Data on the essential oil composition of F. villosissimum, F. latifolium and F. glaucescens are reported for the first time.

  6. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  7. 2个欧美杨品种树皮内生真菌多样性及优势种群动态变化%Predominant Species Dynamic and Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Barks of Populus × euramericana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永; 朴春根; 贺伟; 常聚普; 王海明; 郭立民; 谢守江; 郭民伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand predominant species,seasonal dynamic and diversity of fungal endophytes in barks of Populus × euramericana cv.‘74/76' and P.× euramericana cv.‘ Zhonglin46',fungal endophytes were isolated from the barks by tissue isolation method,and identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and by morphological characteristics of microscopic observation.A total of 1 252 fungal endophytes were isolated from 996 bark tissues.The fungal endophytes were classified into 32 different fungal taxa belonging to 17 genera of Ascomycota.The predominant species included Alternaria alternata,Botryosphaeria dothidea,Fusarium spp.,Diaporthe spp.,among which A.alternata and B.dothidea were the most common predominant species in the barks.The predominant fungal endophytes in the bark tissue varied in different seasons.%利用组织分离法从欧美杨2品种欧美杨107杨、中林46杨中(996块组织)分离内生真菌1 252株,107杨和中林46杨分别分离出645株和607株.利用形态特征和分子生物学方法鉴定为17个属、32个分类单元,包括担子菌2个分类单元,子囊菌30个分类单元均为子囊菌.在基于ITS构建的系统进代树上、2杨树品种内生菌均形成5个稳定的分支,包括在囊菌纲2个分支,包括散囊菌纲、类壳菌纲等.2个杨树品种内生真菌优势种群包括链格孢、葡萄座腔菌、镰孢菌、间座壳菌等,其中链格孢、葡萄座腔菌是最为常见的优势种群,2品种内生菌的优势种群会随季节变化而发生变化.

  8. Effect of associated fungi on the immunocompetence of red turpentine beetle larvae, Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Hong Shi; Bo Wang; Stephen R.Clarke; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Dendroctonus-fungus symbioses are often considered as the ideal model systems to study the development and maintenance ofectosymbioses,and diverse interactions,including antagonism,commensalism and mutualism,have been documented between these organisms.The red turpentine beetle,Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera:Curculionidae:Scolytinae) is a pine-killing invasive beetle in northern China.Fungi species Ophiostoma minus,Leptographium sinoprocerum,L.terebrantis and L.procerum were associated with this bark beetle.Antagonistic interactions between D.valens and its associated fungi,such as O.minus and L.sinoprocerum,have been demonstrated,but the underlying causes of this phenomenon are unknown.Here,we first found the two tested fungi species retarded the net weight gain of D.valens larvae after completing 3-day feeding on their media.Furthermore,we provide direct evidence indicating the effect of associated fungi on the immunocompetence of D.valens larvae to explain the documented antagonism.Our results showed that the activity of phenoloxidase and total phenoloxidase in D.valens larvae were significantly upregulated by two strains of associated fungi,O.minus and L.sinoprocerum as compared with the controls.The phenoloxidase ratio increased significantly in the larvae which had fed for 3 days on media inoculated with O.minus.Because insect immune defenses are costly to be deployed,these results could be explored as one of the underlying mechanisms of the documented antagonism.

  9. Disentangling effects of abiotic factors and biotic interactions on cross-taxon congruence in species turnover patterns of plants, moths and beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Meichun; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Baudry, Jacques; Li, Liangtao; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan C

    2016-01-01

    High cross-taxon congruence in species diversity patterns is essential for the use of surrogate taxa in biodiversity conservation, but presence and strength of congruence in species turnover patterns, and the relative contributions of abiotic environmental factors and biotic interaction towards this congruence, remain poorly understood. In our study, we used variation partitioning in multiple regressions to quantify cross-taxon congruence in community dissimilarities of vascular plants, geometrid and arciinid moths and carabid beetles, subsequently investigating their respective underpinning by abiotic factors and biotic interactions. Significant cross-taxon congruence observed across all taxon pairs was linked to their similar responses towards elevation change. Changes in the vegetation composition were closely linked to carabid turnover, with vegetation structure and associated microclimatic conditions proposed causes of this link. In contrast, moth assemblages appeared to be dominated by generalist species whose turnover was weakly associated with vegetation changes. Overall, abiotic factors exerted a stronger influence on cross-taxon congruence across our study sites than biotic interactions. The weak congruence in turnover observed particularly between plants and moths highlights the importance of multi-taxon approaches based on groupings of taxa with similar turnovers, rather than the use of single surrogate taxa or environmental proxies, in biodiversity assessments.

  10. Efficacy of imidacloprid, trunk-injected into Acer platanoides, for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Lewis, Phillip A; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-12-01

    Feeding experiments with Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) in a quarantine laboratory were used to assess the effectiveness of imidacloprid in reducing adult fecundity and survival. The beetles were fed twigs and leaves cut between June-September 2010 from Norway maples (Acer platanoides L.) in the beetle-infested area of Worcester, MA. Treated trees had been trunk-injected once with imidacloprid in spring 2010 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service operational eradication program. The 21 d LC50 value for adult beetles feeding on twig bark from imidacloprid-injected trees was 1.3 ppm. Adult reproductive output and survival were significantly reduced when beetles fed on twig bark or leaves from treated trees. However, results varied widely, with many twig samples having no detectable imidacloprid and little effect on the beetles. When twigs with > 1 ppm imidacloprid in the bark were fed to mated beetles, the number of larvae produced was reduced by 94% and median adult survival was reduced to 14 d. For twigs with 1 ppm). When given a choice of control twigs and twigs from injected trees, beetles did not show a strong preference.

  11. Definition of the jianfengling species group of the ground beetle genus Orthogonius MacLeay (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Orthogoniini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The jianfengling species group of the termitophilous carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 is defined and reviewed. This species group ranges from southern China, crossing Indochina and Myanmar to eastern India. To date, the jianfengling species group is composed of ten species, including six new species which are hereinafter described and illustrated: Orthogonius wrasei sp. n. (Myanmar), Orthogonius bellus sp. n. and Orthogonius limbourgi sp. n. (Vietnam), Orthogonius politior sp. n., Orthogonius aberlenci sp. n. (Laos) and Orthogonius meghalayaensis sp. n. (India). Habitus, elytral apices and male genitalia of all species are illustrated. A key to species and a distribution map of jianfengling species group are provided. PMID:27667943

  12. Acute toxicity of two lampricides, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and a TFM: 1% niclosamide mixture, to sea lamprey, three species of unionids, haliplid water beetles, and American eel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Michael A.; Rivera, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a series of toxicological treatments with 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and a TFM:1% 2′,5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) mixture, two compounds used to control larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in Great Lakes tributaries, to evaluate the acute toxicity of the lampricides to a number of nontarget species of concern. Treatments were conducted with yellow stage American eel (Anguilla rostrata), adult and larval haliplid water beetles (Haliplus spp.), a surrogate for the endangered Hungerford’s crawling water beetle (Brychius hungerfordi), and adults of three unionid species—giant floater (Pyganadon grandis), fragile papershell (Leptodea fragilis), and pink heelsplitter (Potamilus alatus). Treatments were conducted using a serial dilution system consisting of nine test concentrations and an untreated control with 20% dilution between concentrations. Narcosis was evident among giant floaters exposed to the TFM and the TFM:1% niclosamide mixture and among pink heelsplitters exposed to the TFM:1% niclosamide mixture only but mostly at concentrations greater than 2-fold that required to kill 100% of larval sea lamprey (minimum lethal concentration (MLC)). Tests with the haliplid beetle suggest the risks to the Hungerford’s crawling water beetle associated with TFM applications are minimal. Concentrations over 2-fold the sea lamprey MLC did not kill adult or larval water beetles. Preliminary behavioral observations suggest water beetles may avoid treatment by crawling out of the water. Adult water beetles exposed to TFM at 3-fold the sea lamprey MLC were observed above the water line more often than controls. The lampricide TFM was not acutely toxic to American eel. Mortalities were rare among American eel exposed to TFM concentrations up to 7-fold the observed sea lamprey MLC. Similarly, for the TFM:1% niclosamide mixture, mortalities were rare among American eel exposed to nearly 5-fold the observed sea lamprey MLC

  13. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin;

    2012-01-01

    trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  14. Predominant Species Dynamic and Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Barks of Two Populus Cultivars%两种杨树树皮内生真菌多样性及优势种群动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永; 朴春根; 郭利民; 常聚普; 王海明; 贺伟; 谢守江; 郭民伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the predominant species dynamic and diversity of fungal endophytes in barks of Populus × euramericana cv.Robusta 94 and triploid of P.tomentosa,the fungal endophytes were isolated from barks of P.× euramericana cv.Robusta 94 and triploid of P.tomentosa by tissue isolation,and identified based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and morphological characterization by microscopic observations.A total of 1 175 fungal endophytes were isolated from 996 bark tissues.The fungal endophytes were classified into 35fungal taxa belonging to 15 genera,including 1 species of Basidiomycota and 34 taxa of Ascomycota.And Alternaria alternata,Botryosphaeria dothidea,Fusarium spp.,and Diaporthe conorum were the predominant species of fungal endophytes in barks of P.× euramericana cv.Robusta 94 and triploid of P.tomentosa,while A.alternata and B.dothidea were the most common predominant species in the barks of the two cultivars.The variation of predominant fungal endophytes of two poplar species in different seasons was detected.%为了解健杨94(转基因抗虫杨94)、三倍体毛白杨2个杨树品种干部树皮内生真菌区系及其优势种群的季节变化情况,本研究利用组织分离法从2个杨树品种996块组织中分离内生真菌1 175株,健杨94和三倍体毛白杨分别分离612、563株.利用形态特征和分子生物学方法鉴定为15个属、35个分类单元,包括担子菌1个分类单元,子囊菌34个分类单元.2个杨树品种内生真菌优势种群包括链格孢、葡萄座腔菌、镰孢属真菌、间座壳属真菌等,其中,仅有链格孢、葡萄座腔菌和桑砖红镰孢是两品种共有的优势种群种类,而且优势种群会随季节变化而变化.在两品种的内生真菌中,链格孢、葡萄座腔菌是最为常见的优势种群.

  15. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  16. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle's historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND MICROBICIDAL ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaysing Hari Patil,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bactericidal potential of methanolic extract of stem bark (Apical bark, middle bark and Mature bark of Pterocarpus marsupium was evaluated with respect to pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoneae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and Micrococcus sp. The methanolic extract of apical stem bark was effective than the middle bark and mature bark in inhibiting the growth of all bacteria. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was most sensitive among all the bacterial species studied. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides,flavonoids, flavonols, phenols and terpenoids. Saponins were absent in all the bark samples.The concentrations of these phytoconstituents was higher in the apical stem bark than the middle and mature stem bark. The percent extract yield was maximum in apical stem bark. Thus, in the pharmacological point of view, it is important to study the biochemistry of apical bark in order to isolate and screen the new pharmacological active principals which can be useful in designing of new drugs active against various infectious micro- rganisms like bacteria, fungi and viruses etc.

  18. Revision of Neotropical species of ant-like stone beetles misplaced in Stenichnus and Scydmoraphes (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2015-10-02

    Genera Stenichnus and Scydmoraphes are distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, with a few rather peculiar species described from South America. Type series of Stenichnus andicola Franz, Scydmoraphes venezolanus Franz and Scydmoraphes peruanus Franz were examined and the first of these species is transferred to Sciacharis Broun, while two new generic names are established to accommodate the two latter species: Meridaphes gen. n. and Perumicrus gen. n. This results in three new combinations: Sciacharis (incertae sedis) andicola (Franz) comb. n., Meridaphes venezolanus (Franz) comb. n., and Perumicrus peruanus (Franz) comb. n. Morphological structures of all treated taxa are described and illustrated in detail.

  19. Content of certain mineral components in the thallus of lichens and the bark of roadside trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Kuziel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The total N, P, Mg, Ca, K and Na contents were investigated in the thalli of several lichen species occurring on various trees, and in the bark and bark extracts from these trees. pH of the bark extracts was also determined. Wide differences were found in the content of the elements in point in the thalli of various lichen species on Acer platanoides and on the thalli of the same species on other trees. No relation was detected between the chemical composition of the bark and that of the lichen thalli occurring on it.

  20. Microsclerotia of Metarhizium brunneum F52 Applied in Hydromulch for Control of Asian Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Tarryn A; Hajek, Ann E; Jackson, Mark A; Gardescu, Sana

    2015-04-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) is able to produce environmentally persistent microsclerotia (hyphal aggregates). Microsclerotia of strain F52 produced as granules and incorporated into hydromulch (hydro-seeding straw, water, and a natural glue) provides a novel mycoinsecticide that could be sprayed onto urban, forest, or orchard trees. We tested this formulation against adult Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) using three substrates (moistened bark, dry bark, absorbent bench liner) sprayed with a low rate (9 microsclerotia granules/cm2) of hydromulch. Median survival times of beetles continuously exposed to sprayed moist bark or absorbent liner were 17.5 and 19.5 d, respectively. Beetles exposed to sprayed dry bark, which had a lower measured water activity, lived significantly longer. When moist bark pieces were sprayed with increased rates of microsclerotia granules in hydromulch, 50% died by 12.5 d at the highest application rate, significantly sooner than beetles exposed to lower application rates (16.5-17.5 d). To measure fecundity effects, hydromulch with or without microsclerotia was sprayed onto small logs and pairs of beetles were exposed for a 2-wk oviposition period in containers with 98 or 66% relative humidity. At 98% humidity, oviposition in the logs was highest for controls (18.3±1.4 viable offspring per female) versus 3.9±0.8 for beetles exposed to microsclerotia. At 66% humidity, fecundities of controls and beetles exposed to microsclerotia were not significantly different. This article presents the first evaluation of M. brunneum microsclerotia in hydromulch applied for control of an arboreal insect pest.

  1. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. PMID:26992100

  2. Carnivorous diving beetles of the genus Desmopachria (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) from Brazil: new species, new records, and a checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rafael Benzi; Ferreira-Jr, Nelson

    2014-04-19

    Eight new species of Desmopachria Babington, 1841 are described and illustrated from Brazil: D. dicrophallica sp nov., D. disticta sp nov., D. grammosticta sp nov., D. grandinigra sp nov., D. itamontensis sp nov., D. leptophallica sp nov., D. stethothrix sp nov., and D. ukuki sp nov. The species D. amyae Miller, 2001, D. chei Miller, 1999, D. margarita Young, 1990, and D. volatidisca Miller, 2001 are recorded for the first time from Brazil. From species of the Desmopachria reported in Brazil, D. aldessa Young, 1980 has a new record from Pará state and D. fossulata Zimmermann, 1928, D. granoides Young, 1986, and D. laevis Sharp, 1882 have new records from Rio de Janeiro State. A checklist of all Desmopachria recorded from Brazil is presented with notes about some of the localities.

  3. The use of tree bark as long term biomonitor of (137)Cs deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Incze, Reka; Kovacs, Tibor; Žunić, Zora S

    2016-03-01

    Airborne (137)Cs originated from the nuclear tests in the atmosphere and from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster was retained by the trees biomass and nowadays it can still be found in various concentrations in tree barks from Romania and other European countries. This study brings the first results of (137)Cs presence in tree bark from Romania on different considerations: (i) data dispersion in spruce and oak bark from NW, SW and central Romania, and the spatial variability of (137)Cs within oak and spruce bark from a natural protected forest area from Balvanyos area (Covasna County), known to be highly affected by the Chernobyl nuclear release; (ii) comparison of (137)Cs content in different tree bark species (oak, spruce, poplar and cherry); (iii) differences in (137)Cs concentrations with the bark depth layers and around the tree trunk; and (iv) comparison of mean (137)Cs values in spruce/oak bark from Romania with data from other European countries. PMID:26771244

  4. Density dependent mortality in the springtail species Orchesella cincta due to predaton by the carabid beetle Notiophilus biguttatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, P.C.; Ouborg, N.J.; Ernsting, G.

    1988-01-01

    Mortality of the collembole species Orchesella cincta (L.), due to predation by the carabid Notiophilus biguttatus F., has been measured in the laboratory at three levels of prey density. Prey densities were chosen such that the predator's consumption at the lowest prey density was a little above th

  5. Evaluation of the Cu (II) sorption in four natural sorbents, obtained form the tannin re-immobilization in the vegetal bark of the species Ecualiptus saligna and Pinus caribea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are shown the results obtained from the study of the Cu (II) sorption in four natural sorbents, obtained form the tannin re-immobilization in the vegetal bark of the species Eucaliptus saligna and Pinus caribea. It was studied by means of static conditions the best conditions of pH and contact time for Cu (II) sorption in every sorbent. Two models were used for describe the results obtaining form the corresponding sorption isotherms. It was evaluated the behavior of the metallic ion retain in the natural resins under the presence of Ca2+ and NaCl in similar concentrations to the ones reported for natural waters. It was obtained the breakdown curve under dynamic conditions for one of the sorbents studied, from this curve it was determined the absorption capacity of it for the Cu (II)

  6. [Co-adaptation between mites (Arachnida: Klinckowstroemiidae) and Passalidae beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Francke, Oscar F; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae establish an association with beetles of the family Passalidae known as phoresy. In order to obtain information about this association, we analyzed the relationship between mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae and beetles of the family Passalidae, as adult mites have been exclusively collected from host beetles. We examined 1 150 beetles collected in seven states of the Mexican Republic, and found 19 species of klinckowstroemiid mites associated with 168 passalids, that belong to 28 different species in 15 genera. Host specificity between species of both groups does not exist, as one species of passalid beetle can have several different symbionts; conversely, a given mite species can associate with passalid beetles of different species and even of different genera. This way, Odontotaenius zodiacus has been found associated with mites of seven species of the genus Klinckowstroemia. Besides, Klinckowstroemia valdezi is associated with five species of passalids. Furthermore, two and even three different species of mites have been found on one host beetle (synhospitality). The lack of congruence between the phylogenies of the mites and that of the beetles indicates that a process of co-adaptation by colonization is going on, because the association is due to the resources that passalid beetles can offer to the mites, like transportation, food and refuge. Since these resources are not host-specific, the klinckowstroemiid mites can climb onto virtually any species of passalid beetles occurring on the same habitat.

  7. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Legault; Karl Girard-Lalancette; Dominic Dufour; André Pichette

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native American...

  8. A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D

    2014-04-29

    A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.

  9. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  10. The Spruce Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Holsten, E H; Their, R W; Munson, A. S.; Gibson, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), is the most significant natural mortality agent of mature spruce. Outbreaks of this beetle have caused extensive spruce mortality from Alaska to Arizona and have occurred in every forest with substantial spruce stands. Spruce beetle damage results in the loss of 333 to 500 million board feet of spruce saw timber annually. More than 2.3 million acres of spruce forests have been infested in Alaska in the last 7 years with an estimated 30 milli...

  11. Pyrolysis of Barks from Three Japanese Softwood

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, Aki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Kounosu, Taku; Orihashi, Ken; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kojima, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Along with Japanese cedar bark, fir bark and Japanese larch bark were pyrolyzed to estimate the possibility of utilizing these softwood barks as resources for fine chemicals by comparing the pyrolysis product compositions. The three softwood barks contained higher ash content and yielded lower amount of volatiles when compared with cedar heartwood. The major pyrolysis products from their barks were similar to those previously reported from softwood trunks. Levoglucosan was a major pyrolysis p...

  12. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in narrow hedgerows in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, G. L.; Magura, T.

    2015-01-01

    beetle assemblages. The number of ground beetle individuals and species were significantly the highest in the hawthorn hedges and significantly decreased from the hedges with rowan toward the spruce hedges. The elevated number of ground beetle individuals and species in the hawthorn hedges were due......The role of hedgerows in supporting ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Danish agricultural landscape was examined. Nine old, well established single-row hedges were selected for the study, three each of a native species (hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna), a non-native deciduous one (rowan...... to the forest specialist species, as the number of forest specialist ground beetle individuals and species were significantly higher in the hawthorn hedges compared to the hedges with rowan and spruce. Differences in the number of the grassland and the cropland specialist ground beetle individuals and species...

  13. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miraldo, Andreia; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka

    2011-01-01

    Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversi......Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin...... and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open...... and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles...

  14. Checklist of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from the state of Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Clark, Shawn M; Toledo-Hernández, Victor Hugo; Corona-López, Angélica María; Jones, Robert W

    2016-03-07

    We record 116 genera and 366 species of Chrysomelidae from the state of Morelos, Mexico. This represents an increase of 9.3% in the species richness of these beetles for the state. Also, Morelos is currently the third most diverse state in leaf beetles within Mexico, with 16.78% of total species recorded for the country. The most diverse genera were Calligrapha, Disonycha, Blepharida, Leptinotarsa, Cryptocephalus, Systena, Alagoasa, Diabrotica and Pachybrachis, each with more than eight species. Most of these genera contain large, showy beetles. When the chrysomelid fauna is more fully understood, some of the genera of tiny beetles will likely prove to be more diverse.

  15. Tannins quantification in barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its chemical complexity, there are several methodologies for vegetable tannins quantification. Thus, this work aims at quantifying both tannin and non-tannin substances present in the barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii by two different methods. From bark particles of both species, analytical solutions were produced by using a steam-jacketed extractor. The solution was analyzed by Stiasny and hide-powder (no chromed methods. For both species, tannin levels were superior when analyzed by hide-powder method, reaching 47.8% and 24.1% for A. mearnsii and M. tenuiflora, respectively. By Stiasny method, the tannins levels considered were 39.0% for A. mearnsii, and 15.5% for M. tenuiflora. Despite the best results presented by A. mearnsii, the bark of M. tenuiflora also showed great potential due to its considerable amount of tannin and the availability of the species at Caatinga biome.

  16. New Diarylheptanoid from the Barks of Alnus japonica Steudel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new diarylheptanoid glycoside, 1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptane-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), together with nine known diarylheptanoids (2-10) were isolated from the fresh bark of Alnus japonica which is a species of the genus Alnus species, growing throughout Korea.

  17. Bark thickness across the angiosperms: more than just fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A

    2016-07-01

    Global variation in total bark thickness (TBT) is traditionally attributed to fire. However, bark is multifunctional, as reflected by its inner living and outer dead regions, meaning that, in addition to fire protection, other factors probably contribute to TBT variation. To address how fire, climate, and plant size contribute to variation in TBT, inner bark thickness (IBT) and outer bark thickness (OBT), I sampled 640 species spanning all major angiosperm clades and 18 sites with contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regime. Stem size was by far the main driver of variation in thickness, with environment being less important. IBT was closely correlated with stem diameter, probably for metabolic reasons, and, controlling for size, was thicker in drier and hotter environments, even fire-free ones, probably reflecting its water and photosynthate storage role. OBT was less closely correlated with size, and was thicker in drier, seasonal sites experiencing frequent fires. IBT and OBT covaried loosely and both contributed to overall TBT variation. Thickness variation was higher within than across sites and was evolutionarily labile. Given high within-site diversity and the multiple selective factors acting on TBT, continued study of the different drivers of variation in bark thickness is crucial to understand bark ecology. PMID:26890029

  18. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  19. A Temperature-Dependent Development Model for Willow Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Ireland: Simulation of Phenology/Voltinism in Response to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Ciaran P.

    2015-01-01

    Rising fossil fuel prices, energy security and adherence to existing European Union (EU) climate/energy policies means that Ireland must look towards alternative energy sources to meet future demand. Woody biomass in the form of short rotation coppice willow (SRCW) is considered a viable option. SRCW is vulnerable to damage by a range of diseases and pests however. The blue (Phratora vulgatissima) and brown (Galerucella lineola) willow beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are identified econom...

  20. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  1. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  2. Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Six

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant changes in federal environmental laws to encourage more timber harvests for beetle control. In this review, we use mountain pine beetle as an exemplar to critically evaluate the state of science behind the use of timber harvest treatments for bark beetle suppression during outbreaks. It is our hope that this review will stimulate research to fill important gaps and to help guide the development of policy and management firmly based in science, and thus, more likely to aid in forest conservation, reduce financial waste, and bolster public trust in public agency decision-making and practice.

  3. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (forests will alter fire severity, a result that has important implications for management and policy decisions.

  4. Biogeographical affinities and species richness of copronecrophagous beetles (Scarabaeoidea in the southeastern Mexican High Plateau Afinidades biogeográficas y riqueza de especies de escarabajos copronecrófagos (Scarabaeoidea en el sureste del altiplano mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina Arriaga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we establish the biogeographical affinities of the Scarabaeoidea dung beetle fauna in the dry southeast of the Mexican Plateau and analyze species diversity and how it changes with site, soil and vegetation type. Beetles were systematically captured in 6 windows in the region between Perote, Veracruz and El Seco, Puebla. A total of 9 species and 960 beetles belonging to Scarabaeinae, Aphodiinae and Trogidae were captured. Canthon humectus humectus and Phanaeus quadridens were found in greater abundance in cattle pastures. Trox plicatus is the only species captured in the badlands. The beetle fauna of this landscape is poor owing to a combination of circumstances, mainly the soil, recent volcanic activity and limited food availability. The results obtained are compared with those of 2 other dry landscapes in central Mexico (Metztitlán and Tehuacán. Our landscape shares 50% of its species with Metztitlán and 37.5% with Tehuacán. The species shared between all 3 landscapes are Canthon (B. puncticollis, Onthophagus lecontei and Labarrus pseudolividus. The fauna was characteristic of the southern Mexican Plateau, but poorer in both the number of species and individuals; some species-expected from a biogeographic perspective-were missing.Establecemos las afinidades biogeográficas de los Scarabaeoidea copronecrófagos del sureste seco del altiplano mexicano, así como la diversidad de especies y sus cambios en diferentes sitios, tipos de vegetación y suelos. Se recolectó en 6 diferentes ventanas entre Perote, Veracruz y El Seco, Puebla, obteniéndose un total de 9 especies y 960 individuos de Scarabaeinae, Aphodiinae y Trogidae. Canthon humectus humectus y Phanaeus quadridens fueron más abundantes en las áreas de pastoreo de ganado. Trox plicatus fue la única especie capturada en la zona de malpaís. En conjunto, la fauna de este paisaje es pobre debido a una combinación de circunstancias, principalmente la naturaleza del suelo

  5. Predaceous diving beetles in Maine: Faunal list and keys to subfamilies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobar, L.R.; Spangler, P.J.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Hopkins, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) collected in Maine are summarized. These records are augmented by field surveys of beetles in Aroostook Co., Maine during 1993-95. Keys to subfamilies are presented with color plates for selected species. A list of diving beetles that have been collected near Maine (state or province) is presented so that investigators will know what additional species might be expected in Maine. Basic taxonomy is presented to facilitate use of keys.

  6. The Beetle Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Harnew, N; Hofmann, W; Knöpfle, K-T; Löchner, S; Schmelling, M; Sexauer, E; Smale, N J; Trunk, U; Verkooijen, H

    2001-01-01

    This paper details the port de nitions, electrical speci cations, modes of operation and programming sequences of the 128 channel readout chip Beetle . The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and ful lls the requirements of the silicon vertex detector, the inner tracker, the pile-up veto trigger and the RICH detector in case of multianode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preampli ers and shapers. The risetime of the shaped pulse is 25 ns with a 30% remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns. A comparator per channel with con gurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought o chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analogue pipeline with a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervalls and an integrated derandomizing bu er of 16 stages. For analog readout data is multiplexed with up to 40 MHz onto 1 or 4 ports...

  7. Association of the symbiotic fungi Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp. and Acremonium sp., with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera:Scolytinae), is a new invasive species to Israel. To date, the beetle has been recorded from 48 tree species representing 25 plant families. Amongst the most affected are avocado, castor-bean and box elder. Isolations from beetle heads revea...

  8. Extracción y evaluación de taninos condensados a partir de la corteza de once especies maderables de Costa Rica Extraction and evaluation of condensed tannins from bark of eleven species of trees from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Aguilar López

    2012-12-01

    from bark of 11 tree species grown in Costa Rica: guanacas- te (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, alcornoque (Licania arborea, jobo (Spondias mombin, pochote (Pachira quinata, níspero (Manilkara chicle, almendro (Andira inermis, roble (Tabebuia rosea, cedro (Cedrela odo- rata, cenízaro (Samanea saman, pino (Pinus cari- baea and ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica. Bark samples of all mentioned species were pre- pared, dried and extracted with ethanol. Ethanolic extracts were analyzed to determine the condensed tannins content by Stiasny number and characteri- zed by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The species with higher proportion of extracted material were guanacaste (9.5841% w/w, pochote (15.0066% w/w, pino (19.3400% w/w and ciprés (10.5300% w/w, meanwhile extracts with higher proportions of condensed tannins were the obtai- ned from alcornoque (61.9%, jobo (66.1%, pocho- te (72.8%, níspero (50.5%, cedro (72.7% and pino (70.7%.

  9. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  10. Wildfire and Spruce Beetle Outbreak: Simulation of Interacting Disturbances in the Central Rocky Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    DeRose, Justin; Long, James N.

    2009-01-01

    Infrequent large-scale natural disturbance regimes are an integral component of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) forests of the central Rocky Mountains. Wildfires, bark beetle outbreaks, winds, and avalanches cause relatively drastic changes in community structure, composition, and function. These disturbances may occur independently or interact where the incidence of one may change the potential for another. We assessed potential wildfire behaviour change in the wake of a catastrophic, l...

  11. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Dufour, Dominic; Pichette, André

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50), were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity. PMID:26784337

  12. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Legault

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50, were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol, which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity.

  13. What do dung beetles eat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2007-01-01

    Most adult coprophagous beetles feed on fresh dung of mammalian herbivores, confining ingestion to small particles with measured maximum diameters from 2-5 to 130 µm, according to body size and kind of beetle. This study explores benefits and costs of selective feeding in a ‘typical' dung beetle ...

  14. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  15. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Renata C. Campos; Malva I. Medina Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung) or carcasses (carrion) and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the ...

  16. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol

  17. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed.

  18. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason Earles, J; Sperling, Or; Silva, Lucas C R; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R; North, Malcolm P; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2016-02-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world's tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, exploring potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labelling and microCT imaging, we observed that water entered the xylem via bark and reduced tracheid embolization. Moreover, prolonged bark wetting (16 h) partially restored xylem hydraulic conductivity in isolated branch segments and whole branches. Partial hydraulic recovery coincided with an increase in branch water potential from about -5.5 ± 0.4 to -4.2 ± 0.3 MPa, suggesting localized recovery and possibly hydraulic isolation. As bark water uptake rate correlated with xylem osmotic potential (R(2)  = 0.88), we suspect a symplastic role in transferring water from bark to xylem. Using historical weather data from typical redwood habitat, we estimated that bark and leaves are wet more than 1000 h per year on average, with over 30 events being sufficiently long (>24 h) to allow for bark-assisted hydraulic recovery. The capacity to uptake biologically meaningful volumes of water via bark and leaves for localized hydraulic recovery throughout the crown during rain/fog events might be physiologically advantageous, allowing for relatively constant transpiration.

  19. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason Earles, J; Sperling, Or; Silva, Lucas C R; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R; North, Malcolm P; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2016-02-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world's tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, exploring potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labelling and microCT imaging, we observed that water entered the xylem via bark and reduced tracheid embolization. Moreover, prolonged bark wetting (16 h) partially restored xylem hydraulic conductivity in isolated branch segments and whole branches. Partial hydraulic recovery coincided with an increase in branch water potential from about -5.5 ± 0.4 to -4.2 ± 0.3 MPa, suggesting localized recovery and possibly hydraulic isolation. As bark water uptake rate correlated with xylem osmotic potential (R(2)  = 0.88), we suspect a symplastic role in transferring water from bark to xylem. Using historical weather data from typical redwood habitat, we estimated that bark and leaves are wet more than 1000 h per year on average, with over 30 events being sufficiently long (>24 h) to allow for bark-assisted hydraulic recovery. The capacity to uptake biologically meaningful volumes of water via bark and leaves for localized hydraulic recovery throughout the crown during rain/fog events might be physiologically advantageous, allowing for relatively constant transpiration. PMID:26178179

  20. Variations in bark thickness and sapwood density of Calophyilum inophyllum provenances in Australia and in Sri Lanka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhash Hathurusingha; Nanjappa Ashwath

    2011-01-01

    Sapwood density and bark thickness of Calophyllum inophyl- lum L. (a multipurpose durable timber species) were studied in various locations in Northern Australia and in Sri Lanka. Measurements were taken non-destructively by using core sampling and bark gauge. From each provenance, 4-15 mature trees having girth at breast height over bark (GBHOB) at 100-150 cm were selected on the basis of the popula- tion size. Significant (p<0.05) hemispheric and provenance variations in bark thickness were found. Variations in the bark thickness are influ- enced by environmental variables. Variations in sapwood density were less pronounced compared to that of bark thickness. Variations in sap- wood density are likely to be governed by genotypic variations.

  1. Interactions between imidacloprid and Metarhizium brunneum on adult Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Calum W; Ugine, Todd A; Hajek, Ann E

    2010-11-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a longhorned beetle species native to Asia, has been introduced into several North American and European cities. Currently eradication and preventive measures are limited to identifying and destroying infested trees and protecting uninfested trees with trunk or soil-injections of the systemic insecticide imidacloprid. Because entomopathogenic fungi like Metarhizium brunneum Petch have been identified as virulent against these beetles we conducted several tests to determine the compatibility of the two agents in combination. Radial hyphal growth and the sporulation capacity of M. brunneum on Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast were not significantly affected by the presence of imidacloprid. In a 2×3 factorial experiment investigating interactions between exposure to imidacloprid and M. brunneum we observed no effect of imidacloprid alone on beetle survival when beetles were given a single dose of 10 or 100 ppm compared to control insects. We observed a significant effect of exposure to M. brunneum, and a significant interaction between imidacloprid and M. brunneum representing a synergistic effect of dual treatment. Beetles exposed to the fungus alone lived significantly longer compared to insects treated with a single dose of 100 ppm imidacloprid (9.5 vs. 6.5d). Consumption of striped maple twigs by beetles exposed to imidacloprid, across concentrations, was reduced 48% compared to control insects, where as consumption by M. brunneum-exposed beetles was reduced by 16% over the first 6-days of the test period. Beetles fed 100 ppm imidacloprid consumed 32% less over the first 3d compared to beetles not exposed to imidacloprid and thereafter consumed as much as beetles not fed 100 ppm imidacloprid. M. brunneum-exposed beetles consumed significantly less food than control insects throughout the test period, and beetles treated with imidacloprid produced significantly fewer conidia compared to beetles

  2. Physiological resistance of grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) to Arizona bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ashlee H; Rowe, Matthew P

    2008-10-01

    Predators feeding on toxic prey may evolve physiological resistance to the preys' toxins. Grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) are voracious predators of scorpions in North American deserts. Two species of grasshopper mice (Onychomys torridus and Onychomys arenicola) are broadly sympatric with two species of potentially lethal bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda and Centruroides vittatus) in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts, respectively. Bark scorpions produce toxins that selectively bind sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) ion channels in vertebrate nerve and muscle tissue. We previously reported that grasshopper mice showed no effects of bark scorpion envenomation following natural stings. Here we conducted a series of toxicity tests to determine whether grasshopper mice have evolved resistance to bark scorpion neurotoxins. Five populations of grasshopper mice, either sympatric with or allopatric to bark scorpions, were injected with bark scorpion venom; LD50s were estimated for each population. All five populations of grasshopper mice demonstrated levels of venom resistance greater than that reported for non-resistant Mus musculus. Moreover, venom resistance in the mice showed intra- and interspecific variability that covaried with bark scorpion sympatry and allopatry, patterns consistent with the hypothesis that venom resistance in grasshopper mice is an adaptive response to feeding on their neurotoxic prey. PMID:18687353

  3. Assessment of Alder Tree Bark Potential as a Renewable Source of Proanthocyanidins in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janceva Sarmīte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to assess potential of alder tree bark as a renewable source of bioactive polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extracts and proanthocyanidins (PAC isolated from bark of two alder species (grey alder and black alder growing in Latvia have been examined employing two test systems, ABTS●+, DPPH● assays. In the tests the high free radical scavenging capacities of the PAC were demonstrated. The polyphenolic nature of the bark PAC opens the possibility of its application as food additive. The PAC has good potential as an antioxidant for mayonnaise.

  4. Coarse woody material has value as habitat for saproxylic beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.M.; Spence, J.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept of Renewable Resources; Langor, D.W. [Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Biomass harvesting practices are expected to alter the abundance and natural range of variation in coarse woody material (CWM), which in turn may change soil productivity as well as the hydrological balance and structure of tree stands and habitats needed to ensure forest biodiversity. Ecosystem sustainability should be a main criterion for the development of biomass energy production schemes. Studies in northern Europe indicate that the hyperdiverse saproxylic fauna is sensitive to changes in CWM. Saproxylic beetles are dependent on decaying wood, and play an important role in forest nutrient cycling. Approximately 11 per cent of European saproxylic beetles are at risk of regional extirpation. This study sampled saproxylic beetle species from CWM in mature trembling aspen stands in Alberta. Over 150 species were collected, including 4 species new to science. The study showed that the beetles use numerous CWM habitats and exhibit high habitat specificity. A diversity of CWM substrates are needed to maintain saproxylic beetle habitats. Further research is needed to minimize the loss of species and their ecosystem functions.

  5. The Beetle (Coleoptera and True bug (Heteroptera species pool of the alpine “Pian di Gembro” wetland (Villa di Tirano, Italy and its conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Montagna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he C oleoptera and Heteroptera species pool was investigated in the “Pian di Gembro” wetland (Villa di T irano, Sondrio, Italy. T he wetland consists of a bog and its surroundings, referred to as wetland components, that are both subjected to a diversified intermediate management regime (DIMR. T he application of the DIMR for plant species conservation resulted in the establishment of 11 wetland zones with a characteristic vegetation. In a three year sampling program, 997 C oleoptera and Heteroptera representing 141 species from 14 families were collected. Among these species, 64 species share both wetland components, 11 are restricted to the bog and 63 were found in the surroundings only. Among the species pool there were 23 tyrphophile taxa and only one tyrphobiont. With the exception of one zone, all zones are inhabited by zone-specific species. By taking into account both the general species pool and the pool of species of particular interest to conservationists, only one zone can be considered as redundant since it is inhabited by species that occur also in other zones. Hence, all the zones, with one exception, are effective for species pool conservation. The existing DIMR implemented for plant species conservation is also effective for conserving the species pool of C oleoptera and Heteroptera.

  6. Ecological distribution and niche segregation of sibling species: the case of bean beetles, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say and A. obvelatus Bridwell

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Nadir; Mercier, Lény; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Contreras-Garduño, Jorge; Kunstler Georges; Aebi, Alexandre; Benrey, Betty

    2007-01-01

    1. Molecular techniques have greatly added to the number of known sympatric cryptic species in insects. Ecological differences between these newly distinguished species are little explored, but niches often appear to overlap strongly. These cases are good models for exploring new ideas about species coexistence and community structure. 2. Acanthoscelides obtectus and A. obvelatus are two sister species of bean bruchids, which have been confused until the last decade. One important ecological...

  7. QUANTIFICATION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM LEAVES AND STEM BARK OF COCHLOSPERMUM RELIGIOSUM (L) ALSTON

    OpenAIRE

    Sasikala A; Linga Rao M; Savithramma N

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical constituents are responsible for medicinal activity of plant species. Hence the present study quantification of primary and secondary metabolites from leaves and stem bark of Cochlospermum religiosum was carried out. The results showed that the leaf was rich in chlorophylls followed by lipids, proteins and carbohydrates whereas in stem bark highest amount found in chlorophylls followed by carbohydrates, proteins and lipids of primary metabolites. Cochlospermum religiosum leaf wa...

  8. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  9. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2013-02-01

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees.

  10. Polarizing properties and structure of the cuticle of scarab beetles from the Chrysina genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Del Río, Lía; Arwin, Hans; Järrendahl, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties of several scarab beetles have been previously studied but few attempts have been made to compare beetles in the same genus. To determine whether there is any relation between specimens of the same genus, we have studied and classified seven species from the Chrysina genus. The polarization properties were analyzed with Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry and the structural characteristics with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the Chrysina beetles are green colored or have a metallic look (gold or silver). The results show that the green-colored beetles polarize reflected light mainly at off-specular angles. The gold-colored beetles polarize light left-handed near circular at specular reflection. The structure of the exoskeleton is a stack of layers that form a cusplike structure in the green beetles whereas the layers are parallel to the surface in the case of the gold-colored beetles. The beetle C. gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along the elytras and exhibits both types of effects. The results indicate that Chrysina beetles can be classified according to these two major polarization properties. PMID:27575166

  11. Polarizing properties and structure of the cuticle of scarab beetles from the Chrysina genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández del Río, Lía; Arwin, Hans; Järrendahl, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties of several scarab beetles have been previously studied but few attempts have been made to compare beetles in the same genus. To determine whether there is any relation between specimens of the same genus, we have studied and classified seven species from the Chrysina genus. The polarization properties were analyzed with Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry and the structural characteristics with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the Chrysina beetles are green colored or have a metallic look (gold or silver). The results show that the green-colored beetles polarize reflected light mainly at off-specular angles. The gold-colored beetles polarize light left-handed near circular at specular reflection. The structure of the exoskeleton is a stack of layers that form a cusplike structure in the green beetles whereas the layers are parallel to the surface in the case of the gold-colored beetles. The beetle C. gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along the elytras and exhibits both types of effects. The results indicate that Chrysina beetles can be classified according to these two major polarization properties.

  12. The saproxylic beetle assemblage associated with different host trees in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wu; Xiao-Dong Yu; Hong-Zhang Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Dead wood is a habitat for many insects and other small animals,some of which may be rare or endangered and in need of effective protection.In this paper,saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with different host trees in the subtropical forests in southwestern China were investigated.A total of 277 species (1 439 specimens) in 36 beetle families were collected from 117 dead wood samples,of which 101 samples were identified and respectively belonged to 12 tree genera.The number of saproxylic beetle species varied greatly among logs of different tree genera,with the highest diversity on logs of Juglans.Generally,broad-leaved trees had a higher richness and abundance of saproxylic species than coniferous trees.Cluster analysis revealed that assemblages from broad-leaved tree genera were generally similar (except for Betula) and assemblages from coniferous trees formed another distinct cluster.The subsequent indicator analysis proposed that there are different characteristic species for different cluster groups of host tree genera.In our study,log diameter has no positive influence on beetle species density.Conversely,comparisons of individual-based rarefaction curves suggested that beetle species richness was highest in the small diameter class both in coniferous and broad-leaved tree genera.With increased wood decay,proportion of habitat specialists (saproxylic beetles living on one tree genus)decreased,whereas proportion of habitat generalists (living on more than three tree genera)increased.The beetle species density was found to be higher in early stages,and decreased in later stages as well.A negative influence of altitude on saproxylic beetle species richness and abundance was detected.It was indicated that different tree genera and altitudes possibly display cross effects in modulating the altitudinal distribution and host preference of the beetles.

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FICUS GLOMERATA LINN. BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagtap Supriya G.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ficus glomerata Linn. (Moraceae, commonly known as Ficus racemosa. A large deciduous tree distributed all over India and Ceylon, found throughout the year, grows in evergreen forest, moist localities, along the sides of ravines and banks of streams. Gular (Ficus glomerata Linn. is well known, commonly used plant in various disorders. It has been traditionally claimed to be useful in asthmatic condition, as an antitussive and anti-inflammatory. Successive soxhlet extractions of dried powdered bark were carried out using petroleum ether and methanol as a solvent. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts were tested in vitro against two different bacterial species Bacillus substilis and Escherichia coli by cup plate diffusion method were used in this investigation. The results of antimicrobial activity revealed that methanolic extract showed good activity as compared to petroleum ether extract. Methanolic extract is more potent towards gram - positive bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were compared with standard antibiotics.

  14. Invasive Asian Fusarium – Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cultivate Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) species in their galleries as a source of food. Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung...

  15. Response of Coprophagus Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae on changes of vegetation structure in various habitat types at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIAN H. SCHULZE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the response of dung beetles − a group of beetles which play a major role in decomposition of dung and animal carcasses − to changes of vegetation structure due to forest conversion to different human-made habitat types at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park. Therefore, dung beetles were sampled at natural forest, cacao agroforestry systems and open area. A total of 28 species of coprophagus beetle species were recorded from the sampled sites. Species richness and abundance of dung beetles, particularly of large species, decreased from forest towards agroforestry systems and open areas. However, more than 80 % of the species recorded in natural forest were found in cacao agroforestry systems Of the measured habitat parameters, particularly the number of tree species, air temperature, and canopy cover had a significant power for explaining changes in dung beetle ensembles along the gradient of land-use intensity.

  16. Evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-08-01

    The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin.

  17. The interaction of Saccharomyces paradoxus with its natural competitors on oak bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowallik, Vienna; Miller, Eric; Greig, Duncan

    2015-04-01

    The natural history of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is poorly understood and confounded by domestication. In nature, S. cerevisiae and its undomesticated relative S. paradoxus are usually found on the bark of oak trees, a habitat very different from wine or other human fermentations. It is unclear whether the oak trees are really the primary habitat for wild yeast, or whether this apparent association is due to biased sampling. We use culturing and high-throughput environmental sequencing to show that S. paradoxus is a very rare member of the oak bark microbial community. We find that S. paradoxus can grow well on sterile medium made from oak bark, but that its growth is strongly suppressed when the other members of the community are present. We purified a set of twelve common fungal and bacterial species from the oak bark community and tested how each affected the growth of S. paradoxus in direct competition on oak bark medium at summer and winter temperatures, identifying both positive and negative interactions. One Pseudomonas species produces a diffusible toxin that suppresses S. paradoxus as effectively as either the whole set of twelve species together or the complete community present in nonsterilized oak medium. Conversely, one of the twelve species, Mucilaginibacter sp., had the opposite effect and promoted S. paradoxus growth at low temperatures. We conclude that, in its natural oak tree habitat, S. paradoxus is a rare species whose success depends on the much more abundant microbial species surrounding it.

  18. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    OpenAIRE

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reac...

  19. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the patchwork of tree mortality across the landscape. While several studies have shown that selective mechanisms operate at the individual tree level, less attention has been given to beetles’ preference for variation in spatial forest patterns, namely forest fragmentation, and if such preference changes with changing population conditions. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of fragmentation on the location of mountain pine beetle caused mortality. Using a negative binomial regression model, we tested the significance of a fragmentation measure called the Aggregation Index for predicting beetle-caused tree mortality in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada in 2000 and 2005. The results explain that mountain pine beetle OPEN ACCESS Forests 2013, 4 280 exhibit a density-dependent dynamic behaviour related to forest patterns, with fragmented forests experiencing greater tree mortality when beetle populations are low (2000. Conversely, more contiguous forests are preferred when populations reach epidemic levels (2005. These results reinforce existing findings that bark beetles exhibit a strong host configuration preference at low population levels and that such pressures are relaxed when beetle densities are high.

  20. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

    2010-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

  1. Rainforest understory beetles of the Neotropics: Mizotrechus Bates 1872, a generic synopsis with descriptions of new species from Central America and northern South America (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Perigonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information on the single previously described species, Mizotrechus novemstriatus Bates 1872 (type locality: Brazil – Amazonas, Tefé, is updated and 17 new species for the genus from Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyane are described. The species records in the literature and on determined specimens in some collections of M. novemstriatus Bates from Central America are not that species; currently, M. novemstriatus is known only from its type locality in Amazonian Brazil. For the new species described, their known general distributions are as follows: Mizotrechus batesi sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus bellorum sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus brulei sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus belevedere sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus costaricensis sp. n. (Costa Rica, Mizotrechus dalensi sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus edithpiafae sp. n. (provenance unknown, Mizotrechus fortunensis sp. n. (Panamá, Mizotrechus gorgona. sp. n. (Colombia, Mizotrechus grossus sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus jefe sp. n. (Panamá, Mizotrechus marielaforetae sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus minutus sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus neblinensis sp. n. (Guyane, Venezuela, Mizotrechus poirieri sp. n. (Guyane, and Mizotrechus woldai sp. n. (Panamá. Long-term use of flight intercept traps in Guyane provided so many new species that apparently the use of FITs is the way to collect adults of this taxon, previously known from very few specimens. Many more species of this genus can be expected to be discovered throughout the Neotropics; the present contribution is a preliminary synopsis with identification key and adult images of all known species. Likely numerous species are yet to be discovered throughout tropical climes.

  2. Molluscicidal activity of Nerium indicum bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Singh

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Nerium indicum bark against Lymnaea acuminata snails was studied. The toxicity of different bark preparations was both time and dose dependent. The 24-h LC50 of the lyophilized aqueous extract of bark was 34.5 mg/l whereas that of lyophilized boiled water extract was 42.5 mg/l. Low concentrations of vacuum-dried ethanolic extract (24-h LC50: 4.9 mg/l and purified bark (24-h LC50: 0.87 mg/l were effective in killing the test snails.

  3. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chiarini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μM in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect.

  4. A new species of Synchroa Newman from China (Coleoptera: Synchroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun; Li, Yun; Liu, Zhenhua; Pang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The family Synchroidae Lacordaire, 1859 is a small group of beetles with an elongate, tapered, and slightly flattened body and brownish to black coloration. Members exhibit morphological similarity to some genera of Melandryidae, but can be distinguished based on larval morphology and the unmodified apical maxillary palpomeres. They are widely distributed throughout the Oriental, Palaearctic and Nearctic regions and possess the highest species diversity in Eastern Asia (Nikitsky 1999; Hsiao 2015). Synchroa bark beetles had been viewed as members of the Melandryidae for a long time, but were treated as an independent family in Böving & Craighead (1931). Crowson (1966) followed Böving & Craighead's treatment and suggested close relatives among the members of Zopheridae and Stenotrachelidae based on both larval and adult characters. Currently, only 8 species distributed amongst three genera have been described in this family: Mallodrya Horn, 1888 is a monotypical genus from North America; Synchroa Newman, 1838, the nominal genus and the largest genus widely distributed in North America, east Palearctic region and the Oriental region, including 5 species; Synchroina Fairmaire, 1898 is from the Oriental region and includes two species. (Nikitsky 1999; Hsiao 2015).Recently, the first author had the opportunity to examine the collection of the Museum of Biology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (SYSBM) discovering one remarkable species of Synchroa with dark coloration and a narrow prothorax, which are very different from previously described species of this genus. After careful examination and comparisons to other described species it is described here as new. In addition, an updated key to the world species of Synchroa is provided. PMID:27394519

  5. Attractiveness of native mammal's feces of different trophic guilds to dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoni, Juliano A; Hernández, Malva I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammal feces are the primary food and nesting resource for the majority of dung beetle species, and larval development depends on the quantity and quality of that resource. Physiological necessities, competitive interactions, and resource sharing are common and suggest that dung beetles may show preferences for feces of greater nutritional quality, which may in turn impact beetle assemblages and community structure. This study investigated whether attractiveness of dung beetles to different resource (feces) types varies depending on mammal trophic guild and associated nutritional content. This study was conducted in Atlantic Forest fragments in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil. To evaluate attractiveness, the feces of the carnivore Puma concolor, the omnivores Cerdocyon thous and Sapajus nigritus, and the herbivore Tapirus terrestris were utilized as bait. Dung was collected from zoo animals fed a standard diet. Sampling was performed in triplicate in five areas in the summer of 2013. Four pitfall traps were established in each area, and each trap was baited with one type of mammal feces. Food preference of the species was analyzed by calculating Rodgers' index for cafeteria-type experiments. In total, 426 individuals from 17 species were collected. Rodgers' index showed that omnivorous mammal feces (C. thous) were most attractive to all dung beetle species, although it is known that dung beetles are commonly opportunistic with respect to search for and allocation of food resources. These results suggest that mammal loss could alter competitive interactions between dung beetles.

  6. The effects of urbanization, bark fissure depth and sun exposure on lichens in south eastern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Tälle, Malin

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that air pollution, as well as bark fissure depth and sun exposure of a tree can have an effect on lichen growth as well as abundance of lichen species. The aim of this study was to find out the relative importance of these factors. 211 oaks in south eastern Sweden were surveyed for presence of 17 lichen species, as well as the total number of lichen species. Half of the trees were situated in urban areas and half in the countryside. For each tree the bark fissure depth was...

  7. Toward an inordinate fondness for stars, beetles and Lobophora? Species diversity of the genus Lobophora (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Christophe; D'hondt, Sofie; De Clerck, Olivier; Payri, Claude E

    2014-12-01

    Until the recent use of molecular markers, species diversity of Lobophora, an ecologically important brown algal genus with a worldwide distribution in temperate and tropical seas, has been critically underestimated. Using a DNA-based taxonomic approach, we re-examined diversity of the genus from New Caledonia in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. First, species were delineated using general mixed Yule coalescent-based and barcoding gap approaches applied to a mitochondrial cox3 data set. Results were subsequently confirmed using chloroplast psbA and rbcL data sets. Species delimitation analyses agreed well across markers and delimitation algorithms, with the barcoding gap approach being slightly more conservative. Analyses of the cox3 data set resulted in 31-39 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), four of which are previously described species (L. asiatica, L. crassa, L. nigrescens s.l., L. pachyventera). Of the remaining MOTUs for which we obtained a representative number of sequences and results are corroborated across analyses and genes, we described 10 species de novo: L. abaculusa, L. abscondita, L. densa, L. dimorpha, L. gibbera, L. hederacea, L. monticola, L. petila, L. rosacea, and L. undulata. Our study presents an excellent case of how a traditional morphology-based taxonomy fails to provide accurate estimates of algal diversity. Furthermore, the level of Lobophora diversity unveiled from a single locality in the Pacific Ocean raises important questions with respect to the global diversity of the genus, the distributions and range sizes of the individual species, as well as the mechanisms facilitating coexistence.

  8. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? METHODOLOGY: We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. CONCLUSION: Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores

  9. Comparison of Laboratory and Ecological Host Range of the Saltcedar Leaf Beetle with Respect to Native Non-Target Frankenia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory and field host specificity tests were conducted with the saltcedar biocontrol agent, Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Crete, to assess the potential risk of impact to non-target North American Frankenia species. Larval survival was not significantly different between T...

  10. Biology of two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), recently invasive in the U.S.A., reared on an ambrosia beetle artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...

  11. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Nyctanthes arbortristis bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Ashokrao Nirmal; Subodh Chandra Pal; Subhash Chandra Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study detailed Pharmacognosy of the bark of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn (Oleaceae), an important plant in Indian system of medicine. Methods: the macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical testing of powder of the plant bark and other WHO recommended methods for the standardization was done. Results: Trunk bark consists of two distinct regions i.e. outer bark and inner bark. Outer bark consists of broad periderm of a wide phellem and inner phelloderm regions. Inner bark is broader than the outer part and it includes all the secondary phloem tissues. It can be distinguished into 2 zones viz. collapsed secondary phloem and non-collapsed secondary phloem regions. Collapsed secondary phloem region consist of thick blocks of phloem sclereids and radially oblique dark streaks of crushed sieve tubes and dilated axial parenchyma cells. Non-collapsed secondary phloem region is the conducting part of the phloem where the sieve elements are intact. It consists of intact sieve tube members, companion cells, axial parenchyma cells and narrow undilated ray. Calcium oxalate crystals are abundant in collapsed phloem region. Conclusions: it can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of N. arbortristis bark is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.

  12. Microsatellite loci for the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, a nest parasite of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J D; Spiewok, S; Teixeira, E W; Neumann, P

    2008-05-01

    Aethina tumida, a beetle parasite of honey bee colonies, has recently and dramatically expanded its range and now parasitizes honey bees on three continents. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for this beetle species will help map this continuing range expansion, and will also prove useful for exploring the mating system and local gene flow patterns for this important parasite. We describe 15 loci that are polymorphic in both the native and introduced ranges of this species, showing from two to 22 alleles. PMID:21585875

  13. Checklist of the Iranian Ground Beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakhsh, Saeed; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-09-30

    An up-to-date checklist of the ground beetles of Iran is presented. Altogether 955 species and subspecies in 155 genera belonging to 26 subfamilies of Carabidae are reported; 25 taxa are recorded for Iran for the fist time. New localities are listed and some previous distributional records are discussed.

  14. Surveying an endangered saproxylic beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Mediterranean woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiari, Stefano; Zauli, Agnese; Mazziotta, Adriano;

    2013-01-01

    of this species. Since in the southern part of its distribution range, a single population of O. eremita is widespread in the landscape, and includes beetles from more than one hollow tree, conservation efforts should focus not only on preserving few and isolated monumental hollow trees, but should be extended...

  15. Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanesca Korasaki; José Lopes; George Gardner Brown; Julio Louzada

    2013-01-01

    We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina,Paraná,Brazil.This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness,abundance,composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.We evaluated the community aspects (abundance,richness,composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat,rotten fish,pig dung and decaying banana).A total of 1719 individuals were collected,belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes.The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness.The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits.Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment,all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type.Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities,even small ones,can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae.

  16. Beetles that live with ants (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pseudomorphini): A remarkable new genus and species from Guyane (French Guiana), Guyanemorpha spectabilis gen. n., sp. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Terry L

    2013-01-01

    Among the extensive collections currently being made in Guyane (French Guiana), adults of a large and colorful species of pseudomorphine were encountered. The adults present, for the first time in the Western Hemisphere, elytra with a marked color pattern, and in addition a size considerably beyond that of the rest of the members of all other known genera in the Western Hemisphere. Both of these attributes, however, are well known in the Australian pseudomorphine fauna. This new species is described and illustrated and a revised key to the Western Hemisphere genera is included. The type locality of Guyanemorpha spectabilis gen. n., sp. n. is Guyane,Risquetout, PK20, 4.916°N, 52.516°W, 12m altitude.

  17. Ascarosides coordinate the dispersal of a plant-parasitic nematode with the metamorphosis of its vector beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Xinxing; Wei, Yanan; Zhou, Jiao; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Peijun; Chinta, Satya; Kong, Xiangbo; Liu, Yunpeng; Yu, Haiying; Hu, Songnian; Zou, Zhen; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Insect vectors are required for the transmission of many species of parasitic nematodes, but the mechanisms by which the vectors and nematodes coordinate their life cycles are poorly understood. Here, we report that ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones, are produced not only by a plant-parasitic nematode, but also by its vector beetle. The pinewood nematode and its vector beetle cause pine wilt disease, which threatens forest ecosystems world-wide. Ascarosides secreted by the dispersal third-stage nematode LIII larvae promote beetle pupation by inducing ecdysone production in the beetle and up-regulating ecdysone-dependent gene expression. Once the beetle develops into the adult stage, it secretes ascarosides that attract the dispersal fourth-stage nematode LIV larvae, potentially facilitating their movement into the beetle trachea for transport to the next pine tree. These results demonstrate that ascarosides play a key role in the survival and spread of pine wilt disease. PMID:27477780

  18. Ascarosides coordinate the dispersal of a plant-parasitic nematode with the metamorphosis of its vector beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Xinxing; Wei, Yanan; Zhou, Jiao; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Peijun; Chinta, Satya; Kong, Xiangbo; Liu, Yunpeng; Yu, Haiying; Hu, Songnian; Zou, Zhen; Butcher, Rebecca A; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Insect vectors are required for the transmission of many species of parasitic nematodes, but the mechanisms by which the vectors and nematodes coordinate their life cycles are poorly understood. Here, we report that ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones, are produced not only by a plant-parasitic nematode, but also by its vector beetle. The pinewood nematode and its vector beetle cause pine wilt disease, which threatens forest ecosystems world-wide. Ascarosides secreted by the dispersal third-stage nematode LIII larvae promote beetle pupation by inducing ecdysone production in the beetle and up-regulating ecdysone-dependent gene expression. Once the beetle develops into the adult stage, it secretes ascarosides that attract the dispersal fourth-stage nematode LIV larvae, potentially facilitating their movement into the beetle trachea for transport to the next pine tree. These results demonstrate that ascarosides play a key role in the survival and spread of pine wilt disease. PMID:27477780

  19. Effectiveness of hand removal for small-scale management of Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Paul V; Cumming, Ryan M

    2014-02-01

    Hand removal is often recommended as a method for small-scale control of Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman). In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of daily hand removal for controlling damage by Japanese beetles on grape plants. We also investigated whether the timing of the removal (at 0800, 1400, or 1900 hours, or at all 3 periods) influenced the effectiveness of the technique. We found that hand removal significantly lowered the number of beetles on, and consequently the damage to, grape plants relative to nonremoval controls. Of the single removal treatments, removal of beetles at 1900 hours was most effective, with results similar to removing beetles three times per day. The majority of beetles removed from plants during the experiment were female, a pattern that matches our understanding of aggregation formation behavior in the species, and which may serve to enhance the benefits of hand removal. Hand removal seems to work by decreasing the number of feeding beetles, which in turn reduces the release of aggregation kairomones from the plant, and subsequently decreases the attractiveness of the plant to future beetles.

  20. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  1. Elevated bark temperature in unremoved stumps after disturbances facilitates multi-voltinism in Ips typographus population in a mountainous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischer Peter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of Ips typographus generations developed in a year might be indicative of its population size and of risk to Norway spruce forests. Warm weather and unremoved fallen trees after natural disturbances are thought of as key factors initiating large population increase. We studied I. typographus development in a spruce forest of the Tatra National Park, which was heavily affected by large-scale disturbances in the last decade. Repeated windthrows and consequent bark beetle outbreaks have damaged almost 20,000 hectares of mature Norway spruce forests, what is a half of the National Park forest area. Current I. typographus population size and its response to the environment and to forestry defense measures attract attention of all stakeholders involved in natural resource management, including public. In this paper we analyse the potential I. typographus population size in two consecutive years 2014 and 2015, which represented a climatologically normal year and an extremely hot year, respectively. We used bark temperature and phenology models to estimate the number of generations developed in each year. In 2014, the average bark temperature of standing living trees at study sites was 14.5 °C, in 2015 it increased to 15.7 °C. The bark temperature of fallen logs was 17.7 °C in 2014, and 19.5 °C in 2015. The bark temperature of standing living trees allowed to develop one and two generations in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elevated bark temperature of fallen logs allowed to develop two generations in 2014 and three generations in 2015. The good match between the predicted and observed timing of each generation emergence as well as the large increase in the number of catches in pheromone traps in 2015 indicated a dramatic increase of the I. typographus population in the extremely warm year, especially at the unmanaged windthrown site.

  2. Walking to survive. Searching, feeding and egg production of the carabid beetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. (= Poecilus versicolor Sturm).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, P.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This study concerns the prey-searching and feeding behaviour of the polyphagous groundbeetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. ( = Poecilus versicolor Sturm), a common species on sandy soils. This ground beetle rarely flies, thus preysearching behaviour involves walking. The beetle is diurnal. As object

  3. Fusarium symbionts of an ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp.) in southern Florida are pathogens of avocado, Persea americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dieback, a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana), was reported in California and Israel in 2012. It is associated with an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., and damage caused by an unnamed symbiont of the beetle in Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) designated p...

  4. A comparison of trap type and height for capturing cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elizabeth E; Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2012-06-01

    Wood-boring beetles in the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) play important roles in many forest ecosystems. However, increasing numbers of invasive cerambycid species are transported to new countries by global commerce and threaten forest health in the United States and worldwide. Our goal was to identify effective detection tools for a broad array of cerambycid species by testing some known cerambycid attractants and a pheromone in different trap designs placed across a range of habitats. We compared numbers and species richness of cerambycid beetles captured with cross-vane panel traps and 12-unit Lindgren multiple-funnel traps, placed either at ground level (1.5 m high) or canopy level (approximately 3-10 m high), at eight sites classified as either residential, industrial, deciduous forest, or conifer forest. We captured 3,723 beetles representing 72 cerambycid species from 10 June to 15 July 2010. Species richness was highest for the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae, which accounted for 33 and 46% of all species captured, respectively. Overall, the cross-vane panel traps captured approximately 1.5 times more beetles than funnel traps. Twenty-one species were captured exclusively in traps at one height, either in the canopy or at ground level. More species were captured in hardwood sites (59 species) where a greater diversity of host material was available than in conifer (34 species), residential (41 species), or industrial (49) sites. Low numbers of beetles (n < 5) were recorded for 28 of the beetle species. The number of species captured per week ranged from 49 species on 21 June to 37 species on 12 July. Cross-vane panel traps installed across a vertical gradient should maximize the number of cerambycid species captured.

  5. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  6. Differences in coprophilous beetle communities structure in Sierra de Minas (Uruguay): a mosaic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vainer, Patricia; Morelli, E; Defeo, O

    2012-10-01

    Coprophilous beetles represent an abundant and rich group with critical importance in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Most coprophagous beetles have a stenotopic distribution in relation to vegetation types. Because of this, they are usually very sensitive to environmental changes and are considered well suited as bioindicator organisms. The aim of this study was to analyze variations in coprophilous beetle assemblages in natural and anthropogenic habitats. Coprophilous beetle communities were sampled monthly for 1 year using pitfall traps baited with cow dung, in native xeric upland forests, 15-years-old plantations of Pinus elliottii and pastures in Sierra de Minas, Lavalleja, Uruguay. A total of 7,436 beetles were caught and identified to species or morphospecies level. The most abundant families were Aphodiidae, Scarabaeidae, and Staphylinidae. Differences in species richness, abundance, Shannon index, evenness, and dominance were detected between habitats. Abundances of most frequent families were significantly higher in both kinds of forests. Species richness and diversity of Aphodiidae and Staphylinidae were higher in forests, while Scarabaeidae showed the highest richness and diversity in pine plantations. Species composition significantly differed between habitats. Uroxys terminalis Waterhouse and Ataenius perforatus Harold typified the assemblages in native forests and pine plantations and also discriminated both communities because of their differential pattern of abundance between habitats. Typifying species in pastures were Onthophagus hirculus, Ateuchus robustus (Harold), and Ataenius platensis Blanchard. Habitat type had a strong effect on the coprophilous beetle community structure and composition. PMID:23950086

  7. Detection of beetle damage in forests by X-ray CT image processing; Deteccao de danos causados por besouro em florestas com processamento de imagens de tomografia computadorizada de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruvinel, Paulo Estevao; Naime, Joao de Mendonca; Macedo, Alvaro [EMBRAPA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Agricultural Instrumentation; Borges, Miguel [EMBRAPA/Labex - USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD (United States); Zhang, Aijun [USDA, ARS Chemicals Affecting Insect Behavior Laboratory, BARC-W, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2003-09-15

    Some beetle species can have devastating economic impacts on forest and nursery industries. A recent example is Anophophora glabripennis, a species of beetle known in the United States as the 'Asian Longhorrned beetle1', which has damaged many American forests, and is a threat which can unintentionally reach south American countries, including Brazil. This work presents a new method based on X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and image processing for beetle injury detection in forests. Its results show a set of images with correct identification of the location of beetles in living trees as well as damage evaluation with time. (author)

  8. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  9. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalin, Andrey V; Chikatunov, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided.

  10. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  11. A new genus of trechine beetles, Puertrechus gen. n., with two new species and a new species of Dactylotrechus Belousov et Kabak, 2003 from Southern China (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Igor A; Kabak, Ilya I

    2014-08-25

    Puertrechus gen. n., related to both Dactylotrechus and Quiennectrechus Deuve, 1992 is established to accommodate two new trechine species: P. mengsaensis sp. n. (type species of the genus, type locality: Mountains East of Mengsa City, Lincang Prefecture, Yunnan, China) and P. daxueshanicus sp. n. (type locality: Daxueshan Mount, the same prefecture). Likewise, the second species of the genus Dactylotrechus Belousov & Kabak, 2003, D. yalongensis sp. n., is described from the right bank of the Yalong River, SW of Mianing, southern Sichuan, China. This species differs from the only known species of the genus in some important characters including the elytral chaetotaxy and the male genitalia structure. Some adjustments of the genus diagnosis are made to embrace the new species. Keys to species of Dactylotrechus and Puertrechus gen. n. are included and their distribution is mapped. A key is provided to differentiate Puertrechus , Dactylotrechus and Quiennectrechus.

  12. Metals Bioaccumulation Mechanism in Neem Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnani, Kishore K; Boddu, Veera M; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ghadge, S V; Sarkar, Biplab; Brahmane, M P; Choudhary, K; Kathiravan, V; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as Hg(2+) Neem bark can be used as bioindicators, bioaccumulators and biomonitors while determining environmental pressures. Metal bioaccumulative properties and structural investigation of plant bark has potential in providing quantitative information on the metal contamination in the surrounding environment.

  13. Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species

  14. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele

    2014-11-26

    An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured.

  15. A study on temporal variation of elemental composition in tree barks used as air pollution indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: eliane_csantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The study of air pollution using biological matrices has shown that tree barks may be used as biomonitor due to accumulation of aerosol particles on its porous surface. The bark elemental composition can provide information on pollution sources as well as characterize the aerial pollutants from a wide geographical region. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in elemental composition in barks with time of exposure. Tree barks from Tipuana (Tipuana tipu) and Sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides) species were collected in February 2013 and July 2014 in the city of São Paulo. For analysis, the barks were cleaned, grated, ground and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of samples and synthetic standards of elements were irradiated with thermal neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and after a suitable decay time, the induced gamma activities were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The elements As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined and the results indicated variability in the concentrations depending on the element, sampling period and also on tree species, indicating that there are not very well defined temporal trends. The quality control of the analytical results evaluated by analyzing INCT Virginia Tobacco Leaves certified reference material (CRM) presented values of |z-score| < 2, indicating that the procedure of NAA applied is suitable for the analyses. (author)

  16. An Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus and its novel symbiotic fungus Fusarium sp. pose a serious threat to the Israeli avocado industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus Einchoff was first recorded in Israel in 2009. A novel unnamed symbiotic species within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex, carried in the mandibular mycangia of the beetle, is responsible for the typical wilt symptoms inflicted on avocado (Perse...

  17. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  18. Copro-necrophagous beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) diversity in an agroecosystem in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Novelo, Enrique; Delfín-González, Hugo; Angel Morón, Miguel

    2007-03-01

    Scarabaeinae are sensitive to structural habitat changes caused by disturbance. We compared copronecrophagous beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in three differently managed zones within an agroeco-system of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We placed dung and carrion traps once a month from June 2004 through May 2005. The beetle community included 17 species from the genera Canthon, Canthidium, Deltochilum, Pseudocanthon, Malagoniella, Onthophagus, Phanaeus, Copris, Uroxys, Sisyphus and Ateuchus. The secondary vegetation had a higher beetle diversity than the other two zones. Species richness was highest in the Brosimum alicastrum plantation. The pasture had the lowest species diversity and richness, but exhibited the highest abundance of Scarabaeinae in the dry season. The two zones with extensive tree cover were the most diverse. Roller beetles were dominant over burrower species and small-sized species outnumbered large species. Our data show two important issues: beetle species in the pasture extended their activity to the beginning of the dry season, while abundances dropped in the other, unirrigated zones; and the possibility that the Scarabaeinae living in neotropical forests are opportunistic saprophages and have specialized habits for resources other than dung. The B. alicastrum plantation is beneficial to the entire ranch production system because it functions as a dispersion and development area for stenotopic species limited to tree cover.

  19. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Wizen; Avital Gasith

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: Epomis dejeani and Epomis circumscriptus . In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-am...

  20. How unique is the tiger beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae of the Balkan Peninsula?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Jaskula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The tiger beetle fauna of the Balkan Peninsula is one of the richest in Europe and includes 19 species or 41% of the European tiger beetle fauna. Assembled by their biogeographical origins, the Balkan tiger beetle species fall into 14 different groups that include, Mediterranean, Middle Oriental, Central Asiatic, Euro-Siberian, South and East European, Pannonian-Sarmatian, West Palaearctic, Turano-European and Afrotropico Indo-Mediterranean species. The Mediterranean Sclerophyl and the Pontian Steppe are the Balkan biogeographical provinces with the highest species richness, while the Balkan Highlands has the lowest Cicindelidae diversity. Most species are restricted to single habitat types in lowland areas of the Balkan Peninsula and only Calomera aulica aulica and Calomera littoralis nemoralis occur in respectively 3 and 4 different types of habitat. About 60% of all Balkan Cicindelidae species are found in habitats potentially endangered by human activity.

  1. Investigation of thermal decomposition of bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczak, B.; Babicki, R.

    1978-01-01

    Destructive distillation of Scots pine bark in the laboratory yielded poor quality charcoal. Processing of liquid distillates was not economically justified. The charcoal could be upgraded by demineralization followed by briquetting but this would considerably increase costs. (Refs. 5).

  2. The Leaf-Beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) Feed On Some Weeds In Tokat Province

    OpenAIRE

    Çam, Halit; ATAY, Turgut

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the leaf-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) which causes extensive damage on weeds in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey. Total 9 taxa including 4 species of Chrysomelinae, 1 species of Clytrinae, 1 species of Criocerinae, 2 species of Alticinae and 1 species of Cassidinae were found to be destructive on different weed species. These species were; Entomoscelis adonidis (Pall.) on Sinapis arvensis L., Gastrophysa polygoni (L.) on Polygonum convolvulus L. an...

  3. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  4. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Werner Hopp; Edilson Caron; Richard Ottermanns; Martina Roß-Nickoll

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment) and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage...

  5. Structure, histochemistry and phytochemical profile of the bark of the sobol and aerial stem of Tontelea micrantha (Celastraceae - Hippocrateoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA OLÍVIA MERCADANTE-SIMÕES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The bark of the underground stem of Tontelea micrantha (Mart. ex. Schult. A. C. Sm., a native Brazilian Cerrado species, is used in folk medicine for treating kidney ailments. The structures of the underground and the aerial stems were examined and their barks were analyzed for the presence of secondary metabolites. Bark fragments were processed according to conventional techniques in plant anatomy and their chemical compositions examined using histochemical and phytochemical tests, thin layer chromatography, and high-efficiency liquid chromatography. The underground stem is a sobol with unusual cambial activity. Laticifers that secrete terpenoids were present in the cortex and phloem of both organs and can contribute to the identification of the species in field. Druses were present in both barks, but mono-crystals were only observed in the sobol. Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids occurred in both types of bark, but carotenoids were only detected in the sobol. The similarities between these two organs indicate that the aerial stem bark has potential medicinal use and represents a plausible alternative to harvesting the sobol, which could contribute to the preservation of natural populations of this species.

  6. Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2012-08-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

  7. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

    2013-02-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).

  8. Indirect closing of elytra by the prothorax in beetles (Coleoptera): general observations and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid

    2012-02-01

    Voluntary movements of the prothorax and the elytra in tethered flying beetles and manually induced movements of these parts in fresh dead beetles were recorded in 30 species representing 14 families. Participation of prothoracic elevation in the closing of the elytra was demonstrated in three ways. (i) The elevation was always simultaneous with elytral closing, in contrast to depression and elytral opening; a rare exception occurred in Lucanus cervus, whose elytra sometimes started to close before the cessation of wing strokes and the elevation of the prothorax. (ii) The manipulated elevation always induced closing of the spread elytra; the mechanical interaction between the hind edge of the pronotum and the roots of the elytra is a universal mechanism of closing the elytra in beetles. (iii) The prevention of pronoto-elytral contact in live beetles by the excision of the hind edge of the pronotum in front of the root prevented elytral closing after normal flight. Exceptions to this rule included some beetles that were able to close their elytra after such an excision: tiger beetles and diving beetles (seldomly) and rose chafers (always). This ability in Adephaga may be explained by attachments of the muscle actuating the 4th axillary plate, which differ from the attachments in Polyphaga. Cetoniinae open their elytra only by a small amount. It is proposed that their small direct adductors in combination with the elasticity of the sclerites are enough to achieve elytral closing without additional help from the prothorax.

  9. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

  10. Quantum non-barking dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

    2014-06-01

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

  11. Quantum non-barking dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems. (paper)

  12. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses.

  13. TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

  14. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha, new genus) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria, new species) a...

  15. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Gardiner

    Full Text Available Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows

  16. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary M; O'Neal, Matthew E; Landis, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  17. Lichen and bryophyte distribution on oak in London in relation to air pollution and bark acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.S. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Bell, J.N.B. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); James, P.W. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Chimonides, P.J. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Rumsey, F.J. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Tremper, A. [Kings College, London (United Kingdom); Purvis, O.W. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: w.purvis@nhm.ac.uk

    2007-03-15

    Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte distribution and frequency were investigated on the trunks of 145 young oak trees throughout London and surrounding counties, and compared with pollution levels and bark pH. Sixty-four lichen and four bryophyte species were recorded. Three major zones were identified: (i) two central regions with a few lichens, bryophytes absent; (ii) a surrounding region with a more diverse flora including a high cover of nitrophyte lichens; and (iii) an outer region, characterised by species absent from central London, including acidophytes. Nineteen species were correlated with nitrogen oxides and 16 with bark pH, suggesting that transport-related pollution and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution in London today. Lichens and bryophytes are responding to factors that influence human and environmental health in London. Biomonitoring therefore has a practical role to assess the effects of measures to improve London's air quality. - Transport-related pollutants and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution and abundance in London today.

  18. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol(®) (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  19. High ice nucleation activity located in blueberry stem bark is linked to primary freeze initiation and adaptive freezing behaviour of the bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Hideyuki; Saruwatari, Atsushi; Murakawa, Hiroki; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Price, William S; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Controlled ice nucleation is an important mechanism in cold-hardy plant tissues for avoiding excessive supercooling of the protoplasm, for inducing extracellular freezing and/or for accommodating ice crystals in specific tissues. To understand its nature, it is necessary to characterize the ice nucleation activity (INA), defined as the ability of a tissue to induce heterogeneous ice nucleation. Few studies have addressed the precise localization of INA in wintering plant tissues in respect of its function. For this purpose, we recently revised a test tube INA assay and examined INA in various tissues of over 600 species. Extremely high levels of INA (-1 to -4 °C) in two wintering blueberry cultivars of contrasting freezing tolerance were found. Their INA was much greater than in other cold-hardy species and was found to be evenly distributed along the stems of the current year's growth. Concentrations of active ice nuclei in the stem were estimated from quantitative analyses. Stem INA was localized mainly in the bark while the xylem and pith had much lower INA. Bark INA was located mostly in the cell wall fraction (cell walls and intercellular structural components). Intracellular fractions had much less INA. Some cultivar differences were identified. The results corresponded closely with the intrinsic freezing behaviour (extracellular freezing) of the bark, icicle accumulation in the bark and initial ice nucleation in the stem under dry surface conditions. Stem INA was resistant to various antimicrobial treatments. These properties and specific localization imply that high INA in blueberry stems is of intrinsic origin and contributes to the spontaneous initiation of freezing in extracellular spaces of the bark by acting as a subfreezing temperature sensor. PMID:25082142

  20. The bark, the howl and the bark-howl: Identity cues in dingoes' multicomponent calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déaux, Éloïse C; Charrier, Isabelle; Clarke, Jennifer A

    2016-08-01

    Dingoes (genus Canis) produce a stereotyped bark-howl vocalisation, which is a unimodal complex signal formed by the concatenation of two call types (a bark and a howl). Bark-howls may function as alarm signals, although there has been no empirical investigation of this vocalisation's structure or function. We quantified the content and efficacy of the bark and howl segments separately and when combined, using 140 calls from 10 individuals. We found that both segments are individually distinctive, although howl segments are more accurately classified, suggesting a higher level of individuality. Furthermore, howls convey signature characteristics that are conserved across different contexts of production, and thus may act as 'identity signals'. The individual distinctiveness of full bark-howls increases above that of isolated segments, which may be a result of selection on improved signal discriminability. Propagation tests revealed that bark-howls are best described as medium-range signals, with both segments potentially allowing for individual discrimination up to 200m regardless of environmental conditions. We discuss our findings regarding the fitness benefits of encoding identity cues in a potential alarm call and propose additional hypotheses for the function(s) of bark and howl segments.

  1. Impact of mountain pine beetle induced mortality on forest carbon and water fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying impacts of ecological disturbance on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes will improve predictive understanding of biosphere—atmosphere feedbacks. Tree mortality caused by mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is hypothesized to decrease photosynthesis and water flux to the atmosphere while increasing respiration at a rate proportional to mortality. This work uses data from an eddy-covariance flux tower in a bark beetle infested lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest to test ecosystem responses during the outbreak. Analyses were conducted on components of carbon (C) and water fluxes in response to disturbance and environmental factors (solar radiation, soil water content and vapor pressure deficit). Maximum CO2 uptake did not change as tree basal area mortality increased from 30 to 78% over three years of beetle disturbance. Growing season evapotranspiration varied among years while ecosystem water use efficiency (the ratio of net CO2 uptake to water vapor loss) did not change. Between 2009 and 2011, canopy water conductance increased from 98.6 to 151.7 mmol H2O m−2 s−1. Ecosystem light use efficiency of photosynthesis increased, with quantum yield increasing by 16% during the outbreak as light increased below the mature tree canopy and illuminated remaining vegetation more. Overall net ecosystem productivity was correlated with water flux and hence water availability. Average weekly ecosystem respiration, derived from light response curves and standard Ameriflux protocols for CO2 flux partitioning into respiration and gross ecosystem productivity, did not change as mortality increased. Separate effects of increased respiration and photosynthesis efficiency largely canceled one another out, presumably due to increased diffuse light in the canopy and soil organic matter decomposition resulting in no change in net CO2 exchange. These results agree with an emerging consensus in the literature demonstrating CO2 and H2O dynamics following

  2. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects. PMID:21731659

  3. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Gotoh

    Full Text Available The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer, juvenile hormone (JH titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

  4. Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) Attracted to Lagothrix lagotricha (Humboldt) and Alouatta seniculus (Linnaeus) (Primates: Atelidae) Dung in a Colombian Amazon Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ari Noriega

    2012-01-01

    Dung beetles are among the most important insects in the Neotropics. Some species use a wide range of food sources, whereas other species are highly specialized. This study compares the use of two-primate excrement by an assemblage of dung beetles in a tropical forest in Colombia. Dung of Lagothrix lagotricha and Alouatta seniculus was used to attract beetles. A total of 32 species (47.7% of the species recorded for the area) were found on the two types of excrement studied, demonstrating tha...

  5. ROVE BEETLES (COLEOPTERA, STAPHYLINIDAE AND THEIR MEDICAL IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Janbakhsh

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetle dermatitis produced by the family Staphylinidae genus Paederus has world- wide distribution some one hundred species of Paederus have been found, but it is believed that only 30 of these produce dermatitis. Up to 1976 three species of paederus have been found in Iran as: P. fusciped Curtis; P. pietschmanni Bershaner , and P. spectabilis Kraatz . Observations on the biology of Paederus SPP have shown that the greatest activity coincides with a high degree of humidity during the hot season. Some species seem to be attracted to artificial light. The most common pathological feature caused by rose beetles is a viscular dermatitis Eye lesions may occur, but they are the result of spread of the irritant with the fingers, after the insect was crushed on the skin, therefore secondary infection. Experiments have shown that dermatitis only develops when a rove beetle is crushed on the haemolymph. The vesicant substance is pederin which is distinct from cantharidin in terns of its biological, physical, and chemical propertics.

  6. Diversity and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae across a habitat disturbance gradient in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHABUDDIN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Shahabuddin (2010 Diversity and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae across habitat disturbance gradient in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi. Biodiversitas 11: 29-33. Dung beetles are important component of most terrestrial ecosystems and used to assess the effects of habitat disturbance and deforestation. This study aimed at comparing dung beetle assemblages among several habitat types ranging from natural tropical forest and agroforestry systems to open cultivated areas at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP, Central Sulawesi (one of Indonesia’s biodiversity hotspots. Therefore, 10 pitfall traps baited with cattle dung were exposed at each habitat type (n = 4 replicate sites per habitat type to collect the dung beetles. The results showed that species richness of dung beetles declined significantly from natural forest to open area. However cacao agroforestry systems seemed to be capable of maintaining a high portion of dung beetle species inhabiting at forest sites. The closer relationship between dung beetle assemblages recorded at forest and agroforestry sites reflects the high similarity of some measured habitat parameters (e.g. vegetation structure and microclimate between both habitat types, while species assemblages at open areas differed significantly from both other habitat groups. These results indicated that habitat type has importance effect on determining the species richness and community structure of dung beetles at the margin of LLNP.

  7. 四川紫色土丘陵区不同植物篱物种对农田地表甲虫群落结构的影响%Effects of Different Hedgerow Species on Ground-dwelling Beetle Community from Agricultural Fields in the Purple Hilly Area of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉红

    2013-01-01

    Using pitfall trapping,the effects of four hedgerow plant species,which serve as undisturbed and permanent seminatural habitats,on activity density (a parameter of population density and relative activity) and family richness of grounddwelling beetle were investigated.Samples were collected over two winter wheat and two summer maize growing seasons during 2005-2007 in trial field 1 (slope gradient of 20°) and field 2 (slope gradient of 12°) at the Ziyang Experimental Site in Sichuan province,China.The hedgerow species evaluated were Amorpha fruticosa (field 1),Vetiveria zizanioides (field 1),Eulaliopsis binata (field 2),and Medicago sativa (field 2).The results indicated that the activity density of ground-dwelling beetles did not show significant difference between the hedgerow strips and the bare soil or the adjacent crop fields during the wheat season,and was significantly lower in the hedgerow strips than in the bare soil or the adjacent crop fields during the maize season.The family richness of ground-dwelling beetles did not show significant difference between the hedgerow strips and the bare soil during the wheat or maize seasons.The presence of hedgerow strips did not augment the activity density and family richness of ground-dwelling beetles within the crop fields during the wheat or maize seasons.Based on these results,it was concluded that due to the narrow width and the simplicity of vegetation structure,the hedgerow strips,which contributed to controlling soil conservation,had no effect on increasing the diversity of beetles in agro-ecosystems.%2005-2007年的冬小麦和夏玉米生长季节,在四川省土壤肥料研究所资阳试验站的1号试验地(坡度20°)和2号试验地(坡度12°)利用陷阱法调查了香根草(1号地)、紫穗槐(1号地)、蓑草(2号地)和苜蓿(2号地)4种植物篱物种作为半自然生境对地表甲虫的活动密度(种群密度和活动性的参数)和科丰富度的影响.结果表明,植物篱带地

  8. A PIXE and ICP-MS analysis of metallic atmospheric contaminants in tree bark tissues, a basis for biomonitoring uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; El Alaoui-Faris, Fatima Ezzahra; Asta, Juliette; Tissut, Michel; Daudin, Laurent; Mariet, Clarisse; Ravanel, Patrick; Gaudry, André; Cherkaoui, Rajaa

    2007-05-01

    The qualitative and quantitative metallic content of tree barks of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels were studied. Argania spinosa is an endemic species in Morocco. This tree is adapted to semi-arid climates and exposed to specific conditions of relative humidity, temperature, wind, and particle transport. Three sites were sampled in Morocco: the large town of Rabat, the harbor of Agadir, and Aït Baha, a countryside location exposed to continuous desert wind. The methodologies included (1) in situ microanalysis with proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and (2) trace element determinations by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) associated with extraction procedures. Both methods allowed detection of elements coming from different bark compartments. The profile of airborne contaminants in the barks was typical of the sampling sites. The level of lead in barks sampled in Rabat reached 100 ng cm(-2), or higher, while it varied between 3 and 35 ng cm(-2) in Aït Baha. The in situ study of the microscopic structure of the bark provided the location of major and minor elements at various depths inside the bark. A differential between free deposit on the bark surface and penetrated content was found for the major and trace elements. The free deposit on the bark surface was suspected to be mostly the result of recent contamination. Part of the contaminants spread out on the surface penetrated the superficial suber. This long-term accumulation affected mostly Pb. In deeper levels, airborne elements at low concentrations and elements resulting from root uptake were concurrently present and resulted in a complex situation, as noted for zinc. PMID:17613745

  9. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  10. Effects of nitrogen application on beetle communities in tea plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Bo Chen; Zhi-Juan Wei; Zhao-Hua Zeng; Li-Lin Chen; Hui-Tao Chen; Min-Sheng You

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to grassland and forest ecosystems, little is known about insect response to nitrogen deposition in agricultural ecosystems. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of short-term (1-2 years) nitrogen application (0, 172.5, 345.0, 690.0, families, 89 species of beetles, was obtained from a tea plantation in Wuyishan, China. Among them, herbivores, predators and detritivores had 52, 29, and eight species, respectively. Species richness, effective diversity and abundance (measured as the number of individuals and insect biomass) of the beetle community were not significantly related to the rate of nitrogen application. However, nitrogen application changed the species distribution and weakly increased the evenness of species distribution, while this did not significantly change the species evenness. Species richness and abundance of herbivores and predators were not significantly related to the rate of nitrogen application. However, there were some variations in trophic responses to nitrogen. Species richness and abundance of detritivores increased with increasing nitrogen application.

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333

  12. Dominance of the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis in an undisturbed wild meadow ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Bélanger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years after its arrival in Quebec (Canada, the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae has become one of the dominant coccinellid species in agricultural, forested and urban areas. Several studies conducted in North American agricultural ecosystems show that the arrival of H. axyridis and other exotic coccinellid species was followed by decreases in the populations of native coccinellid species. In this study, the abundances of H. axyridis and other native and exotic species were determined in an undisturbed wild meadow located in a protected area. In 2009 and 2010, mainly Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae and Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae infested with aphids were surveyed. A total of 1522 individuals, belonging to seven different species, were recorded. In 2009, on all the plants monitored, H. axyridis was clearly the dominant species (69% of the coccinellid assemblage. In addition, this exotic species constituted 84% of the coccinellid assemblage, including Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L. and Coccinella septempunctata (L. It is likely the dominance of the eurytopic Asian lady beetle in agricultural, forested, urban and undisturbed open ecosystems, poses a threat to native lady beetles. These results also provide evidence that undisturbed wild meadow ecosystems will not constitute a natural refuge from Harmonia axyridis for native species of lady beetles.

  13. A Red List of Italian Saproxylic Beetles: taxonomic overview, ecological features and conservation issues (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maria Carpaneto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this review are: 1 the compilation and updating of a reference database for Italian saproxylic beetles, useful to assess the trend of their populations and communities in the next decades; 2 the identification of the major threats involving the known Italian species of saproxylic beetles; 3 the evaluation of the extinction risk for all known Italian species of saproxylic beetles; 4 the or- ganization of an expert network for studying and continuous updating of all known species of saproxylic beetle species in Italy; 5 the creation of a baseline for future evaluations of the trends in biodiversity conservation in Italy; 6 the assignment of ecological categories to all the Italian saproxylic beetles, useful for the aims of future researches on their communities and on forest environments. The assess- ments of extinction risk are based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria and the most updated guidelines. The assessments have been carried out by experts covering different regions of Italy, and have been evaluated according to the IUCN standards. All the beetles whose larval biology is sufficiently well known as to be considered saproxylic have been included in the Red List, either the autochtho- nous species (native or possibly native to Italy or a few allochthonous species recently introduced or probably introduced to Italy in his- toric times. The entire national range of each saproxylic beetle species was evaluated, including large and small islands; for most species, the main parameters considered for evaluation were the extent of their geographical occurrence in Italy, and the number of known sites of presence. 2049 saproxylic beetle species (belonging to 66 families have been listed, assigned to a trophic category (Table 3 and 97% of them have been assessed. On the whole, threatened species (VU + EN + CR are 421 (Fig. 6, corresponding to 21 % of the 1988 as- sessed species; only two species are formally

  14. Dung beetles in an avian-dominated island ecosystem: feeding and trophic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavert, J R; Gaskett, A C; Scott, D J; Beggs, J R

    2014-09-01

    Globally, dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) are linked to many critical ecosystem processes involving the consumption and breakdown of mammal dung. Endemic New Zealand dung beetles (Canthonini) are an anomaly, occurring at high abundance and low diversity on an island archipelago historically lacking terrestrial mammals, except bats, and instead dominated by birds. Have New Zealand's dung beetles evolved to specialise on bird dung or carrion, or have they become broad generalist feeders? We test dietary preferences by analysing nitrogen isotope ratios of wild dung beetles and by performing feeding behaviour observations of captive specimens. We also use nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes to determine if the dung beetle Saphobius edwardsi will consume marine-derived carrion. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated trophic generalism in Saphobius dung beetles and this was supported by behavioural observations where a broad range of food resources were utilised. Alternative food resource use was further illustrated experimentally by nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures of S. edwardsi, where individuals provided with decomposed squid had δ(15)N and δ(13)C values that had shifted toward values associated with marine diet. Our findings suggest that, in the absence of native mammal dung resources, New Zealand dung beetles have evolved a generalist diet of dung and carrion. This may include marine-derived resources, as provided by the seabird colonies present in New Zealand forests before the arrival of humans. This has probably enabled New Zealand dung beetles to persist in indigenous ecosystems despite the decline of native birds and the introduction of many mammal species. PMID:24974270

  15. Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae Attracted to Lagothrix lagotricha (Humboldt and Alouatta seniculus (Linnaeus (Primates: Atelidae Dung in a Colombian Amazon Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ari Noriega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dung beetles are among the most important insects in the Neotropics. Some species use a wide range of food sources, whereas other species are highly specialized. This study compares the use of two-primate excrement by an assemblage of dung beetles in a tropical forest in Colombia. Dung of Lagothrix lagotricha and Alouatta seniculus was used to attract beetles. A total of 32 species (47.7% of the species recorded for the area were found on the two types of excrement studied, demonstrating that primate excrement is an important resource. The niche overlap between both feces is 27.03%, which indicates a high degree of resource specialization. Although these two primate species are found in the same areas, their diets vary greatly to permit a high degree of differentiation in beetle species. A study that includes dung of others primates would create a more complete panorama of resource overlap in the assemblage.

  16. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    beetles were low (Carabidae: max. 7.6%, Staphylinidae: max. 7.0%). in comparison, prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi in carabid larvae was high (19-50%). At one study site an epizootic of Beauveria bassiana was observed, infecting 67% of staphylinid Anotylus rugosus and 37% of the staphylinid Gyrohypnus...... angustatus. Beauveria bassiana was the predominant fungus isolated from ground beetles and rove beetles from all studied sites. Other fungal species included the hyphomycetes Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces farinosus and Verticillium lecanii as well as Zoophthora radicans and Zoophthora philonthi...... (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales). Two individuals of Anotylus rugosus were found to have a dual infection of Zoophthora philonthi and Beauveria bassiana...

  17. Ophiostoma spp. associated with pine- and spruce-infesting bark beetles in Finland and Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnakoski, R.; Beer, de Z.W.; Ahtiainen, J.; Sidorov, E.; Niemelä, P.; Pappinen, A.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Baobabs (Adansonia spp.) are iconic trees, known for their immense size, strange forms, sources of food and as the subjects of myths and mysteries. It is thus surprising that little is known regarding the fungi that infect these trees. During a survey to determine which wound infecting fungi occur o

  18. Metals bioaccumulation mechanism in neem bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as H...

  19. Phenolic glycosides of Paulownia tomentosa bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticher, O; Lahloub, M F

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of acteoside and coniferin from Paulownia tomentosa bark along with the previously reported phenolic glucoside syringin is described. The structure of both, acteoside and coniferin, have been assigned by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:17396961

  20. Antioxidant activity of Rhizophora mangle bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Janet; Melchor, Gleiby; Martínez, Gregorio; Escobar, Arturo; Faure, Roberto

    2006-02-01

    The antioxidant activity of Rhizophora mangle bark aqueous extract and its majoritary component and high molecular weight polyphenols' fraction were studied using deoxyribose assay. The total extract and its fraction showed scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals and hability to chelate iron ions. PMID:16436316

  1. Approaches to mimic the metallic sheen in beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Aggerbeck, Martin; Nielsen, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A range of different beetles exhibits brilliant colours and metallic sheen. One of the most spectacular species is the Plusiotis resplendens from Central America with gold metal appearance. The beetle shells are made from chitin and have a number of unique properties that apart from spectacular...... aesthetic effects include metal sheen from non-metal surfaces combined with electric and thermal insulation. The reflection mechanism has been studied by a number of authors and is well understood. Basically there are 2 different reflection principles. One is the multilayer reflector where alternating...... layers have high and low refractive index. The other is the Bouligand structure where birefringent chiral nanofibres are organised in spiral structures. The paper describes work done to explore different approaches to mimic these structures using polymer based materials and production methods that are...

  2. Interruption of the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps and ethanol-injected trap trees by verbenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M; Tobin, Patrick C; Reding, Michael E; Bray, Alicia M; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Frank, Steven D; Persad, Anand B

    2013-06-01

    We examined the extent to which verbenone, a bark beetle antiaggregation pheromone, interrupted the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg/d at 25°C reduced the attraction of Anisandrus sayi Hopkins, Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Hypothenemus dissimilis (Zimmermann), Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) to ethanol-baited traps. A verbenone dispenser attached to ethanol-injected Magnolia virginiana L. trap trees deployed in Ohio also reduced ambrosia beetle attacks compared to trap trees without a verbenone dispenser. Subsequent field trials demonstrated a direct relationship between distance from a verbenone dispenser and ambrosia beetle attacks on trap trees in Ohio in 2011 and 2012 and Tennessee in 2012, but not in Tennessee and Virginia in 2011. Assessment of the influence of verbenone on the probability of attacks above a density threshold found that although attacks occurred on trap trees regardless of their proximity to a verbenone dispenser, the higher density of attacks per tree occurred on trap trees farthest away from the verbenone source in Ohio and Tennessee. Verbenone alone could be somewhat useful for discouraging ambrosia beetle attacks on individual trees or on a small spatial scale, but deployment of verbenone might be most effective when integrated as part of a "push-pull" strategy.

  3. Effect of summer fire on cursorial spider (Aranei and beetle (Coleoptera assemblages in meadow steppes of Central European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchaninova Nina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important structuring force for grassland ecosystems. Despite increased incidents of fire in European steppes, their impact on arthropod communities is still poorly studied. We assessed short-term changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages after a summer fire in the meadow steppe in Central European Russia. The responses of spider and beetle assemblages to the fire event were different. In the first post-fire year, the same beetle species dominated burnt and unburnt plots, the alpha-diversity of beetle assemblages was similar, and there were no pronounced changes in the proportions of trophic groups. Beetle species richness and activity density increased in the second post-fire year, while that of the spiders decreased. The spider alpha-diversity was lowest in the first post-fire year, and the main dominants were pioneer species. In the second year, the differences in spider species composition and activity density diminished. The main conclusion of our study is that the large-scale intensive summer fire caused no profound changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages of this steppe plot. Mitigation of the fire effect is explained by the small plot area, its location at the edge of the fire site and the presence of adjacent undisturbed habitats with herbaceous vegetation.

  4. Species diversity, phenology, and temporal flight patterns of Hypothenemus pygmy borers (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothenemus are some of the most common and diverse bark beetles in natural as well as urban habitats, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Despite their ecological success and ubiquitous presence, very little is known about the habits of this genus. This study aimed to understand sp...

  5. Plant Stem Bark Extractivism in the Northeast Semiarid Region of Brazil: A New Aport to Utilitarian Redundancy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the model of utilitarian redundancy as a basis for research. This model provides predictions that have not been tested by other research. In this sense, we sought to investigate the stem bark extraction between preferred and less-preferred species by a rural community in Caatinga environment. In addition, we sought to explain local preferences to observe if preferred plants have a higher content of tannins than less-preferred species. For this, we selected seven preferred species and seven less-preferred species from information obtained from semistructured interviews applied to 49 informants. Three areas of vegetation around the community were also selected, in which individuals were tagged, and were measured the diameter at ground level (DGL diameter at breast height (DBH, and measurements of available and extracted bark areas. Samples of bark of the species were also collected for the evaluation of tannin content, obtained by the method of radial diffusion. From the results, the preferred species showed a greater area of bark removed. However, the tannin content showed no significant differences between preferred and less-preferred plants. These results show there is a relationship between preference and use, but this preference is not related to the total tannins content.

  6. Unintended effects of the herbicides 2,4-D and dicamba on lady beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydier, Laurène; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2016-08-01

    Weed resistance to glyphosate and development of new GM crops tolerant to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and dicamba is expected to lead to increased use of these herbicides in cropland. The lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata is an important beneficial insect in cropland that is commonly used as an indicator species in safety evaluations of pesticides. Here, we examined the lethal and non-lethal effects of 2,4-D and dicamba active ingredients and commercial formulations to this lady beetle species, and tested for synergistic effects of the herbicides. Second instars of lady beetles were exposed to an experimental treatment, and their mortality, development, weight, sex ratio, fecundity, and mobility was evaluated. Using similar methods, a dose-response study was conducted on 2,4-D with and without dicamba. The commercial formulation of 2,4-D was highly lethal to lady beetle larvae; the LC90 of this herbicide was 13 % of the label rate. In this case, the "inactive" ingredients were a key driver of the toxicity. Dicamba active ingredient significantly increased lady beetle mortality and reduced their body weight. The commercial formulations of both herbicides reduced the proportion of males in the lady beetle population. The herbicides when used together did not act synergistically in their toxicity toward lady beetles versus when the chemistries were used independently. Our work shows that herbicide formulations can cause both lethal and sublethal effects on non-target, beneficial insects, and these effects are sometimes driven by the "inactive" ingredients. The field-level implications of shifts in weed management practices on insect management programs should receive further attention. PMID:27282375

  7. O escaravelho Megasoma gyas (Herbst, 1775, espécie ameaçada de extinção, no Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, Sete Barras – SP. The elephant beetle Megasoma gyas (Herbst, 1775, threatened species, in Carlos Botelho State Park, Sete Barras, SP, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Zamorano ANTUNES

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As espécies do gênero Megasoma sãobesouros naturalmente raros e pouco conhecidos.Megasoma gyas (Herbst, 1775, espécie restrita aoterritório brasileiro e considerada ameaçada deextinção, foi encontrada no Parque Estadual CarlosBotelho em maio de 2007. O presente trabalhorevisa a distribuição da espécie no Estado de SãoPaulo, detalha a sua simpatria com outra espéciedo gênero e discute aspectos comportamentais eameaças à sua sobrevivência.The elephant beetle Megasoma spp. arenaturally scarce and poorly known species.Megasoma gyas (Herbst, 1775, Brazilian endemicand threatened species, was recorded in CarlosBotelho State Park, in May 2007. The speciesdistribution in the State of São Paulo, southeasternBrazil, is reviewed and the simpatry with anotherMegasoma species, behavioral aspects and threatsfaced by this species are shown.

  8. Metagenomic Profiling Reveals Lignocellulose Degrading System in a Microbial Community Associated with a Wood-Feeding Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, Erin D.; Scott M Geib; Kelli Hoover; Ming Tien; Tringe, Susannah G; Barry, Kerrie W.; Tijana Glavina del Rio; Mansi Chovatia; Herr, Joshua R.; Carlson, John E

    2013-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle ( Anoplophora glabripennis ) is an invasive, wood-boring pest that thrives in the heartwood of deciduous tree species. A large impediment faced by A . glabripennis as it feeds on woody tissue is lignin, a highly recalcitrant biopolymer that reduces access to sugars and other nutrients locked in cellulose and hemicellulose. We previously demonstrated that lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose are actively deconstructed in the beetle gut and that the gut harbors an as...

  9. Possible living fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (Chanealtica cuevas, Chanealtica ellimon, and Chanealtica maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby, 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne, 1958, Psylliodes Berthold, 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein, 2010. Remarkably, based on the available characters, among all the flea beetles, Chanealtica is mostly similar to an extinct genus Psyllototus. A discussion of diversity and function of the hind leg in flea beetles is provided.

  10. Rapid Increases in Forest Understory Diversity and Productivity following a Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Outbreak in Pine Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Pec, Gregory J.; Justine Karst; Sywenky, Alexandra N.; Cigan, Paul W.; Nadir Erbilgin; Simard, Suzanne W.; Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks ar...

  11. Walking to survive. Searching, feeding and egg production of the carabid beetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. (= Poecilus versicolor Sturm).

    OpenAIRE

    Mols, P.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This study concerns the prey-searching and feeding behaviour of the polyphagous groundbeetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. ( = Poecilus versicolor Sturm), a common species on sandy soils. This ground beetle rarely flies, thus preysearching behaviour involves walking. The beetle is diurnal. As object of research, predators of this kind are very suitable because they can be handled easily, their behaviour can be observed directly or filmed with a video camera. Furthermore they are abundantly ava...

  12. Functional diversity of staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in maize fields: testing the possible effect of genetically modified, insect resistant maize

    OpenAIRE

    Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2016-01-01

    Staphylinid beetles are recommended bioindicators for the pre-market environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) insect protected maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Bionomics, food specialization, temperature requirements and size group were assigned for 25 most common staphylinid species. These traits determine the occurrence of staphylinid beetles in the field, the food sources they could utilize and thus also their likely contact with the Cry3Bb1 toxin. The opportunity for ...

  13. Beneficial beetles for bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a common generalist predator found throughout much of North America. The species is ecologically important and has become a useful subject of genetic research. It is easy to find outdoors, seasonally, and laboratory maintenance Standard Operating...

  14. Age and aggregation trigger mating behaviour in the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Sandra G.; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Duncan, Michael; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Steidle, Johannes L. M.; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the poorly documented reproductive behaviour of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae), a honey bee ( Apis mellifera) parasite. We described the mating behaviour in detail and tested the hypothesis that beetle aggregation plays a vital role in mating in this species. Gender preference was examined in the context of age-dependency and possible chemical communication. Beetles started mating at a high frequency 18 days after emergence from the soil but only if they were aggregated ( p social contact with the opposite sex ( p support mass reproduction in this parasitic species, enabling A. tumida to overcome its honey bee host colony, and are probably triggered by chemotactic cues.

  15. Influence of different particle sizes in the bark chemical composition of Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Betula pendula Roth, Picea abies (L.) Karst, Pinus sylvestris L. e Pinus pinea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirra, Inês Martins Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Florestal e dos Recursos Naturais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia The goal of this report is to characterize the bark of five industrially important forest species in Europe - Eucalyptus globulus, Betula pendula, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris e Pinus pinea and to define their potential use as a source of value added chemical products. It was performed the anatomical characterization of bark tissues (dissociated elements), the selective fractionation (si...

  16. Toxicity of invert drilling muds composted with wood/bark chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessie, K. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Since the early to mid 1990s, many companies have composted invert (diesel) drilling muds with wood chips/bark chips in the green (forestry) zone as a method of drilling mud treatment. This presentation addressed the toxicity of invert drilling muds composted with wood/bark chips and provided some background on composted invert drilling mud (CIDM). EBA Engineering monitored 22 third-party sites in 2002, some of which were biopiles, and others land treatment areas (LTAs). Active treatment started between 1995 and 1999 and some LTAs were seeded with varying degrees of success. Composted materials had hydrocarbon odour and staining and were very moist. Materials exceeded Alberta Environment guidelines for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and sometimes barium. Most sites were within areas that had forestry production/wildlife as end land use. Receptors included plants, soil invertebrates by soil contact, and wildlife by ingestion. Stakeholder meetings were held for their input and an ecotoxicity study was developed. Material tested, tests and species used as well as results of the ecotoxicity study were presented. A comparison of results to other EBA composting studies was also given. It was concluded that CIDM affects the reproduction of earthworms and springtails, and plant growth; wood/barks chips themselves can be ecotoxic; and, other compost studies with finely ground sawdust and no bark chips had less ecotoxicity. tabs., figs.

  17. Habitat use and spatial structure of a barking frog (Eleutherodactylus augusti) population in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, C.S.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking Frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are the northernmost ranging member of the large tropical family Leptodactylidae. We investigated the ecology of this saxicolous species at the northern edge of its range in a canyon in southern Arizona. We captured 54 frogs on discontinuous rock outcrops; eight of nine females and 39 of 45 males were on limestone outcrops. The remaining frogs were closer to limestone outcrops by more than 200 m than would be expected if they were distributed randomly with respect to limestone formations. Seven of 10 frogs radio-tracked had core home ranges (50% fixed kernel) from 94 to 100% on limestone; the other three frogs did not have any part of their home range on limestone outcrops. During five years of mark-recapture efforts, no frogs were found on a different outcrop from the one where they were originally captured; no radio-tracked frogs moved between outcrops during the breeding season. We estimated that four to 20 Barking Frogs occupied each outcrop; these groups probably are connected primarily by juvenile dispersal. As an organism living at the edge of its range, Barking Frogs in Arizona may rely heavily on extensive underground areas such as those found in limestone to protect them from a physiologically challenging environment. To manage for the persistence of Barking Frogs in southern Arizona, we must identify and protect habitat patches and movement pathways among them.

  18. The Influence of Weather and Lunar Phases on the Flight Activity of Paederus Rove Beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F S; Lobo, S E P D; Lima, D C B; Brito, J M; Costa-Neta, B M

    2015-06-01

    Despite the medical importance of Paederus beetles, no studies have studied the influence of the abiotic factors on the flight activity and nighttime dispersal of these insects in Brazil. Therefore, the influence of both climatic factors and moon phase on black-light catches of Paederus rove beetles was investigated. Paederus beetles were attracted to a black light source hourly from 1800 to 0600 hours, and data on weather conditions as well as moon phase data were taken for every sampling date. Overall, 543 individuals of Paederus beetles belonging to four species were captured: P. protensus, P. columbinus, P. brasiliensis, and P. mutans. Paederus beetles were mostly active in the warmest parts of the studied nights. Variations in nighttime temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and moon phases appear not to affect Paederus flight. The diurnal temperature was observed to affect the night hourly dispersal of Paederus rove beetles as well as their distribution pattern during the entire period of study. The true environmental condition responsible for Paederus beetles seasonal pattern and daily night dispersal in northeastern Brazil were the annual moisture and drought cycles and the diurnal maximum temperatures, respectively. Significant trap catches were observed in the earliest hours after sunset (1800-2100), and people must be aware of this fact, as it can notably increase the risk of acquiring linearis dermatitis from the contact with large numbers of active Paederus.

  19. Dung beetles eat acorns to increase their ovarian development and thermal tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects.

  20. [Behavioral mechanisms of spatial competition between red wood ants (Formica aquilonia) and ground beetles (Carabidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosheva, E A; Reznikova, Zh I

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral aspects of spatial competition between red wood ants (Formica aquilonia) and six mass species of Carabidae were studied in field and laboratory experiments. We showed that red wood ants essentially influence spatial distribution of ground beetles on their common territories. Transplantation experiments suggest that in newly established ants' settlements stronger forms of interrelations arise than in old stable colony. To examine the ability of beetles to avoid collisions with ants we used two experimental techniques. In laboratory, we tested carabids ability to avoid a clash in a Y-shaped labyrinth containing an active tethered ant in one section. In field experiments we compared quantitative characteristics of movements (such as crookedness of individual trajectories, speed of movement, the time spent on stops) for beetles placed close to ants foraging routes and on ant-free plots. All beetles studied displayed a clear tendency to learn, that is, to modity their behavior in order to avoid collisions with ants. Species that exhibited best parameters of learning were closer to ants by their size and characteristic movement, namely, Pterostichus oblogopunctatus and P. magus. Beetles' stereotyped behavioral tactics can be considered universal for avoiding collisions with any subject (for instance, with an ant) of a certain size and speed of movements. A set of tactics in the labyrinth included: (1) attempts to round the ant; (2) turns away after touching the ant with antennae; (3) turns away without a contact; (4) avoidances of a dangerous section; (5) stops near the ant with the antennae hidden. Comparing pairwise difference between four species shows that beetles use species-specific preference for definite combinations of tactics. Effective learning allows carabids to penetrate into ant foraging territory and partly avoide interference competition. It seems that red wood ants are not inclined to learn to avoid collisions with competing carabid species

  1. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920–30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets. (letter)

  2. Tannin signatures of barks, needles, leaves, cones, and wood at the molecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Hedges, John I.

    2004-03-01

    We analyzed 117 tissues from 77 different plant species for molecular tannin. Tannin was measured in 89 tissues (as high as 10.5 wt.% total tannin), including procyanidin (PC) tannin in 88 tissues, prodelphinidin (PD) tannin in 50, and propelargonidin (PP) tannin in 24. In addition to tannin, several flavones, flavanones, and triterpenoids were measured, the latter which yielded as much as 4.5 wt.%. Compositions varied considerably between species, including several that yielded comparatively rare tannin or triterpenoids. Conifer needles were distinguished by high yields of PD tannin overall and relative to PC tannin. Dicotyledon leaves were characterized by the presence of flavones and triterpenoids. Barks were marked by flavanones and tetracosanoic acid. Based on these trends, relationships that could be useful as geochemical parameters were developed for distinguishing needles, leaves, and barks as possible components of litter, soil, or sedimentary mixtures.

  3. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close. PMID:24690169

  4. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

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    Yang Youngik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population

  5. Short-Term Responses of Ground-Dwelling Beetles to Ice Storm-Induced Treefall Gaps in a Subtropical Broad-Leaved Forest in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Chong-Ling; Lü, Liang; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Periodic natural disturbances shape the mosaic character of many landscapes and influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. In this study, we tested the effect of ice storm-induced treefall gaps on ground-dwelling beetle assemblages in different-aged successional stands of subtropical broad-leaved forest in southeastern China. We evaluated the relative importance of gap-phase microhabitat type (within gap, gap edge, and interior shaded) within different stand ages (regenerating stands and mature stands) as determinants of changes in beetle diversity and community structure. At 18 replicate sites sampled during 2009-2010, no significant differences were found in species richness and the abundances of the most common beetle species captured in pitfall traps among the three gap-phase microhabitat types, but the abundances of total beetles, as well as fungivorous and phytophagous species groups, were significantly lower in gap microhabitats than in interior shaded microhabitats in mature stands. Beetle assemblage composition showed no significant differences among the three microhabitat types, and only the fauna of gap plots slightly diverged from those of edge and shaded plots in mature stands. Cover of shrubs and stand age significantly affected beetle assemblage structure. Our results suggest that beetle responses to gap-phase dynamics in early successional forests are generally weak, and that effects are more discernible in the mature stands, perhaps due to the abundance responses of forest-specialist species. PMID:26377249

  6. Bark and charcoal filters for greywater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalahmeh, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity, inappropriate sanitation and wastewater pollution are critically important global issues. Greywater is a sustainable water source for recycling, so this thesis examined simple, robust, low-cost alternatives for on-site treatment of greywater to irrigation water quality. Laboratory-scale pine bark, activated charcoal and sand filters were evaluated as regards their pollutant removal and interactions between medium properties, greywater, microbial activity and bacterial communit...

  7. Behavioral niche partitioning in a sympatric tiger beetle assemblage and implications for the endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle

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    Tierney R. Brosius

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available How behavioral patterns are related to niche partitioning is an important question in understanding how closely related species within ecological communities function. Behavioral niche partitioning associated with thermoregulation is well documented in tiger beetles as a group. Co-occurring species of salt flat tiger beetles have adapted many thermoregulatory behaviors to cope with this harsh ecosystem. On first examination these beetles appear to occur in overlapping microhabitats and therefore compete for resources. To determine if behavioral niche partitioning is allowing multiple species to occur within the same harsh salt flat ecosystem we observed Cicindela nevadica lincolniana, Cicindela circumpicta, Cicindela fulgida, and Cicindela togata between 8:00 h and 21:00 h and recorded all behaviors related to thermoregulation using a digital voice recorder. Results of this study strongly indicate that competition among these species for resources has been reduced by the adaptation of different thermoregulatory behaviors such as spending time in shallow water, avoiding the sun during the hottest parts of the day, and by positioning their body against or away from the soil. The endangered C. n. lincolniana appears to rely most heavily on the shallow water of seeps for their diurnal foraging behavior (potentially limiting their foraging habitat, but with the advantage of allowing foraging during the hottest times of the day when potential competitors are less frequent. Ironically, this association also may help explain C. n. lincolniana’s susceptibility to extinction: beyond the loss of saline wetlands generally, limited seeps and pools even within remaining saline habitat may represent a further habitat limitation within an already limited habitat.

  8. Behavioral niche partitioning in a sympatric tiger beetle assemblage and implications for the endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Tierney R; Higley, Leon G

    2013-01-01

    How behavioral patterns are related to niche partitioning is an important question in understanding how closely related species within ecological communities function. Behavioral niche partitioning associated with thermoregulation is well documented in tiger beetles as a group. Co-occurring species of salt flat tiger beetles have adapted many thermoregulatory behaviors to cope with this harsh ecosystem. On first examination these beetles appear to occur in overlapping microhabitats and therefore compete for resources. To determine if behavioral niche partitioning is allowing multiple species to occur within the same harsh salt flat ecosystem we observed Cicindela nevadica lincolniana, Cicindela circumpicta, Cicindela fulgida, and Cicindela togata between 8:00 h and 21:00 h and recorded all behaviors related to thermoregulation using a digital voice recorder. Results of this study strongly indicate that competition among these species for resources has been reduced by the adaptation of different thermoregulatory behaviors such as spending time in shallow water, avoiding the sun during the hottest parts of the day, and by positioning their body against or away from the soil. The endangered C. n. lincolniana appears to rely most heavily on the shallow water of seeps for their diurnal foraging behavior (potentially limiting their foraging habitat), but with the advantage of allowing foraging during the hottest times of the day when potential competitors are less frequent. Ironically, this association also may help explain C. n. lincolniana's susceptibility to extinction: beyond the loss of saline wetlands generally, limited seeps and pools even within remaining saline habitat may represent a further habitat limitation within an already limited habitat.

  9. Dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabeinae from the Reserva Nacional Tambopata, Madre de Dios, Peru

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    Luis Figueroa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the species of Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae collected in Tambopata National Reserve in 2009. A total of 38 species and 874 individuals were collected. The tribe Canthonini showed the highest diversity and abundance. Coprophagy is clearly preferred over necrophagy by the dung beetle fauna in the area. A comparison of the species collected during the rainy and dry seasons is presented.

  10. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn. bark against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sukalyani Debnath; Diganta Dey; Sudipta Hazra; Subhalakshmi Ghosh; Ratnamala Ray; Banasri Hazra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activity of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) bark against clinical strains of multi-drug resistant bacteria, and Candida spp. isolated from patients, as well as the corresponding reference strains.Methods:were evaluated by agar-well diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by broth micro-dilution method. The clinical isolates were studied for antibacterial susceptibility by Kirby and Bauer disk diffusion technique. The antimicrobial activity of water, methanol and chloroform extracts of T. arjuna bark Results: The water and methanolic extracts of T. arjuna bark produced significant zones of inhibition against twenty-two tested bacteria including eight uropathogens. MIC values against the bacteria were found in the range of 0.16 to 2.56 mg/mL. The chloroform extract did not exhibit antibacterial activity. The polar extracts of T. arjuna also demonstrated strong antifungal effect against eight species of Candida, with MIC between 0.16 and 0.64 mg/mL. The antimicrobial efficacy of the polar extracts was found to be commensurate with high polyphenol content in contrast to the non-polar (chloroform fraction). Conclusions: This study has revealed the therapeutic prospect of T. arjuna bark for the treatment of microbial diseases. The polar fraction of the bark could be used for development of novel antimicrobial agents, particularly against urinary tract infections, and candidiasis/candidaemia.

  11. Initial Study of the Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Other Invertebrates from “Leshnitsa” Nature Reserve(Central Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora M. Teofilova

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate fauna of the “Leshnitsa” nature reserve was studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. During the study altogether 394 specimens of carabid beetlesbelonging to 32 species and subspecies were captured, as well as 23 other invertebrate species,some of which are with a conservation significance (protected, Bulgarian and Balkan endemics).Ground beetles were characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging,degree of endemism and the life...

  12. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer.

  13. The small hive beetle Aethina tumida: A review of its biology and control measures

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew G. S. CUTHBERTSON et al

    2013-01-01

    The small hive beetle Aethina tumida is an endemic parasitic pest and scavenger of colonies of social bees indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa. In this region this species rarely inflicts severe damage on strong colonies since the bees have develo­­ped strategies to combat them. However, A. tumida has since ‘escaped’ from its native home and has recently invaded areas such as North America and Australia where its economic impact on the apiculture industry has been significant. Small hive beetle,...

  14. Pastoral practices to reverse shrub encroachment of sub-alpine grasslands: dung beetles (coleoptera, scarabaeoidea) respond more quickly than vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocco, Claudia; Probo, Massimiliano; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Negro, Matteo; Nervo, Beatrice; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, pastoral abandonment has produced profound ecological changes in the Alps. In particular, the reduction in grazing has led to extensive shrub encroachment of semi-natural grasslands, which may represent a threat to open habitat biodiversity. To reverse shrub encroachment, we assessed short-term effects of two different pastoral practices on vegetation and dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Strategic placement of mineral mix supplements (MMS) and arrangement of temporary night camp areas (TNCA) for cattle were carried out during summer 2011 in the Val Troncea Natural Park, north-western Italian Alps. In 2012, one year after treatment, a reduction in shrub cover and an increase in bare ground cover around MMS sites was detected. A more intense effect was detected within TNCA through increases in forage pastoral value, and in the cover and height of the herbaceous layer. Immediately after treatment, changes in dung beetle diversity (total abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, taxonomic and functional diversity) showed a limited disturbance effect caused by high cattle density. In contrast, dung beetle diversity significantly increased one year later both at MMS and TNCA sites, with a stronger effect within TNCA. Multivariate Regression Trees and associated Indicator Value analyses showed that some ecologically relevant dung beetle species preferred areas deprived of shrub vegetation. Our main conclusions are: i) TNCA are more effective than MMS in terms of changes to vegetation and dung beetles, ii) dung beetles respond more quickly than vegetation to pastoral practices, and iii) the main driver of the rapid response by dung beetles is the removal of shrubs. The resulting increase in dung beetle abundance and diversity, which are largely responsible for grassland ecosystem functioning, may have a positive effect on meso-eutrophic grassland restoration. Shrub encroachment in the Alps may therefore be reversed, and restoration of

  15. Susceptibility of brassicaceous plants to feeding by flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana; Grenkow, Larry

    2013-12-01

    Crucifer-feeding flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp., are chronic insect pests in Canadian prairie canola production. Multiple laboratory and field feeding bioassays were conducted to determine the susceptibility of a wide range of crucifer species, cultivars, and accessions to feeding by flea beetles with the goal of discovering sources of resistant germplasm. In 62 bioassays of 218 entries, no consistent decreased feeding by flea beetles was seen on any entries of Brassica carinata A. Braun, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., Brassica napus L., or Brassica rapa L. There was reduced feeding on condiment mustard Sinapis alba L. lines but not on canola-quality lines with reduced amounts of glucosinolates, which were fed on at levels equal to B. napus. Analyses of glucosinolate content found decreased quantities of hydroxybenzyl and butyl glucosinolates in preferred canola-quality S. alba lines and increased levels of hydroxybutenyl glucosinolates compared with levels in condiment S. alba lines. Eruca sativa Mill. was an excellent flea beetle host; Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz lines experienced little feeding. Lines of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries and Crambe hispanica L. had reduced feeding levels compared with Brassica entries, but Crambe glabrata DC did not. The results indicate possible sources of resistance to Phyllotreta flea beetles, while highlighting the complicated roles that glucosinolates may play in Phyllotreta host preference.

  16. Functional asymmetry of invertebrates’ nervous system on the example of spatial orientation of the Tentyriini tribe beetles

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    K. O. Moroz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The functional asymmetry of the nervous system of insects was studied on an example of two taxonomically and ecologically closed darkling beetles: Anatolica eremita (Steven, 1829 and Tentiria nomas taurica (Pallas, 1781. Species-specificity of motor-spatial asymmetry is revealed for imago of these species. Spatial differentiation of specimens’ movement for “right-handers”, “left-handers” and “ambidexters” with different degree of the sign display was investigated. Fluctuations and distributing of values of the asymmetry ratio for both species of the darkling beetles were determined. Influence of the first priority of the locomotion direction on further orientational manifestations was analysed.

  17. Effect of composting on the Cd, Zn and Mn content and fractionation in feedstock mixtures with wood chips from a short-rotation coppice and bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, B; Willekens, K; Zwertvaegher, A; Degrande, L; Tack, F M G; Du Laing, G

    2013-11-01

    Micronutrient content and availability in composts may be affected by the addition of wood chips or tree bark as a bulking agent in the compost feedstock. In the first part of this study, micronutrient levels were assessed in bark and wood of poplar and willow clones in a short-rotation coppice. Large differences between species were observed in bark concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn. In the second part of the study, we aimed to determine the effect of feedstock composition and composting on Cd, Zn and Mn concentrations and availability. By means of three composting experiments we examined the effect of (a) bark of different tree species, (b) the amount of bark, and (c) the use of bark versus wood chips. In general, compost characteristics such as pH, organic matter and nutrient content varied due to differences in feedstock mixture and composting process. During the composting process, the availability of Cd, Zn and Mn decreased, although the use of willow and poplar bark or wood chips resulted in elevated total Cd, Zn or Mn concentrations in the compost. Cd concentrations in some composts even exceeded legal criteria. Cd and Zn were mainly bound in the reducible fraction extracted with 0.5M NH2OH⋅HCl. A higher acid-extractable fraction for Mn than for Cd and Zn was found. Higher Cd concentrations in the compost due to the use of bark or wood chips did not result in higher risk of Cd leaching. The results of the pH-stat experiment with gradual acidification of composts illustrated that only a strong pH decline in the compost results in higher availability of Cd, Zn and Mn.

  18. On the laboratory rearing of green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagmar Voigt; Naoe Hosoda; Jan Schuppert; Stanislav Gorb

    2011-01-01

    Leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula have attracted recently increased research interest from various points of view, since they are: (i) pest insects in rhubarb crops; (ii) potential biocontrol agents of dock plants Rumex spp. in grasslands; and (iii) a model species in ecological studies on insect population dynamics, biochemistry, behavior, biomechanics and biomimetics. The continuous rearing of beetles at standardized conditions may help to unify the fitness state of different individuals, allowing a better comparison of experimental results. The present communication suggests a modular space- and time-saving rearing method of G. viridula in stackable faunariums under laboratory conditions, which has been successfully established and continuously used over the last 5 years. Several developmental stages were kept in separate boxes, and multiple generations were kept simultaneously, depending on the required number of beetles.

  19. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes.

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    Johannes Bergsten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.

  20. Prediction of abundance of beetles according to climate warming in South Korea

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    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To identify the change in distribution of insects in climate warming, changes in abundance of beetles were predicted using data from 366 survey sites (forests in South Korea. Abundance along temperature gradients showed patterns (linear or hump-shaped of normal distribution for 18 candidate species. Mean abundance in temperature zones of these species was used to predict the change in abundance. Temperature change was based on climate scenario Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 and abundance of the two periods from 2011 to 2015 and 2056 to 2065 were predicted. Of the 18 species analyzed, six were predicted to increase in abundance and 12 were predicted to decrease. Using a high relationship between abundance change and temperature of collected sites, a qualitative prediction was conducted on non-candidate species with ≥ 1% occurrence. This prediction also shows that more beetle species in South Korea will decrease rather than increase as climate warms.

  1. Systematics and biology of mites associated with neotropical hispine beetles in unfurled leaves of Heliconia, with descriptions of two new genera of the family Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Gamasina: Ascoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraza, María L; Lindquist, Evert E

    2015-03-13

    Two new genera Makarovaia and Hispiniphis are described from adults and immatures of newly described species associated with hispine beetles of the genera Chelobasis and Cephaloleia, respectively, occupying unfurled leaves of Heliconia in lowland rainforest of Costa Rica. The new genera share a suite of unique morphological attributes, but are tentatively assigned to the family Melicharidae. While all instars of the mites can be found under the elytra of their adult beetle hosts, adult mites also move freely on and off the beetles. A new form of laboulbeniaceous fungus of the genus Rickia is frequently associated with adult mites of Makarovaia as well as their beetle hosts, yet evidently rarely with mites of a species of Hispiniphis or its beetle hosts which may co-occupy the same host leaves. Limited data suggest considerable host specificity between mites and their beetle hosts. Whether the association of these mites with hispine beetles may be ancient, prior to the beetles' adaptation to living in unfurled leaves of host plants, or is a more recent invasion and partitioning of the rolled leaf beetle fauna, is discussed.

  2. Systematics and biology of mites associated with neotropical hispine beetles in unfurled leaves of Heliconia, with descriptions of two new genera of the family Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Gamasina: Ascoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraza, María L; Lindquist, Evert E

    2015-01-01

    Two new genera Makarovaia and Hispiniphis are described from adults and immatures of newly described species associated with hispine beetles of the genera Chelobasis and Cephaloleia, respectively, occupying unfurled leaves of Heliconia in lowland rainforest of Costa Rica. The new genera share a suite of unique morphological attributes, but are tentatively assigned to the family Melicharidae. While all instars of the mites can be found under the elytra of their adult beetle hosts, adult mites also move freely on and off the beetles. A new form of laboulbeniaceous fungus of the genus Rickia is frequently associated with adult mites of Makarovaia as well as their beetle hosts, yet evidently rarely with mites of a species of Hispiniphis or its beetle hosts which may co-occupy the same host leaves. Limited data suggest considerable host specificity between mites and their beetle hosts. Whether the association of these mites with hispine beetles may be ancient, prior to the beetles' adaptation to living in unfurled leaves of host plants, or is a more recent invasion and partitioning of the rolled leaf beetle fauna, is discussed. PMID:25781831

  3. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scaraebidae) at several different ecosystem functions in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Abdullah Muhaimin Mohammad; Yaakop, Salmah; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    Dung beetles has known for its bioindicator characteristic. Sensitive towards forest disturbance, dung beetles population and diversity will be less in disturbed and modified area. The objective of this study is to evaluate the diversity and distribution of dung beetles in different type of ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen baited pitfall traps aligned in three transects were used in this study. Samples were collected after 24 h and repeated three time collections and identified afterwards. Two ecosystem types were selected, which are forested and agricultural ecosystem (livestock and plantation). A total of 4249 individuals, 47 species, in 11 genera was successfully collected from all localities. The H' index for Fraser Hill, Langkawi, Bangi Reserve Forest, Selangor (HSB), Sungkai Reserve Forest, Perak (SRF), Chini Lake, Bera Lake, chicken farm, goat farm, Longan plantation, and palm oil plantation were 1.58, 1.74, 2.17, 2.63, 1.80, 1.52, 1.63, 0.46, 0.00 and 1.98 respectively.Forest ecosystem, SRF shows the highest abundance (1486 individuals) and diversity, while for agricultural ecosystem,palm oil plantation shows the highest with 273 individuals and 16 species. Based onDetrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) shows two groups that separate forest ecosystem with the agricultural ecosystem, with palm oil is the nearest to the forest. Palm oil ecosystem can sustain a dung beetles population due to the area can provide the requirements for the dung beetles to survive, such as food which comes from local domestic cows, shade from sunlight provide by the palm oil trees, and ground cover from small plants and shrubs.Even though modified ecosystem should have lower diversity of dung beetles, but some factors must be measured as well in order to have a better point of view.

  4. Quantification of motility of carabid beetles in farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allema, A B; van der Werf, W; Groot, J C J; Hemerik, L; Gort, G; Rossing, W A H; van Lenteren, J C

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of the movement of insects at field and landscape levels helps us to understand their ecology and ecological functions. We conducted a meta-analysis on movement of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), to identify key factors affecting movement and population redistribution. We characterize the rate of redistribution using motility μ (L2 T-1), which is a measure for diffusion of a population in space and time that is consistent with ecological diffusion theory and which can be used for upscaling short-term data to longer time frames. Formulas are provided to calculate motility from literature data on movement distances. A field experiment was conducted to measure the redistribution of mass-released carabid, Pterostichus melanarius in a crop field, and derive motility by fitting a Fokker-Planck diffusion model using inverse modelling. Bias in estimates of motility from literature data is elucidated using the data from the field experiment as a case study. The meta-analysis showed that motility is 5.6 times as high in farmland as in woody habitat. Species associated with forested habitats had greater motility than species associated with open field habitats, both in arable land and woody habitat. The meta-analysis did not identify consistent differences in motility at the species level, or between clusters of larger and smaller beetles. The results presented here provide a basis for calculating time-varying distribution patterns of carabids in farmland and woody habitat. The formulas for calculating motility can be used for other taxa. PMID:25673121

  5. Effective monitoring as a basis for adaptive management: a case history of mountain pine beetle in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem whitebark pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willcox L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With reference to massive outbreaks of a variety of bark beetles occurring across the forests of western North America, it is stressed that an accurate assessment of the extent of the problem is the first step toward formulating effective adaptive management strategies. This assessment will only be possible through a coordinated effort that combines all available technologies, that is an approach that builds on satellite image analysis, aerial survey from fixed-wing aircraft, and on the ground observation and measurement.

  6. IN VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB. STEM BARK ON ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are believed to be an important source of new chemical substance with potential therapeutic applicability. Several plant species traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.This research work is carryout for the anti-inflammatory activity of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb. Stem bark extracts using Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Ibuprofen 60mg/kg p.o. was kept as standard. The research was carried out in Wister strain weighing 150-200gm. The Methanol (100mg/Kg and Aqueous extract (100mg/Kg has exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Flavonoids present in stem bark may be responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. However, it needs isolation, structural elucidation and screening of above active principles to pin point activity of drug.

  7. Characterizing noise in nonhuman vocalizations: Acoustic analysis and human perception of barks by coyotes and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Mitchell, Brian R.; Tokuda, Isao; Owren, Michael J.

    2005-07-01

    Measuring noise as a component of mammalian vocalizations is of interest because of its potential relevance to the communicative function. However, methods for characterizing and quantifying noise are less well established than methods applicable to harmonically structured aspects of signals. Using barks of coyotes and domestic dogs, we compared six acoustic measures and studied how they are related to human perception of noisiness. Measures of harmonic-to-noise-ratio (HNR), percent voicing, and shimmer were found to be the best predictors of perceptual rating by human listeners. Both acoustics and perception indicated that noisiness was similar across coyote and dog barks, but within each species there was significant variation among the individual vocalizers. The advantages and disadvantages of the various measures are discussed.

  8. A new benzophenanthridine alkaloid and other bioactive constituents from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum heitzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Tadesse, Margey; Miles, Christopher O; Moussavi, Nastaran; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl Egil

    2016-03-01

    Heitziquinone (7), a new benzophenanthridine alkaloid, together with five known compounds; isoarnottianamide (5), rhoifoline B (6), isobauerenol (8), 6-hydroxypellitorine (9) and sylvamide (10), were isolated as minor compounds from the hexane extract of stem bark from Zanthoxylum heitzii. Four previously reported compounds (1-4) were found, as well. Compounds 5 and 7 were both found to exist as 4:1 mixtures of two atropisomers. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. Compounds 5-10 were identified for the first time in this species, and they are all rare natural compounds. Pellitorine (4), one of the main compounds from the hexane bark extract, was found to be responsible for the brine shrimp larvae toxicity (LC50 37 μM, 8 μg/ml) of the crude extract (LC50 24 μg/ml). Low cytotoxicity against a macrophage cell line was observed. PMID:26802607

  9. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  10. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  11. Xanthones from the bark of Garcinia Xanthochymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two novel xanthones, 1,6-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyxanthone (1) and 1,5,6-trihydroxy-7,8-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':3,4)xanthone (2) were isolated from the bark of Garcinia xanthochymus by normal phase and reverse phase silica gel column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D-NMR techniques.(C) 2007 Guang Zhong Yang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome Sequence of Fusarium Isolate MYA-4552 from the Midgut of Anoplophora glabripennis, an Invasive, Wood-Boring Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Erin D.; Geib, Scott M.; Hoover, Kelli; Carlson, John E.

    2016-01-01

    The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is a clade of environmentally ubiquitous fungi that includes plant, animal, and insect associates. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the undescribed species FSSC 6 (isolate MYA-4552), housed in the gut of the wood-boring cerambycid beetle Anoplophora glabripennis. PMID:27445364

  13. Crop cover the principal influence on non-crop ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) activity and assemblages at the farm scale in a long-term assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, M D; Sanderson, R A; McMillan, S D; Critchley, C N R

    2016-04-01

    Ground beetle data were generated using pitfall traps in the 17-year period from 1993 to 2009 and used to investigate the effects of changes in surrounding crop cover on beetle activity and assemblages, together with the effects of weather variability. Beetles were recorded from non-crop field margins (overgrown hedges). Crop cover changes explained far more variation in the beetle assemblages recorded than did temperature and rainfall variation. A reduction in management intensity and disturbance in the crops surrounding the traps, especially the introduction and development of willow coppice, was concomitant with changes in individual species activity and assemblage composition of beetles trapped in non-crop habitat. There were no consistent patterns in either overall beetle activity or in the number of species recorded over the 17-year period, but there was a clear change from assemblages dominated by smaller species with higher dispersal capability to ones with larger beetles with less dispersal potential and a preference for less disturbed agroecosystems. The influence of surrounding crops on ground beetle activity in non-crop habitat has implications for ecosystem service provision by ground beetles as pest predators. These results are contrary to conventional assumptions and interpretations, which suggest activity of pest predators in crops is influenced primarily by adjacent non-crop habitat. The long-term nature of the assessment was important in elucidation of patterns and trends, and indicated that policies such as agri-environment schemes should take cropping patterns into account when promoting management options that are intended to enhance natural pest control.

  14. INORGANIC STATUS OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

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    Gaikwad Dattatraya Krishna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus marsupium is well known for its sugar lowering potential. In the present examination different bark samples (Apical bark, middle bark and mature inner bark of Pterocarpus marsupium were screened for inorganic status. The levels of macro-minerals Nitrogen (1.50-3.13%, Phosphorus (0.023-0.163%, Calcium (0.60-1.848%, and Magnesium (0.21-0.339%, levels of trace minerals Copper (0.68-3.2mg/100g, Zinc (1.98-3.62mg/100g, Manganese (2.0-4.94mg/100g and Iron (11.38-44.34mg/100g and heavy metals Chromium (2.08-3.94mg/100g and Nickel (0.32-1.26mg/100g were evaluated in the present study. Cadmium and Lead were found to be absent in all the bark samples analyzed.

  15. Effect of land use change on ecosystem function of dung beetles: experimental evidence from Wallacea Region in Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    SHAHABUDDIN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Shahabuddin (2011 Effect of land use change on ecosystem function of dung beetles: experimental evidence from Wallacea Region in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 177-181. The deforestation of tropical forests and their subsequent conversion to human-dominated land-use systems is one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss. However clear understanding of the links between ecological functions and biodiversity is needed to evaluate and predict the true environmental consequences of human activities. This study provided experimental evidence comparing ecosystem function of dung beetles across a land use gradient ranging from natural tropical forest and agroforestry systems to open cultivated areas in Central Sulawesi. Therefore, standardized dung pats were exposed at each land-use type to assess dung removal and parasite suppression activity by dung beetles. The results showed that ecosystem function of dung beetles especially dung burial activity were remarkably disrupted by land use changes from natural forest to open agricultural area. Dung beetles presence enhanced about 53% of the total dung removed and reduced about 83% and 63% of fly population and species number respectively, indicating a pronounce contribution of dung beetles in our ecosystem.

  16. Yeast Associated with the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus koryoensis, the Pest of Oak Trees in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-12-01

    Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paju; 8 species were identified by based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses. Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Candida kashinagacola were found to be the two dominant species. Among the 8 species, Candida homilentoma was a newly recorded yeast species in Korea, and thus, its mycological characteristics were described. The P. koryoensis symbiont R. quercusmongolicae did not show extracelluar CM-cellulase, xylanase and avicelase activity that are responsible for degradation of wood structure; however, C. kashinagacola and M. guilliermondii did show the three extracellular enzymatic activities. Extracelluar CM-cellulase activity was also found in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, C. kashinagacola, and Candida sp. Extracelluar pectinase activity was detected in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, Candida sp., and M. guilliermondii. All the 8 yeast species displayed compatible relationships with R. quercus-mongolicae when they were co-cultivated on yeast extract-malt extract plates. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. koryoensis carries the yeast species as a symbiotic fungal associate. This is first report of yeast diversity associated with P. koryoensis. PMID:26839506

  17. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Angola: a descriptive catalogue and designation of neotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Artur R M; Capela, Rúben A

    2013-11-01

    An annotated catalogue of the species and subspecies of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) hitherto known from Angola is given. A total of 89 forms (74 species and 15 subspecies) is recorded from this southwestern country of Africa. Within this assemblage there are 31 endemic forms (33.3%). Some species are represented by only the holotype specimen (some without locality) or the type series. Others were recorded based on a single specimen. Records for six species previously unknow from Angola are given: Foveodromica sp. n. 1, Foveodromica sp. n. 2, Ophryodera rufomarginata bradshawi Péringuey, 1888, Elliptica muata parallelestriata (W. Horn, 1923), Lophyra differens (W. Horn, 1892) and Myriochila jucunda (Péringuey, 1892). A historical review, as well as some considerations on the distribution and conservation status of these beetles in Angola are also presented.

  18. What do we know about winter active ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe?

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    Radomir Jaskula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates.

  19. How Does Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Diversity Vary Along a Rainy Season in a Tropical Dry Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Samuel M A; Evangelista, Lucas A; Reis-Júnior, Ronaldo; Neves, Frederico S

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetle community dynamics are determined by regional rainfall patterns. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these communities in tropical dry forests (TDFs). This study was designed to test the following predictions: 1) Peak diversity of dung beetle species occurs early in the wet season, with a decrease in diversity (α and β) and abundance throughout the season; 2) Nestedness is the primary process determining β-diversity, with species sampled in the middle and the end of the wet season representing subsets of the early wet season community. Dung beetles were collected in a TDF in the northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil over three sampling events (December 2009, February and April 2010). We sampled 2,018 dung beetles belonging to 39 species and distributed among 15 genera. Scarabaeinae α-diversity and abundance were highest in December and equivalent between February and April, while β-diversity among plots increased along the wet season. The importance of nestedness and species turnover varies between pairs of sample periods as the main process of temporal β-diversity. Most species collected in the middle and end of the wet season were found in greater abundance in early wet season. Thus, the dung beetle community becomes more homogeneous at the beginning of the wet season, and as the season advances, higher resource scarcity limits population size, which likely results in a smaller foraging range, increasing β-diversity. Our results demonstrate high synchronism between the dung beetle life cycle and seasonality of environmental conditions throughout the wet season in a TDF, where the onset of rains determines adult emergence for most species. PMID:27620555

  20. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia

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    Mason Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD

  1. Changes in carabid beetle assemblages across an urban-rural gradient in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ishitani, M.; Kotze, D.J.; NiemelÀ, J.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the international Globenet project, carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) were collected using pitfall traps from four urban, four suburban and four rural sites in Hiroshima City, Japan, during the 2001 summer season. In agreement with expectation, carabid abundance and species richness decreased significantly from rural to urban sites. Furthermore, no large, and only few individuals of medium-sized specialist species were collected from the urban environment, whil...

  2. Prediction of abundance of beetles according to climate warming in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Tae-Sung Kwon; Cheol Min Lee; Sung-Soo Kim

    2015-01-01

    To identify the change in distribution of insects in climate warming, changes in abundance of beetles were predicted using data from 366 survey sites (forests) in South Korea. Abundance along temperature gradients showed patterns (linear or hump-shaped) of normal distribution for 18 candidate species. Mean abundance in temperature zones of these species was used to predict the change in abundance. Temperature change was based on climate scenario Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5...

  3. Halocoryza Alluaud 1919, sea-side beetles of the Indian, Atlantic (sensu lato, and Pacific Oceans: a generic synopsis and description of a remarkable new species from Baja California Sur, México (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritini, Clivinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on the three previously described species of Halocoryza Alluaud is updated and a new species for the genus from Isla Carmen, Sea of Cortés, Baja California Sur, México is described. Halocoryza whiteheadiana sp. n. was found at UV light on a beach of that island. This species does not fit the profile of the other three species, i.e., living on coralline beach sands, or in the Mangrove intertidal zone. Two alternative possibilities as to why this is so are suggested and a study plan for testing these possibilities is proposed.

  4. Malpighian tubule development in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benedict; Denholm, Barry

    2014-11-01

    Malpighian tubules (MpTs) are the major organ for excretion and osmoregulation in most insects. MpT development is characterised for Drosophila melanogaster, but not other species. We therefore do not know the extent to which the MpT developmental programme is conserved across insects. To redress this we provide a comprehensive description of MpT development in the beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), a species separated from Drosophila by >315 million years. We identify similarities with Drosophila MpT development including: 1) the onset of morphological development, beginning when tubules bud from the gut and proliferate to increase organ size. 2) the tubule is shaped by convergent-extension movements and oriented cell divisions. 3) differentiated tip cells activate EGF-signalling in distal MpT cells through the ligand Spitz. 4) MpTs contain two main cell types - principal and stellate cells, differing in morphology and gene expression. We also describe development of the beetle cryptonephridial system, an adaptation for water conservation, which represents a major modification of the MpT ground plan characterised by intimate association between MpTs and rectum. This work establishes a new model to compare MpT development across insects, and provides a framework to help understand how an evolutionary novelty - the cryptonephridial system - arose during organ evolution.

  5. Treatment outcome of Paederus dermatitis due to rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) on guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Azizi, K; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

    2011-08-01

    Linear dermatitis (or dermatitis linearis, DL) is a skin blistering inflammatory lesion caused by exposure to the pederin toxin from rove beetles. Although it is prevalent in many countries of the Middle East region, this is not a notifiable disease. In recent years, a number of clinical symptoms outbreaks of DL has been reported from a few neighboring countries of Iran, but no report of experimental treatment among small laboratory rodents is known. This is a prerequisite to ascertain the nature of the best treatment strategy in cases of infestation with these beetles, as it occurs among local settlers during hot seasons in certain parts of the southern Iranian province of Fars. Live Paederus beetles were collected, identified to species level, sexed apart and partly processed to obtain their hemolymph toxin pederin in ethanol for dermal application on guinea pigs. Two Paederus species were found. Paederus ilsae (Bernhauer) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) was more abundant than P. iliensis (Coiffait). Recovery from DL due to live P. ilsae beetles was quicker and less complex than that of pederin in ethanol on guinea pigs. The application of potassium permanganate with calamine to heal DL was also more effective than fluocinolone treatment. This topical corticosteroid is thus considered less able to avert the cytotoxic action of pederin on the skin of guinea pigs than the antipruritic and cleansing agents. It seems likely that fluocinolone has certain effects which delays the recovery period for the treated skin.

  6. Aquatic beetles (Coleoptera in springs of a small lowland river: habitat factors vs. landscape factors

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    Pakulnicka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified the beetle fauna of springs of a small lowland river and attempted to determine the direction and magnitude of beetle migration between the springs and neighboring water bodies in the river valley, as well as the local environmental factors and landscape parameters that most influence the character of aquatic beetle assemblages in the springs. We studied springs of three limnological types, along the entire length of the river valley, and identified 42 beetle species. All types of springs were dominated by stagnobiontic species, which enter springs from other aquatic environments, mainly via dispersion by air. We also found a small proportion of crenophiles and a substantial proportion of rheophiles and tyrphophiles, which was linked to the close proximity of the river and dystrophic water bodies. The fauna of the springs was affected to a similar degree by local environmental factors and by landscape factors acting on a broader scale. This indicates the need for broader consideration of landscape factors, which are often neglected in ecological studies.

  7. Identification of the forensically important beetles Nicrophorus japonicus, Ptomascopus plagiatus and Silpha carinata (Coleoptera: Silphidae) based on 16S rRNA gene in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z C; Guo, Y D; Zhang, X W; Shi, J; Yang, K T; Li, X L; Chen, Y Q; Cai, J F

    2012-09-01

    Sarcophagous beetles play an important role in estimating postmortem interval time (PMI) in the later stages decomposition of carcasses. However, the morphological similarity of beetles usually poses a challenge for forensic scientists within their routine work. As a supplementary to traditional morphological method, molecular genetics identification is simple and time-saving. A molecular identification method involving a 288-bp segment of the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene from 15 beetles of Silphidae (Coleoptera), collected from 5 locations in 4 Chinese provinces, was evaluated. Phenogram analysis of the sequenced segments by the unweighted pairgroup method analysis (UPGMA) method showed that all specimens were properly assigned into four species with strong similarity, which indicated the possibility of separation congeneric species with the short 16S rRNA fragment. These results will be instrumental for implementation of the Chinese database of forensically relevant beetles.

  8. Convergences and divergences between two European mountain dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea

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    Lobo, J. M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the altitudinal change in dung beetle species richness and the relative proportion of higher taxa, as well as the turnover in the type of distribution and range size of species in two mountain chains located at the two extremes of Europe (Western Rhodopes Mountains and the Iberian Central System. Both mountain ranges showed a clear substitution among higher taxa (Aphodiinae-Geotrupinae vs. Scarabaeidae and species richness variation with the altitude was similar. We suggest that East European dung beetle assemblages are conditioned by a horizontal colonization process in which mountains had been reached in relatively recent geological time by elements coming from different latitudes. In spite of these convergences, Rhodopes dung beetle assemblages are characterized by a significantly lower proportion of narrowly distributed species and a lower relevance of Aphodiinae species in lowland places. Although these divergences can be partially attributed to the dissimilar sampling effort accomplished in both regions, we suggest that the low number on narrowly distributed species could be due to the different role of these two mountain zones as refuges during glaciar-interglaciar Pleistocene cycles.

  9. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 9. The relations of Australasian Ypsiloncyphon species to their Asian congeners, additions, mainly to Petrocyphon and Prionocyphon, and a key to Australian genera of Scirtinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The endemic Australasian species of Ypsiloncyphon are the sister group of the combined Asian species groups 1, 2, and 4. The description of the type species, Y. chlorizans (Klausnitzer), is supplemented by details of male and female genitalia. New species are described and illustrated in several genera: Austrocyphon scissus n. sp., Leptocyphon abnormis n. sp., Petrocyphon bonang n. sp., P. lacteus n. sp., P. televisionarius n. sp., Prionocyphon bidentatus n. sp., P. cacatua n. sp., P. laurae n. sp., P. neboissi n. sp., P. serratus n. sp., P. uncatus n. sp., and P. urbanus n. sp. Genus Prionocyphon is distinguished from Oriental genera with similar antennal modifications. However, a synapomorphy of Prionocyphon as presently understood is not known. Supplementary information on various species in the aforementioned genera and in Pachycyphon and Calvarium is provided. A key to the genera of adult Australian Scirtidae: Scirtinae is presented.

  10. Pupal remodeling and the evolution and development of alternative male morphologies in horned beetles

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    Moczek Armin P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How novel morphological traits originate and diversify represents a major frontier in evolutionary biology. Horned beetles are emerging as an increasingly popular model system to explore the genetic, developmental, and ecological mechanisms, as well as the interplay between them, in the genesis of novelty and diversity. The horns of beetles originate during a rapid growth phase during the prepupal stage of larval development. Differential growth during this period is either implicitly or explicitly assumed to be the sole mechanism underlying differences in horn expression within and between species. Here I focus on male horn dimorphisms, a phenomenon at the center of many studies in behavioral ecology and evolutionary development, and quantify the relative contributions of a previously ignored developmental process, pupal remodeling, to the expression of male dimorphism in three horned beetle species. Results Prepupal growth is not the only determinant of differences in male horn expression. Instead, following their initial prepupal growth phase, beetles may be extensively remodeled during the subsequent pupal stage in a sex and size-dependent manner. Specifically, male dimorphism in the three Onthophagus species studied here was shaped not at all, partly or entirely by such pupal remodeling rather than differential growth, suggesting that pupal remodeling is phylogenetically widespread, evolutionarily labile, and developmentally flexible. Conclusion This study is the first to document that male dimorphism in horned beetles is the product of two developmentaly dissociated processes: prepupal growth and pupal remodeling. More generally, adult morphology alone appears to provide few clues, if any, as to the relative contributions of both processes to the expression of alternative male morphs, underscoring the importance of developmental studies in efforts aimed at understanding the evolution of adult diversity patterns.

  11. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antiproliferative Activities and Total Polyphenol Contents of the Extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna J. Sajkowska-Kozielewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geissospermum species are medically important plants due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant ability and antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of infusions, tinctures, and ethanolic extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum barks in relation to the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Seven samples of barks were collected in various regions of Peruvian Amazonia. We found that the amount of total phenolics in the studied products varied from 212.40 ± 0.69 to 1253.92 ± 11.20 mg GAE/kg. In our study there is a correlation (R2=0.7947 between the results of antioxidants assays: FRAP and ORAC for tinctures, infusions, and ethanolic extracts of G. reticulatum barks. We have also observed antiproliferative activities of the ethanolic extracts on normal T-cells. These extracts have caused death on malignant cell lines (THP-1 and HL-60 and this data correlates well with their antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC method. Interestingly, the highest concentration of the ethanolic extract was not toxic in the zebrafish embryo developmental assay. Our results indicate that G. reticulatum is rich in antioxidants and have cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties. The data suggests potential immunosuppressive role of the extracts. This is the first study presenting the results of chemical and biological analysis of multiple preparations from G. reticulatum.

  12. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antiproliferative Activities and Total Polyphenol Contents of the Extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Nicholas M.; Wawer, Iwona; Paradowska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Geissospermum species are medically important plants due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant ability and antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of infusions, tinctures, and ethanolic extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum barks in relation to the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Seven samples of barks were collected in various regions of Peruvian Amazonia. We found that the amount of total phenolics in the studied products varied from 212.40 ± 0.69 to 1253.92 ± 11.20 mg GAE/kg. In our study there is a correlation (R2 = 0.7947) between the results of antioxidants assays: FRAP and ORAC for tinctures, infusions, and ethanolic extracts of G. reticulatum barks. We have also observed antiproliferative activities of the ethanolic extracts on normal T-cells. These extracts have caused death on malignant cell lines (THP-1 and HL-60) and this data correlates well with their antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC method. Interestingly, the highest concentration of the ethanolic extract was not toxic in the zebrafish embryo developmental assay. Our results indicate that G. reticulatum is rich in antioxidants and have cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties. The data suggests potential immunosuppressive role of the extracts. This is the first study presenting the results of chemical and biological analysis of multiple preparations from G. reticulatum.

  13. Dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae assemblage of a highly fragmented landscape of Atlantic forest: from small to the largest fragments of northeastern Brazilian region

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    Renato P. Salomão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities in tropical forests are the main causes of forest fragmentation. According to historical factor in deforestation processes, forest remnants exhibit different sizes and shapes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dung beetle assemblage on fragments of different degree of sizes. Sampling was performed during rainy and dry season of 2010 in six fragments of Atlantic forest, using pitfall traps baited with excrement and carrion. Also, we used two larger fragments as control. We used General Linear Models to determine whether the fragments presented distinguished dung beetle abundance and richness. Analysis of Similarities and Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling were used to determine whether the dung beetle assemblage was grouped according to species composition. A total of 3352 individuals were collected and 19 species were identified in the six fragments sampled. Dung beetle abundance exhibited a shift according to fragment size; however, richness did not change among fragments evaluated. Also, fragments sampled and the two controls exhibited distinct species composition. The distinction on abundance of dung beetles among fragments may be related to different amount of resource available in each one. It is likely that the dung beetle richness did not distinguish among the different fragments due to the even distribution of the mammal communities in these patches, and consequent equal dung diversity. We conclude that larger fragments encompass higher abundance of dung beetle and distinct species. However, for a clearer understanding of effects of fragmentation on dung beetles in Atlantic forest, studies evaluating narrower variations of larger fragments should be conducted.

  14. Population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of beetles (Coleoptera: Histeridae and Staphylinidae) from the Sonoran Desert associated with rotting columnar cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Johnson, Sarah; Richmond, Maxi Polihronakis; Markow, Therese A

    2013-12-01

    Dozens of arthropod species are known to feed and breed in the necrotic tissues (rots) of columnar cacti in the Sonoran Desert. Because the necrotic patches are ephemeral, the associated arthropods must continually disperse to new cacti and therefore the populations of any given species are expected to show very little local genetic differentiation. While this has been found to be true for the cactophilic Drosophila, the evolutionary histories and characteristics of other arthropods inhabiting the same necrotic patches, especially the beetles, have yet to be examined. Here we used nucleotide sequence data from segments of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes to examine population structure and demographic history of three sympatric beetle species (Coleoptera: Histeridae and Staphylinidae) collected on senita cactus (Lophocereus schottii) from six widely-separated localities on the Baja California peninsula of northwestern Mexico. Two histerids, Iliotona beyeri and Carcinops gilensis, and an unidentified staphylinid, Belonuchus sp., showed little or no population structure over a broad geographic area on the peninsula, consistent with the prediction that these beetles should show high dispersal ability. Demographic tests revealed varying levels of historical population expansion among the beetle species analyzed, which are discussed in light of their ecologies and concurrent biogeographic events. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses of COI sequences in Carcinops collected on a variety of columnar cacti from both peninsular and mainland Mexico localities revealed several species-level partitions, including a putative undescribed peninsular species that occurred sympatrically with C. gilensis on senita.

  15. Necrophagous beetles associated with carcasses in a semi-arid environment in northeastern Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Ana C G; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2013-03-10

    Data on the ecology and bionomics of necrophagous beetles are scarce in tropical countries despite their relevance in forensic investigations. We performed a survey on the diversity and temporal pattern of colonization of beetles on pig carcasses in a fragment of dry forest in northeastern Brazil. We collected 1550 adults of diverse feeding habits from 12 families, of which 96% had necrophagous and/or copro-necrophagous habits and belonged to four families: Dermestidae, Scarabaeidae, Cleridae and Trogidae. Three species, Dermestes maculatus, Necrobia rufipes and Omorgus suberosus are reported for the first time with an expanded geographical distribution that includes the semi-arid region in Brazil. Adult beetles were collected as early as 24h after death. One endemic species, Deltochilum verruciferum, stood out in terms of numerical dominance and temporal occurrence during different stages of decomposition. Its intimate association with carrion emphasizes their potential role in forensic entomology in the region.

  16. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, S.M.; Singh, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract...

  17. Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested

  18. Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo F; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics.

  19. Studying the organization of genes encoding plant cell wall degrading enzymes in Chrysomela tremula provides insights into a leaf beetle genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchet, Y; Saski, C A; Feltus, F A; Luyten, I; Quesneville, H; Heckel, D G

    2014-06-01

    The ability of herbivorous beetles from the superfamilies Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides has only recently begun to be appreciated. The presence of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) in the beetle's digestive tract makes this degradation possible. Sequences encoding these beetle-derived PCWDEs were originally identified from transcriptomes and strikingly resemble those of saprophytic and phytopathogenic microorganisms, raising questions about their origin; e.g. are they insect- or microorganism-derived? To demonstrate unambiguously that the genes encoding PCWDEs found in beetle transcriptomes are indeed of insect origin, we generated a bacterial artificial chromosome library from the genome of the leaf beetle Chrysomela tremula, containing 18 432 clones with an average size of 143 kb. After hybridizing this library with probes derived from 12 C. tremula PCWDE-encoding genes and sequencing the positive clones, we demonstrated that the latter genes are encoded by the insect's genome and are surrounded by genes possessing orthologues in the genome of Tribolium castaneum as well as in three other beetle genomes. Our analyses showed that although the level of overall synteny between C. tremula and T. castaneum seems high, the degree of microsynteny between both species is relatively low, in contrast to the more closely related Colorado potato beetle. PMID:24456018

  20. Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F Braga

    Full Text Available Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal, to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics, species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics.

  1. Adhesive performance of the stick-capture apparatus of rove beetles of the genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) toward various surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N; Betz, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Rove beetles of the genus Stenus possess a unique adhesive prey-capture apparatus that enables them to catch elusive prey such as springtails over a distance of several millimeters. The prey-capture device combines the hierarchically organized morphology of dry adhesive systems with the properties of wet ones, since an adhesive secretion is released into the contact zone. We hypothesize that this combination enables Stenus species successfully to capture prey possessing a wide range of surface structures and chemistries. We have investigated the influence of both surface energy and roughness of the substrate on the adhesive performance of the prey-capture apparatus in two Stenus species. Force transducers have been used to measure both the compressive and adhesive forces generated during the predatory strike of the beetles on (1) epoxy resin surfaces with defined roughness values (smooth versus rough with asperity diameters ranging from 0.3 to 12 μm) and (2) hydrophobic versus hydrophilic glass surfaces. Our experiments show that neither the surface roughness nor the surface energy significantly influences the attachment ability of the prey-capture apparatus. Thus, in contrast to the performance of locomotory adhesive systems in geckos, beetles, and flies, no critical surface roughness exists that might impede adhesion of the prey-capture apparatus of Stenus beetles. The prey-capture apparatus of Stenus beetles is therefore well adapted to adhere to the various unpredictable surfaces with diverse roughness and surface energy occurring in a wide range of potential prey. PMID:22119444

  2. Adhesive performance of the stick-capture apparatus of rove beetles of the genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) toward various surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N; Betz, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Rove beetles of the genus Stenus possess a unique adhesive prey-capture apparatus that enables them to catch elusive prey such as springtails over a distance of several millimeters. The prey-capture device combines the hierarchically organized morphology of dry adhesive systems with the properties of wet ones, since an adhesive secretion is released into the contact zone. We hypothesize that this combination enables Stenus species successfully to capture prey possessing a wide range of surface structures and chemistries. We have investigated the influence of both surface energy and roughness of the substrate on the adhesive performance of the prey-capture apparatus in two Stenus species. Force transducers have been used to measure both the compressive and adhesive forces generated during the predatory strike of the beetles on (1) epoxy resin surfaces with defined roughness values (smooth versus rough with asperity diameters ranging from 0.3 to 12 μm) and (2) hydrophobic versus hydrophilic glass surfaces. Our experiments show that neither the surface roughness nor the surface energy significantly influences the attachment ability of the prey-capture apparatus. Thus, in contrast to the performance of locomotory adhesive systems in geckos, beetles, and flies, no critical surface roughness exists that might impede adhesion of the prey-capture apparatus of Stenus beetles. The prey-capture apparatus of Stenus beetles is therefore well adapted to adhere to the various unpredictable surfaces with diverse roughness and surface energy occurring in a wide range of potential prey.

  3. What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest area to the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae assemblage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio C. Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest to the dung beetle assemblage? The Atlantic Forest in Brazil is one of the most highly disturbed ecosystems and is mainly represented by fragmented areas. However, in places where human disturbances have ceased, certain areas are showing a natural regeneration pattern. The aim of the present study was to determine how the dung beetle assemblage responds to distinct habitat structures in a fragment of Atlantic Forest. For such, open and closed forest areas were sampled in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest in the northeastern region of Brazil. Pitfall traps baited with excrement and carrion were used to collect the beetles. A total of 7,267 individuals belonging to 35 species were captured. Canthon chalybaeus and C. mutabilis were restricted to open areas. Nearly 90% of the individuals of C. aff. simulans and Deltochilum aff. irroratum were identified in these areas. A higher percentage (> 50% of Canthon staigi, Dichotomius aff. depressicolis and D. aff. sericeus occurred in closed areas. Abundance differed between areas, with higher values in closed areas. Richness was not influenced by the habitat structure. NMDS ordination exhibited the segregation of areas and ANOSIM confirmed that this variable explained the assemblage of dung beetle species. The findings of the present study validate that open areas are associated to more restrictive conditions, limiting a higher abundance of dung beetle. Although situated near preserved fragments, the studied open areas increase the heterogeneity of the general landscape.

  4. Japanese Interest in "Hotaru" (Fireflies) and "Kabuto-Mushi" (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, "Hotaru" and "Kabuto-mushi" in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan. PMID:26466535

  5. Living near the edge: Being close to mature forest increases the rate of succession in beetle communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M; Jordan, Gregory J; Baker, Thomas P; Balmer, Jayne M; Wardlaw, Tim; Baker, Susan C

    2015-04-01

    In increasingly fragmented landscapes, it is important to understand how mature forest affects adjacent secondary forest (forest influence). Forest influence on ecological succession of beetle communities is largely unknown. We investigated succession and forest influence using 235 m long transects across boundaries between mature and secondary forest at 15 sites, sampling a chronosequence of three forest age classes (5-10, 23- 29, and 42-46 years since clear-cutting) in tall eucalypt forest in Tasmania, Australia. Our results showed that ground-dwelling beetle communities showed strong successional changes, and in the oldest secondary forests, species considered indicators of mature forest had recolonized to abundance levels similar to those observed within adjacent mature forest stands. However, species composition also showed forest influence gradients in all age classes. Forest influence was estimated to extend 13 m and 20 m in the youngest and intermediate-aged secondary forests, respectively. However, the estimated effect extended to at least 176 m in the oldest secondary forest. Our environmental modeling suggests that leaf litter, microclimate, and soil variables were all important in explaining the spatial variation in beetle assemblages, and the relative importance of factors varied between secondary forest age classes. Mature-forest beetle communities can recolonize successfully from the edge, and our results provide a basis for land managers to build mature habitat connectivity into forest mosaics typical of production forests. Our results also indicate the importance of forest influence in determining potential conservation value of older secondary forest for beetles. PMID:26214924

  6. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

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    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  7. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G

    2013-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations.

  8. Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the

  9. Beetle succession and diversity between clothed sun-exposed and shaded pig carrion in a tropical dry forest landscape in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ubaldo; León-Cortés, Jorge L

    2014-12-01

    Over a 31-day period, the decomposition process, beetle diversity and succession on clothed pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were studied in open (agricultural land) and shaded habitat (secondary forest) in Southern Mexico. The decomposition process was categorised into five stages: fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay and remains. Except for the bloated stage, the elapsed time for each decomposition stage was similar between open and shaded habitats, all carcasses reached an advanced decay stage in seven days, and the fifth stage (remains) was not recorded in any carcass during the time of this study. A total of 6344 beetles, belonging to 130 species and 21 families, were collected during the entire decomposition process, and abundances increased from fresh to advanced decay stages. Staphylinidae, Scarabaeidae and Histeridae were taxonomically and numerically dominant, accounting for 61% of the species richness and 87% of the total abundance. Similar numbers of species (87 and 88 species for open and shaded habitats, respectively), levels of diversity and proportions (open 49%; shaded 48%) of exclusive species were recorded at each habitat. There were significantly distinct beetle communities between habitats and for each stage of decomposition. An indicator species analysis ("IndVal") identified six species associated to open habitats, 10 species to shaded habitats and eight species to advanced decay stages. In addition, 23 beetle species are cited for the first time in the forensic literature. These results showed that open and shaded habitats both provide suitable habitat conditions for the carrion beetle diversity with significant differences in community structure and identity of the species associated to each habitat. This research provides the first empirical evidence of beetle ecological succession and diversity on carrion in Mexican agro-pastoral landscapes. PMID:25447187

  10. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins with Potent Antioxidant Activity from the Leaf, Stem Bark and Root Bark of Acacia confusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Dong Wei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, and the leaf condensed tannins include propelargonidin, procyanidin and prodelphinidin, all with the procyanidin dominating. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to undecamers for leaf and root bark and to dodecamers for stem bark. The condensed tannins extracted from the leaf, stem bark and root bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  11. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-07-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  12. Hydrogen Isotopes as a Sentinel of Biological Invasion by the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica (Newman.

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    Bruce A Hungate

    Full Text Available Invasive species alter ecosystems, threaten native and endangered species, and have negative economic impacts. Knowing where invading individuals are from and when they arrive to a new site can guide management. Here, we evaluated how well the stable hydrogen isotope composition (δ2H records the recent origin and time since arrival of specimens of the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman captured near the Portland International Airport (Oregon, U.S.A.. The δ2H of Japanese beetle specimens collected from sites across the contiguous U.S.A. reflected the δ2H of local precipitation, a relationship similar to that documented for other organisms, and one confirming the utility of δ2H as a geographic fingerprint. Within weeks after experimental relocation to a new isotopic environment, the δ2H of beetles changed linearly with time, demonstrating the potential for δ2H to also mark the timing of arrival to a new location. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the recent geographical origin and timing of arrival of each specimen based on its δ2H value. The geographic resolution was broad, with values consistent with multiple regions of origin in the eastern U.S.A., slightly favoring the southeastern U.S.A. as the more likely source. Beetles trapped from 2007-2010 had arrived 30 or more days prior to trapping, whereas the median time since arrival declined to 3-7 days for beetles trapped from 2012-2014. This reduction in the time between arrival and trapping at the Portland International Airport supports the efficacy of trapping and spraying to prevent establishment. More generally, our analysis shows how stable isotopes can serve as sentinels of biological invasions, verifying the efficacy of control measures, or, alternatively, indicating when those measures show signs of failure.

  13. Hydrogen Isotopes as a Sentinel of Biological Invasion by the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica (Newman).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungate, Bruce A; Kearns, Diana N; Ogle, Kiona; Caron, Melanie; Marks, Jane C; Rogg, Helmuth W

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species alter ecosystems, threaten native and endangered species, and have negative economic impacts. Knowing where invading individuals are from and when they arrive to a new site can guide management. Here, we evaluated how well the stable hydrogen isotope composition (δ2H) records the recent origin and time since arrival of specimens of the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) captured near the Portland International Airport (Oregon, U.S.A.). The δ2H of Japanese beetle specimens collected from sites across the contiguous U.S.A. reflected the δ2H of local precipitation, a relationship similar to that documented for other organisms, and one confirming the utility of δ2H as a geographic fingerprint. Within weeks after experimental relocation to a new isotopic environment, the δ2H of beetles changed linearly with time, demonstrating the potential for δ2H to also mark the timing of arrival to a new location. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the recent geographical origin and timing of arrival of each specimen based on its δ2H value. The geographic resolution was broad, with values consistent with multiple regions of origin in the eastern U.S.A., slightly favoring the southeastern U.S.A. as the more likely source. Beetles trapped from 2007-2010 had arrived 30 or more days prior to trapping, whereas the median time since arrival declined to 3-7 days for beetles trapped from 2012-2014. This reduction in the time between arrival and trapping at the Portland International Airport supports the efficacy of trapping and spraying to prevent establishment. More generally, our analysis shows how stable isotopes can serve as sentinels of biological invasions, verifying the efficacy of control measures, or, alternatively, indicating when those measures show signs of failure. PMID:26959686

  14. Hydrogen Isotopes as a Sentinel of Biological Invasion by the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica (Newman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Kiona; Caron, Melanie; Marks, Jane C.; Rogg, Helmuth W.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species alter ecosystems, threaten native and endangered species, and have negative economic impacts. Knowing where invading individuals are from and when they arrive to a new site can guide management. Here, we evaluated how well the stable hydrogen isotope composition (δ2H) records the recent origin and time since arrival of specimens of the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) captured near the Portland International Airport (Oregon, U.S.A.). The δ2H of Japanese beetle specimens collected from sites across the contiguous U.S.A. reflected the δ2H of local precipitation, a relationship similar to that documented for other organisms, and one confirming the utility of δ2H as a geographic fingerprint. Within weeks after experimental relocation to a new isotopic environment, the δ2H of beetles changed linearly with time, demonstrating the potential for δ2H to also mark the timing of arrival to a new location. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the recent geographical origin and timing of arrival of each specimen based on its δ2H value. The geographic resolution was broad, with values consistent with multiple regions of origin in the eastern U.S.A., slightly favoring the southeastern U.S.A. as the more likely source. Beetles trapped from 2007–2010 had arrived 30 or more days prior to trapping, whereas the median time since arrival declined to 3–7 days for beetles trapped from 2012–2014. This reduction in the time between arrival and trapping at the Portland International Airport supports the efficacy of trapping and spraying to prevent establishment. More generally, our analysis shows how stable isotopes can serve as sentinels of biological invasions, verifying the efficacy of control measures, or, alternatively, indicating when those measures show signs of failure. PMID:26959686

  15. Dung Beetles along a Tropical Altitudinal Gradient: Environmental Filtering on Taxonomic and Functional Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cássio Alencar; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Figueira, José Eugênio Cortes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Mountains provide an interesting context in which to study the many facets of biodiversity in response to macroclimate, since environmental conditions change rapidly due to elevation. Although the decrease in biodiversity with increasing elevation is generally accepted, our understanding of the variation of functional diversity along altitudinal gradients is still poorly known. The partitioning of diversity into spatial components can help to understand the processes that influence the distribution of species, and these studies are urgently needed in face of the increasing threats to mountain environments throughout the world. We describe the distribution of dung beetle diversity along an altitudinal gradient on a tropical mountain in southeastern Brazil, including the spatial partitioning of taxonomic and functional diversities. The altitudinal gradient ranged from 800 up to 1400 m a.s.l. and we collected dung beetles at every 100 m of altitude. We used the Rao Index to calculate γ, α and β diversity for taxonomic and functional diversity of dung beetles. Climatic, soil and vegetation variables were used to explain variation in community attributes along the altitudinal gradient. Dung beetle richness declined with altitude and was related to climatic and vegetation variables, but functional diversity did not follow the same pattern. Over 50% of γ taxonomic diversity was caused by among altitudes diversity (β), while almost 100% of functional diversity was due to the α component. Contrasting β taxonomic with β functional diversity, we suggest that there is ecological redundancy among communities and that the environment is filtering species in terms of the Grinnellian niche, rather than the Eltonian niche. β taxonomic diversity is caused mainly by the turnover component, reinforcing the hypothesis of environmental filtering. Global warming may have strong effects on mountain communities due to upslope range shifts and extinctions, and these events will

  16. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  17. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins with Potent Antioxidant Activity from the Leaf, Stem Bark and Root Bark of Acacia confusa

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Dong Wei; Hai-Chao Zhou; Yi-Ming Lin; Meng-Meng Liao; Wei-Ming Chai

    2010-01-01

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidi...

  18. Antibacterial and cytotoxic compounds from the bark of Cananga odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Mukhlesur; Lopa, Simin S; Sadik, Golam; Harun-Or-Rashid; Islam, Robiul; Khondkar, Proma; Alam, A H M Khurshid; Rashid, Mohammad A

    2005-12-01

    O-Methylmoschatoline, liriodenine and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid isolated from the barks of Cananga odorata showed antibacterial activities against a number of Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. The compounds also showed antifungal and cytotoxic activities. PMID:16242266

  19. A Styrylpyrone Dimer from the Bark of Goniothalamus leiocarpus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing MU; Yi Neng HE; Wei Dong TANG; Chao Ming LI; Li Guang LOU; Han Dong SUN; Bin XU; Guo Xun YANG; Chang Qi HU

    2004-01-01

    A dimer of styrylpyrone derivative, leiocarpin E (1), was isolated from the bark of Goniothalamus leiocarpus. Its structures was elucidated by means of spectral and chemical methods. The cytotoxicity of leiocarpin E against HL-60 cells was tested.

  20. A New Abietane Diterpenoid from the Barks of Taxus yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The structure of a new abietane diterpenoid,taxayunnin (1),from the barks of Taxus yunnanensis,was determined by spectroscopic analysis.A known abietane diterpenoid,taxamairin C (2),was also isolated.

  1. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

  2. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, José R.; Cortez, Vieyle; Ortiz, Antonio J.; González-Rodríguez, Estela; Martinez-Pinna, Juan; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Lobo, Jorge M.; Numa, Catherine; Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Ivermectin is a veterinary pharmaceutical generally used to control the ecto- and endoparasites of livestock, but its use has resulted in adverse effects on coprophilous insects, causing population decline and biodiversity loss. There is currently no information regarding the direct effects of ivermectin on dung beetle physiology and behaviour. Here, based on electroantennography and spontaneous muscle force tests, we show sub-lethal disorders caused by ivermectin in sensory and locomotor systems of Scarabaeus cicatricosus, a key dung beetle species in Mediterranean ecosystems. Our findings show that ivermectin decreases the olfactory and locomotor capacity of dung beetles, preventing them from performing basic biological activities. These effects are observed at concentrations lower than those usually measured in the dung of treated livestock. Taking into account that ivermectin acts on both glutamate-gated and GABA-gated chloride ion channels of nerve and muscle cells, we predict that ivermectin’s effects at the physiological level could influence many members of the dung pat community. The results indicate that the decline of dung beetle populations could be related to the harmful effects of chemical contamination in the dung.

  3. Estimation and relevance of bark proportion in a willow stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Anneli [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry, Uppsala (Sweden); Estonian Agricultural Univ. (EAU), Inst. of Zoology and Botany, Tartu (Estonia); Verwijst, Theo; Aronsson, Paer [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    We studied bark proportion of a willow (Salix viminalis) plantation established to produce biomass for energy, the vertical distribution of elements (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Si, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and Ni) in bark and in wood of the shoots and the content of elements in the standing biomass. The study is based on 5-year-old shoots (clone 77-683) from a 12-year-old plantation. The bark proportion of the whole willow stand was 19% (9 tDM ha{sup -1}). The bark proportion of single shoots was constant after they had reached the size of 20 mm at stem diameter at 55 cm height. Compared to wood, bark had significantly higher concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Cd, Pb, Co and Zn. The nutrient element (N, P, K, Mg) concentrations in the bark and in the wood of the current year shoot fractions (twigs) were significantly higher compared to the bark and the wood of other fractions. The accumulation of heavy metals occurred due to the accumulation of tree biomass and not due to the increase of heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg) concentrations in plant tissues over time. In summary, different management regimes give a possibility to influence shoot size frequency distribution of the crop and the chemical composition of biomass. For minimizing element removals from the soil and corrosion processes in power plants, energy willow stands should be managed in a way that promotes low bark proportion and thereby as little nutrient removal from the site by biomass harvest as possible. (Author)

  4. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF NATURAL PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM ACACIA CONCURRENS BARK

    OpenAIRE

    Nimbekar, Tulsidas; Wanjari, Bhumesh; Patil, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study showed that the ethanolic extracts from the bark of Acacia concurrens exhibited a strong antioxidant activity. Among all the fractions from ethanolic extracts of bark, the EtOAc soluble fraction exhibited the best antioxidant performance. Furthermore, the amounts of total phenolic compound were determined from the ethanolic extracts. Therefore, Acacia concurrens could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  5. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz Zakavi; Leila Golpasand Hagh; Arash Daraeighadikolaei; Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh; Arsham Daraeighadikolaei; Zahra Leilavi Shooshtari

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and w...

  6. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and w...

  7. Next generation sequencing based transcriptome analysis of septic-injury responsive genes in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altincicek, Boran; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Guz, Nurper; Grundler, Florian M W; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Beetles (Coleoptera) are the most diverse animal group on earth and interact with numerous symbiotic or pathogenic microbes in their environments. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a genetically tractable model beetle species and its whole genome sequence has recently been determined. To advance our understanding of the molecular basis of beetle immunity here we analyzed the whole transcriptome of T. castaneum by high-throughput next generation sequencing technology. Here, we demonstrate that the Illumina/Solexa sequencing approach of cDNA samples from T. castaneum including over 9.7 million reads with 72 base pairs (bp) length (approximately 700 million bp sequence information with about 30× transcriptome coverage) confirms the expression of most predicted genes and enabled subsequent qualitative and quantitative transcriptome analysis. This approach recapitulates our recent quantitative real-time PCR studies of immune-challenged and naïve T. castaneum beetles, validating our approach. Furthermore, this sequencing analysis resulted in the identification of 73 differentially expressed genes upon immune-challenge with statistical significance by comparing expression data to calculated values derived by fitting to generalized linear models. We identified up regulation of diverse immune-related genes (e.g. Toll receptor, serine proteinases, DOPA decarboxylase and thaumatin) and of numerous genes encoding proteins with yet unknown functions. Of note, septic-injury resulted also in the elevated expression of genes encoding heat-shock proteins or cytochrome P450s supporting the view that there is crosstalk between immune and stress responses in T. castaneum. The present study provides a first comprehensive overview of septic-injury responsive genes in T. castaneum beetles. Identified genes advance our understanding of T. castaneum specific gene expression alteration upon immune-challenge in particular and may help to understand beetle immunity in general.

  8. INCORPORATION OF BARK AND TOPS IN EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS WOOD PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bark and the tops of E. globulus trees were considered for kraft pulping under industrial conditions. Pulping experiments included wood, bark, tops, and composite samples. Top wood had an average chemical composition most similar to that of wood but with somewhat lower cellulose content (52.8% vs. 56.9% and higher lignin content (18.8% vs. 17.8%. There was also a small difference between tops and wood for non-polar extractives, which were higher for tops (2.0% vs. 1.4%. Bark had a less favorable chemical composition with more extractives, especially polar extractives (5.3% vs. 1.6% and 1% NaOH solubility (19.9% vs. 12.2%, pentosans (23.7% vs. 21.3%, and ash (2.9% vs. 1.0%, although the fiber length was higher (1.12 mm vs. 0.98 mm. The kraft pulps obtained using bark showed significantly lower yield, delignification degree, and strength properties but had a quicker response to refining. The incorporation of tops and bark in the wood pulping in levels below or similar to a corresponding whole-stem, however, had a limited effect on pulp yield, kappa number, refining, and pulp strength properties. These additional raw-materials, which were estimated to be 26% of the commercial stem wood (14% bark and 12% tops, may therefore be considered in enlarging the eucalypt fiber feedstock in kraft pulping.

  9. Population ecology and conservation of beetles and pseudoscorpions living in hollow oaks in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranius, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at giving a summary of recent research on the habitat requirements and population structure of beetles and pseudoscorpions living in old, hollow oaks in Sweden. An inventory of old oaks in pasture woodlands revealed that the species richness of beetles is higher at sites that are originally open and are still grazed. The trees in these plots are preferred for two reasons: they are more sun-exposed and have a larger trunk diameter. Many species are harmed by forest regrowth and, thus, to preserve the rarer saproxylic fauna it is important to continue the management of areas with old oaks. In four of thirteen species (Osmoderma eremita, Tenebrio opacus, Elater ferrugineus and Larca lata, the occupancy per tree were found to be significantly positively correlated with the number of trees in the stand. This finding is noteworthy as there is little scientific evidence available to support that saproxylic beetles suffer from habitat fragmentation. The population dynamics were investigated on a certain study species, O. eremita. The results suggest that the individuals of each tree could be seen as a local population, and the populations in all occupied trees in a stand together form a metapopulation.

  10. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Looney

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site, which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte, and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius. Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  11. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791

  12. Reproduction of confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum Du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on common and spelt wheat and their products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Almaši

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest in spelt wheat production has grown in recent years but there is hardly any information on pest development on that wheat species in storehouses. The influence of common and spelt wheat and their products on the reproduction and offspring of confused flour beetles Tribolium confusum Du Val was studied under laboratory conditions (22-25 °C and 40-60% RH. The experiment was carried out in four replications with four, 10 and 20 insects over a period of six months. The reproduction of confused flour beetles significantly varied depending on the wheat species and product. The highest reproduction rate was recorded on spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.. The greatest number of offspring beetles appeared on spelt wheat flour (23469. The number of offspring beetles was higher on common (7044 than on spelt wheat kernels (5469. No offspring developed on common wheat pasta while only 4 young beetles were found on spelt wheat pasta. Offspring numbers increased with storage period up to a point but further on they depended on insect number. The number of insects increased over the first four months but decreased later on and the mortality rate was higher. Initial population density affected the offspring numbers but offspring numbers did not rise proportionally with the rising initial population density. Considering the species of wheat, higher mortality was recorded in common wheat. Regarding the type of product, the highest mortality was recorded in pasta, then in kernels and the lowest in flour. The paper shows that confused flour beetles develop extremely well on spelt wheat, even better than on common wheat which is widely grown in Serbia.

  13. The Relative Importance of Spatial and Local Environmental Factors in Determining Beetle Assemblages in the Inner Mongolia Grassland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Yu

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the relative importance of the input of geographic and local environmental factors on richness and composition of epigaeic steppe beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Tenebrionidae along a geographic (longitudinal/precipitation gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Specifically, we evaluate the associations of environmental variables representing climate and environmental heterogeneity with beetle assemblages. Beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at 25 sites scattered across the full geographic extent of the study biome in 2011-2012. We used variance partitioning techniques and multi-model selection based on the Akaike information criterion to assess the relative importance of the spatial and environmental variables on beetle assemblages. Species richness and abundance showed unimodal patterns along the geographic gradient. Together with space, climate variables associated with precipitation, water-energy balance and harshness of climate had strong explanatory power in richness pattern. Abundance pattern showed strongest association with variation in temperature and environmental heterogeneity. Climatic factors associated with temperature and precipitation variables and the interaction between climate with space were able to explain a substantial amount of variation in community structure. In addition, the turnover of species increased significantly as geographic distances increased. We confirmed that spatial and local environmental factors worked together to shape epigaeic beetle communities along the geographic gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Moreover, the climate features, especially precipitation, water-energy balance and temperature, and the interaction between climate with space and environmental heterogeneity appeared to play important roles on controlling richness and abundance, and species compositions of epigaeic beetles.

  14. The Relative Importance of Spatial and Local Environmental Factors in Determining Beetle Assemblages in the Inner Mongolia Grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Lü, Liang; Wang, Feng-Yan; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zou, Si-Si; Wang, Cheng-Bin; Song, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the relative importance of the input of geographic and local environmental factors on richness and composition of epigaeic steppe beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Tenebrionidae) along a geographic (longitudinal/precipitation) gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Specifically, we evaluate the associations of environmental variables representing climate and environmental heterogeneity with beetle assemblages. Beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at 25 sites scattered across the full geographic extent of the study biome in 2011-2012. We used variance partitioning techniques and multi-model selection based on the Akaike information criterion to assess the relative importance of the spatial and environmental variables on beetle assemblages. Species richness and abundance showed unimodal patterns along the geographic gradient. Together with space, climate variables associated with precipitation, water-energy balance and harshness of climate had strong explanatory power in richness pattern. Abundance pattern showed strongest association with variation in temperature and environmental heterogeneity. Climatic factors associated with temperature and precipitation variables and the interaction between climate with space were able to explain a substantial amount of variation in community structure. In addition, the turnover of species increased significantly as geographic distances increased. We confirmed that spatial and local environmental factors worked together to shape epigaeic beetle communities along the geographic gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Moreover, the climate features, especially precipitation, water-energy balance and temperature, and the interaction between climate with space and environmental heterogeneity appeared to play important roles on controlling richness and abundance, and species compositions of epigaeic beetles. PMID:27138752

  15. Efficient dewatering of bark in heated presses. Survey and pilot-scale trials; Effektivare avvattning av bark i vaermda pressar. Problemkartering samt foersoek i pilotskala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Martin; Stenstroem, Stig (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2007-12-15

    Dewatering and drying of biofuels such as bark and GROT have received increased importance due to an increased interest to use these products as energy sources. In Sweden there are about 30 bark presses installed, however the amount of available information is very limited about dewatering of bark. The goal with this work is to increase the knowledge about dewatering of bark. Two separate goals have been defined in the project: A. Survey about problems related to dewatering of bark and compilation of operating experiences at Swedish mills. B. Study how different parameters affect bark dewatering at pilot scale experiments. Study different techniques for heating bark and the bark pressing process. The results will mainly be of interest for mills which are handling bark, for municipal power plants who buy wet forest residues (bark, GROT etc.) and for manufacturers of industrial bark pressing equipment. The results show that the dry matter content for birch- and pine bark normally are so high that pressing does not result in dewatering of the barks. Both dry and wet debarking is used and these bark fractions should be pressed separately. On line measurement of the dry matter content for the bark should be used as a standard tool on the bark press. This will facilitate improved control of the bark press during the year. Other conclusions are that smaller bark particles result in an increased dry matter content, large bark- and wood pieces decrease the dewatering in the bark press and that the total residence time in the press nip should be at least 30 seconds. The most common method to take care of bark water is to send it to the evaporators or to the water purification plant. Maintenance of the bark press appears not to be a big problem. Hot pressing can be accomplished in different ways, either the bark press can be heated or the bark can be heated in different ways. The alternatives that have been studied in this project are steaming the bark, heating the bark using

  16. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  17. Large woody debris and salmonid habitat in the Anchor River basin, Alaska, following an extensive spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    A widespread and intense spruce beetle outbreak has killed most of the mature white spruce trees across many watersheds in south-central Alaska. To investigate the potential habitat impacts in a salmon stream, we characterized the current abundance and species composition of large woody debris (LWD...

  18. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  19. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): A nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larger black flour beetles (LBFB), Cynaeus angustus, feed on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles, and become nuisance pests in homes and businesses. We examined the dose-response of three entomopathogenic nematode species (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...

  20. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant potential, phenolic and flavonoid contents of the stem bark ethanol extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Olugbami, JO; Gbadegesin, MA; Odunola, OA

    2014-01-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants with free radical scavenging activities can be relevant as chemopreventive agents against the numerous diseases associated with free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Some phytoconstituents possess antioxidant activities in biological systems. On this basis, we evaluated the antioxidant potential, and determined the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Anogeissus leiocarpus [EESAL]. Antioxidant assays carried out inclu...

  1. Morphoanatomical studies of Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis bark and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattuso, M; Di Sapio, O; Gattuso, S; Pereyra, E Li

    2004-02-01

    The genus Uncaria Schreber (Rubiaceae) includes species that are widely distributed in tropical areas. The inner bark of the stems and leaves of two native species of South America, Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roemer & Schultes) DC., and Uncaria guianensis (Aublet) J. F. Gmelin, "cat's claw" are used in either folk medicine or in procuring phytotherapeutic drugs. These species contain about sixty active substances which are being tested widely for possible medicinal value. The following applications are considered: peptic ulcer, rheumatism, tumours, antiinflammatory effect, inflammation, diabetes and as general tonic. Currently, Uncaria tomentosa is in demand as tea, tablets or capsules in more than 30 countries outside Perú, as well as inside the country. Pharmacognosy studies are required to determine the comparative morphoanatomical and micrographic features for identification and quality control purposes. Several microscopic parameters, including phloem fibers, calcium oxalate crystals, starch granules, trichomes, and foliar architecture should be considered. The aim of our work is to analyse comparative morphoanatomical and micrographic features which might provide assistance in the identification, analysis and standardization of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roemer & Schultes) DC. and Uncaria guianensis (Aublet) J. F. Gmelin stem bark and leaves in order to obtain phytotherapeutic drugs, and of the crude drug as well.

  2. A DNA barcode library for ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Germany: The genus Bembidion Latreille, 1802 and allied taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J; Hannig, Karsten; Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars

    2016-01-01

    As molecular identification method, DNA barcoding based on partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences has been proven to be a useful tool for species determination in many insect taxa including ground beetles. In this study we tested the effectiveness of DNA barcodes to discriminate species of the ground beetle genus Bembidion and some closely related taxa of Germany. DNA barcodes were obtained from 819 individuals and 78 species, including sequences from previous studies as well as more than 300 new generated DNA barcodes. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BIN and traditionally recognized species for 69 species (89%). Low interspecific distances with maximum pairwise K2P values below 2.2% were found for three species pairs, including two species pairs with haplotype sharing (Bembidion atrocaeruleum/Bembidion varicolor and Bembidion guttula/Bembidion mannerheimii). In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with distinct lineages were revealed for two species (Bembidion geniculatum/Ocys harpaloides). Our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of the analyzed ground beetles species and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for the Carabidae in Germany and Central Europe as well. PMID:27408547

  3. A DNA barcode library for ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Germany: The genus Bembidion Latreille, 1802 and allied taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J; Hannig, Karsten; Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars

    2016-01-01

    As molecular identification method, DNA barcoding based on partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences has been proven to be a useful tool for species determination in many insect taxa including ground beetles. In this study we tested the effectiveness of DNA barcodes to discriminate species of the ground beetle genus Bembidion and some closely related taxa of Germany. DNA barcodes were obtained from 819 individuals and 78 species, including sequences from previous studies as well as more than 300 new generated DNA barcodes. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BIN and traditionally recognized species for 69 species (89%). Low interspecific distances with maximum pairwise K2P values below 2.2% were found for three species pairs, including two species pairs with haplotype sharing (Bembidion atrocaeruleum/Bembidion varicolor and Bembidion guttula/Bembidion mannerheimii). In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with distinct lineages were revealed for two species (Bembidion geniculatum/Ocys harpaloides). Our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of the analyzed ground beetles species and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for the Carabidae in Germany and Central Europe as well.

  4. New Fossil Beetles of the Family Elateridae from the Jehol Biota of China (Coleoptera: Polyphaga)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Huali; REN Dong

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of elaterids assigned to two new genera with intriguing fossa on prosternum are described and illustrated: Bilineariselaterfoveatus gen. et sp. nov. and Curtelater wui gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning,China. The origin of the clicking mechanism in these beetles and the systematic position of the two genera are briefly discussed.

  5. Reconciling phylogeography and ecological niche models for New Zealand beetles looking beyond glacial refugia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marske, Katharine Ann; Leschen, Richard; Buckley, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    stochastic search variable selection incorporated in BEAST to identify historical dispersal patterns via ancestral state reconstruction. Ecological niche models (ENMs) were incorporated to reconstruct the potential geographic distribution of each species during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Coalescent......Mitochondrial DNA (cox1) sequence data and recently developed coalescent phylogeography models were used to construct geo-spatial histories for the New Zealand fungus beetles Epistranus lawsoni and Pristoderus bakewelli (Zopheridae). These methods utilize continuous-time Markov chains and Bayesian...

  6. Feeding Preferences of the Endangered Diving Beetle Cybister tripunctatus orientalis Gschwendtner (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shin-ya Ohba; Yoshinori Inatani

    2012-01-01

    The numbers of Cybister tripunctatus orientalis Gschwendtner diving beetles are declining in most regions of Japan, and it is included in the Red Data List of species in 34 of 47 prefectures of Japan. However, basic ecological information about C. tripunctatus orientalis, such as its feeding habits, remains unknown. In order to elucidate the feeding habits of C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae, feeding preference experiments were carried out in 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The number of Odonata ...

  7. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized, and reduced speci...

  8. A Comment on “Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two general approaches for reducing the negative impacts of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, on forests. Direct control involves short-term tactics designed to address current infestations by manipulating mountain pine beetle populations, and includes the use of fire, insecticides, semiochemicals, sanitation harvests, or a combination of these treatments. Indirect control is preventive, and designed to reduce the probability and severity of future infestations within treated areas by manipulating stand, forest and/or landscape conditions by reducing the number of susceptible host trees through thinning, prescribed burning, and/or alterations of age classes and species composition. We emphasize that “outbreak suppression” is not the intent or objective of management strategies implemented for mountain pine beetle in the western United States, and that the use of clear, descriptive language is important when assessing the merits of various treatment strategies.

  9. Luciferase from Fulgeochlizus bruchi (Coleoptera:Elateridae), a Brazilian click-beetle with a single abdominal lantern: molecular evolution, biological function and comparison with other click-beetle luciferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Danilo T; Prado, Rogilene A; Viviani, Vadim R

    2012-07-01

    Bioluminescent click-beetles emit a wide range of bioluminescence colors (λ(Max) = 534-594 nm) from thoracic and abdominal lanterns, which are used for courtship. Only the luciferases from Pyrophorus and Pyrearinus species were cloned and sequenced. The Brazilian Fulgeochlizus bruchi click-beetle, which inhabits the Central-west Cerrado (Savannas), is noteworthy because, differently from other click-beetles, the adult stage displays only a functional abdominal lantern, which produces a bright green bioluminescence for sexual attraction purposes, and lacks functional thoracic lanterns. We cloned the cDNA for the abdominal lantern luciferase of this species. Notably, the primary sequence of this luciferase showed slightly higher identity with the green emitting dorsal lantern luciferases of the Pyrophorus genus instead of the abdominal lanterns luciferases. This luciferase displays a blue-shifted spectrum (λ(Max) = 540 nm), which is pH-insensitive from pH 7.5 to 9.5 and undergoes a slight red shift and broadening above this pH; the lowest K(M) for luciferin among studied click-beetle luciferases, and the highest optimum pH (9.0) ever reported for a beetle luciferase. At pH 9.0, the K(M) for luciferin increases, showing a decrease of affinity for this substrate, despite the higher activity. The slow luminescence decay rate of F. bruchi luciferase in vitro reaction could be an adaptation of this luciferase for the long and sustained in vivo luminescence display of the click-beetle during the courtship, and could be useful for in vivo intracellular imaging.

  10. Stem bark and flower extracts of Vismia cauliflora: modulation of oxidative burst in human neutrophils' and inhibition of oxidative damage in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Berto, Alessandra; Ribeiro, Daniela; Freitas, Marisa; Chisté, Renan Campos; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2014-10-01

    Vismia cauliflora is an Amazonian plant traditionally used to treat dermatosis and inflammatory processes of the skin by indigenous population. Our research group showed that stem bark and flower extracts of V. cauliflora are efficient in vitro scavengers of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. In this study, we determined the activity of stem bark and flower extracts of V. cauliflora plant on the modulation of in vitro oxidative burst in human neutrophils and their potential to inhibit the oxidative damage in human erythrocytes. The oxidative burst in activated neutrophils were monitored by specific probes to detect the oxidizing effect of superoxide anion radical (MCLA), hydrogen peroxide (amplex red) and hypochlorous acid (APF), and both extracts were efficient to neutralize the oxidative burst (IC50 from 3 to 15µg/mL). These same extracts were also effective against oxidative damage in erythrocytes by inhibiting hemoglobin oxidation (IC50=18µg/mL) and lipid peroxidation (IC50=2.7 and 7.5µg/mL, flower and stem bark, respectively). In addition, stem bark extract (100µg/mL) inhibited the depletion of glutathione by 13%. These extracts have similar phenolic composition, but flower presents quercetin (14%) in its composition. Therefore, these results reinforce the potential therapeutic of stem bark and flower extracts of V. cauliflora to heal topical skin disease and requires further research targeted effectively to develop phytopharmaceutical drug based on this plant. PMID:26461382

  11. Experimental studies and dynamics modeling analysis of the swimming and diving of whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhonghua; Lenaghan, Scott C; Reese, Benjamin E; Jia, Xinghua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots.

  12. Experimental studies and dynamics modeling analysis of the swimming and diving of whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Xu

    Full Text Available Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots.

  13. TrOn: an anatomical ontology for the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Grossmann, Daniela; Schild, Inga; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Bradler, Sven; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Bucher, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    In a morphological ontology the expert's knowledge is represented in terms, which describe morphological structures and how these structures relate to each other. With the assistance of ontologies this expert knowledge is made processable by machines, through a formal and standardized representation of terms and their relations to each other. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a representative of the most species rich animal taxon on earth (the Coleoptera), is an emerging model organism for development, evolution, physiology, and pest control. In order to foster Tribolium research, we have initiated the Tribolium Ontology (TrOn), which describes the morphology of the red flour beetle. The content of this ontology comprises so far most external morphological structures as well as some internal ones. All modeled structures are consistently annotated for the developmental stages larva, pupa and adult. In TrOn all terms are grouped into three categories: Generic terms represent morphological structures, which are independent of a developmental stage. In contrast, downstream of such terms are concrete terms which stand for a dissectible structure of a beetle at a specific life stage. Finally, there are mixed terms describing structures that are only found at one developmental stage. These terms combine the characteristics of generic and concrete terms with features of both. These annotation principles take into account the changing morphology of the beetle during development and provide generic terms to be used in applications or for cross linking with other ontologies and data resources. We use the ontology for implementing an intuitive search function at the electronic iBeetle-Base, which stores morphological defects found in a genome wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen. The ontology is available for download at http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de.

  14. Annotated catalogue of the carabid beetles of the Republic of Macedonia (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Slavčo; Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2015-08-20

    The catalogue of the ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Republic of Macedonia is the result of our permanent investigation during 15 years. It is based on the critical review of the data in 255 scientific publications and the revision of the collections deposited in the museums in Macedonia (Skopje and Struga), other European countries (Berlin, Budapest, Vienna, Sofia) and the first author's private collection. For all of the species and subspecies we have presented the known literature references, precise data for the studied material and overall distribution in the Republic of Macedonia. The study of the material resulted in new country records of 10 genera, 101 species and 25 subspecies. First detailed records are provided for another 47 species and subspecies, and additional material was studied of 482 species and subspecies. Type material of 18 species and subspecies was also examined. Thirteen species and one subspecies were rejected from the list of Macedonian ground beetles. Six more species are treated as questionable and were not included in the present list. As a result, the presence of 571 species and 234 subspecies (626 taxa in total) in Macedonia is confirmed. These taxa are arranged in 104 genera, 31 subtribes, 35 tribes and 13 subfamilies. The most numerous in term of the species are the genera Bembidion (60), Harpalus (48) and Amara (46), as well as Pterostichus (26), Ophonus (19), Carabus (16), Trechus (16), Brachinus (16) and Dyschirius (15).

  15. Tiger beetle's pursuit of prey depends on distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Tiger beetles are fast predators capable of chasing prey under closed-loop visual guidance. We investigated their control system using high-speed digital recordings of beetles chasing a moving prey dummy in a laboratory arena. Analysis reveals that the beetle uses a proportional control law in which the angular position of the prey relative to the beetle's body axis drives the beetle's angular velocity with a delay of about 28 ms. The system gain is shown to depend on the beetle-prey distance in a pattern indicating three hunting phases over the observed distance domain. We show that to explain this behavior the tiger beetle must be capable of visually determining the distance to its target and using that to adapt the gain in its proportional control law. We will end with a discussion on the possible methods for distance detection by the tiger beetle and focus on two of them. Motion parallax, using the natural head sway induced by the walking gait of the tiger beetle, is shown to have insufficient distance range. However elevation in the field of vision, using the angle with respect to the horizon at which a target is observed, has a much larger distance range and is a prime candidate for the mechanism of visual distance detection in the tiger beetle.

  16. Habitat distribution and diversity of forest plant as feed resources of mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus and barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak in Nature Preserve of west and east Nusakambangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOZALI SUMAATMADJA

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to study on habitat distribution and the diversity of forest plants as feed resources of mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus and barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak was conducted in Nature Preserve of Nusakambangan. Preferred Habitat of mouse deer is the dense of bushes with many fallen dry leaves which seemingly they use for their mattress cover as well as the places with bush dense of zalacca palm and generally not far from the river. While the barking deer prefers the dense of bushes on the edges of forest with coarse grass grow there. Forest plants as feed resources for mouse deer and barking deer found in this research consist of 34 species grouped in 21 families.

  17. Spatial genetic structure of a symbiotic beetle-fungal system: toward multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M A James

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of genetic variation in interacting species can identify shared features that are important to gene flow and can elucidate co-evolutionary relationships. We assessed concordance in spatial genetic variation between the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae and one of its fungal symbionts, Grosmanniaclavigera, in western Canada using neutral genetic markers. We examined how spatial heterogeneity affects genetic variation within beetles and fungi and developed a novel integrated landscape genetics approach to assess reciprocal genetic influences between species using constrained ordination. We also compared landscape genetic models built using Euclidean distances based on allele frequencies to traditional pair-wise Fst. Both beetles and fungi exhibited moderate levels of genetic structure over the total study area, low levels of structure in the south, and more pronounced fungal structure in the north. Beetle genetic variation was associated with geographic location while that of the fungus was not. Pinevolume and climate explained beetle genetic variation in the northern region of recent outbreak expansion. Reciprocal genetic relationships were only detectedin the south where there has been alonger history of beetle infestations. The Euclidean distance and Fst-based analyses resulted in similar models in the north and over the entire study area, but differences between methods in the south suggest that genetic distances measures should be selected based on ecological and evolutionary contexts. The integrated landscape genetics framework we present is powerful, general, and can be applied to other systems to quantify the biotic and abiotic determinants of spatial genetic variation within and among taxa.

  18. Assessing the Ecological Response of Dung Beetles in an Agricultural Landscape Using Number of Individuals and Biomass in Diversity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultid-Medina, C A; Escobar, F

    2016-04-01

    The global increase in demand for productive land requires us to increase our knowledge of the value of agricultural landscapes for the management and conservation of biodiversity, particularly in tropical regions. Thus, comparative studies of how different community attributes respond to changes in land use under different levels of deforestation intensity would be useful. We analyzed patterns of dung beetle diversity in an Andean region dominated by sun-grown coffee. Diversity was estimated using two measures of species abundance (the number of individuals and biomass) and was compared among four types of vegetation cover (forest, riparian forest, sun-grown coffee, and pastures) in three landscape plots with different degrees of deforestation intensity (low, intermediate, and high). We found that dung beetle diversity patterns differed between types of vegetation cover and degree of deforestation, depending on whether the number of individuals or biomass was used. Based on biomass, inequality in the dung beetle community was lowest in the forest, and increased in the sun-grown coffee and pastures across all levels of deforestation, particularly for the increasing dominance of large species. The number of beetles and biomass indicate that the spatial dominance of sun-grown coffee does not necessarily imply the drastic impoverishment of dung beetle diversity. In fact, for these beetles, it would seem that the landscape studied has not yet crossed "a point of no return." This system offers a starting point for exploring biodiversity management and conservation options in the sun-grown coffee landscapes of the Colombian Andes. PMID:26803806

  19. Olfaction in the Colorado potato beetle: Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla in Leptinotarsa sp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sen; B K Mitchell

    2001-06-01

    Sensillae on the antennae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata are described using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and compared with SEM observations of antennal sensilla in L. haldemani and L. texana. In all the three species, 13 distinct sensillar types were identified with a higher density of sensilla in the more polyphagous species, L. decemlineata than in the moderately host specific L. haldemani and the highly host specific L. texana. Cuticular specializations and the predominance of olfactory sensilla are discussed in relation to host specificity in the three species.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wei, Jia-Ning; Jia, Dong; Li, Shuang; Ma, Rui-Yan

    2016-09-01

    To provide molecular markers for population genetic analysis of the flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila, we determined its mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) for the first time. The mitogenome of A. hygrophila was 15 917 bp in length with an AT content of 75.15%. It had the typical set of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and an AT-rich control region. Compared with the ancestral mitogenome of insects, no gene rearrangement occurred in A. hygrophila. Incomplete stop codons were present in PCGs of A. hygrophila. All tRNA genes except for trnS(AGN) could form the typical clover-leaf secondary structures. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that A. hygrophila was close to other species belonging to the same family of Chrysomelidae. PMID:26368047

  1. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  2. Confinement of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) by Cape honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis)

    OpenAIRE

    James D. Ellis Jr.,; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti

    2004-01-01

    International audience In this study we quantify small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybee (A.m. capensis Esch., an African subspecies) behaviours that are associated with beetle confinement in an effort to understand why Cape bees can withstand large beetle infestations. Four observation hives were each inoculated with 25 beetles and were observed for 11-17 days. Data collected included guard bee (worker bees who guard beetle confinement sites) and confined beetle behavi...

  3. A new species of Corynespora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerakker, W.M.

    1975-01-01

    In the course of investigations on fungi occurring on bark of deciduous trees, an unknown dematiaceous fungus was encountered. Because of its long, septate conidia, arising from the apex of dark conidiophores, the specimen was thought to represent an undescribed species of the genus Corynespora Güss

  4. Negative impacts of human land use on dung beetle functional diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Barragán

    Full Text Available The loss of biodiversity caused by human activity is assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However our understanding of the magnitude of the effect of these changes on functional diversity and their impact on the dynamics of ecological processes is still limited. We analyzed the functional diversity of copro-necrophagous beetles under different conditions of land use in three Mexican biosphere reserves. In Montes Azules pastures, forest fragments and continuous rainforest were analyzed, in Los Tuxtlas rainforest fragments of different sizes were analyzed and in Barranca de Metztitlán two types of xerophile scrub with different degrees of disturbance from grazing were analyzed. We assigned dung beetle species to functional groups based on food relocation, beetle size, daily activity period and food preferences, and as measures of functional diversity we used estimates based on multivariate methods. In Montes Azules functional richness was lower in the pastures than in continuous rainforest and rainforest fragments, but fragments and continuous forest include functionally redundant species. In small rainforest fragments (20 ha. Functional evenness and functional dispersion did not vary among habitat types or fragment size in these reserves. In contrast, in Metztitlán, functional richness and functional dispersion were different among the vegetation types, but differences were not related to the degree of disturbance by grazing. More redundant species were found in submontane than in crassicaule scrub. For the first time, a decrease in the functional diversity in communities of copro-necrophagous beetles resulting from changes in land use is documented, the potential implications for ecosystem functioning are discussed and a series of variables that could improve the evaluation of functional diversity for this biological group is proposed.

  5. Subspecific Differentiation Events of Montane Stag Beetles (Coleoptera, Lucanidae) Endemic to Formosa Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Lung; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic debates have been carrying on for decades over Formosan stag beetles, which consist of a high proportion of endemic species and subspecies featuring morphological variations associated with local adaptation. With the influence of periodical Pleistocene glaciations and the presence of several mountain ranges, the genetic differentiation and taxonomic recognition, within this medium-size island, of two endemic subspecies for each of four montane stag beetles, i.e. Lucanus ogakii, L. kanoi, Prismognathus davidis, and Neolucanus doro, has been an appealing issue. Based on monophyletic lineages and population structure, possible divergent scenarios have been proposed to clarify the subspecific status for each of the above mentioned stag beetles. Phylogenetic inferences based on COI+16S rDNA+28S rDNA of 240 Formosan lucanids have confirmed most species are monophyletic groups; and the intraspecific (2%) genetic distances of the two mitochondrial genes could be applied concordantly for taxonomic identification. On account of Bayesian-based species delimitation, geographic distribution, population structure, and sequence divergences, the subspecific status for L. ogakii, L. kanoi, and Pri. davidis are congruent with their geographic distribution in this island; and the calibration time based on the mitochondrial genes shows the subspecific split events occurred 0.7-1 million years ago. In addition, a more complicated scenario, i.e. genetic differentiation including introgression/hybridization events, might have occurred among L. ogakii, L. kanoi, and L. maculifemoratus. The geological effects of mountain hindrance accompanied by periodical glaciations could have been vital in leading to the geographical subspecific differentiation of these montane stag beetles.

  6. Pharmacognostic evaluation of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Ajay Kumar; Om Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform the pharmacognostic study of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre (P. pinnata) stem bark. Method: The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters. Results: The bark consisting of channelled, recurved, slightly quilled, usually 0.2-1 cm thick, lenticellate pieces with outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured having unpleasant odour and bitter taste. The main microscopic characterstics of the bark include phellem (5-20 or more layers of cork), phellogen (2-3 layered) followed by 10-15 layered phelloderm. Among other microscopic components were phloem parenchyma, phloem fibre and stone cells, traversed by wavy medullary rays. Further, physicochemical analysis of the bark power showed total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash and sulphated ash as 10.94, 1.96, 1.47 and 15.8 % w/w respectively. The alcohol and water soluble extractives values of the stem bark were 9.6 and 18.4 %w/w respectively. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study helps in botanical identification and standardization of P. pinnata L. in crude form.

  7. Functional roles affect diversity-succession relationships for boreal beetles.

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    Heloise Gibb

    Full Text Available Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of "functional" groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species. We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies. Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

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    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  9. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides

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    Fengyang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae, which is well known as a “living fossil” species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC, lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant.

  10. The treeline as a refuge: are elevational gradients in Mountain Pine Beetle-caused mortality common in Pinus albicaulis populations at treeline?

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    Maher, C. T.; Tobalske, C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change-induced mountain pine beetle outbreaks are a major cause of recent declines in high-elevation whitebark pine in the US Northern Rocky Mountains. Whitebark pine is a major component of subalpine forests in western North America. It is often the dominant tree species at treeline, where it readily forms krummholz, a stunted, shrub-like growth form. Whitebark pine appears to be relatively naïve to beetle attack; it has poor physical defense compared to that of lodgepole pine. However, anecdotal accounts suggest that whitebark krummholz may be resistant to beetle attack. I investigate the potential for treeline habitats to serve as a refuge from mountain pine beetle attack. I sampled recent beetle-caused whitebark pine mortality across treeline ecotones at 10 sites. I compared treeline mortality gradients with other forest edges to determine if mortality patterns are unique to treeline edges. Preliminary results from this study indicate that treeline habitats evaded mountain pine beetle attack during recent outbreaks. If treeline individuals are long-lived or can reproduce, treeline habitats may be viable refugia for whitebark pine populations.

  11. Effect of Chipping and Solarization on Emergence and Boring Activity of a Recently Introduced Ambrosia Beetle (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Southern California.

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    Eatough Jones, Michele; Paine, Timothy D

    2015-08-01

    Polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) has recently invaded southern California. The beetle, along with its associated fungi, Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp., and Acremonium sp., causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and box elder (Acer negundo L.). With the spread of the beetle through Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in California, there is increasing concern that felled trees and pruned branches infested with polyphagous shot hole borer should receive sanitation treatment to reduce the potential spread of the beetle from the movement of untreated wood. We tested two sanitation methods to reduce beetle populations, chipping with a commercial chipper and solarization by covering logs with clear or black plastic in full sun. Both chipping and solarization decreased beetle emergence and boring activity compared to untreated control logs. Chipping was most effective for chip sizes <5 cm. Solarization was most effective using clear polyethylene sheeting during hot summer months, particularly August, when daily maximum temperatures were ≥35°C. Beetles persisted for 2 mo or more when solarization was applied during the spring or fall. PMID:26470327

  12. Antigenotoxic properties of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts.

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    Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Villarini, L M; Moretti, L M; Marcarelli, L M; Pasquini, R; Fatigoni, C; Kaur, L S; Kumar, S; Grover, I S

    1999-01-01

    Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests. Terminalia arjuna extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using acetone, methanol, methanol + HCl, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether. The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of genotoxicity of the directacting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) using the "comet" assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Human peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the six extracts (from 5 to 100 microg/ mL) and with 4NQO (1 and 2 microg/mL, for the "comet" assay and MN test, respectively). Each extract/4NQO combination was tested twice; in each experiment, positive control (4NQO alone) and negative control (1% DMSO) were set. "Comet" assay results showed that acetone and methanol extracts were highly effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4NQO, whereas the acidic methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether extracts showed less marked or no antigenotoxic activity. In the MN test, a decrease in 4NQO genotoxicity was observed by testing this mutagen in the presence of acetone, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts, even though the extent of inhibition was not always statistically significant. PMID:15281223

  13. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

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    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  14. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

  15. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Rhododendron arboreum bark.

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    Nisar, Muhammad; Ali, Sajid; Muhammad, Naveed; Gillani, Syed N; Shah, Muhmmad R; Khan, Haroon; Maione, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Rhododendron arboreum Smith. (Ericaceae), an evergreen small tree, is one of the 1000 species that belongs to genus Rhododendron distributed worldwide. In folk medicine, as various parts of this plant exhibit medicinal properties, it is used in the treatment of different ailments.The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanolic extract of R. arboreum bark, followed by activity-guided fractionation of n-hexane, n-butanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions.The ethyl acetate fraction (200 mg/kg i.p.) showed the maximum analgesic effect (82%) in acetic acid-induced writhing, followed, to a less extent, by crude extract and chloroform fraction both at a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. (65.09% and 67.89%, respectively). In carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema, the crude extract and its related fractions displayed in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg/kg i.p.) an anti-inflammatory activity for all time-courses (1-5 hrs). For the active extract/fractions (200 mg/kg i.p.), the maximum effect was observed 5 h after carrageenan injection. These evidences were also supported by in vitro lipoxygenase inhibitory properties. In conclusion, R. arboreum crude methanolic extract and its fractions exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. For these reasons, this plant could be a promising source of new compounds for the management of pain and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25501256

  16. A small animal model study of perlite and fir bark dust on guinea pig lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, R F; DiPalma, J R; Blumenstein, R; Amenta, P S; Freedman, A P; Barbieri, E J

    1983-05-01

    Fir bark (Abies) and perlite (noncrystalline silicate) dusts have been reported to cause pulmonary disease in humans. Guinea pigs were exposed to either fir bark or perlite dust in a special chamber. Severe pathologic changes occurred in the lungs, consisting of lymphoid aggregated and a perivascular inflammatory response. Both dusts caused similar changes although one was vegetable (fir bark) and the other mineral (perlite). Fir bark and perlite dust appeared to be more than just nuisance dusts.

  17. Colorado potato beetle toxins revisited: evidence the beetle does not sequester host plant glycoalkaloids.

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    Armer, Christine A

    2004-04-01

    The Colorado potato beetle feeds only on glycoalkaloid-laden solanaceous plants, appears to be toxic to predators, and has aposematic coloration, suggesting the beetle may sequester alkaloids from its host plants. This study tested 4th instars and adults, as well as isolated hemolymph and excrement, to determine if the beetles sequester, metabolize, or excrete alkaloids ingested from their host plants. HPLC analysis showed: that neither the larvae nor the adults sequestered either solanine or chaconine from potato foliage; that any alkaloids in the beetles were at concentrations well below 1 ppm; and that alkaloids were found in the excrement of larvae at approximately the same concentrations as in foliage. Analysis of alkaloids in the remains of fed-upon leaflet halves plus excreta during 24 hr feeding by 4th instars, as compared to alkaloids in the uneaten halves of the leaflets, showed that equal amounts of alkaloids were excreted as were ingested. The aposematic coloration probably warns of a previously-identified toxic dipeptide instead of a plant-derived alkaloid, as the Colorado potato beetle appears to excrete, rather than sequester or metabolize, the alkaloids from its host plants.

  18. Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Mesostigmata: Gamasina, Microgyniina, Uropodina), associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Baltic amber

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    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Zwanzig, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites are extremely rare. Inclusions assignable to the tortoise mites (Mesostigmata, Uropodina) are described here for the first time from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. This is the oldest record of Uropodina and documents the first unequivocal amber examples potentially assignable to the extant genus Uroobovella Berlese, 1903 (Uropodoidea: Urodinychidae). Further mites in the same amber pieces are tentatively assigned to Microgynioidea (Microgyniina) and Ascidae (Gamasina), both potentially representing the oldest records of their respective superfamily and family groups. This new material also preserves behavioural ecology in the form of phoretic deutonymphs attached to their carriers via a characteristic anal pedicel. These deutonymphs in amber are intimately associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), probably belonging to the extinct species Nothorhina granulicollis Zang, 1905. Modern uropodines have been recorded phoretic on species belonging to several beetle families, including records of living Uroobovella spp. occurring on longhorn beetles. Through these amber inclusions, a uropodine-cerambycid association can now be dated back to at least the Eocene.

  19. Shades of yellow: interactive effects of visual and odour cues in a pest beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Philip C.; Belmain, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The visual ecology of pest insects is poorly studied compared to the role of odour cues in determining their behaviour. Furthermore, the combined effects of both odour and vision on insect orientation are frequently ignored, but could impact behavioural responses. Methods: A locomotion compensator was used to evaluate use of different visual stimuli by a major coleopteran pest of stored grains (Sitophilus zeamais), with and without the presence of host odours (known to be attractive to this species), in an open-loop setup. Results: Some visual stimuli—in particular, one shade of yellow, solid black and high-contrast black-against-white stimuli—elicited positive orientation behaviour from the beetles in the absence of odour stimuli. When host odours were also present, at 90° to the source of the visual stimulus, the beetles presented with yellow and vertical black-on-white grating patterns changed their walking course and typically adopted a path intermediate between the two stimuli. The beetles presented with a solid black-on-white target continued to orient more strongly towards the visual than the odour stimulus. Discussion: Visual stimuli can strongly influence orientation behaviour, even in species where use of visual cues is sometimes assumed to be unimportant, while the outcomes from exposure to multimodal stimuli are unpredictable and need to be determined under differing conditions. The importance of the two modalities of stimulus (visual and olfactory) in food location is likely to depend upon relative stimulus intensity and motivational state of the insect.

  20. The small hive beetle Aethina tumida: A review of its biology and control measures

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    Andrew G. S. CUTHBERTSON et al

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The small hive beetle Aethina tumida is an endemic parasitic pest and scavenger of colonies of social bees indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa. In this region this species rarely inflicts severe damage on strong colonies since the bees have develo­­ped strategies to combat them. However, A. tumida has since ‘escaped’ from its native home and has recently invaded areas such as North America and Australia where its economic impact on the apiculture industry has been significant. Small hive beetle, should it become established within Europe, represents a real and live threat to the UK bee keeping industry. Here we review the biology and current pest status of A. tumida and up to-date research in terms of both chemical and biological control used against this honey bee pest [Current Zoology 59 (5: 644–653, 2013].