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Sample records for barium iodides

  1. Barium iodide and strontium iodide crystals andd scintillators implementing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A; Cherepy, Nerine J; Hull, Giulia E; Drobshoff, Alexander D; Burger, Arnold

    2013-11-12

    In one embodiment, a material comprises a crystal comprising strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV. A scintillator radiation detector according to another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising europium-doped strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV. A scintillator radiation detector in yet another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising SrI.sub.2 and BaI.sub.2, wherein a ratio of SrI.sub.2 to BaI.sub.2 is in a range of between 0:1 A method for manufacturing a crystal suitable for use in a scintillator includes mixing strontium iodide-containing crystals with a source of Eu.sup.2+, heating the mixture above a melting point of the strontium iodide-containing crystals, and cooling the heated mixture near the seed crystal for growing a crystal. Additional materials, systems, and methods are presented.

  2. Barium iodide and strontium iodide crystals and scintillators implementing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Hull, Giulia E.; Drobshoff, Alexander D.; Burger, Arnold

    2016-11-29

    In one embodiment, a material comprises a crystal comprising strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV, where the strontium iodide material is characterized by a volume not less than 1 cm.sup.3. In another embodiment, a scintillator optic includes europium-doped strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV, where the europium in the crystal is primarily Eu.sup.2+, and the europium is present in an amount greater than about 1.6%. A scintillator radiation detector in yet another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising SrI.sub.2 and BaI.sub.2, where a ratio of SrI.sub.2 to BaI.sub.2 is in a range of between 0:1 and 1.0, the scintillator optic is a crystal that provides at least 50,000 scintillation photons per MeV and energy resolution of less than about 5% at 662 keV, and the crystal has a volume of 1 cm.sup.3 or more; the scintillator optic contains more than about 2% europium.

  3. Potassium Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from taking in radioactive iodine that may be released ... damage the thyroid gland. You should only take potassium iodide if there is a nuclear radiation emergency and ...

  4. Potassium Iodide (KI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Potassium Iodide (KI) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... can I get KI (potassium iodide)? What is Potassium Iodide (KI)? KI (potassium iodide) is a salt of ...

  5. Barium periostitis: an intraoral complication following barium swallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, David C; Seeger, Douglas; Robinson, Brian T

    2007-05-01

    Barium is used with great frequency for various gastrointestinal radiographic studies. Complications arising from the use of barium are uncommon and can range from peritonitis, pneumonitis, vascular intravasation, allergic reactions, and even "barium appendicitis." We report a case of an unusual complication, periostitis, from the use of barium in a 46-year-old male.

  6. dl-Alaninium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lamberts

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of dl-alanine hydroiodide (1-carboxyethanaminium iodide, C3H8NO2+·I−, is that of an organic salt consisting of N-protonated cations and iodide anions. The compound features homochiral helices of N—H...O hydrogen-bonded cations in the [010] direction; neighbouring chains are related by crystallographic inversion centers and hence show opposite chirality. The iodide counter-anions act as hydrogen-bond acceptors towards H atoms of the ammonium and carboxy groups, and cross-link the chains along [100]. Thus, an overall two-dimensional network is formed in the ab plane. No short contacts occur between iodide anions.

  7. Barium iodide and strontium iodide crystals and scintillators implementing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Cherepy, Nerine; Pedrini, Christian; Burger, Arnold

    2016-09-13

    In one embodiment, a crystal includes at least one metal halide; and an activator dopant comprising ytterbium. In another general embodiment, a scintillator optic includes: at least one metal halide doped with a plurality of activators, the plurality of activators comprising: a first activator comprising europium, and a second activator comprising ytterbium. In yet another general embodiment, a method for manufacturing a crystal suitable for use in a scintillator includes mixing one or more salts with a source of at least one dopant activator comprising ytterbium; heating the mixture above a melting point of the salt(s); and cooling the heated mixture to a temperature below the melting point of the salts. Additional materials, systems, and methods are presented.

  8. Controlling barium sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenley, R.

    Even though for several years success has been realized in controlling barium sulfate scale deposition in relatively shallow, low pressure oil wells--by squeezing an organic phosphonate scale inhibitor into the producing zone--barium sulfate scale depositon in deep, high pressure/high temperature wells usually meant an expensive workover operation. A case history of a deep (16,000 ft) well in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, and the scale inhibitor squeeze operation are described. Based on the successful results obtained in treating this well, a generalized treating procedure for combating downhole scale deposition in high pressure/high temperature gas wells is presented. Formation squeezing with such an inhibitor represents a significant breakthrough for the oil and gas industry.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1265 - Cuprous iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with potassium iodide under slightly acidic conditions. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cuprous iodide. 184.1265 Section 184.1265 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1265 Cuprous iodide. (a) Cuprous iodide (copper (I) iodide, CuI, CAS...

  10. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  11. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.;

    2008-01-01

    and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was rated...... qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P ... barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5%) polyps

  12. Synthesis of mercuric iodide and bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles for heavy metal iodide films nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornaro, L.; Pereira, H.Bentos [Compound Semiconductors Group, CURE, Universidad de la Republica, Rocha (Uruguay); Aguiar, I.; Perez Barthaburu, M. [Compound Semiconductors Group, Facultad de Quimica, Univ. de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2011-12-15

    We synthesized mercuric iodide and bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles by suspension in octadecene, from Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O and I{sub 2}, and from Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O and I{sub 2}, respectively. The best synthesis conditions were 2 h at 70-80 C, followed by 10 min at 110 C for mercuric iodide nanoparticles, and 4 h at 80-110 C, followed by 10 min at 180-210 C for bismuth tri-iodide ones. Nanoparticles were then washed and centrifuged with ether repeatedly. Compounds identity was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). We found shifts of the X-ray diffraction maxima for nanoparticles of both compounds. We characterized the nanoparticles by transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. We obtained disk-like and squared mercuric iodide nanostructures, 80-140 nm and 100-125 nm in size respectively. We also obtained rounded and rod-like bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles, 30-500 nm in size. Acetonitrile and isopropanol suspensions of mercuric iodide nanoparticles, and acetonitrile suspension of bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles exhibited peak maxima shifts in their UV-Vis spectra. We synthesized for the first time mercuric iodide and bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles by the suspension method, although we have not yet obtained uniform shape and size distributions. They offer interesting perspectives for crystalline film nucleation and for improving current applications of these materials, as well as for opening new ones. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Doped barium titanate nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Kundu; A Jana; P Barik

    2008-06-01

    We have synthesized nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) ion doped BaTiO3 nanoparticles through a chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The concentration of dopant varies from 0 to 2 mole% in the specimens. The results from X-ray diffractograms and transmission electron micrographs show that the particle diameters in the specimen lie in the range 24–40 nm. It is seen that the dielectric permittivity in doped specimens is enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to undoped barium titanate ceramics. The dielectric permittivity shows maxima at 0.3 mole% doping of Fe ion and 0.6 mole% of Ni ion. The unusual dielectric behaviour of the specimens is explained in terms of the change in crystalline structure of the specimens.

  14. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  15. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer.

  16. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the...

  17. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bioterrorism and Drug Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Drug Administration (FDA) issued a final Guidance on Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies) ( ...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  20. Barium aspiration and alveolarisation of barium in an infant: A case report and review of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Isles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of bilateral inhalation and alveolarisation of barium in an infant following a barium swallow for investigation of dusky spells associated with feeds. A bronchoscopy subsequently revealed the presence of a mid-tracheal tracheo-oesophageal cleft. We review the literature on barium aspiration, its consequences and make recommendations for management.

  1. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  2. [Rare, severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsholm, Anne Sofie; Ebbehøj, Eva; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-07-07

    The literature reports a large variety of adverse reactions to potassium iodide. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide in a 51-year-old woman with Graves' thyrotoxicosis is described. Following administration the patient developed sialadenitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and acneiform iododerma that responded dramatically to withdrawal of the potassium iodide and administration with corticosteroids. Awareness of these adverse reactions may prevent prolonged hospitalization and unnecessary tests and treatments.

  3. Processing science of barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Seymen Murat

    Barium titanate and barium strontium titanate thin films were deposited on base metal foils via chemical solution deposition and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The films were processed at elevated temperatures for densification and crystallization. Two unifying research goals underpin all experiments: (1) To improve our fundamental understanding of complex oxide processing science, and (2) to translate those improvements into materials with superior structural and electrical properties. The relationships linking dielectric response, grain size, and thermal budget for sputtered barium strontium titanate were illustrated. (Ba 0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 films were sputtered on nickel foils at temperatures ranging between 100-400°C. After the top electrode deposition, the films were co-fired at 900°C for densification and crystallization. The dielectric properties were observed to improve with increasing sputter temperature reaching a permittivity of 1800, a tunability of 10:1, and a loss tangent of less than 0.015 for the sample sputtered at 400°C. The data can be understood using a brick wall model incorporating a high permittivity grain interior with low permittivity grain boundary. However, this high permittivity value was achieved at a grain size of 80 nm, which is typically associated with strong suppression of the dielectric response. These results clearly show that conventional models that parameterize permittivity with crystal diameter or film thickness alone are insufficiently sophisticated. Better models are needed that incorporate the influence of microstructure and crystal structure. This thesis next explores the ability to tune microstructure and properties of chemically solution deposited BaTiO3 thin films by modulation of heat treatment thermal profiles and firing atmosphere composition. Barium titanate films were deposited on copper foils using hybrid-chelate chemistries. An in-situ gas analysis process was developed to probe the organic removal and the

  4. Uptake of iodide in the marine haptophyte Isochrysis sp. (T.ISO) driven by iodide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergeijk, Stef A; Hernández Javier, Laura; Heyland, Andreas; Manchado, Manuel; Pedro Cañavate, José

    2013-08-01

    Uptake of iodide was studied in the marine microalga Isochrysis sp. (isol. Haines, T.ISO) during short-term incubations with radioactive iodide ((125) I(-) ). Typical inhibitors of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) did not inhibit iodide uptake, suggesting that iodide is not taken up through this transport protein, as is the case in most vertebrate animals. Oxidation of iodide was found to be an essential step for its uptake by T.ISO and it seemed likely that hypoiodous acid (HOI) was the form of iodine taken up. Uptake of iodide was inhibited by the addition of thiourea and of other reducing agents, like L-ascorbic acid, L-glutathione and L-cysteine and increased after the addition of oxidized forms of the transition metals Fe and Mn. The simultaneous addition of both hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and a known iodide-oxidizing myeloperoxidase (MPO) significantly increased iodine uptake, but the addition of H2 O2 or MPO separately, had no effect on uptake. This confirms the observation that iodide is oxidized prior to uptake, but it puts into doubt the involvement of H2 O2 excretion and membrane-bound or extracellular haloperoxidase activity of T.ISO. The increase of iodide uptake by T.ISO upon Fe(III) addition suggests the nonenzymatic oxidation of iodide by Fe(III) in a redox reaction and subsequent influx of HOI. This is the first report on the mechanism of iodide uptake in a marine microalga.

  5. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review... revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead...

  6. Laser cooling and trapping of barium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Subhadeep

    2008-01-01

    Laser cooling and trapping of heavy alkaline-earth element barium have been demonstrated for the first time ever. For any possible cycling transition in barium that could provide strong cooling forces, the excited state has a very large branching probability to metastable states. Additional lasers a

  7. Neutron Detection with Mercuric Iodide

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Z A

    2003-01-01

    Mercuric iodide is a high-density, high-Z semiconducting material useful for gamma ray detection. This makes it convertible to a thermal neutron detector by covering it with a boron rich material and detecting the 478 keV gamma rays resulting from the sup 1 sup 0 B(n, alpha) sup 7 Li* reaction. However, the 374 barn thermal capture cross section of sup n sup a sup t Hg, makes the detector itself an attractive absorber, and this has been exploited previously. Since previous work indicates that there are no low-energy gamma rays emitted in coincidence with the 368 keV capture gamma from the dominant sup 1 sup 9 sup 9 Hg(n, gamma) sup 2 sup 0 sup 0 Hg reaction, only the 368 keV capture gamma is seen with any efficiency a relatively thin (few mm) detector. In this paper we report preliminary measurements of neutrons via capture reactions in a bare mercuric iodide crystal and a crystal covered in sup 1 sup 0 B-loaded epoxy. The covered detector is an improvement over the bare detector because the presence of both ...

  8. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, H; Stienkemeier, F; Bogomolov, A S; Baklanov, A V; Reich, D M; Skomorowski, W; Koch, C P; Mudrich, M

    2015-01-01

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li+ and LiI+ ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V=650(20) reciprocal cm. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  9. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.; Vangerow, J. von; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M., E-mail: mudrich@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Bogomolov, A. S. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. V. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Reich, D. M.; Skomorowski, W.; Koch, C. P. [Theoretische Physik, Universität Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany)

    2015-01-28

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li{sup +} and LiI{sup +} ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V{sub XA} = 650(20) cm{sup −1}. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  10. Magneto optical trapping of Barium

    CERN Document Server

    De, S; Jungmann, K; Willmann, L

    2008-01-01

    First laser cooling and trapping of the heavy alkaline earth element barium has been achieved based on the strong 6s$^2$ $^1$S$_0$ - 6s6p $^1$P$_1$ transition for the main cooling. Due to the large branching into metastable D-states several additional laser driven transitions are required to provide a closed cooling cycle. A total efficiency of $0.4(1) \\cdot 10^{-2}$ for slowing a thermal atomic beam and capturing atoms into a magneto optical trap was obtained. Trapping lifetimes of more than 1.5 s were observed. This lifetime is shortened at high laser intensities by photo ionization losses. The developed techniques will allow to extend significantly the number of elements that can be optically cooled and trapped.

  11. Radium/Barium Waste Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Allen K.; Ellefson, Mark D.; McDonald, Kent M.

    2015-06-25

    The treatment, shipping, and disposal of a highly radioactive radium/barium waste stream have presented a complex set of challenges requiring several years of effort. The project illustrates the difficulty and high cost of managing even small quantities of highly radioactive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-regulated waste. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research activities produced a Type B quantity of radium chloride low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in a number of small vials in a facility hot cell. The resulting waste management project involved a mock-up RCRA stabilization treatment, a failed in-cell treatment, a second, alternative RCRA treatment approach, coordinated regulatory variances and authorizations, alternative transportation authorizations, additional disposal facility approvals, and a final radiological stabilization process.

  12. Removal efficiency of water purifier and adsorbent for iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Kudo, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    The severe incident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has caused radioactive contamination of environment including drinking water. Radioactive iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium are hazardous fission products because of the high yield and/or relatively long half-life. In the present study, 4 pot-type water purifiers and several adsorbents were examined for the removal effects on these elements from drinking water. Iodide, iodate, cesium and barium were removed by all water purifiers with efficiencies about 85%, 40%, 75-90% and higher than 85%, respectively. These efficiencies lasted for 200 l, which is near the recommended limits for use of filter cartridges, without decay. Strontium was removed with initial efficiencies from 70% to 100%, but the efficiencies were slightly decreased by use. Zirconium was removed by two models, but hardly removed by the other models. Synthetic zeolite A4 efficiently removed cesium, strontium and barium, but had no effect on iodine and zirconium. Natural zeolite, mordenite, removed cesium with an efficiency as high as zeolite A4, but the removal efficiencies for strontium and barium were far less than those of zeolite A4. Activated carbon had little removal effects on these elements. In case of radioactive contamination of tap water, water purifiers may be available for convenient decontamination of drinking water in the home.

  13. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  14. Neutral Barium Cloud Evolution at Different Altitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 徐荣栏

    2002-01-01

    Considering the joint effects of diffusion, collision, oxidation and photoionization, we study the evolution of the barium cloud at different altitudes in the space plasma active experiment. The results present the variation of the loss rate, number density distribution and brightness of the barium cloud over the range from 120 to 260km.This can be divided into oxidation, oxidation plus photoionization and photoionization regions.

  15. Small barium rail gun for plasma injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwamoto, Y

    1980-03-01

    A small rail gun with a barium electrode can be operated at higher than one shot per second to produce more than 2x10(16) barium ions with energy 10-20 eV. The operation of the gun takes advantage of the external magnetic field for cross-field plasma injection into a trap. Up to 7 kG of the magnetic field examined, the gun performance improves with the increased magnetic field strength.

  16. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  17. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  18. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  19. Synthesis of barium mercaptides and application of antimony/barium mercaptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿龙; 张露露; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Mercaptoacetic acid, isooctyl thioglycolate and barium hydroxide used as start materials, barium bis (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Ba(2EHTG)2), barium thioglycolate (Ba(TG)) and barium bisthioglycolate (Ba(TG)2) were synthesized. Their optimum synthetic techniques were discussed, and some physicochemical data were reported. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods were used to identify the structures. They were put into PVC plastic products together with antimony tris (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Sb(2EHTG)3) under the suitable compounding, and their heat stability to PVC was studied. It is shown that these barium mercaptides have remarkable synergisms with antimony mercaptides and the long-term stabilizing effect of organoantimony stabilizer can be effectively improved, reducing the amount of antimony compounds so as to avoid the decrease of its stabilizing effect.

  20. Abundance analysis of Barium stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing Liu; Yan-Chun Liang; Li-Cai Deng

    2009-01-01

    We obtain the chemical abundances of six barium stars and two CH subgiant stars based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra. The neu- tron capture process elements Y, Zr, Ba, La and Eu show obvious overabundances relative to the Sun, for example, their [Ba/Fe] values are from 0.45 to 1.27. Other elements, in- cluding Na, Mg, A1, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni, show comparable abundances to the Solar ones, and their [Fe/H] covers a range from -0.40 to 0.21, which means they belong to the Galactic disk. The predictions of the theoretical model of wind accretion for bi- nary systems can explain the observed abundance patterns of the neutron capture process elements in these stars, which means that their overabundant heavy-elements could be caused by accreting the ejecta of AGB stars, the progenitors of present-day white dwarf companions in binary systems.

  1. Coherent Dark Resonances in Atomic Barium

    CERN Document Server

    Dammalapati, U; Jungmann, K; Willmann, L

    2007-01-01

    The observation of dark-resonances in the two-electron atom barium and their influence on optical cooling is reported. In heavy alkali earth atoms, i.e. barium or radium, optical cooling can be achieved using n^1S_0-n^1P_1 transitions and optical repumping from the low lying n^1D_2 and n^3D_{1,2} states to which the atoms decay with a high branching ratio. The cooling and repumping transition have a common upper state. This leads to dark resonances and hence make optical cooling less inefficient. The experimental observations can be accurately modelled by the optical Bloch equations. Comparison with experimental results allows us to extract relevant parameters for effective laser cooling of barium.

  2. Improved spectrophotometric analysis of barium styphnate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N E; Blasi, J A

    1983-01-01

    A spectrophotometric procedure to determine the purity of barium styphnate monohydrate based upon the absorbance of the styphnate ion at 326 and 413.3 nm has been developed. The purity is determined by comparing the absorbance of the styphnate ion in barium styphnate and in styphnic acid. Our investigation has shown that the molar absorptivity and lambda maxima of the styphnate ion are quite pH dependent; therefore, the pH is buffered to 6.8 to 7.0 with ammonium acetate. Under these conditions the molar absorptivity is 1.6 x 10/sup 4/ L/mol-cm. Analyses following the procedure in the Navy specification WS13444A using water were found to give low molar absorptivities (1.3 x 10/sup 4/ L/mol-cm) for the styphnic acid calibration resulting in erroneous values for barium styphnate purity.

  3. Printed Barium Strontium Titanate capacitors on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sette, Daniele [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Kovacova, Veronika [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Defay, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.defay@list.lu [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we show that Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) films can be prepared by inkjet printing of sol–gel precursors on platinized silicon substrate. Moreover, a functional variable capacitor working in the GHz range has been made without any lithography or etching steps. Finally, this technology requires 40 times less precursors than the standard sol–gel spin-coating technique. - Highlights: • Inkjet printing of Barium Strontium Titanate films • Deposition on silicon substrate • Inkjet printed silver top electrode • First ever BST films thinner than 1 μm RF functional variable capacitor that has required no lithography.

  4. Electronic structure of nanograin barium titanate ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiangyun; WANG Xiaohui; LI Dejun; LI Longtu

    2007-01-01

    The density of states and band structure of 20 nm barium titanate(BaTiO3,BT)ceramics are investigated by first-principles calculation.The full potential linearized augmented plane wave(FLAPW)method is used and the exchange correlation effects are treated by the generalized gradient approximation(GGA).The results show that there is substantial hybridization between the Ti 3d and O 2p states in 20 nm BT ceramics and the interaction between barium and oxygen is typically ionic.

  5. Barium Ferrite Films Grown by Laser Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisfi, A.; Lodder, J.C.; Haan, de P.; Smithers, M.A.; Roesthuis, F.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) has been used to grow barium ferrite films on Al2O3 single crystal substrates. When deposition occurs in an oxidising atmosphere at high temperatures, the films are single BaFe12O19 phase, very well oriented with (001) texture, and exhibit a large perpendicular magnetic a

  6. Simplest Formula of Copper Iodide: A Stoichiometry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment presented to students as a problem in determining the stoichiometry of "copper iodide" to decide whether it is cuprous iodide or cupric iodide. The experiment illustrates stoichiometry principles, providing experiences with laboratory techniques and numerical computation. Detailed outline (written for student use) is…

  7. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye sentisised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Winter-Jensen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide / tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide / tri......-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI) - all deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrode in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  8. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  9. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2012-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  10. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Duarte, G.W. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Research Group in Technology and Information, Centro Universitário Barriga Verde (UNIBAVE), Santa Catarina, SC (Brazil); Caldart, C. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Kniess, C.T. [Post-Graduate Program in Professional Master in Management, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montedo, O.R.K.; Rocha, M.R. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Fiori, M.A., E-mail: fiori@unochapeco.edu.br [Post-Graduate Program in Environmental Science, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil); Post-Graduate Program in Technology and Management of the Innovation, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound.

  11. Atomic force microscopy of lead iodide crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Jayatirtha, H. N.; Biao, Y.; Burger, A.; Collins, W. E.; Silberman, E.

    1994-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the surface of lead iodide crystals. The high vapor pressure of lead iodide prohibits the use of traditional high resolution surface study techniques that require high vacuum conditions. AFM was used to image numerous insulating surface in various ambients, with very little sample preparation techniques needed. Freshly cleaved and modified surfaces, including, chemical and vacuum etched, and air aged surfaces, were examined. Both intrinsic and induced defects were imaged with high resolution. The results were compared to a similar AFM study of mercuric iodide surfaces and it was found that, at ambient conditions, lead iodide is significantly more stable than mercuric iodide.

  12. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, D B; Roig, F; Jilinski, E; Drake, N A; Chavero, C; Silva, J V Sales

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scale height, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, $alpha$-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code {\\sc moog}. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars can not be represented by a single gaussian distribution. The abundances of $alpha$-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heav...

  13. Analysis of 26 Barium Stars I. Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, D M; Allen, Dinah M.; Barbuy, Beatriz

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of 26 barium stars, including dwarf barium stars, providing their atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], vt) and elemental abundances. We aim at deriving gravities and luminosity classes of the sample stars, in particular to confirm the existence of dwarf barium stars. Accurate abundances of chemical elements were derived. Abundance ratios between nucleosynthetic processes, by using Eu and Ba as representatives of the r- and s-processes are presented. High-resolution spectra with the FEROS spectrograph at the ESO-1.5m Telescope, and photometric data with Fotrap at the Zeiss telescope at the LNA were obtained. The atmospheric parameters were derived in an iterative way, with temperatures obtained from colour-temperature calibrations. The abundances were derived using spectrum synthesis for Li, Na, Al, alpha-, iron peak, s- and r-elements atomic lines, and C and N molecular lines. Atmospheric parameters in the range 4300 < Teff < 6500, -1.2 < [Fe/H] < 0.0 and 1.4...

  14. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2014-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w):...

  15. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2015-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light.

  16. Formation of cyanogen iodide by lactoperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlorke, Denise; Flemmig, Jörg; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The haem protein lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an important component of the anti-microbial immune defence in external secretions and is also applied as preservative in food, oral care and cosmetic products. Upon oxidation of SCN(-) and I(-) by the LPO-hydrogen peroxide system, oxidised species are formed with bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal activity. Here we describe the formation of the inter(pseudo)halogen cyanogen iodide (ICN) by LPO. This product is formed when both, thiocyanate and iodide, are present together in the reaction mixture. Using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry we could identify this inter(pseudo)halogen after applying iodide in slight excess over thiocyanate. The formation of ICN is based on the reaction of oxidised iodine species with thiocyanate. Further, we could demonstrate that ICN is also formed by the related haem enzyme myeloperoxidase and, in lower amounts, in the enzyme-free system. As I(-) is not competitive for SCN(-) under physiologically relevant conditions, the formation of ICN is not expected in secretions but may be relevant for LPO-containing products.

  17. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  18. History and challenges of barium titanate: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijatović M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate is the first ferroelectric ceramics and a good candidate for a variety of applications due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Barium titanate is a member of a large family of compounds with the general formula ABO3 called perovskites. Barium titanate can be prepared using different methods. The synthesis method depends on the desired characteristics for the end application. The used method has a significant influence on the structure and properties of barium titanate materials. In this review paper, Part I contains a study of the BaTiO3 structure and frequently used synthesis methods.

  19. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur: reaction between barium sulfide and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653 to 866/sup 0/C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. The rate of formation of hydrogen can be expressed as: RH2 = 1.07 x 10/sup -2/ exp (-3180/RT) (mol H/sub 2//mol BaS s). Hydrogen sulfide was produced during the initial period of reaction and the quantity of hydrogen sulfide formed during this period decreased as the temperature of reaction was increased.

  20. Cu-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides with trifluoromethylzinc reagent prepared in situ from trifluoromethyl iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzo Nakamura

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides catalyzed by copper(I salt with trifluoromethylzinc reagent prepared in situ from trifluoromethyl iodide and Zn dust was accomplished. The catalytic reactions proceeded under mild reaction conditions, providing the corresponding aromatic trifluoromethylated products in moderate to high yields. The advantage of this method is that additives such as metal fluoride (MF, which are indispensable to activate silyl groups for transmetallation in the corresponding reactions catalyzed by copper salt by using the Ruppert–Prakash reagents (CF3SiR3, are not required.

  1. Vapor Growth of Mercuric Iodide Tetragonal Prismatic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    These steps were followed by immersion in 1% potassium iodide (KI) solution. The apparatus were then cleaned and rinsed thoroughly with deionized (DI...Pergamon Press, 1973. [34] N. Lyakh, “Composition and kinetic characteristics of vapour phase during mercuric iodide growing,” Crystal Res. Technol...DTRA-TR-13-6 Vapor Growth of Mercuric Iodide Tetragonal Prismatic Crystals Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. March 2013

  2. Effect of nitrogen and oxygen on radiolysis of iodide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, H.; Endo, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Power and Industrial System R+D Divisions, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of nitrogen and oxygen on radiolysis of iodide solution was examined. Direct decomposition of nitrogen by {gamma}-radiation produced nitric acid to decrease a water pH. This resulted in the iodine formation in the radiolysis of iodide solution. Hydrogen peroxide was produced by the radiolysis of water containing oxygen. This worked a reducing agent to suppress the formation of iodine in the radiolysis of iodide solution. In the analytical model, fourteen iodine species were considered and reaction scheme consisted in 124 reactions. The analytical model could estimate the oxidation state of iodide ions. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  3. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray...

  4. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray spectrometers. Two...

  5. Barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Hee Jung [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    We wanted to evaluate the barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants. Retrospective evaluation of the plain abdominal radiography and barium enema findings was performed in fifteen young infants suffering with milk allergy. The presence of gaseous distension, rectal gas, paralytic ileus and mechanical obstruction was evaluated on the plain radiography. The presence of spasm, a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index and mucosal irregularity was analyzed on the barium enema; the presence of barium retention was also evaluated on 24-hour-delayed plain radiography. Paralytic ileus was the most common finding on the plain radiography (93%). On the barium enema, continuous spasm of the colon, ranging from the rectum to the descending colon, was revealed in ten infants (67%). A transitional zone was observed in one infant and a reversed rectosigmoid index was revealed in four. Mucosal irregularity was observed in two infants. Barium retention was demonstrated in 11 of fifteen cases: throughout the entire colon (n = 3), from the rectum to the descending colon (n = 7), and up to the transverse colon (n = 1). The most common barium enema finding of milk allergy in infants was spasm of the distal colon. The other findings were a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index, mucosal irregularity and barium retention.

  6. [Silica, aluminum, iron, sulfur, and barium in a urinary calculus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes, J L; Salvador, E; Bellanato, J; Medina, J A

    1994-05-01

    Presentation of the analytical results by Sweep Microscopy of a small papillary calculus spontaneously eliminated after a nephritic colic. The main component is monohydrate calcium oxalate. When the stone core was analyzed with EDAX, silica, aluminium, iron, sulphur and barium were detected. The origin of these elements is discussed and the presence of barium emphasized as exceptional.

  7. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammalapati, U.; Willmann, L.; Knoop, S. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI), University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); LaserLaB Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba) in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca does not provide other isotopes alternative to the recently Bose condensed {sup 40}Ca that suffers strong losses because of a very large scattering length. For Ba we show by using a model potential that the even isotopes cover a broad range of scattering lengths, opening the possibility of BEC for at least one of the isotopes.

  8. The addition of iodine to tetramethylammonium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, H.W.; Fleischer, M.

    1953-01-01

    The system tetramethylammonium iodide-iodine-toluene has been studied by the solubility method at 6 and at 25??. The compounds (CH3)4NI3, (CH3)4NI5 and (CH3)4NI11 were found to be stable phases at both temperatures. In addition, the compound (CH3)4NI10 was found at 6?? and the compound (CH3)4NI9 at 25??. The dissociation pressures of the compounds at these temperatures were calculated from the solubility data.

  9. Electronic and optical properties of lead iodide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahuja, R.; Arwin, H.; Ferreira da Silva, A.

    2002-01-01

    The electronic properties and the optical absorption of lead iodide (PbI2) have been investigated experimentally by means of optical absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry, and theoretically by a full-potential linear muffin-tin-orbital method. PbI2 has been recognized as a very promising...... detector material with a large technological applicability. Its band-gap energy as a function of temperature has also been measured by optical absorption. The temperature dependence has been fitted by two different relations, and a discussion of these fittings is given. ©2002 American Institute of Physics....

  10. Novel mercuric iodide polycrystalline nuclear particles counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)]|[Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Zuck, A.; Braiman, M.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Polycrystalline mercuric iodide nuclear radiation detectors having areas between 0.01 to 100 cm{sup 2} and thicknesses 30 to 600 microns, have been fabricated with single, linear strip and square pixel contact. The large area detectors 10 to 600 cm{sup 2} were produced by industrial ceramic equipment while the smaller ones, about 1 cm{sup 2} area, were produced in the laboratory. The large detectors still had large leakage currents and the production process is being revised. The smaller detectors were tested and their response to lower and higher gamma energy, beta and even 100 GeV muons at CERN will be reported.

  11. Production of Molecular Iodine and Tri-iodide in the Frozen Solution of Iodide: Implication for Polar Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kitae; Yabushita, Akihiro; Okumura, Masanori; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A; Blaszczak-Boxe, Christopher S; Min, Dae Wi; Yoon, Ho-Il; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-02-01

    The chemistry of reactive halogens in the polar atmosphere plays important roles in ozone and mercury depletion events, oxidizing capacity, and dimethylsulfide oxidation to form cloud-condensation nuclei. Among halogen species, the sources and emission mechanisms of inorganic iodine compounds in the polar boundary layer remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the production of tri-iodide (I3(-)) via iodide oxidation, which is negligible in aqueous solution, is significantly accelerated in frozen solution, both in the presence and the absence of solar irradiation. Field experiments carried out in the Antarctic region (King George Island, 62°13'S, 58°47'W) also showed that the generation of tri-iodide via solar photo-oxidation was enhanced when iodide was added to various ice media. The emission of gaseous I2 from the irradiated frozen solution of iodide to the gas phase was detected by using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which was observed both in the frozen state at 253 K and after thawing the ice at 298 K. The accelerated (photo-)oxidation of iodide and the subsequent formation of tri-iodide and I2 in ice appear to be related with the freeze concentration of iodide and dissolved O2 trapped in the ice crystal grain boundaries. We propose that an accelerated abiotic transformation of iodide to gaseous I2 in ice media provides a previously unrecognized formation pathway of active iodine species in the polar atmosphere.

  12. Barium appendicitis: A single institution review in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Hideki; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Kubota, Tadao; Mizokami, Ken

    2016-01-01

    AIM To review clinical experience with barium appendicitis at a single institution. METHODS A retrospective review of patients admitted with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis, from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015 was performed. Age, gender, computed tomography (CT) scan findings if available, past history of barium studies, pathology, and the presence of perforation or the development of complications were reviewed. If the CT scan revealed high density material in the appendix, the maximum CT scan radiodensity of the material is measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Barium appendicitis is defined as: (1) patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis; (2) the patient has a history of a prior barium study; and (3) the CT scan shows high density material in the appendix. Patients who meet all three criteria are considered to have barium appendicitis. RESULTS In total, 396 patients were admitted with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in the study period. Of these, 12 patients (3.0%) met the definition of barium appendicitis. Of these 12 patients, the median CT scan radiodensity of material in the appendix was 10000.8 HU, ranging from 3066 to 23423 HU (± 6288.2). In contrast, the median CT scan radiodensity of fecaliths in the appendix, excluding patients with barium appendicitis, was 393.1 HU, ranging from 98 to 2151 HU (± 382.0). The CT scan radiodensity of material in the appendices of patients with barium appendicitis was significantly higher than in patients with nonbarium fecaliths (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION Barium appendicitis is not rare in Japan. Measurement of the CT scan radiodensity of material in the appendix may differentiate barium appendicitis from routine appendicitis.

  13. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  14. The Novel Formation of Barium Titanate Nanodendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Jung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles with novel dendrite-like structures have been successfully fabricated via a simple coprecipitation method, the so-called BaTiO3 nanodendrites (BTNDs. This method was remarkable, fast, simple, and scalable. The growth solution is prepared by barium chloride (BaCl2, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4, and oxalic acid. The shape and size of BaTiO3 depend on the amount of added BaCl2 solvent. To investigate the influence of amount of BaCl2 on BTNDs, the amount of BaCl2 was varied in the range from 3 to 6 mL. The role of BaCl2 is found to have remarkable influence on the morphology, crystallite size, and formation of dendrite-like structures. The thickness and length of the central stem of BTND were ~300 nm and ~20 μm, respectively. The branchings were found to occur at irregular intervals along the main stem. Besides, the formation mechanism of BTND is proposed and discussed.

  15. NANOSCALE BARIUM HYDROSILICATES: CHOOSING THE SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRISHINA Anna Nikolaevna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cement concretes are the most used materials in modern civil engineering. Due to that such materials draw great attention both in the Russian Federation and abroad. The possibility to enhance the manufacturability and operational properties of concretes results in significant reduction of overall operating costs. Many enhancement methods have been elaborated. Among them there is one based on introduction of calcium hydrosilicates into construction composition. The authors set up a hypothesis that similarity between properties and structures of different hydrosilicates (for example, alkaline earth metals and metals of the second group will provide similar increased operational characteristics. The specialists of Research and Educational Center «Nanotechnology» are developing cement composites nanomodification methods which include introduction of nanodimensional barium hydrosilicates particles. The synthesis of barium hydrosilicates particles can be done with the use of many technologies, different by energy consumption or performing complexity. Taking into account both these factors, one can assume that low-temperature sol-gel synthesis from diluted water solutions is the proper technology. The present paper shows that this assumption is correct. The selection of certain technology is made by the means of multiobjective optimization, which is in turn is performed by the means of linear scalarization. This method, while not always giving the Pareto optimal solutions, can be easily implemented. The particle size distribution is taken into consideration during selection of objectives and weights. It is shown that selected technology allows manufacturing nanoparticles with median size about 30 nm.

  16. Kinetic Isotope Effects in the Reduction of Methyl Iodide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1999-01-01

    a-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE's) have been determined for the reaction of methyl iodide with a series of reducing agents. Reagents which transfer hydride ion in an SN2 reaction show small inverse or small normal KIE's. Reagents which transfer an electron to methyl iodide to produce...

  17. Strengthening mechanism of steels treated by barium-bearing alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhouhua Jiang; Yang Liu

    2008-01-01

    The deoxidation, desulfurization, dephosphorization, microstructure, and mechanical properties of steels treated by barium-bearing alloys were investigated in laboratory and by industrial tests. The results show that barium takes part in the deoxidation reaction at the beginning of the experiments, generating oxide and sulfide compound inclusions, which easily float up from the molten steel, leading to the rapid reduction of total oxygen content to a very low level. The desulfurization and dephosphorization capabilities of calcium-bearing alloys increase with the addition of barium. The results of OM and SEM observations and mechanical property tests show that the structure of the steel treated by barium-bearing alloys is refined remarkably, the iamellar thickness of pearlitic structure decreases, and the pearlitic morphology shows clustering distribution. Less barium exists in steel substrate and the enrichment of barium-bearing precipitated phase mostly occurs in grain boundary and phase boundary, which can prevent the movement of grain boundary and dislocation during the heat treatment and the deformation processes. Therefore, the strength and toughness of barium-treated steels are improved by the effect of grain-boundary strengthening and nail-prick dislocation.

  18. Barium concentration in grain of Aegilops and Triticum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić Srbislav S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of barium in grain of various Aegilops and Triticum species with different genomes. The studied species differed significantly with respect to the concentration of barium. The grain of wild diploid Aegilops speltoides, the donor of B genome, contained significantly higher Ba concentration than all other analyzed genotypes. Wild and cultivated tetraploid wheats (Triticum diciccoides, Triticum dicoccon, Triticum turgidum and Triticum durum had the lowest Ba concentration in grain. The modern cultivated hexaploid varieties presented substantial variation in grain concentration of barium. The highest Ba concentration (3.42 mg/kg occurred in Serbian winter wheat variety Panonnia.

  19. Silver iodide sodalite for 129I immobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, E. R.; Gregg, D. J.; Grant, C.; Stopic, A.; Maddrell, E. R.

    2016-11-01

    Silver iodide sodalite was initially synthesised as a fine-grained major phase in a nominally stoichiometric composition following hot isostatic pressing at 850 °C with 100 MPa and its composition, Ag4Al3Si3O12I, was approximately verified by scanning electron microscopy. An alternative preparative method yielded a more dense and stoichiometric AgI sodalite on sintering and HIPing. As found for AgI, the I is released from AgI sodalite much more readily in reducing water than in ordinary water. Thus in normal PCT-B tests, the I release was <0.3 g/L in water, but it was ∼70 g/L under highly reducing conditions. This is an important point with regard to can material if HIPing is used for consolidation.

  20. Novel mercuric iodide polycrystalline nuclear particle counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)]|[Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Zuck, A.; Braiman, M.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel); Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L. [LEPSI, Strasbourg (France)

    1997-12-01

    Polycrystalline mercuric iodide nuclear radiation detectors have been produced in a novel technology. Unlike the normal single-crystal technology, there is no intrinsic limit to the surface on which these detectors can be produced. Detectors with areas up to about 1.5 cm{sup 2}, thicknesses from 30 to 600 {micro}m, and with single electrodes as well as microstrip and pixel contacts have been fabricated and successfully tested with photons in the range of 40--660 keV, {beta} particle`s emitted from a Sr-Y source, and high energy (100 GeV) muons. Results on both charge collection and counting efficiency are reported as well as some very preliminary imaging results. The experimental results on charge collection have been compared with simulation, and a combined {mu}{tau} product 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}/V for electrons has been estimated.

  1. Ferroelastic Fingerprints in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Hermes, Ilka M.

    2016-02-12

    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite materials show an outstanding performance in photovoltaic devices. However, certain material properties, especially the possible ferroic behavior, remain unclear. We observed distinct nanoscale periodic domains in the piezoresponse of MAPbI3(Cl) grains. The structure and the orientation of these striped domains indicate ferroelasticity as their origin. By correlating vertical and lateral piezoresponse force microscopy experiments performed at different sample orientations with x-ray diffraction, the preferred domain orientation was suggested to be the a1-a2-phase. The observation of these ferroelastic fingerprints appears to strongly depend on the film texture and thus the preparation route. The formation of the ferroelastic twin domains could be induced by internal strain during the cubic-tetragonal phase transition.

  2. Conserved charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of sodium/iodide symporter are critical for iodide transport activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ji-An

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS mediates the active transport and accumulation of iodide from the blood into the thyroid gland. His-226 located in the extracellular region of NIS has been demonstrated to be critical for iodide transport in our previous study. The conserved charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of NIS were therefore characterized in this study. Methods Fourteen charged residues (Arg-9, Glu-79, Arg-82, Lys-86, Asp-163, His-226, Arg-228, Asp-233, Asp-237, Arg-239, Arg-241, Asp-311, Asp-322, and Asp-331 were replaced by alanine. Iodide uptake abilities of mutants were evaluated by steady-state and kinetic analysis. The three-dimensional comparative protein structure of NIS was further modeled using sodium/glucose transporter as the reference protein. Results All the NIS mutants were expressed normally in the cells and targeted correctly to the plasma membrane. However, these mutants, except R9A, displayed severe defects on the iodide uptake. Further kinetic analysis revealed that mutations at conserved positively charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of NIS led to decrease NIS-mediated iodide uptake activity by reducing the maximal rate of iodide transport, while mutations at conserved negatively charged residues led to decrease iodide transport by increasing dissociation between NIS mutants and iodide. Conclusions This is the first report characterizing thoroughly the functional significance of conserved charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of NIS. Our data suggested that conserved charged amino acid residues, except Arg-9, in the extracellular region of NIS were critical for iodide transport.

  3. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, G C; Spite, M; Chen, Y Q; Zhao, G; Zhang, B; Liu, G Q; Liu, Y J; Liu, N; Deng, L C; Spite, F; Hill, V; Zhang, C X

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicity and microturbulent velocity) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their light elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-ca...

  4. Analysis of europium doped luminescent barium thioaluminate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东璞; 喻志农; 薛唯; 章婷; 丁瞾; 王武育

    2010-01-01

    Europium-doped barium thioaluminate sputtering target was synthesized by powder sintering method and thin film was deposited by radio frequency(RF) sputtering.X-ray diffractometer(XRD) pattern indicated that the main compound of the target was BaAl4S7.Oxygen was the main impurity which led to the formation of BaAl2O4.It was shown that both BaAl4S7 and BaAl2S4 were contained in the as-grown thin films and a 471.7 nm emission peak in the PL spectra appeared due to a combination of BaAl4S7:Eu2+ and BaAl2S4:Eu2...

  5. Upper gastrointestinal barium evaluation of duodenal pathology: A pictorial review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj; Gupta; Uma; Debi; Saroj; Kant; Sinha; Kaushal; Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Like other parts of the gastrointestinal tract(GIT), duodenum is subject to a variety of lesions both congenital and acquired. However, unlike other parts of the GIT viz. esophagus, rest of the small intestine and large intestine, barium evaluation of duodenal lesions is technically more challenging and hence not frequently reported. With significant advances in computed tomography technology, a thorough evaluation including intraluminal, mural and extramural is feasible in a single non-invasive examination. Notwithstanding, barium evaluation still remains the initial and sometimes the only imaging study in several parts of the world. Hence,a thorough acquaintance with the morphology of various duodenal lesions on upper gastrointestinal barium examination is essential in guiding further evaluation. We reviewed our experience with various common and uncommon barium findings in duodenal abnormalities.

  6. A NOVEL HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS METHOD FOR BARIUM FERRITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Li; Hongchen Gu; Qun Wei

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, fine barium ferrite powder has been synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal process in an autoclave at [OH-]/[Cl-] ratio of 2:1 in the temperature range from 180 to 260 ℃ using barium chloride (BaCl2), ferrous chloride (FeCl2) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) as the starting materials. Both particle size and saturation magnetization (Ms) increase with increasing hydrothermal reaction temperature, while the intrinsic coercivity (iHc) peaks at 685 Oe at 230 ℃. Morphology progress from the barium ferrite precursor particles to the barium hexaferrite particles has been monitored with increasing hydrothermal reaction time at 230 ℃ in the autoclave.

  7. Peritonite por bário Barium peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Alves Pereira Júnior

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 49 years-old man who underwent a barium meal examination for an epigastric pain. A perforated gastric ulcer with barium extravasation into peritoneal cavity was seen on X-rays. During an emergency laparotomy, a perforated pyloric ulcer was noted, along with barium contamination in the peritoneal cavity. The ulcer was closed with an omental patch and an extensive peritoneal lavage with saline was performed. During the postoperative period, the patient developed signs of peritonitis and underwent a new laparotomy was at the 9th day showing a subfrenic abscess with a large barium contamination. The patient presented septic shock and multiple organ failure. dying on the 21th day.

  8. Synthesis, photoluminescence and magnetic properties of barium vanadate nanoflowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jing [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China); Hu, Chenguo, E-mail: hucg@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xi, Yi [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China); Peng, Chen [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Wan, Buyong; He, Xiaoshan [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Graphical abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate was obtained for the first time. The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. Research highlights: {yields} In the paper, the flower-shaped barium vanadate were obtained for the first time. The CHM method used here is new and simple for preparation of barium vanadate. {yields} The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. The strong bluish-green emission was observed. {yields} The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers was found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g. {yields} The mechanisms of PL and magnetic property of barium vanadate nanoflowers have been discussed. -- Abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate has been obtained by the composite hydroxide mediated (CHM) method from V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and BaCl{sub 2} at 200 {sup o}C for 13 h. XRD and XPS spectrum of the as-synthesized sample indicate it is hexagonal Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} with small amount of Ba{sub 3}VO{sub 4.8} coexistence. Scan electron microscope and transmission electron microscope display that the flower-shaped crystals are composed of nanosheets with thickness of {approx}20 nm. The UV-visible spectrum shows that the barium vanadate sample has two optical gaps (3.85 eV and 3.12 eV). Photoluminescence spectrum of the barium vanadate flowers exhibits a visible light emission centered at 492 and 525 nm which might be attributed to VO{sub 4} tetrahedron with T{sub d} symmetry in Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers has been found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, which is mainly due to the presence of a non

  9. Solar eclipse sign of intussusception on barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveenthiran, V

    2002-01-01

    The colographic appearance of intussusception is variously described as a claw sign, pincer defect, shouldering effect, and coiled-spring pattern. This report adds a new radiographic sign to the list. An end-on view of an intussusception on barium enema shows a ring of contrast resembling a solar eclipse. Familiarity with this bizarre appearance is desirable, lest it may be mistaken for spillage of barium due to a colonic perforation.

  10. Electrorheological behavior of rare earth-doped barium titanate suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Doping Y, La, Ce into barium titanate is found to be able to improve its electrorheological (ER) effect in DC electrical field. The yield stress of a typical doped barium titanate/silicone oil suspension is approximately 3.2 -*7〗kPa at 3.5 -*7〗kV/mm, which is 10 times larger than that of pure barium titanate/silicone oil suspensions. The ER effect increases with the decrease of ionic radius of rare earth (RE) dopant when RE concentration remains constant, and the suspensions exhibit a relatively high shear stress when Y, La, Ce mole fractions are 15%, 10%~15%, and 5%, respectively. Dielectric measurements show that the suitable doping with RE element increases dielectric loss of barium titanate and causes very marked dielectric relaxation at low frequency. By measuring X-ray diffraction patterns of doped barium titanate, it is considered that the occurrence of lattice distortion or defects may be responsible for the change of dielectric properties which results in the improvement of ER effect of barium titanate in DC electrical field.

  11. Lifetime Measurement for 6snp Rydberg States of Barium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Li; WANG Lei; YANG Hai-Feng; LIU Xiao-Jun; LIU Hong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    @@ We present a simple and efficient method for measuring the atomic lifetimes in order of tens of microseconds and demonstrate it in the lifetime determination of barium Rydberg states.This method extracts the lifetime information from the time-of-flight spectrum directly, which is much more efficient than other methods such as the time-delayed field ionization and the traditional laser induced fluorescence.The lifetimes determined with our method for barium Rydberg 6snp(n=37-59)series are well coincident with the values deduced from the absolute oscillator strengths of barium which were given in the literature [J.Phys.B 14(1981)4489, 29(1996)655]on experiments.%We present a simple and efficient method for measuring the atomic lifetimes in order of tens of microseconds and demonstrate it in the lifetime determination of barium Rydberg states. This method extracts the lifetime information from the time-of-flight spectrum directly, which is much more efficient than other methods such as the time-delayed field ionization and the traditional laser induced fluorescence. The lifetimes determined with our method for barium Rydberg 6snp (n=37-59) series are well coincident with the values deduced from the absolute oscillator strengths of barium which were given in the literature [J. Phys. B 14 (1981) 4489, 29 (1996) 655] onexperiments.

  12. Expression of the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) in xenotransplanted human thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.W.A.; Schröder - van der Elst, J.P.; Karperien, M.; Que, I.; Romijn, J.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of iodide in thyroid epithelial cells is mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). The uptake of iodide is of vital importance for thyroid physiology and is a prerequisite for radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. Loss of iodide uptake due to diminished expression of the human NIS (

  13. Improved Stability of Mercuric Iodide Detectors for Anticoincidence Shields Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to utilize guard ring electrode structures and a new film growth technique to create improved polycrystalline mercuric iodide detectors for background...

  14. Prevention of organic iodide formation in BWR`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjunen, T. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Laitinen, T.; Piippo, J.; Sirkiae, P. [VTT Manufacturing Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    During an accident, many different forms of iodine may emerge. Organic iodides, such as methyl iodide and ethyl iodide, are relatively volatile, and thus their appearance leads to increased concentration of gaseous iodine. Since organic iodides are also relatively immune to most accident mitigation measures, such as sprays and filters, they can affect the accident source term significantly even when only a small portion of iodine is in organic form. Formation of organic iodides may not be limited by the amount of organic substances available. Excessive amounts of methane can be produced, for example, during oxidation of boron carbide, which is used in BWR`s as a neutron absorber material. Another important source is cable insulation. In a BWR, a large quantity of cables is placed below the pressure vessel. Thus a large quantity of pyrolyse gases will be produced, should the vessel fail. Organic iodides can be formed as a result of many different reactions, but at least in certain conditions the main reaction takes place between an organic radical produced by radiolysis and elemental iodine. A necessary requirement for prevention of organic iodide production is therefore that the pH in the containment water pools is kept high enough to eliminate formation of elemental iodine. In a typical BWR the suppression pool water is usually unbuffered. As a result, the pH may be dominated by chemicals introduced during an accident. If no system for adding basic chemicals is operable, the main factor affecting pool water pH may be hydrochloric acid released during cable degradation. Should this occur, the conditions could be very favorable for production of elemental iodine and, consequently, formation of organic iodides. Although high pH is necessary for iodine retention, it could have also adverse effects. High pH may, for example, accelerate corrosion of containment materials and alter the characteristics of the solid corrosion products. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  15. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  16. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye-sensitised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, L.; West, K.; Winther-Jensen, B.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide/tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide....../tri-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI)-all deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrodes in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  17. High H- ionic conductivity in barium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C.; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T. S.

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H-) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm-1 at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on.

  18. Thermal decomposition of barium valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, P.; Norby, Poul; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    degrees C and evidence was found for the solidification of the melt at 380-440 degrees C, i.e. simultaneously with the onset of decomposition. Between 400 degrees C and 520 degrees C (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2) decomposes in two main steps, first into BaCO3 with release of C4H9COC4H9 (5-nonanone), whereas final......The thermal decomposition of barium valerate (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2)/Ba-pentanoate) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage optical microscopy. Melting takes place in two different steps, at 200 degrees C and 280...... conversion to BaO takes place with release of CO2. Elemental carbon that is left as a by-product is finally slowly burned by the residual oxygen present in the Ar atmosphere. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Chemical compositions of four barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Y C; Chen, Y Q; Qiu, H M; Zhang, B

    2003-01-01

    Chemical compositions of four barium stars HD 26886, HD 27271, HD 50082 and HD 98839 are studied based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise Echelle spectra. Results show that all of them are disk stars. Their \\alpha and iron peak elements are similar to the solar abundances. The neutron-capture process elements are overabundant relative to the Solar. The heavy-element abundances of the strong Ba star HD 50082 are higher than those of other three mild Ba stars. Its mass is 1.32Msun (+0.28,-0.22Msun), and is consistent with the average mass of strong Ba stars (1.5Msun). For mild Ba star HD 27271 and HD 26886, the derived masses are 1.90Msun (+0.25,-0.20Msun) and 2.78Msun (+0.75,-0.78M_sun), respectively, which are consistent with the average mass of mild Ba stars. We also calculate the theoretical abundances of Ba stars by combining the AGB stars nucleosynthesis and wind accretion formation scenario of Ba binary systems. The comparisons between the observed abundance patterns of the sample stars with the th...

  20. Iodide kinetics and experimental I-131 therapy in a xenotransplanted human sodium-iodide symporter-transfected human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.W.A.; Elst, van der J.P.; Karperien, M.; Que, I.; Stokkel, M.; Heide, van der D.; Romijn, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Uptake of iodide is a prerequisite for radioiodide therapy in thyroid cancer. However, loss of iodide uptake is frequently observed in metastasized thyroid cancer, which may be explained by diminished expression of the human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS). We studied whether transfection of hNIS int

  1. Both barium and calcium activate neuronal potassium currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribera, A.B.; Spitzer, N.C.

    1987-09-01

    Amphibian spinal neurons in culture possess both rapidly inactivating and sustained calcium-dependent potassium current components, similar to those described for other cells. Divalent cation-dependent whole-cell outward currents were isolated by subtracting the voltage-dependent potassium currents recorded from Xenopus laevis neurons in the presence of impermeant cadmium from the currents produced without cadmium but in the presence of permeant divalent cations. These concentrations of permeant ions were low enough to avoid contamination by macroscopic inward currents through calcium channels. Calcium-dependent potassium currents were reduced by 1 ..mu..M tetraethylammonium. These currents can also be activated by barium or strontium. Barium as well as calcium activated outward currents in young neurons (6-8 hr) and in relatively mature neurons (19-26 hr in vitro). However, barium influx appeared to suppress the sustained voltage-dependent potassium current in most cells. Barium also activated at least one class of potassium channels observed in excised membrane patches, whole blocking others. The blocking action may have masked and hindered detection of the stimulatory action of barium in other systems.

  2. Molecular imaging using sodium iodide symporter (NIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Je Yoel [School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Radioiodide uptake in thyroid follicular epithelial cells, mediated by a plasma membrane transporter, sodium iodide symporter (NIS), provides a first step mechanism for thyroid cancer detection by radioiodide injection and effective radioiodide treatment for patients with invasive, recurrent, and/or metastatic thyroid cancers after total thyroidectomy. NIS gene transfer to tumor cells may significantly and specifically enhance internal radioactive accumulation of tumors following radioiodide administration, and result in better tumor control. NIS gene transfers have been successfully performed in a variety of tumor animal models by either plasmid-mediated transfection or virus (adenovirus or retrovirus)-mediated gene delivery. These animal models include nude mice xenografted with human melanoma, glioma, breast cancer of prostate cancer, rats with subcutaneous thyroid tumor implantation, as well as the rat intracranial glioma model. In these animal models, non-invasive imaging of in vivo tumors by gamma camera scintigraphy after radioiodide or technetium injection has been performed successfully, suggesting that the NIS can serve as an imaging reporter gene for gene therapy trials. In addition, the tumor killing effects of I-131, ReO4-188 and At-211 after NIS gene transfer have been demonstrated in in vitro clonogenic assays and in vivo radioiodide therapy studies, suggesting that NIS gene can also serve as a therapeutic requires a more efficient and specific system of gene delivery with better retention of radioiodide in tumor. Results thus far are, however, promising, and suggest that NIS gene transfer followed by radioiodide treatment will allow non-invasive in vivo imaging to assess the outcome of gene therapy and provide a therapeutic strategy for a variety of human diseases.

  3. Evaluation of mercuric iodide ceramic semiconductor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M.; Zuck, A.; Braiman, M.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel); Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L. [LEPSI (ULP/IN2P3), Strasbourg (France)

    1998-02-01

    Mercuric iodide ceramic radiation detectors, which can act as nuclear particle counters, have been fabricated with single continuos electrical contacts and with linear strip contacts. They have been tested with different kinds of {gamma} and {beta} sources as well as in a high energy beam at CERN. The detectors were also successfully tested for radiation hardness with irradiation of 5*10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. The ratio of detected photons over the number of absorbed photons has been measured with {gamma} sources of different energies, and it ranges from 20% at 44 keV up to about 30% at 660 keV. An absolute efficiency of 70% has been measured for a 350 {mu}m thick detector for {beta} particles emitted by a {sup 90}Sr source. Charge collection efficiency, defined as the amount of charge induced on the electrodes by a mminimum ionizing particle (MIP) traversing the detector, has been measured in two samples. The average collected charge fits well with a linear curve with slope of 35 electrons/(kV/cm) per 100 {mu}m. This result is well described by a dynamic device simulation, where the free carrier mean lifetime is used as a free parameter, adjusted to a value of 1.5 ns, i.e. about 1/100 of the corresponding lifetime in single crystal HgI{sub 2} detectors. The response to MIP has also been studied with a high energy (100 GeV) muon beam in CERN. A preliminary beam profile is presented while a more detailed analysis is still in progress and will be presented elsewhere. These results together with the low cost of the material make ceramic HgI{sub 2} detectors excellent candidates for large area particle tracking and imaging applications, even in a radiation harsh environment. (orig.). 14 refs.

  4. Durability of Alite-calcium Barium Sulphoaluminate Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Lingchao; LU Zeye; LIU Shiquan; WANG Shoude; CHENG Xin

    2009-01-01

    The durability of the cement was mainly studied.Under 1.0 MPa of hydraulic pressure for 8 hours,water could penetrate completely through the sample made by portland cement,but could not penetrate through that by alite-barium sulphoaluminate cement.Under the condition of freezing and thawing cycle,the loss ratio of compressive strength of the cement was only about 17.3%at curing 28 d ages,but the loss of portland cement was as high as 29.5%.Alite-calcium bar-ium sulphoaluminate cement also has an excellent resistance to sulfate attack.The coefficients of resistance to sulfate attack of the cement exceeded 1.0.Meanwhile,the composition and microstructure of the hardened paste of alite-calcium barium sulphoaluminate cement were analyzed by XRD and SEM.

  5. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  6. Deoxidation Behavior of Alloys Bearing Barium in Molten Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; JIANG Zhou-hua; JIANG Mao-fa; WANG Jun-wen; GU Wen-bing

    2003-01-01

    The deoxidation behaviors of alloys bearing barium in pipe steel were researched with MgO crucible under argon atmosphere in MoSi2 furnace at 1 873 K. The total oxygen contents of molten steel, the distribution, size and morphology of deoxidation products in the steel were surveyed. The metamorphic mechanism for deoxidation products of alloy bearing barium was also discussed. The results show that applying alloy bearing barium to the pipe steel, very low total oxygen contents can be obtained, and deoxidation products, which easily float up from molten steel, can be changed into globular shape and uniformly distributed in steel. The equilibrium time of total oxygen is about 25 min, and the terminal total oxygen contents range from 0.002 0 % to 0.002 2 % after treating with SiCa wire. The best deoxidizers are SiAlBaCa and SiAlBaCaSr.

  7. Barium-borate-flyash glasses: As radiation shielding materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Devinder; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The attenuation coefficients of barium-borate-flyash glasses have been measured for γ-ray photon energies of 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV using narrow beam transmission geometry. The photon beam was highly collimated and overall scatter acceptance angle was less than 3°. Our results have an uncertainty of less than 3%. These coefficients were then used to obtain the values of mean free path (mfp), effective atomic number and electron density. Good agreements have been observed between experimental and theoretical values of these parameters. From the studies of the obtained results it is reported here that from the shielding point of view the barium-borate-flyash glasses are better shields to γ-radiations in comparison to the standard radiation shielding concretes and also to the ordinary barium-borate glasses.

  8. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 55814 (October 29... Barium Chloride From China, 75 FR 33824 (June 15, 2010), and Barium Chloride from China (Inv. No....

  9. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis characterized by barium esophagography: a case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-05-21

    Abstract Introduction Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is a rare condition characterized by the dilatation of the submucosal glands. Case presentation We present a case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis in a 72-year-old Caucasian man who presented with dysphagia and with a background history of alcohol abuse. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy of our patient showed an esophageal stricture with abnormal mucosal appearances, but no malignant cells were seen at biopsy. Appearances on a barium esophagram were pathognomonic for esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis. Conclusion We demonstrate the enduring usefulness of barium esophagography in the characterization of abnormal mucosal appearances at endoscopy.

  10. Photoionization and Photoelectric Loading of Barium Ion Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, A V; Churchill, L R; Griffin, P F

    2007-01-01

    Simple and effective techniques for loading barium ions into linear Paul traps are demonstrated. Two-step photoionization of neutral barium is achieved using a weak intercombination line (6s2 1S0 6s6p 3P1, 791 nm) followed by excitation above the ionization threshold using a nitrogen gas laser (337 nm). Isotopic selectivity is achieved by using a near Doppler-free geometry for excitation of the triplet 6s6p 3P1 state. Additionally, we report a particularly simple and efficient trap loading technique that employs an in-expensive UV epoxy curing lamp to generate photoelectrons.

  11. Macrosegregation during Plane Front Solidification of Cesium Iodide wt Percent Thallium Iodide Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidawi, Ibrahim M. S.

    Macrosegregation produced during directional solidification of CsI-1 wt% TlI by vertical Bridgman technique has been examined in crucibles of varying diameter, from 0.5 to 2.0 cm. Phase diagram and temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity have been determined. The experimentally observed liquid-solid interface shape and the fluid flow behavior have been compared with that computed from the commercially available code FIDAP. Thallium iodide content of the alloy was observed to increase along the length of the directionally solidified specimens, resulting in continuously decreasing light output. The experimentally observed solutal distribution agrees with predictions from the boundary layer model of Favier. The observed macrosegregation behavior suggests that there is a significant convection in the melt even in the smallest crucible diameter of 0.5 cm.

  12. Bismuth tri-iodide radiation detector development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sasmit S.

    Bismuth tri-iodide is an attractive material for room temperature radiation detection. BiI3 demonstrates a number of properties that are apt for semiconductor radiation detection, especially gamma ray spectroscopy. The high atomic number (ZBi = 83 and ZI = 53) and the relatively high density (5.78 g/cm3) cause the material to have good photon stopping power, while the large band-gap (1.67 eV ) allows it to function as a room temperature radiation detector without any cooling mechanism. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of BiI3 radiation detectors. For the purpose of this research detectors were fabricated by cutting BiI3 crystal boules, followed by mechanical and chemical surface treatments. Detectors with various electrode geometries enabling single polarity charge sensing were fabricated. The electrical characteristics and the radiation response of the detectors were measured. The radiation response measurement was performed at room temperature using a 241Am alpha particle source and a 241Am sealed gamma-ray source. The spectral resolutions of the detectors varied from 2.09% - 6.1% for 59.5 keV gamma-rays and between 26% - 40% for 5.48 MeV alpha particles. Charge carrier properties such as the electron and hole mobility and lifetime were also estimated. The electron mobility for an ultrapure BiI 3 detector was estimated to be approximately 433 cm 2/Vs while that for antimony doped BiI3 was estimated to be around 956 cm2/Vs and the mobility-lifetime product for electrons was estimated to be around 5.44 x 10-4 cm 2/V. Detector simulation was performed using the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNP5. A Matlab script which incorporates charge carrier trapping and statistical variation was written to generate a gamma-ray spectrum from the simulated energy deposition spectra. Measured and simulated spectra were compared to extract the charge carrier mobility-lifetime products, which for electrons and holes were estimated to be 5 x 10-3 cm2/V and 1.3 x

  13. Standard free energy of formation of iron iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandkar, A.; Tare, V. B.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment is reported where silver iodide is used to determine the standard free energy of formation of iron iodide. By using silver iodide as a solid electrolyte, a galvanic cell, Ag/AgI/Fe-FeI2, is formulated. The standard free energy of formation of AgI is known, and hence it is possible to estimate the standard free energy of formation of FeI2 by measuring the open-circuit emf of the above cell as a function of temperature. The free standard energy of formation of FeI2 determined by this method is -38784 + 24.165T cal/mol. It is estimated that the maximum error associated with this method is plus or minus 2500 cal/mol.

  14. Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-22

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that

  15. Low energy background in mercuric iodide X-ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, X.J. [TN Technol., Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States). Dept. of Anal. Instrum.; Natarajan, M. [TN Technol., Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States). Dept. of Anal. Instrum.; Henderson, J. [TN Technol., Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States). Dept. of Anal. Instrum.

    1996-10-01

    The origins of the continuous background (window effect or dead layer) in mercuric iodide X-ray spectrometers are investigated. It is found that photo-electron escape and carrier diffusion are the dominant mechanisms of incomplete charge collection in the energy range of interest (from 3-60 keV). X-ray spectra measurements, computer calculation and photo-response measurements are presented in support of the proposed model. Many observations of detector behavior made in the manufacturing and application of mercuric iodide X-ray detectors can be explained by this model. (orig.).

  16. Enhanced Olefin Cross Metathesis Reactions: The Copper Iodide Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtritter, Karl; Ghorai, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Copper iodide has been shown to be an effective co-catalyst for the olefin cross metathesis reaction. In particular, it has both a catalyst stabilizing effect due to iodide ion, as well as copper(I)-based phosphine-scavenging properties that apply to use of the Grubbs-2 catalyst. A variety of Michael acceptors and olefinic partners can be cross-coupled under mild conditions in refluxing diethyl ether that avoid chlorinated solvents. This effect has also been applied to chemistry in water at room temperature using the new surfactant TPGS-750-M. PMID:21528868

  17. DBU-Promoted Trifluoromethylation of Aryl Iodides with Difluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Wei; Liuying Yu; Jinhong Lin; Xing Zheng; Jichang Xiao

    2016-01-01

    DBU-promoted trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides with difluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (DFPB) in the presence of copper source is described.In this transformation,DBU not only acts as base to deprotonate the difluoromethyl group in DFPB to generate difluoromethylene phosphonium ylide Ph3P+CF2,but also converts the difluorocarbene generated from ylide Ph3P+CF2 into trifluoromethyl anion,finally resulting in the trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides.The reactions proceeded smoothly to afford expected products in moderate to good yields.

  18. Mercuric iodide dosimeter response to high energy electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewinger, E.; Nissenbaum, J.; Schieber, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Mercuric iodide solid state dosimeter response to high energy electron beams of up to 35 MeV is reported. High sensitivity of up to 1.5 V/cGy was observed with a 200 V external bias, as well as several mV/cGy, with no external bias for small volume (approx. 10 mm/sup 3/) detectors. The physical characteristics of the detector response are discussed, showing the feasibility of mercuric iodide as a reliable dosimeter for high energy electron beams.

  19. Barium Ferrite Films Grown By Pulsed Laser Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisfi, A.; Lodder, J.C.; Haan, de P.; Roesthuis, F.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract available only. It is known that barium ferrite (BaFe12019) can grow with perpendicular anisotropy on A1203 a single crystal substrate,' but also on an amorphous substrate by using a ZnO buffer.2 Because of its large magnetic anisotropy which can easily overcome the shape anisotropy of the

  20. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Barium Ferrite in Ethanol/Water Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Montazeri-Pour; A.Ataie

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline particles of barium ferrite magnetic material have been prepared by co-precipitation route using aqueous and non-aqueous solutions of iron and barium chlorides with a Fe/Ba molar ratio of 11 and subsequent drying-annealing treatment. Water and ethanol/water mixture with volume ratio of 3:1 were used as solvents in the process. Coprecipitated powders were annealed at various temperatures for 1 h. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DTA/TGA (differential thermal analy-sis/thermogravimetric analysis) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) techniques were used to evaluate powder particle characteristics. DTA/TGA results confirmed by those obtained from XRD indicated that the formation of barium ferrite occurs in sample synthesized in ethanol/water solution at a relatively low temperature of 631℃. Nano-size particles of barium ferrite with mean particle size of almost 75 and 100 nm were observed in the SEM micrographs of the samples synthesized in ethanol/water solution after annealing at 700 and 800℃ for 1 h, respectively.

  1. Heavy ion recoil spectrometry of barium strontium titanate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, W. B.; Johnston, P. N.; Walker, S. R.; Bubb, I. F.; Scott, J. F.; Cohen, D. D.; Dytlewski, N.; Martin, J. W.

    1995-05-01

    Thin films of barium strontium titanate have been analysed using heavy ion recoil spectrometry with 77 and 98 MeV 127I ions at the new heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. New calibration procedures have been developed for quantitative analysis. Energy spectra for each of the elements present reveal interdiffusion that was not previously known.

  2. Magnetoelastic coupling in epitaxial cobalt ferrite/barium titanate heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräfe, Joachim; Welke, Martin [Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstraße 2, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Bern, Francis; Ziese, Michael [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstraße 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Denecke, Reinhard, E-mail: denecke@uni-leipzig.de [Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstraße 2, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Ultra-thin cobalt ferrite films have been synthesised on ferroelectric barium titanate crystals. The cobalt ferrite films exhibit a magnetic response to strain induced by structural changes in the barium titanate substrate, suggesting a pathway to multiferroic coupling. These structural changes are achieved by heating through the phase transition temperatures of barium titanate. In addition the ferromagnetic signal of the substrate itself is taken into account, addressing the influence of impurities or defects in the substrate. The cobalt ferrite/barium titanate heterostructure is a suitable oxidic platform for future magnetoelectric applications with an established ferroelectric substrate and widely tuneable magnetic properties by changing the transition metal in the ferrite film. - Highlights: ► Ultra-thin CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films grown on ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3} crystals by PLD. ► Magnetic response to structural changes of BaTiO{sub 3} at transition temperatures. ► Significant magneto-elastic coupling of in-plane magnetisation in SQUID experiments. ► Clear distinction between contribution by BaTiO{sub 3} substrate and by CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film.

  3. CNO and F abundances in the barium star HD 123396

    CERN Document Server

    Alves-Brito, Alan; Yong, David; Meléndez, Jorge; Vásquez, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] Barium stars are moderately rare chemically peculiar objects which are believed to be the result of the pollution of an otherwise normal star by material from an evolved companion on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). We aim to derive carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine abundances for the first time from infrared spectra of the barium red giant star HD 123396 to quantitatively test AGB nucleosynthesis models for producing barium stars via mass accretion. High-resolution and high S/N infrared spectra were obtained using the Phoenix spectrograph mounted at the Gemini South telescope. The abundances were obtained through spectrum synthesis of individual atomic and molecular lines, using the MOOG stellar line analysis program together with Kurucz's stellar atmosphere models. The analysis was classical, using 1D stellar models and spectral synthesis under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We confirm that HD 123396 is a metal-deficient barium star ([Fe/H] = -1.05), with A(C) = 7.88, A...

  4. Excitation energies of barium oxide bands measured in flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, J. van der; Hollander, Tj.; Alkemade, C.T.J.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments are described that yield additional information about the excitation energy of visible barium oxide bands appearing in flames. Excitation energy differences are derived directly from the ratios of thermal band intensities as a function of temperature and agree with the value calculated f

  5. 40 CFR 415.510 - Applicability; description of the potassium iodide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... potassium iodide production subcategory. 415.510 Section 415.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Iodide Production Subcategory § 415.510 Applicability; description of the potassium iodide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  6. The electrosorption of tetraalkylammonium ions on silver iodide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, de A.

    1981-01-01

    The object of the present investigations was to study the ef fect of the adsorption of charged organic ions on electrically charged, solid-liquid interfaces. To that end, symmetrical quater nary ammonium ions were adsorbed on a silver iodide-electrolyte interface at various surface charges. The elec

  7. Confinement Effects in Low-Dimensional Lead Iodide Perovskite Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Honghua; Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano; Baas, Jacobus; Blake, Graeme R.; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a layered solution crystal growth technique to synthesize high-quality single crystals of phenylalkylammonium lead iodide organic/inorganic hybrid compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals low-dimensional structures consisting of inorganic sheets separated by bilayers of the organic

  8. Radiation-hard polycrystalline mercuric iodide semiconductor particle counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)]|[Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore Ca 94556 (United States); Zuck, A.; Melekhov, L.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel); Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L. [LEPSI (ULP/IN2P3), Strasbourg (France)

    1998-06-01

    Mercuric iodide polycrystalline radiation detectors, which can act as nuclear particle counters and for large area imaging devices, have been fabricated using three different methods. Response to X- and gamma rays, beta particles and to 100GeV muons, as well as radiation hardness results are briefly described. (orig.) 8 refs.

  9. 21 CFR 520.763b - Dithiazanine iodide powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....763b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... is administered to dogs by mixing the proper dosage in the dog's food, using the following dosage... contraindicated in animals sensitive to dithiazanine iodide and should be used cautiously, if at all, in dogs...

  10. FY-2015 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear fission produces fission and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2015 according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. Updates to the deep-bed test system have also been performed to enable the inclusion of evaporated HNO3 and increased NO2 concentrations in future tests. This report summarizes the result of those activities. Test results showed that iodine adsorption from gaseous methyl iodide using reduced silver zeolite (AgZ) resulted in initial iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) under 1,000 for the conditions of the long-duration test performed this year (45 ppm CH3I, 1,000 ppm each NO and NO2, very low H2O levels [3 ppm] in balance air). The mass transfer zone depth exceeded the cumulative 5-inch depth of 4 bed segments, which is deeper than the 2-4 inch depth estimated for the mass transfer zone for adsorbing I2 using AgZ in prior deep-bed tests. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity for the AgZ under the conditions of this test was 6.2% (6.2 g adsorbed I per 100 g sorbent). The maximum Ag utilization was 51%. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  11. Rhodium-doped barium titanate perovskite as a stable p-type semiconductor photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuhiko

    2014-02-12

    Rhodium-doped barium titanate (BaTiO3:Rh) powder was prepared by the polymerized complex (PC) method, and the photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution from water was examined. BaTiO3 is a wide-gap n-type semiconductor having a band gap of 3.0 eV. Doping Rh species into the lattice of BaTiO3 resulted in the formation of new absorption bands in visible light region. Upon visible light (λ > 420 nm), BaTiO3:Rh modified with nanoparticulate Pt as a water reduction promoter was capable of producing H2 from water containing an electron donor such as methanol and iodide. The best material prepared by the PC method exhibited higher activity than that made by a conventional solid-state reaction method. Visible-light-driven Z-scheme water splitting was also accomplished using Pt/BaTiO3:Rh as a building block for H2 evolution in combination with PtOx-loaded WO3 as an O2 evolution photocatalyst in the presence of an IO3(-)/I(-) shuttle redox mediator. Photoelectrochemical analysis indicated that a porous BaTiO3:Rh electrode exhibited cathodic photoresponse due to water reduction in a neutral aqueous Na2SO4 solution upon visible light.

  12. Design, testing, fabrication and launch support of a liquid chemical barium release payload (utilizing the liquid fluorine-barium salt/hydrazine system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A payload was designed which included a cryogenic oxidizer tank, a fuel tank, and burner section. Release of 30 lb of chemicals was planned to occur in 2 seconds at the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio. The chemicals consisted of 17 lb of liquid fluorine oxidizer and 13 lb of hydrazine-barium salt fuel mixture. The fuel mixture was 17% barium chloride, 16% barium nitrate, and 67% hydrazine, and contained 2.6 lb of available barium. Two significant problem areas were resolved during the program: explosive valve development and burner operation. The release payload was flight tested, from Wallops Island, Virginia. The release took place at an altitude of approximately 260 km. The release produced a luminous cloud which expanded very rapidly, disappearing to the human eye in about 20 seconds. Barium ion concentration slowly increased over a wide area of sky until measurements were discontinued at sunrise (about 30 minutes).

  13. Defective organification of iodide causing congenital goitrous hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, N; Eguchi, K; Ohmori, T; Momotani, N; Nagayama, Y; Hosoya, T; Oguchi, H; Mimura, T; Kimura, S; Nagataki, S; Ito, K

    1996-01-01

    A 26-yr-old Japanese woman with congenital goitrous hypo-thyroidism and sensorineural deafness underwent a thyroidectomy. Examination of the thyroid gland revealed characteristic features of multinodular goiter. The T3 and T4 content in thyroglobulin (Tg) were 0.03 and 0.02 mol/mol Tg, respectively. Iodide incorporation into Tg, using slices of the thyroid tissue, revealed that iodide organification of thyroid tissue from our patient was markedly lower than that of normal controls. Then, guaiacol and iodide oxidation activities of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in our patient's thyroid tissue were lower than those of normal controls (guaiacol assay: 1.92 vs. 30.0 +/- 5.7 mGU/mg protein; iodide assay: 1.1 vs. 6.6 +/- 2.8 mIU/mg protein). Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis of the oxidation rates of guaiacol and iodide indicated that this patient's TPO had a defect in the binding of guaiacol and iodide, but the coupling activity of the patient's TPO was not decreased compared with those of two normal thyroids. In this case and in control subjects, Nothern gel analysis of TPO messenger RNA from unstimulated and TSH-stimulated thyroid cells revealed a 3.2 kilobase species in the former and four distinct messenger RNA species of 4.0, 3.2, 2.1, and 1.7 kilobases in the latter. Western blot analysis of TPOs obtained from this patient and from control subjects identified the same 107 kDa protein, using antimicrosomal antibody-positive serum. We analyzed the coding sequence in the patient's TPO gene by using polymerase chain reaction technique. A single point mutation of G-->C at 1265 base pair was detected only in the TPO gene, but this point mutation does not alter the amino acid residue. It is possible that posttranslational modification such as abnormal glycosylation may occur in the TPO molecules. Furthermore, it is possible that there are differences in the tertiary structures of the TPO molecules between our patient and normal subjects. The above abnormalities of TPO molecules

  14. [Evaluation of potassium iodide in Polish dietary salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewska, E; Rokicka, B; Gajda, J; Jarecka, J; Oraczewska, A; Karłowski, K

    1996-01-01

    The consequences of iodine deficiency occurring still in Poland include serious health disorders in the population, such as psycho- somatic retardation, hypothyroidism, endemic goitre, even cretinism. Administration of iodized edible salt with daily diet is an effective method for prevention of iodine deficiency. The condition of success is the proper level of potassium iodide in this salt and adequate distribution of iodized salt in various regions of the country. Successful iodine prophylaxis should be based on iodination of edible salt in amounts of 30 +/- 10 mg of KJ/kg. The permission given in the period from February to May 1994 by the General Sanitary Inspector for the production and marketing of edible salt iodized in proportions of 30 +/- 10 mg KJ/kg opened the possibility of starting its production in salt mines. The purpose of the presently reported work was to assess, in cooperation with the Province Sanitary Epidemiological Stations, the adequacy of iodination of the Polish edible salt produced in the years 1994-1995. The study was carried out according to the Polish Standard "Salt (Sodium Chloride) /PN-80/C-84081.35. Potassium iodide determination by photo colorimetric method." In 1995 the number of edible salt samples analyzed was 2484, and this number included 2129 samples of iodized salt. Potassium iodide content agreeing with the above permission was found in 122 samples, that is in 57.4% of iodized salt samples. In 603 samples (28.3%) of iodized salt this content was below that given in the permissions. In 1994 this study was carried out taking 2172 samples of edible salt, including 1586 samples of iodized salt. The content of potassium iodide agreeing with the permissions (30 +/- 10 mg/kg) was found in 342 samples (28, 1%), but 272 (22.4%) samples of iodized salt produced by salt mines contained lower amounts of potassium iodide than the amount indicated in the permissions, but still within the limits set down in the Polish Standard (20 +/- 5 mg

  15. Electromagnetic properties of carbon black and barium titanate composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guiqin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)], E-mail: c2b2chen@163.com; Chen Xiaodong; Duan Yuping; Liu Shunhua [School of Material Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2008-04-24

    Nanocrystalline carbon black/barium titanate compound particle (CP) was synthesized by sol-gel method. The phase structure and morphology of compound particle were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectrum measurements, the electroconductivity was test by trielectrode arrangement and the precursor powder was followed by differential scanning calorimetric measurements (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the complex relative permittivity and permeability of compound particle were investigated by reflection method. The compound particle/epoxide resin composite (CP/EP) with different contents of CP were measured. The results show barium titanate crystal is tetragonal phase and its grain is oval shape with 80-100 nm which was coated by carbon black film. As electromagnetic (EM) complex permittivity, permeability and reflection loss (RL) shown that the compound particle is mainly a kind of electric and dielectric lossy materials and exhibits excellent microwave absorption performance in the X- and Ku-bands.

  16. HYBRID AND CHARACTERISTIC OF POLYANILINE- BARIUM TITANATE NANOCOMPOSITE PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Polyaniline-barium titanate (PAn-BaTiO3) ultrafine composite particles were prepared by the oxidative polymerization of aniline with H2O2 while barium titanate nanoparticles were synthesized with a sol-gel method. The infrared spectrogram shows that the polymerization of PAn in the hybrid process of PAn-BaTiO3 is similar with the polymeric process of pure aniline, and there is interaction of PAn and BaTiO3 in the PAn-BaTiO3. SEM and TEM results show that the average diameter of the composite particles is 1.50 μm and the diameters of BaTiO3 nanoparticles are 5-15 nm in the composite particle. The electrical conductivity of the ultrafine composite particles is transformable from 100 to 10-11S/cm by equilibrium doping or dedoping method using various concentration of HCl or NaOH solutions.

  17. The crystal growth of barium flouride in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, J. P.; Svrjcek, D.; Nancollas, G. H.

    1983-06-01

    The kinetics of growth of barium flouride seed crystals were investigated in aqueous solution at 25°C using a constant composition method, in which the supersaturation and ionic strength were maintained constant by the addition of titrants consisting of barium nitrate and potassium flouride solutions. The rates of reaction, studied over a range of supersaturation (σ ≈ 0.4 to 1.0), were interpreted in terms of crystal growth models. A spiral growth mechanism best describes the data, and scanning electron microscopy indicates a three-dimensional growth. In the presence of inorganic additives such as phosphate, however, induction periods precede a morphological two-dimensional crystallization. Coulter Counter results show little crystal agglomeration.

  18. Particularities of Radiation Defect Formation in Ceramic Barium Cerate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromushin, I. V.; Aksenova, T. I.; Tuseev, T.; Munasbaeva, K. K.; Ermolaev, Yu V.; Ermolaev, V. N.; Seitov, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    The effects of irradiation with electrons, ions of noble gases (Ne, Ar, Kr) and oxygen on the structure and properties of neodymium-doped barium cerate have been studied using the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy. It was shown that irradiation by low-energy ions of noble gases stimulates the blistering processes on the sample surface, while the high-energy ions contribute to formation of the structures on the irradiated surface that resemble the various stages of spherulitegrowth. The similar structures were not observed in the case of irradiation with high-energy oxygen ions. According to the data on thermal desorption of water and oxygen molecules from the irradiated barium cerate it was supposed that irradiation by the noble gas ions promotes neodymium oxidation state change. It was noticed that the electron irradiation leads to the formation of the nano-sized acicular structures on the cerate surface.

  19. Barium titanate nanoparticles: promising multitasking vectors in nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziana Genchi, Giada; Marino, Attilio; Rocca, Antonella; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Ceramic materials based on perovskite-like oxides have traditionally been the object of intense interest for their applicability in electrical and electronic devices. Due to its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric features, barium titanate (BaTiO3) is probably one of the most studied compounds of this family. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been focused on the exploitation of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) in the biomedical field, owing to the high biocompatibility of BTNPs and their peculiar non-linear optical properties that have encouraged their use as nanocarriers for drug delivery and as label-free imaging probes. In this review, we summarize all the recent findings about these ‘smart’ nanoparticles, including the latest, most promising potential as nanotransducers for cell stimulation.

  20. Stark spectrum of barium in highly excited Rydberg states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hai-Feng; Gao Wei; Cheng Hong; Liu Xiao-Jun; Liu Hong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of Stark spectra of barium in highly excited Rydberg states in the energy region around n =35.The one-photon excitation concerns the π transition.The observed Stark spectra at electric fields ranging from 0 to 60 V·cm-1 are well explained by the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian incorporating the core effects.From the Stark maps,the anti-crossings between energy levels are identified experimentally and theoretically.The time of flight spectra at the specified Stark states are recorded,where the deceleration and acceleration of barium atoms are observed.This is very consistent with the prediction derived from the Stark maps from the point of view of energy conservation.

  1. Acute barium intoxication following ingestion of soap water solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case in which a young girl ingested a solution of a hair-removing soap. The ingestion resulted in profound hypokalemia and severe acidosis leading to flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest and ventricular arrhythmias. Ultimately the patient made complete recovery. The soapwas found to contain barium sulfide. The degree of paralysis and acidosis appeared to be directly related to serum potassium levels.

  2. Complex Impedance Studies of Optically Excited Strontium Barium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    has a tetragonal tungsten - bronze structure. The unit cell for this structure, illustrated below in Fig. 2.1, consists of ten oxygen octahedra joined...4 Kittel, pp. 373-374. 5 P. B. Jamieson, et al, “Ferroelectric Tungsten Bronze -Type Crystal Structures. I. Barium Strontium Niobate...Oxford, 1987). 2. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, (Wiley, New York, 1986). 3. P. B. Jamieson, et al, “Ferroelectric Tungsten

  3. Barium thiolates and selenolates: syntheses and structural principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlandt-Senge, K; Englich, U

    2000-11-17

    The synthesis and structural characterization of a family of barium thiolates and selenolates is described. The thiolates were synthesized by metallation of thiols, the selenolates by reductive insertion of the metal into the selenium-selenium bond of diorganodiselenides. Both reaction sequences were carried out by using barium metal dissolved in ammonia; this afforded barium thiolates and selenolates in good yield and purity. The structural principles displayed in the target compounds span a wide range of solid-state formulations, including monomeric and dimeric species, and separated ion triples, namely [Ba(thf)4(SMes*)2] (1; Mes* = 2,4,6-tBU3C6H2), [Ba(thf)4(SeMes*)2] (2), [Ba([18]crown-6)(hmpa)2][(SeMes*)2] (3), the dimeric [(Ba(py)3(thf)(SeTrip)2)2] (4; py = pyridine, Trip = 2,4.6-iPr3C6H2), and [Ba([18]crown-6)(SeTrip)2] (5). The full range of association modes is completed by [Ba([18]crown-6)(hmpa)SMes*][SMes*] (6) communicated earlier by this group. In the solid state, this compound displays an intermediate ion coordination mode: one anion is bound to the metal, while the second one is unassociated. Together these compounds provide structural information about all three different association modes for alkaline earth metal derivatives. This collection of structural data allows important conclusions about the influence of solvation and ligation on structural trends.

  4. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, A.Z., E-mail: alezipo@yahoo.co [Universidade Federal de Itajuba- Unifei - Campus Itabira, Rua Sao Paulo, 377, Bairro, Amazonas, CEP 35900-37, Itabira, MG (Brazil); Universidade Estadual Paulista- Unesp - Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Bairro Pedregulho, CEP 12516-410 Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Moura, F.; Onofre, T.B. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba- Unifei - Campus Itabira, Rua Sao Paulo, 377, Bairro, Amazonas, CEP 35900-37, Itabira, MG (Brazil); Ramirez, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Barium strontium titanate nanoparticles were obtained by the Hydrothemal microwave technique (HTMW) {yields} This is a genuine technique to obtain nanoparticles at low temperature and short times {yields} Barium strontium titanate free of carbonates with tetragonal structure was grown at 130 {sup o}C. - Abstract: Hydrothermal-microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline barium strontium titanate (Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3}) nanoparticles (BST) in the temperature range of 100-130 {sup o}C. The crystallization of BST with tetragonal structure was reached at all the synthesis temperatures along with the formation of BaCO{sub 3} as a minor impurity at lower syntheses temperatures. Typical FT-IR spectra for tetragonal (BST) nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH- groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. FE/SEM revealed that lower syntheses temperatures led to a morphology that consisted of uniform grains while higher syntheses temperature consisted of big grains isolated and embedded in a matrix of small grains. TEM has shown BST nanoparticles with diameters between 40 and 80 nm. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could serve as an alternative to obtain BST nanoparticles.

  5. Purification and deposition of silicon by an iodide disproportionation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tihu (Littleton, CO); Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  6. Synthesis and Structure of Bis(4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) Cadmium Iodide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The title complex, bis(4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) cadmium iodide (C16H16CdI2N8O4S2) crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1 with a=9.632(2), b=11.227(2), c=14.031(3), α= 67.50(3), β= 86.99(3), γ= 66.64(3)°, V=1278.13, Z = 2, Dc = 2.117gcm-3, F(000) = 772, μ =3.472mm-1 MoKα radiation (λ=0.71073), R = 0.0443, wR= 0.1425 for 4529 observed reflections [I>2σ(I)] of 4731 independent reflections. The result shows that the structure contains CdL2I2 (where L = 4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) distorted tetrahedral units in which the two ligands are S-bonded as monodentate to cadmium ion; the two iodide ions are also coordinated to Cd(II).

  7. Spectroscopy of Ba and Ba$^+$ deposits in solid xenon for barium tagging in nEXO

    OpenAIRE

    Mong, B.; Cook, S; Walton, T.; Chambers, C.; Craycraft, A.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Hall, K.; Fairbank Jr., W.; Albert, J. B.; Auty, D. J.; Barbeau, P. S.; Basque, V.; Beck, D.; Breidenbach, M.; Brunner, T.

    2014-01-01

    Progress on a method of barium tagging for the nEXO double beta decay experiment is reported. Absorption and emission spectra for deposits of barium atoms and ions in solid xenon matrices are presented. Excitation spectra for prominent emission lines, temperature dependence and bleaching of the fluorescence reveal the existence of different matrix sites. A regular series of sharp lines observed in Ba$^+$ deposits is identified with some type of barium hydride molecule. Lower limits for the fl...

  8. Preparation of nanosized barium zirconate powder by precipitation in aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Boschini, Frédéric; Guillaume, Bernard; Rulmont, André; Cloots, Rudi

    2004-01-01

    Several ways were explored to synthesize barium zirconate by soft chemistry methods in aqueous solution. In the first method the synthesis of barium zirconate was initiated by urea decomposition, through an homogeneous precipitation of barium and zirconium salts followed by a "low temperature" thermal treatment. The kinetic of the reaction and the optimum urea/cation ratio have been determined by means of X-ray diffraction and Inductive Coupled Plasma analyses. It has been demonstrated that a...

  9. Simplified assessment of segmental gastrointestinal transit time with orally small amount of barium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Weitang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Jinbo; Li, Zhen; Song, Junmin; Wu, Changcai [Department of Colorectal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Zhengzhou University, 450052 Zhengzhou (China); Wang, Guixian, E-mail: guixianwang@hotmail.com [Department of Colorectal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Zhengzhou University, 450052 Zhengzhou (China)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness and advantage of small amount of barium in the measurement of gastrointestinal transmission function in comparison with radio-opaque pallets. Methods: Protocal 1: 8 healthy volunteers (male 6, female 2) with average age 40 ± 6.1 were subjected to the examination of radio-opaque pellets and small amount of barium with the interval of 1 week. Protocol 2: 30 healthy volunteers in group 1 (male 8, female 22) with average age 42.5 ± 8.1 and 50 patients with chronic functional constipation in group 2 (male 11, female 39) with average age 45.7 ± 7.8 were subjected to the small amount of barium examination. The small amount of barium was made by 30 g barium dissolved in 200 ml breakfast. After taking breakfast which contains barium, objectives were followed with abdominal X-ray at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h until the barium was evacuated totally. Results: Small amount of barium presented actual chyme or stool transit. The transit time of radio-opaque pallets through the whole gastrointestinal tract was significantly shorter than that of barium (37 ± 8 h vs. 47 ± 10 h, P < 0.05) in healthy people. The transit times of barium in constipation patients were markedly prolonged in colon (61.1 ± 22 vs. 37.3 ± 11, P < 0.01) and rectum (10.8 ± 3.7 vs. 2.3 ± 0.8 h, P < 0.01) compared with unconstipated volunteers. Transit times in individual gastrointestinal segments were also recorded by using small amount of barium, which allowed identifying the subtypes of constipation. Conclusion: The small amount barium examination is a convenient and low cost method to provide the most useful and reliable information on the transmission function of different gastrointestinal segments and able to classify the subtypes of slow transit constipation.

  10. Caloric Effects in Methylammonium Lead Iodide from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shi; Cohen, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite architecture could serve as a robust platform for materials design to realize functionalities beyond photovoltaic applications. We explore caloric effects in organometal halide perovskites, taking methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI$_3$) as an example, using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with a first-principles based interatomic potential. The adiabatic thermal change is estimated directly by introducing different driving fields in the simulations. ...

  11. Structural insight into iodide uptake by AFm phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimoz, Laure; Wieland, Erich; Taviot-Guého, Christine; Dähn, Rainer; Vespa, Marika; Churakov, Sergey V

    2012-04-03

    The ability of cement phases carrying positively charged surfaces to retard the mobility of (129)I, present as iodide (I(-)) in groundwater, was investigated in the context of safe disposal of radioactive waste. (125)I sorption experiments on ettringite, hydrotalcite, chloride-, carbonate- and sulfate-containing AFm phases indicated that calcium-monosulfate (AFm-SO(4)) is the only phase that takes up trace levels of iodide. The structures of AFm phases prepared by coprecipitating iodide with other anions were investigated in order to understand this preferential uptake mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigations showed a segregation of monoiodide (AFm-I(2)) and Friedel's salt (AFm-Cl(2)) for I-Cl mixtures, whereas interstratifications of AFm-I(2) and hemicarboaluminate (AFm-OH-(CO(3))(0.5)) were observed for the I-CO(3) systems. In contrast, XRD measurements indicated the formation of a solid solution between AFm-I(2) and AFm-SO(4) for the I-SO(4) mixtures. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy showed a modification of the coordination environment of iodine in I-CO(3) and in I-SO(4) samples compared to pure AFm-I(2). This is assumed to be due to the introduction of stacking faults in I-CO(3) samples on one hand and due to the presence of sulfate and associated space-filling water molecules as close neighbors in I-SO(4) samples on the other hand. The formation of a solid solution between AFm-I(2) and AFm-SO(4), with a short-range mixing of iodide and sulfate, implies that AFm-SO(4) bears the potential to retard (129)I.

  12. Development of the strontium iodide coded aperture (SICA) instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lee J.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Grove, J. Eric; Cordes, Ryan

    2015-08-01

    The work reports on the development of a Strontium Iodide Coded Aperture (SICA) instrument for use in space-based astrophysics, solar physics, and high-energy atmospheric physics. The Naval Research Laboratory is developing a prototype coded aperture imager that will consist of an 8 x 8 array of SrI2:Eu detectors, each read out by a silicon photomultiplier. The array would be used to demonstrate SrI2:Eu detector performance for space-based missions. Europium-doped strontium iodide (SrI2:Eu) detectors have recently become available, and the material is a strong candidate to replace existing detector technology currently used for space-based gamma-ray astrophysics research. The detectors have a typical energy resolution of 3.2% at 662 keV, a significant improvement over the 6.5% energy resolution of thallium-doped sodium iodide. With a density of 4.59 g/cm and a Zeff of 49, SrI2:Eu has a high efficiency for MeV gamma-ray detection. Coupling this with recent improvements in silicon photomultiplier technology (i.e., no bulky photomultiplier tubes) creates high-density, large-area, low-power detector arrays with good energy resolution. Also, the energy resolution of SrI2:Eu makes it ideal for use as the back plane of a Compton telescope.

  13. Gold nanoelectrode ensembles for direct trace electroanalysis of iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Francisco C; Moretto, Ligia M; De Leo, Manuela; Zanoni, Maria V Boldrin; Ugo, Paolo

    2006-08-01

    A procedure for the standardization of ensembles of gold nanodisk electrodes (NEE) of 30 nm diameter is presented, which is based on the analytical comparison between experimental cyclic voltammograms (CV) obtained at the NEEs in diluted solutions of redox probes and CV patterns obtained by digital simulation. Possible origins of defects sometimes found in NEEs are discussed. Selected NEEs are then employed for the study of the electrochemical oxidation of iodide in acidic solutions. CV patterns display typical quasi-reversible behavior which involves associated chemical reactions between adsorbed and solution species. The main CV characteristics at the NEE compare with those observed at millimeter sized gold disk electrodes (Au-macro), apart a slight shift in E1/2 values and slightly higher peak to peak separation at the NEE. The detection limit (DL) at NEEs is 0.3 microM, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than DL at the Au-macro (4 microM). The mechanism of the electrochemical oxidation of iodide at NEEs is discussed. Finally, NEEs are applied to the direct determination of iodide at micromolar concentration levels in real samples, namely in some ophthalmic drugs and iodized table salt.

  14. Enhanced iodide sequestration by 3-biphenyl-5,6-dihydroimidazo 2,1-b thiazole in sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS)-expressing cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecat-Guillet, N.; Ambroise, Y. [CEA, DSV, Dept Bioorgan Chem andt IsotopLabelling, Inst Biol and Technol, iBiTecS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    The ability of the sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) to take up iodide has long provided the basis for cyto-reductive gene therapy and cancer treatment with radio-iodide. One of the major limitations of this approach is that radio-iodide retention in NIS-expressing cells is not sufficient for their destruction. We identified and characterized a small organic molecule capable of increasing iodide retention in HEK293 cells permanently transfected with human NIS cDNA (hNIS-HEK293) and in the rat thyroid-derived cell line FRTL-5. In the presence of 3-biphenyl-4'-yl-5,6-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b)thiazole (ISA1), the transmembrane iodide concentration gradient was increased up to 4.5-fold. Our experiments indicate that the imidazo-thiazole derivative acts either by inhibiting anion efflux mechanisms, or by promoting the relocation of iodide into subcellular compartments. This new compound is not only an attractive chemical tool to investigate the mechanisms of iodide flux at the cellular level, but also opens promising perspectives in the treatment of cancer after NIS gene transfer. (authors)

  15. Sponge-associated bacteria mineralize arsenic and barium on intracellular vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ray; Mayzel, Boaz; Lavy, Adi; Polishchuk, Iryna; Levy, Davide; Fakra, Sirine C.; Pokroy, Boaz; Ilan, Micha

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic and barium are ubiquitous environmental toxins that accumulate in higher trophic-level organisms. Whereas metazoans have detoxifying organs to cope with toxic metals, sponges lack organs but harbour a symbiotic microbiome performing various functions. Here we examine the potential roles of microorganisms in arsenic and barium cycles in the sponge Theonella swinhoei, known to accumulate high levels of these metals. We show that a single sponge symbiotic bacterium, Entotheonella sp., constitutes the arsenic- and barium-accumulating entity within the host. These bacteria mineralize both arsenic and barium on intracellular vesicles. Our results indicate that Entotheonella sp. may act as a detoxifying organ for its host. PMID:28233852

  16. Effects of powdered versus liquid barium on the viscosity of fluids used in modified swallow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J.; Alexander, T. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Radiology, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    To determine if the viscosity of thickened juice mixtures used in modified barium swallow studies significantly changes with the addition of powdered barium. We also describe a test formulation created using liquid barium, which has a negligible effect on juice viscosity. The viscosities of water and standardized honey- and nectar-consistency juices mixed with different amounts of powdered barium were measured by timing the laminar flow of a given initial hydrostatic head of fluid under gravity though an orifice of fixed diameter. Standardized juices were then mixed with a liquid formulation of barium and with measured quantities of water to produce viscosities that more closely equated with those of the standardized juices. With the addition of powdered barium, viscosity increased in all fluids, most markedly with the nectar-consistency juice. Liquid barium formulations maintained the viscosities of the original thickened juices. Rendering juices radio-opaque with barium powder results in dramatic increases in the viscosity of the resulting mixture and compromises diagnostic accuracy. Liquid barium preparations have the advantage that they can be rapidly and accurately dispensed by syringe, and their use does not significantly increase the viscosity of the preparation. (author)

  17. Removal and sequestration of iodide using silver-impregnated activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Jay S; Karanfil, Tanju; Serkiz, Steven M

    2002-02-15

    Two silver-impregnated activated carbons (SIACs) (0.05 and 1.05 wt % silver) and their virgin (i.e., unimpregnated) granular activated carbon (GAC) precursors were investigated for their ability to remove and sequester iodide from aqueous solutions in a series of batch sorption and leaching experiments. Silver content, total iodide concentration, and pH were the factors controlling the removal mechanisms of iodide. Iodide uptake increased with decreasing pH for both SIACs and their virgin GACs. The 0.05% SIAC behaved similarly to its virgin GAC in all experimental conditions because of its low silver content. At pH values of 7 and 8 there was a marked increased in iodide removal for the 1.05% SIAC over that of its virgin GAC, while their performances were similar at a pH of 5. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses prior to reaction with iodide showed the presence of metallic silver agglomerates on the 1.05% SIAC surface. After the reaction, elemental mapping with EDX showed the formation of silver iodide agglomerates. Oxidation of metallic silver was observed in the presence of oxygen, and the carbon surface appears to catalyze this reaction. When the molar ratio of silver to iodide was greater than 1 (i.e., M(Ag,SIAC) > M(I,TOTAL)), precipitation of silver iodide was the dominant removal mechanism. However, unreacted silver leached into solution with decreasing pH while iodide leaching did not occur. When M(Ag,SIAC) silver iodide precipitation occurred until all available silver had reacted, and additional iodide was removed from solution by pH-dependent adsorption to the GAC. Under this condition, silver leaching did not occur while iodide leaching increased with increasing pH.

  18. BARIUM SULPHATE ABSORPTION AND THE SERUM DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1911-02-01

    The so-called syphilitic antibodies can be removed from a serum by means of absorption with barium sulphate. The removal is due either to an adsorption or a mechanical absorption. The activity of the syphilitic antibodies is thereby unimpaired. The readiness with which the absorption is accomplished with barium sulphate varies considerably with different syphilitic sera. That barium sulphate exerts the same absorbing effect upon non-syphilitic serum components is made evident by the interfering property which the latter manifest in the absorption experiment of the syphilitic antibodies. The selective removal of the serum components, other than the syphilitic antibodies, by means of barium sulphate absorption is, therefore, impossible. On the other hand, a partial removal of these components, with but little removal of the syphilitic antibodies, may be effected when the content of a given serum is poor in syphilitic antibodies and comparatively rich in the indifferent serum components. But this is impossible if the conditions are reversed. The main reasons why some negative syphilitic sera may be so modified by the barium sulphate treatment as to give positive reactions, are explained below, but these apply only to those methods in which inactivated serum is employed. The inactivation reduces the antibody content to about one-fourth to one-fifth of the original. When the serum is very rich in antibodies, this does not affect the result of the fixation test. But when the amount of the antibodies is small, the process of inactivation creates conditions quite unexpected. It may produce such a condition that a given amount of the serum contains, after inactivation, only one or two antibody units, while the other serum components remain undiminished. Here one must not lose sight of the vital fact that these apparently indifferent serum constituents are not at all indifferent in the fixation processes. They may possess affinities which are similar to those of complement

  19. 铝酸钡与氢氧化钡脱硫过程比较%Comparison of Barium Aluminate and Barium Hydroxide Desulfurization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张念炳; 黎志英; 丁彤

    2012-01-01

    The seed precipitation liquor was desulfurized with barium aluminate and barium hydroxide respectively. The desulfurization slag was characterized by XRD analysis, and the desulfurization process was compared. The results show that barium hydroxide exceeds barium aluminate with better desulfurization in terms of effect, speed and duration. In the desulfurization process with barium aluminate, 2BaO · Al2O3 · 5H2O is firstly produced in the reaction of barium aluminate with alkali, and then it reacts with sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate. To compare, Ba(OH)2 · 8H2O directly reacts with sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate in the desulfurization process with barium hydroxide. Both of desulfurization reaction processes can be described with "shrinking core model".%用铝酸钡和氢氧化钡对种分母液进行脱硫试验,对脱硫渣进行XRD分析,并比较脱硫过程.结果表明,氢氧化钡的脱硫效果更好,脱硫完成时间更短,速率更快;铝酸钡先与碱液反应生成2BaO·Al2O3·5H2O,再与硫碱和碳碱反应,而氢氧化钡直接与硫碱和碳碱反应,脱硫过程均可用未反应核模型描述.

  20. Electrochemistry of silver iodide the capacity of the double layer at the silver iodide-water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.; Overbeek, J.Th.G.

    1961-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining differential double layer capacities on silver iodide. Especially the influence of the nature and concentration of indifferent electrolytes was investigated, viz., the nitrates of Li·, K·, Rb·, NH4·, H·, Tl·, Mg··, Ba··, Co··, Cd··, Pb··, La···, Th····, the fluori

  1. Iron- Catalyzed 1,2-Addition of Perfluoroalkyl Iodides to Alkynes and Alkenes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tao; Cheung, Chi Wai; Hu, Xile

    2014-01-01

    Iron catalysis has been developed for the intermolecular 1,2-addition of perfluoroalkyl iodides to alkynes and alkenes. The catalysis has a wide substrate scope and high functional-group tolerance. A variety of perfluoroalkyl iodides including CF3I can be employed. The resulting perfluoroalkylated alkyl and alkenyl iodides can be further functionalized by cross-coupling reactions. This methodology provides a straightforward and streamlined access to perfluoroalkylated organic molecules.

  2. Expression of sodium-iodide symporter in thyroid gland tumors: immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko O.O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key moments of radioiodine therapy, and also radioisotope diagnostics of cancers of a thyroid gland is ability of their cells to accumulate iodide. This ability is provided with activity of the specific transporter – sodium-iodide symporter. Our research has shown disorders of sodium-iodide symporter immunoexpression in all tumors of thyroid gland: from overexpression and absence of plasma membrane expression in differentiated carcinomas, up to weak or actually absent in low differentiated cancers and Hurtle-cells tumors. Thus, there is a prospect of application of the sodium-iodide symporter, as the prognostic marker of thyroid cancers.

  3. Optical properties and surface morphology studies of palladium contacts on mercuric iodide single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, M.A.; Azoulay, M.; Burger, A.; Biao, Y.; Silberman, E. [Fisk Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nason, D. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations

    1993-05-01

    Palladium is chemically suitable for electric contacts on mercuric iodide detectors for photon and nuclear radiation detection, so the understanding of palladium contacts is important for fundamental and practical scientific purposes. A study has been conducted on the surface morphology of evaporated contacts using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and optical transmission and reflection. Evaporated palladium coatings are typically nonuniform and may deposit selectively on mercuric iodide surface defects. Reflection measurements show that coating thickness and surface treatment affect intensity, position and shape of a reflected peak characteristic of the mercuric iodide structure. Results indicate that the band gap energy in the surface of the mercuric iodide is lowered by palladium contacts.

  4. Optical properties and surface morphology studies of palladium contacts on mercuric iodide single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Burger, A.; Biao, Y.; Silberman, E.; Nason, D.

    1993-04-01

    Palladium is chemically suitable for electric contacts on mercuric iodide detectors for photon and nuclear radiation detection, so the understanding of palladium contacts is important for fundamental and practical scientific purposes. A study has been conducted on the surface morphology of evaporated contacts using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical transmission and reflection. Evaporated palladium coatings are typically nonuniform and may deposit selectively on mercuric iodide surface defects. Reflection measurements show that coating thickness and surface treatment affect intensity, position, and shape of a reflected peak characteristic of the mercuric iodide structure. Results indicate that the band gap energy in the surface of the mercuric iodide is lowered by palladium contacts.

  5. Barium Swallow Findings in the Evaluation of Patients with Dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhosein Hashemi Attar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Dysphagia is a subjective"nsensation of difficulty in swallowing that has a wide"nrange of etiologies from psychosomatic disorders"nto high grade neoplasms. In this study we evaluated"nbarium swallow findings of patients with dysphagia."nPatients and Methods: We evaluated 200 patients"n(117 men, 83 women; mean age, 49.6 years with"ncomplaint of dysphagia. Fluoroscopic barium"nswallow was done for all the patients and they were"nreviewed for primary peristalsis (presence or absence,"nAbstracts"nS62 Iran J Radiol 2011, 8 (Supp.1"nAbstracts"nimpaired lower esophageal sphincter, esophageal dilatation, delayed emptying of barium, nonperistaltic contractions, stricture and filling defects. Clinical and in some cases endoscopic or manometric follow up was done for all patients."nResults: We had 134 (67% normal barium swallow"nexams with uncomplicated clinical courses. Sixty"nsix patients (33% had abnormal imaging findings"nincluding stricture in 24 patients (12%, filling defect"nin 12 patients (6% and mucosal abnormality in 14"n(7% patients (six cases of mucosal irregularity, three"ncases of mucosal ulceration and five cases of mucosal"nherniation, Bird's beak sign in three patients (1.5%,"ntertiary spasm in six patients (3% and hiatal hernia in"nseven patients (3.5%."nConclusion: In the majority of patients with dysphagia,"nbarium swallow is the only paraclinical study needed"nto plan proper treatment. If radiographic findings are"nequivocal, endoscopy or manometry may be required"nfor more certain diagnosis.

  6. New efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis: barium-promoted cobalt on carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Stefan; Barfod, Rasmus; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia......Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia...

  7. Obtaining of Nanostructured Powders of Barium and Strontium Hexaferrite by the Polymer Precursor Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Kostishyn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studied the possibility of obtaining by precursors in the polymer nanostructured powders of barium hexaferrite BaFe12O19 and strontium hexaferrite SrFe12O19. The reagents were used as starting barium nitrate, strontium nitrate and ferric nitrate nonahydrate (III, and polyethylene glycol-400 used this technology as a polymer.

  8. Control on Crystal Forms of Ultrafine Barium Carbonate Particles and Study on its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Barium carbonate particles were prepared by using homogeneous precipitation method and co-precipitation method respectively. Through adding different crystalline controlling modifiers, Barium carbonate particles in five different shapes including linear, needle-like, pillarlike, sphere-like and dumbbell-like were synthesized. These particles were characterized by SEM and XRD, and their synthetic mechanism was discussed in this paper.

  9. Investigation on the effects of milling atmosphere on synthesis of barium ferrite/magnetite nanocomposite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molaei, M.J.; Ataie, A.; Raygan, S.; Picken,n S.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research, barium ferrite /magnetite nanocomposites synthesized via a mechano-chemical route. Graphite was used in order to reduce hematite content of barium ferrite to magnetite to produce a magnetic nanocomposite. The effects of processing conditions on the powder characteristics were inves

  10. A barium-rich binary central star in Abell 70

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, Henri M J; Frew, D J; Acker, A; Köppen, J; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A

    2011-01-01

    We have found the central star of Abell 70 (PN G038.1-25.4, hereafter A 70) to be a binary consisting of a G8 IV-V secondary and a hot white dwarf. The secondary shows enhanced Ba II and Sr II features, firmly classifying it as a barium star. The nebula is found to have Type-I chemical abundances with helium and nitrogen enrichment, which combined with future abundance studies of the central star, will establish A 70 as a unique laboratory for studying s-process AGB nucleosynthesis.

  11. Spectroscopic properties of trivalent praseodymium in barium yttrium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bartolo, B. E-mail: dibartob@bc.edurinodiba@attbi.com; Bowlby, B.E

    2003-05-01

    We have conducted a spectroscopic investigation of Pr{sup 3+} in barium yttrium fluoride (BaY{sub 2}O{sub 8}). Two doping concentrations were used: BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8}:Pr{sup 3+} (0.3%) and BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8}:Pr{sup 3+} (1%). The measurements included absorption, luminescence under continuous and pulsed excitations, and thermal effects on some sharp lines. The experimental results were used to characterize this system.

  12. The Kerr nonlinearity of the beta-barium borate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin;

    2013-01-01

    A popular crystal for ultrafast cascading experiments is beta-barium-borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO). It has a decent quadratic nonlinear coefficient, and because the crystal is anisotropie it can be birefringence phase-matched for type I (oo → e) second-harmonic generation (SHG). For femtosecond...... experiments BBO is popular because of low dispersion and a high damage threshold. The main attractive property of ultrafast cascading is that the induced cascading nonlinearity nI 2, casc can be negative, i.e. generate a self-defocusing Kerr-like nonlinearity. However, the material Kerr nonlinearity nI 2...

  13. Strontium iodide gamma ray spectrometers for planetary science (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Rowe, Emmanuel; Butler, Jarrhett; Groza, Michael; Burger, Arnold; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Lambert, James L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Beck, Patrick R.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Feldman, Sabrina M.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2016-09-01

    Gamma rays produced passively by cosmic ray interactions and by the decay of radioelements convey information about the elemental makeup of planetary surfaces and atmospheres. Orbital missions mapped the composition of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Vesta, and now Ceres. Active neutron interrogation will enable and/or enhance in situ measurements (rovers, landers, and sondes). Elemental measurements support planetary science objectives as well as resource utilization and planetary defense initiatives. Strontium iodide, an ultra-bright scintillator with low nonproportionality, offers significantly better energy resolution than most previously flown scintillators, enabling improved accuracy for identification and quantification of key elements. Lanthanum bromide achieves similar resolution; however, radiolanthanum emissions obscure planetary gamma rays from radioelements K, Th, and U. The response of silicon-based optical sensors optimally overlaps the emission spectrum of strontium iodide, enabling the development of compact, low-power sensors required for space applications, including burgeoning microsatellite programs. While crystals of the size needed for planetary measurements (>100 cm3) are on the way, pulse-shape corrections to account for variations in absorption/re-emission of light are needed to achieve maximum resolution. Additional challenges for implementation of large-volume detectors include optimization of light collection using silicon-based sensors and assessment of radiation damage effects and energetic-particle induced backgrounds. Using laboratory experiments, archived planetary data, and modeling, we evaluate the performance of strontium iodide for future missions to small bodies (asteroids and comets) and surfaces of the Moon and Venus. We report progress on instrument design and preliminary assessment of radiation damage effects in comparison to technology with flight heritage.

  14. Preparation of nanosized barium zirconate powder by thermal decomposition of urea in an aqueous solution containing barium and zirconium, and by calcination of the precipitate

    OpenAIRE

    Boschini, Frédéric; Robertz, B.; Rulmont, André; Cloots, Rudi

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of barium zirconate was initiated by urea induced homogeneous precipitation followed by a "low temperature" thermal treatment. The kinetic of the reaction and the optimum urea/cation ratio have been determined by means of X-ray diffraction and Inductive Coupled Plasma analyses. It has been demonstrated that an amorphous zirconium hydrated oxide starts to precipitate followed by the precipitation of barium carbonate. A calcination at 1200 degreesC during 2 h gives rise to the for...

  15. Temperature dependence dielectric properties of modified barium titanate-PVB composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, N. J.; Rakshit, P. B.; Grewal, G. S.; Shrinet, V.; Pratap, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, attempts are made to prepare ceramic polymer-composite followed by characterization of dielectric properties. The Barium Titanate ceramic powders are synthesized using the hydrothermal process. Silane treatment is carried out on Barium Titanate powder to increase its compatibility with polymer, followed with preparation of ceramic-polymer composite. Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) is used as matrix for preparation of the composites and the concentration of Barium Titanate is increased from 60 to 90 wt%. Dielectric properties such as volume resistivity, dielectric constant, dissipation factor are evaluated. Results indicate that the dielectric constant and dissipation factor vary between 52 to 120 and 0.01 to 0.07; respectively as the relative ratio of polymer and silane modified Barium Titanate is varied. Specifically, at 90 wt% of silane modified Barium Titanate, the highest dielectric constant of 123 along with dissipation factor of 0.07 is obtained.

  16. Barium Tagging in Liquid Xenon for the nEXO Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Scott; nEXO Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    nEXO is a next-generation experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of xenon-136 in a liquid xenon time projection chamber. Positive observation of this decay would determine the neutrino to be a MAJORANA particle, as well as measure the absolute neutrino mass scale. In order to greatly reduce background contributions to this search, the collaboration is developing several ``barium tagging'' techniques to recover and identify the decay daughter, barium-136. Barium tagging may be available for a second phase of nEXO operation, allowing for neutrino mass sensitivity beyond the inverted mass hierarchy. Tagging methods for this phase include barium-ion capture on a probe with identification by resonance ionization laser spectroscopy. Inclusion of an argon ion gun in this system allows for improved cleaning and preparation of the barium deposition substrate, with recent results reported in this presentation.

  17. Electronic properties and Compton profiles of silver iodide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alpa Dashora; Ambica Marwal; K R Soni; B L Ahuja

    2010-06-01

    We have carried out an extensive study of electronic properties of silver iodide in - and -phases. The theoretical Compton profiles, energy bands, density of states and anisotropies in momentum densities are computed using density functional theories. We have also employed full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method to derive the energy bands and the density of states. To compare our theoretical data, isotropic Compton profile measurement on -AgI using 137Cs Compton spectrometer at an intermediate resolution of 0.38 a.u. has been undertaken. The theoretical anisotropies are also interpreted on the basis of energy bands.

  18. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Saidi, Wissam A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Scudiero, Louis, E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Chemistry Department and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  19. Polarized spectral complexes of optical functions of monovalent mercury iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, V. V.; Sobolev, V. Val.; Anisimov, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral complexes of optical functions of monovalent mercury iodide Hg2I2 were determined for E ⊥ c and E || c polarizations in the range from 2 to 5.5 eV at 4.2 K. The permittivity and characteristic electron energy loss spectra were expanded in simple components with the determination of their main parameters, including the energy of the maximum and the oscillator strength. The calculations were performed based on known reflectance spectra. Computer programs based on Kramers-Kronig relations and the improved parameter-free method of Argand diagrams were used.

  20. Electrolytic coloration of hydroxyl-doped potassium iodide polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Gu, Hongen; Han, Li; Guo, Meili; Qin, Fang

    2007-03-01

    Hydroxyl-doped potassium iodide polycrystals were successfully colored electrolytically by using a pointed cathode and a flat anode at various temperatures and electric field strengths, which mainly benefits appropriate coloration temperatures and electric field strengths. Characteristic OH-, O2--Va+ , U, V2, V3, Cu+, Cu-related, I2- , I2, K, F, R1 and R2 spectral bands were observed in Kubelka-Munk functions of the colored polycrystals, and the OH- and O2--Va+ spectral bands at room temperature were determined from Mollwo-Ivey plots. Color center formation in the electrolytic coloration was explained.

  1. Anion and cation diffusion in barium titanate and strontium titanate; Anionen- und Kationendiffusion in Barium- und Strontiumtitanat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, Markus Franz

    2012-12-19

    Perovskite oxides show various interesting properties providing several technical applications. In many cases the defect chemistry is the key to understand and influence the material's properties. In this work the defect chemistry of barium titanate and strontium titanate is analysed by anion and cation diffusion experiments and subsequent time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reoxidation equation for barium titanate used in multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is found out by a combination of different isotope exchange experiments and the analysis of the resulting tracer diffusion profiles. It is shown that the incorporation of oxygen from water vapour is faster by orders of magnitude than from molecular oxygen. Chemical analysis shows the samples contain various dopants leading to a complex defect chemistry. Dysprosium is the most important dopant, acting partially as a donor and partially as an acceptor in this effectively acceptor-doped material. TEM and EELS analysis show the inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in a core-shell microstructure. The oxygen partial pressure and temperature dependence of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients is analysed and explained by the complex defect chemistry of Dy-doped barium titanate. Additional fast diffusion profiles are attributed to fast diffusion along grain boundaries. In addition to the barium titanate ceramics from an important technical application, oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped BaTiO{sub 3} single crystals has been studied by means of {sup 18}O{sub 2}/{sup 16}O{sub 2} isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by ToF-SIMS. It is shown that a correct description of the diffusion profiles requires the analysis of the diffusion through the surface space-charge into the material's bulk. Surface exchange coefficients, space-charge potentials and bulk diffusion coefficients are analysed as a function of oxygen partial

  2. Tungsten and Barium Transport in the Internal Plasma of Hollow Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushedback to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. Thisbarium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream endgreater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length,so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollowcathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  3. Thermal expansion behaviour of barium and strontium zirconium phosphates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Srikari Tantri; K Geetha; A M Umarji; Sheela K Ramasesha

    2000-12-01

    Ba1.5–SrZr4P5SiO24 compounds with = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5, belonging to the low thermal expansion NZP family were synthesized by the solid state reaction method. The XRD pattern could be completely indexed with respect to R$\\bar{3}$ space group indicating the ordering of vacancy at the divalent cation octahedral sites. The microstructure and bulk thermal expansion coefficient from room temperature to 800°C of the sintered samples have been studied. All the samples show very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), with = 0 samples showing negative expansion. A small substitution of strontium in the pure barium compound changes the sign of CTE. Similarly, = 1.5 sample (pure strontium) shows a positive CTE and a small substitution of barium changes its sign. = 1.0 and 1.25 samples have almost constant CTE over the entire temperature range. The low thermal expansion of these samples can be attributed to the ordering of the ions in the crystal structure of these materials.

  4. Study of barium bismuth titanate prepared by mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Z.Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium-bismuth titanate, BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBT, a member of Aurivillius bismuth-based layer-structure perovskites, was prepared from stoichiometric amounts of barium titanate and bismuth titanate obtained via mechanochemical synthesis. Mechanochemical synthesis was performed in air atmosphere in a planetary ball mill. The reaction mechanism of BaBi4Ti4O15 and the preparation and characteristics of BBT ceramic powders were studied using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, particle analysis and SEM. The Bi-layered perovskite structure of BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramic forms at 1100 °C for 4 h without a pre-calcination step. The microstructure of BaBi4Ti4O15 exhibits plate-like grains typical for the Bi-layered structured material and spherical and polygonal grains. The Ba2+ addition leads to changes in the microstructure development, particularly in the change of the average grain size.

  5. Liquid-Phase Processing of Barium Titanate Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David Thomas

    Processing of thin films introduces strict limits on the thermal budget due to substrate stability and thermal expansion mismatch stresses. Barium titanate serves as a model system for the difficulty in producing high quality thin films because of sensitivity to stress, scale, and crystal quality. Thermal budget restriction leads to reduced crystal quality, density, and grain growth, depressing ferroelectric and nonlinear dielectric properties. Processing of barium titanate is typically performed at temperatures hundreds of degrees above compatibility with metalized substrates. In particular integration with silicon and other low thermal expansion substrates is desirable for reductions in costs and wider availability of technologies. In bulk metal and ceramic systems, sintering behavior has been encouraged by the addition of a liquid forming second phase, improving kinetics and promoting densification and grain growth at lower temperatures. This approach is also widespread in the multilayer ceramic capacitor industry. However only limited exploration of flux processing with refractory thin films has been performed despite offering improved dielectric properties for barium titanate films at lower temperatures. This dissertation explores physical vapor deposition of barium titanate thin films with addition of liquid forming fluxes. Flux systems studied include BaO-B2O3, Bi2O3-BaB2O 4, BaO-V2O5, CuO-BaO-B2O3, and BaO-B2O3 modified by Al, Si, V, and Li. Additions of BaO-B2O3 leads to densification and an increase in average grain size from 50 nm to over 300 nm after annealing at 900 °C. The ability to tune permittivity of the material improved from 20% to 70%. Development of high quality films enables engineering of ferroelectric phase stability using residual thermal expansion mismatch in polycrystalline films. The observed shifts to TC match thermodynamic calculations, expected strain from the thermal expansion coefficients, as well as x-ray diffract measurements

  6. Persistent Energetic Electrons in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesner, Daniel; Zhu, Haiming; Miyata, Kiyoshi; Joshi, Prakriti P; Evans, Tyler J S; Kudisch, Bryan J; Trinh, M Tuan; Marks, Manuel; Zhu, X-Y

    2016-12-07

    In conventional semiconductor solar cells, carriers are extracted at the band edges and the excess electronic energy (E*) is lost as heat. If E* is harvested, power conversion efficiency can be as high as twice the Shockley-Queisser limit. To date, materials suitable for hot carrier solar cells have not been found due to efficient electron/optical-phonon scattering in most semiconductors, but our recent experiments revealed long-lived hot carriers in single-crystal hybrid lead bromide perovskites. Here we turn to polycrystalline methylammonium lead iodide perovskite, which has emerged as the material for highly efficient solar cells. We observe energetic electrons with excess energy ⟨E*⟩ ≈ 0.25 eV above the conduction band minimum and with lifetime as long as ∼100 ps, which is 2-3 orders of magnitude longer than those in conventional semiconductors. The energetic carriers also give rise to hot fluorescence emission with pseudo-electronic temperatures as high as 1900 K. These findings point to a suppression of hot carrier scattering with optical phonons in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite. We address mechanistic origins of this suppression and, in particular, the correlation of this suppression with dynamic disorder. We discuss potential harvesting of energetic carriers for solar energy conversion.

  7. Ionic transport in hybrid lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Christopher; Frost, Jarvist M.; Barnes, Piers R. F.; O'Regan, Brian C.; Walsh, Aron; Islam, M. Saiful

    2015-01-01

    Solar cells based on organic–inorganic halide perovskites have recently shown rapidly rising power conversion efficiencies, but exhibit unusual behaviour such as current–voltage hysteresis and a low-frequency giant dielectric response. Ionic transport has been suggested to be an important factor contributing to these effects; however, the chemical origin of this transport and the mobile species are unclear. Here, the activation energies for ionic migration in methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) are derived from first principles, and are compared with kinetic data extracted from the current–voltage response of a perovskite-based solar cell. We identify the microscopic transport mechanisms, and find facile vacancy-assisted migration of iodide ions with an activation energy of 0.6 eV, in good agreement with the kinetic measurements. The results of this combined computational and experimental study suggest that hybrid halide perovskites are mixed ionic–electronic conductors, a finding that has major implications for solar cell device architectures. PMID:26105623

  8. Numerical modelling of methyl iodide in the eastern tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stemmler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methyl iodide (CH3I is a volatile organic halogen compound that contributes significantly to the transport of iodine from the ocean to the atmosphere, where it plays an important role in tropospheric chemistry. CH3I is naturally produced and occurs in the global ocean. The processes involved in the formation of CH3I, however, are not fully understood. In fact, there is an ongoing debate whether production by phytoplankton or photochemical degradation of organic matter is the main source term. Here, both the biological and photochemical production mechanisms are considered in a biogeochemical module that is coupled to a one-dimensional water column model for the eastern tropical Atlantic. The model is able to reproduce observed subsurface maxima of CH3I concentrations. But, the dominating source process cannot be clearly identified as subsurface maxima can occur due to both direct biological and photochemical production. However, good agreement between the observed and simulated difference between surface and subsurface methyl iodide concentrations is achieved only when direct biological production is taken into account. Production rates for the biological CH3I source that were derived from published laboratory studies are shown to be inappropriate for explaining CH3I concentrations in the eastern tropical Atlantic.

  9. Nuclear detonation, thyroid cancer and potassium iodide prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent nuclear disaster at Japan has raised global concerns about effects of radioactive leakage in the environment, associated hazards, and how they can be prevented. In this article, we have tried to explain about the guidelines laid down by World Health Organization for a potassium iodide prophylaxis following a nuclear disaster, and its mechanism of action in preventing thyroid cancer. Data was collected mainly from the studies carried out during the Chernobyl disaster of Russia in 1986 and the hazardous effects especially on the thyroid gland were studied. It was seen that radioactive iodine leakage from the nuclear plants mainly affected the thyroid gland, and especially children were at a higher risk at developing the cancers. Potassium Iodide prophylaxis can be administered in order to prevent an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in the population of an area affected by a nuclear disaster. However, one has to be cautious while giving it, as using it without indication has its own risks.

  10. Thyroid hormones and iodide in the near-term pregnant rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), are produced by the thyroid gland. To synthesize thyroid hormones the thyroid needs iodide. The uptake of iodide as well as the production and secretion of T4 and T3 by the thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin (TSH), which is pr

  11. Effects of radiation and temperature on iodide sorption by surfactant-modified bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Sungwook; Kim, Minkyung; Yang, Jung-Seok; Kim, Min-Gyu; Um, Wooyong

    2014-08-19

    Bentonite, which is used as an engineered barrier in geological repositories, is ineffective for sorbing anionic radionuclides because of its negatively charged surface. This study modified raw bentonite using a cationic surfactant (i.e., hexadecyltrimethylammonium [HDTMA]-Br) to improve its sorption capability for radioactive iodide. The effects of temperature and radiation on the iodide sorption of surfactant-modified bentonite (SMB) were also evaluated under alkaline pH condition similar to that found in repository environments. Different amounts of surfactant, equivalent to the 50, 100, and 200% cation-exchange capacity of the bentonite, were used to produce the HDTMA-SMB for iodide sorption. The sorption reaction of the SMB with iodide reached equilibrium rapidly within 10 min regardless of temperature and radiation conditions. The rate of iodide sorption increased as the amount of the added surfactant was increased and nonlinear sorption behavior was exhibited. However, high temperature and γ-irradiation ((60)Co) resulted in significantly (∼2-10 times) lower iodide Kd values for the SMB. The results of FTIR, NMR, and XANES spectroscopy analysis suggested that the decrease in iodide sorption may be caused by weakened physical electrostatic force between the HDTMA and iodide, and by the surfactant becoming detached from the SMB during the heating and irradiation processes.

  12. Tungstosilicic Acid: An Efficient and Ecofriendly Catalyst for the Conversion of Alcohols to Alkyl Iodides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mokhtary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of a range of benzylic, allylic, and secondary aliphatic alcohols with potassium iodides in the presence of H4SiW12O40 affords the corresponding alkyl iodides in good to excellent yield with straightforward purification at room temperature in CH3CN.

  13. Bibenzimidazole containing mixed ligand cobalt(III) complex as a selective receptor for iodide

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Indumathy, R.; Parameswarana, P.S.; Aiswarya, C.V.; Nair, B.U.

    -, OH- and OAc- do not bring about any dramatic visual colorimetric changes. However, metallo-receptor 2 brings about vivid color change with iodide anion visually and this could be due to charge transfer transition via ion pair formation with iodide ion...

  14. CuI-catalyzed Synthesis of Aryl Thiocyanates from Aryl Iodides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Feng WANG; Yuan ZHOU; Jia Rui WANG; Lei LIU; Qing Xiang GUO

    2006-01-01

    An operationally simple and inexpensive catalyst system was developed for the cross coupling of potassium thiocyanate with aryl iodides by using CuI as catalyst, 1, 10-phenanthroline as ligand, and tetraethylammonium iodide as activator. The procedure is applicable for the synthesis of diverse aryl thiocyanates without any exotic, poisonous reagents.

  15. Determination of Trace Iodide in Sodium Bisulfite Aqueous Solution by Ion Chromatography with UV Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.S.; Kim, D.Y.; Choi, K.S.; Park, S.D.; Han, S.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The iodide was recovered from a simulated spent fuel to the sodium bisulfite aqueous solution. It was discussed that the trace iodide (below 1 ppm) was determined without the matrix effect of 0.1 M sodium bisulfite and 1 mM HNO{sub 3} in aqueous solution by ion chromatography with UV detection. AS4A-SC(DIONEX) column and UV-absorption spectrophotometer were used. The UV-absorption spectra of sodium bisulfite nitric acid and iodide were obtained, and then 230 nm was selected as an absorption wavelength for iodide determination. 0.1 M NaCl eluent was optimum condition. In this condition the calibration curve of iodide was obtained on the range of about 0-1,000 ppb. The linear coefficient was 0.99993 and the detection limit was 5 ppb. The relative standard deviation was 1.26%. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. The Determination of Iodide Based on a Flow-injection Coupling Irreversible Biamperometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun LI; Hao CHENG; Wen Yi HUANG; Hong Xing KONG; Jian Ling WU; Jian Ping LU; Wei GAO; Jun Feng SONG

    2005-01-01

    A novel flow-injection irreversible biamperometric method is described for the direct determination of iodide. The method is based on electrochemical oxidation of iodide at the gold electrode and the reduction of permanganate at the platinum electrode to form an irreversible biamperometric detection system. Under the applied potential difference of 0 V, in the 0.05mol/L sulfuric acid, iodide can be determined over the range 4.00×10-7-l.00×l0-5 mol/L with a sampling frequency of 120 samples per hour. The detection limit for Ⅰ- is 3.0× 10-7 mol/L and the RSD for 40 replicate determinations of 4.0×10-5 mol/L potassium iodide is 1.68%. The new method was applied to the analysis of iodide in table salt with satisfactory results.

  17. Preparation of Barium Titanate Nanopowder through Thermal Decomposition of Peroxide Precursor and Its Formation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG, Yangxi; CHEN, Qiyuan; LIU, Shijun

    2009-01-01

    H_2TiO_3 was dissolved in the mixture of hydrogen formed peroxide and ammonia under the pH range of 8-10 with a transparent yellow solution formed. When an equivalent mole of Ba~(2+) solution was added into the yellow solution, the precipitate produced was the peroxide precursor of barium titanate. The cubic nanopowder of barium titanate was obtained when the precipitate was washed, stoved, and then calcined at 600 ℃ for 1 h. The peroxide precursor of barium titanate and barium titanate nanopowder prepared were characterized to be BaTi(H_2O_2)_2O_3 by TGA-DTA, XRD, TEM, SEM, and XREDS. The peroxide precursor of barium titanate was determined to be BaTi(H_2O_2)_2O_3. The particle size of the barium titanate nanopowder, the calcined product of BaTi(H_2O_2)_2O_3, was in the range of 20-40 nm. A formation mechanism of the barium titanate nanopowder through thermal decomposition of its peroxide precursor was proposed and then validated.

  18. Bio-based barium alginate film: Preparation, flame retardancy and thermal degradation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Chuan-Jie; Zhao, Jin-Chao; Guo, Yi; Zhu, Ping; Wang, De-Yi

    2016-03-30

    A bio-based barium alginate film was prepared via a facile ionic exchange and casting approach. Its flammability, thermal degradation and pyrolysis behaviors, thermal degradation mechanism were studied systemically by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning (UL-94), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). It showed that barium alginate film had much higher LOI value (52.0%) than that of sodium alginate film (24.5%). Moreover, barium alginate film passed the UL-94 V-0 rating, while the sodium alginate film showed no classification. Importantly, peak of heat release rate (PHRR) of barium alginate film in MCC test was much lower than that of sodium alginate film, suggested that introduction of barium ion into alginate film significantly decreased release of combustible gases. TG-FTIR and Py-GC-MS results indicated that barium alginate produced much less flammable products than that of sodium alginate in whole thermal degradation procedure. Finally, a possible degradation mechanism of barium alginate had been proposed.

  19. Synthesis, growth, structural, thermal, optical properties of new metal-organic crystals: Methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide thiourea and methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide chloroform hemisolvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivachev, Boris L.; Kossev, Krassimir; Dimowa, Louiza T.; Yankov, Georgi; Petrov, Todor; Nikolova, Rositsa P.; Petrova, Nadia

    2013-08-01

    Crystals of methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide thiourea (1) and methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide chloroform hemisolvate (2) were obtained for the first time. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral studies have been performed to identify the functional groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to study their thermal properties. The optical transmittance window and the lower cutoff wavelength have been identified by UV-vis studies. Crystals of the title compounds suitable for single crystal X-ray analyses were successfully grown by slow evaporation and diffraction data were collected to elucidate the molecular structure and interactions. The proton donors (phosphonium) and proton acceptor (iodine) in the structure of 1 provide infrastructure to introduce charge asymmetry while in 2 chloroform molecule is not involved in the charge transfer. An optical quality crystal of 1 (5×4×2 mm3) was obtained by macroseeding. The crystal has developed facets with major ones (001) and (00¯1). A crystal of 1 was tested with 1060 nm laser radiation and showed second harmonic generation (SHG).

  20. Fabrication of Efficient Low-Bandgap Perovskite Solar Cells by Combining Formamidinium Tin Iodide with Methylammonium Lead Iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Weiqiang; Zhao, Dewei; Yu, Yue; Shrestha, Niraj; Ghimire, Kiran; Grice, Corey R.; Wang, Changlei; Xiao, Yuqing; Cimaroli, Alexander J.; Ellingson, Randy J.; Podraza, Nikolas J.; Zhu, Kai; Xiong, Ren-Gen; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-09-28

    Mixed tin (Sn)-lead (Pb) perovskites with high Sn content exhibit low bandgaps suitable for fabricating the bottom cell of perovskite-based tandem solar cells. In this work, we report on the fabrication of efficient mixed Sn-Pb perovskite solar cells using precursors combining formamidinium tin iodide (FASnI3) and methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). The best-performing cell fabricated using a (FASnI3)0.6(MAPbI3)0.4 absorber with an absorption edge of ~1.2 eV achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.08 (15.00)% with an open-circuit voltage of 0.795 (0.799) V, a short-circuit current density of 26.86(26.82) mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 70.6(70.0)% when measured under forward (reverse) voltage scan. The average PCE of 50 cells we have fabricated is 14.39 +/- 0.33%, indicating good reproducibility.

  1. Magnetic properties of Ni substituted Y-type barium ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Mi Hee; Kim, Chul Sung, E-mail: cskim@kookmin.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-07

    Y-type barium hexaferrite is attractive material for various applications, such as high frequency antennas and RF devices, because of its interesting magnetic properties. Especially, Ni substituted Y- type hexaferrites have higher magnetic ordering temperature than other Y-type. We have investigated macroscopic and microscopic properties of Y-type barium hexaferrite. Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) samples are prepared by solid-state reaction method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as a network analyzer for high frequency characteristics. The XRD pattern is analyzed by Rietveld refinement method and confirms the hexagonal structure with R-3m. The hysteresis curve shows ferrimagnetic behavior. Saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) decreases with Ni contents. Ni{sup 2+}, which preferentially occupies the octahedral site with up-spin sub-lattice, has smaller spin value S of 1 than Co{sup 2+} having S = 3/2. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) measurement of Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} shows that Curie and spin transition temperatures are found to be 718 K and 209 K, respectively. The Curie temperature T{sub C} is increased with Ni contents, while T{sub S} is decreased with Ni. The Mössbauer spectra were measured at various temperatures and fitted by using a least-squares method with six sextet of six Lorentzian lines for Fe sites, corresponding to the 3b{sub VI}, 6c{sub IV}*, 6c{sub VI}, 18h{sub VI}, 6c{sub IV}, and 3a{sub IV} sites at below T{sub C}. From Mössbauer measurements, we confirmed the spin state of Fe ion to be Fe{sup 3+} and obtained the isomer shift (δ), magnetic hyperfine field (H{sub hf}), and the occupancy ratio of Fe ions at six sub-lattices. The complex permeability and permittivity are measured between 100 MHz and 4 GHz, suggesting that Y-type barium hexaferrite is promising for antenna

  2. Magnetic properties of Ni substituted Y-type barium ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Mi Hee; Kim, Chul Sung

    2014-05-01

    Y-type barium hexaferrite is attractive material for various applications, such as high frequency antennas and RF devices, because of its interesting magnetic properties. Especially, Ni substituted Y- type hexaferrites have higher magnetic ordering temperature than other Y-type. We have investigated macroscopic and microscopic properties of Y-type barium hexaferrite. Ba2Co2-xNixFe12O22 (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) samples are prepared by solid-state reaction method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as a network analyzer for high frequency characteristics. The XRD pattern is analyzed by Rietveld refinement method and confirms the hexagonal structure with R-3m. The hysteresis curve shows ferrimagnetic behavior. Saturation magnetization (Ms) decreases with Ni contents. Ni2+, which preferentially occupies the octahedral site with up-spin sub-lattice, has smaller spin value S of 1 than Co2+ having S = 3/2. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) measurement of Ba2Co1.5Ni0.5Fe12O22 shows that Curie and spin transition temperatures are found to be 718 K and 209 K, respectively. The Curie temperature TC is increased with Ni contents, while TS is decreased with Ni. The Mössbauer spectra were measured at various temperatures and fitted by using a least-squares method with six sextet of six Lorentzian lines for Fe sites, corresponding to the 3bVI, 6cIV*, 6cVI, 18hVI, 6cIV, and 3aIV sites at below TC. From Mössbauer measurements, we confirmed the spin state of Fe ion to be Fe3+ and obtained the isomer shift (δ), magnetic hyperfine field (Hhf), and the occupancy ratio of Fe ions at six sub-lattices. The complex permeability and permittivity are measured between 100 MHz and 4 GHz, suggesting that Y-type barium hexaferrite is promising for antenna applications in UHF band.

  3. Barium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by self-propagating low-temperature combustion method and its characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P M Prithviraj Swamy; S Basavaraja; Vijayanand Havanoor; N V Srinivas Rao; R Nijagunappa; A Venkataraman

    2011-12-01

    The barium ferrite particles were prepared using a self-propagating low-temperature combustion method using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a fuel. The process was investigated with simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA). The crystalline structure, morphology and the magnetic properties of the barium ferrite particles were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SQUID susceptometer. The results show that the ignition temperature of PEG is lower compared with other combustion methods and gives nanocrystalline barium ferrite.

  4. Addition of methyl cellulose enema to double-contrast barium imaging of sigmoid diverticulosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, R. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Adnerhill, I. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Bjoerkdahl, P. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ekberg, O. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Fork, F.T. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1997-01-01

    Double-contrast barium enema has a reduced sensitivity in patients with severe sigmoid diverticulosis. Therefore a carboxy methyl cellulose enema was employed after the conventional double-contrast examination in 15 patients with sigmoid diverticulosis. A significant increase in lumen diameter and a superior removal of barium residue from the diverticulas facilitated the interpretation of the sigmoid loops. Conclusion: The addition of methyl cellulose enema to double-contrast barium imaging improves diagnostic imaging in diverticulosis by expanding the lumen and emptying the diverticulas. (orig.).

  5. A Comparative Study on Magnetostructural Properties of Barium Hexaferrite Powders Prepared by Polyethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Durmus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline particles of barium hexaferrite were synthesized by a sol-gel combustion route using nitrate-citrate gels prepared from metal nitrates and citric acid solutions with Fe/Ba molar ratio 12. The present paper aims to study the effect of addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG solutions with different molecular weights (MW: 400, 2000, and 10.000 g/mol on magnetostructural properties of barium hexaferrite. The formation of the barium hexaferrite was inspected using X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR analysis, thermogravimetric (TGA analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM analysis for magnetic measurements.

  6. Horizontal Ampoule Growth and Characterization of Mercuric Iodide at Controlled Gas Pressures for X-Ray and Gamma Ray Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Semiconductor Materials and Radiological Technologies Lab., Dept. of Nuclear and Mechanical Engineering; Ariesanti, Elsa [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Semiconductor Materials and Radiological Technologies Lab., Dept. of Nuclear and Mechanical Engineering; Corcoran, Bridget [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Semiconductor Materials and Radiological Technologies Lab., Dept. of Nuclear and Mechanical Engineering

    2004-04-30

    The project developed a new method for producing high quality mercuric iodide crystals of x-ray and gamma spectrometers. Included are characterization of mercuric iodide crystal properties as a function of growth environment and fabrication and demonstration of room-temperature-operated high-resolution mercuric iodide spectrometers.

  7. Physico-chemical study of barium (II) dipivaloylmethanate nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotova, N.E. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Igumenov, I.K. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Mamatyuk, V.I. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Sidorenko, G.V. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry

    1995-06-01

    A physico-chemical research of bis-(dipivaloylmethanato)barium(II) (Ba(thd){sub 2}) has been carried out from the point of its use in CVD processes as a precursor (thermal stability, immunity to external effects and etc.). The optimal conditions for synthesis, purification and storage have been found. It has been shown, that the sublimated product presents a mixture of several modifications with the main phase of a composition Ba{sub 4}(thd){sub 8}. At a lowered pressure the sublimated product is preserved without decomposition for a long time. In the air it is a monomer of a composition Ba(thd){sub 2}*2H{sub 2}O, decomposing in the course of time with forming a free ligand or a diketone (C{sub 8}H{sub 21}O{sub 2}) depending on the way of purification of the initial compound. (orig.).

  8. Synthesis and optical study of barium magnesium aluminate blue phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeet, Suninder; Sharma, Manoj; Pandey, O. P.

    2015-05-01

    Europium doped barium magnesium aluminate (BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+) phosphor was prepared via solution combustion method at 550°C using urea as a fuel. Morphological and optical properties of the prepared sample was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD result showed the formation of pure phase BaMgAl10O17(JCPDS 26-0163) along with an additional phase BaAl2O4(JCPDS 01-082-1350). TEM image indicated the formation of faceted particles with average particle size 40 nm. From PL spectra, a broad emission band obtained at about 450 nm attributes to 4f6 5d → 4f7 transition of Eu2+ which lies in the blue region of the visible spectrum.

  9. Synthesis and optical study of barium magnesium aluminate blue phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeet, Suninder, E-mail: suninder.jeet@thapar.edu; Pandey, O. P., E-mail: oppandey@thapar.edu [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala (147003), Punjab (India); Sharma, Manoj, E-mail: manojnarad@sggswu.org [Department of Nanotechnology, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib(146406), Punjab (India)

    2015-05-15

    Europium doped barium magnesium aluminate (BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+}) phosphor was prepared via solution combustion method at 550°C using urea as a fuel. Morphological and optical properties of the prepared sample was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD result showed the formation of pure phase BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}(JCPDS 26-0163) along with an additional phase BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(JCPDS 01-082-1350). TEM image indicated the formation of faceted particles with average particle size 40 nm. From PL spectra, a broad emission band obtained at about 450 nm attributes to 4f{sup 6} 5d → 4f{sup 7} transition of Eu{sup 2+} which lies in the blue region of the visible spectrum.

  10. A new type of microphone using flexoelectric barium strontium titnate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seol ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Shujun; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2014-03-01

    A flexoelectric bridge-structured microphone using bulk barium strontium titanate (Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3 or BST) ceramic was investigated in this study. The flexoelectric microphone was installed in an anechoic box and exposed to the sound pressure emitted from a loud speaker. Charge sensitivity of the flexoelectric microphone was measured and calibrated using a reference microphone. The 1.5 mm×768 μm×50 μm micro-machined bridge-structured flexoelectric microphone has a sensitivity of 0.92 pC/Pa, while its resonance frequency was calculated to be 98.67 kHz. The analytical and experimental results show that the flexoelectric microphone has both high sensitivity and broad bandwidth, indicating that flexoelectric microphones are potential candidates for many applications.

  11. Influence of Barium Hexaferrite on Magnetic Properties of Hydroxyapatite Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarupoom, P; Jaita, P

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) powders was derived from natural bovine bone by sequence of thermal processes. The barium hexaferrite (BF) find magnetic powders were added into HA powders in ratio of 1-3 vol.%. The HA-BF ceramics were prepared by a solid state reaction method and sintered at 1250 degrees C for 2 h. Effects of BF additive on structural, physical and magnetic properties of HA ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction revealed that all HA-BF samples showed a main phase of high purity hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] with calcium and phosphate molar ratio of 1.67. The addition of BF into HA inhibited grain growth and caused an improvement of mechanical properties. The M-H hysteresis loops also showed an improvement in magnetic behavior for higher content of BF. Moreover, in vitro bioactivity test indicated that the 2-3 vol.% sample may be suitable for biological applications.

  12. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roquais, J.M.; Poret, F.; Doze, R. le; Ricaud, J.L.; Monterrin, A.; Steinbrunn, A

    2003-06-15

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK)

  13. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO/sub 2/ from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)/sub 2/) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). Such a process would be applied to scrub /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)/sub 2/ slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)/sub 2/. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated.

  14. A buffer gas cooled beam of barium monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Geoffrey; Tarallo, Marco; Zelevinsky, Tanya

    2016-05-01

    Significant advances in direct laser cooling of diatomic molecules have opened up a wide array of molecular species to precision studies spanning many-body physics, quantum collisions and ultracold dissociation. We present a cryogenic beam source of barium monohydride (BaH), and study laser ablation of solid precursor targets as well as helium buffer gas cooling dynamics. Additionally, we cover progress towards a molecular magneto-optical trap, with spectroscopic studies of relevant cooling transitions in the B2 Σ molecules, including resolution of hyperfine structure and precision measurements of the vibrational Frank-Condon factors. Finally, we examine the feasibility of photo dissociation of trapped BaH molecules to yield optically accessible samples of ultracold hydrogen.

  15. Infrared Spectroscopic Characterization of Calcium and Barium Hydrazone Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *A. Adeniyi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrazones have attracted considerable interest on account of their biological activities. Introduction of calcium and barium metal ions into m- and p-nitrobenzoic hydrazones is expected to modify these biological properties for enhanced activity and versatility. The ligands were synthesized from the parent acids. The complexes have been characterized using C, H and N microanalyses and IR spectrometry. The IR spectral data of the ligands and complexes revealed bonding via the C=O and C=N groups. The suggested metal to ligand stoichiometries are: [M (m-NBHx]Cl2.yH2O, x, y = 1 and 4 for M = Ca; x, y = 2 and 3 for M = Ba respectively. [M(p-NBHx]Cl2.yH2O, x, y = 1 and 12 for M = Ca; x, y = 1 and 3 for M = Ba respectively. The structural deductions are tentative pending future X-ray structural studies.

  16. Communication: Barium ions and helium nanodroplets: solvation and desolvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohang; Drabbels, Marcel

    2012-08-07

    The solvation of Ba(+) ions created by the photoionization of barium atoms located on the surface of helium nanodroplets has been investigated. The excitation spectra corresponding to the 6p (2)P(1/2) ← 6s (2)S(1/2) and 6p (2)P(3/2) ← 6s (2)S(1/2) transitions of Ba(+) are found to be identical to those recorded in bulk He II [H. J. Reyher, H. Bauer, C. Huber, R. Mayer, A. Schafer, and A. Winnacker, Phys. Lett. A 115, 238 (1986)], indicating that the ions formed at the surface of the helium droplets become fully solvated by the helium. Time-of-flight mass spectra suggest that following the excitation of the solvated Ba(+) ions, these are being ejected from the helium droplets either as bare Ba(+) ions or as small Ba(+)He(n) (n < 20) complexes.

  17. Ionoluminescence of trivalent rare-earth-doped strontium barium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-VI, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Nacional Automoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ruvalcaba, J.L. [Universidad Nacional Automoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bettinelli, M.; Speghini, A. [Dipartimento Scientifico e Tecnologico, Universita di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Ca Vignal, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy); Barboza Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Calderon, T. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-VI, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: tomas.calderon@uam.es; Jaque, D.; Garcia Sole, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Ionoluminescence spectra for different rare-earth ion (Pr{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+})-activated Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1-x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} strontium barium niobate crystals (x=0.33 and 0.60) have been induced with a 3 MeV proton beam for a variety of beam current intensities (45, 40 and 20 nA). The proton-beam induced luminescent spectra have shown features associated with the presence of the rare-earth ion and some spectral features mostly related to the host crystal, which appear only for high beam current intensities. We have compared the ionoluminescence results to those obtained under UV light excitation (photoluminescence technique) where a direct excitation of the band gap would occur.

  18. Structural and functional characterization of barium zirconium titanate / epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto González Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric behavior of composite materials (barium zirconium titanate / epoxy system was analyzed as a function of ceramic concentration. Structure and morphologic behavior of the composites was investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses. Composites were prepared by mixing the components and pouring them into suitable moulds. It was demonstrated that the amount of inorganic phase affects the morphology of the presented composites. XRD revealed the presence of a single phase while Raman scattering confirmed structural transitions as a function of ceramic concentration. Changes in the ceramic concentration affected Raman modes and the distribution of particles along into in epoxy matrix. Dielectric permittivity and dielectric losses were influenced by filler concentration.

  19. Effect of Nb on barium titanate prepared from citrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of dopants on the microstructure development and electrical properties of BaTiO3 doped with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mol% of Nb and 0.01 mol% of Mn based compounds was studied. Doped barium titanate was prepared using the polymeric precursor method from citrate solutions. The powders calcined at 700°C for 4 hours were analysed by infrared (IR spectroscopy to verify the presence of carbonates, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD for phase formation. The phase composition, microstructure and dielectric properties show a strong dependence on the amount of added niobium.

  20. Calcium, Strontium and Barium Homogeneous Catalysts for Fine Chemicals Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Yann; Carpentier, Jean-François

    2016-12-01

    The large alkaline earths (Ae), calcium, strontium and barium, have in the past 15 years yielded a brand new generation of heteroleptic molecular catalysts for the production of fine chemicals. However, the integrity of these complexes is often plagued by ligand redistribution equilibria in solution. This personal account retraces the paths followed in our research group towards the design of stable heteroleptic alkalino-earth complexes, including the use of intramolecular noncovalent Ae···H-Si and Ae···F-C interactions. Their implementation as homogenous precatalysts for reactions such as the intramolecular and intermolecular hydroamination and hydrophosphination of activated alkenes, the hydrophosphonylation of ketones, and the dehydrogenative coupling of amines and hydrosilanes that enable the efficient and controlled formations of CP, CN, or SiN σ-bonds, is presented in a synthetic perspective that highlights their overall outstanding catalytic performance.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-particle Substituted Barium Hexaferrite

    CERN Document Server

    Atassi, Yomen; Tally, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    High density magnetic recording requires high coercivity magnetic media and small particle size. Barium hexaferrite has been considered as a leading candidate material because of its chemical stability, fairly large crystal anisotropy and suitable magnetic characteristics. In this work, we present the preparation of the hexagonal ferrite BaFe12O19 and one of its derivative; the Zn-Sn substituted hexaferrite by the chemical co-precipitation method. The main advantage of this method on the conventional glass-ceramic one, resides in providing a small enough particle size for magnetic recording. We demonstrate using the X-ray diffraction patterns that the particle size decreases when substituting the hexaferrite by the Zn-Sn combination. This may improve the magnetic properties of the hexaferrite as a medium for HD magnetic recording

  2. Morphological effects in the quantum yield of cesium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. [Ecole Politechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). DP-IPA PH-Ecublens; Barbo, F. [Sincrotrone Trieste SpA, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Bertolo, M. [Sincrotrone Trieste SpA, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Bianco, A. [Sincrotrone Trieste SpA, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Braem, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Cerasari, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste SpA, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Coluzza, C. [Ecole Politechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). DP-IPA PH-Ecublens; Dell`Orto, T. [Ecole Politechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). DP-IPA PH-Ecublens; Fontana, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste SpA, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Margaritondo, G. [Ecole Politechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). DP-IPA PH-Ecublens; Nappi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Paic, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Piuz, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Sanjines, R. [Ecole Politechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). DP-IPA PH-Ecublens; Scognetti, T. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Sgobba, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments

    1995-07-15

    We demonstrated that polycrystalline cesium iodide (CsI) on large area Ni/Au coated printed board provides a quantum efficiency (QE) higher by a factor of 2 than the films deposited on the standard Cu/Au printed circuits. This is the most important result of the present systematic study of the QE lateral inhomogeneity for CsI on different substrates. We found a strong correlation between the QE lateral variation and the morphological homogeneity of the films. The QE was measured by UV photoelectron emission microscopy and spatially resolved X-ray photoemission, and the morphology studies were performed by secondary electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.).

  3. Electronic characterization of mercuric iodide gamma ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrish, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    During the past four years the yield of high resolution mercuric iodide (HgI[sub 2]) gamma ray spectrometers produced at EG G/EM has increased dramatically. Data is presented which demonstrates a strong correlation between starting material and spectrometer performance. Improved spectrometer yields are attributed to the method of HgI[sub 2] synthesis and to material purification procedures. Data is presented which shows that spectrometer performance is correlated with hole mobility-lifetime products. In addition, the measurement of Schottky barrier heights on HgI[sub 2] spectrometers has been performed using I-V curves and the photoelectric method. Barrier heights near 1.1 eV have been obtained using various contacts and contact deposition methods. These data suggest the pinning of the Fermi level at midgap at the HgI[sub 2] surface, probably due to surface states formed prior to contact deposition.

  4. Electronic characterization of mercuric iodide gamma ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrish, V.M.

    1993-06-01

    During the past four years the yield of high resolution mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) gamma ray spectrometers produced at EG&G/EM has increased dramatically. Data is presented which demonstrates a strong correlation between starting material and spectrometer performance. Improved spectrometer yields are attributed to the method of HgI{sub 2} synthesis and to material purification procedures. Data is presented which shows that spectrometer performance is correlated with hole mobility-lifetime products. In addition, the measurement of Schottky barrier heights on HgI{sub 2} spectrometers has been performed using I-V curves and the photoelectric method. Barrier heights near 1.1 eV have been obtained using various contacts and contact deposition methods. These data suggest the pinning of the Fermi level at midgap at the HgI{sub 2} surface, probably due to surface states formed prior to contact deposition.

  5. Dual frequency cavitation event sensor with iodide dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahiminia, Ali; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Toliyat, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    The inertial cavitation activity depends on the sonication parameters. The purpose of this work is development of dual frequency inertial cavitation meter for therapeutic applications of ultrasound waves. In this study, the chemical effects of sonication parameters in dual frequency sonication (40 kHz and 1 MHz) were investigated in the progressive wave mode using iodide dosimetry. For this purpose, efficacy of different exposure parameters such as intensity, sonication duration, sonication mode, duty factor and net ultrasound energy on the inertial cavitation activity have been studied. To quantify cavitational effects, the KI dosimeter solution was sonicated and its absorbance at a wavelength of 350 nm was measured. The absorbance values in continuous sonication mode was significantly higher than the absorbance corresponding to the pulsed mode having duty factors of 20-80% (plevel intensity (sensor can be useful for ultrasonic treatments.

  6. Development of mercuric iodide detectors for XAS and XRD measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, W.K.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Dabrowski, A.J.; Hedman, B.; Penner-Hakn, J.E.; Roe, A.L.; Hodgson, K.O.; Beyerle, A.

    1985-07-01

    A prototype element for an energy dispersive detector (EDD) array was constructed using a Mercuric Iodide detector. Both detector and front end FET could be thermoelectrically cooled. Tested at SSRL, the detector had 250 eV electronic noise and 315 eV resolution at 5.9 keV. K line fluorescence spectra were collected for selected elements between Cl (2622 eV) and Zn (8638 eV). Count rate capability to 60,000 cps was demonstrated. Several detector parameters were measured, including energy linearity, resolution vs. shaping time, and detector dead time. An EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure) spectrum was recorded and compared to simultaneously collected transmission data.

  7. Radiative efficiency of lead iodide based perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Malinkiewicz, Olga; Baumann, Andreas; Deibel, Carsten; Snaith, Henry J.; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Bolink, Henk J.

    2014-08-01

    The maximum efficiency of any solar cell can be evaluated in terms of its corresponding ability to emit light. We herein determine the important figure of merit of radiative efficiency for Methylammonium Lead Iodide perovskite solar cells and, to put in context, relate it to an organic photovoltaic (OPV) model device. We evaluate the reciprocity relation between electroluminescence and photovoltaic quantum efficiency and conclude that the emission from the perovskite devices is dominated by a sharp band-to-band transition that has a radiative efficiency much higher than that of an average OPV device. As a consequence, the perovskite have the benefit of retaining an open circuit voltage ~0.14 V closer to its radiative limit than the OPV cell. Additionally, and in contrast to OPVs, we show that the photoluminescence of the perovskite solar cell is substantially quenched under short circuit conditions in accordance with how an ideal photovoltaic cell should operate.

  8. Barium and carbon fluxes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Dehairs, Frank; Lansard, Bruno; Mucci, Alfonso; Navez, Jacques; Gratton, Yves; Prowe, Friederike; Chierici, Melissa; Fransson, Agneta; Papakyriakou, Tim N.; Sternberg, Erika; Miller, Lisa A.; Tremblay, Jean-ÉRic; Monnin, Christophe

    2011-09-01

    The seasonal and spatial variability of dissolved Barium (Ba) in the Amundsen Gulf, southeastern Beaufort Sea, was monitored over a full year from September 2007 to September 2008. Dissolved Ba displays a nutrient-type behavior: the maximum water column concentration is located below the surface layer. The highest Ba concentrations are typically observed at river mouths, the lowest concentrations are found in water masses of Atlantic origin. Barium concentrations decrease eastward through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Barite (BaSO4) saturation is reached at the maximum dissolved Ba concentrations in the subsurface layer, whereas the rest of the water column is undersaturated. A three end-member mixing model comprising freshwater from sea-ice melt and rivers, as well as upper halocline water, is used to establish their relative contributions to the Ba concentrations in the upper water column of the Amundsen Gulf. Based on water column and riverine Ba contributions, we assess the depletion of dissolved Ba by formation and sinking of biologically bound Ba (bio-Ba), from which we derive an estimate of the carbon export production. In the upper 50 m of the water column of the Amundsen Gulf, riverine Ba accounts for up to 15% of the available dissolved Ba inventory, of which up to 20% is depleted by bio-Ba formation and export. Since riverine inputs and Ba export occur concurrently, the seasonal variability of dissolved Ba in the upper water column is moderate. Assuming a fixed organic carbon to bio-Ba flux ratio, carbon export out of the surface layer is estimated at 1.8 ± 0.45 mol C m-2 yr-1. Finally, we propose a climatological carbon budget for the Amundsen Gulf based on recent literature data and our findings, the latter bridging the surface and subsurface water carbon cycles.

  9. Severe acute cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Hai Zhang; Ya-Guang Wu; Cheng-Kun Qin; Zhong-Xue Su; Jian Xu; Guo-Zhe Xian; Shuo-DongWu

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is considered as a possible etiological factor for severe cholangitis.We herein report a case of severe cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination.An adult male patient presented with epigastric pain was diagnosed as having choledocholithiasis by ultrasonography.EST was performed and the stone was completely cleaned.Barium examination was done 3d after EST and severe cholangitis appeared 4 h later.The patient was recovered after treated with tienam for 4 d.Barium examination may induce severe cholangitis in patients after EST,although rare,barium examination should be chosen cautiously.Cautions should be also used when EST is performed in patients younger than 50 years to avoid the damage to the sphincter of Oddi.

  10. Characterization and growth dynamics of barium titanate crystallite on nanometer scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sen Wang; Yue Zhang; Zhen Ji; Yousong Gu; Yunhua Huang; Cheng Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Barium titanate powder on nanometer scale was synthesized by means of co-precipitation. The thermal mass loss, crystal grain growth and phase transition of the barium titanate nanometer powder were investigated by TG (Thermogravimetric)-DTA (Differential scanning calorimetric) and XRD (X-ray powder diffractometer) at different heat treatment temperatures. The results show that amorphous barium titanate powder can transfer into tetragonal symmetry structure after heat treatment. When the heat treatment temperature is below 900℃, the grains grow rapidly because the activation energy at low temperature is greatly less than that at high temperature. By controlling theheat treatment temperature, the optimization of the barium titanate crystallite size and formation of tetragonal phase can be realized.

  11. Development of w/o microemulsion for transdermal delivery of iodide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hao; Qiu, Ni; Crill, Catherine; Helms, Richard; Almoazen, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion which can be utilized as a transdermal delivery for iodide ions. Several w/o microemulsion formulations were prepared utilizing Span 20, ethanol, Capryol 90®, and water. The selected formulations had 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and a maximum of 23% w/w water content. Potassium iodide (KI) was incorporated in all formulations at 5% w/v. Physicochemical characterizations were conducted to evaluate the structure and stability. These studies included: mean droplet size, pH, viscosity, conductivity, and chemical stability tests. In vitro human skin permeation studies were conducted to evaluate the diffusion of the iodide ion through human skin. The w/o microemulsion formulations were stable and compatible with iodide ions with water content ranging from 5% to 23% w/w. The addition of KI influenced the physicochemical properties of microemulsion as compared to blank microemulsion formulations. In vitro human skin permeation studies indicated that selected formulations improved iodide ion diffusion significantly as compared to control (KI solution; P valueIodide ions were entrapped within the aqueous core of w/o microemulsion. Span 20, ethanol and Capryol 90 protected the iodide ions against oxidation and formed a stable microemulsion. It is worth to note that according to Hofmeister series, iodide ions tend to lower the interfacial tension between water and oil and consequently enhance overall stability. This work illustrates that microemulsion system can be utilized as a vehicle for the transdermal administration of iodide.

  12. Study on Effectiveness of Barium Enema in the Diagnosis of Hirschsprung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karami Chanlah

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Aims: The study aims to investigate barium enema accuracy in diagnosing Hischsprung's disease (HD. Patients & Methods: This study was performed on 58 patients diagnosed with Hischsprung's disease later confirmed by pathology; the patients had undergone surgical operation in the last 3 years. The radiographs were reached from their medical records and were later assessed by a skilled pediatric radiologist. Bar-ium enema findings were also evaluated. Rectosig-moid index with the sign of transitional zone (TZ, and barium evacuation of delayed radiographs were recorded by a radiologist. Results: We measured accuracy of rectosigmoid index in these patients to be 94.8%, the sign of TZ to be 70.7%, and the barium evacuation of delayed radio-graphs to be 100% for diagnosis of HD. Fifty percent of the cases were neonates, 42% infants, and 7% more than 2 years old. Of all the patients, 76% were male and 24% were female. The most common diseases accompanying HD were cardiac abnormalities. We did not find any total aganglionosis. Conclusion & Discussion: Half of the patients were newborn infants. The fact that the ratio is more than usual shows timely diagnosis of the condition by phy-sicians of this center. Barium enema findings in new-borns of our study contradicted significantly the re-searches done in other countries. In this study, it was found that with increasing age, barium enema find-ings would be defined in such a way that in in-fantsover 2 years, it can reach a diagnosis accuracy of up to 100%. Regarding the availability of barium en-ema and its lower costs than other diagnostic meth-ods, its accuracy seems very promising. Our study emphasizes that perhaps with barium enema, we may operate these infants in one stage so that they can get rid of multiphasic operation difficulties.

  13. Study of the immunoisolating effects of barium-alginate microencapsulation on rat islets allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Zhang; Chao Liu; Cuiping Liu; Youwen Qin; Zhaosun Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the immunoisolating effects of barium-alginate microencapsulation on islets allograft survival. Methods: The nonmicroencapsulated and microencapsulated islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule or intraperitoneally into Wistar rat with STZ-induced diabetes. The blood glucose and insulin secretion of grafts were observed. Graft function was tested by oral rats was associated with normal glucose and insulin profiles in response to OGTT. Conclusion: Microencapsulation with barium-alginate membrane can prolong islet survival and protect islets against allorejection.

  14. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Shuler Nin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough.METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons.RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6% of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6% of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%. We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration.CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  15. Synthesis of nonstoichiometric M-type barium ferrite nanobelt by spark plasma sintering method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenyu; ZHANG Qingjie; TANG Xinfeng; CHENG Haibin

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of ultrafast crystallization of M-type barium ferrite when the coprecipitation precursors in stoichiometric proportions as BaFe12O19, Fe(OH)3 and BaCO3 nanoparticles, had been heated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. The results show that SPS method may realize the ultrafast crystallization of M-type barium ferrite, absolutely prevent the crystallization of intermediate phase α-Fe2O3, and significantly decrease the crystallization temperature of M-type barium ferrite. The sintered samples obtained at 800℃ by sintering the precursors for 10 minutes are a kind of multiphase ferrites composed of major phase M-type barium ferrite and trace amount of BaFe0.24Fe0.76O2.88. It is discovered that M-type barium ferrites in the holes of the sintered samples are in nanobelt microstructure about 100-300 nm in width and several micrometers in length. These M-type barium ferrite nanobelts are non-stoichiometric and may be expressed as BaFe12+Xo19+1.5x (-4.77≤x≤6.50). Their composistions suggest completely random Fe-rich or Ba-rich domains.

  16. Experimental studies on 3D printing of barium titanate ceramics for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schult Mark

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the 3D printing of porous barium titanate ceramics. Barium titanate is a biocompatible material with piezoelectric properties. Due to insufficient flowability of the starting material for 3D printing, the barium titanate raw material has been modified in three different ways. Firstly, barium titanate powder has been calcined. Secondly, flow additives have been added to the powder. And thirdly, flow additives have been added to the calcined powder. Finally, a polymer has been added to the three materials and specimens have been printed from these three material mixtures. The 3D printed parts were then sintered at 1320°C. The sintering leads to shrinkage which differs between 29.51–71.53% for the tested material mixtures. The porosity of the parts is beneficial for cell growth which is relevant for future medical applications. The results reported in this study demonstrate the possibility to fabricate porous piezoelectric barium titanate parts with a 3D printer that can be used for medical applications. 3D printed porous barium titanate ceramics can especially be used as scaffold for bone tissue engineering, where the bone formation can be promoted by electrical stimulation.

  17. The first barium tin(II) bromide fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénès, Georges; Merazig, Hocine; Muntasar, Abdualhafeed; Porterfield, Robyn

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to prepare barium tin(II) bromide fluorides for the first time, possibly similar to the chloride fluorides obtained earlier in our laboratory, precipitation reactions were carried out by mixing aqueous solutions of SnF2 and of BaBr2.2H2O. In contrast with the chloride fluoride system, a single powdered phase was obtained throughout the SnF2 - BaBr2 system, with the yield being maximum at X ≈ 0.25, where X is the molar fraction of barium bromide in the reaction mixture. Phase identification with the JCPDS database failed to produce a match, confirming that a new phase had been produced. The exact chemical composition of the new compound has not been obtained yet. Based on the X value for the maximum yield, the Sn/Ba ratio is likely to be 3/1 or 2/1. The Mössbauer spectrum at ambient conditions shows that bonding to tin(II) is covalent, therefore with the tin lone pair being stereoactive. The Mössbauer parameters ( δ = 3.68 mm/s, Δ = 0.99 mm/s) are similar to those of SnBrF and of Sn2BrF5, thereby showing that tin is bonded to both fluorine and bromine. The larger isomer shift and lower quadrupole splitting than in tin(II) fluorides show that the stereoactivity of the tin lone pair is lower than in the fluorides. The Mössbauer parameters fit well the linear correlation of the quadrupole splitting versus the isomer shift" that has been shown to be present in other series of tin(II) compounds. The linear decrease on this correlation shows that the contribution of non-spherical orbitals ( p and d) to the lone pair is a much larger contributor to the quadrupole splitting than lattice distortions. The structure is likely made of Ba2+ cations and tin(II) fluoride bromide polyatomic anions, with covalent bonding withinthe anions.

  18. Enthalpy of formation of (In, Gd)-doped barium cerate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matskevich, N.I., E-mail: nata.matskevich@yandex.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, D-76334 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wolf, Th. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, D-76334 Karlsruhe (Germany); Adelmann, P.; Semerikova, A.N.; Anyfrieva, O.I. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-10

    Highlights: • BaCe{sub 0.7}Gd{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.85} was prepared by solid-state reaction. • The standard formation enthalpy was determined. • The stabilization energy (Δ{sub st}H°) was calculated. • Δ{sub st}H° of BaCe{sub 0.7}Gd{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.85} is higher than BaCe{sub 0.7}Nd{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.85} and BaCeO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Solution enthalpies of barium cerate doped by gadolinium and indium and a mixture of BaCl{sub 2} + 0.7CeCl{sub 3} + 2GdCl{sub 3} + 0.1InCl{sub 3} have been measured in 1 mol dm{sup −3} HCl with 0.1 mol dm{sup −3} KI. For the first time the standard molar formation enthalpy of BaCe{sub 0.7}Gd{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.85} has been determined by solution calorimetry as follows: Δ{sub f}H° (298.15 K) = −1615.84 ± 9.01 kJ mol{sup −1}. The stabilization energy for above-mentioned compound has been calculated as well. It has been shown that barium cerate doped gadolinium and indium has higher stabilization energy than BaCe{sub 0.7}Nd{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.85} and BaCeO{sub 3}. The reaction enthalpy with CO{sub 2} interaction has been calculated for BaCe{sub 0.7}Gd{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.85}.

  19. Optimization of multiroute synthesis for polyaniline-barium ferrite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ghzaiel, Tayssir, E-mail: tayssir.ben-ghzaiel@satie.ens-cachan.fr [Université de Tunis El Manar Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, UR11ES18 Unité de Recherche de Chimie Minérale Appliquée, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 61 av du Président Wilson, F-94230, Cachan (France); Dhaoui, Wadia [Université de Tunis El Manar Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, UR11ES18 Unité de Recherche de Chimie Minérale Appliquée, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Pasko, Alexander; Mazaleyrat, Frédéric [SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 61 av du Président Wilson, F-94230, Cachan (France)

    2016-08-15

    A comparative study of physicochemical and magnetic properties of Polyaniline-BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} composites prepared by Solid-Based Polymerization (SBP) and by Aqueous-Based Polymerization (ABP) is carried out. The composites obtained by the latter method underwent a grinding to study the influence of shear stress. Thus, in a systematic approach, an investigation of stirring effect was done by synthesizing these composites using aqueous-based polymerization but without mechanical stirring. Different mass ratio of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was used to explore their impact on composites properties. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, SEM, TGA, conductivity and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements were performed. Structural and morphological investigations confirmed the presence of polyaniline and barium hexaferrite phase, which were in interaction in the composites regardless the polymerization route. The powder obtained by solid-based pathway revealed distinct particles with uniform distribution for various compositions (wt. %) of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} in Pani, while the composites obtained by aqueous-based polymerization presented agglomerated nanostructures. Thermogravimetric analysis exhibited an improved thermal stability for Pani-BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} obtained by solid-based route. The electric conductivity has displayed decreasing trend of DC conductivity with the increase of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles in the polymer matrix. Magnetic studies showed a ferromagnetic behaviour for all composites. The saturation magnetization monotonously increased with the increasing of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} amount. The magnetic properties of the powders were mainly related to the hexaferrite loading which was determined using measured magnetic data. These results revealed that magnetization saturation was dependant of volume fraction of ferrite in the composites which was significantly affected by the reaction medium and mechanical stirring. The powders obtained by solid

  20. Defect Chemistry and Microstructure of Complex Perovskite Barium Zinc Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ping

    1991-02-01

    This dissertation presents a systematic study of the characterization of the phase transitions, microstructures, defects and transport properties of undoped and doped complex perovskite barium zinc niobate (BZN). Complex perovskite BZN is a paraelectric material while its parent material barium titanate is ferroelectric. With codoping of (Zn + 2Nb) into Ti site, BaTiO_3 shows three distinguished features. First, the Curie temperature is lowered; second, the three phase transitions (cubic-tetragonal-orthorhombic-rhombohedral) coalesce; and lastly, the transition becomes diffuse showing a typical 2nd order phase transition compared with 1st order in undoped BaTiO_3. Complex microchemical ordering is another characteristic of BZN. Stoichiometric BZN shows a mixture of two types of ordering schemes. 1:1, 1:2 ordered microdomains and the disordered matrix co-exist. The 1:1 type ordering involves an internal charge imbalance which inhibits the growth of 1:1 type of ordered microdomains. The 1:2 type ordering is consistent with the chemical composition of BZN. These ordering patterns can be modified by either adjustment of the Zn/Nb ratio or by doping. The defect structure of the stoichiometric BZN is closely related to that of BaTiO_3. Stoichiometric BZN is an insulator with wide band gap (~ 3.70 eV). Undoped BZN has a high oxygen vacancy concentration which comes from three possible sources, such as unavoidable acceptor impurities, due to their natural abundance, Zn/Nb ratio uncertainty due to processing limitations, and high temperature ZnO loss due to sintering process. The oxygen vacancy concentration for undoped BZN lays in the neighborhood of 1500 ppm (atm.). The compensation defects for various dopants have also been identified. Both electrons and holes conduct by a small polaron mechanism. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as enthalpies of oxidation and reduction, mass action constants for intrinsic electronic disorder, oxidation and reduction have been

  1. A Direct Transformation of Aryl Aldehydes to Benzyl Iodides Via Reductive Iodination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruso, Jayaraman Sembian; Rajendiran, Nagappan; Kumaran, Rajendran Senthil [Univ. of Madras, Chennai (India)

    2014-02-15

    A facile transformation of aryl aldehydes to benzyl iodides through one-pot reductive iodination is reported. This protocol displays remarkable functional group tolerance and the title compound was obtained in good to excellent yield.

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of the mercury(II)-assisted hydrolysis of methyl iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celo, Valbona; Scott, Susannah L

    2005-04-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of aqueous Hg(II) with methyl iodide have been investigated. The overall reaction is best described as Hg(II)-assisted hydrolysis, resulting in quantitative formation of methanol and, in the presence of excess methyl iodide, ultimately, HgI2 via the intermediate HgI+. The kinetics are biexponential when methyl iodide is in excess. At 25 degrees C, the acceleration provided by Hg2+ is 7.5 times greater than that caused by HgI+, while assistance of hydrolysis was not observed for HgI2. Thus, the reactions are not catalytic in Hg(II). The kinetics are consistent with an SN2-M+ mechanism involving electrophilic attack at iodide. As expected, methylation of mercury is not a reaction pathway; traces of methylmercury(II) are artifacts of the extraction/preconcentration procedure used for methylmercury analysis.

  3. Fluorescence characteristics of 5-amino salicylic acid: An iodide recognition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Priyanka; Suyal, Kanchan; Joshi, Neeraj K.; Joshi, Hem Chandra; Pant, Sanjay

    In this paper we report the effect of iodide on the fluorescence of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA). In the absence of iodide, prominent blue green (BG) emission band at ˜465 nm (broad) is observed in aprotic solvents whereas violet (V) emission at ˜408 nm, blue green (BG) at ˜480 nm and green (G) at ˜500 nm are observed in case of protic solvents. On the addition of iodide ion (I-), the intensity of BG fluorescence is enhanced in case of aprotic solvents. On the other hand the G band is enhanced in protic solvents and decrease in the intensity of the V band is observed. The effect of hydrogen bonding as well as the interplay of neutral and ionic species is invoked to explain the observed results. The study projects the application of this system in iodide recognition in protic/aprotic environments.

  4. Horseradish Peroxidase-Mediated, Iodide-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction for Plasmonic Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyu, Yunlei; Chen, Yiping; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-11-01

    This report outlines an enzymatic cascade reaction for signal transduction and amplification for plasmonic immunoassays by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). HRP-catalyzed oxidation of iodide and iodide-catalyzed oxidation of cysteine is employed to modulate the plasmonic signals of AuNPs. It agrees well with the current immunoassay platforms and allows naked-eye readout with enhanced sensitivity, which holds great promise for applications in resource-constrained settings.

  5. Air-Driven Potassium Iodide-Mediated Oxidative Photocyclization of Stilbene Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Watanabe, Soichiro

    2016-09-02

    A new method has been developed for the potassium iodide-mediated oxidative photocyclization of stilbene derivatives. Compared with conventional iodine-mediated oxidative photocyclization reactions, this new method requires shorter reaction times and affords cyclized products in yields of 45-97%. This reaction proceeds with a catalytic amount of potassium iodide and works in an air-driven manner without the addition of an external scavenger. The radical-mediated oxidative photocyclization of stilbene derivatives using TEMPO was also investigated.

  6. [Study on the stability of potassium iodide of the iodized salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudouris, E

    1975-04-29

    The stability of potassium iodide in iodized salt has been studied with respect to the purity of the salt used as raw material. It has been found that the iodized salt prepared from high purity salt and preserved under proper conditions (protection from light, humidity and high temperatures) keeps, for several months, the most of the initially added potassium iodide, without any addition of stabilizers, except for a small bicarbonate.

  7. Permeation of iodide from iodine-enriched yeast through porcine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Zieliński, Michał; Chyra, Dagmara; Dobrzański, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a common phenomenon, threatening the whole global human population. Recommended daily intake of iodine is 150 μg for adults and 250 μg for pregnant and breastfeeding women. About 50% of human population can be at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. Due to this fact, increased iodine supplementation is recommended, through intake of iodized mineral water and salt iodization. The aim of this study was to investigate permeation and absorption of iodide from iodine bioplex (experimental group) in comparison with potassium iodide (controls). Permeation and absorption processes were investigated in vitro using a porcine intestine. The experimental model was based on a standard Franz diffusion cell (FD-Cell). The iodine bioplex was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and whey powder: iodine content - 388 μg/g, total protein - 28.5%, total fat - 0.9%., glutamic acid - 41.2%, asparaginic acid - 29.4%, lysine - 24.8%; purchased from: F.Z.N.P. Biochefa, Sosnowiec, Poland. Potassium iodide was used as controls, at 388 μg iodine concentration, which was the same as in iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. A statistically significant increase in iodide permeation was observed for iodine-enriched yeast bioplex in comparison with controls - potassium iodide. After 5h the total amount of permeated iodide from iodine-enriched yeast bioplex was 85%, which is ~ 2-fold higher than controls - 37%. Iodide absorption was by contrast statistically significantly higher in controls - 7.3%, in comparison with 4.5% in experimental group with iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. Presented results show that iodide permeation process dominates over absorption in case of iodine-enriched yeast bioplex.

  8. Mechanism of Phase Transformation and Formation of Barium Hexaferrite Doped with Rare-Earths in Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘树才; 洪广言; 张军; 车平; 唐娟

    2003-01-01

    The phase-transformation in sol-gel preparation of barium hexaferrite and the formation of barium hexaferrite doped with La3+ were studied by chemical phase analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry analysis. The experimental results show that phase transformation reactions of FeCO3, Fe2O3 and BaFe2O4, barium hexaferrite and γ-Fe2O3 take place in the heat treatment of gel. While the doping lanthanide ion replace barium ion, an equivalent quantity of Fe3+ are reduced to Fe2+ to maintain the charge equilibrium.

  9. Modelling iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol: Contributions of inorganic and organic iodine chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pechtl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of iodine in atmospheric aerosol is currently poorly understood. Models predict negligible iodide concentrations but accumulation of iodate in aerosol, both of which is not confirmed by recent measurements. We present an updated aqueous phase iodine chemistry scheme for use in atmospheric chemistry models and discuss sensitivity studies with the marine boundary layer model MISTRA. These studies show that iodate can be reduced in acidic aerosol by inorganic reactions, i.e., iodate does not necessarily accumulate in particles. Furthermore, the transformation of particulate iodide to volatile iodine species likely has been overestimated in previous model studies due to negligence of collision-induced upper limits for the reaction rates. However, inorganic reaction cycles still do not seem to be sufficient to reproduce the observed range of iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol. Therefore, we also investigate the effects of the recently suggested reaction of HOI with dissolved organic matter to produce iodide. If this reaction is fast enough to compete with the inorganic mechanism, it would not only directly lead to enhanced iodide concentrations but, indirectly via speed-up of the inorganic iodate reduction cycles, also to a decrease in iodate concentrations. Hence, according to our model studies, organic iodine chemistry, combined with inorganic reaction cycles, is able to reproduce observations. The presented chemistry cycles are highly dependent on pH and thus offer an explanation for the large observed variability of the iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol.

  10. Mechanistic aspects of ingested chlorine dioxide on thyroid function: impact of oxidants on iodide metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercz, J.P.; Jones, L.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Bawa, R.; Condie, L.

    1986-11-01

    Toxicological studies dealing with recent findings of health effects of drinking water disinfectants are reviewed. Experiments with monkeys and rodents indicate that the biological activity of ingested disinfectants is expressed via their chemical interaction with the mucosal epithelia, secretory products, and nutritional contents of the alimentary tract. Evidence exists that a principal partner of this redox interaction is the iodide of nutritional origin that is ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus the observation that subchronic exposure to chlorine dioxide (ClO/sub 2/) in drinking water decreases serum thyroxine levels in mammalian species can be best explained with changes produced in the chemical form of the bioavailable iodide. Ongoing and previously reported mechanistic studies indicate that oxidizing agents such as chlorine-based disinfectants oxidize the basal iodide content of the gastrointestinal tract. The resulting reactive iodine species readily attaches to organic matter by covalent bonding. Evidence suggests that the extent to which such iodinated organics are formed is proportional to the magnitude of the electromotive force and stoichiometry of the redox couple between iodide and the disinfectant. Because the extent of thyroid uptake of the bioavailable iodide does not decrease during ClO/sub 2/ ingestion, it seems that ClO/sub 2/ does not cause iodide deficiency of sufficient magnitude to account for the decease in hormonogenesis. Absorption of one or more of iodinated molecules, e.g., nutrient, hormones, or cellular constituents of the alimentary tract having thyromimetic or thyroid inhibitory properties, is a better hypothesis for the effects seen.

  11. Lead iodide X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers for room and high temperature operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermon, H.; James, R.B.; Cross, E. [and others

    1997-02-01

    In this study, we report on the results of the investigation of lead iodide material properties. The effectiveness of zone refining purification methods on the material purity is determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES and correlated to the electrical and physical material properties. We show that this zone refining method is very efficient in removing impurities from lead iodide and we also determine the segregation coefficient for some of these impurities. Triple axis x- ray diffraction (TAD) analysis has been used to determine the crystalline perfection of the lead iodide after applying various cutting, etching, and fabrication methods. The soft lead iodide crystal was found to be damaged when cleaved by a razor blade, but by using a diamond wheel saw, followed by etching, the crystallinity of the material was improved, as observed by TAD. Low temperature photoluminescence also indicates an improvement in the material properties of the purified lead iodide. Electrical properties of lead iodide such as carrier mobility, were calculated based on carrier- phonon scattering. The results for the electrical properties were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Critical evaluation of acetylthiocholine iodide and acetylthiocholine chloride as substrates for amperometric biosensors based on acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Bucur, Bogdan; Radu, Gabriel-Lucian

    2013-01-25

    Numerous amperometric biosensors have been developed for the fast analysis of neurotoxic insecticides based on inhibition of cholinesterase (AChE). The analytical signal is quantified by the oxidation of the thiocholine that is produced enzymatically by the hydrolysis of the acetylthiocholine pseudosubstrate. The pseudosubstrate is a cation and it is associated with chloride or iodide as corresponding anion to form a salt. The iodide salt is cheaper, but it is electrochemically active and consequently more difficult to use in electrochemical analytical devices. We investigate the possibility of using acetylthiocholine iodide as pseudosubstrate for amperometric detection. Our investigation demonstrates that operational conditions for any amperometric biosensor that use acetylthiocholine iodide must be thoroughly optimized to avoid false analytical signals or a reduced sensitivity. The working overpotential determined for different screen-printed electrodes was: carbon-nanotubes (360 mV), platinum (560 mV), gold (370 mV, based on a catalytic effect of iodide) or cobalt phthalocyanine (110 mV, but with a significant reduced sensitivity in the presence of iodide anions).

  13. Stability and electronic properties of two-dimensional indium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizhang; Dong, Baojuan; Guo, Huaihong; Yang, Teng; Zhu, Zhen; Hu, Gan; Saito, Riichiro; Zhang, Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    Based on ab initio density functional calculations, we studied the stability and electronic properties of two-dimensional indium iodide (InI). The calculated results show that monolayer and few-layer InI can be as stable as its bulk counterpart. The stability of the monolayer structure is further supported by examining the electronic and dynamic stability. The interlayer interaction is found to be fairly weak (˜160 meV/atom) and mechanical exfoliation to obtain monolayer and few-layer structures will be applicable. A direct band gap of 1.88 eV of the bulk structure is obtained from the hybrid functional method, and is comparable to the experimental one (˜2.00 eV). The electronic structure can be tuned by layer stacking and external strain. The size of the gap is a linear function of an inverse number of layers, suggesting that we can design few-layer structures for optoelectronic applications in the visible optical range. In-plane tensile or hydrostatic compressive stress is found to be useful not only in varying the gap size to cover the whole visible optical range, but also in inducing a semiconductor-metal transition with an experimentally accessible stress. The present result strongly supports the strategy of broadening the scope of group-V semiconductors by looking for isoelectronic III-VII atomic-layered materials.

  14. Persistent photovoltage in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, A.; Tvingstedt, K.; Heiber, M. C.; Väth, S.; Momblona, C.; Bolink, H. J.; Dyakonov, V.

    2014-08-01

    We herein perform open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) measurements on methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cells to increase the understanding of the charge carrier recombination dynamics in this emerging technology. Optically pulsed OCVD measurements are conducted on CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells and compared to results from another type of thin-film photovoltaics, namely, the two reference polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cell devices based on P3HT:PC60BM and PTB7:PC70BM blends. We observe two very different time domains of the voltage transient in the perovskite solar cell with a first drop on a short time scale that is similar to the decay in the studied organic solar cells. However, 65%-70% of the maximum photovoltage persists on much longer timescales in the perovskite solar cell than in the organic devices. In addition, we find that the recombination dynamics in all time regimes are dependent on the starting illumination intensity, which is also not observed in the organic devices. We then discuss the potential origins of these unique behaviors.

  15. Structural Effects on the Bandstructure of Methylammonium Lead Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marco; Barker, Bradford A.; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.; Louie Team

    Metal-organic halide perovskites possess peculiar physical properties. The carrier diffusion length in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI) exceeds 1 μm, but this unusually high value for a solution-processed material is poorly understood. We developed first-principles calculations of carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths in semiconductors, which require accurate knowledge of the bandstructure. In this talk, we show that in MAPbI the structure strongly affects the bandstructure and band edges, and that density functional theory (DFT) is unable to predict the room temperature tetragonal structure due to the polymorphism of MAPbI. The Rashba splitting induced by the spin-orbit interaction, and the DFT band gap and effective masses, all depend strongly on the chosen structure, a point that previous work failed to address. Working with multiple stochastic realizations of large unit cells with random methylammonium orientations, we compute average effective masses and show that the effective mass depends linearly on the band gap. The average Rashba coefficient we find is an order of magnitude smaller than previously reported, and the band edges are almost parabolic. Our structures possess the correct symmetry and are free of the spurious Pb off-centering assumed in previous work. We identify the correct starting point for GW bandstructure calculations and to compute the carrier lifetime and diffusion length.

  16. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2014-08-26

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  17. Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Barium Bismuth Vanadate Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutar, B. C.; Choudhary, R. N. P.; Das, Piyush R.

    2014-07-01

    Structural, micro-structural and electrical properties of barium bismuth vanadate Ba(Bi0.5V0.5)O3 ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the prepared material confirmed the formation of the compound with monoclinic crystal system. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the compound exhibits well-defined grains that are uniformly distributed throughout the surface of the sample. Dielectric properties of the compound were studied as a function of temperature at different frequencies. An observation of dielectric anomaly at 295 °C is due to ferroelectric phase transition that was later confirmed by the appearance of hysteresis loop. Detailed studies of complex impedance spectroscopy have provided a better understanding of the relaxation process and correlations between the microstructure-electrical properties of the materials. The nature of frequency dependence of ac conductivity obeys the Debye power law. The dc conductivity, calculated from the ac conductivity spectrum, shows the negative temperature coefficient of resistance behavior similar to that of a semiconductor.

  18. NLTE Strontium and Barium in metal poor red giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Short, C I

    2006-01-01

    We present atmospheric models of red giant stars of various metallicities, including extremely metal poor (XMP, [Fe/H]<-3.5) models, with many chemical species, including, significantly, the first two ionization stages of Strontium (Sr) and Barium (Ba), treated in Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) with various degrees of realism. We conclude that 1) for all lines that are useful Sr and Ba abundance diagnostics the magnitude and sense of the computed NLTE effect on the predicted line strength is metallicity dependent, 2) the indirect NLTE effect of overlap between Ba and Sr transitions and transitions of other species that are also treated in NLTE non-negligibly enhances NLTE abundance corrections for some lines, 3) the indirect NLTE effect of NLTE opacity of other species on the equilibrium structure of the atmospheric model is not significant, 4) the computed NLTE line strengths differ negligibly if collisional b-b and b-f rates are an order of magnitude smaller or larger than those calculated wi...

  19. On-line ultrasonic characterisation of barium doped lanthanum perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamilmaran, P.; Arunachalam, M. [Department of Physics, Sri SRNM College, Sattur 626203, Tamil Nadu (India); Research scholars in Physics, Manonmanium Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli 627012 Tamil Nadu (India); Sankarrajan, S. [Department of Physics, Unnamalai Institute of Technology, Kovilpatti 628503, Tamil Nadu (India); Sakthipandi, K., E-mail: sakthipandi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sethu Institute of Technology, Kariapatti 626115, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-06-15

    Perovskite manganite samples La{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3} with the composition of x=0.30, 0.33 and 0.36 were prepared by employing solid state reaction technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the rhombhedral structure with R3c space group of the samples. The obtained energy dispersive analysis X-rays (EDX) spectra of the samples have confirmed the elemental composition of the samples. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the samples were used to find out the size of the particles. In-situ ultrasonic measurements were carried out on the samples by through transmission method. The temperature dependence of the ultrasonic parameters revealed interesting features of the samples. The observed ultrasonic velocities and attenuation both in longitudinal and shear mode are related to the paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition in the prepared samples. The results confirmed that an increase in the barium content in the sample leads to an increase in the phase transition temperature T{sub C}.

  20. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  1. Review on dielectric properties of rare earth doped barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Fatin Adila; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Idris, Mohd Sobri

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) were studied due to high permittivity, excellent electrical properties and have wide usage in various applications. This paper reviewed on the electrical properties of RE doped BaTiO3 (RE: Lanthanum (La), Erbium (Er), Samarium (Sm), Neodymium (Nd), Cerium (Ce)), processing method, phase transition occurred and solid solution range for complete study. Most of the RE doped BaTiO3 downshifted the Curie temperature (TC). Transition temperature also known as Curie temperature, TC where the ceramics had a transition from ferroelectric to a paraelectric phase. In this review, the dielectric constant of La-doped BaTiO3, Er-doped BaTiO3, Sm-doped BaTiO3, Nd-doped BaTiO3 and Ce-doped BaTiO3 had been proved to increase and the transition temperature or also known as TC also lowered down to room temperature as for all the RE doped BaTiO3 except for Er-doped BaTiO3.

  2. Growth and characterization of barium oxide nanoclusters on YSZ(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Kim, Yong Joo; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Yu, Zhongqing; Jiang, Weilin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Szanyi, Janos; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2009-08-13

    Barium oxide (BaO) was grown on YSZ(111) substrate by oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE). In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, ex-situ x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have confirmed that the BaO grows as clusters on YSZ(111). During and following the growth under UHV conditions, BaO remains in single phase. When exposed to ambient conditions, the clusters transformed to BaCO3 and/or Ba(OH)2 H2O. However, in a few attempts of BaO growth, XRD results show a fairly single phase cubic BaO with a lattice constant of 0.5418(1) nm. XPS results show that exposing BaO clusters to ambient conditions results in the formation BaCO3 on the surface and partly Ba(OH)2 throughout in the bulk. Based on the observations, it is concluded that the BaO nanoclusters grown on YSZ(111) are highly reactive in ambient conditions. The variation in the reactivity of BaO between different attempts of the growth is attributed to the cluster size.

  3. Colonic diverticulosis: evaluation with double contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jae Kook; Lee, Jong Koo; Yun, Eun Joo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate the pattern of colonic diverticulosis according to age and sex, and recent trend. The authors retrospectively reviewed 120 cases of colonic diverticulosis in 1,020 patients who had undergone a double contrast barium enema examination between January 1st, 1993, and December 31st, 1995, and analyzed the frequency, size, multiplicity and anatomical site, according to age and sex. Diverticulum size was classified into one of three groups : less than 5mm, 5-10mm, over 10mm in diameter. The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 120 cases among 1,020 patients(11.8%) with an incidence 5.3 times higher in males than in females. Peak incidence was in the fifth decade, with 19 cases (15.8%) among males, and after the sixth decade, with four cases(3.3%) among females. Mean age was 57.7 years. Diverticulum size of 5-10mm in diameter was predominant (2% of cases); average diameter was 5-6mm. The incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 5.1 times more frequent in the right colon (101 cases) than in the left (20 cases). The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis has continually increased; in addition it has also recently increased slightly in left-sided colon. This is thought to be due to various factors, both congenital and acquired, including longer life with good health care, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, stress and the tendency of eating patterns to more closely resemble those of the west.

  4. Sintering and foaming of barium silicate glass powder compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralf; Reinsch, Stefan; Agea-Blanco, Boris

    2016-10-01

    The manufacture of sintered glasses and glass-ceramics, glass matrix composites and glass-bounded ceramics or pastes is often affected by gas bubble formation. Against this background, we studied sintering and foaming of barium silicate glass powders used as SOFC sealants using different powder milling procedures. Sintering was measured by means of heating microscopy backed up by XPD, DTA, Vacuum Hot Extraction (VHE) and optical and electron microscopy. Foaming increased significantly as milling progressed. For moderately milled glass powders, subsequent storage in air could also promote foaming. Although the powder compacts were uniaxially pressed and sintered in air, the milling atmosphere sig¬ni¬ficantly affected foaming. The strength of this effect increased in the order Ar ? N2 encapsulated CO2, even for powders milled in Ar and N2. Results of this study thus indicate that foaming is caused by carbonaceous species trapped on the glass powder surface. Foaming could be substantially reduced by milling in water and 10 wt% HCl.

  5. Abundance analysis of s-process enhanced barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mahanta, Upakul; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Detailed chemical composition studies of stars with enhanced abundances of neutron-capture elements can provide observational constraints for neutron-capture nucleosynthesis studies and clues for understanding their contribution to the Galactic chemical enrichment. We present abundance results from high-resolution spectral analyses of a sample of four chemically peculiar stars characterized by s-process enhancement. High-Resolution spectra (R ~ 42000) of these objects spanning a wavelength range from 4000 to 6800 A, are taken from the ELODIE archive. We have estimated the stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature T_eff, the surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H] from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres. We report estimates of elemental abundances for several neutron-capture elements, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Dy. While HD 49641 and HD 58368 show [Ba/Fe] > 1.16 the other two objects HD 119650 and HD 191010 are found to be mild barium stars wit...

  6. Crystallographic properties of magnetron sputtered barium ferrite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capraro, S. [Laboratoire DIOM, University of Saint-Etienne, 23 rue Michelon, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: stephane.capraro@univ-st-etienne.fr; Berre, M. Le [LPM, UMR 5511, INSA Lyon, 7 av. Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Chatelon, J.P. [Laboratoire DIOM, University of Saint-Etienne, 23 rue Michelon, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex (France); Bayard, B. [Laboratoire DIOM, University of Saint-Etienne, 23 rue Michelon, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex (France); Joisten, H. [CEA-LETI, 17 rue des martyrs, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Canut, C. [LPMCN, University Lyon I, 43 Bvd. du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villerbanne, Cedex (France); Barbier, D. [LPM, UMR 5511, INSA Lyon, 7 av. Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Rousseau, J.J. [Laboratoire DIOM, University of Saint-Etienne, 23 rue Michelon, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex (France)

    2004-09-15

    The development of devices combining a ferrite with a semiconductor chip is a major focus of current research. Barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} or BaM) thick films are deposited here using a RF magnetron sputtering system. Films are amorphous and non magnetic after deposition. Post-deposition thermal annealing is employed to make the films crystallize. The effects of the substrate, thermal annealing process, thickness, substrate temperature on crystallographic properties and stoichiometry are studied using a X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Rutherford back-scattering (RBS). The in-depth homogeneity of Ba, Fe and O is evaluated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The study shows a good crystallization of BaM films and there is a preferential orientation among the crystallographic planes (1 0 1), (2 0 0), (2 0 3), (1 0 2), (1 1 0) and (2 0 5) when BaM films are prepared at low RF power and when the substrate is heated. For several elaboration parameters, grains size is in the range of 25 and 40 nm and BaM films are stoichiometric with regard to the target stoichiometry.

  7. Sintering and foaming of barium silicate glass powder compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Mueller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of sintered glasses and glass-ceramics, glass matrix composites and glass-bounded ceramics or pastes is often affected by gas bubble formation. Against this background, we studied sintering and foaming of barium silicate glass powders used as SOFC sealants using different powder milling procedures. Sintering was measured by means of heating microscopy backed up by XPD, DTA, Vacuum Hot Extraction (VHE and optical and electron microscopy. Foaming increased significantly as milling progressed. For moderately milled glass powders, subsequent storage in air could also promote foaming. Although the powder compacts were uniaxially pressed and sintered in air, the milling atmosphere sig¬ni¬ficantly affected foaming. The strength of this effect increased in the order Ar  N2 < air < CO2. Conformingly, VHE studies revealed that the pores of foamed samples predominantly encapsulated CO2, even for powders milled in Ar and N2. Results of this study thus indicate that foaming is caused by carbonaceous species trapped on the glass powder surface. Foaming could be substantially reduced by milling in water and 10 wt% HCl.

  8. Combustion synthesis, characterization and luminescence properties of barium aluminate phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AH Wako; FB Dejene; HC Swart

    2014-01-01

    The blue-green emitting Eu2+and Nd3+ doped polycrystalline barium aluminate (BaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+) phosphor, was pre-pared by a solution-combustion method at 500 ºC without a post-annealing process. The characteristic variation in the structural and luminescence properties of the as-prepared samples was evaluated with regards to a change in the Ba/Al molar ratio from 0.1:1 to 1.4:1. The morphologies and the phase structures of the products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the optical properties were investigated using ultra-violet (UV) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. The XRD and TEM results revealed that the average crystallite size of the BaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor was about 70 nm. The broad-band UV-excited luminescence of the phosphors was observed atλmax=500 nm due to transitions from the 4f65d1 to the 4f7 configuration of the Eu2+ ion. The PL results indi-cated that the main peaks in the emission and excitation spectrum of phosphor particles slightly shifted to the short wavelength due to the changes in the crystal field due to the structure changes caused by the variation in the quantity of the Ba ions in the host lattice.

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen generation from barium tantalate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Roland; Soldat, Julia; Busser, G Wilma; Wark, Michael

    2013-04-01

    (111)-layered Ba5Ta4O15 photocatalysts were synthesised by a solid state reaction route and a citrate synthesis route, and their structural and electronic properties were investigated. After citrate route preparation, the presence of a second phase, namely Ba3Ta5O15, was determined by X-ray powder diffraction and absorption spectroscopy. The existence of this phase had a profound effect on the photocatalytic activity of this Ba5Ta4O15/Ba3Ta5O15 composite in comparison to the pure Ba5Ta4O15 materials. The photocatalytic performance of the barium tantalates was evaluated by investigating the capability in ˙OH radical formation and hydrogen generation. Strongly increased hydrogen evolution rates for the Ba5Ta4O15/Ba3Ta5O15 composite, up to 160% higher than for the pure Ba5Ta4O15, were determined, and only very small amounts of Rh co-catalyst, deposited on the photocatalysts by stepwise reductive photo-deposition, were needed to achieve these results.

  10. Abdominal actinomycosis: barium enema and computed tomography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, N; Ishikawa, T; Miyakawa, K; Iinuma, G; Nakajima, H; Ushio, K; Yokota, T; Akasu, T; Shimoda, T

    1997-02-01

    A case of abdominal actinomycosis is described in a woman with recurrent right lower abdominal pain and low-grade fever without history of appendectomy. Past history included the use of an intrauterine device (IUD) until 10 years before manifestation of these symptoms. We followed up the patient, via diagnostic imaging, for 7 months. On initial barium enema, a polypoid lesion was visualized at the bottom of the cecum and there was constriction of the sigmoid colon; the appendix was not seen. Seven months later, poor extension at the cecum, severe constriction in the sigmoid colon, and narrowing of the terminal ileum were also visualized. On computed tomography (CT), the lesion was initially localized only in the ileocecal region adjacent to the sigmoid colon. After 7 months, the lesion had infiltrated adjacent anatomic components and showed direct infiltration of the pelvic space. Differential diagnosis was difficult, as it was not obvious whether this was a pelvic abscess due to inflammation or appendiceal carcinoma. Laparotomy was performed. Macroscopically, the lesion was not limited to the ileocecal region, but involved the right ureter, tubes the Fallopian and ovary, bladder, psoas muscle, and abdominal wall. Pathology findings showed, chronic inflammatory tissue with evidence of actinomycosis. Although previous reports have described a lack of specific findings in this disease. When actinomycosis is suspected, CT is recommended to define its extent.

  11. Rapid and accurate determination of barium by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Maihara, Vera A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Trevizam, Anderson R., E-mail: aanrt@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Barium is an alkaline earth metal naturally present in soils. When available at a high level in the soil it can cause toxicity to plants and animals. Not all the barium is readily available to living organisms. Inorganic and organic barium compounds can be presented as soluble or insoluble forms in the soil. The soluble form of BaS is extremely toxic to humans, animals and plants. Researchers have noted a decrease of K absorption in the plant when Ba concentrations are increased and a change in overall plant growth. In case of animals, Ba tends to be concentrated in the bones which may compete with calcium, although only about 2% barium ingested in dietary is absorbed by the body. Another effect is that the Ba can interfere with the availability of sulfur in the soil due to the sulphate formation of low solubility. Barium and some other elements are considered palioclimatic proxies. For some researchers, barite is perhaps the most appropriate indicator of paleoproductivity because of a high resistance to dissolution. As explained about the barium effects in various situations, it was considered important to study the more appropriated experimental conditions for determination of this element by INAA. Conditions established for this analysis were: a) Irradiation time, 15 and 40 seconds, under thermal flux neutron about 4 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, for determining barium in geological and biological matrices, respectively; b) Decay time, approximately of 4 minutes; c) Counting time of 30 minutes; d) Radionuclide measured {sup 139}Ba. The quality of Ba results was evaluated from the analysis of certified reference materials. The performance of the method was satisfactory, according to the criterion of E.ζ score. Results obtained in this study indicate INAA is a good alternative for Ba determination in geological and biological samples. (author)

  12. An 8-year review of barium studies in the diagnosis of gastroparesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, A.A. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Levine, M.S. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: marc.levine@uphs.upenn.edu; Rubesin, S.E.; Laufer, I. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Aim: To determine the utility of barium studies for diagnosing gastroparesis in patients with nausea, vomiting, or other related symptoms. Materials and methods: Radiology files revealed gastroparesis without gastric outlet obstruction on upper gastrointestinal tract barium studies in 50 patients with nausea, vomiting, and other related symptoms. Original reports and images were reviewed to determine whether gastric peristalsis was decreased/absent and to investigate gastric dilatation, fluid or debris, and delayed emptying of barium. Twenty patients (40%) had nuclear gastric emptying studies. Medical records were reviewed to determine the presentation, treatment, and course. The diagnosis of gastroparesis was considered accurate if patients with gastroparesis on barium studies responded to treatment. Results: Forty-six patients (92%) had predisposing factors for gastroparesis, including narcotics and diabetes. Forty-five patients (90%) presented with nausea or vomiting, and 40 patients (80%) had one or more other symptoms, including bloating, early satiety, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain. Barium studies revealed decreased gastric peristalsis in 46 (92%) of the 50 patients and absent peristalsis in four (8%); 46 patients (92%) had additional findings, including gastric dilatation in 30 (60%), delayed emptying of barium in 27 (54%), debris in 28 (56%; bezoars in three), and retained fluid in 13 (26%). Thirteen (65%) of 20 patients with nuclear gastric emptying studies had delayed emptying of solids and seven (35%) had normal emptying. Thirty-five (83%) of 42 patients treated for gastroparesis had symptomatic improvement versus two (25%) of eight patients not treated. Conclusion: Patients with nausea, vomiting, or other related symptoms who have gastroparesis without gastric outlet obstruction on barium studies can be treated for this condition on the basis of the clinical and radiographic findings.

  13. Gastrointestinal tract labeling for MDCT of abdomen: Comparison of low density barium and low density barium in combination with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, Kavita; Shah, Zarine K.; Sainani, Nisha; Uppot, Raul; Sahani, Dushyant V. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of the study was to compare the quality of stomach and small bowel marking/labeling using 1,350 ml of low-density barium alone (Volumen) with 900 ml of low-density barium and 450 ml of water for 16-MDCT scans of the abdomen and pelvis and assess cost benefits with the two protocols. In this IRB approved study, 80 consecutive patients scheduled for routine CECT (contrast-enhanced CT) of the abdomen-pelvis were studied. Patients were randomized into two groups and were administered either 1,350 ml of VoLumen (two bottles at 20-min intervals, one half bottle at 50 min and the last half on the table) or 900 ml of Volumen (two bottles at 20-min intervals and 450 ml water on the table). Portal venous phase scanning (detector collimation = 0.625 mm, speed = 18.75 mm, thickness = 5 mm) was subsequently performed. Images were reconstructed in axial and coronal plane at the CT console. Two blinded readers used a pre-designed template to assess distension and wall characteristics of the stomach and small bowel on a 5-point scale. Median scores with the two protocols were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The stomach and small bowel labeling was rated fair to optimal in all patients and did not differ significantly in the two protocols. The mean scores for distension of the small bowel and stomach were comparable. Inter-observer agreement for bowel labeling was found to be excellent (k 0.81). With the use of coronal images there was increased reader confidence in tracing the small bowel with both protocols. Acceptance for two bottles of Volumen and water was greater among patients as compared to three bottles of VoLumen. Use of two bottles of Volumen and water combination cost less than three bottles of Volumen. Stomach and small bowel labeling with administration of 900 ml of Volumen followed by 450 ml of water is cost effective and compares well to 1,350 ml of Volumen alone. (orig.)

  14. 氯化钡除杂制取高纯氢氧化钡%Preparation of high purity barium hydroxide by impurity - removed barium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁贤芬; 毛逢银; 何琳; 李莉

    2009-01-01

    Removal technology of strontium and iron from crude barium chloride raw material were studied.Optimization of process conditions of strontium and iron removal were discussed.When crude barium chloride stiring and dissolving the mixture at 60 ℃ for 40 min,impurities of stromtium and calcuim can be removed and mass fraction of strontium in the obatined solid barium chloride was below 1×10-4.Then add oxydol (H2O2) at proportion of 100 g raw materials per 8 mL H2O2,and add active carbon and small quantity of sodium hydroxide.Finally,iron could be get rid of when pH was controlled below 10.Mass fraction of iron in barium hydroxide product was less than 1×10-5 when using the iron - removed barium chaloride as raw material.Therefore,purified barium chloride by this method can be used to produce purity barium hydroxide.%研究了粗氯化钡原料中锶和铁杂质的脱除工艺,探讨了脱除锶和铁的优化工艺条件.在粗氯化钡原料中加入去离子水,液固质量比为0.25: 1,在60 ℃下搅拌溶解40 min,可除去锶和钙杂质,所得氯化钡固体中锶质量分数低于1×10-4.在氯化钡溶液中加入双氧水,每100 g原料中加入双氧水8 mL,加入活性炭和少量氢氧化钠,控制pH低于10时,可除去铁杂质,用除铁后的氯化钡制取氢氧化钡,产品中铁质量分数低于1×10-5.用除杂后的氯化钡可制得高纯氢氧化钡.

  15. Barium Tagging in Solid Xenon for the nEXO Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Christopher; Craycraft, Adam; Walton, Timothy; Fairbank, William; nEXO Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The proposed nEXO experiment utilizes a tonne-scale liquid xenon time projection chamber to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in xenon-136. Positive observation of this decay would determine the nature of the neutrino to be a MAJORANA particle, as well as measure the absolute neutrino mass scale. A critical concern for any rare decay search is reducing or eliminating backgrounds that cannot be distinguished from signal. A powerful background discrimination technique is positive identification of the daughter atom of the decay, in this case barium. This technique, called ``barium tagging'' may be available for a second phase of nEXO operation, allowing for neutrino mass sensitivity beyond the inverted mass hierarchy. Development is underway on a scheme to capture the barium daughter in solid xenon with a cryogenic probe and detect the barium by laser-induced fluorescence inside the solid xenon sample. This presentation reports results on imaging of single barium atoms frozen in a solid xenon matrix, as well as the progress on the freezing and removal of a solid xenon sample from liquid xenon. Graduated.

  16. Fabrication of barium/strontium carbonate coated amorphous carbon nanotubes as an improved field emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, S.; Jha, A.; Das, N. S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2013-02-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (aCNTs) were synthesized by a chemical reaction between ferrocene and ammonium chloride at a temperature ˜250 ∘C in an air furnace. As-synthesized aCNTs were coated with the barium/strontium carbonate through a simple chemical process. The coating of barium/strontium carbonate was confirmed by a high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Morphology of the as-prepared samples was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed that barium/strontium carbonate coated aCNTs are more stable than the pristine aCNTs. As-prepared barium/strontium carbonate coated aCNTs showed significantly improved field emission properties with a turn-on field as low as 2.5 V/μm. The variation of field emission characteristics of the barium/strontium carbonate coated aCNTs with interelectrode distances was also studied.

  17. Determination of barium in surface and ground waters at Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika, E-mail: ematoso@hotmail.com [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CEA/CTMS), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange, E-mail: cadore@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analica

    2015-07-01

    Barium can be found in waters up to 1 mg L{sup -1} and came from natural sources such as sedimentary rocks erosion rich in feldspar and barite. Also anthropogenic activities can release this element such as oil and gas industry, agricultural defensives, chemical industry and waste disposal. At high doses, barium can be harmful to human central nervous system and can also cause high blood pressure, heart problems, fatigue and anxiety. The water potability defined by Brazilian's Ministry of Healthy sets barium concentration up to 0.7 mg L{sup -1} and official regulation defines the same limit of this element to superficial waters (according CONAMA resolution 357/2005) and ground waters (Sao Paulo state regulation). In this work, barium was analyzed monthly in superficial waters from 4 different sampling locations, located in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) at Ipanema River, during one year, in order to evaluate the river in different conditions (seasons, temperature and rain period). The ground water was collected every six months. The analytical technique applied was ICP OES and the method conditions were optimized: wavelength, linearity, signal background ratio, detection and quantification limits. Data obtained in this work will contribute to evaluate the presence of barium at CEA region and nearby in order to compare it with current Brazilian regulations. (author)

  18. SALT reveals the barium central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2-39

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Jones, D; Karakas, A I; Köppen, J; Tyndall, A A; Mohamed, S S; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Santander-García, M

    2013-01-01

    Classical barium stars are binary systems which consist of a late-type giant enriched in carbon and slow neutron capture (s-process) elements and an evolved white dwarf (WD) that is invisible at optical wavelengths. The youngest observed barium stars are surrounded by planetary nebulae (PNe), ejected soon after the wind accretion of polluted material when the WD was in its preceeding asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Such systems are rare but powerful laboratories for studying AGB nucleosynthesis as we can measure the chemical abundances of both the polluted star and the nebula ejected by the polluter. Here we present evidence for a barium star in the PN Hen 2-39. The polluted giant is very similar to that found in WeBo 1. It is a cool (Teff=4250 +/- 150 K) giant enhanced in carbon ([C/H]=0.42 +/- 0.02 dex) and barium ([Ba/Fe]=1.50 +/- 0.25 dex). A spectral type of C-R3 C_24 nominally places Hen 2-39 amongst the peculiar early R-type carbon stars, however the barium enhancement and likely binary status mea...

  19. Imaging with polycrystalline mercuric iodide detectors using VLSI readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L.; Schieber, M.; Zuck, A.; Melekhov, L.; Saado, Y.; Hermon, H.; Nissenbaum, J

    1999-06-01

    Potentially low cost and large area polycrystalline mercuric iodide room-temperature radiation detectors, with thickness of 100-600 {mu}m have been successfully tested with dedicated low-noise, low-power mixed signal VLSI electronics which can be used for compact, imaging solutions. The detectors are fabricated by depositing HgI{sub 2} directly on an insulating substrate having electrodes in the form of microstrips and pixels with an upper continuous electrode. The deposition is made either by direct evaporation or by screen printing HgI{sub 2} mixed with glue such as Poly-Vinyl-Butiral. The properties of these first-generation detectors are quite uniform from one detector to another. Also for each single detector the response is quite uniform and no charge loss in the inter-electrode space have been detected. Because of the low cost and of the polycrystallinity, detectors can be potentially fabricated in any size and shape, using standard ceramic technology equipment, which is an attractive feature where low cost and large area applications are needed. The detectors which act as radiation counters have been tested with a beta source as well as in a high-energy beam of 100 GeV muons at CERN, connected to VLSI, low noise electronics. Charge collection efficiency and uniformity have been studied. The charge is efficiently collected even in the space between strips indicating that fill factors of 100% could be reached in imaging applications with direct detection of radiation. Single photon counting capability is reached with VLSI electronics. These results show the potential of this material for applications demanding position sensitive, radiation resistant, room-temperature operating radiation detectors, where position resolution is essential, as it can be found in some applications in high-energy physics, nuclear medicine and astrophysics.

  20. Effect of Excessive Potassium Iodide on Rat Aorta Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lin, Xinying; Bian, Jianchao; Meng, Huicui; Liu, Dan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of excess iodine on rat aorta endothelial cells and the potential underlying mechanisms. Rat aorta endothelial cells were cultured with iodide ion (3506, 4076, 4647, 5218, 5789, 6360, 6931, and 7512 mg/L) for 48 h. Morphological changes of cells were observed with microscope after Wright-Giemsa staining and acridine orange staining. Cell proliferation was determined with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed with flow cytometry. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and protein carbonyl in culture medium were determined with colorimetric method. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that excess iodine induced abnormal morphologic changes of cells, inhibited cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis rate. Iodine also reduced the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, and concentrations of GSH and increased the concentrations of MDA and protein carbonyl in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, excess iodine decreased the activity of eNOS and increased the activity of iNOS and the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in culture medium. Our results suggested that excess iodine exposure increased oxidative stress, caused damage of vascular endothelial cells, and altered the expression of adhesion factors and the activity of NOS. These changes may explain the mechanisms underlying excess iodine-induced vascular injury.

  1. THERAPY OF GRAVES’ DISEASE WITH SODIUM IODIDE-131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Hartadi Noor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Graves’ disease is the most common form of thyrotoxicosis, with a peak incidence in the 20-40 year of age group. Females are involved about five times more commonly than male. The easiest sign to recognize patients with Graves’ disease is the present of Graves’ ophthalmopathy. The diagnosis of Graves’ disease may sometimes base only on a physical examination and a medical history. Diffuse thyroid enlargement and sign of thyrotoxicosis, mainly ophthalmopathy and to lesser extent dermopathy, usually adequate for diagnosis. TSH test combined with FT4 test is usually the first laboratory test performs in these patients. The patients suffered Graves’ disease can be treated with antithyroid drug therapy or undergo subtotal Thyroidectomy. Another therapy is by using sodium iodide-131, where this therapy has advantages including easy administration, effectiveness, low expense, and absence of pain. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Modeling the Detection of Organic and Inorganic Compounds Using Iodide-Based Chemical Ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Siddharth; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Lee, Ben H; Thornton, Joel A; Kurtén, Theo

    2016-02-04

    Iodide-based chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) has been used to detect and measure concentrations of several atmospherically relevant organic and inorganic compounds. The significant electronegativity of iodide and the strong acidity of hydroiodic acid makes electron transfer and proton abstraction essentially negligible, and the soft nature of the adduct formation ionization technique reduces the chances of sample fragmentation. In addition, iodide has a large negative mass defect, which, when combined with the high resolving power of a high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS), provides good selectivity. In this work, we use quantum chemical methods to calculate the binding energies, enthalpies and free energies for clusters of an iodide ion with a number of atmospherically relevant organic and inorganic compounds. Systematic configurational sampling of the free molecules and clusters was carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level, followed by subsequent calculations at the PBE/SDD and DLPNO-CCSD(T)/def2-QZVPP//PBE/aug-cc-pVTZ-PP levels. The binding energies, enthalpies, and free energies thus obtained were then compared to the iodide-based University of Washington HR-ToF-CIMS (UW-CIMS) instrument sensitivities for these molecules. We observed a reasonably linear relationship between the cluster binding enthalpies and logarithmic instrument sensitivities already at the PBE/SDD level, which indicates that relatively simple quantum chemical methods can predict the sensitivity of an iodide-based CIMS instrument toward most molecules. However, higher level calculations were needed to treat some outlier molecules, most notably oxalic acid and methylerythritol. Our calculations also corroborated the recent experimental findings that the molecules that the UW-CIMS detects at maximum sensitivity usually have binding enthalpies to iodide which are higher than about 26 kcal/mol, depending slightly on the level of theory.

  3. Iodide Residues in Milk Vary between Iodine-Based Teat Disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Elizabeth A; Mukai, Motoko; Zurakowski, Michael; Rauch, Bradley; Gioia, Gloria; Hillebrandt, Joseph R; Henderson, Mark; Schukken, Ynte H; Hemling, Thomas C

    2016-07-01

    Majority of iodine found in dairy milk comes from the diet and teat disinfection products used during milking process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 iodine-based teat dips on milk iodide concentrations varying in iodine level (0.25% vs. 0.5%, w/w), normal low viscosity dip versus barrier dip, and application method (dip vs. spray) to ensure safe iodine levels in dairy milk when these products are used. The iodine exposure study was performed during a 2-wk period. The trial farm was purged of all iodine-based disinfection products for 21 d during a prestudy "washout period," which resulted in baseline milk iodide range of 145 to 182 ppb. During the experiment, iodine-based teat dips were used as post-milking teat disinfectants and compared to a non-iodine control disinfectant. Milk iodide residue levels for each treatment was evaluated from composited group samples. Introduction of different iodine-based teat disinfectants increased iodide residue content in milk relative to the control by between 8 and 29 μg/L when averaged across the full trial period. However, residues levels for any treatment remained well below the consumable limit of 500 μg/L. The 0.5% iodine disinfectant increased milk iodide levels by 20 μg/L more compared to the 0.25% iodine. Compared to dip-cup application, spray application significantly increased milk iodide residue by 21 μg/L and utilized approximately 23% more teat dip. This carefully controlled study demonstrated an increase in milk iodide concentrations from iodine disinfectants, but increases were small and within acceptable limits.

  4. Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mamazza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New apparatus and a new process for the sputter deposition of modified barium titanate thin-films were developed. Films were deposited at temperatures up to 900 °C from a Ba0.96Ca0.04Ti0.82Zr0.18O3 (BCZTO target directly onto Si, Ni and Pt surfaces and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Film texture and crystallinity were found to depend on both deposition temperature and substrate: above 600 °C, the as-deposited films consisted of well-facetted crystallites with the cubic perovskite structure. A strongly textured Pt (111 underlayer enhanced the (001 orientation of BCZTO films deposited at 900 °C, 10 mtorr pressure and 10% oxygen in argon. Similar films deposited onto a Pt (111 textured film at 700 °C and directly onto (100 Si wafers showed relatively larger (011 and diminished intensity (00ℓ diffraction peaks. Sputter ambients containing oxygen caused the Ni underlayers to oxidize even at 700 °C: Raising the process temperature produced more diffraction peaks of NiO with increased intensities. Thin-film capacitors were fabricated using ~500 nm thick BCZTO dielectrics and both Pt and Ni top and bottom electrodes. Small signal capacitance measurements were carried out to determine capacitance and parallel resistance at low frequencies and from these data, the relative permittivity (er and resistivity (r of the dielectric films were calculated; values ranged from ~50 to >2,000, and from ~104 to ~1010 Ω∙cm, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Barium Zirconate Titanate (BZT nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Mohseni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available So far, the antibacterial activity of some organic and inorganic compounds has been studied. Barium zirconate titanate [Ba(Zr xTi1-xO3] (x = 0.05 nanoparticle is an example of inorganic materials. In vitro studies have provided evidence for the antibacterial activity of this nanoparticle. In the current study, the nano-powder was synthesized by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction showed that the powder was single-phase and had a perovskite structure at the calcination temperature of 1000 ºC. Antibacterial activity of the desired nanoparticle was assessed on two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431 and Micrococcus luteus PTCC1625 and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c and clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria according to Radial Diffusion Assay (RDA. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of BZT nano-powder on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was acceptable. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this nano-powder was determined. The results showed that MIC values for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus were about 2.3 µg/mL, 7.3 µg/mL, 3 µg/mL and 12 µg/mL, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was also evaluated and showed that the growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus could be decreased at 2.3, 14, 3 and 18 µg/mL of BZT. Average log reduction in viable bacteria count in time-kill assay ranged between 6 Log10 cfu/mL to zero after 24 h of incubation with BZT nanoparticle.

  6. Dose optimisation of double-contrast barium enema examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, K; Båth, M; Jonasson, P; Cappelen-Smith, J; Fogelstam, P; Söderberg, J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to optimise the filtration and dose setting for double-contrast barium enema examinations using a Philips MultiDiagnost Eleva FD system. A phantom study was performed prior to a patient study. A CDRAD phantom was used in a study where copper and aluminium filtration, different detector doses and tube potentials were examined. The image quality was evaluated using the software CDRAD Analyser and the phantom dose was determined using the Monte Carlo-based software PCXMC. The original setting [100 % detector dose (660 nGy air kerma) and a total filtration of 3.5 mm Al, at 81 kVp] and two other settings identified by the phantom study (100 % detector dose and additional filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu as well as 80 % detector dose and added filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu) were included in the patient study. The patient study included 60 patients and up to 8 images from each patient. Six radiologists performed a visual grading characteristics study to evaluate the image quality. A four-step scale was used to judge the fulfillment of three image quality criteria. No overall statistical significant difference in image quality was found between the three settings (P > 0.05). The decrease in the effective dose for the settings in the patient study was 15 % when filtration was added and 34 % when both filtrations was added and detector dose was reduced. The study indicates that additional filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu and a decrease in detector dose by 20 % from the original setting can be used in colon examinations with Philips MultiDiagnost Eleva FD to reduce the patient dose by 30 % without significantly affecting the image quality. For 20 exposures, this corresponds to a decrease in the effective dose from 1.6 to 1.1 mSv.

  7. Colonic transit time in patient with slow-transit constipation: Comparison of radiopaque markers and barium suspension method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Huimin [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Department of General Surgery, Weifang People' s Hospital, ShanDong Province 261041 (China); Han Jiagang [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Na Ying [Department of Medical Imaging, Weifang People' s Hospital, ShanDong Province 261041 (China); Zhao Bo; Ma Huachong [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Wang Zhenjun, E-mail: wang3zj@sohu.com [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Background: Colonic transit study provides valuable information before surgical treatment is considered for patient with constipation. The radiopaque markers method is the most common way for evaluating colon transit time. The aim of this study is to compare the barium suspension with the radiopaque makers to assess the colonic mobility in patient with constipation. Methods: Colonic transit time was measured in 11 female patients with slow-transit constipation using both radiopaque markers and barium suspension method. In radiopaque markers method, the patient ingested 20 markers on the first day, and an abdominal radiograph was performed every 24 h until 80% markers were excreted. In barium suspension method, the patient swallowed up to 50 ml of 200% (w/v) barium meal. The abdominal radiographs were taken at the same time point as the former. Results: The total or segmental colonic transit time were obviously prolonged in all patients. Segmental transits time spent in the right colon, left colon and rectosigmoid for radiopaque markers and barium suspension method was, respectively, 30 {+-} 6 h and 34 {+-} 7 h; 38 {+-} 9 h and 32 {+-} 6 h; 40 {+-} 8 h and 38 {+-} 10 h. In the radiopaque markers method, total colonic transit time was 108 {+-} 14 h and it was 103 {+-} 13 h in the barium suspension method (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The barium suspension and radiopaque markers gave the similar results for colonic transit time. The barium suspension was a simple and cheap method for evaluating the colonic mobility.

  8. Demonstrating the potential of yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte for high-performance fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kiho; Jang, Dong Young; Choi, Hyung Jong; Kim, Donghwan; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2017-02-01

    In reducing the high operating temperatures (>=800 °C) of solid-oxide fuel cells, use of protonic ceramics as an alternative electrolyte material is attractive due to their high conductivity and low activation energy in a low-temperature regime (fuel cells. However, poor sinterability of yttrium-doped barium zirconate discourages its fabrication as a thin-film electrolyte and integration on porous anode supports, both of which are essential to achieve high performance. Here we fabricate a protonic-ceramic fuel cell using a thin-film-deposited yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte with no impeding grain boundaries owing to the columnar structure tightly integrated with nanogranular cathode and nanoporous anode supports, which to the best of our knowledge exhibits a record high-power output of up to an order of magnitude higher than those of other reported barium zirconate-based fuel cells.

  9. Spectroscopy of Ba and Ba$^+$ deposits in solid xenon for barium tagging in nEXO

    CERN Document Server

    Mong, B; Walton, T; Chambers, C; Craycraft, A; Benitez-Medina, C; Hall, K; Fairbank, W; Albert, J B; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Basque, V; Beck, D; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Cao, G F; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Daniels, T; Daugherty, S J; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fabris, L; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Heffner, M; Hughes, M; Jiang, X S; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krucken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Moore, D; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Retiere, F; Rowson, P C; Rozo, M P; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Walton, J; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zhao, Y B

    2014-01-01

    Progress on a method of barium tagging for the nEXO double beta decay experiment is reported. Absorption and emission spectra for deposits of barium atoms and ions in solid xenon matrices are presented. Excitation spectra for prominent emission lines, temperature dependence and bleaching of the fluorescence reveal the existence of different matrix sites. A regular series of sharp lines observed in Ba$^+$ deposits is identified with some type of barium hydride molecule. Lower limits for the fluorescence quantum efficiency of the principal Ba emission transition are reported. Under current conditions, an image of $\\le10^4$ Ba atoms can be obtained. Prospects for imaging single Ba atoms in solid xenon are discussed.

  10. Improved thermal stability and wettability behavior of thermoplastic polyurethane / barium metaborate composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baştürka, Emre; Madakbaş, Seyfullah; Kahraman, Memet Vezir, E-mail: smadakbas@marmara.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, it was targeted to the enhance thermal stability and wettability behavior of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) by adding barium metaborate. TPU-Barium metaborate composites were prepared by adding various proportions of barium metaborate to TPU. The chemical structures of the composites were characterised by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. All prepared composites have extremely high Tg and thermal stability as determined from DSC and TGA analysis. All composite materials have the Tg ranging from 15 to 35 °C. The surface morphologies of the composites were investigated by a scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the samples were characterized with stress-strain test. Hydrophobicity of the samples was determined by the contact angle measurements. The obtained results proved that thermal, hydrophobic and mechanical properties were improved. (author)

  11. Determination of barium in bottled drinking water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagioli, F.; Locatelli, C.; Lanciotti, E.; Vallone, G.; Mazzotta, D.; Mugelli, A.

    1988-11-01

    In relation to the wide environmental spread of barium and to its cardiovascular effects, barium levels were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in 60 different brands of bottled water marketed in Italy. Matrix interferences were investigated in order to evaluate the use of an analytical calibration function rather than the much more time consuming addition technique. The barium content ranged from limit of detection C/sub L/ (7.0 ..mu..g/1) up to 660 ..mu..g/1, the median value being 80 ..mu..g/l, while the recovery tests varied between 90 and 110% and the precision of the method (s/sub yx/) was 2.5%.

  12. Individual-specific transgenerational marking of fish populations based on a barium dual-isotope procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelga-Suarez, Gonzalo; Moldovan, Mariella; Garcia-Valiente, America; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Alonso, J Ignacio Garcia

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on the development and evaluation of an individual-specific transgenerational marking procedure using two enriched barium isotopes, (135)Ba and (137)Ba, mixed at a given and selectable molar ratio. The method is based on the deconvolution of the isotope patterns found in the sample into four molar contribution factors: natural xenon (Xe nat), natural barium (Ba nat), Ba135, and Ba137. The ratio of molar contributions between Ba137 and Ba135 is constant and independent of the contribution of natural barium in the sample. This procedure was tested in brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) kept in captivity. Trout were injected with three different Ba137/Ba135 isotopic signatures ca. 7 months and 7 days before spawning to compare the efficiency of the marking procedure at long and short term, respectively. The barium isotopic profiles were measured in the offspring by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Each of the three different isotopic signatures was unequivocally identified in the offspring in both whole eggs and larvae. For 9 month old offspring, the characteristic barium isotope signatures could also be detected in the otoliths even in the presence of a high and variable amount of barium of natural isotope abundance. In conclusion, it can be stated that the proposed dual-isotope marking is inheritable and can be detected after both long-term and short-term marking. Furthermore, the dual-isotope marking can be made individual-specific, so that it allows identification of offspring from a single individual or a group of individuals within a given fish group.

  13. [Determination of iodide, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions in environmental water by two-dimensional ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Yali

    2013-03-01

    A procedure for the determination of iodide, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions in environmental water by two-dimensional ion chromatography has been developed. At first the iodide, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions were separated from interfering ions by a column (IonPac AS16, 250 mm x 4 mm). The iodide ion, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions were then enriched with an enrichment column (MAC-200, 80 mm x 0.75 mm). In the 2nd-dimensional chromatography, iodide thiocyanate and perchlorate ions were separated and quantified by a capillary column (IonPac AS20 Capillary, 250 mm x 0.4 mm). The linear ranges were 0.05 -100 pg/L with correlation coefficients of 0. 999 9, and the detection limits were 0. 02 - 0.05 micro gg/L. The spiked recoveries of iodide, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions were in the range of 85.1% to 100.1%. The relative standard deviations of the recoveries were 1.7% to 4.9%.

  14. Trapping radiodine, in the form of methyl iodide, on nuclear carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacapricha, D. [Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Taylor, C. [John Moores Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Studies have been performed on potassium-iodide-impregnated charcoals of the type used in the nuclear industry for trapping radioiodine released during nuclear fission. The effects of various parameters on the trapping efficiency of methyl iodide have been investigated. A variation in particle size within a bulk charcoal caused poor precision in K value measurements because of differences in surface area, pore volume, and bed density, leading to differences in the deposition of the impregnant. Precision is improved by sieving the charcoal to a narrower size because smaller particles have a higher porosity. This finding is supported by surface area and pore measurements. Two methods of impregnation are compared by measuring K values and the deposition of potassium iodide. Charcoal impregnated by rotary evaporation exhibits both higher K values and higher potassium iodide contents than sprayed charcoal. Two designs of spraying drum are compared: a drum with helical vanes allows more efficient deposition and more uniform distribution of impregnant than a drum with axial vanes. A decrease in the K value with increasing humidity correlates with the available surface area. A similar correlation exists between water content and available pore volume. Aging of potassium-iodide-impregnated charcoal, caused by the formation of oxygen complexes on the surface, is associated with significant falls in K value. K values of charcoals also can be restored to at least their original values by heat treatment in the absence of air. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Estradiol decreases iodide uptake by rat thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlanetto T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has well-known indirect effects on the thyroid. A direct effect of estradiol on thyroid follicular cells, increasing cell growth and reducing the expression of the sodium-iodide symporter gene, has been recently reported. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of estradiol on iodide uptake by thyroid follicular cells, using FRTL-5 cells as a model. Estradiol decreased basal iodide uptake by FRTL-5 cells from control levels of 2.490 ± 0.370 to 2.085 ± 0.364 pmol I-/µg DNA at 1 ng/ml (P<0.02, to 1.970 ± 0.302 pmol I-/µg DNA at 10 ng/ml (P<0.003, and to 2.038 ± 0.389 pmol I-/µg DNA at 100 ng/ml (P<0.02. In addition, 4 ng/ml estradiol decreased iodide uptake induced by 0.02 mIU/ml thyrotropin from 8.678 ± 0.408 to 7.312 ± 0.506 pmol I-/µg DNA (P<0.02. A decrease in iodide uptake by thyroid cells caused by estradiol has not been described previously and may have a role in goiter pathogenesis.

  16. Processes of adsorption/desorption of iodides and cadmium cations onto/from Ag(111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR D. JOVIĆ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the adsorption/desorption processes of iodides and cadmium cations in the presence of iodides onto/from Ag(111 were investigated. It was shown that both processes were complex, characterized by several peaks on the cyclic voltammograms (CVs. By PeakFit analysis of the recorded CVs and subsequent fitting of the obtained peaks by the Frumkin adsorption isotherm, the interaction parameter (f and the Gibbs energy of adsorption (DGads for each adsorbed phase were determined. In the case of iodide adsorption, four peaks were characterized by negative values of f, indicating attractive lateral interaction between the adsorbed anions, while two of them possessed value of f < –4, indicating phase transition processes. The adsorption/desorption processes of cadmium cations (underpotential deposition – UPD of cadmium in the presence of iodide anions was characterized by two main peaks, each of them being composed of two or three peaks with negative values of f. By the analysis of charge vs. potential dependences obtained either from the CVs or current transients on potentiostatic pulses, it was concluded that adsorbed iodides did not undergo desorption during the process of Cd UPD, but became replaced by Cd ad-atoms and remained adsorbed on top of a Cd layer and/or in between Cd the ad-atoms.

  17. Proton and iodine-127 nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the binding of iodide by lactoperoxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, J.; Takahashi, S.; Shimizu, T.; Hatano, M.; Nakamura, S.; Hosoya, T.

    1987-10-06

    Interaction of an iodide ion with lactoperoxidase was studied by the use of /sup 1/H NMR, /sup 127/I NMR, and optical difference spectrum techniques. /sup 1/H NMR spectra demonstrated that a major broad hyperfine-shifted signal at about 60 ppm, which is ascribed to the heme peripheral methyl protons, was shifted toward high field by adding KI, indicating the binding of iodide to the active site of the enzyme; the dissociation constant was estimated to be 38 mM at pH 6.1. The binding was further detected by /sup 127/I NMR, showing no competition with cyanide. Both /sup 1/H NMR and /sup 127/I NMR revealed that the binding of iodide to the enzyme is facilitated by the protonation of an ionizable group with a pK/sup a/ value of 6.0-6.8, which is presumably the distal histidyl residue. Optical difference spectra showed that the binding of an aromatic donor molecule to the enzyme is slightly but distinctly affected by adding KI. On the basis of these results, it was suggested that an iodide ion binds to lactoperoxidase outside the heme crevice but at the position close enough to interact with the distal histidyl residue which possibly mediates electron transport in the iodide oxidation reaction.

  18. Chemical composition of nanomodified composite binder with nano- and microsized barium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOROLEV Evgenij Valerjevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are several possibilities to improve cement-based binders. In particular, many properties of cement stone can be enhanced by means of micro- and nanoscale modification. In a number of previous works we had shown that application of barium hydrosilicates leads to such improvement. The present article is devoted to the investigation of the chemical composition of the cement stone which is modified by means of addition of barium hydrosilicates. The modification was performed on different scales: micro- and nanoscale; the results of simultaneous multi-scale modification are also presented. The examination was carried out with help of different modern research techniques – FT IR spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray phase analysis. Identification of the new phases and comparative quantitative assessment of their content are performed. It is found that the use of nano- and micro-sized barium hydrosilicates as additives leads to reduction of portlandite by 27...28%; by means of multi-scale modification it is possible to reduce the content of portlandite much more (by 83.3%. Due to addition of nano- and micro-sized barium-based modifiers both the amount of calcium hydrosilicates in reaction products is enlarged, and structure of the mentioned hydrosilicates is changed (the formation of a fine-grained structure of hydration products takes place. Micro-sized barium hydrosilicates are chemically active additives and promote the formation of an additional quantity of calcium hydrosilicates of type CSH (I. The use of nanoscale barium hydrosilicates promotes the formation of CSH (I and CSH (II calcium hydrosilicates, and also both riversidite and xonotlite. As a result of simultaneous application of nano- and micro-sized barium hydrosilicates the content of CSH (II increases. This can be confirmed by means of differential thermal and X-ray analysis. The amount of CSH (I, riversidite and various tobermorites is also increases. It is

  19. Synthesis, characterization and thermostability of barium β-diketonate with tetraethylenepentamine ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique is a promising process for high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ(YBCO) preparation. In this technique, it is a challenge to obtain barium precursors with high volatility. In addition, the purity, evaporation characteristics and thermostability of adopted precursors in the whole process would decide the quality and reproducible results of YBCO film. In the present report, the barium precursor containing 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dionate...

  20. Study of the microstructural transformations of borate glass and barium metaborate crystals induced by femtosecond laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bin; Yu Bing-Kun; Yan Xiao-Na; Qiu Jian-Rong; Jiang Xiong-Wei; Zhu Cong-Shan

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the microstructural transformations of borate glass and barium metaborate crystals induced by femtosecond laser. Such structural transformations were verified by Raman spectroscopy. The borate glass is transformed into low temperature (LT) phase of barium metaborate (BaB2O4) crystals after being irradiated for 10 min by a femtosecond laser. In addition, after 20 min of irradiation, high temperature (HT) phase of BaB2O4 crystals is also produced. Further studies demonstrate that LT phase BaB2O4 crystals are formed in the HT phase BaB2O4 crystals after femtosecond laser irradiation for 10 s.

  1. Temperature-Dependent Raman Spectra and Microstructure of Barium Metaborate Crystals and Its Melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤静林; 蒋国昌; 侯怀宇; 吴永全; 陈辉; 徐匡迪

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the Raman spectra of β- and α-barium metaborate in crystal and liquid states from room temperature to 1873K, with a semiconductor laser as the laser source, coupled with a time-resolved detection system to eliminate the dense thermal emission background when temperature was considerably high.Temperature-dependent Raman spectra can clearly indicate that the phase transformation from β- to α-barium metaborate has been completed during 1273 - 1300 K. Variations of different kinds of microstructure units with temperature are identified and discussed.

  2. Dielectric properties of piezoelectric 3–0 composites of lithium ferrite/barium titanate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sarah; S V Suryanarayana

    2003-12-01

    Piezoelectric 3–0 composite ceramics are prepared from a mixture of barium titanate and lithium ferrite phase constituents. Dielectric properties of composites are affected by a number of parameters that include electrical properties, size, shape and amount of constituent phases. The frequency dependent measurements can provide additional insight into mechanisms controlling electrical response. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant plots of lithium ferrite/barium titanate composites will be given and the relevance of trends seen in them will be discussed. Connectivity in composites developed is studied.

  3. Physical states and properties of barium titanate films in a plane electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, V. B.; Kalinchuk, V. V.; Shakhovoi, R. A.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of a plane electric field on the phase states of barium titanate thin films under the conditions of forced deformation has been studied. The field dependence of a complete set of material constants has been taken in the region of the c-phase, where polarization losses are absent. The material constants are calculated using equations of the piezoelectric effect derived by linearizing the nonlinear equations of state from the phenomenological; theory for barium titanate. It has been shown that there is a critical value of the field at which the electromechanical coupling coefficient reaches a maximum.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide doped barium strontium titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, M. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Bengal Institute of Technology Kolkata (India); Mukherjee, S. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Maitra, S. [Govt. College of Engg. and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata (India)

    2012-01-15

    Barium strontium titanate (BST) ceramics (Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})TiO{sub 3} were synthesized by solid state sintering using barium carbonate, strontium carbonate and rutile as the precursor materials. The samples were doped with nickel oxide in different proportions. Different phases present in the sintered samples were determined from X-ray diffraction investigation and the distribution of different phases in the microstructure was assessed from scanning electron microscopy study. It was observed that the dielectric properties of BST were modified significantly with nickel oxide doping. These ceramics held promise for applications in tuned circuits. (author)

  5. CT-Guided Percutaneous Transthoracic Localization of Pulmonary Nodules Prior to Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery Using Barium Suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nyoung Keun; Park, Chang Min; Kang, Chang Hyun; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Choo, Ji Yung; Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To describe our initial experience with CT-guided percutaneous barium marking for the localization of small pulmonary nodules prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). From October 2010 to April 2011, 10 consecutive patients (4 men and 6 women; mean age, 60 years) underwent CT-guided percutaneous barium marking for the localization of 10 small pulmonary nodules (mean size, 7.6 mm; range, 3-14 mm): 6 pure ground-glass nodules, 3 part-solid nodules, and 1 solid nodule. A 140% barium sulfate suspension (mean amount, 0.2 mL; range, 0.15-0.25 mL) was injected around the nodules with a 21-gauge needle. The technical details, surgical findings and pathologic features associated with barium localizations were evaluated. All nodules were marked within 3 mm (mean distance, 1.1 mm; range, 0-3 mm) from the barium ball (mean diameter, 9.6 mm; range, 8-16 mm) formed by the injected barium suspension. Pneumothorax occurred in two cases, for which one needed aspiration. However, there were no other complications. All barium balls were palpable during VATS and visible on intraoperative fluoroscopy, and were completely resected. Both the whitish barium balls and target nodules were identifiable in the frozen specimens. Pathology revealed one invasive adenocarcinoma, five adenocarcinoma-in-situ, two atypical adenomatous hyperplasias, and two benign lesions. In all cases, there were acute inflammations around the barium balls which did not hamper the histological diagnosis of the nodules. CT-guided percutaneous barium marking can be an effective, convenient and safe pre-operative localization procedure prior to VATS, enabling accurate resection and diagnosis of small or faint pulmonary nodules.

  6. Quantification of propidium iodide delivery with millisecond electric pulses: A model study

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Miao

    2014-01-01

    A model study of propidium iodide delivery with millisecond electric pulses is presented; this work is a companion of the experimental efforts by Sadik et al. [1]. Both membrane permeabilization and delivery are examined with respect to six extra-cellular conductivities. The transmembrane potential of the permeabilized regions exhibits a consistent value, which corresponds to a bifurcation point in the pore-radius-potential relation. Both the pore area density and membrane conductance increase with an increasing extra-cellular conductivity. On the other hand, the inverse correlation between propidium iodide delivery and extra-cellular conductivity as observed in the experiments is quantitatively captured by the model. This agreement confirms that this behavior is primarily mediated by electrophoretic transport during the pulse. The results suggest that electrophoresis is important even for the delivery of small molecules such as propidium iodide. The direct comparison between model prediction and experimental...

  7. Salty glycerol versus salty water surface organization: bromide and iodide surface propensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C

    2013-07-25

    Salty NaBr and NaI glycerol solution interfaces are examined in the OH stretching region using broadband vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are used to further understand the VSFG spectroscopic signature. The VSFG spectra of salty glycerol solutions reveal that bromide and iodide anions perturb the interfacial glycerol organization in a manner similar as that found in aqueous halide salt solutions, thus confirming the presence of bromide and iodide anions at the glycerol surface. Surface tension measurements are consistent with the surface propensity suggested by the VSFG data and also show that the surface excess increases with increasing salt concentration, similar to that of water. In addition, iodide is shown to have more surface prevalence than bromide, as has also been determined from aqueous solutions. These results suggest that glycerol behaves similarly to water with respect to surface activity and solvation of halide anions at its air/liquid interface.

  8. Preparation, Characterization and Optical Properties of Host-guest Nanocomposite Material Mordenite-silver Iodide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Silver iodide nanoclusters were successfully prepared in the channels of mordenite by a heat diffusion method. Powder X-ray diffraction, adsorption technique and infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the prepared materials, which showed that the guest silver iodide had been encapsulated in the channels of mordenite. The optical properties of the solid phase diffuse reflectance absorption of nanocomposite material NaM-AgI were studied, showing that the absorption bands of the diffuse reflectance absorption of the prepared material moved to the region of high energy. The absorption peak of the material prepared shifted to the region of high energy. Namely, blue shift was caused. This has demonstrated the incorporation of silver iodide into the channels of the zeolite. We observed the luminescence and surface photovoltage spectra of NaM-AgI sample, proposing the mechanisms of the photoluminescence and photovoltaic responses.

  9. New Microporous Polymer Electrolyte Based on Polysiloxane Grafted with Imidazolium Iodide Moieties for DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of polysiloxane grafted with different ratio of imidazolium iodide moieties (IL-SiO2 have been synthesized to develop a micro-porous polymer electrolyte for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. The samples were characterized by 1HNMR, FT-IR spectrum, XRD, TEM and SEM, respectively. Moreover, the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes was measured by electrochemical workstation. Nanostructured polysiloxane containing imidazolium iodide showed excellent compatibility with organic solvent and polymer matrix for its ionic liquid characteristics. Increasing the proportion of imidazolium iodide moieties in polysiloxane improved the electrochemical behavior of the gel polymer electrolyte. A dye-sensitized solar cell with gel polymer electrolyte yielded an open-circuit voltage of 0.70 V, short-circuit current of 11.19 mA cm−2, and the conversion efficiency of 3.61% at 1 sun illumination.

  10. Optimization of mercuric iodide platelets growth by the polymer controlled vapor transport method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornaro L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercuric iodide crystals in their platelet habit were grown by the polymer controlled vapor transport method. Mercuric iodide 99% in purity was sublimated at temperatures about 122 - 126 °C and vacuum conditions (10-5 mmHg, after selecting an appropriate polymer. Temperature profiles and experimental heat transfer models were determined for two growth furnaces using different insulator configurations for the cold extreme (air, ceramic wool, grilon, copper and ceramic wool. Growth conditions for few and separate nucleation points and large crystals were determined. Representative samples were characterized by optical microscopy and by measuring the current density and apparent resistivity of the material. Future optimization and comparisons with others mercuric iodide crystal growth methods are included.

  11. Effect of Cytokine on the Expression of Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene in Breast Cancer Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAYue; LIUChao; TANGWei; LIUCui-ping; QINYou-wen; YUANQing-xing; LIQian; MAOXiao-dong; DIFu-song

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effect of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6) on the expression of sodi-um-iodide symporter(NIS) gene in breast cancer cell (MCF-7). Methods:The breast cancer cell was cultureds with negative control culture or cultures with different concentrations of cytokines for 72 h. NIS germ mRNA in breast cancer cells cultured was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Results:Expression of sodium-iodide symporter mRNA can be found decreasing along with increasing the concentration of cytokine dose-depen-dently. Conchzs/on ~ Cytokine may play a role in iodide-uptake modulating in breast cancer cells by their effect on NIS germ expression.

  12. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulopo, J; Zvimba, J N; Swanepoel, H; Bologo, L T; Maree, J

    2012-01-01

    Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO(3)) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO(2) gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO(3) recovery in the Alkali Barium Calcium (ABC) desalination process and its use for sulphate removal from high sulphate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of key process parameters, such as BaS slurry concentration and CO(2) flow rate on the carbonation, as well as the extent of sulphate removal from AMD using the recovered BaCO(3) were investigated. It was observed that the carbonation reaction rate for BaCO(3) regeneration in a bubbling column reactor significantly increased with increase in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) flow rate whereas the BaS slurry content within the range 5-10% slurry content did not significantly affect the carbonation rate. The CO(2) flow rate also had an impact on the BaCO(3) morphology. The BaCO(3) recovered from the pilot-scale bubbling column reactor demonstrated effective sulphate removal ability during AMD treatment compared with commercial BaCO(3).

  13. All-Solid-State Iodide Selective Electrode for Iodimetry of Iodized Salts and Vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIRUWORK MEQUANINT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-made all-solid state iodide selective electrode, with Ag2S-AgI coated on a graphite rod recovered from dry cell battery, was prepared according to previous procedures. The electrode’s linear response to iodide was in the concentration range of 10-6 M to 10-1 M with a slope of 56.85 mV/decade and a detection limit of 6×10-7M. Iodate recovery test for laboratory formulated iodate-iodized salt was found to be 98.6 % with a standard deviation of 1.14%. The titratability of the iodized salt solution was at least 10-200 ppm potassium iodate (6-120 ppm iodine, exhibiting distinct endpoints in the range wider than the ones set in regulatory standards and reflecting that QC monitoring in production and stability decline of iodine content upon storage can be performed with the electrode method. On the basis this potentiometric titration, the application of the laboratory-made iodide electrode (vs. a saturated calomel reference electrode was extended to the determination of iodine in commercial iodized salts. In all the iodine assays, the iodate-iodized salt was initially treated with acid and an excess of iodide before titration against Na2S2O3 solution. The iodine content in table salts iodized with iodide was determined by direct potentiometry. The electrode was further used for vitamin C (ascorbic acid determinations in pharmaceutical tablets and orange juice by back titrating excess I3- against standard Na2S2O3 in acidic media. The overall outcome is that the iodide ISE can be used as sharp endpoint indicator for these titrimetric reactions in place of the well known official, but visually monitored, starch- triodide end-point reaction detection.

  14. Iodide uptake in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells after transfer of the human thyroid peroxidase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkom, U. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Altmann, A.; Jiang, S.; Morr, I.; Mahmut, M. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Human thyroperoxidase (hTPO) is critical for the accumulation of iodide in thyroid tissues. Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid tumours which lack thyroid-specific gene expression fail to accumulate iodide and, therefore, do not respond to iodine-131 therapy. We consequently investigated whether transfer of the hTPO gene is sufficient to restore the iodide-trapping capacity in undifferentiated thyroid and non-thyroid tumour cells. The human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines C643 and SW1736, the rat Morris hepatoma cell line MH3924A and the rat papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line L2 were used as in vitro model systems. Employing a bicistronic retroviral vector based on the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus for the transfer of the hTPO and the neomycin resistance gene, the C643 cells and SW1736 cells were transfected while the L2 cells and MH3924A cells were infected with retroviral particles. Seven recombinant C643 and seven SW1736 cell lines as well as four recombinant L2 and four MH3924A cell lines were established by neomycin selection. They were studied for hTPO expression using an antibody-based luminescence kit, followed by determination of the enzyme activity in the guaiacol assay and of the iodide uptake capacity in the presence of Na{sup 125}I. Genetically modified cell lines expressed up to 1,800 times more hTPO as compared to wild type tumour cells. The level of hTPO expression varied significantly between individual neomycin-resistant cell lines, suggesting that the recombinant retroviral DNA was integrated at different sites of the cellular genome. The accumulation of iodide, however, was not significantly enhanced in individual recombinant cell lines, irrespective of low or high hTPO expression. Moreover, there was no correlation between hTPO expression and enzyme activity in individual cell lines. The transduction of the hTPO gene per se is not sufficient to restore iodide trapping in non-iodide-concentrating tumour cells. Future

  15. Development of W/O Microemulsion for Transdermal Delivery of Iodide Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Hao; Qiu, Ni; Crill, Catherine; Helms, Richard; Almoazen, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion which can be utilized as a transdermal delivery for iodide ions. Several w/o microemulsion formulations were prepared utilizing Span 20, ethanol, Capryol 90®, and water. The selected formulations had 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and a maximum of 23% w/w water content. Potassium iodide (KI) was incorporated in all formulations at 5% w/v. Physicochemical characterizations were conducted to evaluate the structure and stability. ...

  16. All-Solid-State Iodide Selective Electrode for Iodimetry of Iodized Salts and Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    TIRUWORK MEQUANINT; GHIRMA MOGES; MERID TESSMA; SOLOMON MEHRETU

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory-made all-solid state iodide selective electrode, with Ag2S-AgI coated on a graphite rod recovered from dry cell battery, was prepared according to previous procedures. The electrode’s linear response to iodide was in the concentration range of 10-6 M to 10-1 M with a slope of 56.85 mV/decade and a detection limit of 6×10-7M. Iodate recovery test for laboratory formulated iodate-iodized salt was found to be 98.6 % with a standard deviation of 1.14%. The titratability of the iodize...

  17. Tris(1,2-dimethoxyethane-κ2O,O′iodidocalcium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siou-Wei Ou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CaI(C4H10O23]I, the CaII atom is seven-coordinated by six O atoms from three 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME ligands and one iodide anion in a distorted pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry. The I atom and one of the O atoms from a DME ligand lie in the axial positions while the other O atoms lie in the basal plane. The other iodide anion is outside the complex cation.

  18. Glycosylation of Sodium/Iodide Symporter (NIS) Regulates Its Membrane Translocation and Radioiodine Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Taemoon Chung; Hyewon Youn; Chan Joo Yeom; Keon Wook Kang; June-Key Chung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) protein is a membrane glycoprotein that transports iodide ions into thyroid cells. The function of this membrane protein is closely regulated by post-translational glycosylation. In this study, we measured glycosylation-mediated changes in subcellular location of hNIS and its function of iodine uptake. Methods HeLa cells were stably transfected with hNIS/tdTomato fusion gene in order to monitor the expression of hNIS. Cellular localization of hNIS ...

  19. Studying Equilibrium in the Chemical Reaction between Ferric and Iodide Ions in Solution Using a Simple and Inexpensive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaychuk, Pavel Anatolyevich; Kuvaeva, Alyona Olegovna

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment on the study of the chemical equilibrium based on the reaction between ferric and iodide ions in solution with the formation of ferrous ions, free iodine, and triiodide ions is developed. The total concentration of iodide and triiodide ions in the reaction mixture during the reaction is determined by the argentometric…

  20. Efficiency enhancement in dye sensitized solar cells using gel polymer electrolytes based on a tetrahexylammonium iodide and MgI2 binary iodide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, T M W J; Dissanayake, M A K L; Jayasundara, W J M J S R; Albinsson, I; Mellander, B-E

    2012-06-28

    Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells have drawn the attention of scientists and technologists as a potential candidate to supplement future energy needs. The conduction of iodide ions in quasi-solid-state polymer electrolytes and the performance of dye sensitized solar cells containing such electrolytes can be enhanced by incorporating iodides having appropriate cations. Gel-type electrolytes, based on PAN host polymers and mixture of salts tetrahexylammonium iodide (Hex4N(+)I(-)) and MgI2, were prepared by incorporating ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate as plasticizers. The salt composition in the binary mixture was varied in order to optimize the performance of solar cells. The electrolyte containing 120% Hex4N(+)I(-) with respect to weight of PAN and without MgI2 showed the highest conductivity out of the compositions studied, 2.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 25 °C, and a glass transition at -102.4 °C. However, the electrolyte containing 100% Hex4N(+)I(-) and 20% MgI2 showed the best solar cell performance highlighting the influence of the cation on the performance of the cell. The predominantly ionic behaviour of the electrolytes was established from the dc polarization data and all the electrolytes exhibit iodide ion transport. Seven different solar cells were fabricated employing different electrolyte compositions. The best cell using the electrolyte with 100% Hex4N(+)I(-) and 20% MgI2 with respect to PAN weight showed 3.5% energy conversion efficiency and 8.6 mA cm(-2) short circuit current density.

  1. A surface-chemistry study of barium ferrite nanoplates with DBSa-modified surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisjak, Darja, E-mail: darja.lisjak@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ovtar, Simona; Kovač, Janez [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gregoratti, Luca; Aleman, Belen; Amati, Matteo [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. di interesse nazionale, Trieste (Italy); Fanetti, Mattia [University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Istituto Officina dei Materiali CNR, Area Science Park, Trieste (Italy); Makovec, Darko [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-06-01

    Barium ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) is a ferrimagnetic oxide with a high magnetocrystalline anisotropy that can be exploited in magnetically aligned ceramics or films for self-biased magnetic applications. Magnetic alignment of the films can be achieved by the directed assembly of barium ferrite nanoplates. In this investigation the nanoplates were synthesized hydrothermally and suspended in 1-butanol using dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid (DBSa) as a surfactant. They were then deposited in an electric or magnetic field on flat substrates and exhibited a significant preferential alignment in the plane of the substrate, allowing a differentiation between the analysis of their basal and side planes using scanning photoelectron microscopy with a lateral resolution down to 100 nm. The surface chemistry of the nanoplates was additionally studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. For a comparison, bare barium ferrite nanoplates were also analyzed after decomposing the DBSa at 460 °C. The deviation of the surface chemistry from the stoichiometric composition was observed and the adsorption of the DBSa molecules on the nanoplates was confirmed with all three methods. Different types of bonding (physi- or chemisorption) were possible and considered with respect to the assembly of the barium ferrite nanoplates into anisotropic magnetic films.

  2. X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis for Barium, Zinc, Calcium and Phosphorus in Oil Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    HOAlD-I’ 908 XRAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS FOR BARIUM ZINC CALCIUM AND i/i PHOSPHORUS IN OIL HDDITIVES(U MATERIALS RESEARCH LABS ASCOT VALE (AUSTRALIA...film technique was used by McGinness, Scott and Mortensen [101 for the quantitative x-ray emission analysis of paints . The paint films, "one-half mil

  3. Inconceivable Hypokalemia: A Case Report of Acute Severe Barium Chloride Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium is a heavy divalent alkaline earth metal that has been known as a muscle poison. Barium can cause human toxicity, which may lead to significant hypokalemia and have serious consequences. This paper reports a case of unprecedented barium intoxication in which the patient, who suffered from depression, swallowed at least 3.0 g barium chloride to commit suicide. On admission, the patient presented with nausea, vomiting, stomach burning feeling, dizziness, and weakness. Emergency biochemical testing showed that the patient was suffering from severe hypokalemia (K+ 1.7 mmol/L. His electrocardiogram (ECG prompted atrioventricular blocking, ventricular tachycardia, prolongation of PR interval, ST segment depression with U waves, and T wave inversion. Intravenous potassium supplements were given immediately to correct hypokalemia and regular monitoring of vital signs and fluid balance was arranged. After all-out rescue of our hospital personnel, the condition of the patient is currently stable and he is gradually recovering. This case exemplifies the weaknesses of the management of toxic substances and the lack of mental health education for young people. We hope to get more attention for the supervision of toxic substances and the healthy development of young people.

  4. Demonstrating the potential of yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte for high-performance fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kiho; Jang, Dong Young; Choi, Hyung Jong; Kim, Donghwan; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2017-02-23

    In reducing the high operating temperatures (≥800 °C) of solid-oxide fuel cells, use of protonic ceramics as an alternative electrolyte material is attractive due to their high conductivity and low activation energy in a low-temperature regime (≤600 °C). Among many protonic ceramics, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has attracted attention due to its excellent chemical stability, which is the main issue in protonic-ceramic fuel cells. However, poor sinterability of yttrium-doped barium zirconate discourages its fabrication as a thin-film electrolyte and integration on porous anode supports, both of which are essential to achieve high performance. Here we fabricate a protonic-ceramic fuel cell using a thin-film-deposited yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte with no impeding grain boundaries owing to the columnar structure tightly integrated with nanogranular cathode and nanoporous anode supports, which to the best of our knowledge exhibits a record high-power output of up to an order of magnitude higher than those of other reported barium zirconate-based fuel cells.

  5. Settling barium fluxes in the Arabian Sea: Critical evaluation of relationship with export production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, T.M.B.; Ittekkot, V.; Shankar, R.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    discrepancy is documented between the export flux calculated from the barium-based algorithm and from C sub(org) fluxes at different depths. However, approx. 35% increase in Ba fluxes and a concomitant increase in Ba/C sub(org) ratios are documented between...

  6. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, NG; Firsching, M; de Ruiter, N; Schleich, N; Butzer, J S; Cook, N J; Grasset, R; Campbell, M; Scott, N J A; Anderson, N G

    2010-01-01

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 A mu A). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct f...

  7. Study of structural, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties of nanostructured barium doped Bismuth Ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, A., E-mail: arkac123@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science, Haldia Institute of Technology, Dist.- Purba Medinipur, Haldia- 721657, West Bengal (India); Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, S.N. Bose National Center for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Mandal, K. [Department of Applied Science, Haldia Institute of Technology, Dist.- Purba Medinipur, Haldia- 721657, West Bengal (India); Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, S.N. Bose National Center for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2014-03-15

    Nanostructured multiferroic Bi{sub (1−x)}Ba{sub x}FeO{sub 3}x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 were prepared by hydrothermal technique. All samples belonged to the rhombohedrally distorted perovskite structure. The morphology of the particles changed with the doping of barium. Effect of barium doping on the dielectric constant was studied over a wide frequency range of 1000 Hz–1 MHz. The activation energy due to relaxation and due to conduction was measured from the Cole Cole plot and the AC conductivity versus frequency plot respectively. The activation energy estimated from both the studies was close to each other. The activation energy also enhanced with the increase in the barium content. The magnetization at the highest available field (∼1.6 T) increased from 0.05 emu/g for the sample with x=0.0–12 emu/g for the sample with x=0.2. The magnetic measurements show a significant increase in magnetization around 400 °C. Remnant polarization for x=0.0 was negligible and it increased to 0.06 µC/cm{sup 2} for x=0.2. - Highlights: • Bismuth Ferrite nanostructures were synthesized by the hydrothermal technique. • Barium was doped in Bismuth site. • Morphology changed with doping. • Ferromagnetic, Ferroelectric and Dielectric properties enhanced with doping. • An unreported magnetic transition due to spin canting was observed near 550 °C.

  8. Electromechanical Response of Polycrystalline Barium Titanate Resolved at the Grain Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkut, Marta; Daniels, John E.; Wright, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    critical for understanding bulk polycrystalline ferroic behavior. Here, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction is used to reconstruct a 3D grain map (grain orientations and neighborhoods) of a polycrystalline barium titanate sample and track the grain-scale non-180° ferroelectric domain switching strains...

  9. Diffuse X-ray scattering and far infrared absorption of barium and lead β" aluminas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, W.; Kjær, Kristian; Pratt, F. L.;

    1985-01-01

    The authors have carried out high-momentum-resolution studies in diffuse X-ray scattering of barium and lead B" aluminas in the temperature range 20-700 degrees C. They have also measured the vibrational spectra of these compounds between 2K and 300K in the energy range 10-100 cm-1. The results a...

  10. Possible discovery of the r-process characteristics in the abundances of metal-rich barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, W Y; Shi, J R; Zhao, G; Wang, W J; Niu, P

    2014-01-01

    We study the abundance distributions of a sample of metal-rich barium stars provided by Pereira et al. (2011) to investigate the s- and r-process nucleosynthesis in the metal-rich environment. We compared the theoretical results predicted by a parametric model with the observed abundances of the metal-rich barium stars. We found that six barium stars have a significant r-process characteristic, and we divided the barium stars into two groups: the r-rich barium stars ($C_r>5.0$, [La/Nd]\\,$<0$) and normal barium stars. The behavior of the r-rich barium stars seems more like that of the metal-poor r-rich and CEMP-r/s stars. We suggest that the most possible formation mechanism for these stars is the s-process pollution, although their abundance patterns can be fitted very well when the pre-enrichment hypothesis is included. The fact that we can not explain them well using the s-process nucleosynthesis alone may be due to our incomplete knowledge on the production of Nd, Eu, and other relevant elements by the ...

  11. Granulomatous colitis: findings on double contrast barium enema and follow-up studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Gi; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Seung Hoon; Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, Seung Cheol; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of granulomatous colitis on double contrast barium enema and changes on follow-up studies. Serial double contrast barium enema of six patients with granulomatous colitis confirmed by endoscopic biopsy were reviewed. We analyzed the radiologic findings and their follow-up changes, including aphthous ulcers, lymphoid hyperplasia, deep ulcers, cobble stone appearance, geographic ulcers, asymmetric involvement of ulcers, skip lesions, sinus tract, fistula formation, pseudosacculation, focal stricture, and small bowel involvement. Pretreatment double contrast barium enema findings were aphthous ulcers in five patients, deep ulcer in six, cobble stone appearance in five, longitudinal geographic ulcers in two, fistulas in one, pseudosacculations in two, focal stricture in one, and pseudopolyps in six. Also, anal ulcers were observed in two patients, asymmetric involvement of ulcers in three, skip lesions in four, and small bowel involvement in five in five patients proved to have inactive disease after treatment, aphthous ulcers and deep ulcers disappeared. Geographic ulcers of two patients and anal ulcer of one patients decreased in size or depth. Pseudosacculation in one patient disappeared. Pseudopolyps decreased in two patients, increased in one, and decreased after increase in two. One patient whose disease remained active after treatment showed maintenance or increase of ulcers or fistula. And their pseudosacculation or focal stricture unchanged and pseudopolyps decreased. The major radiologic findings of chronic granulomatous colitis on double contrast barium enema are aphthous ulcer, deep ulcer, cobble stone appearance, discontinuity of the lesion and coexistence of ulcers and pseudopolyps. And, double contrast barium enema is good follow-up modality because its findings correlate with clinical course of the granulomatous colitis after treatment.

  12. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar, E-mail: askumar.rs.cer11@iitbhu.ac.in; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S.P., E-mail: spsinghceram@gmail.com

    2015-04-01

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1 − X) SiO{sub 2−}–24.3 Na{sub 2}O–26.9 CaO–2.6 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, where X = 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400 ± 5 °C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. - Highlights: • In vitro bioactivity of soda-lime–baria-phospho-silicate glass was investigated. • HCA formed on surface of glasses was confirmed by XRD, SEM and FTIR spectrometry. • Mechanical properties of glasses were found to increase with barium addition. • Hemolysis showed that 1.2 mol% BaO bioactive glass exhibited better biocompatibility. • Barium substituted bioactive glasses can be used as bone implants.

  13. Scanning electron microscopic and electrophoretic observations on barium sulphate used to absorb clotting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, R M; Deacon, S L

    1975-04-30

    Electron microscopy and particle electrophoresis were found to be complementary techniques with which to complete the physical data from an earlier study on barium sulphates used to absorb clotting factors from serum. The differences revealed by scanning electron microscopy (S. E. M) in the physical shape of low and high density grades of barium sulphate particles appear to be of greater significance than charge as expressed by electrophoretic mobility, in determining whether or not precursor or performed factor Xa is eluted. This conclusion was based on the finding that at pH values close to 7, where the adsorption from serum occurs, all samples with the exception of natural barytes were uncharged. However as the high-density, or soil-grade, was found by S. E. M. to consist of large solid crystals it was suggested that this shape might induce activiation of factor X as a result of partial denaturation and consequent unfolding of the adsorbed protein. In contrast, uptake of protein into the centre of the porous aggregates revealed by S. E. M. pictures of low-density or X-ray grade barium sulphate may afford protection against denaturation and exposure of the enzyme site. The porous nature of particles of low-density barium sulphate compared with the solid crystalline forms of other grades accounts not only for its lower bulk density but also for its greater surface/gram ratio which is reflected by an ability to adsorb more protein from serum. Neither technique produced evidence from any of the samples to indicate the presence of stabilising agents sometimes used to coat particles in barium meals.

  14. THERMAL DECOMPOSITION MECHANISM OF BARIUM BENZOATE%苯甲酸钡的热分解机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克立; 袁继兵; 袁良杰; 孙聚堂

    1999-01-01

    Barium benzoate was synthesized in semi-solid phase reaction. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, X-ray powder diffraction. It is layered structure, monoclinic system. The mechanism of thermal decomposition for barium benzoate was studied by using TG, DTA, IR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The thermal decompositon of barium benzoate in nitrogen proceeded in one stage: it decomposed to form BaCO3 and organic compounds. The organic compounds obtained from decomposition reaction are mainly benzophenone, triphenylmethane and so on.

  15. Obtaining of barium sulfate from solution formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kalko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of literature data about processes for solution utilization formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries is performed. Optimal conditions for obtaining of barium sulfate sediment from ammonium sulfate solute and chemically pure Ba(OH2×8H2O и BaCl2×2H2O were found experimentally. In laboratory the commercial barium sulfate from sulfate solutions, that are waste of recycling process of battery scrap, with application of chloride and barium hydroxide was production. The possibility of using this product were discussed.

  16. Iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis in a thyroidectomized patient with metastatic thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, M.; Tokuyama, T.; Okamura, K.; Sato, K.; Kusuda, K.; Fujishima, M.

    1988-04-15

    An unusual case of iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis is documented in this article. The patient was a 64-year-old euthyroid man with acromegaly. He also had multiple follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas with a metastatic lesion in the lumbar vertebrae. After a total thyroidectomy, he became slightly hypothyroid, and the lumbar lesion began to incorporate /sup 131/I by scintigraphy. When an iodine-containing contrast medium happened to be injected, a transient increase of serum thyroid hormone level was observed. After complete thyroid ablation with 83 mCi of /sup 131/I, the oral administration of 100 mg of potassium iodide for 7 days induced a prominent increase of serum thyroid hormone level. These findings indicated that the metastatic thyroid carcinoma could produce excess thyroid hormone insofar as a sufficient amount of iodide was given. Although this is the first report of such a case, iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis may not be rare in patients with thyroid carcinomas because the Wolff-Chaikoff effect is thought to be lost, and the organic iodinating activity and lysosomal protease activity are well-preserved.

  17. Leaching of iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) anions from synthetic layered double hydroxide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Frederick L; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L

    2016-09-15

    Several studies have previously demonstrated that layered double hydroxides (LDHs) show considerable potential for the adsorption of radioiodine from aqueous solution; however, few studies have demonstrated that these materials are able to store radioactive (131)I for an acceptable period. The leaching of iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) form Mg/Al LDHs has been carried out. Contact time appeared to be a more significant variable for the leaching of iodate (IO3(-)) compared to that of iodide (I(-)). Experimental results are fitted to the pseudo second order model, suggesting that diffusion is likely to be the rate-limiting step. The presence of carbonate in the leaching solution appeared to significantly increase the leaching of iodide (I(-)) as did the presence of chloride to a lesser extent. The maximum amount of iodate (IO3(-)) leached using ultrapure water as the leaching solution was 21% of the iodate (IO3(-)) originally present. The corresponding result for iodide (I(-)) was even lower at 3%.

  18. Photodissociation of sodium iodide and resonant ionization of sodium atom produced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Bing-hai; Z.T.Salim; A.H.Bakery

    2004-01-01

    Resonant ionization spectroscopy (RIS) and resonant ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) are employed to detect the photodissociation product of sodium iodide molecules in a molecular beam in an intense laser field in the absence of the buffer gases. Time of flight mass spectra is recorded. In particular, the appearances of multiphoton ionization are discussed.

  19. Preparation and Luminescence Thermochromism of Tetranuclear Copper(I)-Pyridine-Iodide Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Fabio; Sacchetti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    A simple and straightforward synthesis of a tetranuclear copper(I)-pyridine-iodide cluster is described as a laboratory experiment for advanced inorganic chemistry undergraduate students. The product is used to demonstrate the fascinating and visually impressive phenomenon of luminescence thermochromism: exposed to long-wave UV light, the…

  20. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and potential regulators in normal, benign and malignant human breast tissue.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, James

    2011-01-01

    The presence, relevance and regulation of the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in human mammary tissue remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify relative expression of NIS and putative regulators in human breast tissue, with relationships observed further investigated in vitro.

  1. Research data supporting "Photon recycling in lead-iodide perovskite solar cells"

    OpenAIRE

    Pazos-Outón, Luis M.; Szumilo, Monika; Lamboll, Robin; Richter, Johannes M.; Crespo-Quesada, Micaela; Abdi - Jalebi, Mojtaba; Beeson, Harry J.; Vrucinic, Milan; Alsari, Mejd; Snaith, Henry J.; Ehrler, Bruno; Friend, Richard H.; Deschler, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Data for the figures presented in the manuscript. These research data support “Photon recycling in lead-iodide perovskite solar cells” published in “Science” (http://dx.doi.org./10.1126/science.aaf1168) This work was supported by the EPSRC [grant number EP/M005143/1] and Winton Programme for the Physics of Sustainability.

  2. Real-Time Observation of Organic Cation Reorientation in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Selig, Oleg; Bakker, Huib J.; Rezus, Yves L. A.; Mueller, Christian; Glaser, Tobias; Lovrincic, Robert; Sun, Zhenhua; Chen, Zhuoying; Walsh, Aron; Frost, Jarvist M.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of a mobile and polarized organic moiety as a cation in 3D lead-iodide perovskites brings fascinating optoelectronic properties to these materials. The extent and the time scales of the orientational mobility of the organic cation and the molecular mechanism behind its motion remain

  3. Multiple subcutaneous mycetomas caused by Pseudallescheria boydii: response to therapy with oral potassium iodide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fida A; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Sarwari, Arif R

    2010-02-01

    We describe the case of a sixteen-year-old male who presented with multiple subcutaneous mycetomas proven on culture to be secondary to Pseudallescheria boydi., The lesions responded completely to oral potassium iodide solution. To our knowledge this has never been reported in humans.

  4. Regioselective iodination of aromatic compounds with potassium iodide in the presence of benzyltriphenylphosphonium perchlorate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jalal Albadi; Masoumeh Abedini; Nasir Iravani

    2012-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the selective iodination of various aromatic compounds by using potassium iodide in the presence of benzyltriphenylphosphonium perchlorate,is reported.This method provides several advantages such as good selectivity between ortho and para positions of aromatic compounds and high yields of the products.

  5. The Reaction between Iron(II) Iodide and Potassium Dichromate(VI) in Acidified Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" teaching lesson explores the possible reaction between the ions in a reaction mixture consisting of iron(II) iodide and potassium dichromate(VI) in acidified aqueous solution. The electrode potentials will be used to deduce any spontaneous reactions under standard thermodynamic conditions (298 K, 1 bar (approximately…

  6. Relaxation of the Silver/Silver Iodide Electrode in Aqueous Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peverelli, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this study is to detect and characterize relaxation processes on silver/silver iodide electrodes in aqueous electrolyte solution. The information obtained is to be used for an estimation of the consequences of similar processes on colloidal AgI particles during encounter.In chapter 1 a ge

  7. Activation of lactoperoxidase by heme-linked protonation and heme-independent iodide binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Akira; Tominaga, Aya; Inoue, Tatsuo; Takeuchi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO), a mammalian secretory heme peroxidase, catalyzes the oxidation of thiocyanate by hydrogen peroxide to produce hypothiocyanate, an antibacterial agent. Although LPO is known to be activated at acidic pH and in the presence of iodide, the structural basis of the activation is not well understood. We have examined the effects of pH and iodide concentration on the catalytic activity and the structure of LPO. Electrochemical and colorimetric assays have shown that the catalytic activity is maximized at pH 4.5. The heme Soret absorption band exhibits a small red-shift at pH 5.0 upon acidification, which is ascribable to a structural transition from a neutral to an acidic form. Resonance Raman spectra suggest that the heme porphyrin core is slightly contracted and the Fe-His bond is strengthened in the acidic form compared to the neutral form. The structural change of LPO upon activation at acidic pH is similar to that observed for myeloperoxidase, another mammalian heme peroxidase, upon activation at neutral pH. Binding of iodide enhances the catalytic activity of LPO without affecting either the optimum pH of activity or the heme structure, implying that the iodide binding occurs at a protein site away from the heme-linked protonation site.

  8. Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Xie, Fang-Yan; Zhao, Ni; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Mixed iodide-bromide (I-Br) organolead perovskites are of great interest for both single junction and tandem solar cells since the optical bandgap of the materials can be tuned by varying the bromine to iodine ratio. Yet, it remains unclear how bromine incorporation modifies the properties of the pe

  9. Photoexcitation dynamics in solution-processed formamidinium lead iodide perovskite thin films for solar cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Wang, Feng; Adjokatse, Sampson; Zhao, Ni; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI(3)) is a newly developed hybrid perovskite that potentially can be used in high-efficiency solution-processed solar cells. Here, the temperature-dependent dynamic optical properties of three types of FAPbI(3) perovskite films (fabricated using three different precurs

  10. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with methyl iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT, Espoo (Finland)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    An experimental study on radiolytic decomposition of methyl iodide was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. In year 2008 the NROI project, a Nordic collaboration studying iodine chemistry in the containment, was started. During year 2008 (NROI-1) the radiolytic oxidation of elemental iodine was investigated and during 2009 (NROI-2), the radiolytic oxidation of organic iodine was studied. This project (NROI-3) is a continuation of the investigation of the oxidation of organic iodine. The project has been divided into two parts. 1. The aims of the first part were to investigate the effect of ozone and UV-radiation, in dry and humid conditions, on methyl iodide. 2. The second project was about gamma radiation (approx20 kGy/h) and methyl iodide in dry and humid conditions. 1. Experimental results showed that the methyl iodide concentration in the facility was reduced with increasing temperature and increasing UV-radiation intensity. Similar behaviour occurred when ozone was present in the system. Formed organic gas species during the decomposition of methyl iodide was mainly formaldehyde and methanol. The particle formation was instant and extensive when methyl iodide was exposed to ozone and/or radiation at all temperatures. The size of the formed primary particles was about 10 nm and the size of secondary particles was between 50-200 nm. From the SEM-EDX analyses of the particles, the conclusion was drawn that these were some kind of iodine oxides (I{sub xO{sub y}). However, the correct speciation of the formed particles was difficult to obtain because the particles melted and fused together under the electron beam. 2. The results from this sub-project are more inconsistent and hard to interpret. The particle formation was significant lesser than corresponding experiments when ozone/UV-radiation was used instead of gamma radiation. The transport of gaseous methyl iodide through the facility was

  11. Conversion of Iodide to Hypoiodous Acid and Molecular Iodine at the Air-Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, E. A.; Guzman, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Sea spray aerosols continuously transfer a significant amount of halides to the marine boundary layer, where they play a major role in the depletion of tropospheric ozone. The reactivity of iodide is of special interest in sea spray aerosols, where this species is enriched relative to chloride and bromide in surface seawater. This work presents laboratory experiments that provide mechanistic information to understand the reactivity of halides in atmospheric aerosols. Pneumatically assisted electrospray is used to aerosolize solutions of sodium iodide (0.01-100 μM), which are rapidly (~3 μs) oxidized by ozone at 25 °C. Reaction products include HIO, IO2-, IO3-, I2, HI2O-, and I3-, all identified by mass spectrometry. The distribution of products varies along two different reaction pathways, one favoring the production of I2 and HIO for typical tropospheric ozone levels (~50 ppbv), and another one directed to the production of IO3- at higher oxidizer concentrations. The formation of products increases exponentially with rising concentrations of initial sodium iodide, [NaI]0. The process is determined to be pH independent for the pH range 6-8 representative of surface waters. The substitution of aqueous solutions by organic solvents, such as methanol or acetonitrile, causes a decrease in the surface tension and lifetime of the droplets, leading to larger I2 production. The presence of surface active organic compounds, which alter the structure of the interfacial region, promote the pathway of I2 formation over IO3-. In conclusion, this presentation will show how the oxidation of iodide in aqueous microdroplets can release reactive gas-phase species, such as I2 and HIO, capable to affect tropospheric ozone globally. Normalized intensity of products observed during the ozonolysis of iodide solutions at 130 ppbv ozone. Cone voltage = 70 V, needle voltage = 2.5 kV.

  12. [The application of eosin and propidium iodide in evaluation of vitality of human spermatozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploskonos, М В

    2014-11-01

    The article analyzes comparative assessment of vitality of spermatozoa by condition of permeability of membranes for eosin and propidium iodide and comparison of results acquired using technique of light and fluorescent microscopy. The comparison of data of light microscopy with eosin staining with data of fluorescent microscopy with propidium iodide staining demonstrated that percentage of content of spermatozoa separated from ejaculates of 28 fertile males and stained with eosin was reliably higher (34.8 ± 3.2) than percentage of content of spermatozoa with stained with propidium iodide (2.1 ± 4.0). After incubation of spermatozoa under room temperature during 24 hours percentage of unviable cells with stained eosin also was higher than in case of propidium iodide staining correspondingly (44.5 ± 3.3% and 34.7 ± 3.6%). The analysis of vitality of spermatozoa under damaging effect of oxidative stress on cell membrane developed by 4 hours incubation with 200 mkM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) demonstrated that under staining of spermatozoa with propidium iodide significantly higher percentage of damaged cells is detected. In such cases, eosin staining is less suitable for detection of vitality of spermatozoa (73.6 ± 5.8% against 51.7 ± 6.4%). The carried out experiment demonstrates that in case of detected effects on spermatozoa (for example, effect of oxidative stress) the light microscopy insufficiently adequate reflects degree of damage of membranes of spermatozoa. The fluorescent microscopy detects a higher percentage of spermatozoa with damaged membrane.

  13. 碘化物对金精矿碘化浸出过程的影响%Effects of different iodides on gold concentrates leaching process in iodine­iodide solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍英; 王海霞; 孙春宝; 赵留成; 阎志强

    2013-01-01

    Using the iodine­iodide leaching system, the effects of different iodides (ammonium iodide,potassium iodide, hydrogen iodide)on gold concentrates leaching process were discussed from the influence factors, such as initial iodine content, iodine and iodide ratio and solution pH value. The results show that, when ammonium iodide or potassium iodide is used as complex agent,under the conditions of initial iodine content of 1%, iodine and iodide molar ratio of 1:8, pH value of 7, liquid­solid ratio of 4:1, stirring speed of 600 r/min, leaching time of 4 h and temperature of 25℃, the gold leaching rates are around 90%;whereas the gold leaching effect is poorer when hydrogen iodide(aqueous solution is hydroiodic acid) is used as complex agent, and the gold leaching rate is only 75%. Considering the difference of leaching effect and availability of industry and so on,potassium iodide is the suitable complex reagent of gold concentrate leaching in iodine­iodide solution.%  采用碘−碘化物浸出体系,从碘初始含量、碘与碘化物摩尔比和浸出液pH值3个影响因素入手,考察不同碘化物(碘化铵、碘化钾和碘化氢)对金精矿碘化浸出过程的影响。结果表明:在碘初始含量为1%,碘与碘化物摩尔比为1:8,浸出液pH值为7,液固比为4:1,搅拌速度为600 r/min,浸出时间为4 h,温度为25℃的条件下,用碘化铵或碘化钾作为碘化浸金的络合剂,金的浸出率均能达到90%左右,而用碘化氢(其水溶液为氢碘酸)作络合剂时,金的浸出率仅有75%。考虑到不同碘化物浸金效果差异及工业应用的可行性等因素,确定碘化钾为适宜的金精矿碘化浸出络合剂。

  14. Effects of barium on the nonlinear electrical characteristics and dielectric properties of SnO2-based varistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chun-Ming; Wang Jin-Feng; Wang Chun-Lei; Chen Hong-Cun; Su Wen-Bin; Zang Guo-Zhong; Qi Peng; Zhao Ming-Lei; Ming Bao-Quan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of barium on electrical and dielectric properties of the SnO2·Co2Oa.Ta2O5 varistor system sintered at 1250℃ for 60min were investigated. It is found that barium significantly improves the nonlinear properties. The breakdown electrical field increases from 378.0 to 2834.5V/mm, relative dielectric constant (at 1kHz) falls from 1206 to 161 and the resistivity (at 1kHz) rises from 60.3 to 1146.5kΩ·cm with an increase of BaCO3 concentration from 0mol%to 1.00mol%. The sample with 1.00mol% barium has the best nonlinear electrical property and the highest nonlinear coefficient (α=29.2). A modified defect barrier model is introduced to illustrate the grain-boundary barrier formation of barium-doped SnO2-based varistors.

  15. Radioactive iodide (131 I-) excretion profiles in response to potassium iodide (KI) and ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Curtis; Dallas, Cham; Rollor, Edward; White, Catherine; Blount, Benjamin; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2012-08-01

    Radioactive iodide ((131)I-) protection studies have focused primarily on the thyroid gland and disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. The objective of the current study was to establish (131)I- urinary excretion profiles for saline, and the thyroid protectants, potassium iodide (KI) and ammonium perchlorate over a 75 hour time-course. Rats were administered (131)I- and 3 hours later dosed with either saline, 30 mg/kg of NH(4)ClO(4) or 30 mg/kg of KI. Urinalysis of the first 36 hours of the time-course revealed that NH(4)ClO(4) treated animals excreted significantly more (131)I- compared with KI and saline treatments. A second study followed the same protocol, but thyroxine (T(4)) was administered daily over a 3 day period. During the first 6-12 hour after (131)I- dosing, rats administered NH(4)ClO(4) excreted significantly more (131)I- than the other treatment groups. T(4) treatment resulted in increased retention of radioiodide in the thyroid gland 75 hour after (131)I- administration. We speculate that the T(4) treatment related reduction in serum TSH caused a decrease synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in greater residual radioiodide in the thyroid gland. Our findings suggest that ammonium perchlorate treatment accelerates the elimination rate of radioiodide within the first 24 to 36 hours and thus may be more effective at reducing harmful exposure to (131)I- compared to KI treatment for repeated dosing situations. Repeated dosing studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of these treatments to reduce the radioactive iodide burden of the thyroid gland.

  16. Use of Different Barium Salts to Inhibit the Thaumasite Form of Sulfate Attack in Cement-based Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ying; WEI Xiaochao; HUANG Jian; WANG Yingbin; HE Xingyang; WANG Xiongjue; MA Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different barium compounds on the thaumasite form of sulphate attack (TSA) resistance of cement-based materials when they were used as admixtures in mortars. Moreover, we analyzed the inhibition mechanisms within different types of barium salts, namely BaCO3 and Ba(OH)2, on the thaumasite formation. The control cement mortar and mortars with barium salts to cement and limestone weight ratios of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% were immersed in 5% (by weight) MgSO4 solution at 5℃ to mimic TSA. Appearance, mass, and compressive strength of the mortar samples were monitored and measured to assess the general degradation extent of these samples. The products of sulphate attack were further analyzed by XRD, FTIR, and SEM, respectively. Experimental results show that different degradation extent is evident in all mortars cured in MgSO4 solution. However, barium salts can greatly inhibit such degradation. Barium in hydroxide form has better effectiveness in protection against TSA than carbonate form, which may be due to their solubility difference in alkaline cement pore solution, and the presence of these barium compounds can reduce the degree of TSA by comparison with the almost completely decomposed control samples.

  17. Scaled-energy spectroscopy of a |M|=1 Rydberg barium atom in an electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Quan Wei; Shen Li; Yang Hai-Feng; Shi Ting-Yun; Liu Xiao-Jun; Liu Hong-Ping; Zhan Ming-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    We observe strong energy-dependent quantum defects in the scaled-energy Stark spectra for |M|=1 Rydberg states of barium atoms at three scaled energies: ε= -2.000, ε= -2.500 and ε=-3.000. In an attempt to explain the observations, theoretical calculations of closed orbit theory based on a model potential including core effect are performed for non-hydrogenic atoms. While such a potential has been uniformly successful for alkali atoms with a single valence electron, it fails to match experimental results for barium atoms in the 6snp Rydberg states with two valence electrons. Our study points out that this discrepancy is due to the strong perturbation from the 5d8p state, which voids the simple approximation for constant quantum defects of principle quantum number n.

  18. CORRELATED STRONTIUM AND BARIUM ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF ACID-CLEANED SINGLE MAINSTREAM SILICON CARBIDES FROM MURCHISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Nan; Davis, Andrew M.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Pellin, Michael J. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637 (United States); Savina, Michael R. [Chicago Center for Cosmochemistry, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gallino, Roberto; Bisterzo, Sara [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Gyngard, Frank [Laboratory for Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Käppeler, Franz [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut für Kernphysik, Karlsruhe D-76021 (Germany); Cristallo, Sergio [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Dillmann, Iris, E-mail: lnsmile@uchicago.edu [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2015-04-10

    We present strontium, barium, carbon, and silicon isotopic compositions of 61 acid-cleaned presolar SiC grains from Murchison. Comparison with previous data shows that acid washing is highly effective in removing both strontium and barium contamination. For the first time, by using correlated {sup 88}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and {sup 138}Ba/{sup 136}Ba ratios in mainstream SiC grains, we are able to resolve the effect of {sup 13}C concentration from that of {sup 13}C-pocket mass on s-process nucleosynthesis, which points toward the existence of large {sup 13}C pockets with low {sup 13}C concentrations in asymptotic giant branch stars. The presence of such large {sup 13}C pockets with a variety of relatively low {sup 13}C concentrations seems to require multiple mixing processes in parent asymptotic giant branch stars of mainstream SiC grains.

  19. Synthesis and Fluorescence of Europium-Doped Barium Fluoride Cubic Nanocolumns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连洪州; 刘洁; 叶泽人; 石春山

    2004-01-01

    Europium-doped barium fluoride cubic nanocolumns were synthesized from the quaternary water in oil reverse microemulsions. In this process, the aqueous cores of water/cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB)/n-butanol/n-octane reverse microemulsions were used as microreactors for the precipitation of europium doped barium fluoride. XRD analysis shows that under the dopant concentration of 0.06%(molar fraction), the products are single phase. The result products are cubic column-like with about 30~50 nm edge length of cross section, and about 200 nm of length obtained from the transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and atomic force microscopy(AFM). Under the 0.06%(molar fraction) of dopant concentration, the fluorescence of Eu2+ and Eu3+ under the 589 of excitation wavelength is observed.

  20. Barium phosphate conversion coating on die-cast AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Poor corrosion resistance limits the application of magnesium alloys.Conversion coating is widely used to protect magnesium alloys because of easy operation and low cost.A novel conversion coating on die.cast AZ91D magnesium alloy containing barium salts was studied.The optimum concentrations of Ba(NO3)2,Mn(NO3)2 and NH4H2PO4 are 25 g/L,15 mL/L and 20 g/L,respectively,based on orthogonal test resulm.The treating time,solution temperature and PH value are settled to be 5-30 min,50-70℃and 2.35-3.0.respectively.The corrosion resistance of barium conversion coating is better than that of manganese-based phosphate conversion coating by immersion test.The coating is composed of Ba,P, O,Mg,Zn,Mn and Al by EDX analysis.

  1. Study on the preparation and formation mechanism of barium sulphate nanoparticles modified by different organic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuhua Shen; Chuanhao Li; Xuemei Zhu; Anjian Xie; Lingguang Qiu; Jinmiao Zhu

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports a simple method to prepare barium sulphate nanoparticles by use of tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and stearic acid as modifier. The barium sulphate nanoparticles obtained are characterized by using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic laser light scatter (DLLS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The results show that the BaSO4 particles are all spherical and in the nano-scale. Our method has a better dispersion and controllable diameter dependent on the length of the chain of organic acid and the pH value of the system. A possible mechanism is also discussed.

  2. Efficient photoionization for barium ion trapping using a dipole-allowed resonant two-photon transition

    CERN Document Server

    Leschhorn, G; Schaetz, T

    2011-01-01

    Two efficient and isotope-selective resonant two-photon ionization techniques for loading barium ions into radio-frequency (RF)-traps are demonstrated. The scheme of using a strong dipole-allowed transition at \\lambda=553 nm as a first step towards ionization is compared to the established technique of using a weak intercombination line (\\lambda=413 nm). An increase of two orders of magnitude in the ionization efficiency is found favoring the transition at 553 nm. This technique can be implemented using commercial all-solid-state laser systems and is expected to be advantageous compared to other narrowband photoionization schemes of barium in cases where highest efficiency and isotope-selectivity are required.

  3. Barium hexaferrite/graphene oxide: controlled synthesis and characterization and investigation of its magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddahfar, Mahnaz; Ramezani, Majid; Mostafa Hosseinpour-Mashkani, S.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, barium hexaferrite nanocrystals (BaFe12O19) were successfully synthesized through the two-step sol-gel method in an aqueous solution in the presence of barium nitrate and iron (III) nitrate. Besides, the effect of the molar ratio of graphene oxide on the particle size and magnetic properties of final product was investigated. In this research, glucose plays a role as capping and chelating agent in the synthesis of BaFe12O19/graphene oxide. Moreover, it was found that the size, morphology, and magnetic properties of the final products could be greatly influenced by the molar ratio of graphene oxide. BaFe12O19/graphene oxide was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and energy-dispersive spectrometry.

  4. Correlated Strontium and Barium Isotopic Compositions of Acid-Cleaned Single Silicon Carbides from Murchison

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Nan; Gallino, Roberto; Davis, Andrew M; Bisterzo, Sara; Gyngard, Frank; Kaeppeler, Franz; Cristallo, Sergio; Dauphas, Nicolas; Pellin, Michael J; Dillmann, Iris

    2015-01-01

    We present strontium, barium, carbon, and silicon isotopic compositions of 61 acid-cleaned presolar SiC grains from Murchison. Comparison with previous data shows that acid washing is highly effective in removing both strontium and barium contamination. For the first time, by using correlated $^{88}Sr$/$^{86}Sr$ and $^{138}Ba$/$^{136}Ba$ ratios in mainstream SiC grains, we are able to resolve the effect of $^{13}C$ concentration from that of $^{13}C$-pocket mass on s-process nucleosynthesis, which points towards the existence of large $^{13}C$-pockets with low $^{13}C$ concentration in AGB stars. The presence of such large $^{13}$R-pockets with a variety of relatively low $^{13}C$ concentrations seems to require multiple mixing processes in parent AGB stars of mainstream SiC grains.

  5. Absolute Te$_2$ reference for barium ion at $455.4~$nm

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, T; Mukherjee, M

    2016-01-01

    Precision atomic spectroscopy is presently the work horse in quantum information technology, metrology, trace analysis and even for fundamental tests in physics. Stable lasers are inherent part of precision spectroscopy which in turn requires absolute wavelength markers suitably placed corresponding to the atomic species being probed. Here we present, new lines of tellurium (Te$_2$) which allows locking of external cavity diode laser (ECDL) for precision spectroscopy of singly charged barium ions. In addition, we have developed an ECDL with over 100 GHz mod-hop-free tuning range using commercially available diode from $\\textit{Nichia}$. These two developments allow nearly drift-free operation of a barium ion trap set-up with one single reference cell thereby reducing the complexity of the experiment.

  6. Gamma-ray shielding and structural properties of barium-bismuth-borosilicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootjomchai, Cherdsak; Laopaiboon, Jintana; Yenchai, Chadet; Laopaiboon, Raewat

    2012-07-01

    The attenuation coefficients of barium-bismuth-borosilicate glasses have been measured for gamma-ray photon energies of 662, 1173 and 1332 keV using a narrow beam transmission geometry. These coefficients were then used to obtain the values of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number, effective electron density and mean free path. Good agreement has been observed between experimental and theoretical values of these parameters. From the obtained results it is reported here that from the barium-bismuth-borosilicate glasses are better shields to gamma-radiations in comparison to the standard radiation shielding concretes from the shielding point of view. The molar volume, FTIR and acoustic investigations have been used to study the structural properties of the prepared glass system. The obtained results reveal that the formation of non-bridging oxygens occurs at higher concentration of Bi2O3.

  7. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with methyl iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, J.; Glaenneskog, H.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    An experimental study on radiolytic decomposition of methyl iodide was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. In year 2008 the NROI project, a Nordic collaboration studying iodine chemistry in the containment was started. During 2009, oxidation of iodine, especially organic iodine, was studied within the NROI project. The chemistry of organic iodine in the gas phase is still one of the greatest remaining uncertainties concerning iodine behaviour during a severe accident. During the first year of the NROI project the oxidation of elemental iodine, I2, with ozone and UV-light was investigated. In this study organic iodide, in this case methyl iodide, was investigated in similar conditions as in the NROI-1 project. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for the ISTP project CHIP conducted by IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. Experimental results showed that the methyl iodide concentration in the facility was reduced with increasing temperature and increasing UVC intensity. Similar behaviour occurred when ozone was present in the system. Formed organic gas species during the decomposition of methyl iodide was mainly formaldehyde and methanol. Instant and extensive particle formation occurred when methyl iodide was transported through a UVC radiation field and/or when ozone was present. The size of the formed primary particles was about 10 nm and the size of secondary particles was between 50-150 nm. From the SEM-EDX analyses of the particles, the conclusion was drawn that these were some kind of iodine

  8. Kinetics of barium sulphate reaction crystallization in crystallizers with internal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Koralewska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic calculation results describing the observed nucleation and growth rates of barium sulphate crystals precipitated in an integrated reaction-crystallization process in a barium sulphate-ammonium chloride-water system are presented and analyzed. The scope of experiments included two continuous model DTM-type crystallizers (Draft Tube Magma with internal circulation of the suspension forced by a liquid jet-pump device responsible for stable and intensive enough ascending/descending flow of BaSO4 crystal magma in a mixing chamber. For comparison purposes the experimental data corresponding to a continuous DT (Draft Tube crystallizer with propeller agitator are presented and discussed. The various types of laboratory crystallizers used were fed with concentrated water solution of barium chloride (of 10 or 24 mass % and - in a stoichiometric proportion - crystalline ammonium sulphate, assuming isothermal (348 K and hydrodynamic (average residence time of suspension in a crystallizer: 900 s process conditions. The observed nucleation and growth rates of barium sulphate crystals were estimated on the basis of crystal size distributions (CSDs using convenient calculation scheme derived for an MSMPR (Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal model approach. Considering the experimental population density distribution courses, a size-dependent growth (SDG phenomenon was taken into account in the kinetic calculations. Five SDG kinetic models recommended in the accessible literature were used for kinetic parameter values estimation. It was proved statistically, that Rojkowski’s two SDG models (hyperbolic and exponential best suit for our own experimental data description. The experimental data presented can be practically applied for improving the constructions of liquid jet-pump DTM crystallizers recommended for reaction crystallization of sparingly soluble inorganic salts (especially for high concentrations of reaction substrates in the modern

  9. Establishment of a protocol for determining gastrointestinal transit time in mice using barium and radiopaque markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myagmarjaibuu, Bilomaa; Moon, Myeong Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Seo In; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Seong [Dept. of Physiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Yeoul [Dept. of Physiology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish a minimally invasive and reproducible protocol for estimating the gastrointestinal (GI) transit time in mice using barium and radiopaque markers. Twenty 5- to 6-week-old Balb/C female mice weighing 19-21 g were used. The animals were divided into three groups: two groups that received loperamide and a control group. The control group (n = 10) animals were administered physiological saline (1.5 mL/kg) orally. The loperamide group I (n = 10) and group II (n = 10) animals were administered 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg loperamide orally, respectively. Thirty minutes after receiving the saline or loperamide, the mice was administered 80 μL of barium solution and six iron balls (0.5 mm) via the mouth and the upper esophagus by gavage, respectively. Afterwards, the mice were continuously monitored with fluoroscopic imaging in order to evaluate the swallowing of the barium solution and markers. Serial fluoroscopic images were obtained at 5- or 10-min intervals until all markers had been excreted from the anal canal. For analysis, the GI transit times were subdivided into intestinal transit times (ITTs) and colon transit times (CTTs). The mean ITT was significantly longer in the loperamide groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). The mean ITT in loperamide group II (174.5 ± 32.3) was significantly longer than in loperamide group I (133.2 ± 24.2 minute) (p < 0.05). The mean CTT was significantly longer in loperamide group II than in the control group (p < 0.05). Also, no animal succumbed to death after the experimental procedure. The protocol for our study using radiopaque markers and barium is reproducible and minimally invasive in determining the GI transit time of the mouse model.

  10. Wideband electromagnetic wave absorber using doped barium hexaferrite in Ku-band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehrani, Masoud Kavosh, E-mail: m_kavosh@mut-es.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Malek-ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, Ali [Department of Material Engineering, Malek-ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, Mahmood; Alam, Reza Shams [Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-18

    Highlights: > Substituted barium hexaferrite BaMg{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 1.0}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19} was prepared in powder configuration by solid state reaction. > The results exhibit a wideband single-layer microwave absorber with a satisfactory reflection loss throughout Ku-band. > The composite specimens for measurement of microwave absorber properties were prepared by mixing doped barium ferrite and PVC with a concentration of 70:30 by weight. > The bandwidth that can be achieved by utilization of this sample is 4.5 GHz. Minimum reflection loss of -34 dB can be obtained by sample '(e)'. - Abstract: Substituted barium hexaferrite BaMg{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 1.0}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19} was prepared in powder configuration by solid state reaction. The ferrite powders were mixed with polyvinylcloride (PVC) plasticizer to fabricate a microwave absorbing composite. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and vector network analyzer were employed to characterize phase identification coupled with size and morphology of powder and microwave absorption properties of synthesized composites. It was found that the maximum reflection loss of -40 dB was appeared at frequency range of 12-18 GHz. In the present work, new cation substitutions in iron sites in the crystal lattice of barium ferrite, which can easily tune the bandwidth of the reflection loss, were used. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which displays the wideband absorber by employing single layer hexaferrite backed on the surface of copper.

  11. Electrical properties of thick film capacitors based on barium titanate glass formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaevuori, S.; Uusimaeki, A.; Hannula, T.

    1981-12-18

    We carried out an investigation of the effects of the glass content of the dielectric layer of thick film capacitors with a barium titanate glass formulation on the capacitance density, loss factor and breakdown voltage of the capacitors. These effects were studied by varying the firing temperature and glass content of the dielectric paste and by using different types of electrode paste. The characteristics of a test capacitor were also measured.

  12. Effect of boric acid sintering aid on densification of barium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Vidyawathi; R Amaresh; L N Satapathy

    2002-11-01

    Boric acid has been added in 0.1–0.6% range for studying the densification characteristics of solid state sintered barium hexaferrite. Sintering studies have been carried out at three different temperatures. Physical properties like density and porosity have been studied for all compositions. The phase identification and microstructural investigation on the fractured surface have been carried out to understand the effect of sintering aid on the densification characteristics.

  13. Nanoparticles for cultural heritage conservation: calcium and barium hydroxide nanoparticles for wall painting consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Rodorico; Ambrosi, Moira; Toccafondi, Nicola; Baglioni, Piero

    2010-08-16

    Nanotechnology provides new concepts and materials for the consolidation and protection of wall paintings. In particular, humble calcium and barium hydroxide nanoparticles offer a versatile and highly efficient tool to combat the main degradation processes altering wall paintings. Clear example of the efficacy and potentiality of nanotechnology is represented by the conservation in situ of Maya wall paintings in the archaeological area in Calakmul (Mexico).

  14. Phase conjugation, isotropic and anisotropic higher order diffraction generation, and image correlation using photorefractive barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranasiri, Prathan

    2005-04-01

    Using barium titanate as the photorefractive material, we demonstrate phase conjugation, beam coupling, higher diffraction order generation. At small incident angles less than 0.015 radian, both codirectional isotropic self-diffraction (CODIS) and contradirectional isotropic self-diffraction (CONDIS) are generated simultaneously. At bigger incident angles approximately more than 0.2094 radian, only codirectional anisotropic-self diffraction (CODAS) are generated. On going imaging correlation is also showing.

  15. Neutron beam test of barium fluoride crystal for dark matter direct detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, C.; Ma, X. H.; Wang, Z. M.; Bao, J.; Dai, C. J.; Guan, M. Y.; Liu, J. C.; Li, Z. H.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Yang, C. G.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zhong, W. L.

    2016-10-01

    In order to test the capabilities of Barium Fluoride (BaF2) crystal for dark matter direct detection, nuclear recoils are studied with mono-energetic neutron beam. The energy spectra of nuclear recoils, quenching factors for elastic scattering neutrons and discrimination capability between neutron inelastic scattering events and γ events are obtained for various recoil energies of the F content in BaF2.

  16. Growth and study of barium oxalate single crystals in agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Dalal; K B Saraf

    2006-10-01

    Barium oxalate was grown in agar gel at ambient temperature. The effect of various parameters like gel concentration, gel setting time and concentration of the reactants on the growth of these crystals was studied. Prismatic platy shaped spherulites and dendrites were obtained. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. An attempt is made to explain the spherulitic growth mechanism.

  17. A System for Trapping Barium Ions in a Microfabricated Surface Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Richard D; Sakrejda, Tomasz; Wright, John; Zhou, Zichao; Blinov, Boris B

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a vacuum chamber and control system for rapid testing of microfabricated surface ion traps. Our system uses a modular design and is based on an in-vacuum PCB with integrated filters. We have used this system to successfully trap and cool barium ions. We have demonstrated ion 'dark' lifetimes of 31.6 s +- 3.4 s and controlled shuttling of ions using a custom 96 electrode control system with an update rate of 40 kHz.

  18. Absolute Te$_2$ reference for barium ion at $455.4~$nm

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, T; Munshi, D; Mukherjee, M.(Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India)

    2016-01-01

    Precision atomic spectroscopy is presently the work horse in quantum information technology, metrology, trace analysis and even for fundamental tests in physics. Stable lasers are inherent part of precision spectroscopy which in turn requires absolute wavelength markers suitably placed corresponding to the atomic species being probed. Here we present, new lines of tellurium (Te$_2$) which allows locking of external cavity diode laser (ECDL) for precision spectroscopy of singly charged barium ...

  19. Modification of gray iron produced by induction melting with barium strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzelevskaya, G.; Feoktistov, A. V.; Selyanin, I. F.; Kutsenko, A. I.; Kutsenko, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The article provides analysis of results of gray iron experimental melts in induction furnace and the following melt modification with barium-strontium carbonate (BSC-2). It is shown that modification positively affects mechanical and casting properties and as-cast iron structure. It was established that BSC-2 granulated immediately prior to use has greater impact on melt than BSC-2 of the same faction, supplied by the manufacturer.

  20. Luminescence of Er3+ Doped Titanium Barium Glass Microsphere under 514 nm Excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The titanium barium glass microspheres doped with Er2O3 were designed and prepared. The components of the glass sample were 25TiO2-27BaCO3-8Ba(NO3)2-5ZnO2-10CaCO3-5H3BO3-10SiO2-7water glass-3Er2O3 (%, mass fraction). The emission spectra of titanium barium glass matrix and the titanium barium glass microsphere under 514 nm excitation were measured with micro-Raman spectrometer. Whispering gallery modes in the emission spectra from a 31 μm glass microsphere were observed. Many regularly spaced, sharp peaks appeared in the emission spectra of the Er2O3-doped glass microsphere. The wavelength separation between the two adjacent peaks is 1.92 nm for the 31 μm microsphere. According to the Lorenz-Mie formula, the calculated value of the wavelength separation between the two adjacent peaks is 1.95 nm. The observed resonances could be assigned by using the well-known Lorenz-Mie formula.

  1. An effective quantum defect theory for the diamagnetic spectrum of a barium Rydberg atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bo; Liu Hong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical calculation is carried out to investigate the spectrum of a barium Rydberg atom in an external magnetic field.Using an effective approach incorporating quantum defect into the centrifugal term in the Hamiltonian,we reexamine the reported spectrum of the barium Rydberg atom in a magnetic field of 2.89 T [J.Phys.B 28 L537 (1995)].Our calculation employs B-spline basis expansion and complex coordinate rotation techniques.For single photon absorption from the ground 6s2 to 6snp Rydberg states,the spectrum is not influenced by quantum defects of channels ns and nd.The calculation is in agreement with the experimental observations until the energy reaches E =-60 cm-1.Beyond this energy,closer to the threshold,the calculated and experimental results do not agree with each other.Possible reasons for their discrepancies are discussed.Our study affirms an energy range where the diamagnetic spectrum of the barium atom can be explained thoroughly using a hydrogen model potential.

  2. Single molecule fluorescence imaging as a technique for barium tagging in neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. J. P.; McDonald, A. D.; Nygren, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Background rejection is key to success for future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. To achieve sensitivity to effective Majorana lifetimes of ~ 1028 years, backgrounds must be controlled to better than 0.1 count per ton per year, beyond the reach of any present technology. In this paper we propose a new method to identify the birth of the barium daughter ion in the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe. The method adapts Single Molecule Fluorescent Imaging, a technique from biochemistry research with demonstrated single ion sensitivity. We explore possible SMFI dyes suitable for the problem of barium ion detection in high pressure xenon gas, and develop a fiber-coupled sensing system with which we can detect the presence of bulk Ba++ ions remotely. We show that our sensor produces signal-to-background ratios as high as 85 in response to Ba++ ions when operated in aqueous solution. We then describe the next stage of this R&D program, which will be to demonstrate chelation and fluorescence in xenon gas. If a successful barium ion tag can be developed using SMFI adapted for high pressure xenon gas detectors, the first essentially zero background, ton-scale neutrinoless double beta decay technology could be realized.

  3. Optical planar waveguide in sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua, E-mail: zhaojinhuazjh@gmail.com [School of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Qin, Xi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Gang; Wang, Hui-Lin [School of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Wang, Xue-Lin [School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation, Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2013-07-15

    There is great interest in niobate crystals which belong to the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) families owing to their intriguing properties. As one representative of such crystals, CBN (calcium barium niobate) has attracted rapidly growing attention. Because it has a higher Curie temperature than SBN (strontium barium niobate), possesses outstanding ferroelectric and it possesses optical properties. In addition, doped with sodium, CBN will show a higher Curie temperature than pure CBN. We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguide in x-cut sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystal by using C ion implantation. The guided-mode properties at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm are investigated through prism-coupling measurements, respectively. By applying direct end-face coupling arrangement, the near-field optical intensity distribution of waveguide modes is measured at 633 nm. For comparison, the modal profile of the same guided mode is also numerically calculated by the finite difference beam-propagation method via computer software BeamPROP. The transmission spectra of the waveguide before and after ion implantation treatments were investigated also. Our experiment results reveal that the waveguide could propagate light with transverse magnetic polarized direction only and it is assumed that the polarization selectivity of CBN crystal may responsible for this phenomenon.

  4. Factors influencing the detection of abnormalities in barium enemas performed by junior radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, T. [Department of Occupational Medicine, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki and Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: tapio.vehmas@ttl.fi

    2006-03-15

    Aim: To study the effects of patient variability, technical examination and radiologist-related factors on the radiological diagnosis of barium enema studies. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one residents (12 women and nine men, age 26-39 years) performed 523 double contrast barium enemas in a university hospital. Diagnoses were classified as normal (n=203), diverticulosis (n=224), polyps (n=25), tumours (n=20) and other (n=46); five were missing diagnoses. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were used to study the relations between the independent variables and the radiological diagnoses. Results: Patients' advanced age (p<0.001) and obesity (p=0.041) were significant positive predictors for the detection of any abnormalities, as was good or moderate study quality (p=0.023). However, patients' obesity was negatively associated with the detection of polyps (p=0.037). Pathological findings were associated with higher dose-area products (p=0.047) than normal cases. Residents' advanced age (p=0.029) and experience (a high number of previously performed barium enemas; p=0.009) were negative predictors for the detection of pathological findings. Conclusion: Patients' obesity hampers polyp detection, possibly due to decreased image quality or coexisting diverticula. The most experienced and oldest residents missed positive findings, possibly due to insufficient consultation of supervising radiologists, emphasizing the need for their optimal cooperation.

  5. A Preliminary Trial on the Use of Barium Chloride for Pregnancy Diagnosis in Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine was collected twice daily (once in the morning and once in the afternoon for 5 days from 80 Yorkshire x Landrace crossbred gilts/sows made up of 40 non-pregnant and 40 pregnant pigs in an investigation to determine the possibility of using 1 % barium chloride solution for pregnancy diagnosis in pigs based on a previous report that addition of a few drops of 1 % barium chloride solution to bovine urine caused a white precipitate with non-pregnant but not with pregnant cows. The pregnant pigs were in various stages of gestation. Urine reaction to 1 % barium chloride was highly (P <0.01 dependent on the pregnancy status of the sows, the test being 100 % and 81 % effective in identifying non-pregnant and pregnant sows respectively. The sensitivity of the test in the gravid sows was significantly (P <0.05 influenced by and tended to increa-se with the stage of gestation, with 59 % of the sows in their first stage of gestation (<38 days post-coitum being correctly diagnosed as pregnant, and 95-100 % of those in their latter stages of gestation being so correctly diagnosed. Parity and time of day of performance of the test had no effect on urine reaction. It was concluded that the test was at least 95 % accurate when used as from about 39 days after breeding for pregnancy diagnosis in sows.

  6. Effects of Dysprosium Oxide Doping on Microstructure and Properties of Barium Titanate Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Yongping; Ren Huijun; Chen Wei; Chen Shoutian

    2005-01-01

    Different amounts of dysprosium oxide were incorporated into barium titanate powders synthesized by hydrothermal method. Relations of substitution behaviors and lattice parameters with solid-solubility were studied. Furthermore, the influences of dysprosium oxide doping fraction on grain size and dielectric properties of barium titanate ceramic, including dielectric constant and breakdown electric field strength, were investigated via scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and electric property tester. The results show that dysprosium oxide can restrain abnormal grain growth during sintering and that fine-grained and high density of barium titanate ceramic can result in excellent dielectric properties. As mass fraction of dysprosium oxide is 0.6%, the lattice parameters of grain increase to the maximum because of the lowest vacancy concentration. The electric property parameters are cited as following: dielectric constant (25 ℃) reaches 4100, the change in relative dielectric constant with temperature is -10% to 10% within the range of -15~100 ℃, breakdown electric field strength (alternating current) achieves 3.2 kV·mm-1, which can be used in manufacturing high voltage ceramic capacitors.

  7. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of Europium-dop ed Barium Titanate Nano crys-tallites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margarita Garca-Hernandez; Genevieve Chadeyron; Damien Boyer; Antonieta Garca-Murillo; Felipe Carrillo-Romo; Rachid Mahiou

    2013-01-01

    Barium titanate nanocrystallites were synthesized by a hydrothermal technique from barium chlo-ride and tetrabutyl titanate. Single-crystalline cubic perovskite BaTiO3 consisting of spherical particles with diameters ranging from 10 to 30 nm was easily achieved by this route. In order to study the influence of the syn-thesis process on the morphology and the optical properties, barium titanate was also prepared by a solid-state reaction. In this case, only the tetragonal phase which crystallizes above 900℃ was observed. High-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements were performed to investigate the crystallization temperatures as well as the particle sizes via the Scherrer formula. The lattice vibrations were evidenced by infrared spectroscopy. Eu3+was used as a structural probe, and the luminescence properties recorded from BaTiO3:Eu3+and elaborated by a solid-state reaction and hydrothermal process were compared. The reddish emission of the europium is increased by the nanometric particles.

  8. Barium Surface Abundances of Blue Stragglers in the Open Cluster NGC 6819

    CERN Document Server

    Milliman, Katelyn E; Schuler, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    We present the barium surface abundance of 12 blue stragglers (BSs) and 18 main-sequence (MS) stars in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) based on spectra obtained from the Hydra Multi-object Spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. For the MS stars we find [Fe/H] = $+$0.05 $\\pm$ 0.04 and [Ba/Fe] = $-$0.01 $\\pm$ 0.10. The majority of the BS stars are consistent with these values. We identify five BSs with significant barium enhancement. These stars most likely formed through mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star that polluted the surface of the BS with the nucleosynthesis products generated during thermal pulsations. This conclusion aligns with the results from the substantial work done on the BSs in old open cluster NGC 188 that identifies mass transfer as the dominant mechanism for BS formation in that open cluster. However, four of the BSs with enhanced barium show no radial-velocity evidence for a companion. The one star that is in a binary is a double-lined system, meaning...

  9. A barium central star binary in the Type-I diamond ring planetary nebula Abell 70

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Frew, D J; Acker, A; Köppen, J; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A

    2011-01-01

    Abell 70 (PN G038.1-25.4, hereafter A 70) is a planetary nebula (PN) known for its diamond ring appearance due a superposition with a background galaxy. The previously unstudied central star is found to be a binary consisting of a G8IV-V secondary at optical wavelengths and a hot white dwarf (WD) at UV wavelengths. The secondary shows Ba II and Sr II features enhanced for its spectral type that, combined with the chromospheric Halpha emission and possible 20-30 km/s radial velocity amplitude, firmly classifies the binary as a Barium star. The proposed origin of Barium stars is intimately linked to PNe whereby wind accretion pollutes the companion with dredged-up material rich in carbon and s-process elements when the primary is experiencing thermal pulses on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A 70 provides further evidence for this scenario together with the other very few examples of Barium central stars. The nebula is found to have Type-I chemical abundances with helium and nitrogen enrichment, which when c...

  10. Er3+-substituted W-type barium ferrite: preparation and electromagnetic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG

    2010-01-01

    Er3+-substituted W-type barium ferrites Ba1-xErx(Zn0.3Co0.7)2Fe16O27(x=0.00,0.05,0.10,0.15,0.20)were synthesized by polymer adsorbent combustion method.Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis(XRD),X-ray fluorescence(XRF),scanning electron microscopy(SEM)and network analyzer to investigate the relationships among Er3+concentration,crystal structure,surface mcrphology and electromagnetic properties.All the XRD patterns showed pure phase of W-type barium ferrite when x≤0.15,while the impurity phase of ErFeO3 appeared when x=0.20.The pure W-type barium ferrite showed a hexagonal flake shape.In addition,the microwave electromagnetic properties of samples were analyzed in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz.It was indicated that the electromagnetic properties were significantly improved when Er3+doping content was 0.10.The reasons were also discussed using electromagnetic theory.The optimized ferrite exhibited excellent microwave absoption performance.The maximum of reflection loss(RL)reached about-27.4 dB and RL was below-10dB at the frequency range from 8.4 GHz to 18 GHz,when the thickness was 2.6 mm.

  11. A Study on Reactive Ion Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A Study on Reactive Ion Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur...Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) Samuel G...Study on Reactive Ion Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur Hexafluoride

  12. Cooperative effect of silver in copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides using Me3SiCF3

    KAUST Repository

    Weng, Zhiqiang

    2011-06-13

    An effective model of cooperative effect of silver for the coppercatalyzed trifluoromethylation of activated and unactivated aryl iodides to trifluoromethylated arenes using Me3SiCF3 was achieved with a broad substrate scope. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Formation of iodinated disinfection by-products during oxidation of iodide-containing water with potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tao; Xu, Bin; Lin, Yi-Li; Hu, Chen-Yan; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Lin, Lin; Mwakagenda, Seleli Andrew; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2012-11-30

    This study shows that iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs) including iodoform (IF), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and triiodoacetic acid (TIAA) can be produced when iodide-containing waters are in contact with potassium permanganate. IF was found as the major I-DBP species during the oxidation. Iodide was oxidized to HOI, I(2) and I(3)(-), consequently, which led to the formation of iodinated organic compounds. I-DBPs varied with reaction time, solution pH, initial concentrations of iodide and potassium permanganate. Yields of IF, IAA and TIAA increased with reaction time and considerable I-DBPs were formed within 12 h. Peak IF yields were found at circumneutral pH range. However, formation of IAA and TIAA was favored under acidic conditions. Molar ratio of iodide to potassium permanganate showed significant influence on formation of IF, IAA and TIAA. The formation of IF, IAA and TIAA also depended on the characteristics of the waters.

  14. Gap energy studied by optical transmittance in lead iodide monocrystals grown by Bridgman's Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veissid N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The bandgap energy as a function of temperature has been determined for lead iodide. The monocrystal was obtained in a vacuum sealed quartz ampoule inside a vertical furnace by Bridgman's method. The optical transmittance measurement enables to evaluate the values of Eg. By a fitting procedure of Eg as a function of temperature is possible to extract the parameters that govern its behavior. The variation of Eg with temperature was determined as: Eg(T = Eg(0 - aT2/(a + T, with: Eg(0 = (2.435 ± 0.008 eV, a = (8.7 ± 1.3 x 10-4 eV/K and a = (192 ± 90 K. The bandgap energy of lead iodide at room temperature was found to be 2.277 ± 0.007 eV.

  15. Induction of iodide uptake in transformed thyrocytes: a compound screening in cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Eleonore [University of Tuebingen, Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, Nephrology and Clinical Chemistry, Internal Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany); Brossart, Peter [University of Tuebingen, Department of Haematology, Oncology, Immunology and Rheumatology, Internal Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany); Wahl, Richard [University of Tuebingen, Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, Nephrology and Clinical Chemistry, Internal Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany); Department IV, Internal Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Retinoic acid presently is the most advanced agent able to improve the efficacy of radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In order to identify compounds with higher efficacy a panel of pharmacologically well-characterized compounds with antitumour action in solid cancer cell lines was screened. The effects of the compounds on iodide uptake, cell number, proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated. In general, compounds were more effective in cell lines derived from more aggressive tumours. The effectiveness in terms of number of responsive cell lines and maximal increase in iodide uptake achieved decreased in the order: APHA > valproic acid {approx} sirolimus {approx} arsenic trioxide > retinoic acid {approx} lovastatin > apicidine {approx} azacytidine {approx} retinol {approx} rosiglitazone {approx} bortezomib. We hypothesize that testing of cells from primary tumours or metastases in patients may be a way to identify compounds with optimum therapeutic efficacy for individualized treatment. (orig.)

  16. Preparation,Characterization and Optical Properties of Hostguest Nanocomposite Material Mordenite—silver Iodide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAIQing-zhou; QIUShi-lun

    2003-01-01

    Silver iodide nanoclusters were successfully prepared in the channels of mordenite by a heat diffusion method.Powder X-ray diffraction.adsorption technique and infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the prepared materials,which showed that the guest silver iodied had been encapsulated in the channels of mordenite.The optical properties of the solid phase diffuse reflectance absorption of nanocomposite material NaM-AgI were studied,showing that the absorption bands of the diffuse reflectance absorption of the prepared material moved to the region of high energy.The absorption peak of the material prepared shifted to the region of high energy.Namely,blue shift was caused.This has demonstrated the incorporation of silver iodide into the channels of the zeolite.We observed the luminescence and surface photovoltage spectra of NaM-AgI sample,proposing the mechanisms of the photoluminescence and photovoltaic responses.

  17. Solvatochromic effect and kinetics of methyl violet reduction with potassium iodide in water-isopropanol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Maria; Saeed, Rehana; Khan, Sameera Razi; Masood, Summyia

    2016-12-01

    The solvent influence on the reduction kinetics of methyl violet with iodide in binary mixture of aqueous isopropanol was investigated spectrophotometrically. The absorption spectra of methyl violet were recorded in water, aqueous isopropanol and absolute isopropanol. In these solvents λmax was in the range from 580.5 to 582.5 nm. The CNIBS/R-K model was used to calculate the solvatochromic parameters in a binary mixture; polynomial equation was also applied to describe the experimental data. The transition energies ( E T) were calculated. They show bathochromic shift with the decrease in the polarity of the solvent. The temperature was varied from 298-318 K, while the pH of the reaction was maintained at 4.99 and 6.00. The reduction reaction was found to be first order by potassium iodide and zero order by methyl violet. The thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated to support the kinetic data.

  18. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[potassium-tri-μ-dimethylacetamide-κ6O:O] iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar-Catalin Comanescu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure of catena-poly[[potassium-tri-μ-dimethylacetamide-κ6O:O] iodide], {[K(C4H9NO3]I}n, at 120 K has trigonal (P-3 symmetry. The structure adopts a linear chain motif parallel to the crystallographic c axis. Two crystallographically independent K+ cations are present in the asymmetric unit located on threefold rotoinversion axes at [0, 0, 0] and [0, 0, 1/2] and are bridged by the O atoms of the acetamide moiety. This is an example of a rare μ2-bridging mode for dimethylacetamide O atoms. The iodide counter-ion resides on a threefold rotation axis in the channel formed by the [K(C4H9NO]+ chains.

  19. Gastro-intestinal basidiobolomycosis in a 2-year-old boy: dramatic response to potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei Dashti, Anahita; Nasimfar, Amir; Hosseini Khorami, Hossein; Pouladfar, Gholamreza; Kadivar, Mohammad Rahim; Geramizadeh, Bita; Khalifeh, Masoomeh

    2016-07-04

    Gastro-intestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB) is a rare fungal infection caused by Basidiobolus ranarum. Treatment includes surgical resection and long-term antifungal therapy. A 2.5-year-old boy presented with a 10-day history of abdominal pain, fever and diarrhoea, and a palpable abdominal mass was detected. Resection was undertaken and histology confirmed basidiobolomycosis. Treatment with amphotericin B and itraconazole was commenced, but the infection progressed and spread to involve the intestines, liver, ribs and lung, and also the abdominal wall after 6 months, requiring four operative procedures. Because of unresponsiveness to amphotericin and itraconazole, oral potassium iodide was added which resulted in complete resolution of the infection. Potassium iodide is an essential component of the treatment of systemic B. ranarum.

  20. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance potassium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance potassium iodide are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of potassium iodide as a fungicide on tomatoes, sweet peppers, cucumber, eggplant, strawberries and ornamental flowers in greenhouse and field applications on strawberries. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  1. Nitro-Grela-type complexes containing iodides – robust and selective catalysts for olefin metathesis under challenging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tracz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Iodide-containing nitro-Grela-type catalysts have been synthesized and applied to ring closing metathesis (RCM and cross metathesis (CM reactions. These new catalysts have exhibited improved efficiency in the transformation of sterically, non-demanding alkenes. Additional steric hindrance in the vicinity of ruthenium related to the presence of iodides ensures enhanced catalyst stability. The benefits are most apparent under challenging conditions, such as very low reaction concentrations, protic solvents or with the occurrence of impurities.

  2. Nitro-Grela-type complexes containing iodides – robust and selective catalysts for olefin metathesis under challenging conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracz, Andrzej; Matczak, Mateusz; Urbaniak, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Summary Iodide-containing nitro-Grela-type catalysts have been synthesized and applied to ring closing metathesis (RCM) and cross metathesis (CM) reactions. These new catalysts have exhibited improved efficiency in the transformation of sterically, non-demanding alkenes. Additional steric hindrance in the vicinity of ruthenium related to the presence of iodides ensures enhanced catalyst stability. The benefits are most apparent under challenging conditions, such as very low reaction concentrations, protic solvents or with the occurrence of impurities. PMID:26664602

  3. Nitro-Grela-type complexes containing iodides - robust and selective catalysts for olefin metathesis under challenging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracz, Andrzej; Matczak, Mateusz; Urbaniak, Katarzyna; Skowerski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Iodide-containing nitro-Grela-type catalysts have been synthesized and applied to ring closing metathesis (RCM) and cross metathesis (CM) reactions. These new catalysts have exhibited improved efficiency in the transformation of sterically, non-demanding alkenes. Additional steric hindrance in the vicinity of ruthenium related to the presence of iodides ensures enhanced catalyst stability. The benefits are most apparent under challenging conditions, such as very low reaction concentrations, protic solvents or with the occurrence of impurities.

  4. Development and testing of a silver chloride-impregnated activated carbon for aqueous removal and sequestration of iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanfil, T; Moro, E C; Serkiz, S M

    2005-11-01

    Silver impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) can effectively remove iodide from water and sequester it in the form of AgI(s)). Given the extremely insoluble nature of AgI(s), the spent SIAC can be safely disposed of in land burial facilities. However, when the molar ratio of silver to iodide is greater than one, which is typical for waters contaminated with iodide, unreacted silver on the SIAC leached into solution with decreasing pH. To minimize silver leaching, a silver chloride impregnated activated carbon (SIAC-Cl) was produced from a SIAC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed the presence of silver chloride on the SIAC-Cl. Batch isotherm experiments conducted at pH 5, 7 and 8 showed that the iodide uptakes of SIAC-Cl and SIAC were similar and independent of pH. SEM/EDX and XRD analyses after reaction with iodide indicated that chloride was exchanged with iodide to form AgI(s) on the SIAC-Cl. Batch leaching experiments demonstrated that leaching of silver from SIAC-Cl under acidic conditions was significantly lower than from SIAC. The performance of SIAC and SIAC-Cl for practical applications was evaluated by conducting column experiments using a radioactively contaminated groundwater that included 129I. SIAC and SIAC-Cl showed similar degrees of iodide uptake. However, a significant degree of silver leaching, about 50% of the total silver, occurred from the SIAC during the course of the column experiments, whereas silver leaching from SIAC-Cl was remarkably low (only 6% of the total silver). SIAC-Cl appears to be a suitable getter material to remove and sequester iodide from contaminated waste streams.

  5. Peroxide effects of iodide excess on mitochondria in Fischer rat thyroid cell line in the early period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the peroxide effects of iodide excess on mitochondria in Fischer rat thyroid cell line(FRTL)in the early period.Methods After treatment with 0.0 mmol/L(control group)or 0.1 mmol/L potassium iodide(KI)for 2,4 and 24 h,respectively,changes of mitochondrial superoxide formation were assayed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy using mitochondria-targeted hydroethidine(Mito SOX).

  6. Effects of short-term potassium iodide treatment for thyrotoxicosis due to Graves disease in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Kyung Uk; Lee, Hae Sang; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children. Inorganic iodide has been used in combination with antithyroid drugs for more effective normalization of thyroid hormones in some cases of severe thyrotoxicosis. This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics of childhood thyrotoxicosis and effectiveness of inorganic iodide in the early phase of treatment. Methods Sixty-seven pediatric patients (53 girls/14 boys, 11.1±3.4 years of age), with newly diagno...

  7. Study on Growth and Optical, Scintillation Properties of Thallium Doped Cesium Iodide –Scintillator Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single crystal of Thallium doped cesium Iodide –Scintillator crystal was grown using vertical Bridgeman technique. The grown crystal was included for cutting and polishing for the characterization purpose and this crystal was studied by optical transmission properties, photo luminescence and thermally luminescence characteristics. Gamma-ray detectors were fabricated using the grown crystal that showed good linearity and nearly 7.5% resolution at 662 keV.

  8. Rationale for the real-time and dynamic cell death assays using propidium iodide

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hong; Oczos, Jadwiga; Janowski, Pawel; Trembecka, Dominika; Dobrucki, Jurek; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We have recently reported an innovative approach to use charged fluorochromes such as propidium iodide (PI) in the real-time, dynamic cell viability assays. The present study was designed to provide a mechanistic rationale for the kinetic assays using cell permeability markers. Uptake of PI by live cells, effect on the cell cycle, long term proliferation capacity, DNA damage response and pharmacologic interactions with anticancer drugs were studied using both laser scanning microscopy and las...

  9. Studies on the Mechanisms of Methyl Iodide Adsorption and Iodine Retention on Silver-Mordenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soelberg, Nick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Silver-containing mordenite (MOR) is a longstanding benchmark for radioiodine capture, reacting with molecular iodine (I2) to form AgI. However the mechanisms for organoiodine capture are not well understood. Here we investigate the capture of methyl iodide from complex mixed gas streams by combining chemical analysis of the effluent gas stream with in depth characterization of the recovered sorbent.

  10. Study on the Preparation and Characteristics of Cellulose/Silver Iodide Nanocomposite Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang Hun; Han, Sung Soo; Kang, Young Ah; Shin, Eun Joo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the structure and properties of an organic-inorganic composite material prepared from cellulose doped with fine particles of silver iodide (AgI) were examined. The preparation of the composite involved the complexation of cellulose with polyiodide ions, such as I- and 13-, by immersion in iodine/potassium iodide (I2/KI: 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 M) or potassium iodide (KI: 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4, 3.0 M) aqueous solutions followed by reaction in a silver nitrate (AgNO3:1.0 M) aqueous solution. These procedures resulted in the in situ formation of fine β-AgI particles within the cellulose matrix. The characteristics and conductivities of prepared cellulose/silver iodide (AgI) nanocomposite films with different I2/KI and KI concentrations were investigated. AgI particle formation and aggregation increased on increasing I2/KI and KI concentrations as determined by SEM. X-ray results showed that KI could penetrate the cellulose crystal region and form AgI particles. The electrical conductivities of nanocomposite films treated with KI were higher than that of I2/KI at < 1.0 M of I2/KI and 3 M of KI, although the weight gain by AgI formation was lower than that of I2/KI. This was also attributed to the formation of smaller AgI particles and crystal defects. Highest electrical conductivity (3.8 x 10(-7) Ω(-1) cm(-1)) was obtained from the cellulose films (1.25 x 10(-11) Ω(-1) cm(-1)) treated with the aqueous solutions of 1.0 M I2/KI and 1.0 M AgNO3.

  11. Comparison of Barium and Arsenic Concentrations in Well Drinking Water and in Human Body Samples and a Novel Remediation System for These Elements in Well Drinking Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kato

    Full Text Available Health risk for well drinking water is a worldwide problem. Our recent studies showed increased toxicity by exposure to barium alone (≤700 µg/L and coexposure to barium (137 µg/L and arsenic (225 µg/L. The present edition of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water revised in 2011 has maintained the values of arsenic (10 µg/L and barium (700 µg/L, but not elements such as manganese, iron and zinc. Nevertheless, there have been very few studies on barium in drinking water and human samples. This study showed significant correlations between levels of arsenic and barium, but not its homologous elements (magnesium, calcium and strontium, in urine, toenail and hair samples obtained from residents of Jessore, Bangladesh. Significant correlation between levels of arsenic and barium in well drinking water and levels in human urine, toenail and hair samples were also observed. Based on these results, a high-performance and low-cost adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for barium and arsenic was developed. The adsorbent reduced levels of barium and arsenic from well water in Bangladesh and Vietnam to <7 µg/L within 1 min. Thus, we have showed levels of arsenic and barium in humans and propose a novel remediation system.

  12. [Using barium fluoride fine particles as stationary phase for TLC/FTIR analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Pan, Qing-hua; Ding, Jie; Zhu, Qing; He, An-qi; Yue, Shi-juan; Li, Xiao-pei; Hu, Li-ping; Xia, Jin-ming; Liu, Cui-ge; Wei, Yong-ju; Yu, Jiang; Yang, Zhan-lan; Zhu, Xi; Xu, Yi-zhuang; Wu, Jin-guang

    2011-07-01

    In situ TLC/FTIR technique has tremendous potential in the analysis of complex mixtures. However, the progress in this technique was quite slow. The reason is that conventional stationary phase such as silica gel etc. has strong absorption in FTIR spectrum and thus brings about severe interference in the detection of samples. To solve the problem, the authors propose to use barium fluoride fine particles as stationary phase of TLC plate. The reasons are as follows: Barium fluoride wafer has been extensively used as infrared window in FTIR experiments and it has no absorbance in an IR region between 4 000 and 800 cm'. As a matter of fact, the atomic mass of barium and fluoride is quite large, thus the normal vibration of BaF2 lattice is limited in far-IR region and low frequency part of mid-IR region. Therefore, the interference caused by IR absorption of stationary phase can be resolved if BaF2 is used as stationary phase of TLC plate. Moreover, BaF2 is quite stable and insolvable in water and most organic solvents and it will not be dissolved by mobile phase or react with samples in TLC separation. Additionally, decreasing the particle size of BaF2 is very important in TLC/FTIR analysis technique. The reason is two-fold: First, decreasing the particle size of stationary phase is helpful to improving the efficiency of separation by TLC plate; second, decreasing the size of BaFz particle can improve the quality of FTIR spectra by alleviating the problem of light scattering. By optimizing the synthetic conditions, fine particles of barium fluoride were obtained. SEM results indicate that the size of the BaF2 particles is around 500 nm. FTIR spectrum of the BaF2 particles shows that no absorption of impurity was observed. Moreover, the elevation of baseline caused by light scattering is insignificant. The authors have developed a new technique named "settlement volatilization method" to prepare TLC plate without polymeric adhesive that may bring about significant

  13. Radiofrequency induction on sodium/iodide symporter expression of thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youxin Tian; Qinjiang Liu; Yaqiong Ni

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the ef ects of radiofrequency treatment on sodium/iodide symporter expression of thyroid cancer cells. Methods:In 29 thyroid cancer patients with low or no expression of soda\\iodide symporter, the radio frequency combined 131I therapy was used, the whole-body scintigraphy and serum Ig were detected before and after the radiofrequency treatment. Results:The whole-body scintigraphy showed that 4 cases (4/29) before radiofrequency treatment had positive iodine uptake, 19 cases (19/29) two weeks after radiofrequency treatment had the positive iodine uptake, 12 cases (12/29) four weeks after radiofrequency treatment had the positive iodine uptake. Four weeks after radiofrequency treatment, 5 cases had increased serum Ig levels, 17 cases had decreased serum Ig levels, 7 cases showed no change. 25 cases (25/29) were ef ective, 15 cases (15/29) were cured. Conclusion:The radiofrequency induced the non-expressed the sodium/iodide symporter of thyroid cancer cells regain the iodine intake ability, it improved the clinical ef icacy of 131I therapy in dedif erentiated thyroid cancer.

  14. Deteksi Natrium/Iodide Symporter (NIS pada Galur Sel Kanker Payudara SKBR3 dengan Imunositofluoresens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Elliyanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available SKBR-3 cell line is a breast cancer model for human epidermal growth factor receptor2 (HER2 positive. Only 50% of patients of this type have fully responded to chemotherapy. Natrium iodide symporter expression correlates with the uptake and ability of cells to accumulate radioiodine. The aim of this study was to examine natrium/iodide symporter (NIS expression and its distribution with and without epidermal growth factor (EGF treatment using immunocytofluoresence (ICF. This study was conducted at the Cell Culture Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran from September 2013 to April 2014. SKBR3 cells were cultured until 70% confluent. Cells were then divided into two groups: treatment group and control group. The treatment group was treated with EGF 50 ng/mL. Cells were incubated with primary antibody rabbit polyclonal antibody anti-NIS, and then were followed with secondary-antibody goat polyclonal antibody to rabbit. Data from the observation were then assessed semi-quantitatively. Natrium/iodide symporter was seen to be expressed and distributed in the cytoplasm. Cells induced by EGF showed significant increase in NIS expression in cytoplasm and its distribution in cell membrane. It is concluded that the SKBR3 cells express NIS in cytoplasm and that EGF induction increases NIS expression and distribution in cell membrane. This finding leads to a potential ability of breast cancer cells to uptake and accumulate radioiodine.

  15. Uptake of iodide by a mixture of metallic copper and cupric compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, G.; Alnot, M.; Ehrhardt, J.J.; Bessiere, J. [Univ. Henri Poincare Nancy 1, Villers les Nancy (France). Lab. de Chimie Physique pour l`Environnement

    1999-05-15

    Environmental contaminants harmful to the health of present and future generations involve nuclear fission products as iodine radioisotopes. {sup 129}I is potentially one of the more mobile products because of its long half-life and its tendency to go into solution as an anion that is not retarded with silicate minerals. Ability of copper/cupric compound mixtures to remove iodide from solution was investigated to predict sorption of radioactive iodine in the environment and to assess their use in a nuclear reprocessing method. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to study the stability of such mixtures in solution and to obtain equilibrium constants of Cu(0)/Cu(II)/I{sup {minus}} and Cu(0)/Cu(II)/Cl{sup {minus}} systems. Both calculations and experimental results showed that a Cu(0)/Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} (azurite) mixture selectively uptakes iodide ions (initial concentrations: 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup {minus}1} M) in the presence of 10{sup {minus}1} M chloride ions. Reaction of iodide with copper powder and azurite crystal or copper plate and azurite powder have also been investigated, leading to precipitation of CuI onto massive copper phase. The different solids were separately analyzed by XPS and MEB-EDX, giving some insight in the uptake mechanism. It is proposed that soluble copper released by the cupric compound is reduced at the surface of metallic copper, leading to a preferential precipitation of CuI on copper surface.

  16. Use of potassium iodide in dermatology: updates on an old drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosane Orofino; Macedo, Priscila Marques de; Carvalhal, Aline; Bernardes-Engemann, Andréa Reis

    2013-01-01

    Potassium iodide, as a saturated solution, is a valuable drug in the dermatologist's therapeutic arsenal and is useful for the treatment of different diseases due to its immunomodulatory features. However, its prescription has become increasingly less frequent in dermatology practice. Little knowledge about its exact mechanism of action, lack of interest from the pharmaceutical industry, the advent of new drugs, and the toxicity caused by the use of high doses of the drug are some possible explanations for that. Consequently, there are few scientific studies on the pharmacological aspects, dosage and efficacy of this drug. Also, there is no conventional standard on how to manipulate and prescribe the saturated solution of potassium iodide, which leads to unawareness of the exact amount of the salt being delivered in grams to patients. Considering that dosage is directly related to toxicity and the immunomodulatory features of this drug, it is essential to define the amount to be prescribed and to reduce it to a minimum effective dose in order to minimize the risks of intolerance and thus improve treatment adherence. This review is relevant due to the fact that the saturated solution of potassium iodide is often the only therapeutic choice available for the treatment of some infectious, inflammatory and immune-mediated dermatoses, no matter whether the reason is specific indication, failure of a previous therapy or cost-effectiveness.

  17. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-10-21

    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  18. Simple and rapid determination of iodide in table salt by stripping potentiometry at a carbon-paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svancara, Ivan; Ogorevc, Bozidar; Nović, Milko; Vytras, Karel

    2002-04-01

    A simple and rapid procedure, utilising constant-current stripping analysis (CCSA) at a carbon-paste electrode containing tricresyl phosphate as a pasting liquid (TCP-CPE), has been developed for the determination of iodide in table salt. Because of a synergistic accumulation mechanism based on ion-pairing and extraction of iodide in combination with electrolytic pretreatment of the TCP-CPE, the method is selective for iodide and enables direct determination of iodide in samples of table salt containing anti-caking agents such as K(4)[Fe(CN)(6)] (food additive "E 536") or MgO. The iodide content (calculated as KI) can be determined in a concentration range of 2 to 100 mg kg(-1) salt, with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 1 mg kg(-1), and a recovery from 90 to 115%. The proposed method has been used to determine iodide in several types of artificially iodised table salt and in one sample of natural sea salt. The results obtained agreed well with those obtained by use of three independent reference methods (titration, spectrophotometry, and ICP-MS) used to validate the CCSA method, indicating that the developed method is applicable as a routine procedure for rapid testing in salt production process control and in the analysis of marketed table salts.

  19. Activation of the Nrf2-Keap 1 Pathway in Short-Term Iodide Excess in Thyroid in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups of varying iodide intake: normal iodide; 10 times high iodide; and 100 times high iodide on Days 7, 14, and 28. Insignificant changes were observed in thyroid hormone levels (p>0.05. Urinary iodine concentration and iodine content in the thyroid glands increased after high consumption of iodide from NI to 100 HI (p<0.05. The urinary iodine concentration of the 100 HI group on Days 7, 14, and 28 was 60–80 times that of the NI group. The mitochondrial superoxide production and expressions of Nrf2, Srx, and Prx 3 all significantly increased, while Keap 1 significantly decreased in the 100 HI group when compared to the NI or 10 HI group on Days 7, 14, and 28 (p<0.05. Immunofluorescence staining results showed that Nrf2 was localized in the cytoplasm in NI group. Although Nrf2 was detected in both cytoplasm and nucleus in 10 HI and 100 HI groups, a stronger positive staining was found in the nucleus. We conclude that the activation of the Nrf2-Keap 1 antioxidative defense mechanism may play a crucial role in protecting thyroid function from short-term iodide excess in rats.

  20. Activation of the Nrf2-Keap 1 Pathway in Short-Term Iodide Excess in Thyroid in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups of varying iodide intake: normal iodide; 10 times high iodide; and 100 times high iodide on Days 7, 14, and 28. Insignificant changes were observed in thyroid hormone levels (p > 0.05). Urinary iodine concentration and iodine content in the thyroid glands increased after high consumption of iodide from NI to 100 HI (p Prx 3 all significantly increased, while Keap 1 significantly decreased in the 100 HI group when compared to the NI or 10 HI group on Days 7, 14, and 28 (p < 0.05). Immunofluorescence staining results showed that Nrf2 was localized in the cytoplasm in NI group. Although Nrf2 was detected in both cytoplasm and nucleus in 10 HI and 100 HI groups, a stronger positive staining was found in the nucleus. We conclude that the activation of the Nrf2-Keap 1 antioxidative defense mechanism may play a crucial role in protecting thyroid function from short-term iodide excess in rats. PMID:28133506

  1. [The effect of long-term external ionizing radiation on the functional activity of rat thyroid under enhanced potassium iodide consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupachik, S V; Nadol'nik, L I

    2008-01-01

    The study was devoted to the effect of long-term (20 days) external ionizing radiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy on the iodide metabolism in the rat thyroid under supplementation of high iodine doses (10 daily KI doses). It was found that the potassium iodide administration partially prevented the effects of a post radiation decrease of serum thyroid hormone levels (the level of T4 was normal and that of T3 was 77.4% of the controls). After the supplementation of 10 daily iodide doses, the rat thyroid tissue showed the most pronounced increase in the levels of total, free and protein-bound iodide compared to the groups of animals consuming normal and elevated KI doses. Pronounced inhibition of thyroid peroxidase activity (3.1-fold) was noted in the same group. The data obtained indicate a radiation-induced activation of iodide uptake during its enhanced supplementation and disturbed iodide enzymatic oxidation and organification.

  2. Small-scale fluctuations in barium drifts at high latitudes and associated Joule heating effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, L. D.; Larsen, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Most previous estimates of Joule heating rates, especially the contribution of small-scale structure in the high-latitude ionosphere, have been based on incoherent scatter or coherent scatter radar measurements. An alternative estimate can be found from the plasma drifts obtained from ionized barium clouds released from sounding rockets. We have used barium drift data from three experiments to estimate Joule heating rates in the high-latitude E region for different magnetic activity levels. In particular, we are interested in the contribution of small-scale plasma drift fluctuations, corresponding to equivalent electric field fluctuations, to the local Joule heating rate on scales smaller than those typically resolved by radar or other measurements. Since Joule heating is a Lagrangian quantity, the inherently Lagrangian estimates provided by the chemical tracer measurements are a full description of the effects of electric field variance and neutral winds on the heating, differing from the Eulerian estimates of the type provided by ground-based measurements. Results suggest that the small-scale contributions to the heating can be more than a factor of 2 greater than the mean field contribution regardless of geomagnetic conditions, and at times the small-scale contribution is even larger. The high-resolution barium drift measurements, moreover, show that the fine structure in the electric field can be more variable than previous studies have reported for similar conditions. The neutral winds also affect the heating, altering the height-integrated Joule heating rates by as much as 12%, for the cases studied here, and modifying the height distribution of the heating profile as well.

  3. Intermediate milling energy optimization to enhance the characteristics of barium hexaferrite magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodaei, A.; Ataie, A., E-mail: aataie@ut.ac.ir; Mostafavi, E.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Nano-sized BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was successfully synthesized via a solid-state reaction. • Intermediate milling energy was optimized to improve BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} properties. • Minimum total energy of 93.7 kJ/g was necessary for formation of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. • Deviation from the optimum milling energy deteriorates the magnetic properties. - Abstract: Nano-sized barium hexaferrite particles were synthesized by mechanical activation of BaCO{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders mixture as starting materials. The effects of mechanical milling energy on the phase composition, morphology, thermal behavior and magnetic properties of the samples were systematically investigated by employing X-ray diffractometer, field emission scanning electron microscopy, differential thermal/thermo gravimetry analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. The milling energy was calculated at five different levels using collision model. It was found that there is an optimum milling energy value for obtaining barium hexaferrite phase. The results revealed that applying a minimum total milling energy of 93.7 kJ/g was necessary for formation of almost single barium hexaferrite at a relatively low calcination temperature of 800 °C. FESEM micrograph of the above sample exhibited nano-size particles with a mean particle size of 80 nm. Further increase in milling energy leads to dramatic decrease in phase purity as well as magnetic characteristics of the samples. By increasing the milling energy from 93.7 to 671.9 kJ/g, saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) decreased from 22.5 to 0.39 emu/g, and also coercivity (H{sub c}) decreased from 4.28 to 1.46 kOe.

  4. Microstructure and magnetic properties of Al-doped barium ferrite with sodium citrate as chelate agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Daming, E-mail: chendaming1986@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu, Yingli, E-mail: lyl@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Yuanxun; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Huaiwu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper, M-type Al-doped barium ferrites were successfully synthesized using sodium citrate (SC) as the chelate agent by a chemical process complemented by a suitable thermal treatment of the precursor. It was found in TGA/DTA and XRD analysis that the crystallization and formation of single phase BaM had completed before 860 °C. The XRD data also confirmed Al substituting into Fe sites. Meanwhile, it can be seen from the SEM images that the particle size and morphology were not affected by Al doping. However, Al substitution played an important role on the magnetic properties. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of BaAl{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19} decreased from 51.43 emu/g for the sample with x=0 to 28.32 emu/g at x=1.5. The anisotropy field (H{sub a}), however, increased from 16.21 kOe to 25.01 kOe. In addition, M{sub s} increased with enhancing the ratio of SC/Ba{sup 2+}(molar ratio), reaching a maximum when SC/Ba{sup 2+} was 13. - Highlights: ► Doped barium ferrite was successfully synthesized using sodium citrate as chelate agent. ► Sodium citrate allows the mixing of metal cations in the as-synthesized barium ferrite. ► The radio of Sodium citrate/Ba{sup 2+} pay an important effect on magnetic properties.

  5. Curie temperature and magnetic properties of aluminum doped barium ferrite particles prepared by ball mill method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Daming [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, Hainan (China); Harward, Ian; Baptist, Joshua; Goldman, Sara; Celinski, Zbigniew [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Barium ferrite has attracted considerable interest in the fields of permanent magnets and perpendicular magnetic recording due to its strong uniaxial anisotropy and high Curie temperature (T{sub c}). We prepared aluminum doped barium ferrite ceramics (BaAl{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19}, 0≤x≤6) by the ball mill method. The powder was milled for 96 h, and after forming pellets, annealed for 48 h in air at 1000 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that there are only single hexagonal phases in the samples without any impurity phase. The crystal lattice constants, a and c, were calculated by Cohen's method. Both a and c decrease with increasing x, ranging from 0.588 nm and 2.318 nm to 0.573 nm and 2.294 nm, respectively. A Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) were used to investigate T{sub c} and magnetic properties of BaFe{sub 12−x}Al{sub x}O{sub 19}. It is found that T{sub c} decreases with increasing x, from 425 °C to 298 °C. It is also found that the saturated magnetization (4πM{sub s}) decreases with increasing x, while the coercivity (H{sub c}) increases with the increase in x. The anisotropy field was also determined from the SQUID measurement. - Highlights: • The Curie temperature and magnetic properties of aluminum doped barium ferrite particles were studied systemically. • The relation between 4πM{sub s} and composition x at 50 K (both experimental value and theoretical calculation) was revealed. • Occupation number for spin up and spin down as a function of temperature was shown. • The relation between 4πM{sub s} and composition x from 50 K to room temperature was revealed.

  6. Barium meal follow through with pneumocolon: Screening test for chronic bowel pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandeep Nijhawan; Saket Kumpawat; P Mallikarjun; RP Bansal; Dinesh Singla; Prachis Ashdhir; Amit Mathur; Ramesh Roop Rai

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To study the sensitivity,specificity and cost effectiveness of barium meal follow through with pneumocolon (BMFTP) used as a screening modality for patients with chronic abdominal pain of luminal origin in developing countries.METHODS:Fifty patients attending the Gastroenterology Unit,SMS Hospital,whose clinical evaluation revealed chronic abdominal pain of bowel origin were included in the study.After routine testing,BMFT,BMFTP,contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen,barium enema and colonoscopy were performed.The sensitivity,specificity and cost effectiveness of these imaging modalities in the detection of small and/or large bowel lesions were compared.RESULTS:Out of fifty patients,structural pathology was found in ten.Nine out of these ten patients had small bowel involvement while seven had colonic involvement alone or in combination with small bowel involvement.The sensitivity of BMFTP was 100% compared to 88.89% with BMFT when detecting small bowel involvement (BMFTP detected one additional patient with ileocecal involvement).The sensitivity and specificity of BMFTP for the detection of colonic pathology were 85.71% and 95.35%(41/43),respectively.Screening a patient with chronic abdominal pain (bowel origin) using a combination of BMFT and barium enema cost significantly more than BMFTP while their sensitivity was almost comparable.CONCLUSION:BMFTP should be included in the investigative workup of patients with chronic abdominal pain of luminal origin,where either multiple sites (small and large intestine) of involvement are suspected or the site is unclear on clinical grounds.BMFTP is an economical,quick and comfortable procedure which obviates the need for colonoscopy in the majority of patients.

  7. Discovery and Understanding of the Ambient-Condition Degradation of Doped Barium Cerate Proton-Conducting Perovskite Oxide in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, N.; Zeng, Y.; Shalchi, B; Wang, W.; Gao, T; Rothenberg, G.; Luo, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Proton-conducting perovskite oxides such as doped barium cerate and barium zirconate are promising electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Here we report that the typical high performance proton conductor, BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2O3±δ (BZCY), is prone to physical, chemical and thereby electrochemic

  8. Microstructural and Electrical Characterization of Barium Strontium Titanate-Based Solid Solution Thin Films Deposited on Ceramic Substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-03

    Strontium Titanate-Based Solid Solution Thin Films Deposited on Ceramic Substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public...Society H2.4 Microstructural and Electrical Characterization of Barium Strontium Titanate- based Solid Solution Thin Films Deposited on Ceramic...investigated and report the microstructural and electrical characterization of selected barium strontium titanate-based solid solution thin films

  9. Review - Fabrication of crystal-oriented barium-bismuth titanate ceramics in high magnetic field and subsequent reaction sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tanaka, Yusuke Tomita, Ryoichi Furushima, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Yutaka Doshida and Keizo Uematsu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High magnetic field was applied to fabricate novel lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with a textured structure. A compact of crystallographically oriented grains was prepared by dry forming in a high magnetic field from a mixed slurry of bismuth titanate and barium titanate powders. Bismuth titanate particles with a size of about 1 μ m were used as the host material. In the forming process, the slurry was poured into a mold and set in a magnetic field of 10 T until completely dried. Bismuth titanate particles were highly oriented in the slurry under the magnetic field. The dried powder compact consisted of highly oriented bismuth titanate particles and randomly oriented barium titanate particles. Barium bismuth titanate ceramics with a- and b-axis orientations were successfully produced from the dried compact by sintering at temperatures above 1100 ° C.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of highly-ordered barium-strontium titanate nanotube arrays fabricated by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yu; Chen Wei; Guo Feng; Li Mei-Ya; Liu Wei; Zhao Xing-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Highly uniformed barium-strontium titanate nanotube arrays were fabricated using a porous anodic aluminum oxide template from a barium-strontium titanate sol-gel solution. Electron microscope results showed that nanotubes with uniform length and diameter were obtained. The diameters and lengths of these nanotubes were dependent on the pore diameter and the thickness of the applied anodic aluminum oxide template. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and the selected-area electron diffraction pattern investigations demonstrated the perovskite structure and the polycrystaltine of the fabricated barium-strontium titanate nanotubes. The characterization of the electrical and dielectric properties had also been made. Compared to thin film material,the intrinsic leakage current density is almost the same. Besides,at 30 ℃,the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the fabricated nanotube is 80 and 0.027 at 1 MHz respectively.

  11. Early manifestation of Yersinia colitis demonstrated by the double-contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspestrand, F.

    1986-11-01

    A 19-year old female with a bloody, diarrheal illness of acute onset where Crohn's disease primarly was suspected is presented. The double-contrast barium enema revealed multiple, diffusely scattered aphthous erosions of the colonic mucosa: the rectum was scarcely affected. Biopsies taken by endoscopy demonstrated nonspecific inflammatory changes of the mucous membrane. However, routinely taken stool cultures revealed an infectious colitis due to Yersinia enterocolitica. Our case demonstrates the necessity to consider Yersinia enterocolitis in the radiographic differential diagnosis when the diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis seems obvious.

  12. Comparison of barium titanate thin films prepared by inkjet printing and spin coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukmirović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, barium titanate films were prepared by different deposition techniques (spin coating, office Epson inkjet printer and commercial Dimatix inkjet printer. As inkjet technique requires special rheological properties of inks the first part of the study deals with the preparation of inks, whereas the second part examines and compares structural characteristics of the deposited films. Inks were synthesized by sol-gel method and parameters such as viscosity, particle size and surface tension were measured. Deposited films were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The findings consider advantages and disadvantages of the particular deposition techniques.

  13. LOCULATED PYOTHORAX, PLEURAL THICKENING DUE TO ACQU IRED BOCHDALEK HERNIA AND BARIUM INGESTION- A RARE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Here, we report a fifty six year old male patient wit h intrathoracic incarceration and perforation of the stomach on the left side of t he diaphragmatic defect resulting as empyema and a late sequelae of barium induced pleural thickening where decortication was performed. It is not usual, without a history of tra uma patient developing acquired Bochdalek hernia with empyema as seen in our case. Anaesthetic management was successful in the repair of acquired Bochdalek hernia during the first surge ry and decortication of the lung during the second surgery in our patient

  14. A plasmonic modulator based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide with barium titanate core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    domains from the in-plane to out-of-plane orientation provides the change of the refractive index, which can be exploited for effective light modulation. By numerical analysis we prove that the π phase change can be achieved with a 12…15μm length device having propagation losses 0.05…0.2dB/μm.......We design a plasmonic modulator which can be utilized as a compact active device in photonic integrated circuits. The active material, barium titanate (BaTiO3), is sandwiched between metal plates and changes its refractive index under applied voltage. Some degree of switching of ferroelectric...

  15. Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on strontium barium niobate crystals using focused ultraviolet laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boes, Andreas; Crasto, Tristan; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Mitchell, Arnan [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and ARC Center for Ultra-High Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Wade, Scott [Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Frohnhaus, Jakob; Soergel, Elisabeth [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-09-30

    We report ferroelectric domain inversion in strontium barium niobate (SBN) single crystals by irradiating the surface locally with a strongly focused ultraviolet (UV) laser beam. The generated domains are investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy. We propose a simple model that allows predicting the domain width as a function of the irradiation intensity, which indeed applies for both SBN and LiNbO{sub 3}. Evidently, though fundamentally different, the domain structure of both SBN and LiNbO{sub 3} can be engineered through similar UV irradiation.

  16. Chondrite barium, neodymium, and samarium isotopic heterogeneity and early Earth differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Richard W; Boyet, Maud; Horan, Mary

    2007-05-25

    Isotopic variability in barium, neodymium, and samarium in carbonaceous chondrites reflects the distinct stellar nucleosynthetic contributions to the early solar system. We used 148Nd/144Nd to correct for the observed s-process deficiency, which produced a chondrite 146Sm-142Nd isochron consistent with previous estimates of the initial solar system abundance of 146Sm and a 142Nd/144Nd at average chondrite Sm/Nd ratio that is lower than that measured in terrestrial rocks by 21 +/- 3 parts per million. This result strengthens the conclusion that the deficiency in 142Nd in chondrites relative to terrestrial rocks reflects 146Sm decayand earlyplanetary differentiation processes.

  17. Seasonal variability in the input of lead, barium and indium to Law Dome, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn-Nunes...[], L.J.; Vallelonga, Paul Travis; Loss, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been determined at monthly resolution in five Law Dome (coastal Eastern Antarctica) ice core sections dated from similar to 1757 AD to similar to 1898 AD. 'Natural' background Pb concentrations...... more impurity laden air from the Southern Hemisphere continental regions to Eastern Antarctica and Law Dome. As this Pb is isotopically identical to that emitted from south-eastern Australia (Broken Hill, Port Pine) this implies a relatively direct air trajectory pathway from southern Australia to Law...... Dome (Eastern Antarctica). (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  18. Lead-barium fluoroborate glass ceramics doped with Nd3+ or Er3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, O. B.; Sevostjanova, T. S.; Anurova, M. O.; Khomyakov, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Lead-barium fluoroborate glasses in the PbF2-BaF2-B2O3, PbF2-BaO-B2O3, and PbO- BaF2-B2O3 systems doped with rare-earth ions (Nd3+ or Er3+) are synthesized and studied. It is shown that, based on these glasses, it is possible to produce transparent glass ceramics with fluoride crystalline phases, including ceramics with one crystalline phase of the fluorite structure. The spectral and luminescent properties of the doped glasses, glass ceramics, and polycrystalline complex fluorides containing Pb, Ba, and rare ions are studied.

  19. Femtosecond index grating in barium flouride: efficient self-diffraction and enhancement of surface SHG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Th; Wolfframm, D.; Mitzner, R.; Reif, J.

    2000-02-01

    A transient refractive index grating is formed in barium fluoride crystals under irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses from two non-collinear beams. At low intensities energy coupling takes place. At high intensities, a typical self-diffraction pattern is obtained with a diffraction efficiency better than 10%. Simultaneously, an enhancement of the SHG signal from the surface, as well as the generation and diffraction of the third harmonic is observable. For all effects the nonlinear Kerr-effect is responsible, with the response time being limited only by the temporal pulse shape.

  20. EDTA-type Polymer Based on Diazacrown Ether as the Solubilizer of Barium Sulfate to Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo ZHOU; Jian Zhang LI; Chun Hong HE; Sheng Ying QIN

    2005-01-01

    The EDTA dianhydride reacted with diazacrown ethers to obtain the water-soluble EDTA-diazacrown ether polymers 1~3. The effects of crown ether ring in the polymer chains including its cavity size on the solubilization of barium sulfate to water were investigated by comparison with the crown ring-free analogue 4. The result shows that the polymer 2 is the efficient solubilizer of BaSO4 and the highest solubilization efficiency of the BaSO4 to water is up to 72.5%.

  1. Synthesis of Barium Lithium Fluoride Nanocrystals Using Reverse Micelles as Microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Nian HUA; De Min XIE; Chun Shan SHI

    2004-01-01

    Barium lithium fluoride nanocrystals were synthesized in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/ 2-octanol/ water microemulsion systems. The impurity peaks in XRD patterns were not determined. The result of SEM confirmed that the average sizes and shape of the BaLiF3 nanocrystals. The formation of BaLiF3 and particles size were strongly affected by water content. With increasing water content and reaction times, the size of the particle increases. Meanwhile, the solvent was also found to play a key role in the synthesis of the BaLiF3 nanocrystals.

  2. The ac Stark shifts of the terahertz clock transitions of barium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余庚华; 耿鹰鸽; 李隆; 周超; 段丞博; 柴瑞鹏; 杨永明

    2015-01-01

    Wavelength-dependent AC Stark shifts and magic wavelengths of the terahertz clock transitions between the metastable triplet states 6s5d 3D1 and 6s5d 3D2 are investigated with considering the optical lattice trapping of barium atoms with the linearly polarized laser. The trap depths and the slopes of light shift difference with distinct magic wave-lengths of the optical lattices are also discussed in detail. Several potentially suitable working points for the optical lattice trapping laser are recommended and selected from these magic wavelengths.

  3. Motional Stark Effect and Its Active Cancellation in Diamagnetic Spectrum of Barium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Wei; LIU Hong-Ping; SHEN Li; ZHAN Ming-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    With time-of-flight and electric field ionization detection technique, we investigate the motional Stark effect for highly excited Rydberg barium in high magnetic field and its active cancellation experimentally. In the experiment, the atom beam is aligned at a small angle of 15° with respect to the magnetic field. The motional Stark effect cancellation is demonstrated on two sets of circularly polarized spectra in static magnetic field B = 1.00000 Tesla and B = 1.70000 Tesla, respectively, although the effect is very small (~ 3.5 Vcm-1) in our apparatus configuration.

  4. Barium halide nanocrystals in fluorozirconate based glass ceramics for scintillation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selling, J.

    2007-07-01

    Europium (Eu)-activated barium halide nanocrystals in fluorozirconate based glass ceramics represent a promising class of Xray scintillators. The scintillation in these glass ceramics is mainly caused by the emission of divalent Eu incorporated in hexagonal BaCl{sub 2} nanocrystals which are formed in the glass matrix upon appropriate annealing. Experiments with cerium (Ce)-activated fluorozironate glass ceramics showed that Ce is an interesting alternative. In order to get a better understanding of the scintillation mechanism in Eu- or Ce-activated barium halide nanocrystals, an investigation of the processes in the corresponding bulk material is essential. The objective of this thesis is the investigation of undoped, Eu-, and Ce-doped barium halides by X-ray excited luminescence (XL), pulse height, and scintillation decay spectra. That will help to figure out which of these crystals has the most promising scintillation properties and would be the best nanoparticles for the glass ceramics. Furthermore, alternative dopants like samarium (Sm) and manganese (Mn) were also investigated. Besides the above-mentioned optical investigation electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Moessbauer measurements were carried out in order to complete the picture of Eu-doped barium halides. The EPR data of Eu-doped BaI{sub 2} is anticipated to yield more information about the crystal field and crystal structure that will help to understand the charge carrier process during the scintillation process. The main focus of the Moessbauer investigations was set on the Eu-doped fluorochlorozirconate glass ceramics. The results of this investigation should help to improve the glass ceramics. The Eu{sup 2+}/Eu{sup 3+} ratio in the glass ceramics should be determined and optimize favor of the Eu{sup 2+}. We also want to distinguish between Eu{sup 2+} in the glass matrix and Eu{sup 2+} in the nanocrystals. For a better understanding of Moessbauer spectroscopy on Eu also measurements on Eu in a

  5. Investigation of thermal evolution of nanodomain structures in nonlinear barium sodium niobate crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.V.Ivanova

    2008-01-01

    By the 90°elastic light scattering investigation and far field observation in the range of 20-800℃,the relation between behavior of light scattering anomalies and evolution of nanodomain structures in lattice of barium sodium niobate(Ba2NaNb5O15,BSN)crystal was clarified.The correlation between anomalies on the temperature curves of the elastic light scattering intensity and temperature transformations of nanodomains was studied by X-ray and electron microscope methods.Phase transition near 500℃ and movement in field of scattering light could be explained by appearance of a new incommensurate phase.

  6. Improvement of the thermal properties of a polystyrene via inclusion of barium hexaferrite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeda, O. M.; El-Sayed, Adly H.; Tawfik, A.; Hamad, Mahmoud A.

    2016-07-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite (BaM) particles-polystyrene (PS) composite has been successfully synthesized. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirm the synthesis of the BaM-PS composite. Scanning electron microscopy shows that BaM particles are attached rather well to the PS matrix and have variable sizes and shapes. Differential and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that PS chains are well coupled within the BaM powder and the thermal stability of PS is enhanced by incorporating BaM in the PS matrix.

  7. Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoping; Saleh, Khaldoun; Martinenghi, Romain; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and lasing at 1550~nm in barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal. Brillouin lasing was achieved with ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor monolithic whispering gallery mode (WGM) mm-size disk resonators. Overmoded resonators were specifically used to provide cavity resonances for both the pump and all Brillouin Stokes waves. Single and multiple Brillouin Stokes radiations with frequency shift ranging from $8.2$ GHz up to $49$ GHz have been generated through cascaded Brillouin lasing. BaF$_2$ resonator-based Brillouin lasing can find potential applications for high-coherence lasers and microwave photonics.

  8. Fabrication of flexible magnetic papers based on bacterial cellulose and barium hexaferrite with improved mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Guh-Hwan; Lee, Jooyoung; Kwon, Nayoung; Bok, Shingyu; Sim, Hwansu; Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Lee, Sang-Eui; Lim, Byungkwon

    2016-09-01

    We report on a simple approach to fabricate mechanically robust magnetic cellulose papers containing M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) nanoplates. BaFe12O19 nanoplates were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and then chemically functionalized by using a silane coupling agent. The magnetic cellulose papers prepared with the silane-treated BaFe12O19 nanoplates exhibited improved mechanical properties with tensile strength of 58.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 2.95 GPa.

  9. Low temperature preparation of nanocrystalline solid solution of strontium barium niobate by chemical process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asit B Panda; Amita Pathak; Panchanan Pramanik

    2002-11-01

    SrBa1–Nb2O6 (with = 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) powders have been prepared by thermolysis of aqueous precursor solutions consisting of triethanolamine (TEA), niobium tartarate and, EDTA complexes of strontium and barium ions. Complete evaporation of the precursor solution by heating at ∼ 200°C, yields in a fluffy, mesoporous carbon rich precursor material, which on calcination at 750°C/2 h has resulted in the pure SBN powders. The crystallite and average particle sizes are found to be around 15 nm and 20 nm, respectively.

  10. Three-wave mixing mediated femtosecond pulse compression in β-barium borate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, A; Austin, Dane R; Cousin, Seth L; Biegert, J

    2015-10-15

    Nonlinear pulse compression mediated by three-wave mixing is demonstrated for ultrashort Ti:sapphire pulses in a type II phase-matched β-barium borate (BBO) crystal using noncollinear geometry. 170 μJ pulses at 800 nm with a pulse duration of 74 fs are compressed at their sum frequency to 32 fs with 55 μJ of pulse energy. Experiments and computer simulations demonstrate the potential of sum-frequency pulse compression to match the group velocities of the interacting waves to crystals that were initially not considered in the context of nonlinear pulse compression.

  11. Structural, topographical and electrical properties of cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN60) ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. Gokul; Mathivanan, V.; Kumar, G. Ramesh; Yathavan, S.; Mohan, R.

    2016-05-01

    Tungsten bronze type cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN - Sr0.6B0.4Nb2O6) ceramics were synthesized by solid state process. Cerium was used as dopant to improve its electrical properties. Influence of Ce+ ions on the photoluminescence properties was investigated in detail. The grain size topographical behavior of SBN powders and their associated abnormal grain growth (AGG) were completely analyzed through SEM studies. Finally dielectric, measurement discusses about the broad phase transition observed due to cerium dopant The results were discussed in detail.

  12. New neutron-deficient isotopes of barium and rare-earth elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, D D; Karnaukhov, V A; Petrov, L A; Plochocki, A; Subbotin, V G; Voboril, J

    1976-01-01

    The authors present an investigation of the short-lived neutron- deficient isotopes of barium and rare-earth elements. By using the BEMS-2 isotope separator on a heavy ion beam, 19 new isotopes were produced with mass numbers ranging from 117 to 138. Five of these (/sup 117/Ba, /sup 129,131/Nd and /sup 133,135/Sm) turned out to be delayed proton emitters. The beta -decay probabilities for the new isotopes have been analyzed in terms of the beta -strength function. An analysis of the proton spectrum shape has been performed using the statistical model for delayed proton emission.

  13. [The analysis for silver iodide fine particles of TLC/FTIR matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Su, Xiao; Wu, Hai-Jun; Zhai, Yan-Jun; Xia, Jin-Ming; Buhebate; Xu, Yi-Zhuang; Wu, Jin-Guang

    2012-07-01

    In situ TLC/FTIR technique has tremendous potential in the analysis of complex mixtures. However, the progress in this technique was quite slow. The reason is that conventional stationary phase has strong absorption in FTIR spectrum and thus brings about severe interference in the detection of samples. To solve the problem, the authors propose to use AgI fine particles as stationary phase of TLC plate. The reasons are as follows: Silver iodide fine particles have no absorbance in an IR region between 4 000 and 800 cm(-1), therefore, the interference caused by IR absorption of stationary phase can be removed. Moreover, silver iodide is stable and insolvable in water and organic solvents and thus it will not be destroyed by mobile phase or react with samples during the TLC separation. To improve TLC separation efficiency and quality of FTIR spectra during the TLC/FTIR analysis, the size of AgI particles should be below 500 nm. We used orthogonal design approach to optimize the experimental condition to AgI particles so that the average size of AgI particles is around 100 nm. No absorption of impurity or adsorbed water were observed in FTIR spectrum of the AgI particles the authors used "settlement volatilization method" to prepare TLC plate without using polymeric adhesive that may bring about significant interference in FTIR analysis. Preliminary TLC experiments proved that the TLC plate using AgI fine particles as stationary phase can separate mixtures of rhodamine B and bromophenol blue successfully. Applications of silver iodide fine particles as stationary phase have bright perspective in the development of in-situ TLC/FTIR analysis techniques.

  14. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assay of diethylcarbamazine citrate in formulations using iodate and iodide mixture as reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju Swamy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC in bulk drug and in formulations using potassium iodate and potassium iodide as reagent. The methods employ the well-known analytical reaction between iodate and iodide in the presence of acid. In titrimetry (method A, the drug was treated with a measured excess of thiosulfate in the presence of unmeasured excess of iodate-iodide mixture and after a standing time of 10 min, the surplus thiosulfate was determined by back titration with iodine towards starch end point. Titrimetric assay is based on a 1:3 reaction stoichiometry between DEC and iodine and the method is applicable over 2.0-10.0 mg range. The liberated iodine is measured spectrophotometrically at 370 nm (method B or the iodine-starch complex measured at 570 nm (method C. In both methods, the absorbance is found to be linearly dependent on the concentration of iodine, which in turn is related to DEC concentration. The calibration curves are linear over 2.5-50 and 2.5-30 µg mL-1 DEC for method B and method C, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity values were 6.48×103 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0604 µg cm-2, respectively, for method B, and their respective values for method C are 9.96×103 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0393 µg cm-2. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision studies were carried out according to the ICH guidelines. The methods were successfully applied to the analysis of DEC formulations.

  15. Equations of state for crystalline zirconium iodide: The role of dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Matthew L., E-mail: mrossi@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology, MST-6, Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Taylor, Christopher D. [Materials Science and Technology, MST-6, Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present the first-principle equations of state of several zirconium iodides, ZrI{sub 2}, ZrI{sub 3}, and ZrI{sub 4}, computed using density functional theory methods that apply various methods for introducing the dispersion correction. Iodides formed due to reaction of molecular or atomic iodine with zirconium and zircaloys are of particular interest due to their application to the cladding material used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel rods. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC), associated with fission product chemistry with the clad material, is a major concern in the life cycle of nuclear fuels, as many of the observed rod failures have occurred due to pellet–cladding chemical interactions (PCCI) [A. Atrens, G. Dannhäuser, G. Bäro, Stress-corrosion-cracking of zircaloy-4 cladding tubes, Journal of Nuclear Materials 126 (1984) 91–102; P. Rudling, R. Adamson, B. Cox, F. Garzarolli, A. Strasser, High burn-up fuel issues, Nuclear Engineering and Technology 40 (2008) 1–8]. A proper understanding of the physical properties of the corrosion products is, therefore, required for the development of a comprehensive SCC model. In this particular work, we emphasize that, while existing modeling techniques include methods to compute crystal structures and associated properties, it is important to capture intermolecular forces not traditionally included, such as van der Waals (dispersion) correction. Furthermore, crystal structures with stoichiometries favoring a high I:Zr ratio are found to be particularly sensitive, such that traditional density functional theory approaches that do not incorporate dispersion incorrectly predict significantly larger volumes of the lattice. This latter point is related to the diffuse nature of the iodide electron cloud.

  16. The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator FTY720 prevents iodide-induced autoimmune thyroiditis in non-obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohoshi, Kazuki; Osone, Michiko; Yoshida, Katsumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Hoshikawa, Saeko; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yurie; Ito, Sadayoshi; Mori, Kouki

    2011-09-01

    FTY720 is an immunomodulator that alters migration and homing of lymphocytes via sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors. This compound has been shown to be effective in suppressing autoimmune diseases in experimental and clinical settings. In the present study, we tested whether FTY720 prevented autoimmune thyroiditis in iodide-treated non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in humans. Mice were given 0.05% iodide water for 8 weeks, and this treatment effectively induced thyroiditis. Iodide-treated mice were injected intraperitoneally with either saline or FTY720 during the iodide treatment. FTY720 clearly suppressed the development of thyroiditis and reduced serum anti-thyroglobulin antibody levels. The number of circulating lymphocytes and spleen cells including CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells was decreased in FTY720-treated mice. Our results indicate that FTY720 has immunomodulatory effects on iodide-induced autoimmune thyroiditis in NOD mice and may be a potential candidate for use in the prevention of HT.

  17. Crystal Growth and Dissolution of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite in Sequential Deposition: Correlation between Morphology Evolution and Photovoltaic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Chi-Kai; Su, Tzu-Sen; Hong, Cheng-You; Wei, Tzu-Chien

    2017-03-01

    Crystal morphology and structure are important for improving the organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor property in optoelectronic, electronic, and photovoltaic devices. In particular, crystal growth and dissolution are two major phenomena in determining the morphology of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite in the sequential deposition method for fabricating a perovskite solar cell. In this report, the effect of immersion time in the second step, i.e., methlyammonium iodide immersion in the morphological, structural, optical, and photovoltaic evolution, is extensively investigated. Supported by experimental evidence, a five-staged, time-dependent evolution of the morphology of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite crystals is established and is well connected to the photovoltaic performance. This result is beneficial for engineering optimal time for methylammonium iodide immersion and converging the solar cell performance in the sequential deposition route. Meanwhile, our result suggests that large, well-faceted methylammonium lead iodide perovskite single crystal may be incubated by solution process. This offers a low cost route for synthesizing perovskite single crystal.

  18. Electrical properties of solid iodo mercurates resulting from the reaction of HgI2 with alcaline iodides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponpon, J. P.; Amann, M.

    2005-01-01

    Potassium iodide solutions are currently used during the fabrication process of mercuric iodide based nuclear radiation detectors. However, KI treatment leaves the HgI2 surface covered with a residual compound (namely the potassium tri-iodo mercurate) which has a significant influence on the surface properties and stability of mercuric iodide devices and therefore on the detectors characteristics. Looking for other solutions to etch mercuric iodide, we found it interesting to investigate the electrical properties of the compounds which may form when etching HgI2 in NH4I, NaI, and RbI. For this purpose, solid iodo mercurates with the cations ammonium, sodium, and rubidium, have been prepared by reacting HgI2 with the solutions of interest. Study of the electrical properties of these samples and comparison with those of potassium tri-iodo mercurate ones, especially with respect to humidity, indicates noticeable stability differences in presence of water vapour. This could have interesting consequences on the surface cleaning of mercuric iodide.

  19. A novel vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction approach using auxiliary solvent: Determination of iodide in mineral water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaruba, Serhii; Vishnikin, Andriy B; Andruch, Vasil

    2016-01-01

    A novel vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VA-LLME) for determination of iodide was developed. The method includes the oxidation of iodide with iodate in the presence of hydrochloric acid followed by VA-LLME of the ion-pair formed between ICl2(-) and Astra Phloxine reagent (AP) and subsequent absorbance measurement at 555nm. The appropriate experimental conditions were investigated and found to be: 5mL of sample, 0.27molL(-)(1) HCl, 0.027mmolL(-1) KIO3 as the oxidation agent, 250μL of extraction mixture containing amyl acetate as the extraction solvent and carbon tetrachloride as the auxiliary solvent (1:1, v/v), 0.04mmolL(-1) AP reagent, vortex time: 20s at 3000rpm, centrifugation: 4min at 3000rpm. The calibration plot was linear in the range 16.9-169μg L(-1) of iodide, with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.996, and the relative standard deviation ranged from 1.9 to 5.7%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1.75 and 6.01μgL(-)(1) of iodide, respectively. The suggested procedure was applied for determination of iodide in real mineral water samples.

  20. An iodine supplementation of tomato fruits coated with an edible film of the iodide-doped chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limchoowong, Nunticha; Sricharoen, Phitchan; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2016-06-01

    In general, the risk of numerous thyroid cancers inevitably increases among people with iodine deficiencies. An iodide-doped chitosan (CT-I) solution was prepared for dipping tomatoes to coat the fresh surface with an edible film (1.5 μm), thereby providing iodine-rich fruits for daily intake. Characterisation of the thin film was conducted by FTIR and SEM. Stability of the CT-I film was studied via water immersion at various time intervals, and no residual iodide leached out due to intrinsic interactions between the cationic amino group of chitosan and iodide ions. Moreover, the iodide supplement exhibited no effect on the antioxidant activity of tomatoes. The iodine content in the film-coated tomato was determined by ICP-OES. The tomato coating with 1.5% (w/v) CT-I contained approximately 0.4 μg iodide per gram fresh weight. In addition, the freshness and storability of iodine-doped tomatoes were also maintained for shelf-life concerns.

  1. Synthesis of BaTiO3 powder from barium titanyl oxalate (BTO) precursor employing microwave heating technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y S Malghe; A V Gurjar; S R Dharwadkar

    2004-06-01

    Cubic barium titanate (BaTiO3) powder was synthesized by heating barium titanyl oxalate hydrate, BaTiO(C2O4)$_{2}\\cdot$4H2O (BTO) precursor in microwave heating system in air at 500°C. Heating BTO in microwave above 600°C yielded tetragonal form of BaTiO3. Experiments repeated in silicon carbide furnace showed that BaTiO3 was formed only above 700°C. The product obtained was cubic.

  2. Geophysical disturbance environment during the NASA/MPE barium release at 5 earth radii on September 21, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. N.; Stanley, G. M.; Boyd, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The geophysical disturbance environment was quiet during the NASA/MPE barium release at 5 earth radii on September 21, 1971. At the time of the release, the magnetosphere was in the late recovery phase of a principal magnetic storm, the provisional Dst value was -13 gammas, and the local horizontal disturbance at Great Whale River was near zero. Riometer and other observations indicated low-level widespread precipitation of high-energy electrons at Great Whale River before, during, and after the release. Cloudy sky at this station prevented optical observation of aurora. No magnetic or ionospheric effects attributable to the barium release were detected at Great Whale River.

  3. Towards Renewable Iodide Sources for Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sagaidak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel family of iodide salts and ionic liquids based on different carbohydrate core units is herein described for application in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The influence of the molecular skeleton and the cationic structure on the electrolyte properties, device performance and on interfacial charge transfer has been investigated. In combination with the C106 polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizer, power conversion efficiencies lying between 5.0% and 7.3% under standard Air Mass (A.M. 1.5G conditions were obtained in association with a low volatile methoxypropionitrile (MPN-based electrolyte.

  4. Performance of neutron activation analysis in the evaluation of bismuth iodide purification methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Ferraz, Caue de Mello; Hamada, Margarida M., E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2015-07-01

    Bismuth tri-iodide (BrI{sub 3}) is an attractive material for using as a semiconductor. In this paper, BiI{sub 3} crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique using commercially available powder. The impurities were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results show that INAA is an analytical method appropriate for monitoring the impurities of: Ag, As, Br, Cr, K, Mo, Na and Sb in the various stages of the BiI{sub 3} purification methodology. (author)

  5. Introduction to fifth international workshop on mercuric iodide nuclear radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M.

    1982-01-01

    Mercuric iodide is a wide bandgap semiconductor, with Eg approx. = 2.14 eV at room temperature. Therefore, HgI/sub 2/ is totally different from the well-studied, narrower gap, elemental semiconductors such as Si and Ge, and also different in its physical and chemical properties from the known semiconductor binary zinc-blend compounds such as GaAs or InP. The purpose of studies in the last decade was to further our understanding of HgI/sub 2/; recent progress is reported. (WHK)

  6. Effects of Aromatic Ammoniums on Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide Hybrid Perovskite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of bulky ammoniums into methyl ammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskites (MAPbI3 has emerged as a promising strategy to improve the properties of these materials. In the present work, we studied the effects of several aromatic ammoniums onto the structural, electronic, and optical properties of MAPbI3. Although powder XRD data suggest that the bulky cations are not involved in the bulk phase of the MAPbI3, a surprisingly large effect of the bulky cations onto the photoluminescence properties was observed.

  7. Nucleophilic addition to the ethynyl group in ethynylestradiol catalyzed by crown ether-copper (1) iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S H; Luo, G R; Chang, X Z; Zhao, H M

    1991-10-01

    A new and convenient synthetic route to acetylation of estrogens is described. Benzo-15-crown-5 and cuprous iodide-mixed catalyst catalyzed the nucleophilic addition of 2,4-dibromoethynylestradiol, resulting in the formation of a new compound, 2,4-dibromo-17 alpha-acetylestradiol, of which the structure was characterized by infrared, UV, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectra, and elemental analysis. It was found that the yield of this approach is much higher than that obtained in the hydration of usual acetylenic compounds.

  8. Subcutaneous Zygomycosis: A Report of One Case Responding Excellently to Potassium Iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashim Kr; Saha, Abhijit; Seth, Joly; Mukherjee, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous Zygomycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection caused by Basidiobolus ranarum. Though this entity is endemic in South India, limited numbers of cases have been reported from this part of the country. We report a case of subcutaneous zygomycosis in a 25 year old lady who presented with a nontender, firm to hard swelling over the upper-left arm. Finger was easily inserted below the indurated edge. Histopathology revealed suppurative granuloma with aseptate hyphae. Patient responded excellently to saturated solution of potassium iodide in subsequent visits.

  9. Spectroscopy of stop bands in artificial opals filled with an alcohol solution of potassium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Filatov, V. V.

    2012-09-01

    The spectral position of the stop bands in photonic crystals based on artificial opals filled with an alcohol solution of potassium iodide is investigated. The energy-band structure of samples with quartz globules 230 nm in diameter is modeled based on the dispersion equation. The spectral position of the stop bands in the [111] direction at different solution concentrations is determined. The conditions for forbidden-band "collapse" are established. The possibility of applying artificial opals in optical cavities of lasers of different types is analyzed.

  10. Subcutaneous zygomycosis: A report of one case responding excellently to potassium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashim Kr Mondal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous Zygomycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection caused by Basidiobolus ranarum. Though this entity is endemic in South India, limited numbers of cases have been reported from this part of the country. We report a case of subcutaneous zygomycosis in a 25 year old lady who presented with a nontender, firm to hard swelling over the upper-left arm. Finger was easily inserted below the indurated edge. Histopathology revealed suppurative granuloma with aseptate hyphae. Patient responded excellently to saturated solution of potassium iodide in subsequent visits.

  11. Atypical Cutaneous Sporotrichosis in an Immunocompetent Adult: Response to Potassium Iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nikita; Chander, Ram; Jain, Arpita; Sanke, Sarita; Garg, Taru

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous sporotrichosis, also known as "Rose Gardener's disease," caused by dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenkii, is usually characterized by indolent nodular or nodulo-ulcerative lesions arranged in a linear pattern. We report bizarre nonlinear presentation of Sporotrichosis, in an immunocompetent adult occurring after a visit to Amazon rain forest, speculating infection with more virulent species of Sporothrix. The diagnosis was reached with the help of periodic acid-Schiff positive yeast cells and cigar shaped bodies seen in skin biopsy along with the therapeutic response to potassium iodide.

  12. Successful Therapy of Refractory Erythema Nodosum Associated with Crohn's Disease Using Potassium Iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Marshall

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum is a common extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease. While mild skin involvement often responds to conservative management, severe or refractory cases may require systemic corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy. This report describes successful treatment of severe, refractory erythema nodosum associated with Crohn's colitis using oral potassium iodide. While the mechanism of action of this agent is poorly understood, it appears to be an effective and nontoxic therapy for Crohn's-related erythema nodosum and warrants further evaluation in a placebo controlled trial.

  13. Growth and characterization of NLO crystal: L-leucine phthalic acid potassium iodide

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadeesh M.R.; Kumar H .M. Suresh; Kumari R. Ananda

    2015-01-01

    A new semi-organic non linear optical crystal, L-leucine phthalic acid potassium iodide (LLPPI) has been grown from an aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were subjected to different characterizations, such as single crystal XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TGA, SEM, EDAX, micro hardness, dielectric and powder SHG. Single crystal structure was determined from X-ray diffraction data and it revealed that the crystal belongs to triclinic system with the space group P1. The vibrati...

  14. Real-Time Observation of Organic Cation Reorientation in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01555 The introduction of a mobile and polarized organic moiety as a cation in 3D lead-iodide perovskites brings fascinating optoelectronic properties to t...

  15. Atypical cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent adult: Response to potassium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Gandhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous sporotrichosis, also known as “Rose Gardener's disease,” caused by dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenkii, is usually characterized by indolent nodular or nodulo-ulcerative lesions arranged in a linear pattern. We report bizarre nonlinear presentation of Sporotrichosis, in an immunocompetent adult occurring after a visit to Amazon rain forest, speculating infection with more virulent species of Sporothrix. The diagnosis was reached with the help of periodic acid-Schiff positive yeast cells and cigar shaped bodies seen in skin biopsy along with the therapeutic response to potassium iodide.

  16. Enhanced Sensitivity of Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on Bilayers of Silver-Barium Titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fouad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensors have been widely adopted with various fields such as physics, chemistry, biology and biochemistry. SPR sensor has many advantages like the less number of sensing samples required, freedom of electromagnetic interference and higher sensitivity. This research investigates the phase interrogation technique of a surface plasmon resonance sensor based on silver and thin film dielectric material of Barium titanate layers. Barium titanate (BaTiO3 layer is adopted due to its excellent dielectric properties such as high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. The numerical results demonstrate that the fusion of the proposed material BaTiO3 layer into surface plasmon resonance sensor yields a higher sensitivity of 280 degree/RIU in comparison with surface plasmon resonance sensor without BaTiO3 layer which shows only a sensitivity of 120 degree/RIU. As the thickness of this layer increases from 5 nm to 10 nm, the sensitivity is enhanced from 160 degree/RIU to 280 degree/RIU for a fixed metal layer of silver with a thickness of (70 nm.

  17. Curie temperature and magnetic properties of aluminum doped barium ferrite particles prepared by ball mill method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daming; Harward, Ian; Baptist, Joshua; Goldman, Sara; Celinski, Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    Barium ferrite has attracted considerable interest in the fields of permanent magnets and perpendicular magnetic recording due to its strong uniaxial anisotropy and high Curie temperature (Tc). We prepared aluminum doped barium ferrite ceramics (BaAlxFe12-xO19, 0≤x≤6) by the ball mill method. The powder was milled for 96 h, and after forming pellets, annealed for 48 h in air at 1000 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that there are only single hexagonal phases in the samples without any impurity phase. The crystal lattice constants, a and c, were calculated by Cohen's method. Both a and c decrease with increasing x, ranging from 0.588 nm and 2.318 nm to 0.573 nm and 2.294 nm, respectively. A Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) were used to investigate Tc and magnetic properties of BaFe12-xAlxO19. It is found that Tc decreases with increasing x, from 425 °C to 298 °C. It is also found that the saturated magnetization (4πMs) decreases with increasing x, while the coercivity (Hc) increases with the increase in x. The anisotropy field was also determined from the SQUID measurement.

  18. Ammonia synthesis with barium-promoted iron–cobalt alloys supported on carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Stefan; Barfod, Rasmus; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    Iron–cobalt alloys supported on carbon were investigated as ammonia synthesis catalysts. Barium was found to have a promoting effect for Fe with an optimum atomic ratio Ba/Fe of 0.35. At this Ba loading, a local maximum for the NH3 synthesis activity was found at 4 wt% Co by varying the Fe/Co ratio...... it was not as effective for Fe. Power-law kinetic investigation revealed that, compared to the commercial Fe-based NH3 catalyst, the Ba–Co/C samples showed a lower inhibition by NH3 and were more active under ordinary ammonia synthesis conditions........ Samples containing only Co and no Fe, however, yielded by far the most active catalysts (7.0 μmol (NH3) g−1 s−1, 673 K, 10 bar). Barium was a very efficient promoter for Co, increasing the NH3 synthesis activity by more than two orders of magnitude compared to the unpromoted Co samples, while...

  19. Dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate / non ferroelectric oxide ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenez, S. [THALES, Domaine de Corbeville, Orsay (France); Univ. de Bourgogne, Lab. de Recherche sur la Reactivite des Solides, Dijon (France); Morell, A.; Pate, M.; Ganne, J.P. [THALES, Domaine de Corbeville, Orsay (France); Maglione, M. [Inst. de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux - CNRS, Pessac (France); Niepce, J.C. [Univ. de Bourgogne, Lab. de Recherche sur la Reactivite des Solides, Dijon (France)

    2002-07-01

    Barium strontium titanate ceramics present high dielectric permittivity and tunability. In order to reduce their permittivity and loss tangent while keeping tunability, various composites of barium strontium titanate oxide Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} combined with non-ferroelectric oxides such as magnesium titanate MgTiO{sub 3} or magnesia MgO were investigated. The Ba-Sr oxide powder was mixed with 20, 40 or 60 wt% of the non-ferroelectric oxide (NFO). The paper discusses the processing and the material characterisations by X-ray diffraction and SEM. A secondary phase BaMg{sub 6}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 19} was detected only in the composites synthesised with MgTiO{sub 3}. The microstructure and the dielectric characteristics are presented and discussed. A correlation between the microstructure of the composites, including secondary phase and the dielectric properties is proposed. (orig.)

  20. Calculation of exchange integrals and Curie temperature for La-substituted barium hexaferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanjian; Yu, Zhong; Sun, Ke; Nie, Jinlan; Guo, Rongdi; Liu, Hai; Jiang, Xiaona; Lan, Zhongwen

    2016-10-01

    As the macro behavior of the strength of exchange interaction, state of the art of Curie temperature Tc, which is directly proportional to the exchange integrals, makes sense to the high-frequency and high-reliability microwave devices. Challenge remains as finding a quantitative way to reveal the relationship between the Curie temperature and the exchange integrals for doped barium hexaferrites. Here in this report, for La-substituted barium hexaferrites, the electronic structure has been determined by the density functional theory (DFT) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). By means of the comparison between the ground and relative state, thirteen exchange integrals have been calculated as a function of the effective value Ueff. Furthermore, based on the Heisenberg model, the molecular field approximation (MFA) and random phase approximation (RPA), which provide an upper and lower bound of the Curie temperature Tc, have been adopted to deduce the Curie temperature Tc. In addition, the Curie temperature Tc derived from the MFA are coincided well with the experimental data. Finally, the strength of superexchange interaction mainly depends on 2b-4f1, 4f2-12k, 2a-4f1, and 4f1-12k interactions.

  1. Growth and characterization of solution-grown tetra glycine barium chloride (TGBC) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Pandian, M.; Ramasamy, P.

    2008-05-01

    The single crystals of tetra glycine barium chloride (TGBC), a semi-organic material, were grown by the solvent evaporation technique from an aqueous solution of glycine and barium chloride at ambient temperature. Good optical quality single crystals of size 11×13×7 mm 3 were grown in a period of 2 weeks. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared transmission (FTIR) have confirmed the formation of the new crystal. The grown crystals were characterized by single-crystal XRD analysis to study the crystal structure. The crystalline perfection was evaluated by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD). From this analysis we found that the quality of the crystal was quite good. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the diffraction curves is 8.5 arcsec, which is very close to that expected from the plane wave dynamical theory of XRD showing that the crystalline perfection is excellent. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum was recorded to study the optical transparency of the grown crystals. Thermal properties of the crystal have been investigated using thermo gravimetric (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA). The mechanical strength of the crystal is estimated by Vicker's hardness test.

  2. Nanostructured Barium Titanate/Carbon Nanotubes Incorporated Polyaniline as Synergistic Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujun Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D conductive network structures formed by barium titanate/carbon nanotubes incorporated polyaniline were favorable for strengthening electromagnetic absorption capability. Herein, an easy and flexible method consisting of sol-gel technique, in situ polymerization, and subsequent mechanical method have been developed to prepare the barium titanate/carbon nanotubes incorporated polyaniline (CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI or CBP ternary composites. The dielectric properties and microwave absorption properties of CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI composites were investigated in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz by vector network analyzer. Interestingly, it is found that the CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI composites with 3D conductive network structures presented outstanding electromagnetic absorption properties, which may be attributed to the high impedance matching behavior and improved dielectric loss ability and novel synergistic effect. Additionally, it also can be supposed that the “geometrical effect” of composite was more beneficial to absorbing the incident electromagnetic wave. The CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI composite (the mass ratio of CNTs/BaTiO3 to PANI is 2 : 3 exhibits the best microwave absorption properties, of which the minimum reflection loss value can reach −30.9 dB at 8 GHz and the absorption bandwidth with a reflection loss blew −10 dB ranges from 7.5 to 10.2 GHz.

  3. Structural and thermal studies of modified silica-strontium-barium glass from CRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelowska, I.; Kosmal, M.; Reben, M.; Pichniarczyk, P.; Sitarz, M.; Olejniczak, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Glasses were prepared by conventional melting method from 100 g batches. The influence of alumina and calcium oxide on the crystallization process of silica-strontium-barium glass from Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) were studied by means of 27Al MAS NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. This made possible to determine the influence of additives, e.g. blast furnace slag and cement dust on the structural changes of glasses (changes in the spectra shapes). The introduction of waste modifiers into the glass structure leads to the breaking of Al-O-Si and Si-O-Si bonds what causes the depolymerization of the glass network. From the FTIR spectra the narrowing of the bands at 1022 and 1027 cm-1 was observed, which may indicate on the ordering of glass network. Appearance of alumina in coordination 4 was confirmed by NMR investigations. The effects of compositional variation, thermal treatment on the nature, type and stability field of crystallizing phases and microstructure formed in CaO and/or Al2O3 silica-strontium-barium glasses were described using DTA/DSC method. Thermal characteristics of glasses like the transition temperature Tg, the temperature for the crystallization Tc, thermal stability parameter were determined. The crystalline phase was determined by the X-ray diffractometry. The microstructure of the samples was studied by SEM technique. Analysis of the local atomic interactions in the structure of glasses has been used to explain the course of the crystallization.

  4. Sulphate removal over barium-modified blast-furnace-slag geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtti, Hanna; Luukkonen, Tero; Niskanen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Sari; Kangas, Teija; Tynjälä, Pekka; Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarkkinen, Minna; Kemppainen, Kimmo; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-11-05

    Blast-furnace slag and metakaolin were geopolymerised, modified with barium or treated with a combination of these methods in order to obtain an efficient SO4(2-) sorbent for mine water treatment. Of prepared materials, barium-modified blast-furnace slag geopolymer (Ba-BFS-GP) exhibited the highest SO4(2-) maximum sorption capacity (up to 119mgg(-1)) and it compared also favourably to materials reported in the literature. Therefore, Ba-BFS-GP was selected for further studies and the factors affecting to the sorption efficiency were assessed. Several isotherms were applied to describe the experimental results of Ba-BFS-GP and the Sips model showed the best fit. Kinetic studies showed that the sorption process follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics. In the dynamic removal experiments with columns, total SO4(2-) removal was observed initially when treating mine effluent. The novel modification method of geopolymer material proved to be technically suitable in achieving extremely low concentrations of SO4(2-) (<2mgL(-1)) in mine effluents.

  5. Influence of preparation route and slip casting conditions on titania and barium titanate ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arvind K.Nikumbh; Parag V.Adhyapak

    2012-01-01

    Titania (TiO2) and barium titanate (BaTiO3) were synthesized using three different dicarboxylates,which included oxalate,malate and tartarate.These powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction,scanning electron micrographs,BET specific surface area and particle size distribution.Their properties depended to a great extent on the nature of the precursor.The titania and barium titanate powders obtained from the tartarate precursor were found to be good for slip casting.Slips of these oxides with different solids contents were prepared at different pH values using both distilled water and ethanol as the dispersing agent and also with and without deflocculant.The theological behaviors of the suspensions were then determined,and the slip,green and sedimentation bulk densities were measured.The minimum viscosities were observed at pH 8.2 for the TiO2-water and pH 10.2 for the BaTiO3-water system.

  6. Dopant Behaviours of Sm2O3 on Microstructure and Properties of Barium Zirconium Titanate Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永力; 李龙土; 齐建全; 桂治轮

    2001-01-01

    The effect of Sm2O3-dopant on the sintering characteristics and dielectric properties of barium zirconium titanate ceramics (BaZrxTi1-xO3) was investigated. It is shown that trace amount of Sm2O3 can greatly affect the grain growth and densification of barium zirconium titanate ceramics during sintering. At the same time, the dielectric peak at high temperature shifts to lower temperature and that at low temperature shifts to higher temperature. The two dielectric peaks overlap with each other when the Sm2O3-dopant content varies from 0.25% to 1%, and the maximum relative dielectric constant is greatly enhanced. These effects may be attributed to the substitution actions of the rare earth element in perovskite lattice. At the doping content of 0.75%, the dielectric constant maximum of 23570 can be obtained. By adopting some proper additives, an excellent Y5V dielective material is obtained, and the room temperature properties are as follows: relative dielectric constant εRT≥23,000, dielectric loss tgδ≤0.0075 and the breakdown strength under alternating field Eb≥5 kV·mm-1.

  7. Synthesis of nanosized barium titanate/epoxy resin composites and measurement of microwave absorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Murugan; V K Kokate; M S Bapat; A M Sapkal

    2010-12-01

    Barium titanate/epoxy resin composites have been synthesized and tested for microwave absorption/transmission. Nanocrystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3 or BT) was synthesized by the hydrothermal method and the composites of BT/epoxy resin were fabricated as thin solid slabs of four different weight ratios. BT was obtained in the cubic phase with an average particle size of 21 nm, deduced from the X-ray diffraction data. The reflection loss (RL) and transmission loss (TL) of the composite materials were measured by the reflection/transmission method using a vector network analyser R&S: ZVA40, in the frequency range 8.0–18.5 GHz (X and Ku-bands). The RL was found to be better than −10 dB over wide frequency bands. The higher RL for lower concentration of BT could be due to increase in impedance matching effects. Low TL values indicate that the absorption by BT is quite low. This could be due to formation of BT in the cubic paraelectric phase.

  8. Electronic structure of barium strontium titanate by soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Y. [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Hyogo (Japan); Underwood, J.H.; Gullikson, E.M.; Perera, R.C.C. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Perovskite-type titanates, such as Strontium Titanate (STO), Barium Titanate (BTO), and Lead Titanate (PTO) have been widely studied because they show good electric and optical properties. In recent years, thin films of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) have been paid much attention as dielectrics of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) capacitors. BST is a better insulator with a higher dielectric constant than STO and can be controlled in a paraelectric phase with an appropriate ratio of Ba/Sr composition, however, few studies have been done on the electronic structure of the material. Studies of the electronic structure of such materials can be beneficial, both for fundamental physics research and for improving technological applications. BTO is a famous ferroelectric material with a tetragonal structure, in which Ti and Ba atoms are slightly displaced from the lattice points. On the other hand, BST keeps a paraelectric phase, which means that the atoms are still at the cubic lattice points. It should be of great interest to see how this difference of the local structure around Ti atoms between BTO and BST effects the electronic structure of these two materials. In this report, the authors present the Ti L{sub 2,3} absorption spectra of STO, BTO, and BST measured with very high accuracy in energy of the absorption features.

  9. Single Molecule Fluorescence Imaging as a Technique for Barium Tagging in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B J P; Nygren, D R

    2016-01-01

    Background rejection is key to success for future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. To achieve sensitivity to effective Majorana lifetimes of $\\sim10^{28}$ years, backgrounds must be controlled to better than 0.1 count per ton per year, beyond the reach of any present technology. In this paper we propose a new method to identify the birth of the barium daughter ion in the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe. The method adapts Single Molecule Fluorescent Imaging, a technique from biochemistry research with demonstrated single ion sensitivity. We explore possible SMFI dyes suitable for the problem of barium ion detection in high pressure xenon gas, and develop a fiber-coupled sensing system with which we can detect the presence of bulk Ba$^{++}$ ions remotely. We show that our sensor produces signal-to-background ratios as high as 85 in response to Ba$^{++}$ ions when operated in aqueous solution. We then describe the next stage of this R\\&D program, which will be to demonstrate chelation...

  10. Organometallic halide perovskite/barium di-silicide thin-film double-junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, R.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2016-04-01

    Barium di-silicide (BaSi2) is an abundant and inexpensive semiconductor with appealing opto-electrical properties. In this work we show that a 2-μm thick BaSi2-based thin-film solar cell can exhibit an implied photo-current density equal to 41.1 mA/cm2, which is higher than that of a state-of-the-art wafer-based c-Si hetero-junction solar cell. This performance makes BaSi2 an attractive absorber for high-performing thin-film and multi-junction solar cells. In particular, to assess the potential of barium di-silicide, we propose a thin-film double-junction solar cell based on organometallic halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) as top absorber and BaSi2 as bottom absorber. The resulting modelled ultra-thin double-junction CH3NH3PbI3 / BaSi2 (< 2 μm) exhibits an implied total photo-current density equal to 38.65 mA/cm2 (19.84 mA/cm2 top cell, 18.81 mA/cm2 bottom cell) and conversion efficiencies up to 28%.

  11. Low-Temperature Synthesis and Thermodynamic and Electrical Properties of Barium Titanate Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Maxim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the morphology dependence of the perovskite-type oxides functional materials properties are of recent interest. With this aim, nanorods (NRs and nanocubes (NCs of barium titanate (BaTiO3 have been successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal route at temperature as low as 408 K, employing barium acetate, titanium isopropoxide, and sodium hydroxide as reagents without any surfactant or template. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, used for the morphology and structure analyses, showed that the NRs were formed by an oriented attachment of the NCs building-blocks with 20 nm average crystallites size. The thermodynamic properties represented by the relative partial molar free energies, enthalpies, and entropies of the oxygen dissolution in the perovskite phase, as well as the equilibrium partial pressure of oxygen, indicated that NRs powders have lower oxygen vacancies concentration than the NCs. This NRs characteristic, together with higher tetragonallity of the structure, leads to the enhancement of the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics. The results presented in this work show indubitably the importance of the nanopowders morphology on the material properties.

  12. Measurement of the line-of-sight velocity of high-altitude barium clouds A technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S. B.; Harris, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that for maximizing the scientific output of future ionospheric and magnetospheric ion cloud release experiments a new type of instrument is required which will measure the line-of-sight velocity of the ion cloud by the Doppler technique. A simple instrument was constructed using a 5-cm diam solid Fabry-Perot etalon coupled to a low-light-level integrating TV camera. It was demonstrated that the system has both the sensitivity and spectral resolution for detection of ion clouds and measurement of their line-of-sight Doppler velocity. The tests consisted of (1) a field experiment using a rocket barium cloud release to check sensitivity, and (2) laboratory experiments to show the spectral resolving capabilities of the system. The instrument was found to be operational if the source was brighter than approximately 1 kR, and it had a wavelength resolution much better than 0.2 A, which corresponds to approximately 12 km/sec or in the case of barium ion an acceleration potential of 100 V. The instrument is rugged and, therefore, simple to use in field experiments or on flight instruments. The sensitivity limit of the instrument can be increased by increasing the size of the etalon.

  13. Zinc iodide-osmium staining of membrane-coating granules in keratinized and non-keratinized mammalian oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squier, C A

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of keratinized and non-keratinized oral epithelium were examined in the electron microscope after being stained with zinc iodide-osmium. In both types of tissue, reaction was seen in unmyelinated nerves, in the specific granules of epithelial Langerhans cells and within lysosome-like organelles and small vesicles associated with Golgi systems. In keratinized epithelia, the reaction was also present in the membrane-coating granules and between the deepest cells of the keratinized layer. In contrast, the membrane-coating granules of non-keratinized epithelia lacked Zn iodide-osmium staining despite the presence of reaction in adjacent Golgi systems. It is suggested that Zn iodide-osmium stains glycolipid or glycoprotein material in the cell. This material is elaborated in the Golgi systems from which lysosomes and the membrane-coating granules of keratinized tissues are probably derived.

  14. Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction for the Measurement of Total I (Iodine, Iodide, and Triiodide) in Spacecraft Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipert, Robert J.; Porter, Marc D.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Rutz, Jeff A.; Schultz, John R.; Carrizales, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2009-01-01

    An experimental drinking water monitoring kit for the measurement of iodine and silver(I) was recently delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). The kit is based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE) technology, which measures the change in diffuse reflectance of indicator disks following exposure to a water sample. To satisfy additional spacecraft water monitoring requirements, CSPE has now been extended to encompass the measurement of total I (iodine, iodide, and triiodide) through the introduction of an oxidizing agent, which converts iodide and triiodide to iodine, for measurement using the same indicator disks currently being tested on ISS. These disks detect iodine, but are insensitive to iodide and triiodide. We report here the operational considerations, design, and ground-based performance of the CSPE method for total I. The results demonstrate that CSPE technology is poised to meet NASA's total I monitoring requirements.

  15. Bio-inspired stabilization of sulfenyl iodide RS-I in a Zr(IV)-based metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Ka-Kit; Wong, Yan-Lung; Xu, Zhengtao

    2016-03-28

    A Zr(IV)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) appended with free-standing thiol (-SH) groups was found to react readily with I2 molecules to form sulfenyl iodide (S-I) units. In contrast to its solution chemistry of facile disproportionation into disulfide and I2, the sulfenyl iodide (SI) function, anchored onto the rigid MOF grid and thus prevented from approaching one another to undergo the dismutation reaction, exhibits distinct stability even at elevated temperatures (e.g., 90 °C). On a conceptual plane, this simple and effective solid host also captures the spatial confinement observed for the complex biomacromolecular scaffolds involved in iodine thyroid chemistry, wherein the spatial isolation and consequent stabilization of sulfenyl/selenenyl iodides are exerted by means of the protein scaffolds.

  16. Synthesis of 1-/sup 11/C-labelled ethyl, propyl, butyl and isobutyl iodides and examples of alkylation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laangstroem, B.; Antoni, G.; Gullberg, P.; Halldin, C.; Naagren, K.; Rimland, A.; Svaerd, H.

    1986-01-01

    New /sup 11/C-labelled precursors (1-/sup 11/C)ethyl,(1-/sup 11/C)propyl, (1-/sup 11/C)butyl, and (1-/sup 11/C)isobutyl iodides have been prepared by a 3-step reaction route using a one-pot system. The labelled iodides were obtained in 20-55% radiochemical yields and 65-95% radiochemical purities, with a total time for synthesis of the order of 10-14 min. The labelled iodides have been used in alkylation reactions with nitrogen, oxygen and carbon nucleophiles. The nitrogen alkylation reactions are exemplified by the synthesis of the analgetics N-(1-/sup 11/C-ethyl)iodocaine and N-(1-/sup 11/C-butyl) bupivacaine. The synthesis of 3-nitrophenyl(1-/sup 11/C)propyl ether is also presented in this paper as an example of an oxygen alkylation.

  17. Heat capacity and density of potassium iodide solutions in mixed N-methylpyrrolidone-water solvent at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A. N.

    2014-10-01

    The heat capacity and density of potassium iodide solutions in a mixed N-methylpyrrolidone (MP)-water solvent with a low content of the organic component are measured via calorimetry and densimetry at 298.15 K. Standard partial molal heat capacities and volumes of potassium iodide in MP-water mixtures are calculated. Standard heat capacities and volumes of potassium and iodide ions are determined. The character of the changes in heat capacity and volume are discussed on the basis of calculating additivity coefficients δ c and δ v upon the mixing of isomolal binary solutions KI-MP and KI-water, depending on the composition of the MP-H2O mixture and the concentration of the electrolyte.

  18. Phase diagram of an iodine-potassium iodide-water-ethanol system at 25°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamova, T. M.; Rubtsova, E. M.; Mushtakova, S. P.

    2012-09-01

    Phase equilibriums are studied in the isothermal-isobaric sections of the phase diagram of a fourcomponent iodine-potassium iodide-water-ethanol system at 25°C and atmospheric pressure. The compositions of the solvent at which it exhibits the greatest ability to dissolve iodine are established. It is shown that in all the investigated sections, there is three-phase eutonic equilibrium with potassium iodide and crystalline iodine as the solid phases. It is revealed that in the sections containing 30 and 50% of ethanol, potassium iodide serves as the salting in agent for crystalline iodine, due to the formation of polyiodide complexes of various composition in the studied system.

  19. Role of intensive milling in the processing of barium ferrite/magnetite/iron hybrid magnetic nano-composites via partial reduction of barium ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molaei, M.J., E-mail: mj.molaee@merc.ac.ir [Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box: 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Delft Chem Tech, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Ataie, A.; Raygan, S. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 14395-553, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Picken, S.J. [Delft Chem Tech, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    In this research a mixture of barium ferrite and graphite was milled for different periods of time and then heat treated at different temperatures. The effects of milling time and heat treatment temperature on the phase composition, thermal behavior, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques, respectively. X-ray diffraction results revealed that BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites form after a 20 h milling due to the partial reduction of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. High resolution transmission electron microscope images of a 40 h milled sample showed agglomerated structure consisting of nanoparticles with a mean particle size of 30 nm. Thermal analysis of the samples via differential thermal analysis indicated that for un-milled samples, heat treatment up to 900 °C did not result in α-Fe formation, while for a 20 h milled sample heat treatment at 700 °C resulted in reduction process progress to the formation of α-Fe. Wustite was disappeared in an X-ray diffraction pattern of a heat treated sample at 850 °C, by increasing the milling time from 20 to 40 h. By increasing the milling time, the structure of heat treated samples becomes magnetically softer due to an increase in saturation magnetization and a decrease in coercivity. Saturation magnetization and coercivity of a sample milled for 20 h and heat treated at 850 °C were 126.3 emu/g and 149.5 Oe which by increasing the milling time to 40 h, alter to 169.1 emu/g and 24.3 Oe, respectively. High coercivity values of milled and heat treated samples were attributed to the nano-scale formed iron particles. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Barium ferrite and graphite were treated mechano-thermally. • Increasing milling time increases reduction progress after heat treatment. • Composites

  20. Analysis of heterogeneous water vapor uptake by metal iodide cluster ions via differential mobility analysis-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberreit, Derek [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Fluid Measurement Technologies, Inc., Saint Paul, Minnesota 55110 (United States); Rawat, Vivek K.; Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos; Ouyang, Hui; McMurry, Peter H.; Hogan, Christopher J., E-mail: hogan108@umn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The sorption of vapor molecules onto pre-existing nanometer sized clusters is of importance in understanding particle formation and growth in gas phase environments and devising gas phase separation schemes. Here, we apply a differential mobility analyzer-mass spectrometer based approach to observe directly the sorption of vapor molecules onto iodide cluster ions of the form (MI){sub x}M{sup +} (x = 1-13, M = Na, K, Rb, or Cs) in air at 300 K and with water saturation ratios in the 0.01-0.64 range. The extent of vapor sorption is quantified in measurements by the shift in collision cross section (CCS) for each ion. We find that CCS measurements are sensitive enough to detect the transient binding of several vapor molecules to clusters, which shift CCSs by only several percent. At the same time, for the highest saturation ratios examined, we observed CCS shifts of up to 45%. For x < 4, cesium, rubidium, and potassium iodide cluster ions are found to uptake water to a similar extent, while sodium iodide clusters uptake less water. For x ≥ 4, sodium iodide cluster ions uptake proportionally more water vapor than rubidium and potassium iodide cluster ions, while cesium iodide ions exhibit less uptake. Measured CCS shifts are compared to predictions based upon a Kelvin-Thomson-Raoult (KTR) model as well as a Langmuir adsorption model. We find that the Langmuir adsorption model can be fit well to measurements. Meanwhile, KTR predictions deviate from measurements, which suggests that the earliest stages of vapor uptake by nanometer scale species are not well described by the KTR model.