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Sample records for barium extraction potential

  1. Green Synthesis of Barium Sulfate Particles Using Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Long

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological molecules in the extracts of four fruits or vegetables: kiwifruit, oranges, tomato and carrot, were used as templates to synthesize barium sulfate (BaSO4 particles. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray power diffractometry. The results showed that, leaf-shaped barite BaSO4 crystals with toothed edge were obtained with kiwifruit extracts; thorn spherical barium sulfate crystals with diameter of 2-4 micrometers were produced with tomato extracts; rod-like or quasi-spherical BaSO4 crystals with size of several hundred nanometers to several micrometers were gained with orange extracts; while quasi-spherical BaSO4 nano-crystals were obtained with carrot extracts. The formation mechanism of BaSO4 is also discussed, showing that the proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and organic acids in above four kinds of fruits or vegetables may provide nucleation sites, controlling the growth of BaSO4 crystals with different morphologies.

  2. Barium as a potential indicator of phosphorus in agricultural runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Joakim; Djodjic, Faruk; Wallin, Mats

    2012-01-01

    In many catchments, anthropogenic input of contaminants, and in particular phosphorus (P), into surface water is a mixture of agricultural and sewage runoff. Knowledge about the relative contribution from each of these sources is vital for mitigation of major environmental problems such as eutrophication. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of trace elements in surface waters can be used to trace the contamination source. Water from three groups of streams was investigated: streams influenced only by agricultural runoff, streams influenced mainly by sewage runoff, and reference streams. Samples were collected at different flow regimes and times of year and analyzed for 62 elements using ICP-MS. Our results show that there are significant differences between the anthropogenic sources affecting the streams in terms of total element composition and individual elements, indicating that the method has the potential to trace anthropogenic impact on surface waters. The elements that show significant differences between sources are strontium (p barium (p barium shows the greatest potential as a tracer for an individual source of anthropogenic input to surface waters. We observed a strong relationship between barium and total P in the investigated samples (R(2) = 0.78), which could potentially be used to apportion anthropogenic sources of P and thereby facilitate targeting of mitigation practices. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Preparation of stable dispersion of barium titanate nanoparticles: Potential applications in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofani, G; Danti, S; Moscato, S; Albertazzi, L; D'Alessandro, D; Dinucci, D; Chiellini, F; Petrini, M; Menciassi, A

    2010-04-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their extraordinary novel properties. Here we propose a study of cellular interactions with barium titanate nanoparticles, an interesting ceramic material that has received a lot of interest in the nanotechnology research, but without any attention about its biological potential. We introduced for the first time an efficient method for the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of barium titanate nanoparticles, characterized with FIB, TEM and AFM imaging, light scattering, Z-potential and UV/vis analysis. Finally, we presented a systematic study of short-term cytotoxicity of the prepared dispersion based both on quantitative (metabolism, proliferation) and qualitative (apoptosis, viability, differentiation) assays. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Barite (Barium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Miller, M. Michael; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) is vital to the oil and gas industry because it is a key constituent of the mud used to drill oil and gas wells. Elemental barium is an additive in optical glass, ceramic glazes, and other products. Within the United States, barite is produced mainly from mines in Nevada. Imports in 2011 (the latest year for which complete data were available) accounted for 78 percent of domestic consumption and came mostly from China.Barite deposits can be divided into the following four main types: bedded-sedimentary; bedded-volcanic; vein, cavity-fill, and metasomatic; and residual. Bedded-sedimentary deposits, which are found in sedimentary rocks with characteristics of high biological productivity during sediment accumulation, are the major sources of barite production and account for the majority of reserves, both in the United States and worldwide. In 2013, China and India were the leading producers of barite, and they have large identified resources that position them to be significant producers for the foreseeable future. The potential for undiscovered barite resources in the United States and in many other countries is considerable, however. The expected tight supply and rising costs in the coming years will likely be met by increased production from such countries as Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, and Vietnam.Barium has limited mobility in the environment and exposed barium in the vicinity of barite mines poses minimal risk to human or ecosystem health. Of greater concern is the potential for acidic metal-bearing drainage at sites where the barite ores or waste rocks contain abundant sulfide minerals. This risk is lessened naturally if the host rocks at the site are acid-neutralizing, and the risk can also be lessened by engineering measures.

  5. Barium-cross-linked alginate-gelatine microcapsule as a potential platform for stem cell production and modular tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Sardroud, Hamed; Nemati, Sorour; Baradar Khoshfetrat, Ali; Nabavinia, Mahbobeh; Beygi Khosrowshahi, Younes

    2017-08-01

    Influence of gelatine concentration and cross-linker ions of Ca 2+ and Ba 2+ was evaluated on characteristics of alginate hydrogels and proliferation behaviours of model adherent and suspendable stem cells of fibroblast and U937 embedded in alginate microcapsules. Increasing gelatine concentration to 2.5% increased extent of swelling to 15% and 25% for barium- and calcium-cross-linked hydrogels, respectively. Mechanical properties also decreased with increasing swelling of hydrogels. Both by increasing gelatine concentration and using barium ions increased considerably the proliferation of encapsulated model stem cells. Barium-cross-linked alginate-gelatine microcapsule tested for bone building block showed a 13.5 ± 1.5-fold expansion for osteoblast cells after 21 days with deposition of bone matrix. The haematopoietic stem cells cultured in the microcapsule after 7 days also showed up to 2-fold increase without adding any growth factor. The study demonstrates that barium-cross-linked alginate-gelatine microcapsule has potential for use as a simple and efficient 3D platform for stem cell production and modular tissue formation.

  6. extracts as potential dietary supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Strugała

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In times of worsening civilization diseases the interest in natural healing substances is on the increase. To reduce unwanted side effects of many synthetic drugs, it is reasonable to introduce to the daily diet foods rich in natural compounds of plant origin that are beneficial for health. The purpose of the study was to determine the biological activity and stability of selected ethanol extracts of the fruit of chokeberry, blackcurrant, hawthorn, rosehip, quince and Japanese quince as potential nutraceuticals.Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined in relation to model phospholipid membranes (IC50 PC. Antiradical activity was determined in a test with the DPPH• radical (IC50 DPPH. Also the inhibition of enzymatic (1-LOX oxidation of linoleic acid was determined at the beginning of the period of storage of the extracts at room temperature and after 12 months. Results: After 12 months of storage the highest antioxidant stability was shown by blackcurrant extract (1.5% increase in IC50 PC, the highest antiradical stability by quince extract (1.0% reduction in IC50 DPPH, and the highest stability of 1-LOX enzyme inhibition by chokeberry extract (6.3% reduction in inhibition at a concentration of 8 μg∙ml-1. Japanese quince extract showed the strongest regenerating properties with respect to oxidized phospholipid membranes and the highest ability to eliminate the free radical DPPH•. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ethanol extracts of the fruits (in particular blackcurrant, chokeberry and Japanese quince are a potential source of dietary supplements of expected effectiveness in preventive treatment.

  7. Orexin-A potentiates L-type calcium/barium currents in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Weng, S-J; Yang, X-L; Zhong, Y-M

    2015-10-01

    Two neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B (also called hypocretin-1 and -2), have been implicated in sleep/wake regulation, feeding behaviors via the activation of two subtypes of G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R). While the expression of orexins and orexin receptors is immunohistochemically revealed in retinal neurons, the function of these peptides in the retina is largely unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in rat retinal slices, we demonstrated that orexin-A increased L-type-like barium currents (IBa,L) in ganglion cells (GCs), and the effect was blocked by the selective OX1R antagonist SB334867, but not by the OX2R antagonist TCS OX2 29. The orexin-A effect was abolished by intracellular dialysis of GDP-β-S/GPAnt-2A, a Gq protein inhibitor, suggesting the mediation of Gq. Additionally, during internal dialysis of the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, orexin-A did not change the IBa,L of GCs, whereas the orexin-A effect persisted in the presence of the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-PLC inhibitor D609. The orexin-A-induced potentiation was not seen with internal infusion of Ca(2+)-free solution or when inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores was blocked by heparin/xestospongins-C. Moreover, the orexin-A effect was mimicked by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but was eliminated when PKC was inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide IV (Bis-IV)/Gö6976. Neither adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) nor guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway was likely involved, as orexin-A persisted to potentiate the IBa,L of GCs no matter these two pathways were activated or inhibited. These results suggest that, by activating OX1R, orexin-A potentiates the IBa,L of rat GCs through a distinct Gq/PI-PLC/IP3/Ca(2+)/PKC signaling pathway. Copyright

  8. A method of extracting feature points for a gastric x-ray image filled with barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shizuo

    1980-01-01

    Gastric form as well as the fringe density provides important information for the diagnosis of filled stomachs. For the m portions near each point on the contour line, the curvatures are obtained, so that the form feature point is determined from the maximum curvature point. In the application of the method to the contour lines extracted from an upright, front, filled image, the nature of the parameter m depending on objects was examined. By choosing m as a few percent of the total number of data composing filled gastric contour lines and extracting the maximum curvature points of large neighboring size, the feature points required for gastric form recognition can be extracted, and also the gastric angle position and its neighborhood important for diagnosis are detected. While the portion with hardened fringes due to morbid state appears as straight, by taking the difference in the curvature at each point and detecting the portions with very small values, the straigh portion of the curve can be detected. (J.P.N.)

  9. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  10. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient and beneficial waste disposal mechanism is highly desired. This study was carried out to extract and characterize a potential multifunctional pharmaceutical excipient from crab shell wastes. Shells of Pachygrapsus mamoratus were obtained from Oron, a coastal town in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Chitin was ...

  11. H- Enhancement Process in a Multicusp Ion Source Operated with a Barium Insert Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N.; Van Os, C.F.A.; Kunkel, W.B.

    1990-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the H{sup -} output current from a small multicusp source can be substantially enhanced if the hydrogen plasma is seeded with barium. Operating with a barium washer insert at the extraction aperture, it is found that the extractable H{sup -} current is increased by a factor of three if the insert bias potential is optimized. By use of a mixture of xenon and hydrogen gas, it is further demonstrated that the positive hydrogen ions are responsible for the observed H{sup -} enhancement.

  12. BARIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R.E.

    1959-07-21

    A method of separating barium from nuclear fission products is described. In accordance with the invention, barium may be recovered from an acidic solution of neutron-irradiated fissionable material by carrying ihe barium cut of solution as a sulfate with lead as a carrier and then dissolving the barium-containing precipitate in an aqueous solution of an aliphatic diamine chelating reagent. The barium values together with certain other metallic values present in the diamine solution are then absorbed onto a cation exchange resin and the barium is selectively eluted from the resin bed with concentrated nitric acid.

  13. Barium enema (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  14. Co-precipitation of radium with barium and strontium sulfate and its impact on the fate of radium during treatment of produced water from unconventional gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tieyuan; Gregory, Kelvin; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D

    2014-04-15

    Radium occurs in flowback and produced waters from hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas extraction along with high concentrations of barium and strontium and elevated salinity. Radium is often removed from this wastewater by co-precipitation with barium or other alkaline earth metals. The distribution equation for Ra in the precipitate is derived from the equilibrium of the lattice replacement reaction (inclusion) between the Ra(2+) ion and the carrier ions (e.g., Ba(2+) and Sr(2+)) in aqueous and solid phases and is often applied to describe the fate of radium in these systems. Although the theoretical distribution coefficient for Ra-SrSO4 (Kd = 237) is much larger than that for Ra-BaSO4 (Kd = 1.54), previous studies have focused on Ra-BaSO4 equilibrium. This study evaluates the equilibria and kinetics of co-precipitation reactions in Ra-Ba-SO4 and Ra-Sr-SO4 binary systems and the Ra-Ba-Sr-SO4 ternary system under varying ionic strength (IS) conditions that are representative of brines generated during unconventional gas extraction. Results show that radium removal generally follows the theoretical distribution law in binary systems and is enhanced in the Ra-Ba-SO4 system and restrained in the Ra-Sr-SO4 system by high IS. However, the experimental distribution coefficient (Kd') varies widely and cannot be accurately described by the distribution equation, which depends on IS, kinetics of carrier precipitation and does not account for radium removal by adsorption. Radium removal in the ternary system is controlled by the co-precipitation of Ra-Ba-SO4, which is attributed to the rapid BaSO4 nucleation rate and closer ionic radii of Ra(2+) with Ba(2+) than with Sr(2+). Carrier (i.e., barite) recycling during water treatment was shown to be effective in enhancing radium removal even after co-precipitation was completed. Calculations based on experimental results show that Ra levels in the precipitate generated in centralized waste treatment facilities far

  15. Esophagram (Barium Swallow Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink 1 to 2 cups of barium. The barium is a contrast material that makes liquids show up on the ... MRI Intravenous Contrast Information MRI with or without Contrast Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) Tailored Barium Swallow Study The Upper GI Study (GI Series) ...

  16. Barium borosilicate glass - a potential matrix for immobilization of sulfate bearing high-level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Mishra, R.K.; Sengupta, P.; Kumar, Amar; Das, D.; Kale, G.B.; Raj, Kanwar

    2006-01-01

    Borosilicate glass formulations adopted worldwide for immobilization of high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) is not suitable for sulphate bearing HLW, because of its low solubility in such glass. A suitable glass matrix based on barium borosilicate has been developed for immobilization of sulphate bearing HLW. Various compositions based on different glass formulations were made to examine compatibility with waste oxide with around 10 wt% sulfate content. The vitrified waste product obtained from barium borosilicate glass matrix was extensively evaluated for its characteristic properties like homogeneity, chemical durability, glass transition temperature, thermal conductivity, impact strength, etc. using appropriate techniques. Process parameters like melt viscosity and pour temperature were also determined. It is found that SB-44 glass composition (SiO 2 : 30.5 wt%, B 2 O 3 : 20.0 wt%, Na 2 O: 9.5 wt% and BaO: 19.0 wt%) can be safely loaded with 21 wt% waste oxide without any phase separation. The other product qualities of SB-44 waste glass are also found to be on a par with internationally adopted waste glass matrices. This formulation has been successfully implemented in plant scale

  17. Barium titanate microparticles as potential carrier platform for lanthanide radionuclides for their use in the treatment of arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Vimalnath, K V; Sharma, Jyothi; Shetty, Priyalata; Sarma, H D; Chakravarty, Rubel; Prakash, Deep; Sinha, P K; Dash, Ashutosh

    2018-02-12

    Since the inception of radiation synovectomy, a host of radioactive colloids and microparticles incorporating suitable therapeutic radionuclides have been proposed for the treatment of arthritis. The present article reports the synthesis and evaluation of barium titanate microparticles as an innovative and effective carrier platform for lanthanide radionuclides in the preparation of therapeutic agents for treatment of arthritis. The material was synthesized by mechanochemical route and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area and particle size distribution analyses. Loading of lanthanide radionuclides ( 166 Ho, 153 Sm, 177 Lu and 169 Er) on the microparticles was achieved in high yield (> 95%) resulting in the formulation of loaded particulates with excellent radiochemical purities (> 99%). Radiolanthanide-loaded microparticles exhibited excellent in vitro stability in human serum. In vitro DTPA challenge study indicated fairly strong chemical association of lanthanides with barium titanate microparticles. Long-term biodistribution studies carried out after administration of 177 Lu-loaded microparticles into one of the knee joints of normal Wistar rats revealed near-complete retention of the formulation (> 96% of the administered radioactivity) within the joint cavity even 14 d post-administration. The excellent localization of the loaded microparticles was further confirmed by sequential whole-body radio-luminescence imaging studies carried out using 166 Ho-loaded microparticles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA damaging potential of Ganoderma lucidum extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovic, María Soledad Vela; Viceconte, Fátima R; Pereyra, Marcelo T; Bidegain, Maximiliano A; Cubitto, María Amelia

    2018-05-10

    Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is a medicinal mushroom historically used in Asian countries to treat a wide variety of diseases and prolong life. In the last years, G. lucidum has been internationally recognized as an effective adjuvant in cancer treatment. Among active components, the most recent research indicates that polysaccharides modulate the immune response favoring the recovery from toxicity of chemo and radiotherapy while triterpenes are cytotoxic to tumoral cells mainly by altering gene expression. Beyond this body of evidence on the efficacy of G. lucidum in cancer treatment, it is not yet understood whether these extracts exert the same mechanisms of action than current antitumoral drugs. In this study, we tested the DNA damaging potential of G. lucidum extracts by the β-galactosidase biochemical prophage induction assay (BIA) using doxorubicin, a DNA intercalating agent, as a positive control. This assay was traditionally used to screen microbial metabolites towards antitumoral agents. Here, we used this bacterial assay for the first time to assess DNA damage of herbal drugs. After a bioguided assay, only a purified fraction of G. lucidum containing a mixture of C16 and C18:1 fatty acids exerted weak activity which could not be attributed to direct interaction with DNA. At the same concentrations, the induction observed for doxorubicin was clearly contrasting. The micro BIA assay could be successfully used to demonstrate differences in cellular effects between G. lucidum extracts and doxorubicin. These results showed that G. lucidum extracts display weak DNA damaging potential. Since DNA injury promotes aging and cancer, our results substantiate the traditional use of this mushroom to prolong life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Broadly tunable, beta-barium-borate-based, pulsed optical parametric oscillators and their potential applications in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, Mark S.; Clark, Jim; Johnson, Bertram C.

    1995-05-01

    With the recent availability of Beta Barium Borate (BBO) crystals in useful sizes at acceptable market prices, the promise of Optical Parametric Oscillators (OPOs) becoming practical tunable systems is finally being realized. Wavelength coverage from such systems extends from 420 nm to over 2400 nm when pumped in the UV. For medical applications their usage will be limited in the near term to low repetition rates (suitable for selective absorption applications in medicine such as colored tattoo removal or treating vascular lesions. For such high energy devices peak powers necessitate the use of articulating arms for beam delivery. For high repetition rate systems, energy outputs will be in the range of 100 to 500 (mu) J at kHz frequencies (up to 1 W average power). Peak powers are low enough that fiber optic delivery is possible. These systems may find selective absorption applications in ophthalmology.

  20. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Different textures of food are often given. The barium is a contrast material that makes the food and liquid show ... MRI Intravenous Contrast Information MRI with or without Contrast Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) Tailored Barium Swallow Study The Upper GI Study (GI Series) ...

  1. Solvent extraction of microamounts of strontium and barium into nitrobenzene using hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate in the presence of polyethylene glycol PEG 600

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlík, E.; Vaňura, P.; Sedláková, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 3 (2009), s. 607-611 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : strontium * barium * hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.631, year: 2009

  2. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical fil...

  3. Assessment of the radium-barium co-precipitation and its potential influence on the solubility of Ra in the near-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandia, Fidel; Merino, Joan; Bruno, Jordi

    2008-08-01

    Radium 226 is one of the main contributors to radiological dose in some of the scenarios contemplated in the recent SR Can safety assessment. The relative contribution of the 226 Ra dose is clearly dependent on the source term value for this radionuclide, which is directly connected to its solubility behaviour. Most of the source term calculations performed for this radionuclide pessimistically assume that its solubility is controlled by the individual solubility of RaSO 4 (s), the most insoluble phase under near field conditions, while the abundant information from early radiochemical research, natural system studies and anthropogenic systems would indicate that Ra(II) is mainly associated to BaSO 4 (s) precipitation. In this work we have investigated the extensive literature concerning the mechanisms and processes controlling the co-precipitation/solid solution formation behaviour of the Ra(II)/Ba(II) sulphate system. We have also established the necessary thermodynamic moles to model the solubility behaviour in the vicinity of the spent fuel system. Calculations using an ATM-104 fuel at 40 MWd/kg U show that barium and radium inventories per canister progressively grow with time after deposition, most of the barium is produced in the initial 500 years. In the unlikely event of a contact of sulphate-containing groundwaters with the fuel, Ba(II) will precipitate as BaSO 4 (s). The production of 226 Ra reaches its peak some 300,000 years after deposition. This substantial time gap indicates that most of the BaSO 4 (s) will be present when and if radium is released from the fuel, even if some Ra(II) and Ba(II) will be released contemporaneously. Two potential scenarios have been addressed from the mechanistic point of view. In the event of a simultaneous release of Ra with Ba, the former will be readily incorporated into the precipitating BaSO 4 to build a Ra Ba sulphate solid solution. All the existing evidence indicates, that in this case, the behaviour of the

  4. Assessment of the radium-barium co-precipitation and its potential influence on the solubility of Ra in the near-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Merino, Joan; Bruno, Jordi (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2008-08-15

    Radium 226 is one of the main contributors to radiological dose in some of the scenarios contemplated in the recent SR Can safety assessment. The relative contribution of the 226Ra dose is clearly dependent on the source term value for this radionuclide, which is directly connected to its solubility behaviour. Most of the source term calculations performed for this radionuclide pessimistically assume that its solubility is controlled by the individual solubility of RaSO{sub 4}(s), the most insoluble phase under near field conditions, while the abundant information from early radiochemical research, natural system studies and anthropogenic systems would indicate that Ra(II) is mainly associated to BaSO{sub 4}(s) precipitation. In this work we have investigated the extensive literature concerning the mechanisms and processes controlling the co-precipitation/solid solution formation behaviour of the Ra(II)/Ba(II) sulphate system. We have also established the necessary thermodynamic moles to model the solubility behaviour in the vicinity of the spent fuel system. Calculations using an ATM-104 fuel at 40 MWd/kg U show that barium and radium inventories per canister progressively grow with time after deposition, most of the barium is produced in the initial 500 years. In the unlikely event of a contact of sulphate-containing groundwaters with the fuel, Ba(II) will precipitate as BaSO{sub 4}(s). The production of 226Ra reaches its peak some 300,000 years after deposition. This substantial time gap indicates that most of the BaSO{sub 4}(s) will be present when and if radium is released from the fuel, even if some Ra(II) and Ba(II) will be released contemporaneously. Two potential scenarios have been addressed from the mechanistic point of view. In the event of a simultaneous release of Ra with Ba, the former will be readily incorporated into the precipitating BaSO{sub 4} to build a Ra Ba sulphate solid solution. All the existing evidence indicates, that in this case, the

  5. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  6. the potentials of henna (lawsonia inamis l.) leaves extracts as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The potentials of aqueous and ethanol extract solutions of the henna plant (Lawsonia inamis L.) leaves adopted as alternative counter stain in Gram staining reactions were studied. Different extracts were formulated into various staining solutions of different concentrations. The solutions were modified with ...

  7. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  8. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fuentes Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test.

  9. Potential Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Cichorium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Cichorium intybus and Taraxacum serotinum in Rats. Rehab F Abdel-Rahman, Gamal A Soliman, Hasan S Yusufoglu, Irem Tatli-Cankaya, Saleh I Alqasoumi, Serap Arabci Anul, Galip Akaydin ...

  10. Antidepressant-like potentials of Buchholzia Coriacea seed extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    active metabolites, and the folklore documented its use in neuro-behavioral despairs. Previous study in our laboratory shows that methanol extracts of Buchholzia coriacea (MEBC) seeds possess antidepressant-like potentials in laboratory rodents.

  11. Barium in Twilight Zone suspended matter as a potential proxy for particulate organic carbon remineralization: Results for the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehairs, F.; Jacquet, S.; Savoye, N.; Van Mooy, B.A.S.; Buesseler, K.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Lamborg, C.H.; Elskens, M.; Baeyens, W.; Boyd, P.W.; Casciotti, K.L.; Monnin, C.

    2008-04-10

    This study focuses on the fate of exported organic carbon in the twilight zone at two contrasting environments in the North Pacific: the oligotrophic ALOHA site (22 degrees 45 minutes N 158 degrees W; Hawaii; studied during June-July 2004) and the mesotrophic Subarctic Pacific K2 site (47 degrees N, 161 degrees W; studied during July-August 2005). Earlier work has shown that non-lithogenic, excess particulate Ba (Ba{sub xs}) in the mesopelagic water column is a potential proxy of organic carbon remineralization. In general Ba{sub xs} contents were significantly larger at K2 than at ALOHA. At ALOHA the Ba{sub xs} profiles from repeated sampling (5 casts) showed remarkable consistency over a period of three weeks, suggesting that the system was close to being at steady state. In contrast, more variability was observed at K2 (6 casts sampled) reflecting the more dynamic physical and biological conditions prevailing in this environment. While for both sites Ba{sub xs} concentrations increased with depth, at K2 a clear maximum was present between the base of the mixed layer at around 50m and 500m, reflecting production and release of Ba{sub xs}. Larger mesopelagic Ba{sub xs} contents and larger bacterial production in the twilight zone at the K2 site indicate that more material was exported from the upper mixed layer for bacterial degradation deeper, compared to the ALOHA site. Furthermore, application of a published transfer function (Dehairs et al., 1997) relating oxygen consumption to the observed Ba{sub xs} data indicated that the latter were in good agreement with bacterial respiration, calculated from bacterial production. These results corroborate earlier findings highlighting the potential of Ba{sub xs} as a proxy for organic carbon remineralization. The range of POC remineralization rates calculated from twilight zone excess particulate Ba contents did also compare well with the depth dependent POC flux decrease as recorded by neutrally buoyant sediment traps

  12. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammalapati, U.; Willmann, L.; Knoop, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba) in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca

  13. Barium sulfate aspiration: Severe chemical pneumonia induced by a massive reflux of contrast medium during small bowel barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Ji; Zhou, Xiaowei; Dong, Hongmei; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-08-01

    Barium contrast radiography is a conventional procedure aimed at revealing lesions of the alimentary tract using barium sulfate on X-ray irradiation. Although it is widely used in clinics, adverse effects and complications are observed, such as anaphylaxis, granuloma, fecalithes, abdomen-leaking, embolism, bacterial contamination, and aspiration. We report a case of death due to a massive barium sulfate aspiration resulted from an air-barium double contrast enema radiography. A 25-year-old female patient was hospitalized with symptoms of abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for three days. A progressive respiratory distress presented only 1h after a small bowel air-barium double contrast enema. The patient died 11h later. The result of autopsy revealed the cause of death to be severe chemical pneumonitis induced by gastric fluid which was aspirated into her lungs. Barium sulfate is generally recognized to be chemically inert for the respiratory system, but a mixture of barium sulfate with gastric contents is fatal. Here we intend to suggest that, when determining the potential cause of death, medical examiners should consider a patient's status quo as well as the possible adverse effects and complications caused by the barium sulfate preparation during gastrointestinal radiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  15. Strontium-90 sorption from fresh waters in the process of barium manganite modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhen'kov, A.P.; Egorov, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium-90 extraction by barium manganite from fresh water (natural non-salty water in open ponds) may be increased adding to the solution the sulfate anion containing reagents that modify a sorbent and chemically bind a sorbate. Heterogeneous anion-exchanging reaction of barium manganite transformation into barium sulfate-manganese dioxide and simultaneous coprecipitation of strontium sulfate (microelement) occur as a result of it. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of Buddleja polystachya extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Ahmed Fawzy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the species of Buddleja have found applications in folk medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of B. polystachya extracts. Four extracts were prepared A-D (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous extracts, respectively. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. The crystal violet staining method (CVS was used for the evaluation of the cytotoxic activity on HepG-2, MCF-7 and HCT-116 human cell lines. Results showed that the highest antimicrobial activity was given by the ethyl acetate extract followed by the dichloromethane extract, while the n-butanol revealed moderate activity against gram positive bacteria only with no activity against the rest of tested microorganisms. The aqueous extract was totally ineffective against all tested microorganisms at 20 mg/ml. Among the four extracts tested, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts showed the highest cytotoxic activity on all three human cell lines.

  17. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF LEGUMINOUS TREES AGAINSTSCLEROTIUM ROLFSII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Nighat; Shoaib, Amna; Javaid, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is a destructive soil-borne plant pathogen that infects over 500 plant species and causes significant yield losses in many economically important plant species. Synthetic fungicides used to combat the menace also pollute the environment and cause health hazards. In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and A. nilotica subsp. indica exhibited the maximum fungicidal potential. Two hundred grams dried leaf material of each of the three test plant species were extracted with methanol for two weeks. After filtration, methanol was evaporated on a rotary evaporator. Malt extract broth was used to make various concentrations of the crude methanolic extracts and their antifungal potential was determined by comparing the fungal biomass in various treatments with control. Chemical composition of methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica was determined through GC-MS analysis. Methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica showed the highest fungicidal activity. Fungal biomass was decreased by 17-55% due to various concentrations of this extract over control. Different concentrations of P. juliflora reduced fungal biomass by 3-52%. Fourteen compounds were identified in methanolic extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica . 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z,)- (16.59%) was the most abundant compound followed by 1-pentanol, 2 methyl-, acetate (14.80%); hexanedioic acid, dimethyl ester (13.10%) and cyclotriaconta- 1, 7, 16, 22-tetraone (10.28%). This study concludes that methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica can be used for management of S. rolfsii .

  18. Surface-initiated polymerization from barium titanate nanoparticles for hybrid dielectric capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Sergio A; Kim, Yunsang; Henry, Katherine; Kumar, Ritesh; Perry, Joseph W; Marder, Seth R

    2014-03-12

    A phosphonic acid is used as a surface initiator for the growth of polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) from barium titanate (BTO) nanoparticles through atom transfer radical polymerization with activators regenerated by electron transfer. This results in the barium titanate cores embedded in the grafted polymer. The one-component system, PMMA-grafted-BTO, achieves a maximum extractable energy density of 2 J/cm(3) at a field strength of ∼220 V/μm, which exhibits a 2-fold increase compared to that of the composite without covalent attachment or the neat polymer. Such materials have potential applications in hybrid capacitors due to the high permittivity of the nanoparticles and the high breakdown strength, mechanical flexibility, and ease of processability due to the organic polymer. The synthesis, processing, characterization, and testing of the materials in capacitors are discussed.

  19. Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Nasir A; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

    2011-04-01

    The antioxidant and drug metabolizing potentials of Hibiscus anthocyanin extract in CCl(4)- induced oxidative damage of rat liver was investigated. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract effectively scavenge α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, and hydrogen peroxide. It produced a 92% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 2.0 mg/mL. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a 69 and 90% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, at 1.0 mg/mL, which compared favorably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and α-tocopherol). A reducing power of this anthocyanin was examined using K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Hibiscus anthocyanin extract has reducing power that is approximately 2-fold that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroanisole. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a significantly increase and completely attenuated the CCl(4)-mediated decrease in antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). However, the level of nonenzymic antioxidant molecules (i.e., vitamins C and E) were significant preserved by Hibiscus anthocyanin extract. There was an induction of phase II drug-detoxifying enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase, and uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase by 65, 45, and 57%, respectively. In view of these properties, Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract can act as a prophylactic by intervening as a free radical scavenger both in vitro and in vivo as well as inducing the phase II drug detoxification enzymes.

  20. Wound Healing Potential of Formulated Extract from Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builders, P. F.; Kabele-Toge, B.; Builders, M.; Chindo, B. A.; Anwunobi, Patricia A.; Isimi, Yetunde C.

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing agents support the natural healing process, reduce trauma and likelihood of secondary infections and hasten wound closure. The wound healing activities of water in oil cream of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) was evaluated in rats with superficial skin excision wounds. Antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Echerichia coli were determined. The total flavonoid content, antioxidant properties and thin layer chromatographic fingerprints of the extract were also evaluated. The extract demonstrated antioxidant properties with a total flavonoid content of 12.30±0.09 mg/g. Six reproducible spots were obtained using methanol:water (95:5) as the mobile phase. The extract showed no antimicrobial activity on the selected microorganisms, which are known to infect and retard wound healing. Creams containing H. sabdariffa extract showed significant (Psabdariffa extract. This study, thus, provides evidence of the wound healing potentials of the formulated extract of the calyces of H. sabdariffa and synergism when co-formulated with gentamicin. PMID:23901160

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of citrus peel extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatha, S.A.S.; Hussain, A.I.; Asi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts of three different locally grown citrus varieties; grape fruit, lemon and mussambi, was assessed using some antioxidant assays like estimation of total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC), percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity. The yield of extracts was found in the range of 17.92-30.8%. TPC, TFC, percent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and DPPH radical scavenging capacity of different citrus peel extracts were found in range of 2.72 - 3.77 g/100g as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE), 2.20-2.98 g/100g as Catechine Equivalent (CE), 68.20 - 91.78% and 19.53 - 41.88 mg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant (p < 0.05) variations in the yield and antioxidant potentials of the extracts with respect to different species and solvent systems. From the results it is reasonable to say that methanolic extracts of citrus peels have exhibited varying degree of antioxidant potentials. (author)

  2. Anti-obesity potentials of aqueous and methanol extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity is currently a global epidemic. Conventional treatments have not been very satisfactory to patients, warranting a search for alternative therapeutic options that are natural, safe and affordable. This study therefore investigated the anti-obesity potentials of aqueous and methanol extracts of Vernonia ...

  3. Aqueous Bark Extract of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum : A Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous Bark Extract of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum : A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Streptozotocin- Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) Rats. ... Methods: The animals were divided into three groups (n = 6). of normal rats; streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; and diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg of the aqueous ...

  4. Neuroprotective potential of Citrullus lanatus seed extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercury chloride toxicity continues to be relevant in the advent of increased interest in mining activity in Nigeria. The neuroprotective potential of Citrullus lanatus seed extract (CLSE) (Watermelon seed) and vitamin E (VIT E) on mercury chloride intoxication on the frontal cerebral cortex of male rats was investigated.

  5. Antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... The antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha stem bark at varying concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/ml was investigated by measuring the zones of inhibition produced after incubation on nutrient agar. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella ...

  6. Potential protective effect of some plant extracts against carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential protective effect of some plant extracts against carbon tetrachloride – induced hepatotoxicity. ... Unsaturated sterols and/or triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates and/or glycosides were the major active constituents of the tested plants. Keywords: hepatoprotective, medicinal plants, Plantago major, ...

  7. Antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha stem bark at varying concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/ml was investigated by measuring the zones of inhibition produced after incubation on nutrient agar. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhymurium and ...

  8. Nutritional potential of post extraction residues and silage from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional potential of post extraction residues and silage from leaves of five local cassava varieties cultivated in south west Nigeria namely Ilaro, Oko-iyawo, Mafamipa, Odongbo, Idileru as feed for ruminants, was evaluated using chemical composition and in - vitro dry matter digestibility as indices. Chemical ...

  9. Macroalgae Extracts From Antarctica Have Antimicrobial and Anticancer Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane M. Martins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macroalgae are sources of bioactive compounds due to the large number of secondary metabolites they synthesize. The Antarctica region is characterized by extreme weather conditions and abundant aggregations of macroalgae. However, current knowledge on their biodiversity and their potential for bio-prospecting is still fledging. This study evaluates the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different extracts of four macroalgae (Cystosphaera jacquinotii, Iridaea cordata, Himantothallus grandifolius, and Pyropia endiviifolia from the Antarctic region against cancer and non-cancer cell lines.Methods: The antimicrobial activity of macroalgae was evaluated by the broth microdilution method. Extracts were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 19095, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 4083, Escherichia coli ATCC29214, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida albicans ATCC 62342, and the clinical isolates from the human oral cavity, namely, C. albicans (3, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. lipolytica, and C. famata. Cytotoxicity against human epidermoid carcinoma (A-431 and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3 cell lines was evaluated with MTT colorimetric assay.Results: An ethyl acetate extract of H. grandifolius showed noticeable antifungal activity against all fungal strains tested, including fluconazole-resistant samples. Cytotoxicity investigation with a cancer cell line revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of I. cordata was highly cytotoxic against A-431 cancer cell line, increasing the inhibitory ratio to 91.1 and 95.6% after 24 and 48 h exposure, respectively, for a concentration of 500 μg mL−1. Most of the algal extracts tested showed little or no cytotoxicity against fibroblasts.Conclusion: Data suggest that macroalgae extracts from Antarctica may represent a source of therapeutic agents.HIGHLIGHTSDifferent macroalgae samples from Antarctica were collected and the lyophilized biomass of each macroalgae was extracted

  10. Prebiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of Seven Culinary Spice Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Summanen, Paula H; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP-HPLC-DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects of spice extracts on the viability of 88 anaerobic and facultative isolates from intestinal microbiota were determined by using Brucella agar plates containing serial dilutions of extracts. A total of 14 phenolic compounds, a piperine, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde were identified and quantitated. Spice extracts exhibited high antioxidant capacity that correlated with the total amount of major chemicals. All spice extracts, with the exception of turmeric, enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. All spices exhibited inhibitory activity against selected Ruminococcus species. Cinnamon, oregano, and rosemary were active against selected Fusobacterium strains and cinnamon, rosemary, and turmeric were active against selected Clostridium spp. Some spices displayed prebiotic-like activity by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria, suggesting their potential role in the regulation of intestinal microbiota and the enhancement of gastrointestinal health. The identification and quantification of spice-specific phytochemicals provided insight into the potential influence of these chemicals on the gut microbial communities and activities. Future research on the connections between spice-induced changes in gut microbiota and host metabolism and disease preventive effect in animal models and humans is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of

  11. Antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating activities of tropical marine sponge extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesoo, Rima; Bhagooli, Ranjeet; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Li, Wen-Wu; Kagansky, Alexander; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2017-06-01

    Increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has led research to focus on discovering new antimicrobial agents derived from the marine biome. Although ample studies have investigated sponges for their bioactive metabolites with promising prospects in drug discovery, the potentiating effects of sponge extracts on antibiotics still remains to be expounded. The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial capacity of seven tropical sponges collected from Mauritian waters and their modulatory effect in association with three conventional antibiotics namely chloramphenicol, ampicillin and tetracycline. Disc diffusion assay was used to determine the inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of the sponge total crude extracts (CE), hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AF) fractions against nine standard bacterial isolates whereas broth microdilution method was used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) and antibiotic potentiating activity of the most active sponge extract. MIC values of the sponge extracts ranged from 0.039 to 1.25mg/mL. Extracts from Neopetrosia exigua rich in beta-sitosterol and cholesterol displayed the widest activity spectrum against the 9 tested bacterial isolates whilst the best antibacterial profile was observed by its EAF particularly against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus with MIC and MBC values of 0.039mg/mL and 0.078mg/mL, respectively. The greatest antibiotic potentiating effect was obtained with the EAF of N. exigua (MIC/2) and ampicillin combination against S. aureus. These findings suggest that the antibacterial properties of the tested marine sponge extracts may provide an alternative and complementary strategy to manage bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prebiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of Seven Culinary Spice Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing‐Yi; Summanen, Paula H.; Lee, Ru‐Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP‐HPLC‐DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects of spice extracts on the viability of 88 anaerobic and facultative isolates from intestinal microbiota were determined by using Brucella agar plates containing serial dilutions of extracts. A total of 14 phenolic compounds, a piperine, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde were identified and quantitated. Spice extracts exhibited high antioxidant capacity that correlated with the total amount of major chemicals. All spice extracts, with the exception of turmeric, enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. All spices exhibited inhibitory activity against selected Ruminococcus species. Cinnamon, oregano, and rosemary were active against selected Fusobacterium strains and cinnamon, rosemary, and turmeric were active against selected Clostridium spp. Some spices displayed prebiotic‐like activity by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria, suggesting their potential role in the regulation of intestinal microbiota and the enhancement of gastrointestinal health. The identification and quantification of spice‐specific phytochemicals provided insight into the potential influence of these chemicals on the gut microbial communities and activities. Future research on the connections between spice‐induced changes in gut microbiota and host metabolism and disease preventive effect in animal models and humans is needed. PMID:28678344

  13. Determination of estrogenic potential in waste water without sample extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avberšek, Miha; Žegura, Bojana; Filipič, Metka; Uranjek-Ževart, Nataša; Heath, Ester

    2013-09-15

    This study describes the modification of the ER-Calux assay for testing water samples without sample extraction (NE-(ER-Calux) assay). The results are compared to those obtained with ER-Calux assay and a theoretical estrogenic potential obtained by GC-MSD. For spiked tap and waste water samples there was no statistical difference between estrogenic potentials obtained by the three methods. Application of NE-(ER-Calux) to "real" influent and effluents from municipal waste water treatment plants and receiving surface waters found that the NE-(ER-Calux) assay gave higher values compared to ER-Calux assay and GC-MSD. This is explained by the presence of water soluble endocrine agonists that are usually removed during extraction. Intraday dynamics of the estrogenic potential of a WWTP influent and effluent revealed an increase in the estrogenic potential of the influent from 12.9 ng(EEQ)/L in the morning to a peak value of 40.0 ng(EEQ)/L in the afternoon. The estrogenic potential of the effluent was potential was 92-98%. Daytime estrogenic potential values varied significantly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Wound healing potential of flowers extracts of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neeraj; Amresh, G; Sahu, P K; Mishra, Neelam; Rao, Ch V; Singh, Anil Pratap

    2013-08-01

    Wound healing or repair is the body's natural process of regenerating dermal and epidermal tissue. Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz (Family: Lythraceae) is used traditionally in wound healing by the tribals of Chhattisgarh district. However, there is a paucity of scientific data in support. In this study, we evaluated antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous extracts against a diverse range of gram +ve and gram -ve bacteria along with pathogenic fungi. The wound healing activity of ethanolic extract was also evaluated at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg body wt in rats by excision, incision and dead space wound healing models along with histopathology of wound area of skin. The ethanolic extract showed potent wound healing activity, as evident from the increase in the wound contraction and breaking strength in dose-dependent manner. Treatment with ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body wt) showed significant dose-dependently decrease in epithelization period and scar area. Hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid and hexosamine contents, the important constituents of extracellular matrix of healing were also correlated with the observed healing pattern. During early wound healing phase, pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels were found to be upregulated by the ethanolic extract treatment. The ethanolic extract exhibited a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, as compared to other extracts. It showed very low Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and inhibited the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans in concentration of 2.5 microg/disc. Thus, the results of the present study demonstrated the strong wound healing potential and antimicrobial activities of W. fruticosa, flowers, supporting the folklore use of the plant by the tribal people of Chhattisgarh district.

  15. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... single-contrast lower GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast or air-contrast lower GI series, which uses ... to evenly coat the large intestine with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast lower GI series, the radiologist will inject air ...

  16. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica. Methods: Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg. Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, aminophylline (280 mg/kg and isoniazid (250 mg/kg were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  17. Barium toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fiona H; Noble, Peter J M; Swift, Simon T; Higgins, Brent M; Sieniawska, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    A 2-year-old 14.9-kg (32.8-lb) neutered female Shetland Sheepdog was admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute collapse. At admission, the dog was tachypneic and had reduced limb reflexes and muscle tone in all limbs consistent with diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. The dog was severely hypokalemic (1.7 mEq/L; reference range, 3.5 to 5.8 mEq/L). Clinical status of the dog deteriorated; there was muscle twitching, flaccid paralysis, and respiratory failure, which was considered a result of respiratory muscle weakness. Ventricular arrhythmias and severe acidemia (pH, 7.18; reference range, 7.35 to 7.45) developed. Intoxication was suspected, and plasma and urine samples submitted for barium analysis had barium concentrations comparable with those reported in humans with barium toxicosis. Analysis of barium concentrations in 5 control dogs supported the diagnosis of barium toxicosis in the dog. Fluids and potassium supplementation were administered IV. The dog recovered rapidly. Electrolyte concentrations measured after recovery were consistently unremarkable. Quantification of plasma barium concentration 56 days after the presumed episode of intoxication revealed a large decrease; however, the plasma barium concentration remained elevated, compared with that in control dogs. To our knowledge, this case represented the first description of barium toxicosis in the veterinary literature. Barium toxicosis can cause life-threatening hypokalemia; however, prompt supportive treatment can yield excellent outcomes. Barium toxicosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis in animals with hypokalemia and appropriate clinical signs.

  18. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  20. Vanadium doped barium germanate microrods and photocatalytic properties under solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, L. Z.; Wang, S.; Liu, H. D.; Lin, N.; Yu, H. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Vanadium doped barium germanate microrods have been prepared by a facile hydrothermal process. The obtained vanadium doped barium germanate microrods are proved to be hexagonal BaGe4O9 and orthorhombic Ba2V2O7 phases by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the vanadium doped barium germanate products consist of microrods with the diameter of microscale size. The diameter of the mirorods decreases from 800 nm to 150 nm with the vanadium doping mass percentage increasing from 1% to 10%. Solid UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra show that the band gap of the vanadium doped barium germanate is smaller than that of the undoped barium germanate. The photocatalytic activity has been greatly enhanced by the vanadium doping. The vanadium doped barium germanate microrods exhibit great application potential for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under solar light irradiation.

  1. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was rated...... qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P ... barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5%) polyps

  2. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive potential of Cordia dichotoma leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaban Bhattacharya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the safety-risk ratio of steroidal contraceptives, the present work was carried out to evaluate ethno-contraceptive use of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst., Boraginaceae, leaves (LCD. Preliminary pharmacological screening was performed on post-coital female albino rats. The leaves extract (LD50 5.50 g/kg bw showed 100% anti-implantation activity (n=10 at 800 mg/kg dose level. (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD was used as bioavailability enhancer to form LCD-BCD complex, characterized by DLS, SEM and XRD analyses. The LCD-BCD complex (1:1, w/w exhibited 100% pregnancy interception (n=20 at the dose level of 250 mg/kg and also showed strong estrogenic potential with a luteal phase defect. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses were carried out. The LCD extract was standardized by a validated HPTLC method and two contraceptive phytoconstituents, apigenin and luteolin were isolated. A detailed pharmacological analyses followed by chronic toxicity study were performed to predict the reversible nature of the developed phytopharmaceutical. The histological and biochemical estimations detected the reversible contraceptive potential after withdrawal. The observations suggested that the developed phyto-pharmaceutical has potential antifertility activity with safety aspects.

  3. Wound healing potential of adipose tissue stem cell extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, You Kyung; Ban, Jae-Jun; Lee, Mijung; Im, Wooseok; Kim, Manho

    2017-03-25

    Adipose tissue stem cells (ATSCs) are considered as a promising source in the field of cell therapy and regenerative medicine. In addition to direct cell replacement using stem cells, intercellular molecule exchange by stem cell secretory factors showed beneficial effects by reducing tissue damage and augmentation of endogenous repair. Delayed cutaneous wound healing is implicated in many conditions such as diabetes, aging, stress and alcohol consumption. However, the effects of cell-free extract of ATSCs (ATSC-Ex) containing secretome on wound healing process have not been investigated. In this study, ATSC-Ex was topically applied on the cutaneous wound and healing speed was examined. As a result, wound closure was much faster in the cell-free extract treated wound than control wound at 4, 6, 8 days after application of ATSC-Ex. Dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) production are critical aspects of wound healing, and the effects of ATSC-Ex on human dermal fibroblast (HDF) was examined. ATSC-Ex augmented HDF proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and migration ability was enhanced by extract treatment. Representative ECM proteins, collagen type I and matrix metalloproteinase-1, are significantly up-regulated by treatment of ATSC-Ex. Our results suggest that the ATSC-Ex have improving effect of wound healing and can be the potential therapeutic candidate for cutaneous wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A review of the health impacts of barium from natural and anthropogenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Darrah, Thomas H; Miller, Richard K; Lyerly, H Kim; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing public awareness of the relatively new and expanded industrial barium uses which are potential sources of human exposure (e.g., a shale gas development that causes an increased awareness of environmental exposures to barium). However, absorption of barium in exposed humans and a full spectrum of its health effects, especially among chronically exposed to moderate and low doses of barium populations, remain unclear. We suggest a systematic literature review (from 1875 to 2014) on environmental distribution of barium, its bioaccumulation, and potential and proven health impacts (in animal models and humans) to provide the information that can be used for optimization of future experimental and epidemiological studies and developing of mitigative and preventive strategies to minimize negative health effects in exposed populations. The potential health effects of barium exposure are largely based on animal studies, while epidemiological data for humans, specifically for chronic low-level exposures, are sparse. The reported health effects include cardiovascular and kidney diseases, metabolic, neurological, and mental disorders. Age, race, dietary patterns, behavioral risks (e.g., smoking), use of medications (those that interfere with absorbed barium in human organism), and specific physiological status (e.g., pregnancy) can modify barium effects on human health. Identifying, evaluating, and predicting the health effects of chronic low-level and moderate-level barium exposures in humans is challenging: Future research is needed to develop an understanding of barium bioaccumulation in order to mitigate its potential health impacts in various exposured populations. Further, while occupationally exposed at-risk populations exist, it is also important to identify potentially vulnerable subgroups among non-occupationally exposed populations (e.g., elderly, pregnant women, children) who are at higher risk of barium exposure from drinking water and food.

  5. Statistical properties of barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Barium stars are G- and K-giant stars with atmospheric excesses of s-process elements, and a broadband spectral depression in the blue portion of the spectrum. The strength of the λ4554 Ball line is used as a classification parameter known as the Barium Intensity. They have a mean absolute magnitude of 1.0 and a dispersion of 1.2 magnitudes (assuming a Gaussian distribution in absolute magnitude) as measured from secular and statistical parallaxes. These stars apparently belong to a young-disk population from analyses of both the solar reflex motion and their residual velocity distribution, which implies that they have an upper mass limit of around three solar masses. There is no apparent correlation of barium intensity with either luminosity or kinematic properties. The barium stars appear to be preferentially distributed in the direction of the local spiral arm, but show no preference to associate with or avoid the direction of the galactic center. They do not appear related to either the carbon or S-stars because of these tendencies and because of the stellar population to which each type of star belongs. The distribution in absolute magnitude combined with star count analyses implies that these stars are slightly less numerous than previously believed. Barium stars show infrared excesses that correlate with their barium intensities

  6. Barium light source method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  7. Extraction and evaluation of bioactive compounds with antioxidant potential from green arabica coffee extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona PATRICHE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade researches concerning the essential role of coffee in health and disease prevention showed an increased development. In the present study we obtained extracts from three green Arabica coffee varieties which demonstrated a significant antioxidant potential due to the presence in their composition of two bioactive compounds, caffeine and chlorogenic acids. The content and antioxidant activity of bioactive compounds were evaluated by qualitative and quantitative analyses using spectrophotometric and chromatography methods. The chlorogenic acid was found in high concentrations, being followed by gallic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The highest caffeine contents were found in the green coffee extracts of the Supremo–Columbia and Top Quality–Kenya products.

  8. Nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves: Beyond traditional root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Renu; Konar, Arpita; Kaul, Sunil C

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly increasing aging population and environmental stressors are the two main global concerns of the modern society. These have brought in light rapidly increasing incidence of a variety of pathological conditions including brain tumors, neurodegenerative & neuropsychiatric disorders, and new challenges for their treatment. The overlapping symptoms, complex etiology and lack of full understanding of the brain structure and function to-date further complicate these tasks. On the other hand, several herbal reagents with a long history of their use have been asserted to possess neurodifferentiation, neuroregenerative and neuroprotective potentials, and hence been recommended as supplement to enhance and maintain brain health and function. Although they have been claimed to function by holistic approach resulting in maintaining body homeostasis and brain health, there are not enough laboratory studies in support to these and mechanism(s) of such beneficial activities remain largely undefined. One such herb is Ashwagandha, also called "Queen of Ayurveda" for its popular use in Indian traditional home medicine because of its extensive benefits including anticancer, anti-stress and remedial potential for aging and neurodegenerative pathologies. However, active principles and underlying mechanism(s) of action remain largely unknown. Here we provide a review on the effects of Ashwagandha extracts and active principles, and underlying molecular mechanism(s) for brain pathologies. We highlight our findings on the nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves. The effects of Ashwagandha leaf extracts are multidimensional ranging from differentiation of neuroblastoma and glioma cells, reversal of Alzheimer and Parkinson's pathologies, protection against environmental neurotoxins and enhancement of memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential of energy harvesting in barium titanate based laminates from room temperature to cryogenic/high temperatures: measurements and linking phase field and finite element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Fumio; Fox, Marina; Mori, Kotaro; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Omote, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    This paper studies the energy harvesting characteristics of piezoelectric laminates consisting of barium titanate (BaTiO3) and copper (Cu) from room temperature to cryogenic/high temperatures both experimentally and numerically. First, the output voltages of the piezoelectric BaTiO3/Cu laminates were measured from room temperature to a cryogenic temperature (77 K). The output power was evaluated for various values of load resistance. The results showed that the maximum output power density is approximately 2240 nW cm‑3. The output voltages of the BaTiO3/Cu laminates were also measured from room temperature to a higher temperature (333 K). To discuss the output voltages of the BaTiO3/Cu laminates due to temperature changes, phase field and finite element simulations were combined. A phase field model for grain growth was used to generate grain structures. The phase field model was then employed for BaTiO3 polycrystals, coupled with the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau theory and the oxygen vacancies diffusion, to calculate the temperature-dependent piezoelectric coefficient and permittivity. Using these properties, the output voltages of the BaTiO3/Cu laminates from room temperature to both 77 K and 333 K were analyzed by three dimensional finite element methods, and the results are presented for several grain sizes and oxygen vacancy densities. It was found that electricity in the BaTiO3 ceramic layer is generated not only through the piezoelectric effect caused by a thermally induced bending stress but also by the temperature dependence of the BaTiO3 piezoelectric coefficient and permittivity.

  10. Tannic extract potential as natural wood preservative of Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA G. DA SILVEIRA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High toxicity of the preservatives most frequently used in wood treatment and the resulting risks of handling pose a threat to small producers and to the environment. In an attempt to mitigate these problems, the present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the preservative effect of tannic extract on biodeterioration of Acacia mearnsii wood. For this purpose, untreated and preserved specimens, some with tannin extract and some with a preservative mixture based on CCB (Chromated Copper Borate, were submitted to accelerated rotting trials with the fungus that causes white rot (Pycnoporus sanguineus for 16 weeks. The evaluations were made with a basis on weight loss and chemical components analysis, and they showed that the natural resistance of Acacia wood is moderate when exposed to the white rot fungus. The tannin concentrations showed similar effects to those of the CBB mixture in all evaluations, i.e., they significantly increased the biological resistance of the material, which started to be classified as very resistant to the fungus. Overall, the results suggest that tannin can be considered as a potential natural preservative product.

  11. Antioxidant and antimutagenic potential of Psidium guajava leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh

    2017-04-01

    Fruits, vegetables and medicinal herbs rich in phenolics antioxidants contribute toward reduced risk of age-related diseases and cancer. In this study, Psidium guajava leaf extract was fractionated in various organic solvents viz. petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, ethanl and methanol and tested for their antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Methanolic fraction showed maximum antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) as tested by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe3 + reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu 2+ ) reducing ability) assays. The fraction was analyzed for antimutagenic activities against sodium azide (NaN 3 ), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS), 2-aminofluorene (2AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in Ames Salmonella tester strains. The methanol extracted fraction at 80 μg/ml concentration inhibited above 70% mutagenicity. Further, phytochemical analysis of methanol fraction that was found to be most active revealed the presence of nine major compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This data suggests that guava contains high amount of phenolics responsible for broad-spectrum antimutagenic and antioxidant properties in vitro and could be potential candidates to be explored as modern phytomedicine.

  12. [Platelet rich plasma (PRP): potentialities and techniques of extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, L; Casella, F; Maggiore, C

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the various techniques of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extraction codified in recent years and their use potential is evaluated. PRP is one of the techniques with which at the moment it is attempted to modulate and facilitate the cure of a wound. The use of PRP is based on the theoretical premise that by concentrating platelets the effects of the growth factors (PDGF, TGF-beta, IGF-I and -II) so released will be increased. Marx's original technique is described above all. This prescribes the sampling of a unit of blood (450-500 ml) and the use of a cell separator. We then analysed the technique of Marx and Hannon in which the quantity of blood sampled is reduced to 150 ml, and the two simplified techniques of the Sacchi and Bellanda group. Finally, a new PRP extraction technique is described. We conclude that platelet gel allows access to autologous growth factors which by definition are neither toxic nor immunogenic and are capable of accelerating the normal processes of bone regeneration. PRP can thus be considered a useful instrument for increasing the quality and final quantity of regenerated bone in oral and maxillo-facial surgery operations.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial potential of organic solvent extracts of novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    lyophilized water extract of strain ERI-3 inhibited the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes,. Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Scropulariopsis sp at 10 mg/ml. Overall significant antibacterial and antifungal activities were noted in the ethyl acetate extract of ERI-1 and. ERI-3. Methanol extract of ERI-26 ...

  14. Chondroprotective potential of root extracts of Withania somnifera in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantran, Venil N; Kulkarni, Asavari; Boddul, Sanjay; Chinchwade, Trushna; Koppikar, Soumya J; Harsulkar, Abhay; Patwardhan, Bhushan; Chopra, Arvind; Wagh, Ulhas V

    2007-03-01

    This is the first report describing two novel chondroprotective activities of aqueous extracts of Withania somnifera root powder.First,these extracts had a statistically significant,short-term chondroprotective effect on damaged human osteoarthritic cartilage matrix in 50% of the patients tested. Second,these extracts caused a significant and reproducible inhibition of the gelatinase activity of collagenase type 2 enzyme in vitro.

  15. Radio protective potential of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum seeds extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.; Chaudhary, Ranu; Jahan, Swafiya; Gupta, Uma

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of X-ray and radioactivity at the end of the 19th century, cellular and molecular responses to ionizing radiation exposures have been the central research endeavors in radiation biology. The most striking aspect of the action of the ionizing radiation on biological material of all kinds is the grave damage produced by relatively trivial amounts of absorbed energy. Radiation damage occurs through the formation of free radical and reactive oxygen species in living organisms and these radicals are highly reactive and cause alterations in DNA, membrane and proteins by reacting with nucleotides, lipids and amino acids which is eventually reflected in cellular dysfunctions. The study of plants as modifiers of radiation effects is a relatively new area of research. There are various adaptive changes which a cell invokes to protect itself from radiation induced unhealthy biochemical changes and this can be supported by food supplements such phytochemical rich diets. Herbal medicines i.e. plant products have been considered as an alternative to synthetic compounds due to their better cultural acceptability, better efficacy, less toxicity and better compatibility with human body. Research has proved that the Trigonella foenum-graecum can inhibit the cancer of liver, lower blood cholesterol levels and also have an anti-diabetic effect. The whole extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum has been reported to contain several bioactive components such as glucoside, alkaloids, bitter principle crystalline compounds which elicit protection against several stress and pathological conditions by acting through different mechanisms such as antioxidant, stimulation of cell proliferation immunomodulational and anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, the present study has been undertaken to screen possible radioprotective potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract (TFE) against irradiation

  16. Structural and Dynamical Properties of Barium Stannate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, D.; Krogstad, M. J.; Lopez-Bezanilla, A.; Parshall, D.; Gim, Y.; Cooper, S. L.; Zheng, H.

    Barium stannate based perovskites have recently drawn attention due to their potential as transparent conducting oxides and reports of high carrier mobility in La-doped single crystals. Published DFT calculations and experimental results have suggested phonon instabilities at high symmetry zone boundary positions and local octahedral rotations, respectively, for BaSnO3. Here, we discuss recent structural measurements of BaSnO3, in which we have searched for such distortions by employing a combination of single crystal neutron diffraction and total scattering analysis of powder neutron diffraction. Moreover, we discuss lattice dynamical measurements, comparing phonon dispersion measurements to DFT calculations.

  17. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... No: 2010-8568] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium... determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  18. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  19. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of different polarities stem crude extracts by different extraction methods of Adenium obesum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To select best extraction method for the isolated antioxidant compounds from the stems of Adenium obesum. Methods: Two methods used for the extraction are Soxhlet and maceration methods. Methanol solvent was used for both extraction method. The methanol crude extract was defatted with water and extracted successively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol solvents. The antioxidant potential for all crude extracts were determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The percentage of extraction yield by Soxhlet method is higher compared to maceration method. The antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by Soxhlet extractor method was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in hexane crude extracts and found in the order of ethyl acetate>butanol>water>chloroform>methanol>hexane. However, the antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by maceration method was highest in butanol and lowest in hexane followed in the order of butanol>methanol>chloroform>water>ethyl acetate>hexane. Conclusions: The results showed that isolate antioxidant compounds effected on the extraction method and condition of extraction.

  20. Screening of Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Rahul; Patil, Chandrashekhar; Borase, Hemant; Narkhede, Chandrakant; Patil, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae families are well known for the expression of cyclotides having insecticidal properties. Leaves and flowers extracts of plants from the families Rubiaceae (Ixora coccinea) and Apocynaceae (Allamanda violacea) were evaluated for mosquito larvicidal effect against early IVth instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Two forms of plant extracts, one untreated and the other treated with heat and proteolytic enzyme were used for assay. After primary assay, the extract showing more than 50% inhibition was further used for quantification purpose. LC50 and LC90 values of all the extracts were found to be reduced with the treated form. Phytochemical analysis of plant extracts was performed. Primary confirmation for the presence of cyclotides was done by Lowry test, thin layer chromatography and haemolytic assay. This novel approach merits use of plant extracts in mosquito control programmes.

  1. Screening antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential of Iris albicans extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Işıl Hacıbekiroğlu; Ufuk Kolak

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of the extracts prepared from the rhizomes and flowering aerial parts of Iris albicans were determined in this study. The chloroform extract of the rhizomes was rich in total phenolic contents (431.98 ± 0.49 μgPEs/mg), and the chloroform extract of the aerial parts in total flavonoid contents (663.05 ± 0.32 μgQEs/mg). Although the chloroform extract of the rhizomes exhibited the best antioxidant effect in β -carotene bleaching and CUPRAC metho...

  2. Genotoxic potential of leaf extracts of Jatropha gossypiifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, P M; Araújo, S S; Santos, I R M R; Marin-Morales, M A; Benko-Iseppon, A M; Santos, A V; Randau, K P; Brasileiro-Vidal, A C

    2016-02-05

    Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) is widely used in popular medicine. However, further toxicological studies are necessary for its reliable use. The present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of J. gossypiifolia, using the test system Allium cepa. In addition, the phytochemical profile of the extracts was also obtained. Seeds of A. cepa were subjected to different concentrations of the two extracts (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/mL). Distilled water was used for the negative control and methyl methanesulfonate (4 x 10(-4) M) and trifluralin (0.84 ppm) for the positive controls. The values of mitotic index at all concentrations of ethanolic extract and at 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/mL aqueous extract showed a significant decrease. Alterations, such as chromosome adherence, C-metaphases, chromosome bridges, nuclear buds, and micronuclei were verified in both extracts but chromosome loss indicating genotoxic activity was observed only in the ethanolic extract. Presence of micronuclei on administration of the extracts, also indicated mutagenic action at the chromosome level. In the ethanolic extract, aneugenicity seemed to be the main activity, probably as a result of the action of terpenes and/or flavonoids, whereas in the aqueous extract, clastogenic action appeared to be the principal activity, presumably as a consequence of the effect of flavonoids and/or saponins. Thus, we suggest that the extracts of this species should be used with great caution for medicinal purpose.

  3. Antimicrobial potential of alkaloids and flavonoids extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alkaloids and flavonoids are secondary metabolites extracted from different medicinal plants. Tamarix aphylla a traditionally valuable medicinal plant; was used for the extraction of alkaloids and flavonoids in order to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methodology: The leaves of the plant were collected from ...

  4. In vitro antimicrobial potential of organic solvent extracts of novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of selected promising actinomycetes strains were studied towards Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, dermatophytes and opportunistic pathogens. Crude antimicrobial metabolites were extracted ...

  5. Golden rain tree leaf extracts as potential inhibitor of lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) protective effect of extract/fractions of Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. (Golden rain tree) in lipid peroxidation assay and calf thymus DNA protection assay. The leaves of the plant were extracted with different ...

  6. Antifouling potential of seaweed, sponge and cashew nut oil extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seaweeds, Sargassum wightii, Ulva lactuca; sponge Desmopsongiae sp., and cashew nut oil extracts were tested in vitro against ten marine fouling bacteria isolated from test panels and the green mussel Perna viridis. The biofilm bacteria growth was inhibited by methanol extracts of the seaweeds S. wightii, U. lactuca, ...

  7. Antioxidant potential of the extracts of Putranjiva roxburghii, Conyza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Putranjiva roxburghii, Conyza bonariensis, Woodfordia fruiticosa and Senecio chrysanthemoids were collected from different areas of Pakistan and extracted in methanol. The crude methanolic extract was dissolved in water and further partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol successively. Total phenols of all ...

  8. Antioxidant potential of Habiscus cannabinus methanolic leaf extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Methanolic leaf extract, exhibited significant scavenging effect on DPPH free radical and hydrogen peroxide production at a lower concentration of the extract when compared with ascorbic acids and á- tocopherol standard antioxidants. The highest free-radical scavenging and percentage scavenging effect of hydrogen ...

  9. Screening antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential of Iris albicans extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Hacıbekiroğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of the extracts prepared from the rhizomes and flowering aerial parts of Iris albicans were determined in this study. The chloroform extract of the rhizomes was rich in total phenolic contents (431.98 ± 0.49 μgPEs/mg, and the chloroform extract of the aerial parts in total flavonoid contents (663.05 ± 0.32 μgQEs/mg. Although the chloroform extract of the rhizomes exhibited the best antioxidant effect in β -carotene bleaching and CUPRAC methods among the tested extracts at all concentrations, it was found inactive in the metal chelating assay. The methanol extract of the aerial parts indicated moderate metal chelating activity (60% at 100 μg/mL. The chloroform extract of the rhizomes showed moderate anticholinesterase effect at 200 μg/mL. The chloroform extract of the aerial parts showed significantly inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase (78.44 ± 0.51%.

  10. Insecticidal Potential of an Orally Administered Metabolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insecticidal activity of Aspergillus niger IHCS-4 metabolic extract against Chrysomya chloropyga larvae was examined in vitro. The toxicity test revealed that 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g extract concentration significantly (P>0.05) affected the insect larvae, inducing 20% and 65% mortality respectively, within 24 hours.

  11. Moringa oleifera leaf extract potentiates anti-pseudomonal activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial interaction between the ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera (MO), which is used in Nigeria as a dietary supplement, and ciprofloxacin (Cp), a flouroquinolone antibiotic. Preliminary antimicrobial screening of the ethanol extract of M. oleifera and ciprofloxacin ...

  12. Golden rain tree leaf extracts as potential inhibitor of lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... This study was designed to evaluate the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity and deoxyribonucleic acid. (DNA) protective effect of extract/fractions of Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. (Golden rain tree) in lipid peroxidation assay and calf thymus DNA protection assay. The leaves of the plant were extracted ...

  13. Antitrypanosomal Potentials of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Punica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three doses (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg,80mg/kg) of ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Punica granatum were screened for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei bruce in Balb Strain Albino mice. Parasitaemia and disappearance of clinical signs were used as parameters to monitor the efficacy of the extracts using the ...

  14. Reaction sintering of a zirconia-containing barium feldspar ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, A.; Cheng, Y-B.; Muddle, B. C.

    1996-01-01

    Zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) is a natural mineral resource known to react with certain oxides to produce a dispersion of zirconia particles within ceramic or glass-ceramic matrices. Barium aluminosilicates, particularly the celsian polymorphs of BaO- Al 2 O 3 2SiO 2 display oxidation resistance and refractory characteristics commensurate with the properties required of high temperature materials. Such properties, coupled with the high melting point of ZrO 2 (2680 deg C), suggest that barium aluminosilicates and zirconia are an ideal combination from which to fabricate high temperature materials. A recent study has indicated that a barium aluminosilicate containing up to 40mol% ZrO 2 can be prepared via a sol-gel process. However, the desire to utilise a natural resource in the form of zircon in the present work has led to the choice of reaction sintering as an alternative processing route. The current work was undertaken to investigate the possibility of forming a zirconia-containing barium feldspar composite material using the reaction sintering of zircon and assuming the following stoichiometric reaction: 2ZrSiO 4 + BaCO 3 + Al 2 O 3 → 2ZrO 2 + BaO-Al 2 O 3 -2SiO 2 + CO 2 ↑. The reaction sintering of zircon with alumina and barium carbonate produces a composite material comprising distributed ZrO 2 in a continous barium feldspar matrix. Yttria added during processing allows a significant fraction of the ZrO 2 to be retained as tetragonal phase to room temperature and thus the potential for a measure of transformation toughening

  15. The potentials of henna ( Lawsonia inamis L .) leaves extracts as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawsonia inamis L.) leaves adopted as alternative counter stain in Gram staining reactions were studied. Different extracts were formulated into various staining solutions of different concentrations. The solutions were modified with hydrogen ...

  16. Estimating the extractability of potentially toxic metals in urban soils: A comparison of several extracting solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, F.; Reinoso, R.; Florido, M.C.; Diaz Barrientos, E.; Ajmone-Marsan, F.; Davidson, C.M.; Madrid, L.

    2007-01-01

    Metals released by the extraction with aqua regia, EDTA, dilute HCl and sequential extraction (SE) by the BCR protocol were studied in urban soils of Sevilla, Torino, and Glasgow. By multivariate analysis, the amounts of Cu, Pb and Zn liberated by any method were statistically associated with one another, whereas other metals were not. The mean amounts of all metals extracted by HCl and by SE were well correlated, but SE was clearly underestimated by HCl. Individual data for Cu, Pb and Zn by both methods were correlated only if each city was considered separately. Other metals gave poorer relationships. Similar conclusions were reached comparing EDTA and HCl, with much lower values for EDTA. Dilute HCl extraction cannot thus be recommended for general use as alternative to BCR SE in urban soils. - Dilute HCl extraction is tested as an alternative to the BCR sequential extraction in urban soils

  17. Estimating the extractability of potentially toxic metals in urban soils: A comparison of several extracting solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, F. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Reinoso, R. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Florido, M.C. [Departamento de Cristalografia, Mineralogia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Diaz Barrientos, E. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Ajmone-Marsan, F. [DI.VA.P.R.A., Chimica Agraria, Universita di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci, 44, 10095 Grugliasco, Torino (Italy); Davidson, C.M. [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G1 1XL, Scotland (United Kingdom); Madrid, L. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: madrid@irnase.csic.es

    2007-06-15

    Metals released by the extraction with aqua regia, EDTA, dilute HCl and sequential extraction (SE) by the BCR protocol were studied in urban soils of Sevilla, Torino, and Glasgow. By multivariate analysis, the amounts of Cu, Pb and Zn liberated by any method were statistically associated with one another, whereas other metals were not. The mean amounts of all metals extracted by HCl and by SE were well correlated, but SE was clearly underestimated by HCl. Individual data for Cu, Pb and Zn by both methods were correlated only if each city was considered separately. Other metals gave poorer relationships. Similar conclusions were reached comparing EDTA and HCl, with much lower values for EDTA. Dilute HCl extraction cannot thus be recommended for general use as alternative to BCR SE in urban soils. - Dilute HCl extraction is tested as an alternative to the BCR sequential extraction in urban soils.

  18. Effect of ionic strength on barium transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi; Prigiobbe, Valentina

    2018-02-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (or fracking) is a well stimulation technique used to extract resources from a low permeability formation. Currently, the most common application of fracking is for the extraction of oil and gas from shale. During the operation, a large volume of brine, rich in hazardous chemicals, is produced. Spills of brine from wells or pits might negatively impact underground water resources and, in particular, one of the major concerns is the migration of radionuclides, such as radium (Ra2+), into the shallow subsurface. However, the transport behaviour of Ra2+ through a reactive porous medium under conditions typical of a brine, i.e., high salinity, is not well understood, yet. Here, a study on the transport behaviour of barium (Ba2+, congener of radium) through a porous medium containing a common mineral such as goethite (FeO(OH)) is presented. Batch and column flood tests were carried out at conditions resembling the produced brine, i.e., large values of ionic strength (I), namely, 1 to 3 mol/kg. The measurements were described with the triple layer surface complexation model coupled with the Pitzer activity coefficient method and a reactive transport model, in the case of the transport tests. The experimental results show that the adsorption of Ba2+ onto FeO(OH) increases with pH but decreases with I and it becomes negligible at the brine conditions. Moreover, even if isotherms show adsorption at large I, at the same conditions during transport, Ba2+ travels without retardation through the FeO(OH) porous medium. The triple layer model agrees very well with all batch data but it does not describe well the transport tests in all cases. In particular, the model cannot match the pH measurements at large I values. This suggests that the chemical reactions at the solid-liquid interface do not capture the mechanism of Ba2+ adsorption onto FeO(OH) at large salinity. Finally, this study suggests that barium, and potentially its congeners, namely, radium

  19. Anti-tumor potential of total alkaloid extract of Prosopis juliflora DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total alkaloid extract from Prosopis juliflora DC. leaves was obtained using acid/base modified extraction method. The in vitro anti-tumor potential of the extract was evaluated using MTT (3-(4,5- dimethythiazol-2yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) based cytotoxicity monitoring after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure of the ...

  20. Hepato-Protective Potential of Methanol Extract of Leaf of Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the methanol leaf extract of Ziziphus mucronata (ZMLM). Method: The extract was prepared by soaking in 70% methanol/water and rotary evaporation. The phenol content of extract was then estimated. Twenty five adult male Sprague dawley ...

  1. Antiproliferative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.B. Minari

    2016-02-01

    breast cancer in rats treated with 50 mg/. g b wt of aqueous leaf extract of M. pruriens is shown in Plate. 5. This reveals the presence of hyperplasia of serous and muci- nous glands while the presence of DMBA-induced atrophy ...

  2. Antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Coleus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... The IC50 values of the ethanolic extract of C. spicatus and ascorbate were found to be 380 µg/ml and 410 ... cancer, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, etc. (Mensor et al., 2001; Parejo et al., 2002; Hou ... biological properties and mechanisms of actions. Natural antioxidants tend to be safer and also ...

  3. Antifouling potential of seaweed, sponge and cashew nut oil extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... nut oil extracts against biofilm bacteria and green mussel Perna viridisfrom Vellar estuary, Southeast coast of India. K. Prabhu*, S. Sophia Rani, S. Priyatharsini and S. Bragadeeswaran. Centre of Advanced study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai- 608 502,.

  4. Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A previous ethnobotanical survey on the latex plants of the Maritime region of the country revealed that this plant was included in several recipes curing malaria and microbial infections. Therefore, this study ... The LD50 of the tested extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg, indicating its safety. Conclusion: This ...

  5. Healing Potentials of Oral Moringa Oleifera Leaves Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The effects of oral dose of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera and tetracycline antibiotics on cutaneous wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus were studied in eighteen adult wistar rats (159±31.5g) randomized into three groups: Group A, n = 6, Moringa oleifera-(300 mg/kg). Group B, n = 6, tetracycline (9.4 ...

  6. Anti-venom Potentials of Friedelin Isolated from Hexane Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. 3Department of Chemistry ... (NB) soluble parts after which the hexane extract were subjected to silica gel gravity column chromatography for the isolation of pure ... genera and species of plants, their uses usually depending on the type of ...

  7. Antifungal potential of leaf extracts of leguminous trees against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii ...

  8. Healing Potentials of Oral Moringa Oleifera Leaves Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    1Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2Department of. Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Summary: The effects of oral dose of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera and tetracycline antibiotics on cutaneous wounds infected with Staphylococcus ...

  9. Anti-venom potentials of Friedelin isolated from hexane extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... taenicidal, cough remedy, dysentery, cancer, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and snake bite remedy. In this report, an attempt has been made to evaluate the bioactive molecules in the plant that are anti-venom agents. Consequently, the stem bark was exhaustively extracted with hexane and subsequently with methanol.

  10. Anti- trypanocidal potentials of Aqueous and Ethanolic leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera is a pan-tropical species that is reputed to possess a number of nutritional and medicinal properties. Aqueous and Ethanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera leaves were screened for in-vivo curative activities against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T.b. brucei) which is pathogenic to many animals and has a ...

  11. Anti-dyslipidemic and Antioxidant Potentials of Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The activity of the methanol extract of the whole plant of Kalanchoe crenata (MEKC) was studied for the treatment of diabetes-induced nephropathy in rats. Methods: Five-day old Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection (90 ìg/kg body weight) to induce diabetes. Kidney disease onset in ...

  12. Assessment of cardiotoxic potential of methanol extract of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of crude methanol extract of red cultivar Allium cepa (Onion) on serum cardiac troponin (cTnI) in cardiac muscle and some haematological parameters were investigated in this study. Fifty five (55) male albino rats were housed and fed with standard growers ration and water ad libitum.

  13. Potential protective effects of rosemary extract, against aspartame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study seeks to evaluate the possible protective effects of aqueous rosemary extract against aspartame overdose-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Three groups of rats were treated orally one time /2 days for twelve weeks: first group was regarded as control, the second group was given aspartame at a dose level of ...

  14. Antimicrobial potential of extracts and fractions of the African walnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and absence of cardiac glycosides. The thin layer chromatographic analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf crude extract confirmed the presence of alkaloids and tannis. These could be responsible for observed activity in the leaf of the plant; thus justifying its traditional uses especially in the treatment of dysentery.

  15. Phenolic Extracts from Wild Olive Leaves and Their Potential as Edible Oils Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora-Ioanna Lafka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics solid-liquid extraction of phenolics from wild olive leaves was elaborated using different mathematical models (Peleg, second order, Elovich, and power law model. As solvents, methanol, ethanol, ethanol:water 1:1, n-propanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate were used. The second order model best described the solvent extraction process, followed by the Elovich model. The most effective solvent was ethanol with optimum phenol extraction conditions 180 min, solvent to sample ratio 5:1 v/w and pH 2. Ethanol extract exhibited the highest antiradical activity among solvent and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE extracts, which in addition showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to synthetic and natural food antioxidants such as BHT, ascorbyl palmitate and vitamin E. Antioxidant potential of SFE extract was quite high, although its phenolic potential was not. Leaf extracts were proven to be good protectors for olive and sunflower oils at levels of 150 ppm.

  16. Photoexcited-carrier transport in barium strontium titanate/strontium titanate heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H.; Wang, J. Y.; Zhang, Z. T.; Yang, B.; Chen, C. L.; Jin, K. X.

    2017-09-01

    Photoexcited-carrier transport properties at the surface and the interface of barium strontium titanate/strontium titanate heterostructures are reported. Under a 365 nm light irradiation, the surfaces of barium strontium titanate films exhibit a metal-to-insulator transition, while the interfaces favor the metallic conduction with increasing temperatures. By analyzing, we consider that these results might be attributed to the intrinsic features of strontium titanate and the polarization state of barium strontium titanate films under the irradiation. Our results would contribute to further understanding of the photocarrier effect at the interface and demonstrate great potential applications in optoelectronic devices of all-oxide heterostructures.

  17. Barium aspiration and alveolarisation of barium in an infant: A case report and review of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Isles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of bilateral inhalation and alveolarisation of barium in an infant following a barium swallow for investigation of dusky spells associated with feeds. A bronchoscopy subsequently revealed the presence of a mid-tracheal tracheo-oesophageal cleft. We review the literature on barium aspiration, its consequences and make recommendations for management.

  18. Influence of extraction technique on the anti-oxidative potential of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) extracts in bovine muscle homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortle, E; O'Grady, M N; Gilroy, D; Furey, A; Quinn, N; Kerry, J P

    2014-12-01

    Six extracts were prepared from hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves and flowers (HLF) and berries (HB) using solid-liquid [traditional (T) (HLFT, HBT), sonicated (S) (HLFS, HBS)] and supercritical fluid (C) extraction (HLFC, HBC) techniques. The antioxidant activities of HLF and HB extracts were characterised using in vitro antioxidant assays (TPC, DPPH, FRAP) and in 25% bovine muscle (longissimus lumborum) homogenates (lipid oxidation (TBARS), oxymyoglobin (% of total myoglobin)) after 24h storage at 4°C. Hawthorn extracts exhibited varying degrees of antioxidant potency. In vitro and muscle homogenate (TBARS) antioxidant activity followed the order: HLFS>HLFT and HBT>HBS. In supercritical fluid extracts, HLFC>HBC (in vitro antioxidant activity) and HLFC≈HBC (TBARS). All extracts (except HBS) reduced oxymyoglobin oxidation. The HLFS extract had the highest antioxidant activity in all test systems. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) exhibited potential as a technique for the manufacture of functional ingredients (antioxidants) from hawthorn for use in muscle foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Milk-clotting potential of fruit extracts from Solanum esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... Casein solution (1%. (w/v)) was subjected to hydrolysis at 30°C in 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.7). Sodium azide was added at 0.03% (w/v) to prevent microbial growth (Silva and Malcata, 2005). The hydrolysis was initiated by addition of 1 mL of each fruit extract from S. esculentum, S. macrocarpon and ...

  20. Theoretical study on the ground state of the polar alkali-metal-barium molecules: Potential energy curve and permanent dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Dezhi; Kuang, Xiaoyu; Gao, Yufeng; Huo, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically investigate the electronic structure for the 2 Σ + ground state of the polar alkali-metal-alkaline-earth-metal molecules BaAlk (Alk = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs). Potential energy curves and permanent dipole moments (PDMs) are determined using power quantum chemistry complete active space self-consistent field and multi-reference configuration interaction methods. Basic spectroscopic constants are derived from ro-vibrational bound state calculation. From the calculations, it is shown that BaK, BaRb, and BaCs molecules have moderate values of PDM at the equilibrium bond distance (BaK:1.62 D, BaRb:3.32 D, and BaCs:4.02 D). Besides, the equilibrium bond length (4.93 Å and 5.19 Å) and dissociation energy (0.1825 eV and 0.1817 eV) for the BaRb and BaCs are also obtained

  1. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizue Okada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts’ aqueous extracts (PSAE. In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts’ extracts on Aβ (1–42 structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r=0.882 which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE.

  2. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  3. Potential use of low-NDGA Larrea divaricata extracts as antioxidant in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Turner Turner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Larrea divaricata Cav. is widely distributed in Argentina. Aqueous extract, of its leaves, has documented antitumoral and immunomodulatory activities. In this study, the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract and a component, nordihydroguaiaretic acid was determined and compared using different assays. Both the aqueous extract and nordihydroguaiaretic acid exhibited antioxidant activity. However, results show that it is very likely that compounds other than nordihydroguaiaretic acid could be involved in the antioxidant activity of the extract. Since nordihydroguaiaretic acid is nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic agent, it is important to direct efforts toward the potential use of low-nordihydroguaiaretic acid L. divaricata extracts as antioxidant in foods.

  4. Increasing Extracted Beam Current Density in Ion Thrusters through Plasma Potential Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Neil; Foster, John

    2015-09-01

    A gridded ion thruster's maximum extractable beam current is determined by the space charge limit. The classical formulation does not take into account finite ion drift into the acceleration gap. It can be shown that extractable beam current can be increased beyond the conventional Child-Langmuir law if the ions enter the gap at a finite drift speed. In this work, ion drift in a 10 cm thruster is varied by adjusting the plasma potential relative to the potential at the extraction plane. Internal plasma potential variations are achieved using a novel approach involving biasing the magnetic cusps. Ion flow variations are assessed using simulated beam extraction in conjunction with a retarding potential analyzer. Ion beam current density changes at a given total beam voltage in full beam extraction tests are characterized as a function of induced ion drift velocity as well.

  5. Laser cooling and trapping of barium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Subhadeep

    2008-01-01

    Laser cooling and trapping of heavy alkaline-earth element barium have been demonstrated for the first time ever. For any possible cycling transition in barium that could provide strong cooling forces, the excited state has a very large branching probability to metastable states. Additional lasers

  6. Potential industrial utilization of starches extracted from new yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, starches of some improved cassava varieties were analyzed in order to detect those revealing potentialities and aptitude for industrial exploitation. ... All starches showed very strong water absorption capacity with the strong value recorded by V53 (122.52 ± 1.57 %) and the lowest by V63 (104.84 ± 0.55 %) and ...

  7. Insecticidal Potential of an Orally Administered Metabolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survivors of the toxicity treatment at 0.04mg/g and 0.08mg/g recorded significant reductions in weight over time. These observations have indicated the potential of A. niger as a simple, inexpensive and accessible source of bioinsecticide. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol. 8 (1) 2004: 45 - 48.

  8. Anti-diabetic and antioxidant potentials of aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The botanical also prevents complication of diabetes such as lipid peroxidation and ketoacidosis via its antioxidant potentials. This study lends credence to the ethnomedical use of the botanical in the management of diabetes. Keywords: Eucalyptus globulus, diabetes, lipid peroxidation, ketoacidosis, Ethnomedicine, liver ...

  9. antioxidant potential of habiscus cannabinus methanolic leaf extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These oxygen species produced have the potential to cause oxidative damage by reacting with biomolecules (Smirnoff, 2005) thereby precipitating a disease condition. Antioxidants ... through evolution as a natural means of surviving environmental ... Increase in absorbance of the reaction mixture indicated increased.

  10. Assessment of antioxidant potential of Moringa stenopetala leaf extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the antioxidant potential of Moringa stenopetala leaf obtained from a private garden in Bahir Dar City and powdered Moringa leaf purchased from a supermarket in Bahir Dar City by using ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, ...

  11. Chemical Composition and Nutraceutical Potential of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Stem Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Bhatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stem of Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus was found to be an antioxidant rich fraction as evaluated by in vitro models such as DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging, and total antioxidant capacity. The extract also exhibited antiplatelet aggregation ability, antibacterial activity, and antiproliferative effect against cancer cell lines: Caco-2, HCT-15, and MCF-7. Phytochemical evaluation of the extract revealed the occurrence of total phenolics (49.91 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoids (26.6 mg RE/g extract, and condensed tannins (0.7 mg TAE/g extract. Among the major phenolics, rosmarinic acid (6.160 mg/g extract was predominant, followed by caffeic acid (0.770 mg/g extract, rutin (0.324 mg/g extract, gallic acid (0.260 mg/g extract, quercetin (0.15 mg/g extract, and p-coumaric acid (0.104 mg/g extract. The appreciable biological activity and presence of biomolecules in the methanolic extract of stem indicate its potential application as functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals.

  12. Antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, B; Anuradha, C V

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of C. sativum are used as a traditional drug for the treatment of diabetes. The antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of seeds in vitro was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Incorporation of seed powder in the diet led to marked lowering of blood glucose and a rise in the levels of insulin in diabetic rats. A parallel beneficial effect was observed on oxidant -antioxidant balance in the kidney. Addition of coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of peroxidative damage but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels in diabetic rats. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while total flavanoid content was found to be 12.6 quercetin equivalents/g. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum free radical-scavenging action and free radical reducing power of coriander seed extract was observed at a concentration of 50 microg GAE. Islet histology structures showed degeneration of pancreatic islets in diabetic rats which was also reduced in diabetic rats treated with seed powder. These results show that C. sativum seeds not only possess antihyperglycemic properties but antioxidative properties also. Increased dietary intake of coriander seeds decrease the oxidative burden in diabetes mellitus.

  13. Fern extracts potentiate fluconazole activity and inhibit morphological changes in Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Freitas

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The extracts obtained from the fern species L. venustum and P. calomelanos dose not present significant antifungal activity. However, P. calomelanos potentiates the activity of fluconazole and both extracts inhibits the morphological changes in Candida species, indicating that they have potential pharmacological activity as modulators of fungal biology. Therefore, novel studies are required to characterize the interference of these extracts in the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida species as well as the potential of fern species to treat fungal infections.

  14. Sulphate removal from industrial effluents through barium sulphate precipitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available surface wetland g Gas HiPRO Hi recovery Precipitating Reverse Osmosis l Liquid MBO Magnesium Barium Oxide ORP Oxidation-reduction potential RO Reverse osmosis s Solid SANAS South African National Accreditation System SANS... South African National Standards SEM Scanning electron microscopy SF wetland Subsurface flow wetland SPARRO Slurry precipitation and recycle reverse osmosis SRO Seeded reverse osmosis TDS Total Dissolved Solids WHO World Health...

  15. Antioxidant potential of hydrolyzed polyphenolic extracts from tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambi, F.; Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of tara pod extracts rich in gallotannins submitted to chemical hydrolysis was evaluated. The increase in the release of gallic acid from the tara pod extracts during the hydrolysis process reached a maximum ratio of free gallic acid/total phenolics of 94.1% at 20 h, at

  16. Black bean anthocyanin-rich extracts as food colorants: Physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black beans contain anthocyanins that could be used as colorants in foods with associated health benefits. The objective was to optimize anthocyanins extraction from black bean coats and evaluate their physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential. Optimal extraction conditions were 24% ethan...

  17. Anti-vibrio potentials of acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-vibrio potentials of acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and determine its relevance in the treatment of vibrios infection. Methods: The agar-well diffusion method was used for screening the extracts for their anti-vibrio activity. Broth micro-dilution assay was used to ...

  18. A new double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Sang; Cho, Won Sik; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Mun Gyu; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jaun, Woo Ki; Han, Chung Yul

    1987-01-01

    A new technic of the barium enema was proposed for the better colonic double contrast study with the average 204ml of 50w/v% barium, applied to 109 serial patients. The barium was introduced to sigmoid colon, and then pushed to a mid transverse colon by the air insufflation through an enema syringe, a new device. An advance to cecum is accomplished by the air insufflation and/or the position change of the patient. The barium transfer method was developed for the best spot film exposure, through colon, by the position change of the patient, the tilting of the x-ray table and the air insufflation with the enema syringe. The mean angle of the x-ray table tilted was -10 .deg. at the beginning the barium enema till the barium sent past the splenic flexure, -15 . deg. for the best lateral view of rectum and -18 .deg. for the bet prone PA view of rectosigmoid colon. This was a simple, better and economic double contrast barium enema for the cooperative patients

  19. Antimicrobial potential of leaf and fruit extracts and oils of wild and cultivated edible olive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Qurshi, I.A.; Liaqat, R.; Akhtar, S.; Aziz, I.

    2014-01-01

    Olive tree is the first botanical noted in the Bible. Leaves and fruits of olive are rich sources of Phenols, triterpenes, and flavanoids. Oleuropein obtained from the leaves extract is believed to be important therapeutic compound. Olive leaf and oils are used for the treatment of different diseases as folklore medicines by different ethnic groups in different countries of the world. The present study aims to investigate the potential antimicrobial activities of wild (Olea ferruginea) and edible (Olea europaea) olive leaf crude extracts, crude oils from ripe and unripe fruits and extra virgin oils against the selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. The results show that olive leaf and oil have potential antibacterial activities against some of the gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. However, certain strains were resistant to the extracts. It was also found that the activities were higher for the gram negative strains as compared to gram positive strains. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts were found to be more efficient in extraction than the other solvents used. Leaf extracts were more effective than the oil extracted from ripe and unripe fruits. There was no significant difference in the activities of extra virgin oils and crude leaf extracts. From the results it is concluded that the leaf extract is a cheap and effective antibacterial agent that can be used as alternative to purified oil. (author)

  20. Comparative and quantitative analysis of antioxidant and scavenging potential of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Sharma, Shatruhan; Sharma, Veena

    2015-07-01

    To compare and elucidate the antioxidant efficacy of ethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. (Fabaceae family). Various in-vitro antioxidant assays and free radical-scavenging assays were done. Quantitative measurements of various phytoconstituents, reductive abilities and chelating potential were carried out along with standard compounds. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for ethanol and hydroethanol extracts were analyzed and compared with respective standards. Hydroethanolic extracts showed considerably more potent antioxidant activity in comparison to ethanol extracts. Hydroethanolic extracts had lower IC50 values than ethanol extracts in the case of DPPH, metal chelation and hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity (829, 659 and 26.7 μg/mL) but had slightly higher values than ethanol in case of SO2- and NO2-scavenging activity (Pethanol extracts (211.691 and 132.603 mg GAE and rutin/g of plant extract respectively). Karl Pearson's correlation analysis (r2) between various antioxidant parameters and bioactive components also associated the antioxidant potential of I. tinctoria with various phytoconstituents, especially phenolics, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. This study may be helpful to draw the attention of researchers towards the hydroethanol extracts of I. tinctoria, which has a high yield, and great prospects in herbal industries to produce inexpensive and powerful herbal products.

  1. Phytochemical screening and comparative antimicrobial potential of different extracts ofStevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Siddique

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate in vitro antimicrobial potential and phytochemical screening of the crude extracts of leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Methods: The essential oil and crude extracts were prepared by using different usual method. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities were measured by the well established methods. Results: Highest antifungal index [(12.13依0.08 mm] and lowest antifungal index [(9.13依0.04 mm] as well as highest antibacterial index [(11.89依0.07 mm] and lowest antibacterial index [(7.24依0.03 mm] were obtained for extracts B, H, A and F, respectively. Invariably extract C, E, I, J and H did not show antimicrobial activity. The extract F showed all antifungal and antibacterial activity except Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium. Conclusions: The above findings support the idea that plant extracts of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves may have a role to be used as pharmaceuticals or preservatives.

  2. Barium titanate nanoparticles: promising multitasking vectors in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Marino, Attilio; Rocca, Antonella; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-06-10

    Ceramic materials based on perovskite-like oxides have traditionally been the object of intense interest for their applicability in electrical and electronic devices. Due to its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric features, barium titanate (BaTiO3) is probably one of the most studied compounds of this family. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been focused on the exploitation of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) in the biomedical field, owing to the high biocompatibility of BTNPs and their peculiar non-linear optical properties that have encouraged their use as nanocarriers for drug delivery and as label-free imaging probes. In this review, we summarize all the recent findings about these 'smart' nanoparticles, including the latest, most promising potential as nanotransducers for cell stimulation.

  3. IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF STEVIA EXTRACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moselhy, Said S; Ghoneim, Magdy A; Khan, Jehan A

    2016-01-01

    The current trend globally is the utilization of natural products as therapeutic agents given its minimum side effects. The leaves of Stevia contain several active ingredient compounds such as rebaudioside. Stevia extract have been used for many purposes. Active oxygen radicals can induce base modifications, DNA breakage, and intracellular protein crosslink's. This study was done to evaluate the potential of stevia extract as antibacterial and antioxidants actions. Antibacterial activity of different extracts of stevia was tested in vitro against different species of bacteria and hepato-protective efficacy was testes in rats injected with CCl 4 as hepatotoxic. Acetone extract exhibited antibacterial activity against selected five bacteria species. The acetone extract suppressed the elevation of serum ALT (p stevia extract showed prevention against deleterious effects of CCl 4 by lowering lipid peroxidation and enhancement of antioxidant activities as SOD and CAT. The protection trial is better than treatment trial. Total phenolic content of aqueous and acetone extracts were found 30 mg and 85 mg gallic /gm extract respectively. While the total flavonoids were 40 mg and 80 mg quercetin/g respectively. The GC-MS analysis showed that monoterpene and indole are the main components. Aqueous extract don't show any antibacterial activity against the tested strains. The antioxidant properties were attributable to its phenolic content to scavenge free radicals. Acetone extract possess a potent antimicrobial and activity against deleterious effect of CCl 4 -caused liver damage.

  4. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  5. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Shuler Nin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough.METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons.RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6% of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6% of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%. We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration.CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  6. Double contrast barium meal and acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Pietilae, J.; Ahovuo, J.; Mankinen, P.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective double blind study, acetylcysteine, a local and systemic respiratory tract mucolytic agent, or a placebo, were given to 100 patients prior to a double contrast barium meal to decrease the gastric mucus viscosity and to make the mucus layer thinner, in order to permit barium to outline the furrows surrounding the areae gastricae instead of the overlying thick mucus. However, acetylcysteine failed to improve either visualization of the areae gastricae or the general quality of the double contrast barium meal. (orig.)

  7. Genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of whole plant extracts of Kalanchoe laciniata by Ames and MTT assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Ali; Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Akhtar, Bushra; Saleem, Ammara; Manan, Maria; Shabbir, Maryam; Ashraf, Muneeb; Peerzada, Sohaib; Ahmed, Shoaib; Raza, Moosa

    2017-01-01

    Lack of data on safety of herbal medicines have endangered human health and life. The present study evaluated the genotoxic and mutagenic effect of Kalanchoe laciniata to access the safety and usefulness of the medicinal plant. Aqua-methanolic and n-hexane extracts of K. laciniata were evaluated for the genotoxic potential using Ames assay and cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT assay. Ames assay was conducted using two strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA-100 and TA-102 whereas MTT assay was performed on baby hamster kidney cell line BHK-21. Aqua-methanolic extract of K. laciniata exhibited significant mutagenicity when exposed to TA-102 strain with a mutagenic index of 50.66 and 54.74 at maximum dose 150 mg/plate. The extract was also mutagenic to TA-100 strain but to a lesser extent. M.I of n-hexane extract was 12.15 and 15.51 for TA-100 and TA-102 respectively. n-hexane extract was mutagenic but little difference was observed between results of two strains. Both extracts were found to be cytotoxic with an IC 50 of 321.9 and 638.5 µg/mL for aqua-methanolic and n-hexane extracts respectively. On the basis of results it was concluded that aqua-methanolic and n-hexane extracts of K. laciniata possess mutagenic and cytotoxic potential. It is suggested to explore the plant further to evaluate its safety in rodents and other species.

  8. Effect of barium-coated halloysite nanotube addition on the cytocompatibility, mechanical and contrast properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Uday; Tappa, Karthik; Weisman, Jeffery A; Nicholson, James Connor; Mills, David K

    2017-01-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were investigated as a platform for tunable nanoparticle composition and enhanced opacity in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. Halloysite has been widely used to increase the mechanical properties of various polymer matrices, in stark contrast to other fillers such as barium sulfate that provide opacity but also decrease mechanical strength. The present work describes a dry deposition method for successively fabricating barium sulfate nanoparticles onto the exterior surface of HNTs. A sintering process was used to coat the HNTs in barium sulfate. Barium sulfate-coated HNTs were then added to PMMA bone cement and the samples were tested for mechanical strength and tailored opacity correlated with the fabrication ratio and the amount of barium sulfate-coated HNTs added. The potential cytotoxic effect of barium-coated HNTs in PMMA cement was also tested on osteosarcoma cells. Barium-coated HNTs were found to be completely cytocompatible, and cell proliferation was not inhibited after exposure to the barium-coated HNTs embedded in PMMA cement. We demonstrate a simple method for the creation of barium-coated nanoparticles that imparted improved contrast and material properties to native PMMA. An easy and efficient method for coating clay nanotubes offers the potential for enhanced imaging by radiologists or orthopedic surgeons.

  9. Time requirement for barium reduction in intussusception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hye Eun; Kim, Seung Ho; Kang, In Young; Park, Byoung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun

    1988-01-01

    During the period between January 1985 and December 1987, barium reduction was performed in 146 cases of intussusception who were admitted to Kwangju Christian Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Success rate to the symptom duration is relatively constant. 2. The success rate in infants with severe dehydration was 50% but it was gradually increased in infants with moderate dehydration and in infants with mild dehydration, 83.3% and 100% respectively. 3. The success rate of 12 cases in severely dehydrated infants with positive dissection sign was 16.7%. 4. The success rate of 15 cases in moderately dehydrated infants with positive dissection sign was 66.7%. 5. The average time requirement for barium reduction was 58.3 minutes. No serious complications were noted during barium reduction, except mild vomiting. 6. With above results, it is desirable that barium reduction should be performed according to the patient's physical status and radiologic findings.

  10. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Barium appendicitis after upper gastrointestinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Nathan M; Lillemoe, Keith D; Falimirski, Mark E

    2010-02-01

    Barium appendicitis (BA) is a rarely seen entity with fewer than 30 reports in the literature. However, it is a known complication of barium imaging. To report a case of BA in a patient whose computed tomography (CT) scan was initially read as foreign body ingestion. An 18-year-old man presented with right lower quadrant pain after upper gastrointestinal imaging 2 weeks prior. A CT scan was obtained of his abdomen and pelvis that revealed a finding that was interpreted as a foreign body at the area of the terminal ileum. A plain X-ray study of the abdomen revealed radiopaque appendicoliths. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of barium appendicitis. BA is a rare entity and the pathogenesis is unclear. Shorter intervals between barium study and presentation with appendicitis usually correlate with fewer complications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial potential of successive extracts of Ulmus wallichiana Planch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Kumar, Akhilesh; Bisht, Gajraj

    2017-10-16

    The plant Ulmus wallichiana Planch. is found in hills of Uttarakhand, India. Bark of U. wallichiana is commonly used as traditional healer for bone fracture of animals as well as human beings and also used as wound healer remedy. The present study was designed to evaluate antimicrobial potential of various extracts of U. wallichiana bark. Soxhlet extraction method was used for preparation of different extracts viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and FRAP assay method. In vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated using agar well diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest significant antioxidant activity. Antibacterial activity was performed against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcusaureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Amongst the various extracts tested, only ethyl acetate exhibited highest zone of inhibition as compared to other extracts and greater than standard drug. Chloroform extract also showed moderate zone of inhibition. Antifungal activity was evaluated against Aspergillus fumigates and Aspergillus flavus. The ethyl acetate extract showed maximum zone of inhibition as compared to other extracts. Chloroform extract showed mild antifungal activity. Chloramphenicol and nystatin were used as a positive control as antibacterial and antifungal agent respectively. Furthermore, the highest percentage of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was estimated in ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract of U. wallichiana showed the highest antimicrobial activity, and should be further investigated for isolating active compound(s) responsible for antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated extraction of lexical meanings from Polish corpora: potentialities and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Piasecki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Automated extraction of lexical meanings from Polish corpora: potentialities and limitations Large corpora are often consulted by linguists as a knowledge source with respect to lexicon, morphology or syntax. However, there are also several methods of automated extraction of semantic properties of language units from corpora. In the paper we focus on emerging potentialities of these methods, as well as on their identified limitations. Evidence that can be collected from corpora is confronted with the existing models of formalised description of lexical meanings. Two basic paradigms of lexical semantics extraction are briefly described. Their properties are analysed on the basis of several experiments performed on Polish corpora. Several potential applications of the methods, including a system supporting expansion of a Polish wordnet, are discussed. Finally, perspectives on the potential further development are discussed.

  14. Extracts from New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida Containing Fucoxanthin as Potential Functional Biomaterials against Cancer in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Kelvin Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested extracts from New Zealand seaweed Undaria pinnatifida containing fucoxanthin, in parallel with pure fucoxanthin, in nine human cancer cell lines, for anticancer activity. Growth inhibition effects of extracts from Undaria pinnatifida were found in all types of cancer cell lines in dose- and time- dependent manners. Cytotoxicity of fucoxanthin in three human non-cancer cell lines was also tested. Compared with pure fucoxanthin, our extracts containing low level of fucoxanthin were found to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of lung carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. Our results suggest that fucoxanthin is a functional biomaterial that may be used as a chemopreventive phytochemical or in combination chemotherapy. Furthermore, we show for the first time that some unknown compounds with potential selective anti-cancer effects may exist in extracts of New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida, and New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida could be used as a source for either functional biomaterial extraction or production of functional food.

  15. Wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. leaf--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin

    2010-06-01

    The extract of K. pinnata was evaluated for its wound healing activity by using excision wound model in rats. On day 11, animals treated with the ethanolic leaf extract exhibited 86.33% reduction in the wound area, compared to petroleum jelly treated control (69.36%) and the mupirocin treated standard (85.49%). The hydroxyproline content of extract treated animals was higher, as compared to control and the standard groups. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that K. pinnata leaf extract exhibits significant wound healing potential. The increased rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the extract treated animals supports the claims made by traditional healers of the benefits obtained from the medicinal use of K. pinnata.

  16. Preliminary phytochemical screening, Antibacterial potential and GC-MS analysis of two medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaram, Seerangaraj; Kannan, Suruli; Saravanan, Konda Mani; Vasantharaj, Seerangaraj; Sathiyavimal, Selvam; P, Palanisamy Senthilkumar

    2016-05-01

    The presence study was aimed to catalyze the primary metabolites and their confirmation by using GC-MS analysis and antibacterial potential of leaf extract of two important medicinal plant viz., Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica. The antibacterial potential of the methanol leaf extract of the studied species was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellap neumoniae, Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus using by agar well diffusion method. The higher zone of inhibition (16mm) was observed against the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 100μl concentration of methanol leaf extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of studied species shows that presence of phytochemical compounds like steroids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. GC-MS analysis confirms the occurrence of 20 different compounds in the methanol leaf extract of the both studied species.

  17. An experimental study on barium peritonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Barium sulfate is universally used contrast media in gastrointestinal roentgenology, and spillage of barium into peritoneal cavity can occur. The references on effect of barium sulfate in the peritoneal cavity have been scattered and the results are varied. In 80 rats, body weight of 130 gm to 150 gm, sterile pure barium, sterile commercial barium, intestinal content, and mixed pure barium and intestinal content were experimentally injected into the peritoneal cavity. Consecutive weekly laparotomy and microscopic examination were done for 4 weeks. The results are as followings: 1. Mind inflammatory reaction and mild adhesion after sterile pure barium injection. 2. Mild inflammatory reaction and moderate adhesion after sterile commercial barium injection. 3. Acute peritonitis and abscess formation after intestinal content injection. 4. High mortality due to severe acute peritonitis, and severe adhesion in survivors after injection of both pure barium and intestinal content.

  18. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  19. Allelopathic potential and systematic evaluation of organic extracts from Canavalia ensiformis leaves (Jack beans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sonia; de Moraes, Maria de Lourdes Leite; da Silva Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the assessment of possible allelopathic potential of organic extracts obtained from leaves of Canavalia ensiformis under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, a systematic evaluation of these extracts was carried out using specific protocols developed in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to determine some groups of secondary metabolites. After the identification and quantification of compounds, the effects of compounds on germination of some common weeds was investigated, which are becoming a real problem in pastures in the state of Pará, Brazil.

  20. In vitro photoprotective effects of Marcetia taxifolia ethanolic extract and its potential for sunscreen formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia C.C. Costa

    Full Text Available AbstractThe species Marcetia taxifolia (A. St.-Hil. DC., Melastomataceae, which is endemic of the rupestrian fields of northeastern Brazil, contains a significant amount of flavonoids. In this work, the potential of the ethanolic extract of M. taxifolia as the active principle in a sunscreen photoprotection (UV-A and UV-B formulation was investigated. The Liquid Chromatography High Performance-Diode Array Detector quantification (quercetin, total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity through 2.2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazil method, photoprotective activity against UV-B and UV-A radiation in vitro (spectrophotometric method and potential for eye irritation using the methodology of the hen egg test-chorioallantoic membrane were performed in the extract. After that, the formulations were prepared using different concentrations of active ethanolic extract (5, 10, 20 and 30% and the evaluation of the sun protection factor was carried out using the same methodology used for the crude extract. The crude extract showed UV-A photoprotection and low eye irritation in the hen egg test-chorioallantoic membrane test. All formulations containing M. taxifolia extract had ≥ 6 sun protection factor. Its shows the possibility to use this extracts as a sunscreen in pharmaceutical preparations.

  1. Evaluation of Photoprotective Potential and Percutaneous Penetration by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of the Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Milena K; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Baesso, Mauro L; Nogueira, Ana C; Bento, Antonio C; Bortoluzzi, Bruno B; Serra, Lara Z; Cortez, Diogenes A G

    2015-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius is a plant rich in phenolic compounds, which have antioxidant properties and can provide new opportunities for treatment and prevention of diseases mediated by ultraviolet radiation like photoaging and skin cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photoprotective potential and ex vivo percutaneous penetration of the crude extract of Schinus terebinthifolius leaves. The extract was tested for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and β-carotene bleaching test. The sun protection factor was also evaluated. The ex vivo skin permeation of the emulsion and gel formulations were assayed. Fractionation of the extract resulted in gallic acid, ethyl gallate and a mixture of flavonoids, suggesting derivatives of quercetin and myricetin. The phenolic content of the extract was 384.64 ± 2.60 mg GAE g(-1) extract. The antioxidant activity was superior to butylated hydroxytoluene, in DPPH method, and ascorbic acid and rutin, in β-carotene bleaching assay. The extract showed UV absorption with photoprotector potential in the UVB region. The photoacoustic spectroscopy measurements confirmed absorption in the UV region and topical application of the formulations caused no histological changes in the rats' skin. These results suggest that the crude extract of Schinus terebinthifolius leaves may be a promising natural sunscreen product. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. The Profile and Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus Lipopeptide Extracts of Five Potential Biocontrol Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Dimkić

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the efficacy of two different methods for extracting lipopeptides produced by five Bacillus strains-ethyl acetate extraction, and acid precipitation followed by methanol extraction—was investigated using mass spectrometry. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC was also used for the simultaneous separation of complex mixtures of lipopeptide extracts and for the determination of antimicrobial activity of their components. The mass spectra clearly showed well-resolved groups of peaks corresponding to different lipopeptide families (kurstakins, iturins, surfactins, and fengycins. The ethyl acetate extracts produced the most favorable results. The extracts of SS-12.6, SS-13.1, and SS-38.4 showed the highest inhibition zones. An iturin analog is responsible for the inhibition of Xanthomonas arboricola and Pseudomonas syringae phytopathogenic strains. HPTLC bioautography effectively identified the active compounds from a mixture of lipopeptide extracts, proving in situ its potential for use in direct detection and determination of antimicrobials. In the test of potential synergism among individual extracts used in different mixtures, stronger antimicrobial effects were not observed. Biochemical and phylogenetic analysis clustered isolates SS-12.6, SS-13.1, SS-27.2, and SS-38.4 together with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, while SS-10.7 was more closely related to Bacillus pumilus.

  3. Probing Regenerative Potential of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts Using In vitro Cellular Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Evangeline E; Pulwale, Anubha V; Patil, Gauri A; Moghe, Alpana S

    2016-01-01

    Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects. Moringa oleifera flower extract showed significant ability to promote proliferation of rat fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cells. The extract also had prominent angiogenic and hepatoprotective effects.The extract did not influence proliferation of cancer cell lines indicating its safety for human consumption and use in pharmaceuticals.The Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed relatively less potential to stimulate cells but had prominent cytotoxic

  4. Probing Regenerative Potential of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts Using In vitro Cellular Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Evangeline E.; Pulwale, Anubha V.; Patil, Gauri A.; Moghe, Alpana S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. Objective: To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Materials and Methods: Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Results: Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion: A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera flower extract showed significant ability to promote proliferation of rat fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cells. The extract also had prominent angiogenic and hepatoprotective effects.The extract did not influence proliferation of cancer cell lines indicating its safety for human consumption and use in pharmaceuticals.The Moringa oleifera leaf extract

  5. Pharmacological evaluation for anti-asthmatic and anti-inflammatory potential of Woodfordia fruticosa flower extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiralal Ghante, Mahavir; Bhusari, Kishore P; Duragkar, Nandkishore J; Ghiware, Nitin B

    2014-07-01

    Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. (Lythraceae) flowers are ethnopharmacologically acclaimed in the Indian medicinal system to treat asthma. To evaluate W. fruticosa flower extracts for anti-asthmatic effect. Ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and hydro-alcohol extracts of W. fruticosa flowers were obtained successively and standardized. Ability of extracts to stabilize free radicals and compound-48/80-induced mast cell degranulation was evaluated. In vitro anti-inflammatory potential of extracts at 100 and 200 µg/ml by membrane stabilization and in vivo inhibition of rat paw edema up to 5 h (100 and 200 mg/ml; p.o.) was evaluated. In vitro bronchorelaxant effect was examined against histamine- and acetylcholine (1 µg/ml; independently)-induced guinea pig tracheal contraction. Extracts were evaluated for bronchoprotection (in vivo) ability against 0.1% histamine- and 2% acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs at 100 and 200 mg/ml; p.o. Standardization studies revealed that the methanol extract exhibited highest polyphenolic (62.66 GAE), and flavonoid (6.32 RE) content and HPLC fingerprinting confirmed the presence of gallic acid (Rt 1.383). IC50 values for DPPH scavenging and metal chelation by the methanol extract were 40.42 and 31.50 µg/ml. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts at 100 µg/ml exhibited 06.52 and 07.12% of histamine release. Methanol, ethyl acetate, and hydro alcohol extracts at 200 mg/kg demonstrated 32.73, 29.83, 26.75% and 32.46, 9.38, 26.75% inhibition of egg albumin and carrageenan-induced inflammation, respectively. Methanol extract exhibited 100% bronchorelaxation and 48.83% bronchoprotection. Woodfordia fruticosa flower (WFF) extracts exhibited anti-asthmatic effect by demonstrating bronchoprotection, bronchorelaxation, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and mast cell stabilization ability.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Cleistanthus collinus Aqueous Leaf Extract and Fractions for its Antibacterial Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaraj Elangomathavan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug resistance property of disease causing pathogens is a serious issue in the field of medicine and so further attempts to search for new antimicrobial agents from plant source is the need of the hour. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the preliminary phytochemicals and investigate the antibacterial potential of Cleistanthus collinus (Euphorbiaceae aqueous extract and fractions. Materials and Methods: C. collinus plant leaf material was dried and the hot aqueous extract was prepared. All the fractions obtained from serial and direct extraction methods were subjected to the preliminary phytochemical screening and characterization. Antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of C. collinus crude aqueous extract and its fractions were analyzed against selected pathogens. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening, UV-Vis spectrum analysis clearly differentiate crude leaf extract and fractions. Among the tested plant extract and fractions, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions showed profound antibacterial activity. Serial fraction of hexane showed higher antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae (21 - 40 mm zone of inhibition and MICs 36.5 - 70.5 μg. V. cholerae was highly susceptible to all the fractions and extract of C. collinus. Conclusions: Aqueous extract and its serial fractions of C. collinus exhibited bactericidal activity against tested pathogens. This study confirms the presence of promising Phyto-constituents in C. collinus leaf material which could be exploited for the further pharmacological studies to develop a drug to control the infectious disease causing pathogens.

  7. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties through scratch assay and in this investigation we have used allantoin, as a positive control to compare efficacy among the phytoextracts. Interestingly, aqueous extract were found to stimulate proliferation and migration of HDF cells at given concentrations and enhanced closure rate of wound area within 24 hours after treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have shown proliferative effect, however these extracts did not aid in the migration and closure of wound area when compared to aqueous extract. Based on phytochemical profile of the plant extracts analyzed by LC-MS/MS, it was shown that compounds supposedly involved in accelerating wound healing are cinnamic acid, narigenin, kaempferol, temsirolimus, phosphatidylserine isomeric derivatives and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Our findings concluded that blue-green algae may pose potential biomedical application to treat various chronic wounds especially in diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27004048

  8. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  9. Preliminary studies on the antiplasmodial potential of aqueous and methanol extracts ofeucalyptus camadulensis leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru, Y. A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rising problem of resistance to the classical drugs like chloroquine and the problem of recrudescence of malaria after treatment with artemisinin suggest the need for new antimalaria agents. This project was designed to explore the antiplasmodial potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf extracts. Methods: The antiplasmodial potential of the methanol and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camadulensis (leaf were evaluated in a mouse model of malaria. Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally infected with plasmodium berghei (NK65, a rodent malaria parasite. The level of parasitemia, life span, variation in weight and percentage packed cell volume (% PCV of infected and treated mice were used to assess the efficacy of extracts. Treatment with the extracts at dose levels of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight commenced 72 hours post infection for the test groups, while a standard antimalarial drug, Artesunate, at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight was administered on the positive control group. The negative control group was left untreated. Results: Animals treated with the methanol extract showed a significant decrease in parasitaemia (p < 0.05, and survived for 29 days compared with those treated with the aqueous extract which survived for 19 days with a higher level of parasitemia. However, the control group treated with Artesunate showed a significantly lower parasitaemia (p < 0.05 and survived for 34 days when compared with the groups treated with methanol and aqueous extracts. The level of parasitemia, decrease in weight and %PCV in all the treated groups was significantly lower (P < 0.05 compared with the infected but untreated group (negative control which survived for only 7 days. Conclusions: The methanol extract of the leaves of E. camadulensis has an antimalarial potential that could be exploited for the benefit of mankind.

  10. Biokinetics and effects of barium sulfate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Nagarjun; Keller, Jana; Ma-Hock, Lan; Gröters, Sibylle; Landsiedel, Robert; Donaghey, Thomas C; Brain, Joseph D; Wohlleben, Wendel; Molina, Ramon M

    2014-10-21

    Nanoparticulate barium sulfate has potential novel applications and wide use in the polymer and paint industries. A short-term inhalation study on barium sulfate nanoparticles (BaSO₄ NPs) was previously published [Part Fibre Toxicol 11:16, 2014]. We performed comprehensive biokinetic studies of ¹³¹BaSO₄ NPs administered via different routes and of acute and subchronic pulmonary responses to instilled or inhaled BaSO₄ in rats. We compared the tissue distribution of ¹³¹Ba over 28 days after intratracheal (IT) instillation, and over 7 days after gavage and intravenous (IV) injection of ¹³¹BaSO₄. Rats were exposed to 50 mg/m³ BaSO₄ aerosol for 4 or 13 weeks (6 h/day, 5 consecutive days/week), and then gross and histopathologic, blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analyses were performed. BAL fluid from instilled rats was also analyzed. Inhaled BaSO₄ NPs showed no toxicity after 4-week exposure, but a slight neutrophil increase in BAL after 13-week exposure was observed. Lung burden of inhaled BaSO₄ NPs after 4-week exposure (0.84 ± 0.18 mg/lung) decreased by 95% over 34 days. Instilled BaSO₄ NPs caused dose-dependent inflammatory responses in the lungs. Instilled BaSO₄ NPs (0.28 mg/lung) was cleared with a half-life of ≈ 9.6 days. Translocated ¹³¹Ba from the lungs was predominantly found in the bone (29%). Only 0.15% of gavaged dose was detected in all organs at 7 days. IV-injected ¹³¹BaSO₄ NPs were predominantly localized in the liver, spleen, lungs and bone at 2 hours, but redistributed from the liver to bone over time. Fecal excretion was the dominant elimination pathway for all three routes of exposure. Pulmonary exposure to instilled BaSO₄ NPs caused dose-dependent lung injury and inflammation. Four-week and 13-week inhalation exposures to a high concentration (50 mg/m³) of BaSO₄ NPs elicited minimal pulmonary response and no systemic effects. Instilled and inhaled BaSO₄ NPs were cleared quickly yet

  11. Single-trial event-related potential extraction through one-unit ICA-with-reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih Lee, Wee; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Leung, Yee Hong

    2016-12-01

    Objective. In recent years, ICA has been one of the more popular methods for extracting event-related potential (ERP) at the single-trial level. It is a blind source separation technique that allows the extraction of an ERP without making strong assumptions on the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ERP. However, the problem with traditional ICA is that the extraction is not direct and is time-consuming due to the need for source selection processing. In this paper, the application of an one-unit ICA-with-Reference (ICA-R), a constrained ICA method, is proposed. Approach. In cases where the time-region of the desired ERP is known a priori, this time information is utilized to generate a reference signal, which is then used for guiding the one-unit ICA-R to extract the source signal of the desired ERP directly. Main results. Our results showed that, as compared to traditional ICA, ICA-R is a more effective method for analysing ERP because it avoids manual source selection and it requires less computation thus resulting in faster ERP extraction. Significance. In addition to that, since the method is automated, it reduces the risks of any subjective bias in the ERP analysis. It is also a potential tool for extracting the ERP in online application.

  12. Antioxidant potential of Aesculus hippocastanum extract and escin against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vašková, J; Fejerčáková, A; Mojžišová, G; Vaško, L; Patlevič, P

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and venoconstrictor properties have been attributed to extracts from Aesculus hippocastanum. These unusual and diverse properties may be possibly basically linked with ability to scavenge free radicals. The scavenging capacity of dry horse chestnut extract of and escin have been investigated in vitro against superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, nitrites and peroxynitrite. In general, the activity of the whole extract against superoxide radicals did not exceed 15% at pH 7.4, but the highest inhibition (46.11%) was recorded against hydroxyl radicals at a concentration of 100 µg.ml-1; however, the activity against other radicals was lower. Escin demonstrated a better ability to counteract nitric oxide oxidation products, nitrites. However, the efficiency of the whole extract completely disappeared as the concentration increased. Both extracts showed very low activity towards peroxynitrite. Escin was even able to induce peroxynitrite formation at the lower concentrations used. Whole extract showed better antiradical properties compared to its main active ingredient, escin, probably due to potential synergistic interaction with a mixture of compounds present in the plant extract. These findings can be the basis of both the presentation of side-effects and the persistence of disease in spite of ongoing treatment.

  13. Characterization of rue extract and its potential for controlling rice blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karinna Bannach Reis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to purify and standardize the rue (Ruta graveolens extract and evaluate its effect on Magnaporthe oryzae as an alternative to the integrated management of rice blast. The drug was characterized, the liquid extract was obtained, and the methodology for quantifying the standard markers psoralen and bergapten was validated. Rue extract and the markers, solely or in combination, were assayed in vitro, as well as in greenhouse conditions, for their ability to suppress leaf blast, by the evaluation of mycelial growth, conidial germination, and appressorium formation. Rue extract inhibited M. oryzae mycelial growth (100%, conidial germination (LD50=0.237 mg, and the appressorium formation (LD50=0.121 mg; besides, the extract reduced leaf blast severity by 80.84%. Fluorescence microscopy showed that rue extract did not damage M. oryzae cell wall and plasma membrane, indicating another mode of action. Rue extract has a great potential for controlling rice leaf blast.

  14. Barium nucleosynthesis in the disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twarog, B.A.

    1981-11-15

    The history of Ba production in the disk is discussed, particularly with regard to the apparent constancy of the production rate of Ba relative to Fe over the lifetime of the disk. An infall model of the chemical evolution of Ba/Fe within the disk is constructed under the assumption that the mass function and star formation rate are independent of time and Ba is produced as purely a secondary element. The model not only satisfies the present constraints for the disk, but produces a (Ba/H)-(Fe/H) relation which is consistent with the available observational data. It is shown that the apparent constancy of the Ba/Fe ratio is an artifact of (1) an inadequate and insufficiently accurated data sample, and (2) secondary production of Ba within the disk which is 20 to 80 times less efficient relative to Fe than the production ratio for the halo. The model predicts that stars formed during the transition period between halo and disk should show a Ba/Fe excess relative to the Sun of about a factor of 2. It is concluded that the possible sources of the Ba/Fe overproduction in the halo relative to the disk are incompatible with present theoretical limits on the mass ranges for iron and barium production by stars.

  15. Warming barium sulfate improves esophageal leak detection in pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Vignesh; MacGlaflin, Caitlyn E; Moodie, Karen L; Kaiser, Larry R; Erkmen, Cherie P

    2015-12-01

    Barium esophagograms have poor sensitivity in detecting leaks. We hypothesized that heating barium would decrease viscosity, facilitate extravasation, and enhance its sensitivity in detecting esophageal leaks. We characterized the viscosity of barium at increasing temperatures. We measured the radiopacity of barium at 25°C and 50°C. We determined the smallest diameter defect in esophagus that barium can detect by perforating a porcine esophageal segment with angiocatheters of various diameters, injecting barium at 25°C, and observing extravasation of contrast. We repeated this with barium heated to 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, and 70°C. To determine the ability of barium to detect a staple line leak, we perforated a stapled esophageal segment by air insufflation, injected barium at different temperatures, and monitored extravasation. We used Visipaque, a water-soluble contrast agent, for comparison in all experiments. The viscosity of barium decreased with increasing temperature. The radiopacity of barium did not change with increasing temperature and was higher than that of Visipaque (P detectable leak decreased from 2.1 mm with barium at 25°C to 1.3 mm at 40°C and 1.1 mm with Visipaque (P leak detection increased from 0% for barium at 25°C to 80% (P = 0.02) with barium at 40°C. There was no significant difference in sensitivity between barium at 40°C and Visipaque. Barium warmed to 40°C offers the best sensitivity of esophageal leak detection without compromising radiopacity. Barium at 40°C may be the optimum choice for swallow study to detect esophageal leaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Accelerating the transit time of barium sulphate suspensions in small bowel examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, David S.; Roger, Mark D.; Allan, Paul L.; Murchison, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hyperosmolar and effervescent agents proven individually to accelerate transit time in the barium small bowel examination have an additive effect when combined, surpassing that of either agent alone. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-nine patients were randomised to four groups. Three hundred milliliters of barium sulphate alone was given to the first group. Fifteen milliliters of iodinated hyperosmolar contrast agent (Gastrografin, meglumine/sodium diatrizoate, Schering) was given in addition to barium sulphate to the second group while six packets of effervescent granules (Carbex, Ferring) were added for the third group. The final group was given a combination of both additives and barium sulphate. The time taken following ingestion for the contrast column to reach the caecum, as assessed by frequent interval fluoroscopy, was recorded. A subgroup of 32 patients were selected randomly from the four groups, 8 from each and assessed for quality of examination. Statistical assessments were made using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients were analysed after exclusions. The addition of accelerant to barium sulphate, both individually and in combination significantly reduced the small bowel transit time (p < 0.001). No significant difference existed between the additives when used with barium alone. The combined group had significantly faster transit times compared to the hyperosmolar group (p = 0.02). Differences between combined and effervescent groups tended towards significance (p = 0.09). No significant difference existed between groups when examination quality was assessed. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of combined effervescent and hyperosmolar agents to the barium suspension may significantly shorten the small bowel transit time without adversely affecting examination quality. This has implications for patient acceptability of the examination as well as

  17. Potential application of spice and herb extracts as natural preservatives in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial efficiency of five spice and herb extracts (cinnamon stick, oregano, clove, pomegranate peel, and grape seed) against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica in cheese at room temperature (~ 23°C). The lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) of cheese was periodically tested by oxidative analyses. The results showed that all five plant extracts were effective against three foodborne pathogens in cheese. Treatments with these extracts increased the stability of cheese against lipid oxidation. Clove showed the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The reduction of foodborne pathogen numbers and the inhibition of lipid oxidation in cheese indicated that the extracts of these plants (especially clove) have potential as natural food preservatives.

  18. Hydrophilic Dogwood Extracts as Materials for Reducing the Skin Irritation Potential of Body Wash Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Zofia; Osika, Paweł; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Bujak, Tomasz

    2017-02-19

    A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of hydrophilic dogwood extracts on the irritant potential of body wash gels. Extractants used in the study were water and mixtures of water with glycerine, water with trimethylglycine (betaine), and water with plant-derived glycol (propanediol). The basic biochemical properties, i.e., the ability to neutralize free radicals, and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were determined. An attempt was undertaken to analyze the impact of the extract added to natural body wash gel formulations on product properties. The skin irritation potential was assessed by determining the zein number and the increase in the pH level of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. The viscosity and foaming ability of the resulting products were evaluated. The studies revealed that an addition of dogwood extract contributes to an improvement in the properties of body wash gels and significantly increases the safety of product use through reducing the skin irritation effect.

  19. Antiasthmatic and antiallergic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was antiasthmatic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., Simaroubaceae. Traditionally or in Indian system of medicine, A. excelsa is used in the treatment of asthma, cough, colic pain, cancer, diabetes and also used as antispasmodic, antifertility, bronchodilator. Stem bark of A. excelsa already reported for its potential against asthma. The pollens of Ailanthus excelsa reported allergic in nature and the time of collection of leaves were important in this study, generally the flowering stage of plant was avoided for the collection due to maximum chance of pollens at that time. Methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa was evaluated using in vitro goat tracheal chain preparation model and in vivo- Milk induced leucocytosis, eosinophilia, Clonidine induced catalepsy in mice model while Passive paw anaphylaxis and Clonidine induced mast cell degranulation in rat model. The extract showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, quassonoids and test was also positive for alkaloids and steroids. The extract also showed the presence of quercetin which is flavonoid and detected on the preparative TLC plate with the help of standard quercetin. Dose response studies of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa Roxb. were conducted at 100 µg mL-1 in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg kg-1 p.o. in vivo models. The treatment with methanolic extract of A. excelsa at different dose level showed the significant (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 antiasthmatic activity. Inhibition or decrease the release of inflammatory mediators potentiates the antiasthmatic as well as antiallergic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa.

  20. Aphrodisiac potentials of the ethanol extract of Aloe barbadensis Mill. root in male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Erhabor, Joseph O.; Idu, MacDonald

    2017-01-01

    Background Aloe barbadensis (AB) is a short stemmed succulent medicinal herb that is being used by locals in Nigeria to enhance libido. Therefore this study evaluates the aphrodisiac potential and acute toxicological effect of A. barbadensis (AB) root in male Wistar rats. Methods Aphrodisiac potential was determined following the oral administration of graded doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of A. barbadensis root. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and distilled water served as pos...

  1. Anti-tumor potential of total alkaloid extract of Prosopis juliflora DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... The in vitro anti-tumor potential of the extract was evaluated using MTT (3-(4,5- dimethythiazol-2yl)2 ... were compared with mitogen stimulated T-lymphocyte cultures derived from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The MTT test ... showed significant activity against lung carcinoma in vivo. (Wassel et al.

  2. Anti-diabetic Potential of the Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-diabetic potential of aqueous extracts of leaves of both Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina were investigated in rabbits. Ten female rabbits were grouped into five groups (1-5) of two rabbits each. Group 1 is the control. Groups (2-5) was alloxan induced diabetic. Group 3 was then treated with 200mg/kg ...

  3. The sand extraction potential of embedded land surface lowering in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Kleine, M.P.E. de; Veldkamp, J.G.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Pietersen, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands, mineral extraction by means of dredging or quarrying meets with considerable societal resistance. Land surface lowering prior to large land reconstruction projects may raise fewer objections. We have calculated the potential yields of sand and gravel from land surface lowering

  4. The sand extraction potential of embedded land surface lowering in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meulen, M.J.; De Kleine, M.P.E.; Veldkamp, J.G.; Dubbelaar, C.W.; Pietersen, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands, mineral extraction by means of dredging or quarrying meets with considerable societal resistance. Land surface lowering prior to large land reconstruction projects may raise fewer objections. We have calculated the potential yields of sand and gravel form land surface lowering

  5. a comparative study of a local plant extract as a possible potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    www.globaljournalseries.com, Email: info@globaljournalseries.com. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF A LOCAL PLANT EXTRACT AS A. POSSIBLE POTENTIAL MEDICATED AGENT IN THE SOAP. INDUSTRY. INNOCENT O. OBOH AND EMMANUEL O. ALUYOR. (Received 23 July 2010; Revision Accepted 30 August 2010).

  6. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac potential of a chemically characterized aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amita; Das, Snehashis; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nandakumar, Krishnadas; Shetty, Raghavendra; Gill, Meghna; Sumalatha, Suhani; Devkar, Raviraj; Gourishetti, Karthik; Kumar, Nitesh

    2018-01-10

    Tamarindus indica is an ingredient in the traditional aphrodisiac formulations in Africa and India. It is also a widely used food ingredient in other tropical countries. The present study was aimed to evaluate the aphrodisiac potential and reproductive safety profile of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica in male Wistar rats. The aqueous extract was prepared by maceration of pulp followed by reduction of volume in rotavapor under heat followed by freeze drying. The prepared extract was characterized for contents of total phenol, flavonoid, and saponin. It was also subjected to phytoconstituent analysis using GCMS. Further, the extract was evaluated for acute toxicity study. The aphrodisiac and reproductive toxicity potential were evaluated in animals after grouping them in four with six animals each namely, normal control, standard (Sildenafil citrate, 4mg/kg p.o.) and extract of Tamarindus indica treated groups at two dose levels, 125 and 250mg/kg p.o. The study was conducted for 54 days with daily once dosing of extract and standard. Equal number of females was grouped without treatment for evaluation of parameters of sexual desire (mount frequency and intromission frequency) and parameters of sexual arousal (mount latency and intromission latency). These parameters were evaluated on day 14, 28, 42 and 54. Animals were sacrificed on day 54, testes were removed and studied for histopathological changes. The extract showed 6.6mg gallic acid equivalent/g of total phenol, 2.3mg catechin equivalent/g of flavonoid and 11.6% saponin. Forty chemical constituents were identified by GCMS analysis. In acute toxicity study, the extract was found to be safe till 2000mg/kg p.o. Efficacy study showed significant (ptamarind compared to normal control. Improvements in these parameters were comparable to the standard drug. Histopathology study and sperm count suggested an increase in sperm production without any sign of toxicity in testis. Sperm motility significantly (p<0

  7. Barium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by self-propagating low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    temperature combustion method using ... talline barium ferrite. Keywords. Barium ferrite; self-propagating combustion method; magnetic property; X-ray diffraction; morphology. 1. Introduction .... known that γ-Fe2O3 is a cubic spinel, whose chemical.

  8. Potential of using plant extracts for purification of shallow well water in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A.; O'Neill, J. G.; Kululanga, G.

    There has been very little scientific research work into the use of plant extracts to purify groundwater. Research studies on the purification of groundwater have mainly been carried out in developed countries and have focused on water purification systems using aluminium sulphate (a coagulant) and chlorine (a disinfectant). Such systems are expensive and not viable for rural communities due to abject poverty. Shallow well water, which is commonly available throughout Africa, is often grossly contaminated and usually consumed untreated. As a result, water-related diseases kill more than 5 million people every year worldwide. This research was aimed at examining natural plant extracts in order to develop inexpensive ways for rural communities to purify their groundwater. The study involved creating an inventory of plant extracts that have been used for water and wastewater purification. A prioritisation system was derived to select the most suitable extracts, which took into account criteria such as availability, purification potential, yield and cost of extraction. Laboratory trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were added to water samples obtained from five shallow wells in Malawi. The trials consisted of jar tests to assess the coagulation potential and the resulting effect on physico-chemical and microbiological parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity and coliforms. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera, J. curcas and Guar gum can considerably improve the quality of shallow well water. Turbidity reduction was higher for more turbid water. A reduction efficiency exceeding 90% was achieved by all three extracts on shallow well water that had a turbidity of 49 NTU. A reduction in coliforms was about 80% for all extracts. The pH of the water samples increased with dosage, but remained within acceptable levels for drinking water for all the extracts

  9. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D.M. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that quantifies the surplus cost potential of mining and milling activities per unit of metal extracted, fully accounting for mine-specific differences in costs. The surplus cost potential indicator is calculated as the average cost increase resulting from all future metal extractions, as quantified via cumulative cost-tonnage relationships. We tested the calculation procedure with 12 metals and platinum-group metals as a separate group. We found that the surplus costs range six orders of magnitude between the metals included, i.e., between $0.01–$0.02 (iron and $13,533–$17,098 (rhodium USD (year 2013 per kilogram of metal extracted. The choice of the reserve estimate (reserves vs. ultimate recoverable resource influenced the surplus costs only to a limited extent, i.e., between a factor of 0.7 and 3.2 for the metals included. Our results provide a good basis to regularly include surplus cost estimates as resource scarcity indicator in life cycle assessment.

  10. Copaifera langsdorffii: evaluation of potential gastroprotective of extract and isolated compounds obtained from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivane Lemos

    Full Text Available AbstractGastric ulcer is a prevalent gastrointestinal disease, and the drugs currently used in the treatment produce several adverse effects. In this context, the search for new therapeutic antiulcer agents is essential, and medicinal plants have great potential. Here, we investigated the gastroprotective properties of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Fabaceae, hydroalcoholic extract obtained from leaves and its isolated compounds. The phytochemistry studies and the compounds isolations were performed using chromatographic and spectroscopic methodologies. The hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated using ethanol/HCl, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, stress-induced-ulcer and chronic ulcer-model. The effects on gastric content volume, pH, total acidity and mucus stomach production were evaluated in the pylorus ligated-model. The C. langsdorffii extract obtained from leaves (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg reduced the injured area compared to control group in all experiments. The extract showed a significant decrease in the total gastric juice acidity and an increase in mucus production (500 mg/kg when compared to vehicle. Among isolated compounds (30 mg/kg α-humulene, β-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide showed greater gastroprotective activity in the ethanol/HCl induced ulcer model. The data herein obtained shown that C. langsdorffii leaves extract and isolated compounds from it, presented gastroprotective properties in different animal models of gastric ulcer. These effects may be associated with the ability of the extract to decrease gastric secretion and increase the mucus production.

  11. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N G; Butler, A P; Scott, N J A; Cook, N J; Butzer, J S; Schleich, N; Firsching, M; Grasset, R; de Ruiter, N; Campbell, M; Butler, P H

    2010-09-01

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 microA). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct from soft tissue and bone in all six mice. Calcium, iodine and barium were displayed as separate channels on 3D colour images at contrast agents with K-edges only 4 keV apart. Multi-contrast imaging and molecular CT are potential future applications.

  13. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, N.G. [University of Otago, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, A.P. [University of Otago, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Scott, N.J.A. [University of Otago, Department of Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Cook, N.J. [Christchurch Hospital, Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butzer, J.S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schleich, N. [University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Christchurch Hospital, Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Firsching, M. [Friedrich Alexander University, Physics Department, Erlangen (Germany); Grasset, R.; Ruiter, N. de [University of Canterbury, Hitlab NZ, Christchurch (New Zealand); Campbell, M. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Section, Geneva (Switzerland); Butler, P.H. [University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2010-09-15

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 {mu}A). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct from soft tissue and bone in all six mice. Calcium, iodine and barium were displayed as separate channels on 3D colour images at <55 {mu}m isotropic voxels. Spectral CT distinguishes contrast agents with K-edges only 4 keV apart. Multi-contrast imaging and molecular CT are potential future applications. (orig.)

  14. Filterless pre-concentration by co-precipitation by formation of crystalline precipitate in the analysis of barium by FIA-FAES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plamboeck, C.; Westtoft, H.C.; Pedersen, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel method based on flow injection analysis (FIA) and flame atomic emission spectrometry (FAES) is presented. It was developed for direct determination of barium in drinking water, in natural water, in digested samples of bone and liver, in saline water and in a standard reference material...... (NIST SRM 1640). It was found that digestion of bone by an incineration procedure was required, in order to extract most of the barium. In the FIA manifold, barium was pre-concentrated by co-precipitation with lead chromate leading to a crystalline deposit that adhered well to the inner walls of a nylon...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium calcium...

  16. Synthesis of nanosized barium titanate/epoxy resin composites and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barium titanate/epoxy resin composites have been synthesized and tested for microwave absorption/ transmission. Nanocrystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3 or BT) ... Anechoic chamber; barium titanate; electromagnetic interference and compatibility; epoxy resin ..... electromagnetic waves, the two port calibrations have been.

  17. Black bean anthocyanin-rich extracts as food colorants: Physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Luis; Berhow, Mark; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2017-08-15

    Black beans contain anthocyanins that could be used as colorants in foods with associated health benefits. The objective was to optimize anthocyanins extraction from black bean coats and evaluate their physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential. Optimal extraction conditions were 24% ethanol, 1:40 solid-to-liquid ratio and 29°C (Panthocyanins were identified by MS ions, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (465.1m/z), petunidin-3-O-glucoside (479.1m/z) and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (493.1m/z). A total of 32mg of anthocyanins were quantified per gram of dry extract. Bean anthocyanins were stable at pH 2.5 and low-temperature 4°C (89.6%), with an extrapolated half-life of 277days. Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibited α-glucosidase (37.8%), α-amylase (35.6%), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (34.4%), reactive oxygen species (81.6%), and decreased glucose uptake. Black bean coats are a good source of anthocyanins and other phenolics with the potential to be used as natural-source food colorants with exceptional antidiabetes potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Water extracts of Brassica oleracea var. costata potentiate paraquat toxicity to rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, C; Pontes, H; Carmo, H; Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Valentão, P; Andrade, P B; Remião, F; Bastos, M L; Carvalho, F

    2009-09-01

    Tronchuda cabbage extracts have been proven to have antioxidant potential against various oxidative species in cell free systems, though its antioxidant potential in cellular models remained to be demonstrated. In the present study, we used primary cultures of rat hepatocytes for the cellular assay system and paraquat PQ exposure as a pro-oxidant model agent, to test whether tronchuda cabbage hydrolysed water extracts provide protective or aggravating effects towards PQ-induced oxidative stress and cell death. For this purpose cellular parameters related to oxidative stress were measured, namely the generation of superoxide anion, glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation, intracellular ATP levels, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), activity of antioxidant enzymes, and cell death. The obtained results demonstrated that the studied hydrolysed water extracts of tronchuda cabbage, especially rich in kaempferol (84%) and other polyphenols, namely hydroxycinnamic acids and traces of quercetin, can potentiate the toxicity of PQ in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. These results highlight that prospective antioxidant effects of plant extracts, observed in vitro, using non-cellular systems, are not always confirmed in cellular models, in which the concentrations required to scavenge pro-oxidant species may be highly detrimental to the cells.

  19. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  20. Bioaccessibility of barium from barite contaminated soils based on gastric phase in vitro data and plant uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Sedigheh; Lamb, Dane T; Palanisami, Thavamani; Kader, Mohammed; Matanitobua, Vitukawalu; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    Barite contamination of soil commonly occurs from either barite mining or explorative drilling operations. This work reported in vitro data for barite contaminated soils using the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) methodology. The existence of barite in plant tissue and the possibility of 'biomineralised' zones was also investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Soils with low barium (Ba) concentrations showed a higher proportion of Ba extractability than barite rich samples. Barium uptake to spinach from soil was different between short term spiking studies and field weathered soils. Furthermore, Ba crystals were not evident in spinach tissue or acid digest solutions grown in barium nitrate spiked soils despite high accumulation. Barite was found in the plant digest solutions from barite contaminated soils only. Results indicate that under the conservative assumptions made, a child would need to consume extreme quantities of soil over an extended period to cause chronic health problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation and characterization of nanofibers barium strontium titanate using electrospinning route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraco, B.S.; Engel, A.B.; Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    The barium strontium titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material well known for exhibiting a ferroelectric transition temperature that can be adjusted by varying the Ba /Sr ratio. The reduction of the Curie point can be achieved by the substitution of strontium for barium. Due to the combination of interesting properties, such as high crystallographic orientation of grains and high thermal stability, ferroelectric fibers have attracted considerable interest for their potential use as functional ceramic fibers in the reinforcement of ceramics and metals. The electrospinning process is an effective method for the preparation of nano ceramic fibers with uniform diameter and having different composition. The objective of this work was to product and to characterize the structure and morphology of barium strontium titanate nanofibers made using the electrospinning method. (author)

  2. Elevated Z line: a new sign of Barrett's esophagus on double-contrast barium esophagograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Marc S; Ahmad, Nuzhat A; Rubesin, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    We describe an elevated Z line as a new radiographic sign of Barrett's esophagus characterized by a transversely oriented, zigzagging, barium-etched line extending completely across the circumference of the midesophagus. An elevated Z line is rarely seen in other patients, so this finding should be highly suggestive of Barrett's esophagus on double-contrast barium esophagograms. If the patient is a potential candidate for surveillance, endoscopy and biopsy should be performed to confirm the presence of Barrett's esophagus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of a carob enzymatic extract: potential use as a biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, J; Bautista, J; Romero, E J; García-Martínez, A M; Friaza, V; Tejada, M

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a biological process that converts carob germ (CG), a proteinic vegetable by-product, into a water-soluble enzymatic hydrolyzate extract (CGHE). The chemical and physical properties are also described. The conversion is done using a proteolytic enzyme mixture. The main component of CGHE extracted by the enzymatic process is protein (68%), in the form of peptides and free amino acids, having a high content of glutamine and arginine, and a minor component of phytohormones, which are also extracted and solubilized from the CG. We have also compared its potential fertilizer/biostimulant capacity on growth, flowering, and fruiting of tomato plants (Licopericon pimpinellifolium cv. Momotaro) with that of an animal enzymatic protein hydrolyzate. CGHE had a significantly beneficial impact, most notably regarding the greater plant height, number of flowers per plant, and number of fruits per plant. This could be due primarily to its phytohormonal action.

  4. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  5. GC/MS spectroscopic approach and antifungal potential of bioactive extracts produced by marine macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida H. Shobier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity and the chemical constituents of selected macroalgae collected from the Egyptian Mediterranean coast of Alexandria have been investigated. Agar well diffusion assay was used to determine the antifungal potential of the extractable matter against Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Tricoderma hamatum, Aspergillus flavipes and Candida albicans. The ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts (ULE2 and ULM5 of Ulva lactuca obtained from Al Selsela exhibited the highest activity with (AI = 1.05 ± 0.053 and 1.03 ± 0.052, respectively, compared with fluconazole. However, the methanolic extract of U. lactuca (ULM1 from Abu Qir Bay showed (AI = 0.73 ± 0.037. This followed by methanolic extracts of Pterocladia capillacea (PCM1: AI = 0.70 ± 0.035 and Ulva fasciata (UFM1: AI = 0.69 ± 0.035. GC/MS analysis of ULM1 and ULM5 indicated the existence of different constituents revealing ecological impacts. The methanolic extract (UFM1 contains six major components including palmitic acid, methylester, trichloromethyloxirane, linolenic acid, ethylester, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, 11-octadecenoic acid, methylester and 12,15-octadecadienoic acid, methylester. High percentages of palmitic acid, n-heptacosane, 2-methylhexadecan-1-ol, methoxy acetic acid, 2-tridecylester and myristic acid are found in the methanolic extract of P. capillacea (PCM1. Most of the identified components have been reported to possess antimicrobial activity that could be responsible for the antifungal potential reported in the present study.

  6. In vitro thrombolytic potential of root extracts of four medicinal plants available in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fahad; Islam, Ariful; Bulbul, Latifa; Moghal, Mizanur Rahman; Hossain, Mohammad Salim

    2014-01-01

    Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs blood flow through the circulatory system leading hypertension, stroke to the heart, anoxia, and so on. Thrombolytic drugs are widely used for the management of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients, but they have certain limitations. Medicinal plants and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. However, plants that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far. This study's aim was to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of selected plants' root extracts. Plants were collected, dried, powdered and extracted by methanol and then fractionated by n-hexane for getting the sample root extracts. Venous blood samples were drawn from 10 healthy volunteers for the purposes of investigation. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis potential of four n-hexane soluble roots extracts viz., Acacia nilotica, Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa along with streptokinase as a positive control and saline water as a negative control. Dunnett t-test analysis was performed using SPSS is a statistical analysis program developed by IBM Corporation, USA. on Windows. Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, A. nilotica, L. speciosa, A. indica, and J. adhatoda at 5 mg extract/ml NaCl solution concentration showed 15.1%, 15.49%, 21.26%, and 19.63% clot lysis activity respectively. The reference streptokinase showed 47.21%, and 24.73% clot lysis for 30,000 IU and 15,000 IU concentrations, respectively whereas 0.9% normal saline showed 5.35% clot lysis. The selected extracts of the plant roots possess marked thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active components responsible for clot lysis are yet to be discovered.

  7. Antibacterial Effects of Natural Herbal Extracts on Streptococcus mutans: Can They Be Potential Additives in Dentifrices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spoorthi Banavar Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many plants or herbs exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. They have no side effects and presumably act against and modulate the factors that are crucial for microbial survival or their activity. Streptococcus mutans is a pioneer bacteria implicated in dental caries. This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of garlic bulbs, pudina leaves, and mango and eucalyptus twig extracts on Streptococcus mutans by evaluating their zone of inhibition and determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Methods. Microbiological assay (well diffusion method to determine zone of inhibition against pure forms of Streptococcus mutans was performed. The antibacterial effects of methanolic extracts of mango twigs, eucalyptus twigs, pudina leaves, and garlic bulbs were studied. Test compounds were further evaluated for their MIC. Results. Extracts derived from mango and eucalyptus twigs showed significant antibacterial effects at test concentrations. Pudina and garlic extracts did not show any significant antibacterial effects at similar concentrations. Upon further evaluation of the 2 positive compounds for their MIC, mango twigs demonstrated more antimicrobial potential than eucalyptus twigs at a lower concentration. Conclusion. Our observations indicated that the mango twig extracts possess higher antibacterial effects against Streptococcus mutans than other compounds at specific test concentration.

  8. Chitosan Associated with the Extract of Unripe Banana Peel for Potential Wound Dressing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bataglini Franco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the preparation of chitosan membranes associated with the extract of unripe banana peel. Extracts were prepared by decoction, using boiling distilled water. The extraction process was repeated three times. First and third extracts served as solvent to prepare chitosan membranes by solvent evaporation technique. The chitosan membranes associated with the first and third extracts of unripe banana peel exhibit good flexibility, transparency, and uniformity. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed dense membranes. Brownish color of membranes was observed due to the presence of tannins, which was confirmed by Infrared Spectroscopy analysis. Thermal properties of the membranes were evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, which exhibited good thermal stability at physiological temperature (37°C. At this temperature and pH 7.2, membranes were also able to absorb fluids. The hydrophilic character of the membranes was determined by contact angle measurements. The membranes demonstrated their capacity for gaseous exchange and exhibited water-vapor permeability (WVP rates comparable to injured skin one. Finally, high number of viable dermal fibroblasts was observed by indirect cytotoxicity assay suggesting potential application of these membranes as skin wound dressing.

  9. The potential of Ganoderma lucidum extracts as bioactive ingredients in topical formulations, beyond its nutritional benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taofiq, Oludemi; Heleno, Sandrina A; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Alves, Maria José; Barros, Lillian; González-Paramás, Ana M; Barreiro, Maria F; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-10-01

    Ganoderma lucidum was characterized in terms of nutritional value and chemical composition. Thereafter, ethanolic Soxhlet extracts were evaluated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antityrosinase, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects, and further characterized in terms of phenolic acids, polysaccharides and triterpenoids. Finally, the obtained extracts were tested as cosmeceutical ingredients. G. lucidum proved to be a source of macronutrients and important bioactive compounds such as terpenoids, specially triterpenoids, and polysaccharides. In the extracts, ganoderic acids C2, A and H were the most abundant triterpenic acids and protocatechuic, p-hydroxibenzoic and syringic acids the identified phenolics. The developed cosmeceutical formulation preserved the extract bioactivities, presented a light-yellow colour and a pH of 4.6, which is considered appropriate for cosmeceutical's design. Behind the important nutritional/bioactive composition of G. lucidum, a potential towards its valorisation in the field of cosmeceuticals is foreseeable, as deduced from the bioactivities of its ethanolic extract and preservation in the tested formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The potential of extracts of Caryocar villosum pulp to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisté, Renan Campos; Freitas, Marisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2012-12-01

    Caryocar villosum (piquiá) is a native fruit from the Amazonian region, considered to be an interesting source of bioactive compounds. In this paper, five extracts of C. villosum pulp were obtained, using solvents with different polarities and their in vitro scavenging capacity against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was determined. Additionally, the phenolic compounds and carotenoids in each extract were identified and quantified by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). The ethanol/water and water extracts, which presented the highest phenolic contents (5163 and 1745μg/g extract, respectively), with ellagic acid as the major phenolic compound, proved to have the highest ROS and RNS scavenging potential. Nevertheless, in general, ellagic acid was less effective in scavenging ROS (IC(50) from 1.7 to 108μg/ml) and RNS (IC(50) from 0.05 to 0.59μg/ml), when compared to gallic acid (IC(50) from 0.4 to 226μg/ml for ROS and IC(50) from 0.04 to 0.12μg/ml for RNS). The results obtained in the present study clearly demonstrated that the in vitro antioxidant efficiency of C. villosum extracts was closely related to their contents of phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

  12. Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani Soundararajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia (bitter gourd has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation.

  13. Antioxidant activity, acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory potential of Pulmonaria officinalis and Centarium umbellatum extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Neagu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study several investigations and tests were performed to determine the antioxidant activity and the acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory potential of Pulmonaria officinalis and Centarium umbellatum aqueous extracts (10% mass and ethanolic extracts (10% mass and 70% ethanol, respectively. Moreover, for each type of the prepared extracts of P. officinalis and of C. umbellatum the content in the biologically active compounds – polyphenols, flavones and proanthocyanidins was determined. The antioxidant activity was assessed using two methods, namely the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay and reducing power assay. The analyzed plant extracts showed a high acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in the range of 72.24–94.24% (at the highest used dose – 3 mg/mL, 66.96% and 94.03% (at 3 mg/mL, respectively correlated with a high DPPH radical inhibition – 70.29–84.9% (at 3 mg/mL. These medicinal plants could provide a potential natural source of bioactive compounds and could be beneficial to the human health, especially in the neurodegenerative disorders and as sources of natural antioxidants in food industry. Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, Tyrosinase inhibitory activity, Antioxidant activity, Pulmonaria officinalis and Centarium umbellatum

  14. Antioxidant Potential of the Extracts, Fractions and Oils Derived from Oilseeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta Ishtiaque

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The polyphenolic extracts and oils were obtained from ajwain, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds. The extracts were partitioned into acidic and neutral polyphenolic fractions and following estimation of total phenolics in the crude extract, acidic and neutral fractions and oil, all were analyzed for their DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging potential, ferric reducing ability and chelating power. The highest amount of polyphenols was found in ajwain (8330 ± 107, then in mustard seeds (2844 ± 56.00 and in fenugreek (1130 ± 29.00, and least in poppy seeds (937 ± 18.52. The higher amounts of polyphenols were estimated in neutral fraction compared to acidic (p fenugreek and least by poppy seed extracts (p < 0.05. The reducing power and the chelating effect of the oilseeds followed the same order as DPPH, but higher % chelation was shown by neutral than acidic fraction (p < 0.05. Though low in polyphenols, the oil fractions were as strong antioxidants as the acidic one. Though oilseeds are used in very small quantity in food, they are potential sources of natural antioxidants and may replace synthetic ones.

  15. Evaluation of wound healing potential of Pterocarpus marsupium heart wood extract in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate and compare the cutaneous wound healing potential of Pterocarpus marsupium in normal and diabetic rats and make inference for the cutaneous wound healing potential by possible "mode of action" P. marsupium extract. Materials and Methods: The effect of heart wood extract of P. marsupium on wound healing has been studied in diabetic and normal animals. The effect has also been compared with standard (mupirocin ointment application. In the absence of specific animal model for cutaneous diabetic wound healing, we have used common model of wound healing (excision wound model in animals having diabetes (by administration of alloxan monohydrate 120 mg/kg i.p.. Statistics Analysis: Data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey′s post hoc tests, using the Graph Pad Software (5.0 demo version, and P value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results and Conclusion : Rats treated with 200 mg/kg/day of P. marsupium heart wood extract had high rate of wound contraction, significantly decreased epithelization period, and significant increase in dry weight, wet weight, and hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue when compared with the diabetic control and normal control groups. Wound contraction together with increased tensile strength and hydroxyproline content support the use of P. marsupium heart wood extract in the management of wound healing in normal and diabetic rats.

  16. Physical and chemical characterization of the pulp of different varieties of avocado targeting oil extraction potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinéia Dotti Mooz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of avocado pulp of four different varieties (Avocado, Guatemala, Dickinson, and Butter pear and to identify which has the greatest potential for oil extraction. Fresh avocado pulp was characterized by moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energy contents were determined. The carotenoids and chlorophyll contents were determined by the organic solvent extraction method. The results showed significant differences in the composition of the fruit when varieties are compared. However, the striking feature in all varieties is high lipid content; Avocado and Dickinson are the most suitable varieties for oil extraction, taking into account moisture content and the levels of lipids in the pulp. Moreover, it could be said that the variety Dickinson is the most affected by the parameters evaluated in terms of overall quality. Chlorophyll and carotenoids, fat-soluble pigments, showed a negative correlation with respect to lipids since it could be related to its function in the fruit. The varieties Avocado and Dickinson are an alternative to oil extraction having great commercial potential to be exploited thus avoiding waste and increasing farmers’ income.

  17. Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal. (orig.) [de

  18. Demonstration of the potential for designing extractants with preselected extraction properties: possible application to reactor fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.W.; Griffin, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    From the knowledge of the extractant characteristics of both neutral and mono-acidic phosphorus-based organic compounds now available, it is possible to tailor-make extractants for a specifically desired separation of two metals. The present study is concerned with neutral mono-nuclear, phosphorus-based extractants for use in affecting the mutual separation of U(VI) and Th

  19. Comparative study for antibacterial potential of in vitro and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, M.; Khan, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of in vitro grown callus extract and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant leaves extracts were studied and compared. Effect of extraction solvent was also assessed. These extracts were tested in vitro against eight bacterial strains following disc diffusion method. The results indicated that in vitro grown callus extracts of O. basilicum exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against tested Gram positive microorganisms as compared to in vivo grown plant material extract. These findings indicate towards potential use of biotechnology for natural therapeutic agent production. (author)

  20. Autumn Royal and Ribier Grape Juice Extracts Reduced Viability and Metastatic Potential of Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Manuel; Bastias, Lorena; Montenegro, Iván; Werner, Enrique; Madrid, Alejandro; Godoy, Patricio

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants are known to be beneficial to health. This paper evaluates the potential chemopreventive and anticancer properties of phenolic compounds present in grape juice extracts (GJE) from Autumn Royal and Ribier varieties. The effects of these GJE on viability (SRB day assay) and metastatic potential (migration and invasion parameters) of colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and SW-480 were evaluated. The effects of GJE on two matrix metalloproteinase gene expressions (MMP2 and MMP9) were also evaluated via qRT-PCR. In the former, GJE reduced cell viability in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. GJE treatment also reduced cell migration and invasion. Moreover, MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression diminished depending on extract and on cell type. Conclusions. These results provide novel information concerning anticancer properties of selected GJE by revealing selective cytotoxicity and the ability to reduce invasiveness of colon cancer cells. PMID:29552079

  1. Reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe vera plant was studied using twelve male fish weighing 500-560g.The fish were divided into 3 groups; A, B and C with four fish in each group. Group A was treated with 2% Aloe vera gel while group B was treated with 3% and Group C the control was ...

  2. Effect of barium-coated halloysite nanotube addition on the cytocompatibility, mechanical and contrast properties of poly(methyl methacrylate cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jammalamadaka U

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Uday Jammalamadaka,1 Karthik Tappa,1 Jeffery A Weisman,1 James Connor Nicholson,2 David K Mills1,3 1Center for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Science, 2Nanosystems Engineering, 3The School of Biological Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA, USA Abstract: Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs were investigated as a platform for tunable nanoparticle composition and enhanced opacity in poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA bone cement. Halloysite has been widely used to increase the mechanical properties of various polymer matrices, in stark contrast to other fillers such as barium sulfate that provide opacity but also decrease mechanical strength. The present work describes a dry deposition method for successively fabricating barium sulfate nanoparticles onto the exterior surface of HNTs. A sintering process was used to coat the HNTs in barium sulfate. Barium sulfate-coated HNTs were then added to PMMA bone cement and the samples were tested for mechanical strength and tailored opacity correlated with the fabrication ratio and the amount of barium sulfate-coated HNTs added. The potential cytotoxic effect of barium-coated HNTs in PMMA cement was also tested on osteosarcoma cells. Barium-coated HNTs were found to be completely cytocompatible, and cell proliferation was not inhibited after exposure to the barium-coated HNTs embedded in PMMA cement. We demonstrate a simple method for the creation of barium-coated nanoparticles that imparted improved contrast and material properties to native PMMA. An easy and efficient method for coating clay nanotubes offers the potential for enhanced imaging by radiologists or orthopedic surgeons. Keywords: barium, bone cement, halloysite, imaging, PMMA, sintering

  3. Work Function Calculation For Hafnium- Barium System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Tursunmetov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption process of barium atoms on hafnium is considered. A structural model of the system is presented and on the basis of calculation of interaction between ions dipole system the dependence of the work function on the coating.

  4. High temperature impedance spectroscopy of barium stannate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High temperature impedance spectroscopy of barium stannate, BaSnO3. SHAIL UPADHYAY. Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. MS received 29 May 2012; revised 14 July 2012. Abstract. Polycrystalline powder of BaSnO3 was prepared at 1300 ◦C using a ...

  5. Impurities in barium titanate posistor ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korniyenko, S. M.; Bykov, I. P.; Glinchuk, M. J.; Laguta, V. V.; Belous, A. G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 239, - (2000), s. 1209-1218 ISSN 0015-0193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : barium titanate phase transition * ESR * positive temperature coefficient of resistivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.547, year: 2000

  6. Magneto-optical trapping of barium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, S.; Dammalapati, U.; Jungmann, K.; Willmann, L.

    Laser cooling and trapping of the heavy alkaline-earth-metal element barium has been achieved based on the strong 6s(2) (1)S(0)-6s6p (1)P(1) transition. The excited state decays to a large fraction into metastable D states. Two schemes were implemented where three additional laser-driven transitions

  7. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy...

  8. Barium Transport Process in Impregnated Dispenser Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-25

    Coupon Indicating Initial Discontinuity in Bariumn Coverage 17 ...... .... aru apo Hae Cuo ......... GsLie ifuso ..4... Fig. 5. SAI! Barium ’tap of a...monitoring. Electronics Research Laboratory: Microelectronics. GaAs low-noise and pover devices, semiconductor lasers. electromagnetic and optical propagation...phenomena, quantum electronics, laser comunications, lidar, and electro-optics; communication sciences, applied electronics, semiconductor crystal

  9. Electrical characterization of zirconium substituted barium titanate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nyquist (Cole–Cole) plots show both inter and intra grain boundary ... Ferroelectrics; barium zirconate titanate; complex impedance spectroscopy. ... The impedance plots in the complex plane appear in the form of succe- ssion of semicircles representing electrical phenomena due to the bulk material, grain boundary effect ...

  10. Potential Roles of Essential Oil and Extracts of Piper chaba Hunter to Inhibit Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiqur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro anti-listerial potential of essential oil and various organic extracts of Piper chaba Hunter (Piperaceae were evaluated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by the GC-MS. Fifty four compounds representing 95.4% of the total oil w ere identified, of which α-humulene (16.4%, caryophyllene oxide (12.2%, veridiflorol (8.1%, globulol (7.4%, β-selinene (7.1%, spathulenol (6.2%, trans-nerolidol (5.1%, linalool (4.5%, 3-pentanol (3.5%, tricyclene (2.2% and p-cymene (1.6% were the major compounds. The oil and organic extracts revealed a great potential anti-listerial effect against all five strains of Listeriamonocytogenes ATCC 19111, 19116, 19118, 19166 and 15313. Also the essential oil had a strong inhibitory effect on the viable cell count of the tested Listeria spp. Our findings demonstrate that the essential oil and extracts derived from the leaf of P. chaba might be a potential source of natural preservatives used in food industries.

  11. Allelopathic potential of extracts the from marine macroalga Plocamium brasiliense and their effects on pasture weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainiomar Raimundo da Fonseca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Four extracts from the marine red alga Plocamium brasiliense (Greville M.A.Howe & W.R.Taylor were prepared to identify and characterize their potential allelopathic effects on seed germination, radicle elongation and hypocotyl development of the weeds Mimosa pudica L. and Senna obtusifolia (L. Irwin & Barneby. The four extracts were prepared in a sequence of solvents of increasing polarity: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol/water (7:3. The germination bioassay was carried out at 25 °C with a 12 h photoperiod and the radicle elongation and hypocotyl development at 25 °C with a 24 h photoperiod. The dichloromethane extract showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of both plants (35 and 14%, respectively, in M. pudica and S. obtusifolia, radical germination (52 and 41.7%, respectively and hypocotyl development (17.1 and 25.5%, respectively. Given the high sensitivity of this parameter to the potential allelopathic effects and the insufficient number of references found in the literature, these results are expected to stimulate new tests with other species of marine algae. Given the high sensitivity of the method for the detection of allelopathic potential, the species P. brasiliense emerges as a possible source of allelopathic substances against weed species. The results are attributed to the chemical composition, especially in relation to the presence of halogenated monoterpenes.

  12. Allelopathic potential of extracts the from marine macroalga Plocamium brasiliense and their effects on pasture weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainiomar Raimundo da Fonseca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Four extracts from the marine red alga Plocamium brasiliense (Greville M.A.Howe & W.R.Taylor were prepared to identify and characterize their potential allelopathic effects on seed germination, radicle elongation and hypocotyl development of the weeds Mimosa pudica L. and Senna obtusifolia (L. Irwin & Barneby. The four extracts were prepared in a sequence of solvents of increasing polarity: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol/water (7:3. The germination bioassay was carried out at 25 °C with a 12 h photoperiod and the radicle elongation and hypocotyl development at 25 °C with a 24 h photoperiod. The dichloromethane extract showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of both plants (35 and 14%, respectively, in M. pudica and S. obtusifolia, radical germination (52 and 41.7%, respectively and hypocotyl development (17.1 and 25.5%, respectively. Given the high sensitivity of this parameter to the potential allelopathic effects and the insufficient number of references found in the literature, these results are expected to stimulate new tests with other species of marine algae. Given the high sensitivity of the method for the detection of allelopathic potential, the species P. brasiliense emerges as a possible source of allelopathic substances against weed species. The results are attributed to the chemical composition, especially in relation to the presence of halogenated monoterpenes.

  13. Potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition of leaf extract in minced pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyen Thi Kim Nguyen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of extraction solvents on antioxidant bio-active compounds as well as potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Phyllanthus acidus (P. acidus leaf extract in minced pork. Methods The effect of various solvent systems of water, 25%, 50%, 75% (v/v ethanol in water and absolute ethanol on the extraction crude yield, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activities of P. acidus leaves was determined. In addition, antioxidant activities of the addition of crude extract from P. aciuds leaves at 2.5 and 5 g/kg in minced pork on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging, 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS radical cation decolorization, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS were determined. Moreover, sensory evaluation of the samples was undertaken by using a 7-point hedonic scale. Results The results showed that the highest crude yield (2.8 g/100 g dry weight was obtained from water which also had the highest recovery yield for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and the strongest antioxidant activity. The addition of crude water extract from P. acidus leaves was more effective in retarding lipid peroxidation and higher antioxidant activity than control and butylated hydroxytoluene in minced pork. In particular, the samples containing P. acidus extract had no significant effect on the sensory scores of overall appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability compared to the control. Conclusion Water solvent was an optimally appropriate solvent for P. acidus leaf extraction because of its ability to yield the highest amount of bio-active compounds and in vitro antioxidant property. Particularly, P. acidus crude water extract also strongly expressed the capacity to retard lipid oxidation, radical scavenging

  14. Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and the Hepatoprotective Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Jessiaea Nervosa Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama Udu Ibiam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extract against Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Methods: Forty albino rats were randomly assigned into groups A-G with 4 rats in each of the groups A-F. Group A served as control and were given feed only while rats in groups B-F were orally exposed to varying concentrations of cadmium for six weeks. Effects of cadmium were most significant at 12 mg/Kg body weight (BW, and this dose was used for subsequent test involving oral administration of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extracts. In this segment, group G (n= 16 was sub-divided into four: G1-G4, with each sub-group containing four rats. Rats in sub-group G1 were given cadmium and feed only and served as positive control. Rats in sub-groups G2, G3, and G4 were given cadmium and 20, 50 and 100g/kg BW of Jussiaea nervosa extract, respectively, for six weeks. Blood and liver were analysed using standard laboratory techniques and methods. Results: Liver function parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in exposed rats in comparison to the controls, except for total protein and albumin, which were significantly decreased. Histopathological assessment reveals renal pathology in exposed rats in sharp contrast with the controls. Jussiaea nervosa extract however lowered the values of liver function parameters with 100mg/Kg BW dose producing the highest ameliorative effects. Similarly, the serum albumin and total protein significantly (p<0.05 improved with normal liver architecture. Conclusion: The results show the hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa extract against Cd toxicity.

  15. Chemical Analysis of Extracts from Newfoundland Berries and Potential Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. Hossain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V. angustifolium, lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea and black currant (Ribes lacustre. Anthocyanin and flavonol glycosides in powdered extracts from Ribes lacustre and the Vaccinium species were identified using the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC separation method with mass spectrometric (MS detection. The identified compounds were extracted from dried berries by various solvents via ultrasonication followed by centrifugation. A reverse-phase analytical column was employed to identify the retention time of each chemical component before submission for LC–MS analysis. A total of 21 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the three species. Further, we tested the effects of the lingonberry extract for its ability to protect neurons and glia from trauma utilizing an in vitro model of cell injury. Surprisingly, these extracts provided complete protection from cell death in this model. These findings indicate the presence of a wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols in berries that grow natively in Newfoundland. These powdered extracts maintain these compounds intact despite being processed from berry fruit, indicating their potential use as dietary supplements. In addition, these recent findings and previous data from our lab demonstrate the ability of compounds in berries to protect the nervous system from traumatic insults.

  16. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  17. Anion and cation diffusion in barium titanate and strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, Markus Franz

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite oxides show various interesting properties providing several technical applications. In many cases the defect chemistry is the key to understand and influence the material's properties. In this work the defect chemistry of barium titanate and strontium titanate is analysed by anion and cation diffusion experiments and subsequent time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reoxidation equation for barium titanate used in multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is found out by a combination of different isotope exchange experiments and the analysis of the resulting tracer diffusion profiles. It is shown that the incorporation of oxygen from water vapour is faster by orders of magnitude than from molecular oxygen. Chemical analysis shows the samples contain various dopants leading to a complex defect chemistry. Dysprosium is the most important dopant, acting partially as a donor and partially as an acceptor in this effectively acceptor-doped material. TEM and EELS analysis show the inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in a core-shell microstructure. The oxygen partial pressure and temperature dependence of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients is analysed and explained by the complex defect chemistry of Dy-doped barium titanate. Additional fast diffusion profiles are attributed to fast diffusion along grain boundaries. In addition to the barium titanate ceramics from an important technical application, oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped BaTiO 3 single crystals has been studied by means of 18 O 2 / 16 O 2 isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by ToF-SIMS. It is shown that a correct description of the diffusion profiles requires the analysis of the diffusion through the surface space-charge into the material's bulk. Surface exchange coefficients, space-charge potentials and bulk diffusion coefficients are analysed as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. The

  18. Micromechanical characterisation of failure in acrylic bone cement: the effect of barium sulphate agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearwood-Porter, N; Browne, M; Sinclair, I

    2012-09-01

    and/or cement formulations containing barium sulphate may therefore be advantageous to reduce the formation of agglomerates and their potential effects in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, J.P.; Duarte, G.W.; Caldart, C.; Kniess, C.T.; Montedo, O.R.K.; Rocha, M.R.; Riella, H.G.; Fiori, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound

  20. Tolerance, bioavailability, and potential cognitive health implications of a distinct aqueous spearmint extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M. Nieman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive function can decline during the aging process and significantly reduce quality of life. Although a number of interventions have been investigated for cognitive dysfunction, including antioxidants, this prominent health concern emphasizes a need to explore methods to support cognitive health later in the life span. An aqueous extract from a proprietary spearmint line has been developed which contains a number of antioxidant compounds, including rosmarinic acid, at levels that are higher than found in commercially-bred spearmint. Therefore, this pilot trial assessed the tolerance, bioavailability, and potential cognitive health implications of a proprietary spearmint extract in men and women with self-reported memory impairment. Methods: Subjects consumed 900 mg/day spearmint extract for 30 days. The sample population (N = 11 was 73% female and 27% male with a mean age of 58.7 ± 1.6 y. Tolerability parameters were assessed at baseline and end of treatment visits. Computerized cognitive function tests were completed and blood was drawn at pre- and post-dose (0.5 to 4 h timepoints during baseline and end of treatment visits. Subjective cognition was also assessed at end of treatment. Results: No serious adverse events or clinically relevant findings were observed in any tolerability parameters. Plasma vanillic, caffeic, and ferulic acid sulfates, rosmarinic acid, and methyl rosmarinic acid glucuronide were detected in plasma following acute administration of the spearmint extract. Computerized cognitive function scores improved in reasoning (P =0.023 and attention/concentration (P = 0.002 after 30 days of supplementation. After acute administration, subjects had improved attention/concentration in two tests at 2 (P = 0.042 and P = 0.025 and 4 h (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002. Conclusions: The results from this pilot trial suggest that the spearmint extract, which contains higher rosmarinic acid content relative to extracts from

  1. Hypocholesterolemic and Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Basella alba Leaf Extract in Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran Baskaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is the major risk factor that leads to atherosclerosis. Nowadays, alternative treatment using medicinal plants gained much attention since the usage of statins leads to adverse health effects, especially liver and muscle toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of Basella alba (B. alba using hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbits. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed with varying diets: normal diet, 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD, 2% HCD + 10 mg/kg simvastatin, 2% HCD + 100 mg/kg B. alba extract, and 2% HCD + 200 mg/kg B. alba extract, respectively. The treatment with B. alba extract significantly lowered the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides and increased HDL and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx levels. The elevated levels of liver enzymes (AST and ALT and creatine kinase were noted in hypercholesterolemic and statin treated groups indicating liver and muscle injuries. Treatment with B. alba extract also significantly suppressed the aortic plaque formation and reduced the intima: media ratio as observed in simvastatin-treated group. This is the first in vivo study on B. alba that suggests its potential as an alternative therapeutic agent for hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  2. In Vitro Protective Potentials of Annona muricata Leaf Extracts Against Sodium Arsenite-induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Vazhappilly Cijo; Kumar, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen; Suresh, Palamadai Krishnan; Kumar, Rangasamy Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) is a metalloid which is present widely in the environment and its chronic exposure can contribute to the induction of oxidative stress, resulting in disturbances in various metabolic functions including liver cell death. Hence, there is a need to develop drugs from natural sources, which can reduce arsenic toxicity. While there have been reports regarding the antioxidant and protective potentials of Annona muricataleaf extracts, our study is the first ofits kind to extend these findings by specifically evaluating its ability to render protection against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) induced toxicity (10 μM) in WRL-68 (human hepatic cells) and human erythrocytes by employing XTT and haemolysis inhibition assays respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited higher activity than the aqueous extract in both assays. The results showed a dose-dependent decrease in arsenic toxicity in both WRL-68 cells and erythrocytes, suggesting the protective nature of Annona muricatato mitigate arsenic toxicity. Hence the bioactive extracts can further be scrutinized for the identification and characterization of their principal contributors.

  3. A MISO-ARX-Based Method for Single-Trial Evoked Potential Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method for solving the single-trial evoked potential (EP estimation problem. In this method, the single-trial EP is considered as a complex containing many components, which may originate from different functional brain sites; these components can be distinguished according to their respective latencies and amplitudes and are extracted simultaneously by multiple-input single-output autoregressive modeling with exogenous input (MISO-ARX. The extraction process is performed in three stages: first, we use a reference EP as a template and decompose it into a set of components, which serve as subtemplates for the remaining steps. Then, a dictionary is constructed with these subtemplates, and EPs are preliminarily extracted by sparse coding in order to roughly estimate the latency of each component. Finally, the single-trial measurement is parametrically modeled by MISO-ARX while characterizing spontaneous electroencephalographic activity as an autoregression model driven by white noise and with each component of the EP modeled by autoregressive-moving-average filtering of the subtemplates. Once optimized, all components of the EP can be extracted. Compared with ARX, our method has greater tracking capabilities of specific components of the EP complex as each component is modeled individually in MISO-ARX. We provide exhaustive experimental results to show the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

  4. Aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves: phenolic compounds and inhibitory potential on digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Anderson A; Marques, Tamara R; Marcussi, Silvana; Corrêa, Angelita D

    2017-01-01

    Leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava) have been widely used in the popular way for prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves aqueous extract from three cultivars of P. guajava (Pedro Sato, Paluma and Século XXI) on α-amylase, α-glycosidase, lipase, and trypsin enzymes, in the presence or not of simulated gastric fluid and to determine the content of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography. All cultivars presented the same composition in phenolic compounds, but in different proportions. The compounds identified are gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin (which was the major compound in all the cultivars evaluated). In the absence of simulated gastric fluid, it was observed different inhibitions exercised by the leaves aqueous extracts from three cultivars of P. guajava on each enzyme. In presence of simulated gastric fluid, all cultivars showed increase in the inhibition of lipase and α-glycosidase, and decrease in inhibition of α-amylase and trypsin enzymes. These results indicate that P. guajava leaves aqueous extracts from all cultivars evaluated possess potential of use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity and other dyslipidemias.

  5. Wound healing potential of aqueous crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Das

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the wound healing potential of crude aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, in experimental animals. All experiments were conducted following standard procedures. The crude extract was administered topically in graded doses of 150, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. was used for evaluating the wound healing potential in excision wound model for fourteen days and orally in the incision wound model for ten days, respectively. Povidone iodine ointment was used as standard (5.0% w/w. Dose dependent activities resulted in both the wound models when compared to the standard (povidone iodine and the control. Topical application of crude aqueous extract of S. rebaudiana (500 mg/kg b.w in excision wound model decreased significantly the wound area by 15th day, i.e. 48.2±2.0 compared with control 94.1±1.2. Epithelization time was decreased from 17.3±0.21 to 12.0±0.10 and hydroxylproline content was increased from 32.2±0.11 to 67.6±0.10 when compared with control. In incision wound model breaking strength of wounds, wet and dry granulation of the tissue weight and hydroxyproline were increased significantly from control with AESR. In conclusion, AESR leaves accelerated wound healing activity in mice and thus supports its traditional use.

  6. Wound healing potential of aqueous crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Das

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the wound healing potential of crude aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, in experimental animals. All experiments were conducted following standard procedures. The crude extract was administered topically in graded doses of 150, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. was used for evaluating the wound healing potential in excision wound model for fourteen days and orally in the incision wound model for ten days, respectively. Povidone iodine ointment was used as standard (5.0% w/w. Dose dependent activities resulted in both the wound models when compared to the standard (povidone iodine and the control. Topical application of crude aqueous extract of S. rebaudiana (500 mg/kg b.w in excision wound model decreased significantly the wound area by 15th day, i.e. 48.2±2.0 compared with control 94.1±1.2. Epithelization time was decreased from 17.3±0.21 to 12.0±0.10 and hydroxylproline content was increased from 32.2±0.11 to 67.6±0.10 when compared with control. In incision wound model breaking strength of wounds, wet and dry granulation of the tissue weight and hydroxyproline were increased significantly from control with AESR. In conclusion, AESR leaves accelerated wound healing activity in mice and thus supports its traditional use.

  7. Therapeutic and nutraceutical potential of bioactive compounds extracted from fruit residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbar, Neha; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the substitution of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research in identifying new low-cost antioxidants having commercial potential. Fruits such as mango, banana, and those belonging to the citrus family leave behind a substantial amount of residues in the form of peels, pulp, seeds, and stones. Due to lack of infrastructure to handle a huge quantity of available biomass, lack of processing facilities, and high processing cost, these residues represent a major disposal problem, especially in developing countries. Because of the presence of phenolic compounds, which impart nutraceutical properties to fruit residues, such residues hold tremendous potential in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The biological properties such as anticarcinogenicity, antimutagenicity, antiallergenicity, and antiageing activity have been reported for both natural as well as synthetic antioxidants. Special attention is focused on extraction of bioactive compounds from inexpensive or residual sources. The purpose of this review is to characterize different phenolics present in the fruit residues, discuss the antioxidant potential of such residues and the assays used in determination of antioxidant properties, discuss various methods for efficient extraction of the bioactive compounds, and highlight the importance of fruit residues as potential nutraceutical resources and biopreservatives.

  8. Anion and cation diffusion in barium titanate and strontium titanate; Anionen- und Kationendiffusion in Barium- und Strontiumtitanat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, Markus Franz

    2012-12-19

    Perovskite oxides show various interesting properties providing several technical applications. In many cases the defect chemistry is the key to understand and influence the material's properties. In this work the defect chemistry of barium titanate and strontium titanate is analysed by anion and cation diffusion experiments and subsequent time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reoxidation equation for barium titanate used in multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is found out by a combination of different isotope exchange experiments and the analysis of the resulting tracer diffusion profiles. It is shown that the incorporation of oxygen from water vapour is faster by orders of magnitude than from molecular oxygen. Chemical analysis shows the samples contain various dopants leading to a complex defect chemistry. Dysprosium is the most important dopant, acting partially as a donor and partially as an acceptor in this effectively acceptor-doped material. TEM and EELS analysis show the inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in a core-shell microstructure. The oxygen partial pressure and temperature dependence of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients is analysed and explained by the complex defect chemistry of Dy-doped barium titanate. Additional fast diffusion profiles are attributed to fast diffusion along grain boundaries. In addition to the barium titanate ceramics from an important technical application, oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped BaTiO{sub 3} single crystals has been studied by means of {sup 18}O{sub 2}/{sup 16}O{sub 2} isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by ToF-SIMS. It is shown that a correct description of the diffusion profiles requires the analysis of the diffusion through the surface space-charge into the material's bulk. Surface exchange coefficients, space-charge potentials and bulk diffusion coefficients are analysed as a function of oxygen partial

  9. A novel component of cannabis extract potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission in rat olfactory cortex in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Benjamin J; Wilkinson, Jonathan D; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Constanti, Andrew

    2004-07-15

    Cannabis is a potential treatment for epilepsy, although the few human studies supporting this use have proved inconclusive. Previously, we showed that a standardized cannabis extract (SCE), isolated Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), and even Delta9-THC-free SCE inhibited muscarinic agonist-induced epileptiform bursting in rat olfactory cortical brain slices, acting via CB1 receptors. The present work demonstrates that although Delta9-THC (1 microM) significantly depressed evoked depolarizing postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in rat olfactory cortex neurones, both SCE and Delta9-THC-free SCE significantly potentiated evoked PSPs (all results were fully reversed by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, 1 microM); interestingly, the potentiation by Delta9-THC-free SCE was greater than that produced by SCE. On comparing the effects of Delta9-THC-free SCE upon evoked PSPs and artificial PSPs (aPSPs; evoked electrotonically following brief intracellular current injection), PSPs were enhanced, whereas aPSPs were unaffected, suggesting that the effect was not due to changes in background input resistance. Similar recordings made using CB1 receptor-deficient knockout mice (CB1-/-) and wild-type littermate controls revealed cannabinoid or extract-induced changes in membrane resistance, cell excitability and synaptic transmission in wild-type mice that were similar to those seen in rat neurones, but no effect on these properties were seen in CB1-/- cells. It appears that the unknown extract constituent(s) effects over-rode the suppressive effects of Delta9-THC on excitatory neurotransmitter release, which may explain some patients' preference for herbal cannabis rather than isolated Delta9-THC (due to attenuation of some of the central Delta9-THC side effects) and possibly account for the rare incidence of seizures in some individuals taking cannabis recreationally.

  10. Coconut oil extraction by the Java method: An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.; Moeis, M.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w-1 oil from grated

  11. Coconut oil extraction by the traditional Java method : An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Moeis, Maelita R.; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w(-1) oil from

  12. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panee, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine.

  13. Oversampling method to extract excitatory and inhibitory conductances from single-trial membrane potential recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Claude; Béhuret, Sebastien; Deleuze, Charlotte; Bal, Thierry; Destexhe, Alain

    2012-09-15

    Variations of excitatory and inhibitory conductances determine the membrane potential (V(m)) activity of neurons, as well as their spike responses, and are thus of primary importance. Methods to estimate these conductances require clamping the cell at several different levels of V(m), thus making it impossible to estimate conductances from "single trial" V(m) recordings. We present here a new method that allows extracting estimates of the full time course of excitatory and inhibitory conductances from single-trial V(m) recordings. This method is based on oversampling of the V(m). We test the method numerically using models of increasing complexity. Finally, the method is evaluated using controlled conductance injection in cortical neurons in vitro using the dynamic-clamp technique. This conductance extraction method should be very useful for future in vivo applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal protocol for maximum work extraction in a feedback process with a time-varying potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chulan

    2017-12-01

    The nonequilibrium nature of information thermodynamics is characterized by the inequality or non-negativity of the total entropy change of the system, memory, and reservoir. Mutual information change plays a crucial role in the inequality, in particular if work is extracted and the paradox of Maxwell's demon is raised. We consider the Brownian information engine where the protocol set of the harmonic potential is initially chosen by the measurement and varies in time. We confirm the inequality of the total entropy change by calculating, in detail, the entropic terms including the mutual information change. We rigorously find the optimal values of the time-dependent protocol for maximum extraction of work both for the finite-time and the quasi-static process.

  15. Potential protective effects of polysaccharide extracted from Ulva lactuca against male reprotoxicity induced by thiacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Intissar; Bkhairia, Intidhar; Ben Abdallah, Fatma; Jaballi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Boudawara, Ons; Nasri, Moncef; Gharsallah, Neji; Hakim, Ahmed; Ben Amara, Ibtissem

    2017-12-01

    Polysaccharides (PSs) from seaweeds have been reported to possess biological activity of potential medicinal values. The current study was conducted to establish the protective effects of PS extracted from Ulva lactuca against oxidative stress induced by Thiacloprid (THC) in the rat reproductive system. Rats were exposed either to THC, THC + PS (100 mg/kg), or THC + PS (200 mg/kg). Our study showed that THC induced severe disorders in the functional sperm parameters. A decrease in antioxidant activities and their genes expression were observed in the same group, compared to the controls. Our molecular data showing also a severe DNA breakdown in the testis of THC treated group. Moreover, THC treated group showed severe histopathological changes. Our results revealed that PS extracted from Ulva lactuca alleviated the THC induced reprotoxicity and reduced oxidative stress damages, DNA breakdown and histological injuries in the testis.

  16. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Silver Nanoparticles: Biogenic Synthesis Utilizing Apple Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Nagaich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of the biological production of nanoparticles using herbal extracts performs a significant role in nanotechnology discipline as it is green and does not engage harsh chemicals. The objective of the present investigation was to extract flavonoids in the mode of apple extract and synthesize its silver nanoparticles and ultimately nanoparticles loading into hydrogels. The presence of flavonoids in apple extract was characterized by preliminary testing like dil. ammonia test and confirmatory test by magnesium ribbon test. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV spectroscopy, particle size and surface morphology, and zeta potential. Silver nanoparticles loaded hydrogels were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, viscosity, spreadability, porosity, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation, and antibacterial (E. coli and S. aureus and antioxidant studies (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Well dispersed silver nanoparticles below were observed in scanning electron microscope image. Hydrogels displayed in vitro release of 98.01%  ±  0.37% up to 24 h and ex vivo permeation of 98.81  ±  0.24% up to 24 h. Hydrogel effectively inhibited the growth of both microorganism indicating good antibacterial properties. The value of percent radical inhibition was 75.16%  ±  0.04 revealing its high antioxidant properties. As an outcome, it can be concluded that antioxidant and antiageing traits of flavonoids in apple extract plus biocidal feature of silver nanoparticles can be synergistically and successfully utilized in the form of hydrogel.

  17. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Carolina G; Reigosa, Manuel J; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Pedrol, Nuria

    2018-01-01

    In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids) were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus aqueous extract

  18. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina G Puig

    Full Text Available In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus

  19. Aphrodisiac potentials of the ethanol extract of Aloe barbadensis Mill. root in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhabor, Joseph O; Idu, MacDonald

    2017-07-11

    Aloe barbadensis (AB) is a short stemmed succulent medicinal herb that is being used by locals in Nigeria to enhance libido. Therefore this study evaluates the aphrodisiac potential and acute toxicological effect of A. barbadensis (AB) root in male Wistar rats. Aphrodisiac potential was determined following the oral administration of graded doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of A. barbadensis root. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and distilled water served as positive and negative controls respectively. Sexual behavioural parameters (mounting and intromission frequencies, mounting, intromission and ejaculatory latencies) were observed. Serum testosterone and cholesterol concentrations were also progressively monitored on days 1, 7 and 14. The acute toxicological evaluation of the plant were based on any onset behavioural changes and mortality respectively. The findings from the sexual behavioural study indicated that the ethanol extract of A. barbadensis significantly increased mounting frequency and intromission frequency but significantly decreased mount and intromission latencies in a dose dependent manner particularly on day 1 and 14. The ethanol extract also prolonged ejaculatory latency. The testosterone and cholesterol concentrations were also increased as the dose increased particularly on day 1 and 7. The lowest dose of 100 mg/kg showed the best aphrodisiac effect. The toxicity studies showed that there were no acute behavioural changes with zero mortality. The increased blood testosterone and cholesterol concentrations by the ethanol extract of A. barbadensis can probably be said to be the possible mechanisms of action for its aphrodisiac property. The plant may also be used to treat hypotestosteronemia following its ability to increase testosterone. These findings therefore give backing to the acclaimed local use of A. barbadensis root as an aphrodisiac in males.

  20. Prospects for the ORNL/TAMU Barium Fluoride Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Austin; McIntosh, Alan; Youngs, Mike; Mosby, Shea; Varner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the symmetry energy in the nuclear equation of state is essential to understanding properties such as the structure of a neutron star or its gravitational collapse, leading to supernovae. It has been suggested that to better constrain the symmetry energy one can use the bremmstrahlung gamma rays emitted from the hot, dense nuclear matter in the early stages of heavy ion collisions. These gamma rays have the potential to provide a cleaner probe than the more traditional hadronic probes. To measure these bremmstrahlung photons, barium fluoride scintillation crystals were chosen for their ability to detect photons across a large energy range and for their inherent pulse shape discrimination properties. This summer, the detectors of the TAMU/ORNL barium fluoride array were tested in preparation for such an experiment. Signals from each detector were recorded individually for cosmic rays and radioactive source events. The full waveforms were digitized with flash ADCs. A selected set of detectors was assembled and tested with beam from the K500 cyclotron. With this in-beam data, waveform integration parameters may be optimized. Results from the testing of these detectors with flash digitizers will be presented. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Cyclotron Institute.

  1. Edge detection of barium-filled stomach picture by one-dimensional collation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shizuo

    1983-01-01

    The method for the contour edge detection of barium- filled stomach pictures by X-ray for the automatic screening is described using computer technique. It is necessary for the automatic screening of barium- filling pictures to detect accurately the outline of stomachs because the analysis of repletion pictures is performed by checking the disorder of marginal contours and abnormal stomach shapes. However, the detection of the coutour lines is difficult to be successful for the reason that the contrast of stomach pictures to background is low, a stomach is not necessarily filled completely with barium and the shadow of barium flowing into intestines is superimposed on stomach images and the shading is likely to occur. The engineering processing against these problems is not yet solved. In order to reduce the noise due to differential operator, the proposed method determines the boundary of a thing generally by the threshold value of density, and defines the edge of the thing from the differential waveform of density in the vicinity of the boundary. In addition, the method corrects the detection error caused by the local nonconformity of parameters by comparing the edges between the adjacent lines. As a result, in spite of its simple algorithm, the edges with good continuity and less noise can be detected, and the method is not much affected by shading. This method was found to be applicable to the images of others than stomachs. The extraction of the contour of barium- filling pictures requires the high level recognition processing instead of the simple conditioning. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. oil obtained from different extraction technique and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Rishika; Chester, Karishma; Khan, Yasmeen; Tamboli, Ennus Tajuddin; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Linum usitatissimum L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), ultrasound-assistance, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. Materials and Methods: The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO2) were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) fingerprinting. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide scavenging method. Result: The main fatty acids were α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks, as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods, were superimposable. Conclusion: Analysis reported that the fixed oil of L. usitatissimum L. is a good source of n-3 fatty acid with the significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method. PMID:26681884

  3. Characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. oil obtained from different extraction technique and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Rishika; Chester, Karishma; Khan, Yasmeen; Tamboli, Ennus Tajuddin; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Linum usitatissimum L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), ultrasound-assistance, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO2) were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) fingerprinting. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide scavenging method. The main fatty acids were α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks, as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods, were superimposable. Analysis reported that the fixed oil of L. usitatissimum L. is a good source of n-3 fatty acid with the significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method.

  4. Characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. oil obtained from different extraction technique and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishika Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Linum usitatissimum L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, ultrasound-assistance, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. Materials and Methods: The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO2 were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR fingerprinting. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide scavenging method. Result: The main fatty acids were α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks, as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods, were superimposable. Conclusion: Analysis reported that the fixed oil of L. usitatissimum L. is a good source of n-3 fatty acid with the significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method.

  5. How to make the clean development mechanism sustainable-The potential of rent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) should foster sustainable development and greenhouse gas emission reductions. The design of the CDM and first experience suggest that it may not achieve these goals. Developing countries hosting CDM projects may lose cheap emission reduction possibilities for their own future use, and sustainable development and technology transfer may not take place. On the other hand, the CDM has the potential to generate considerable rents if permit prices are high or costs low. To account for equity and distributional issues, a deliberate decision on how to distribute these rents could be taken and the potential failure of the CDM in meeting its goals calls for some further regulation. I suggest to combine these two issues and to extract the rents by a profit tax. Ideally, the tax revenues could contribute to national sustainable development strategies, to offset external costs imposed by CDM projects and to extract part of the resource rent they may generate. The international character of the CDM could offer a frame for internationally coordinated tax design. This would hedge against a potential race to the bottom

  6. The Static and Molecular Structure of Barium Dibromide: A Theoretical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerbuez, H.

    2004-01-01

    The geometry of barium dibromide was first determined by electron diffraction by Akishin and Spiridov. That study concluded that the molecule is linear, but recent modern electron diffraction and quantum chemical studies of BaBr 2 indicated that its equilibrium geometry is bent. The geometrical parameters, namely, bond lengths and bond angles of barium dibromide were calculated from different levels of computation and experimentally. In this work we have calculated the molecular structure of the BaCl 2 using the Interionic Force model. On the other hand, we have calculated the interionic potentials with two different rigid ion model potentials (RIM) which one is the Vashista-Rahman (VR) semi-empirical potential and second one is the RIM potential with parametrization of Tatlipinar. These two model potential are compared with each other by reproducing the experimental static structure. The structure calculations have been performed by solving numerically the hypernetted chain approximate of liquids

  7. Reducing capacities and redox potentials of humic substances extracted from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Du, Mengchan; Jiang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Humic substances (HS) are redox active organic materials that can be extracted from sewage sludge generated in wastewater treatment processes. Due to the poor understanding of reducing capacity, redox potentials and redox active functional groups of HS in sewage sludge, the potential contribution of sludge HS in transformation of wastewater contaminants is unclear. In the present study, the number of electrons donated or accepted by sewage sludge HS were quantified before and after reduction by iron compounds that possess different redox potentials and defined as the reducing capacity of the sewage sludge. In contrast to previous studies of soil and commercial humic acids (HA), reduced sludge HA showed a lower reducing capacity than that of native HA, which implies formation of semiquinone radicals since the semiquinone radical/hydroquinone pair has a much higher redox potential than the quinone/hydroquinone pair. It is novel that reducing capacities of sludge HA were determined in the redox potential range from -314 to 430 mV. The formation of semiquinone radicals formed during the reduction of quinone moieties in sludge HA is shown by three-dimensional excitation/emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopies information, increasing fluorescence intensities and blue-shifting of the excitation/emission peak of reduced sludge HA. Knowledge of sludge HS redox potentials and corresponding reducing capacities makes it possible to predict the transformation of redox active pollutants and facilitate manipulation and optimization of sludge loading wastewater treatment processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Steam explosion lignins; their extraction, structure and potential as feedstock for biodiesel and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiebing; Gellerstedt, Göran; Toven, Kai

    2009-05-01

    In the present study, a steam explosion wood pre-treatment process, optimized earlier with respect to ethanol production, has been applied to both softwoods (Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris) and hardwoods (Betula verrucosa and Populus tremula). The alkaline extractable lignins have then been isolated to investigate lignin separation efficiency and lignin structure and to evaluate their potential for producing value-added products, such as biodiesel components or chemicals, in terms of the purity, molecular size, functional groups, beta-O-4' inter-unit linkage content, and degradability in a subsequent processing treatment. The mechanism of lignin modification and possible improvements to the steam explosion pre-treatment process are discussed.

  9. A comparative analysis of in vitro antioxidant potential of crude extracts of Tridax procumbens L. in different solvents and in vitro hypoglycemic potential of its hydro-alcoholic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Nair

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of crude extracts of aerial parts (stem, leaves and flowers of Tridax procumbens was screened for in vitro antioxidant potential and alpha amylase inhibitory action. The crude hydro-methanolic, aqueous and petroleum ether extracts were obtained by percolation-maceration method using 50% methanol, double distilled water and petroleum ether as solvents. Phytochemical screening of these extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, phenols, steroids and carbohydrate. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated for free radical scavenging by hydrogen peroxide scavenging and superoxide scavenging potential. The in vitro alpha amylase inhibition action of hydro-methanolic extract of aerial parts of the plant (HMETP was evaluated for hypoglycemic properties using starch as substrate. Mode of inhibition of the enzyme was also determined. The results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract showed significant antioxidant potency at concentration of 25-80 μg as compared to aqueous and petroleum ether extracts and also possess alpha amylase inhibitory property. Hence it can be suggested that hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of Tridax procumbens has potential as an antioxidant and probably in biological systems as a nutraceutical for hypoglycemia.

  10. Green fabricated CuO nanobullets viaOlea europaealeaf extract shows auspicious antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Iftikhar, Sidra; Nazar, Mudassar; Abbas, Fazal; Saleem, Asif; Hussain, Talib; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Jabeen, Nyla

    2017-06-01

    In present investigation, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been prepared via green chemistry. Olea europaea leaf extract act as strong chelating agent for tailoring physical as well as bio-medical characteristics of CuO at the nano-size. Physical characterisation such as scanning electron microscope analysis depicts the formation of homogenised spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with average size of 42 nm. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the crystalline pure phase and monoclinic structure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing is performed to evaluate the relative concentration of bioactive molecules in the O. europaea leaf extract. From HPLC results capping action of organic molecules around CuO-NPs is hypothesised. The antimicrobial potency of biosynthesised CuO-NPs have been evaluated using colony forming unit (CFU) counting assay and disc diffusion method which shows a significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains may be highly potential for future antimicrobial pharmaceutics. Furthermore, reduction of various precursors by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  11. Comparison of three sequential extraction protocols for the fractionation of potentially toxic metals in coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyiola, Aderonke Oluwabukola; Olayinka, Kehinde O; Alo, Babajide I

    2011-01-01

    In the determination of the best sequential extraction procedures (SEP) for the speciation of metals in sediment samples from the Lagos lagoon system, three sequential extraction procedures were compared for the fractionation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The SEP compared included a modified Tessier's procedure carried out in five steps, while the two other procedures were the three-step original Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) and the modified BCR techniques (four steps). Quantification of the metal concentration was achieved with a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained by the three methods were compared, and the modified BCR and Tessier SEP were found to extract more Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn in the reducible phase and therefore a decrease in the oxidizable phase than the original BCR SEP. The most mobile elements were found to be Cd, Pb, and Zn. These are of environmental concern, as these potentially toxic metals could be easily released into the aquatic environment with consequent ingestion by aquatic organisms, thereby entering the food chain. The mass balance (percent recovery) was found to be between 85% and 115% in most cases. Prior to the comparison, the analytical performance of the laboratory was tested using a secondary reference material, GLAURM, using the three-step modified BCR procedure. The results showed high reliability of the analytical performance of the laboratory for all the metals considered.

  12. Offshore iron sand extraction in New Zealand: Potential trace metal exposure of benthic and pelagic biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopel, Kay; Pook, Chris; Wilson, Peter; Robertson, John

    2017-10-15

    Plans to exploit an offshore source of iron sand in South Taranaki Bight (STB), New Zealand, caused concerns that such exploitation may expose benthic and pelagic biota to elevated trace metal concentrations. We conducted dilute-acid extractions and standard elutriate tests to investigate the potential of this exploitation to (1) create a new seafloor with elevated trace metal content, (2) mobilise trace metals during iron sand extraction and, (3) enrich the returning process seawater, which feeds iron sand through mills, with trace metals. We found that recruits of freshly uncovered sediment may encounter higher-than-natural concentrations of cadmium, nickel and chromium (but not of copper, lead, and zinc) and propose to investigate the bioavailability of these metals. Elutriate test with raw and milled iron sand revealed that, for nickel and copper, dilution of the process seawater may be required to meet the local water quality guideline. We argue that this dilution can be achieved by adjustment of the mass and seawater balance of the offshore extraction process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PHYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF THE GEOPROPOLIS EXTRACTS OF THE JANDAIRA STINGLESS BEE (Melipona subnitida IN WEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL SANTIAGO PEREIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research is to characterize the phytotoxic activity of geopropolis from the Jandaira bee (Melipona subnitida Ducke in the state of Ceará in Northeast Brazil and to analyze its effects. Extracts were prepared in 80% v/v grain alcohol at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%. Their effects were determined on seed germination, radicle elongation, and hypocotyl growth of the pasture weeds malícia (Mimosa pudica and mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Extract phytotoxicity varied as functions of plant species, application dosage, and plant organ. M. pudica was more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of geopropolis than S. obtusifolia. There was a phytotoxic effect of 50% (PE50 for S. obtusifolia in terms of seed germination and in rootlet development near the maximum applied concentrations. M. pudica had PE50 and PE90 at the minimum concentration (0.25% and near the maximum (1.00%, respectively. Thus, geopropolis extracts from the Jandaira bee (M. subnitida are potentially phytotoxic to certain plant species.

  14. Antioxidant Potential of ulva rigida c. Agardh Extract: Protection from Oxidative Stress Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAŞ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, one of the green algae, on and antioxidative system in the propylthiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Thirty-two rats randomly divided into four groups: control (C, control+U. rigida extract (C+UR, hypothyroid (H and hypothyroid+U. rigida extract (H+UR. U. rigida (2% was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks after the induction of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid rats were under oxidative stress as reflected by icreased plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA levels. U. rigida reduced serum total cholesterol and,- triglyceride levels and plasma and heart skeletal muscle, liver and,- kidney tissue MDA levels in the H+UR group. Serum total cholesterol and tissues MDA levels were reduced in the C+UR group. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were increased in the H+UR and C+UR groups compared with those of te respective control groups. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were lower in the H group and U. rigida increased paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in C+UR and H+UR groups. We conclude that hypothyroidism is associated with oxidative stress and, U. rigida extract might have a potential use as a protective antioxidant agent in hypothroidism.

  15. Nanoparticles of barium induce apoptosis in human phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mores, Luana; França, Eduardo Luzia; Silva, Núbia Andrade; Suchara, Eliane Aparecida; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients and immunological factors of breast milk are essential for newborn growth and the development of their immune system, but this secretion can contain organic and inorganic toxins such as barium. Colostrum contamination with barium is an important issue to investigate because this naturally occurring element is also associated with human activity and industrial pollution. The study evaluated the administration of barium nanoparticles to colostrum, assessing the viability and functional activity of colostral mononuclear phagocytes. Colostrum was collected from 24 clinically healthy women (aged 18-35 years). Cell viability, superoxide release, intracellular Ca(2+) release, and phagocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the samples. Treatment with barium lowered mononuclear phagocyte viability, increased superoxide release, and reduced intracellular calcium release. In addition, barium increased cell death by apoptosis. These data suggest that nanoparticles of barium in colostrum are toxic to cells, showing the importance of avoiding exposure to this element.

  16. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  17. Deflocculants for Tape Casting Barium Titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    are discussed in detail by Mitchell and Smith (2). The measurement of free and bound water was performed by titration to an electrometric end point by...the dead- stop ( biamperometric ) technique using a Fisher Model 391 aquametry apparatus. The fundamental theory behind this technique is reviewed p in... Titrations were performed at 25 ± 10C. "i 9 For insoluble materials, such as the barium titanate powder, the solid was added to the pyridine solvent

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase, hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory potential of standardized extract of Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Neelesh Kumar; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra Kumar; Mukherjee, Pulok Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Apiaceae), a valuable herb described in Ayurveda, is used in the indigenous system of medicine as a tonic to treat skin diseases. Centella asiatica methanol extract and its ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction, were subjected for the evaluation of skin care potential through the in vitro hyaluronidase, elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory assay. The C. asiatica plant was extracted with methanol and fractionated with ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. The enzymatic activities were evaluated using ursolic acid and oleanolic acid as standards. Isolate molecule asiaticoside was quantified in the crude extract and fractions through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and structural was characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Isolated compound was also evaluated for in vitro enzyme assays. Extract exhibited anti-hyaluronidase and anti-elastase activity with IC₅₀ of 19.27 ± 0.37 and 14.54 ± 0.39 µg/mL, respectively, as compared to ursolic acid. Centella asiatica n-butanol fraction (CAnB) and isolated compound showed significant hyaluronidase (IC₅₀ = 27.00 ± 0.43 and 18.63 ± 0.33 µg/mL) and elastase (IC₅₀ = 29.15 ± 0.31 and 19.45 ± 0.25 µg/mL) inhibitory activities, respectively, and also showed significant MMP-1 inhibition (p asiatica may be a prospective agent for skin care.

  19. An experimental evaluation of adaptogenic potential of standardized epipremnum aureum leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreemoy Kanti Das

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress is a normal part of everyday life but chronic stress can lead to a variety of stress-related illnesses including hypertension, anxiety, and depression. In the present investigation, standardized leaf extract of Epipremnumaureum was evaluated for its anti-stress potential. Materials and Methods: For the evaluation of anti-stress activity, groups of mice (n = 6 were subjected to forced swim stress and anoxic stress tolerance test in mice 1h after daily treatment of E.aureumextract. Diazepam (5 mg/kg was taken as a reference standard. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were selected as noninvasive biomarkers to assess the anti-stress activity and plasma cortisol, blood ascorbic acid, and weight of adrenal were measured. The 24 h urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The hematological parameters (neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils were also determined. Results: Administration of E.aureumat doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg wasfound to be effective in inhibiting the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with E. aureum extract prevents the rise in blood ascorbic acid and plasma cortisol. Moreover, the extract prevented the increase in weight of adrenal gland also significantly increased the anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose-dependent significant reduction in white blood cell count was observed in anoxic stress tolerance test as compared to stressed group. Conclusion: Hence, the present study provides scientific support for the positiveadaptogenic effect of E. aureum extract.

  20. Sweet waste extract uptake by a mosquito vector: Survival, biting, fecundity responses, and potential epidemiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Abang, Fatimah; Meli, Nur Khairatun Khadijah Binti; Ghani, Idris A; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Hakim, Hafijah; Miake, Fumio; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Noor, Sabina; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ahmad, Hamdan; Majid, Abdul Hafiz A; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Morales, Noppawan P; Attrapadung, Siriluck; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2017-05-01

    In nature, adult mosquitoes typically utilize nectar as their main energy source, but they can switch to other as yet unidentified sugary fluids. Contemporary lifestyles, with their associated unwillingness to consume leftovers and improper disposal of waste, have resulted in the disposal of huge amounts of waste into the environment. Such refuse often contains unfinished food items, many of which contain sugar and some of which can collect water from rain and generate juices. Despite evidence that mosquitoes can feed on sugar-rich suspensions, semi-liquids, and decaying fruits, which can be abundant in garbage sites, the impacts of sweet waste fluids on dengue vectors are unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of extracts from some familiar sweet home waste items on key components of vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. Adult mosquitoes were fed one of five diets in this study: water (WAT); sucrose (SUG); bakery product (remnant of chocolate cake, BAK); dairy product (yogurt, YOG); and fruit (banana (BAN). Differences in survival, response time to host, and egg production were examined between groups. For both males and females, maintenance on BAK extract resulted in marked survival levels that were similar to those seen with SUG. Sweet waste extracts provided better substrates for survival compared to water, but this superiority was mostly seen with BAK. Females maintained on BAK, YOG, and BAN exhibited shorter response times to a host compared to their counterparts maintained on SUG. The levels of egg production were equivalent in waste extract- and SUG-fed females. The findings presented here illustrate the potential of sweet waste-derived fluids to contribute to the vectorial capacity of dengue vectors and suggest the necessity of readdressing the issue of waste disposal, especially that of unfinished sweet foods. Such approaches can be particularly relevant in dengue endemic areas where rainfall is frequent and waste collection infrequent. Copyright

  1. Barium hexaferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosyan, K.S.; Galstyan, E.; Hossain, S.M.; Wang Yiju; Litvinov, D.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon combustion synthesis is applied to rapid and energy efficient fabrication of crystalline barium hexaferrite nanoparticles with the average particle size of 50-100 nm. In this method, the exothermic oxidation of carbon nanoparticles with an average size of 5 nm with a surface area of 80 m 2 /g generates a self-propagating thermal wave with maximum temperatures of up to 1000 deg. C. The thermal front rapidly propagates through the mixture of solid reactants converting it to the hexagonal barium ferrite. Carbon is not incorporated in the product and is emitted from the reaction zone as a gaseous CO 2 . The activation energy for carbon combustion synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 was estimated to be 98 kJ/mol. A complete conversion to hexagonal barium ferrite is obtained for carbon concentration exceeding 11 wt.%. The magnetic properties H c ∼3000 Oe and M s ∼50.3 emu/g of the compact sintered ferrites compare well with those produced by other synthesis methods.

  2. BARIUM REDUCTION OF INTUSSUSCEPTION IN INFANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenholz, Edward J.; Feher, George. S.

    1955-01-01

    Barium enema reduction was used as the initial routine treatment in 29 infants with intussusception. In 22 of them the intussusception was reduced by this means. In three of eight patients operated upon the intussusception was found to be reduced. Four of the remaining five patients had clinical or x-ray evidence of complications before reduction by barium enema was attempted. Twenty-one of the patients, all of whom were observed in private practice, were treated without admission to the hospital. After reduction, these patients were observed closely by the clinician. None of these patients showed clinical or x-ray signs of complications before reduction. Certain clinical and roentgen criteria must be satisfied before it can be concluded that reduction by barium enema is complete. If there are clinical signs of complications with x-ray evidence of small bowel obstruction, only a very cautious attempt at hydrostatic reduction should be made. As the time factor is generally a reliable clinical guide to reducibility, the late cases should be viewed with greater caution. Long duration of symptoms, however, is not per se a contraindication to an attempt at hydrostatic reduction. PMID:13230908

  3. Effects of Barium Concentration on Oropharyngeal Swallow Timing Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stokely, Shauna L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between “thin” (40 % w/v concentration) and “ultrathin” (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; ...

  4. Contrast characteristics of barium preparations and the timing of exposure

    OpenAIRE

    渋谷, 光一; 中桐, 義忠; 東, 義晴; 杉田, 勝彦; 小橋, 高郎; 大倉, 保彦; 丹谷, 延義; 三上, 泰隆; 平木, 祥夫

    1995-01-01

    We studied the relationship between the contrast characteristics of barium suspension and timing of exposure. We poured several kinds of barium preparations on the phantom manufactured by ourselves, and took X-ray pictures continuously by a DSA system. We analyzed each of the characteris-tics of the contrast. The time which was reguired for the contrast to reach the peak (Contrast Peak Time ; CPT) was unrelated with the kind of barium preparations used. It depended on the viscosity of the con...

  5. Barium peritonitis following upper gastrointestinal series: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Su Jin; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Yong Jin; Hong, Seong Sook [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We report a rare case of barium peritonitis following an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series and its imaging findings in a 74-year-old female. Barium peritonitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of GI contrast investigation. Therefore, clinical awareness of barium peritonitis as a complication of GI tract contrast investigation would help to prevent such a complication and manage the patients properly.

  6. Screening potential genotoxic effect of aquatic plant extracts using the mussel micronucleus test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Eck-Varanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the genotoxic potential of selected aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum L. (hornwort, family Ceratophyllaceae, Typha angustifolia L. (narrowleaf cattail, family Typhaceae, Stratiotes aloides L. (water soldier, family Butomaceae, and Oenanthe aquatica (L. Poir. (water dropwort, family Umbelliferae. Methods: For genotoxicity assessment, the mussel micronucleus test was applied. Micronucleus frequency was determined from the haemolymph of Unio pictorum L. (painter’s mussel. In parallel, total and hydrolisable tannin contents were determined. Results: All plant extracts elucidated significant mutagenic effect. Significant correlation was determined between tannin content and mutagenic capacity. Conclusions: The significant correlation between genotoxicity as expressed by micronucleus frequency and tannin content (both total and hydrolisable tannins indicate that tannin is amongst the main compounds being responsible for the genotoxic potential. It might be suggested that genotoxic capacity of these plants elucidate a real ecological effect in the ecosystem.

  7. Antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria and cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Anacardium occidentale L. and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Josenildo Segundo Chaves; de Castilho, Aline Rogéria Freire; Lira, Andressa Brito; Pereira, Andréia Vieira; de Azevêdo, Tatiane Kelly Barbosa; de Brito Costa, Edja Maria de Melo; Pereira, Maria do Socorro Vieira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna Freire; Pereira, Jozinete Vieira

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity against bacteria with cariogenic relevance, toxic and genotoxic potential of the plants Anacardium occidentale L. and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Bernam. Using a microdilution technique, the extracts were submitted to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing against Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 903), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557), Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 7073), Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 15300) and Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 27609). The toxicity of the extracts was then verified against eukaryotic cells. Additionally, a micronucleus assay was performed to investigate the potential mutagenic effects of the extracts on rat erythrocytes. The Student's t-test, Bonferroni test, and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's tests were used for statistical analysis, at a significance level of 5%. While the A. occidentale extract was able to inhibit all of the tested strains, with S. mutans and S. mitis being the most susceptible to that extract́s action, the A. macrocarpa did not show antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, the hemolytic, oxidant and antioxidant activities were slightly observed for either extract, even at high concentrations (1000mg/mL). The micronucleus assay showed no significant changes in the cells exposed to the extracts. The A. occidentale extract has potential as an antimicrobial agent with low eukaryotic cell toxicity or mutagenic activity. The A. macrocarpa extract, although absent of antibacterial activity might as well be a safe and effective phytotherapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and its antimicrobial potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Jerushka S.; Babu Naidu Krishna, Suresh; Pillay, Karen; Sershen; Govender, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    In this study we report on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera using sunlight irradiation as primary source of energy, and its antimicrobial potential. Silver nanoparticle formation was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance at 450 nm and 440 nm, respectively for both fresh and freeze-dried leaf samples. Crystanality of AgNPs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. FTIR spectroscopic analysis suggested that flavones, terpenoids and polysaccharides predominate and are primarily responsible for the reduction and subsequent capping of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction analysis also demonstrated that the size range of AgNPs from both samples exhibited average diameters of 9 and 11 nm, respectively. Silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity on both bacterial and fungal strains. The biosynthesised nanoparticle preparations from M. oleifera leaf extracts exhibit potential for application as broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents.

  9. Potential anti-tumor effects of Mugil cephalus processed roe extracts on colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Antonella; Scano, Paola; Atzeri, Angela; Deiana, Monica; Falchi, Angela Maria

    2013-10-01

    The salted-semidried mullet ovary product, bottarga, is a Mediterranean food rich in n-3 PUFA EPA and DHA. We studied and compared the effects on cell viability, sensitivity to the anti-tumor drug 5-fluorouracil, and lipid composition, in colon cancer Caco-2 cells after 24 h incubation with oils and hydrophilic extracts obtained from two bottarga samples stored at different conditions. The cellular absorption of bottarga lipids was assessed in cancer cells by the evaluation of lipid accumulation in cytoplasmic lipid droplets by fluorescence microscopy. Bottarga oil showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of cancer Caco-2 cells and the ability to potentiate, at non-toxic concentration, the growth inhibitory effect of 5-fluorouracil. Moreover, bottarga oil induced in cancer Caco-2 cells marked changes in fatty acid composition, with a significant accumulation of the n-3 PUFA EPA and DHA, and cytoplasmic lipid droplet formation. Also bottarga hydrophilic extract, characterized by means of ¹H NMR spectroscopy, exhibited a reduction in cancer cell viability, without affecting cell lipid profile. Cell cholesterol levels were unmodified by all treatments. The results showed interesting anti-tumor properties of bottarga lipids, and qualify this fish product as a food with nutraceutical properties and potential benefits in colon cancer prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on the Analgesic Potential of leaf Extracts of Allium humile on Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium humile is a medicinal plant found at the Alpine Himalayas of Uttarakhand at altitute of 2500-3000 meters height of sea level. In India, Allium humile, is used by local people as a spice and in ethano-medicine. In the present study, Allium humile leaves were explored for their analgesic potential on experimental model and compared to standard drugs. Allium humile at the doses of 100 mg/kg and aspirin 25 mg/kg exhibited significant (p>0.05 inhibition of the control writhes at the rate of 64.25%, 44.54%, 44.54% and 59.89% respectively when compared to that of control. Thus, methanolic extract of the plant can be fully explored for its analgesic potential which has not been reported so far. The plant extract showed a relative low toxicity hence justifies the folkloric use of plant by the local people in Western Himalayan region for curing inflammation and painful conditions.

  11. Effects of barium and cadmium on the population development of the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, V F; Santos, G A P; Derycke, S; Larrazabal, M E L; Fonsêca-Genevois, V G; Moens, T

    2011-10-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling often involves the use of fluids containing barium and traces of other heavy metals. These may affect the environment, but information on their toxicity to benthic biota remains scant. Here, we present results of a 10-day bioassay with the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina at different loads of barium (0-10 ,000 ppm nominal concentrations) and cadmium (0-12 ppm) in the range of concentrations reported from drilling-impacted sediments. Barium did not affect the fitness and population development of R. (P.) marina at concentrations up to 300 ppm, but did cause a decrease in population abundance and an increase in development time from concentrations of 400-2000 ppm onwards. Increased mortality occurred at 4800 ppm Ba. For cadmium, LOEC and EC₅₀ values for total population abundance were 2.95 and 8.82 ppm, respectively. Cd concentrations as low as 2.40 to 2.68 caused a decrease in the abundance of adult nematodes, indicating that assays covering more generations would likely demonstrate yet more pronounced population-level effects. Our results indicate that oil and gas drilling activities may potentially have important implications for the meiobenthos through the toxicity of barium and associated metals like cadmium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of barium concentration on oropharyngeal swallow timing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Shauna L; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-02-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between "thin" (40 % w/v concentration) and "ultrathin" (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; mean age = 31 years) each performed a series of three noncued 5-ml swallows each of ultrathin and thin liquid barium solutions in videofluoroscopy. Timing measures were compared between barium concentrations using a mixed-model ANOVA. The measures of interest were stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Significant differences were observed in the timing measures of swallowing with respect to barium concentration. In all cases, longer durations were seen with the higher barium concentration. Barium concentration influences timing parameters in healthy swallowing, even between ultrathin and thin concentrations. Clinicians need to understand and control for the impact of different barium stimuli on swallowing physiology.

  13. History and challenges of barium titanate: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijatović M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate is the first ferroelectric ceramics and a good candidate for a variety of applications due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Barium titanate is a member of a large family of compounds with the general formula ABO3 which is called perovskite. Barium titanate can be prepared using different methods. The synthesis method depends on the desired characteristics for the end application and the method used has a significant influence on the structure and properties of barium titanate materials. In this review paper, in Part II the properties of obtained materials and their application are presented.

  14. History and challenges of barium titanate: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijatović M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate is the first ferroelectric ceramics and a good candidate for a variety of applications due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Barium titanate is a member of a large family of compounds with the general formula ABO3 called perovskites. Barium titanate can be prepared using different methods. The synthesis method depends on the desired characteristics for the end application. The used method has a significant influence on the structure and properties of barium titanate materials. In this review paper, Part I contains a study of the BaTiO3 structure and frequently used synthesis methods.

  15. Impact of the barium enema examination on patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.M.; Ott, D.J.; Munitz, H.A.; Gelfand, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The records of 214 patients who underwent barium enema examinations were reviewed. Indications for the examination, radiographic efficacy, and patient outcome were correlated to determine the impact of barium enema examination on patient management. The most frequent indications were rectal bleeding (33%), abdominal pain (31%), and anemia (17%). Diverticulosis (30%), polyps (10%), and malignancies (12%) were the most common abnormalities detected. The sensitivity of barium enema examination for detecting neoplasms was 89%. The effects on patient management were as follows: serious pathology was excluded (64%); a diagnosis was made that changed therapy (24%); existing therapy was continued (10%); additional studies were ordered (2%). No serious lesion was missed on barium enema examination

  16. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  17. Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, Matthew J; Sweatlock, Luke A; Pacifici, Domenico; Lezec, Henri J; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Atwater, Harry A

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate control of the surface plasmon polariton wavevector in an active metal-dielectric plasmonic interferometer by utilizing electrooptic barium titanate as the dielectric layer. Arrays of subwavelength interferometers were fabricated from pairs of parallel slits milled in silver on barium titanate thin films. Plasmon-mediated transmission of incident light through the subwavelength slits is modulated by an external voltage applied across the barium titanate thin film. Transmitted light modulation is ascribed to two effects, electrically induced domain switching and electrooptic modulation of the barium titanate index.

  18. RNA Contaminates Glycosaminoglycans Extracted from Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemst, Jasper J; Loeven, Markus A; de Graaf, Mark J J; Berden, Jo H M; Rabelink, Ton J; Smit, Cornelis H; van der Vlag, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear negatively charged polysaccharides and important components of extracellular matrices and cell surface glycan layers such as the endothelial glycocalyx. The GAG family includes sulfated heparin, heparan sulfate (HS), dermatan sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), keratan sulfate, and non-sulfated hyaluronan. Because relative expression of GAGs is dependent on cell-type and niche, isolating GAGs from cell cultures and tissues may provide insight into cell- and tissue-specific GAG structure and functions. In our objective to obtain structural information about the GAGs expressed on a specialized mouse glomerular endothelial cell culture (mGEnC-1) we adapted a recently published GAG isolation protocol, based on cell lysis, proteinase K and DNase I digestion. Analysis of the GAGs contributing to the mGEnC-1 glycocalyx indicated a large HS and a minor CS content on barium acetate gel. However, isolated GAGs appeared resistant to enzymatic digestion by heparinases. We found that these GAG extracts were heavily contaminated with RNA, which co-migrated with HS in barium acetate gel electrophoresis and interfered with 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assays, resulting in an overestimation of GAG yields. We hypothesized that RNA may be contaminating GAG extracts from other cell cultures and possibly tissue, and therefore investigated potential RNA contaminations in GAG extracts from two additional cell lines, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and retinal pigmental epithelial cells, and mouse kidney, liver, spleen and heart tissue. GAG extracts from all examined cell lines and tissues contained varying amounts of contaminating RNA, which interfered with GAG quantification using DMMB assays and characterization of GAGs by barium acetate gel electrophoresis. We therefore recommend routinely evaluating the RNA content of GAG extracts and propose a robust protocol for GAG isolation that includes an RNA digestion step.

  19. Characterization of Arachis hypogaea L. oil obtained from different extraction techniques and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extraction extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishika Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Arachis hypogaea L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, ultrasound assistance extraction, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. Materials and Methods: The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO 2 were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR fingerprinting. Anti-oxidant activity was also determined using DPPH and superoxide scavenging method. Results: The main fatty acids were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods was superimposable. Conclusion: Analysis reported that the fixed oil of A. hypogaea L. is a good source of unsaturated fatty acid, mainly n-6 and n-9 fatty acid with a significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method.

  20. Antimicrobial efficacy of Cinnamomum javanicum plant extract against Listeria monocytogenes and its application potential with smoked salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenqian; Lee, Hui Wen; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2017-11-02

    Extracts from medicinal plants have been reported to possess good antimicrobial properties, but a majority of them remain unexplored. This study aimed at identifying a novel plant extract with antimicrobial activity, to validate its efficacy in food model, and to elucidate its composition and antimicrobial mechanism. A total of 125 plant extracts were screened, and Cinnamomum javanicum leaf and stem extract showed potential antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (MIC=0.13mg/mL). Total phenolic content of the extract was 78.3mg GAE/g extract and its antioxidant activity was 57.2-326.5mg TE/g extract. When applied on cold smoked salmon, strong strain-dependent antimicrobial effectiveness was observed, with L. monocytogenes LM2 (serotype 4b) and LM8 (serotype 3a) being more resistant compared to SSA81 (serotype 1/2a). High extract concentration (16mg/mL) was needed to inhibit or reduce the growth of L. monocytogenes on smoked salmon, which resulted in surface color change. GC-MS revealed that eucalyptol (25.54 area%) was the most abundant compound in the crude extract. Both crude extract and eucalyptol induced significant membrane damages in treated L. monocytogenes. These results suggest anti-L. monocytogenes activity of C. javanicum plant extract, identified its major volatile components, and elucidated its membrane-damaging antimicrobial mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping of strain mechanisms in barium titanate by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkut, Marta

    This thesis presents an in-situ three-dimensional study of the grain-scale response of a prototypical piezoelectric ceramic, barium titanate (BT), to an exernally applied electric field. Piezoceramics take advantage of the coupling of electrical and mechanical energies for use in sensors and actu......This thesis presents an in-situ three-dimensional study of the grain-scale response of a prototypical piezoelectric ceramic, barium titanate (BT), to an exernally applied electric field. Piezoceramics take advantage of the coupling of electrical and mechanical energies for use in sensors...... to study the material at the grain scale. First, we use the intensity ratios of split diffraction peaks to extract grain-scale domain volume fractions for 139 grains. We find that even in the as-processed state there exist unequal volume fractions of each domain type, which we attribute to a heterogeneous...

  2. Hazard identification of contaminated sites. Ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, J.; Sundberg, H.; Aakerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Eklund, B.; Breitholtz, M. [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    Background, aim, and scope: It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with, e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compounds with different polarities. Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure (i.e. ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions (semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations, ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique. Results and discussion Clear concentration-response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout, the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi

  3. Phytochemical studies of various polarities leave crude extracts of Omani Datura metel L. and evaluation of their antimicrobial potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saleh Hamed Al-Jafari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the chemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial potential of various crude extracts from leaves of Datura metel grown in Oman. Methods: The leaf samples were collected from the University of Nizwa and extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. The isolated crude extract was defatted with distilled water and extracted with solvents of different polarities including hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. Chemical compositions of the crude extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and their antimicrobial potential was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method against one Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonus aeruginosa. Results: The crude extracts were composed of different organic compounds such as alkaloids, hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, terpenoids, vitamin etc. The methanol and its fractionated crude extracts showed antimicrobial potential with inhibition zone in the range of 0-13 mm. Conclusions: The selective crude extract from the leaves of Datura metel could be used as natural antibiotics.

  4. Binding and leakage of barium in alginate microbeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, Yrr A; Qi, Meirigeng; Gundersen, Per Ole M; Formo, Kjetil; Lacik, Igor; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Oberholzer, Jose; Strand, Berit L

    2012-11-01

    Microbeads of alginate crosslinked with Ca(2+) and/or Ba(2+) are popular matrices in cell-based therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify the binding of barium in alginate microbeads and its leakage under in vitro and accumulation under in vivo conditions. Low concentrations of barium (1 mM) in combination with calcium (50 mM) and high concentrations of barium (20 mM) in gelling solutions were used for preparation of microbeads made of high-G and high-M alginates. High-G microbeads accumulated barium from gelling solution and contained higher concentrations of divalent ions for both low- and high-Ba exposure compared with high-G microbeads exposed to calcium solely and to high-M microbeads for all gelling conditions. Although most of the unbound divalent ions were removed during the wash and culture steps, leakage of barium was still detected during storage. Barium accumulation in blood and femur bone of mice implanted with high-G beads was found to be dose-dependent. Estimated barium leakage relevant to transplantation to diabetic patients with islets in alginate microbeads showed that the leakage was 2.5 times lower than the tolerable intake value given by WHO for high-G microbeads made using low barium concentration. The similar estimate gave 1.5 times higher than is the tolerable intake value for the high-G microbeads made using high barium concentration. To reduce the risk of barium accumulation that may be of safety concern, the microbeads made of high-G alginate gelled with a combination of calcium and low concentration of barium ions is recommended for islet transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The potential anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extracts of Achillea nobilis and Momordica charantia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. Soliman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Currently available antiepileptic drugs have debilitating adverse effects. Natural products and plants already used in traditional medicine can be a good place to start in the search for safer and more effective options. Aims: To investigate the anticonvulsant potential of Achillea nobilis and Momordica charantia extracts in maximal electroshock (MES, as well as pentylenetetrazole (PTZ- and strychnine nitrate (STN- induced seizure models in rats. Methods: For each model, eight groups of 21-day-old male Albino rats were used. The 1st group was kept as control, 2nd as standard (diazepam, 7.5 mg/kg; 3rd – 5th treated with A. nobilis (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg; and 6th – 8th administered M. charantia (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. After 30 min, rats were exposed to a shock of 150 mA by a convulsiometer, via ear electrodes for 2 s (in MES test or sc injection of PTZ (85 mg/kg or STN (2.5 mg/kg. Results: A. nobilis and M. charantia extracts (200 and 300 mg/kg demonstrated dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect against MES-induced seizures. In the PTZ induced convulsion, A. nobilis and M. charantia (200 and 300 mg/kg significantly slowed the commencement of convulsions and minimized the duration of seizures. A. nobilis (300 mg/kg showed 60% protection in rats against STN induced seizures. In contrast, A. nobilis (100 and 200 mg/kg and M. charantia (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg showed no significant protection against STN-induced seizures in rats. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that both extracts exhibited marked anticonvulsant activities.

  6. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Kingsley C; Okolie, Paulinus N

    2017-09-01

    Numerous bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been reported to be present Annona muricata (Soursop). Some of these chemical compounds have been linked to the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant and its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the proximate composition, phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were used for the estimation of proximate composition and phytochemical screening. The crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were also fractionated using solvent-solvent partitioning. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and methanol-water (90:10) were the solvents used for the fractionation. The different fractions obtained were then used to perform in vitro antioxidant analyses including, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing properties, and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. The leaf methanolic extract had a higher lipid content, whereas its chloroform fraction demonstrated a better ability to quench DPPH free radical. The root-bark methanol-water, leaf methanol, fruit pulp chloroform, and leaf petroleum ether fractions demonstrated potent ferric reducing properties. The leaf and stem-bark petroleum ether fractions demonstrated better hydroxyl-free radical scavenging abilities. The leaf and fruit pulp of Annona muricata have a very potent antioxidant ability compared to the other parts of the plant. This can be associated with the rich phytochemicals and other phytoconstituents like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and essential lipids, etc. Significant correlations were observed between the antioxidant status and phytochemicals present. These results thus suggest that some of the reported ethnomedicinal properties of this plant could be due to its antioxidant potentials.

  7. POTENTIAL OF TURMERIC EXTRACT AND ITS FRACTIONS TO CONTROL PEACH FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan Riaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Potential of turmeric extract and its chemical fractions were evaluated to control the infestation of Bactrocera zonata peach fruit fly in a mortality-based bioassay. The turmeric extract (TE was taken on Soxhelt's extraction apparatus and chemically fractioned by thin layer followed by column chromatography into 6 fractions (F1 ...F6. Fifty pairs of the flies were fed in cages with 250 and 500 ppm TE and its fractions separately for 20 days along with flies fed on untreated diet to serve as control. The toxicity of TE and each of its fractions was evaluated by calculating percent mortality of fly population after every 5th day in 4 consecutive intervals. Mortality of fly population was observed to be positively correlated with increasing concentrations of TE and its fractions in diet. The mortality of flies fed at 250 and 500 ppm TE was significantly higher at 44.17 and 66.33% compared to 28.88% in control. Percent mortality was much higher in case of flies fed with fractions F1, F3 and F6 i.e. 72.22, 50.00 and 48.76 respectively. Maximum rise of mortality was observed at the end of 3rd interval; in case of flies fed at 500 ppm TE, 52.45 percent mortality was observed at the end of 3rd interval; highest mortality was caused by fraction F1, 51.39% in case of flies fed at 250 ppm and 70.37% in case of those fed at 500 ppm.

  8. Laser irradiation in Nd3+ doped strontium barium niobate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro-Gonzalez, P.; Martin, I. R.; Arbelo-Jorge, E.; Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Caceres, J. M.; Nunez, P.

    2008-01-01

    A local nanocrystalline formation in a neodymium doped strontium barium niobate (SBN) glass has been obtained under argon laser irradiation. The intense emission around 880 nm, originated from the 4 F 3/2 ( 4 F 5/2 ) thermalized level when the glass structure changes to a glass ceramic structure due to the irradiation of the laser beam, has been studied. The intensities and lifetimes change from this level inside and outside the irradiated area made by the laser excitation. They have been analyzed and demonstrated that the desvitrification process has been successfully achieved. These results confirm that nanocrystals of SBN have been created by the laser action confirming that the transition from glass to glass ceramic has been completed. These results are in agreement with the emission properties of nanocrystals of the bulk glass ceramic sample. The present study also suggests that the SBN nanocrystal has a potential application as temperature detector

  9. Barium titanate nanocomposite capacitor FY09 year end report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Tyler E.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William; Fellows, Benjamin D.

    2009-11-01

    This late start RTBF project started the development of barium titanate (BTO)/glass nanocomposite capacitors for future and emerging energy storage applications. The long term goal of this work is to decrease the size, weight, and cost of ceramic capacitors while increasing their reliability. Ceramic-based nanocomposites have the potential to yield materials with enhanced permittivity, breakdown strength (BDS), and reduced strain, which can increase the energy density of capacitors and increase their shot life. Composites of BTO in glass will limit grain growth during device fabrication (preserving nanoparticle grain size and enhanced properties), resulting in devices with improved density, permittivity, BDS, and shot life. BTO will eliminate the issues associated with Pb toxicity and volatility as well as the variation in energy storage vs. temperature of PZT based devices. During the last six months of FY09 this work focused on developing syntheses for BTO nanoparticles and firing profiles for sintering BTO/glass composite capacitors.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Phenolics, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Methanolic, Hexanic and Aqueous Extracts from Adiantum caudatum Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dildar Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for new medicines, the methanolic, hexanic, and aqueous extracts of Adiantum caudatum leaves, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, were analyzed for phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. TPCs (total phenolic content of the methanolic, aqueous and hexanic extracts were 27.7, 21.1, and 16.7 μg of gallic acid equivalents per mL, respectively, while TFCs (total flavonoid content were 13.2, 11.6, and 10.0 μg of rutin equivalents per mL, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts in reducing power, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power, phosphomolybdate and ABTS assays follow the same order of methanolic ˃ aqueous ˃ hexanic. In the DPPH assay, however, the aqueous extract exhibited a slightly higher antioxidant activity than the methanolic one. Methanol is therefore a better solvent to extract most of the antioxidant components from A. caudatum leaves. In lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, the extracts showed almost similar behavior and their activity decreased gradually with time. The aqueous extract was the strongest inhibitor after two days, but the hexanic became the most potent after about three days. The antibacterial potential of the extracts was determined against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Towards all the microbes, the aqueous extract was the most potent and the hexanic the least. P. aeruginosa was the most susceptible strain, while the aqueous and methanolic extracts exhibited a slightly higher efficacy against this pathogen than the drug amoxicillin. In conclusion, A. caudatum can potentially provide a remedy against disorders caused by oxidative stress and infections.

  11. Spectral K-edge subtraction imaging of experimental non-radioactive barium uptake in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahifar, Arash; Samadi, Nazanin; Swanston, Treena M; Chapman, L Dean; Cooper, David M L

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using non-radioactive barium as a bone tracer for detection with synchrotron spectral K-edge subtraction (SKES) technique. Male rats of 1-month old (i.e., developing skeleton) and 8-month old (i.e., skeletally mature) were orally dosed with low dose of barium chloride (33mg/kg/day Ba 2+ ) for 4weeks. The fore and hind limbs were dissected for imaging in projection and computed tomography modes at 100μm and 52μm pixel sizes. The SKES method utilizes a single bent Laue monochromator to prepare a 550eV energy spectrum to encompass the K-edge of barium (37.441keV), for collecting both 'above' and 'below' the K-edge data sets in a single scan. The SKES has a very good focal size, thus limits the 'crossover' and motion artifacts. In juvenile rats, barium was mostly incorporated in the areas of high bone turnover such as at the growth plate and the trabecular surfaces, but also in the cortical bone as the animals were growing at the time of tracer administration. However, the adults incorporated approximately half the concentration and mainly in the areas where bone remodeling was predominant and occasionally in the periosteal and endosteal layers of the diaphyseal cortical bone. The presented methodology is simple to implement and provides both structural and functional information, after labeling with barium, on bone micro-architecture and thus has great potential for in vivo imaging of pre-clinical animal models of musculoskeletal diseases to better understand their mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis and anticancer potential of Oplopanax horridus: Comparison of stem and berry extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Aung, Han H.; Mehendale, Sangeeta R.; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2009-01-01

    Oplopanax horridus or devil’s club is a herbal medicine distributed in North America. The constituents and pharmacological activities of O. horridus (OPH) are largely unknown. In this study, we assayed OPH stem and berry extracts using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The anticancer potentials of extracts on different human cancer cell lines (SW-480, HCT-116, HT-29, MCF-7 and NSCLC) were determined by MTS method. The effect of stem extract on cancer cell cycle, expression of cyclin A, and apoptosis were assayed using flow cytometry. HPLC data showed that the composition of OPH stem extract is more complicated than the berry extract. The wavelength of maximum absorption of the major constituent in stem and berry is 196.0 nm and 201.9 nm, respectively. Compared to the berry extract, the stem extract showed significant potent antiproliferative effect on all the studied cell lines. The stem extract at 0.1 mg/ml arrested cancer cells in S- and G2/M-phases, and significantly induced expression of cyclin A. After treatment with 0.1 mg/ml of stem extract for 72 h, apoptotic cells were increased to 45.2%, while control was 9.6%. The cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis may play a critical role in cancer chemoprevention by Oplopanax horridus stem extract. PMID:19686820

  13. Preparation and evaluation of antibacterial potential of Pithecellobium dulce root extract against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Muneer Ahmad; Malik, Rayees Ahmad; Prakash, Poonam; Lone, Ali Mohd

    2018-03-01

    In the present study hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of Pithecellobium dulce root were prepared using soxhlet extractor. The extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activity against one Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram negative (Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter aceti, Klebsiella pneumoniae) strains. Disc diffusion method revealed promising antibacterial activity of the extracts prepared in polar solvents (ethyl acetate and ethanol) compared to non-polar solvents (hexane and benzene). Ethanolic root extract was found to be most active against Acetobacter aceti, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes bacterial strains. The zone of inhibition of ethanolic root extract against Acetobacter aceti, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes bacterial strains was 15.4, 11.0, 19.0 and 13.0 mm, respectively at 100 mg concentration. Ethyl acetate extract also exhibited good antibacterial activity against Entrobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acetobacter aceti. The zone of inhibition of ethyl acetate root extracts against Entrobacter aerogenes, Acetobacter aceti and Klebsiella pneumonia was 10.5, 18.0 and 10.0 mm, respectively. The benzene extract showed some activity against Acetobacter aceti with the zone of inhibition 10.0 mm. The antibacterial activity of Pithecellobium dulce root hexane extract was found to be negligible against all the four tested strains of bacteria. These findings suggest that ethanolic and ethyl acetate root extracts of Pithecellobium dulce has potential as effective anti-bacterial agent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Feature Extraction of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential Based on Wavelet Multi-resolution Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fuying; Sun, Ying

    2015-06-01

    We proposed a multi-resolution-wavelet-transform based method to extract brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) from the background noise and then to identify its characteristics correctly. Firstly we discussed the mother wavelet and wavelet transform algorithm and proved that bi-orthogonal wavelet bior5. 5 and stationary discrete wavelet transform (SWT) were more suitable for BAEP signals. The correlation analysis of D6 scale wavelet coefficients between single trails and the ensemble average of all trails showed that the trails with good correlation (> 0. 4) had higher signal-to-noise ratio, so that we could get a clear BAEP from a few trails by an average and wavelet filter method. Finally, we used this method to select desirable trails, extracted BAEP from every 10 trails and calculated the I-V inter-waves' latency. The results showed that this strategy of trail selection was efficient. This method can not only achieve better de-noising effect, but also greatly reduce the stimulation time needed as well.

  15. Citric acid compounds of tangerines peel extract (Citrus reticulata) as potential materials teeth whitening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, F.; Tinata, J. K.; Prakasa, A. W.; Istiqomah; Hartini, E.; Isworo, S.

    2017-04-01

    Peel of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) has a variety of possible chemical compounds that may serve as a potential whitening teeth. This research is conducted on a laboratory scale; therefore, it needs to be developed on an application scale. A quasi-experimental was employed in this study. Citric acid extraction was carried out on the type of Sweet Orange (Citrus Aurantium L), Tangerine (Citrus Reticulata Blanco or Citrus Nobilis), Pomelo (Citrus Maxima Merr, Citrus grandis Osbeck), and Lemon (Citrus Limon Linn). Citric acid’s ability test as teeth whitener was performed on premolar teeth with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The experiments were replicated in 3 times, and teeth whiteness level was measured using Shade Guide VITA Classical. The result of this research showed that citric acid in every kind of orange peel with various concentration has different abilities on whitening teeth. The highest colour level obtained from Tangerine peel’s citric acid concentration of 5%. Orange peel extract has the best teeth whitening abilities tested by the method of Gass Chromatography to know the active ingredients.

  16. A novel framework for feature extraction in multi-sensor action potential sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-Chi; Swindlehurst, A Lee; Nenadic, Zoran

    2015-09-30

    Extracellular recordings of multi-unit neural activity have become indispensable in neuroscience research. The analysis of the recordings begins with the detection of the action potentials (APs), followed by a classification step where each AP is associated with a given neural source. A feature extraction step is required prior to classification in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data and the impact of noise, allowing source clustering algorithms to work more efficiently. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for multi-sensor AP feature extraction based on the so-called Matched Subspace Detector (MSD), which is shown to be a natural generalization of standard single-sensor algorithms. Clustering using both simulated data and real AP recordings taken in the locust antennal lobe demonstrates that the proposed approach yields features that are discriminatory and lead to promising results. Unlike existing methods, the proposed algorithm finds joint spatio-temporal feature vectors that match the dominant subspace observed in the two-dimensional data without needs for a forward propagation model and AP templates. The proposed MSD approach provides more discriminatory features for unsupervised AP sorting applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alkaline extractive crude polysaccharide from Russula senecis possesses antioxidant potential and stimulates innate immunity response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Somanjana; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2017-12-01

    Over past decades, investigation on bioactive polysaccharides extracted from mushroom by heated water reflux has been an emerging field of biomedicine especially in the area of immune stimulation. While studies with macromolecules isolated from remainder residue of aqueous extraction are scarce. In this context, crude polysaccharide from a traditionally edible macrofungus, Russula senecis, was prepared (RuseCap) by alkaline solvent using leftover residue of that conventional process and its structural along with therapeutic properties were evaluated. Investigation by FT-IR, HPTLC, GC-MS and spectrophotometry showed that the fraction was mainly consisted of carbohydrate with backbone of xylose, rhamnose, mannose and glucose (mostly β-glucan). Besides, RuseCap exhibited strong antioxidant activity evident by radical scavenging (superoxide, hydroxyl, DPPH, ABTS), chelating ability and reduction power where EC 50 values ranged from 257 to 4068 μg/ml concentration. In addition, it also exhibited immune-boosting potentiality as the treatment effectively induced proliferation, phagocytosis, nitric oxide production, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, morphological changes and increased transcription level of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6 genes in macrophage cells. Overall, the study provided blueprint for extended utilization of R. senecis basidiocarps beyond hot water process and defined use of RuseCap as potent therapeutic agent against free radicals as well as deprived immunity. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Genotoxic potential of BM-21, an aqueous-ethanolic extract from Thalassia testudinum marine plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Ansoar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: BM-21 is a hydro-ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Thalassia testudinum marine plant, which is rich in polyphenols, and it has demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Aims: To investigate the genotoxicity potential of BM-21. Methods: Salmonella typhimurium Hist. – strains were used in the pointmutation test and Escherichia coli cells were used in SOS response test. DNA primary damage was tested in hepatocytes of mice treated with oral dose of the extract (2000 mg/kg. Bone marrow micronucleus assay was used in mice to detect clastogenic damage while serum from the same animals was used to determine MDA levels in order to find out the influence of BM-21 on lipid peroxidation. Positive and negative controls were included in all experimental series. Results: BM-21 did not increase the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test, and it did not induce primary damage in E. coli. Comet assay showed that 2 000 mg/kg of BM-21 induced single strand breaks or alkali-labile sites in the hepatocytes from the treated mice. However, no increase in the micronucleus frequency was observed in mice polychromatic erythrocytes and significantly reduced MDA levels were detected. Conclusions: BM-21 was neither mutagenic nor induces DNA damage to prokaryotic cells. Although, it increased DNA strand breaks in vivo, this one was not translated into clastogenic damage to the whole organism. Results suggested that BM-21 was not mutagenic or genotoxic under our experimental conditions.

  19. On importance of impurities, potential leachables and extractables in algal nanocellulose for biomedical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Willför, Stefan; Mihranyan, Albert

    2017-09-15

    Nanocellulose-based biomaterials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications have been extensively explored. However, studies on different levels of impurities in the nanocellulose and their potential risks are lacking. This article is the most comprehensive to date survey of the importance and characterization of possible leachables and extractables in nanocellulose for biomedical use. In particular, the (1,3)-β-d-glucan interference in endotoxin detection in algal nanocellulose was addressed. Potential lipophilic and hydrophilic leachables, toxic heavy metals, and microbial contaminants are also monitored. As a model system, nanocellulose from Cladophora sp. algae is investigated. The leachable (1,3)-β-d-glucan and endotoxin, which possess strong immunogenic potential, from the cellulose were minimized to clinically insignificant levels of 4.7μg/g and 2.5EU/g, respectively. The levels of various impurities in the Cladophora cellulose are acceptable for future biomedical applications. The presented approach could be considered as a guideline for other types of nanocellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Kavain, the Major Constituent of the Anxiolytic Kava Extract, Potentiates GABAA Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chua, Han Chow; Christensen, Emilie H T; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of the pepper plant kava (Piper methysticum) are effective in alleviating anxiety in clinical trials. Despite the long-standing therapeutic interest in kava, the molecular target(s) of the pharmacologically active constituents, kavalactones have not been established. γ-Aminobutyric acid......, but the degree of enhancement was greater at α4β2δ than at α1β2γ2L GABAARs. The modulatory effect of kavain was unaffected by flumazenil, indicating that kavain did not enhance GABAARs via the classical benzodiazepine binding site. The β3N265M point mutation which has been previously shown to profoundly decrease...... anaesthetic sensitivity, also diminished kavain-mediated potentiation. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the functional characteristics of a single kavalactone at distinct GABAAR subtypes, and presents the first experimental evidence in support of a direct interaction between a kavalactone...

  1. Gluten content of barium sulfate suspensions used for barium swallows in patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jennifer G; Shin, Yoona; Patel, Priti N; Mangione, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the availability and accuracy of information provided by hospitals, imaging centers, and manufacturers regarding gluten in barium sulfate suspensions. A total of 105 facilities were contacted via telephone to determine the gluten content of the contrast media used in those facilities. Manufacturers were contacted and their Web sites reviewed to determine the gluten content of their barium products. Thirty-nine percent of the hospitals and 52% of the imaging centers were not aware of the gluten content of the contrast media they used. Twenty-nine-and-a-half percent of the respondents provided the correct gluten content. The manufacturers noted that 5 products were tested and confirmed gluten free, 1 product was not tested but described as gluten free, 1 product's gluten content depended upon its flavor, and 1 product was reported to contain gluten. Clinicians caring for patients with celiac disease or patients who choose to restrict their gluten consumption must ensure that the barium sulfate suspension ingested is gluten free. It can be difficult to determine the gluten content of barium sulfate, as a majority of radiology departments and imaging centers did not know whether the product they use is gluten free. Educating staff members and improving product labeling would benefit the quality of care provided to patients with celiac disease.

  2. Hydro-geomorphic connectivity and landslide features extraction to identifying potential threats and hazardous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Fuller, Ian C.; Basso, Federica; Cavalli, Marco; Sofia, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Hydro-geomorphic connectivity has significantly emerged as a new concept to understand the transfer of surface water and sediment through landscapes. A further scientific challenge is determining how the concept can be used to enable sustainable land and water management. This research proposes an interesting approach to integrating remote sensing techniques, connectivity theory, and geomorphometry based on high-resolution digital terrain model (HR-DTMs) to automatically extract landslides crowns and gully erosion, to determine the different rate of connectivity among the main extracted features and the river network, and thus determine a possible categorization of hazardous areas. The study takes place in two mountainous regions in the Wellington Region (New Zealand). The methodology is a three step approach. Firstly, we performed an automatic detection of the likely landslides crowns through the use of thresholds obtained by the statistical analysis of the variability of landform curvature. After that, the research considered the Connectivity Index to analyse how a complex and rugged topography induces large variations in erosion and sediment delivery in the two catchments. Lastly, the two methods have been integrated to create a unique procedure able to classify the different rate of connectivity among the main features and the river network and thus identifying potential threats and hazardous areas. The methodology is fast, and it can produce a detailed and updated inventory map that could be a key tool for erosional and sediment delivery hazard mitigation. This fast and simple method can be a useful tool to manage emergencies giving priorities to more failure-prone zones. Furthermore, it could be considered to do a preliminary interpretations of geomorphological phenomena and more in general, it could be the base to develop inventory maps. References Cavalli M, Trevisani S, Comiti F, Marchi L. 2013. Geomorphometric assessment of spatial sediment connectivity

  3. Wideband and enhanced microwave absorption performance of doped barium ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Pingyuan; Xiong, Kun [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Ju, Kui [Guizhou Institute of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Guiyang 550002 (China); Li, Shengnan [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Xu, Guangliang, E-mail: xuguangliang@swust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2015-07-01

    To achieve stronger microwave attenuation and larger bandwidth in electromagnetic absorber, the nickel ions (Ni{sup 2+}) and manganese ions (Mn{sup 2+}) were employed to partially replace the cobalt ions (Co{sup 2+}) in BaCoTiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19}, and the doped barium hexaferrite (Ba(MnNi){sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.6}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} and Ba(MnNi){sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19}) powders were synthesized via the sol–gel combustion method. Subsequently, the microwave absorbing composites were prepared by mixing the ferrite powders with the paraffin. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the doped ferrites confirmed the formation of the M-type barium ferrite, and no other types of barium ferrite could be found. Based on the electromagnetic parameters measured by the vector net-analyzer, it was found that the composite (Ba(MnNi){sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.6}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19}) possessed a minimum reflection loss of −52.8 dB at 13.4 GHz with a matching thickness of 1.8 mm and the bandwidth below −15 dB was 5.8 GHz. Moreover, the maximum attenuation of Ba(MnNi){sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} could reach −69 dB when its thickness was 1.8 mm, and also the bandwidth less than −20 dB was ranging from 13.2 GHz to 18 GHz. Thus, Ba(MnNi){sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.6}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} and Ba(MnNi){sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} could be the good microwave absorbers, which have great potentials to be applied in the high frequency fields of the microwave absorbing materials. - Highlights: • The Co was first time substituted by Mn–Ni in ferrites. • The substituted ferrites had good microwave absorption. • The doped ferrites had broad bandwidth and low reflection loss.

  4. Synthesis of nanostructured barium phosphate and its application in micro-computed tomography of mouse brain vessels in ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bangshang; Yuan, Falei; Yuan, Xiaoya; Bo, Yang; Wang, Yongting; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Drummen, Gregor P. C.; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2014-02-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a powerful tool for visualizing the vascular systems of tissues, organs, or entire small animals. Vascular contrast agents play a vital role in micro-CT imaging in order to obtain clear and high-quality images. In this study, a new kind of nanostructured barium phosphate was fabricated and used as a contrast agent for ex vivo micro-CT imaging of blood vessels in the mouse brain. Nanostructured barium phosphate was synthesized through a simple wet precipitation method using Ba(NO3)2, and (NH4)2HPO4 as starting materials. The physiochemical properties of barium phosphate were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. Furthermore, the impact of the produced nanostructures on cell viability was evaluated via the MTT assay, which generally showed low to moderate cytotoxicity. Finally, the animal test images demonstrated that the use of nanostructured barium phosphate as a contrast agent in Micro-CT imaging produced sharp images with excellent contrast. Both major vessels and the microvasculature were clearly observable in the imaged mouse brain. Overall, the results indicate that nanostructured barium phosphate is a potential and useful vascular contrast agent for micro-CT imaging.

  5. Response surface optimisation of extraction of antioxidants from strawberry fruit, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential of the fruit extract in cooked chicken patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Jayati; Debnath, Moumita; Saha, Arnab; Ghosh, Tanaya; Sarkar, Prabir K

    2011-08-15

    Strawberries contain high levels of antioxidants and have beneficial effects against oxidative stress-mediated diseases, such as cancer. They contain multiple phenolic compounds, which contribute to their biological properties. Hence, a study was carried out to optimise the extraction of antioxidants and evaluate the antioxidant potential of strawberry fruit extract (SE) in cooked chicken patties during refrigerated storage. The activity of SE was compared with that of butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). The effect of solvent type (MeOH and EtOH), concentration (0-70%) of EtOH in the system, temperature (30-60 °C), and time (30-150 min) on DPPH•-scavenging activity of SE was investigated. Response surface methodology was used to estimate the optimum extraction conditions for each parameter. The maximum predicted DPPH• scavenging under the optimised conditions (100% MeOH, 30 °C, 150 min) was 43% at 1 mg SE mL⁻¹. Freshly prepared chicken patties were treated with 5% and 10% SE and 2% BHT, and stored aerobically at 4 °C for 6 days. SE had no influence (P extraction of compounds from strawberry that had the scavenging activity. The study shows that the extraction of natural antioxidants from strawberry can be improved by optimising several key extraction parameters. SE also acted as an effective antioxidant and suppressed lipid peroxidation in cooked chicken patties. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Comparison of barium and gastrograffin swallow for radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    using radio-opaque contrast is a standard step in treatment planning prior to delivering radiation therapy. Various contrast mediums such as barium, gastrograffin and hexabrix have been used for simulation at different centres. Objective. The purpose of the study was to compare barium and gastrograffin as a useful and ...

  7. Study on the preparation and formation mechanism of barium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports a simple method to prepare barium sulphate nanoparticles by use of tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and stearic acid as modifier. The barium sulphate nanoparticles obtained are characterized by using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission ...

  8. Outcome of barium enema in patients with colorectal symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: For many years, double contrast barium enema has been an effective way to evaluate the large bowel. With the development of the colonoscope, the role of barium enema has been questioned. However it is still useful in investigating patients with colorectal symptoms especially in the developing world where ...

  9. Application of magnesium hydroxide and barium hydroxide for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of magnesium hydroxide and barium hydroxide for the removal of metals and sulphate from mine water. ... equivalent to the Ba(OH)2 dosage. During CO2-dosing, CaCO3 is precipitated to the saturation level of CaCO3. Keywords: Magnesium hydroxide; barium hydroxide; sulphate removal; water treatment ...

  10. Barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Hee Jung

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants. Retrospective evaluation of the plain abdominal radiography and barium enema findings was performed in fifteen young infants suffering with milk allergy. The presence of gaseous distension, rectal gas, paralytic ileus and mechanical obstruction was evaluated on the plain radiography. The presence of spasm, a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index and mucosal irregularity was analyzed on the barium enema; the presence of barium retention was also evaluated on 24-hour-delayed plain radiography. Paralytic ileus was the most common finding on the plain radiography (93%). On the barium enema, continuous spasm of the colon, ranging from the rectum to the descending colon, was revealed in ten infants (67%). A transitional zone was observed in one infant and a reversed rectosigmoid index was revealed in four. Mucosal irregularity was observed in two infants. Barium retention was demonstrated in 11 of fifteen cases: throughout the entire colon (n = 3), from the rectum to the descending colon (n = 7), and up to the transverse colon (n = 1). The most common barium enema finding of milk allergy in infants was spasm of the distal colon. The other findings were a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index, mucosal irregularity and barium retention

  11. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  12. Dielectric properties of barium titanate supramolecular nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Hyung; Kao, Joseph; Parizi, Saman Salemizadeh; Caruntu, Gabriel; Xu, Ting

    2014-04-07

    Nanostructured dielectric composites can be obtained by dispersing high permittivity fillers, barium titanate (BTO) nanocubes, within a supramolecular framework. Thin films of BTO supramolecular nanocomposites exhibit a dielectric permittivity (εr) as high as 15 and a relatively low dielectric loss of ∼0.1 at 1 kHz. These results demonstrate a new route to control the dispersion of high permittivity fillers toward high permittivity dielectric nanocomposites with low loss. Furthermore, the present study shows that the size distribution of nanofillers plays a key role in their spatial distribution and local ordering and alignment within supramolecular nanostructures.

  13. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, D.M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P.J.; Mcclelland, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system

  14. Barium and radium migration in unconsolidated Canadian geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillham, R.W.; Sharma, H.D.; Reddy, M.R.; Cooper, E.L.; Cherry, J.A.

    1981-05-01

    This report describes the results of laboratory studies on the distribution coefficients of radium and barium in samples of unconsolidated geologic materials. Graphs of Ksub(d) versus solution concentration for the respective elements showed constant Ksub(d) values in the low concentration range suggesting that, at low concentrations, a distribution coefficient is a valid means of representing the geochemical reactions of both barium and radium. The Ksub(d) values for barium range between 60 and 3500 ml/g. The values appear to be influenced by the amount of barium occurring naturally in the soil materials and thus there is little possiblility of using barium as an analog of radium in laboratory experiments. The Ksub(d) values of radium vary from 50 to 1000 ml/g indicating that a wide range of geological materials have a substantial capacity to retard the migration of radium

  15. Withania somnifera water extract as a potential candidate for differentiation based therapy of human neuroblastomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Kataria

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is an aggressive childhood disease of the sympathetic nervous system. Treatments are often ineffective and have serious side effects. Conventional therapy of neuroblastoma includes the differentiation agents. Unlike chemo-radiotherapy, differentiation therapy shows minimal side effects on normal cells, because normal non-malignant cells are already differentiated. Keeping in view the limited toxicity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, the current study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of Ashwagandha water extract (ASH-WEX for anti-proliferative potential in neuroblastoma and its underlying signalling mechanisms. ASH-WEX significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced cell differentiation as indicated by morphological changes and NF200 expression in human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. The induction of differentiation was accompanied by HSP70 and mortalin induction as well as pancytoplasmic translocation of the mortalin in ASH-WEX treated cells. Furthermore, the ASH-WEX treatment lead to induction of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM expression and reduction in its polysialylation, thus elucidating its anti-migratory potential, which was also supported by downregulation of MMP 2 and 9 activity. ASH-WEX treatment led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and increase in early apoptotic population. Modulation of cell cycle marker Cyclin D1, anti-apoptotic marker bcl-xl and Akt-P provide evidence that ASH-WEX may prove to be a promising phytotherapeutic intervention in neuroblatoma related malignancies.

  16. Gnidia glauca flower extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and evaluation of its chemocatalytic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sougata

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel approaches for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs are of utmost importance owing to its immense applications in diverse fields including catalysis, optics, medical diagnostics and therapeutics. We report on synthesis of AuNPs using Gnidia glauca flower extract (GGFE, its detailed characterization and evaluation of its chemocatalytic potential. Results Synthesis of AuNPs using GGFE was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and was found to be rapid that completed within 20 min. The concentration of chloroauric acid and temperature was optimized to be 0.7 mM and 50°C respectively. Bioreduced nanoparticles varied in morphology from nanotriangles to nanohexagons majority being spherical. AuNPs were characterized employing transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Confirmation of elemental gold was carried out by elemental mapping in scanning transmission electron microscopic mode, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Spherical particles of size ~10 nm were found in majority. However, particles of larger dimensions were in range between 50-150 nm. The bioreduced AuNPs exhibited remarkable catalytic properties in a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by NaBH4 in aqueous phase. Conclusion The elaborate experimental evidences support that GGFE can provide an environmentally benign rapid route for synthesis of AuNPs that can be applied for various purposes. Biogenic AuNPs synthesized using GGFE exhibited excellent chemocatalytic potential.

  17. Pinus massoniana Bark Extract: Structure-Activity Relationship and Biomedical Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiao; Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Li, Ying-Ya; Cui, Ying-Yu; Chen, Yi-Han

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) belong to the condensed tannin subfamily of natural flavonoids. Recent studies have shown that the main bioactive compounds of Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) are PAs, especially the proanthocyanidins B series, which play important roles in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and migration inhibition of cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. PA-Bs are mixtures of oligomers and polymers composed of flavan-3-ol, and the relationship between their structure and corresponding biomedical potentials is summarized in this paper. The hydroxyl at certain positions or the linkage between different carbon atoms of different rings determines or affects their anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging bioactivities. The degree of polymerization and the water solubility of the reaction system also influence their biomedical potential. Taken together, PMBE has a promising future in clinical drug development as a candidate anticancer drug and as a food additive to prevent tumorigenesis. We hope this review will encourage interested researchers to conduct further preclinical and clinical studies to evaluate the anticancer activities of PMBE, its active constituents and their derivatives.

  18. Demonstration of Single-Barium-Ion Sensitivity for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A. D.; Jones, B. J. P.; Nygren, D. R.; Adams, C.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Guenette, R.; Hafidi, K.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Johnston, S.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Repond, J.; Renner, J.; Riordan, S.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.; NEXT Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double-beta decay of Xe 136 is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba++ ) resolution at a transparent scanning surface is demonstrated. A single-step photobleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with superresolution (˜2 nm ), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9 σ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double-beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers.

  19. Demonstration of Single-Barium-Ion Sensitivity for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A. D.; Jones, B. J. P.; Nygren, D. R.; Adams, C.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Guenette, R.; Hafidi, K.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Johnston, S.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Repond, J.; Renner, J.; Riordan, S.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2018-03-01

    A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba$^{++}$) resolution at a transparent scanning surface has been demonstrated. A single-step photo-bleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with super-resolution ($\\sim$2~nm), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9~$\\sigma$ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers.

  20. Evaluation of anti-hyperlipidemic potential of ethanolic leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum volubile on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. The extract was screened and quantified for phytoconstituents according to standard methods. Also, acute and sub-acute toxicity of the extract were carried out on Wistar rats using standard ...

  1. Bioavailability of barium to plants and invertebrates in soils contaminated by barite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Dane T; Matanitobua, Vitukawalu P; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-05-07

    Barium (Ba) is a nonessential element to terrestrial organisms and is known to be toxic at elevated concentrations. In this study, the bioavailability and toxicity of Ba in barite (BaSO4) contaminated soils was studied using standard test organisms (Lactuca sativa L. "Great Lakes", Eisenia fetida). Contamination resulted from barite mining activities. Barium concentrations in contaminated soils determined by X-ray fluorescence were in the range 0.13-29.2%. Barite contaminated soils were shown to negatively impact both E. fetida and L. sativa relative to control soil. For E. fetida, pore-water concentrations and acid extractable Ba were linearly related to % body weight loss. In L. sativa, pore-water Ba and exchangeable Ba were both strongly related to shoot Ba and shoot biomass production. A negative linear relationship was observed between shoot Ba content and shoot weight (P Barium concentrations in pore-water were lower than predicted from barite solubility estimates but strongly related to exchangeable Ba, indicating an influence of ion exchange on Ba solubility and toxicity to E. fetida and L. sativa.

  2. Anticancer properties and enhancement of therapeutic potential of cisplatin by leaf extract of Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Thangjam Davis; Meitei, Heikrujam Thoihen; Sharma, Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar; Robinson, Asem; Singh, Lisam Shanjukumar; Singh, Thiyam Ramsing

    2015-08-20

    Clinical use of chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin is limited by its toxicity and drug resistance. Therefore, efforts continue for the discovery of novel combination therapies with cisplatin, to increase efficacy and reduce its toxicity. Here, we screened 16 medicinal plant extracts from Northeast part of India and found that leaf extract of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (ZALE) induced cytotoxicity as well as an effect on the increasing of the efficiency of chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin, mitomycin C and camptothecin). This work shows detail molecular mechanism of anti-cancer activity of ZALE and its potential for combined treatment regimens to enhance the apoptotic response of chemotherapeutic drugs. ZALE induced cytotoxicity, nuclear blebbing and DNA fragmentation in HeLA cells suggesting apoptosis induction in human cervical cell line. However, the apoptosis induced was independent of caspase 3 activation and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Further, ZALE activated Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway as revealed by increased phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibition of ERK activation but not p38 or JNK completely blocked the ZALE induced apoptosis suggesting an ERK dependent apoptosis. Moreover, ZALE generated DNA double strand breaks as suggested by the induction γH2AX foci formation. Interestingly, pretreatment of certain cancer cell lines with ZALE, sensitized the cancer cells to cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic drugs. Enhanced caspase activation was observed in the synergistic interaction among chemotherapeutic drugs and ZALE. Purification and identification of the bio-active molecules from the ZALE or as a complementary treatment for a sequential treatment of ZALE with chemotherapeutic drugs might be a new challenger to open a new therapeutic window for the novel anti-cancer treatment.

  3. Assessing the Extraction Potential of Tomsk Region’s Difficult-To-Obtain Oil Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Valeryevna Sharf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant increase in oil production in the Tomsk region can be achieved by a better development of the license areas at the disposal of oil-producing companies, active prospecting, introduction of innovative technologies to increase the oil recovery, as well as active oil extraction from unconventional horizons. This article reviews the activities of the oil-producing companies of the Tomsk region for the past 10 years, and proves the potential of increasing oil production of both traditional and difficultto-obtain oil reserves, concentrated in the Bazhenov and Tyumen Formations and the Lower Jurassic sediments. Technologically, Russia is significantly lagging behind the economically developed countries in the extraction of hard unconventional hydrocarbon resources, primarily, the United States. The observed «shale revolution» was due to the complex of financial and tax breaks for oil companies, from which mainly medium and small companies were benefited. As a result, this requires an increase in investment on the part of economic entities and regional authorities, as well as additional tax benefits, considering the quality and types of actual and prospective raw materials produced in the region, in contrast to the declared benefits in Eastern Siberia. The introduction of tax incentives justified by the authors and the implementation of public-private partnership will ensure the profitability of the development of marginal and difficult-to-obtain oil deposits of the Tomsk region in the long term, which in turn should ensure the stability of economic development of the subject of the Russian Federation

  4. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves extract of Artemisia vulgaris and their potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Tahir; Bilal, Muhammad; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Li, Chuanlong

    2017-10-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plant extracts is receiving enormous interest due to their abundant availability and a broad spectrum of bioactive reducing metabolites. In this study, the reducing potential of Artemisia vulgaris leaves extract (AVLE) was investigated for synthesizing silver nanoparticles without the addition of any external reducing or capping agent. The appearance of blackish brown color evidenced the complete synthesis of nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. UV-vis absorption profile of the bio-reduced sample elucidated the main peak around 420nm, which correspond to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. SEM and AFM analyses confirmed the morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles. Similarly, particles with a distinctive peak of silver were examined with EDX. The average diameter of silver nanoparticles was about 25nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). FTIR spectroscopy scrutinized the involvement of various functional groups during nanoparticle synthesis. The green synthesized nanoparticles presented effective antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria than AVLE alone. In-vitro antioxidant assays revealed that silver nanoparticles (AV-AgNPs) exhibited promising antioxidant properties. The nanoparticles also displayed a potent cytotoxic effect against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. In conclusion, the results supported the advantages of employing a bio-green approach for developing silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities in a simple and cost- competitive manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anticancer properties and enhancement of therapeutic potential of cisplatin by leaf extract of Zanthoxylum armatum DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangjam Davis Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical use of chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin is limited by its toxicity and drug resistance. Therefore, efforts continue for the discovery of novel combination therapies with cisplatin, to increase efficacy and reduce its toxicity. Here, we screened 16 medicinal plant extracts from Northeast part of India and found that leaf extract of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (ZALE induced cytotoxicity as well as an effect on the increasing of the efficiency of chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin, mitomycin C and camptothecin. This work shows detail molecular mechanism of anti-cancer activity of ZALE and its potential for combined treatment regimens to enhance the apoptotic response of chemotherapeutic drugs. RESULTS: ZALE induced cytotoxicity, nuclear blebbing and DNA fragmentation in HeLA cells suggesting apoptosis induction in human cervical cell line. However, the apoptosis induced was independent of caspase 3 activation and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage. Further, ZALE activated Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK pathway as revealed by increased phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK, p38 and c-Jun N-ter-minal kinase (JNK. Inhibition of ERK activation but not p38 or JNK completely blocked the ZALE induced apoptosis suggesting an ERK dependent apoptosis. Moreover, ZALE generated DNA double strand breaks as suggested by the induction γH2AX foci formation. Interestingly, pretreatment of certain cancer cell lines with ZALE, sensitized the cancer cells to cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic drugs. Enhanced caspase activation was observed in the synergistic interaction among chemotherapeutic drugs and ZALE. CONCLUSION: Purification and identification of the bio-active molecules from the ZALE or as a complementary treatment for a sequential treatment of ZALE with chemotherapeutic drugs might be a new challenger to open a new therapeutic window for the novel anti-cancer treatment.

  6. Antihypertensive and Antioxidant Potential of Purple Sweet Potato Tuber Dry Extract in Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Jawi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Purple sweet potato tuber extract in liquid form has been shown to lower blood pressure of hypertensive rats and hypertensive patients. Liquid dosage form increasingly unstable when stored for long periods, thus it is necessary to find a more stable dosage form. The objective of this research was to prove that dry extract of purple sweet potato tuber has the same effects with liquid extract in hypertensive rats. The is a randomized pre-test and post-test control group design study. Thirty hypertensive model rats were divided into 5 groups (6 animals for each group. Group 1 was treated as a control group. Group 2 to group 5 were treated as treatment groups. Treatment groups were given liquid extract at a dose of 3 ml, dry extract with the dose of 200 mg, dry extract that stored in a certain time with a dose of 200 mg and given a mixture of dry extract with a carrier substance (capsule formula with a dose of 200 mg, respectively, for 4 weeks. Variables observed were blood pressure, SOD and MDA level of the blood. The results showed that the group given the purple sweet potato tuber extract lowers blood pressure were significantly in liquid extract or dry extract (p <0.01. The group that was treated with capsule formula showed more decrease in blood pressure than dry extract group (p <0.01. The similar results happened on MDA and SOD level in blood. Thus, it can be concluded that dried extract of purple sweet potato tubers has the same effectiveness with liquid extract, both as an antihypertensive and also antioxidant. Capsules formula is more effective than liquid extract and dry extract

  7. Evaluation of some aromatic plant extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, M; Senthilkumar, A; Venkatesalu, V

    2015-04-01

    In the present investigation, larvicidal potential of hexane, choloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of seven aromatic plants, viz., Blumea mollis, Chloroxylon swietenia, Clausena anisata, Feronia limnonia, Lantana camera, Plectranthus amboinicus, and Tagetes erecta were screened against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that all the extracts showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against the mosquito species tested. However, the ethyl acetate extract of Chloroxylon swietenia showed the remarkable larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activity was LC50 = 194.22 and LC90 = 458.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 173.04 and LC90 = 442.73 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 167.28 and LC90 = 433.07 ppm (An. stephensi), and the larvicidal activity after 24-h exposure period was LC50 = 94.12 and LC90 = 249.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 80.58 and LC90 = 200.96 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 76.24 and LC90 = 194.51 ppm (An. stephensi). The larvicidal potential of other plant extracts were in order of ethyl acetate extract of Clausena anisata > methanol extract of P. amboinicus > acetone extract of F. limonia > methanol extract of T. erecta > methanol extract of B. mollis > and methanol extract of L. camera. The results of the present study offer a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the activity.

  8. NANOSCALE BARIUM HYDROSILICATES: CHOOSING THE SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRISHINA Anna Nikolaevna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cement concretes are the most used materials in modern civil engineering. Due to that such materials draw great attention both in the Russian Federation and abroad. The possibility to enhance the manufacturability and operational properties of concretes results in significant reduction of overall operating costs. Many enhancement methods have been elaborated. Among them there is one based on introduction of calcium hydrosilicates into construction composition. The authors set up a hypothesis that similarity between properties and structures of different hydrosilicates (for example, alkaline earth metals and metals of the second group will provide similar increased operational characteristics. The specialists of Research and Educational Center «Nanotechnology» are developing cement composites nanomodification methods which include introduction of nanodimensional barium hydrosilicates particles. The synthesis of barium hydrosilicates particles can be done with the use of many technologies, different by energy consumption or performing complexity. Taking into account both these factors, one can assume that low-temperature sol-gel synthesis from diluted water solutions is the proper technology. The present paper shows that this assumption is correct. The selection of certain technology is made by the means of multiobjective optimization, which is in turn is performed by the means of linear scalarization. This method, while not always giving the Pareto optimal solutions, can be easily implemented. The particle size distribution is taken into consideration during selection of objectives and weights. It is shown that selected technology allows manufacturing nanoparticles with median size about 30 nm.

  9. The Novel Formation of Barium Titanate Nanodendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Jung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles with novel dendrite-like structures have been successfully fabricated via a simple coprecipitation method, the so-called BaTiO3 nanodendrites (BTNDs. This method was remarkable, fast, simple, and scalable. The growth solution is prepared by barium chloride (BaCl2, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4, and oxalic acid. The shape and size of BaTiO3 depend on the amount of added BaCl2 solvent. To investigate the influence of amount of BaCl2 on BTNDs, the amount of BaCl2 was varied in the range from 3 to 6 mL. The role of BaCl2 is found to have remarkable influence on the morphology, crystallite size, and formation of dendrite-like structures. The thickness and length of the central stem of BTND were ~300 nm and ~20 μm, respectively. The branchings were found to occur at irregular intervals along the main stem. Besides, the formation mechanism of BTND is proposed and discussed.

  10. Three barium diphosphonates with 3-D structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuikka, Matti; Haukka, Matti; Ahlgrén, Markku

    2007-06-01

    The gel crystallization method was exploited in this work in order to study the 3-D solid state structures of barium diphosphonates. This technique proved to be an effective tool for the growth of single crystals of diphosphonates for structure analysis. By using this approach, three barium diphosphonates, Ba[HO 3P(CH 2) 2PO 3H] ( 1), Ba 2[O 3P(CH 2) 3PO 3]·3H 2O ( 2) and Ba[HO 3P(CH 2) 4PO 3H] ( 3), with different three dimensional structures, were synthesized and characterized. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and the structure of 3 by the powder diffraction method. In the structure of 1, the diphosphonate ligand is completely surrounded by the Ba atoms, which is an unusual arrangement in a diphosphonate system. The structures of 2 and 3 are more conventional. They are organized in typical pillared layers in which the separation of the layers can be adjusted by varying the length of the hydrocarbon chain.

  11. Screening for antibiofilm and antioxidant potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Sumreen; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2016-07-01

    The antibiofilm and antioxidant activities associated with turmeric were the main focus of the study. Antibacterial activity was explored against bacteria isolated from dental plaques and dental unit water lines exhibiting resistance against antibiotics and biocides respectively. This study provides a comparison of the natural plant extract against synthetic mouthwash, chemicals and commonly prescribed antibiotics. Methanol extract was more effective as compared to other extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 2.5-10mg/ml. Time based killing kinetic assay showed a significant reduction of bacterial load with increasing concentration of turmeric. Micro titer plate assay indicated significant inhibition of biofilm formation in cells treated with turmeric extract. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts showed the presence of vital secondary metabolites. Flavonoid content and total phenolic content varied among extracts, phenolic content for methanolic extract was 61.669 mg GAE/ gm dry extract and flavonoid content was 3.119mg quercitin/gm dry extract. The values of ferric reducing power were in the range of 5.55- 15.55 mmol of FeSO4 equivalent/ liter of the extract. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of the turmeric extracts had significant positive correlation. On the basis of these results turmeric may confidently be recommended as natural antibiofilm and antioxidant agent.

  12. How resistant to tampering are codeine containing analgesics on the market? Assessing the potential for opioid extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kimergård, Andreas; Deluca, Paolo; Hindersson, Peter; Breindahl, Torben

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionMisuse of opioid analgesics, in combination with diversion, dependence, and fatal overdoses, presents a serious problem for public health, which affects many countries worldwide. Within this context, tampering with opioids has been associated with serious harm. The aim of the present study was to assess the tampering potential of codeine combination analgesics on the market (containing codeine/non-opioid analgesics) by the extraction of codeine.MethodsCodeine was extracted from th...

  13. Antifungal Potential and Antioxidant Efficacy in the Shell Extract of Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae) against Pathogenic Dermal Mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid Thebo, Nasreen; Ahmed Simair, Altaf; Sughra Mangrio, Ghulam; Ansari, Khalil Ahmed; Ali Bhutto, Aijaz; Lu, Changrui; Ali Sheikh, Wazir

    2016-05-25

    Background: Coconut is a tropical fruit well known for its essential oils that have been recognized for their biological activities since ancient times. There have been no previous investigations on the essential oils from coconut shells. Method: The shell extract of Cocos nucifera (L.) was prepared by the Soxhlet method and total phenolic content (TPC) in the extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay. The antioxidant potential of the coconut shell extract was evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was determined by the strip method against clinically isolated dermal mycosis of 20 infected patients. Result: Total antioxidant activity varied from 92.32% to 94.20% and total phenolic content was found at 5.33 ± 0.02 mg/g in the coconut shell extract. The extract was found to be most effective as an antifungal against human pathogenic fungi, including A. niger , A. flavus , T. rubrum , M. canis , M. gypseum , A. fumigates , T. mentagrophyte and T. vercossum . The crude shell extract was highly effective against all dermal mycosis tested with the MIC ranging from 62 mm to 90 mm, whereas all fungal samples showed good inhibitory effect. Conclusion: The results of the present study provide a potential cure for microbial infections.

  14. Anticancer Potential of Aqueous Ethanol Seed Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Cancer Cell Lines and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana (Lamk. is a fruit tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases. In the present study, anticancer potential of seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana in vitro against different cell lines (HL-60, Molt-4, HeLa, and normal cell line HGF by MTT assay as well as in vivo against Ehrich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice was investigated. The extract was found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells. Annexin and PI binding of treated HL-60 cells indicated apoptosis induction by extract in a dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis revealed a prominent increase in sub Go population at concentration of 20 μg/ml and above. Agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells after 3 h incubation with extract. The extract also exhibited potent anticancer potential in vivo. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice with varied doses (100–800 mg/kg b.wt. of plant extract significantly reduced tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and improved haemoglobin content, RBC count, mean survival time, tumor inhibition, and percentage life span. The enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals was evident from decline in levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase.

  15. Antifungal Potential and Antioxidant Efficacy in the Shell Extract of Cocos nucifera (L. (Arecaceae against Pathogenic Dermal Mycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Khalid Thebo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coconut is a tropical fruit well known for its essential oils that have been recognized for their biological activities since ancient times. There have been no previous investigations on the essential oils from coconut shells. Method: The shell extract of Cocos nucifera (L. was prepared by the Soxhlet method and total phenolic content (TPC in the extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC assay. The antioxidant potential of the coconut shell extract was evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extract was determined by the strip method against clinically isolated dermal mycosis of 20 infected patients. Result: Total antioxidant activity varied from 92.32% to 94.20% and total phenolic content was found at 5.33 ± 0.02 mg/g in the coconut shell extract. The extract was found to be most effective as an antifungal against human pathogenic fungi, including A. niger, A. flavus, T. rubrum, M. canis, M. gypseum, A. fumigates, T. mentagrophyte and T. vercossum. The crude shell extract was highly effective against all dermal mycosis tested with the MIC ranging from 62 mm to 90 mm, whereas all fungal samples showed good inhibitory effect. Conclusion: The results of the present study provide a potential cure for microbial infections.

  16. Potential Antimicrobial Activity of Red and White Wine Phenolic Extracts against Strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrissanthy Papadopoulou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess antimicrobial activities of wine phenolic extracts. The potential antimicrobial activity of alcohol-free red and white wine extracts against pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans was studied using the agar well diffusion method. Total phenolic content of wine extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while their phenolic composition was specified by high performance liquid chromatography and diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. The antimicrobial activity of the tested extracts was related to their total phenolic content. Antimicrobial activity of the tested wine extracts was more effective against S. aureus and less effective against E. coli and C. albicans. Also, C. albicans was resistant to more wine extracts than the two bacterial species studied. The antimicrobial activity and the phenolic composition of the tested white and red wine extracts indicate that some phenolic acids have the potential to inhibit growth of certain pathogens such as S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans strains.

  17. Antibacterial properties of extracts of Solidago canadensis and their potential use as dietary supplements in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhong YE,Lei ZHANG,Jiaqi GE,Haifeng SUN,Jingjing NI,Shengmei YANG,Wanhong WEI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis is one of the most destructive invasive weeds in South-eastern China. To evaluate its potential application as dietary supplement in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, the antibacterial properties of aqueous and ethanol extracts of this plant against three major pathogenic bacteria in crayfish aquaculture were examined. Inhibition zone tests and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration revealed that the extracts had lower antibacterial activity than extracts from two traditional medicinal plants that possess antibacterial properties, garlic (Allium sativum and cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense. However, they did exhibit greater antibacterial effects than extracts from another widely used medicinal plant, Sophora flavescens, and an aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides. Aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod gave greater inhibition than the ethanol extracts. Crayfish fed a diet with 2% these aqueous extracts exhibited significantly higher enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, catalase and phenoloxidase (P<0.05. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod are highly promising for the development of new dietary supplement for use in crayfish aquaculture.

  18. Evaluation of the analgesic, sedative-anxiolytic, cytotoxic and thrombolytic potentials of the different extracts of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Razibul Habib

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, neuropharmacological, cytotoxic and thrombolytic potentials of the aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves. Methods: At the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, the analgesic activity of the extracts were evaluated by the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced persistent pain tests while neuropharmacological activity was evaluated by the open field, hole cross and elevated plus maze tests. The cytotoxic potential was observed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay and the thrombolytic potential was investigated by clot lysis test. Results: The aqueous extract significantly suppressed the number of writhing (96.78% as well as the formalin-induced persistent pain on the early phase (46.92% and on the late phase (40.98%. Again in case of hole cross and open field tests, the locomotor activity was decreased significantly (P < 0.001 mostly by the ethyl acetate extract. Furthermore, the sedative-anxiolytic activity was supported by the increased percent (P < 0.01 of frequency into the open arm on elevated plus maze test. Besides, the extracts showed moderate lethality and thrombolytic activity. Conclusions: The findings showed that activities are comparable to the standards and in some cases are stronger than the standards. Therefore, based on the results, it is evident that it has great analgesic and sedative-anxiolytic activity with moderate cytotoxic and thrombolytic potential.

  19. Biomedical potentialities of Taraxacum officinale-based nanoparticles biosynthesized using methanolic leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Tahir; Bilal, Muhammad; Li, Chuanlong; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2018-02-14

    In the present study, the potential of methanolic leaf extract of Taraxacum officinale plant as a function of bio-inspired green synthesis for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been explored. The bio-reduction of aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution was confirmed by visually detecting the color change from pale yellow to blackish-brown. Maximum absorbance was observed at 420 nm due to the presence of characteristic surface Plasmon resonance of nano silver by UV-visible spectroscopy. The role of various functional groups in the bio-reduction of silver and chemical transformation was verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) predicts the shape (rocky, flack type, ellipsoidal, etc.), size (68 nm) and elemental composition (Ag as a major constituent) of the biosynthesized AgNPs, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis further corroborated the morphology of the AgNPs. Color mapping and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed the nano-sized topography. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed the charge, stability, and size of the AgNPs. The generated AgNPs presented potential antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Haemophilus influenzae. The biosynthesized AgNPs also showed antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, results clearly indicate that biosynthesized AgNPs could be used as effective nano drug for treating infectious diseases caused by multidrug resistant bacterial strains in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Polygonum multiflorum root extract as a potential candidate for treatment of early graying hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Thang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite Polygonum multiflorum (PM has been experiencely used as a drug to treat early graying hair phenomenon in Asian countries for a long time, there is limited study examined the real biological effects of PM on hair graying in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of PM root extract (PM-RE on melanin synthesis in human melanoma SKMEL-28 cells and embryos/larvae of wild-type strain AB zebrafish. We also preliminary revealed the molecular mechanism of early hair graying phenomenon in both in vitro and in vivo models. Our results showed that PM-RE significantly induced melanin synthesis in melanin-producing SKMEL-28 melanoma cells and also in zebrafish embryos/larvae at 4-day postfertilization through activation of MC1R/MITF/tyrosinase-signaling pathway. We also investigated the differences in genotype between graying hair follicle and black hair follicle of young peoples and found that early hair graying phenomenon may be related to downregulation of MC1R/MITF/tyrosinase pathway. Taken together, we suggested that PM-RE at safe doses could be used as a potential agent for the treatment of early hair graying and other loss pigmentation-related diseases.

  1. Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Exploiting the Reducing Potential of Trapa bispinosa Peel Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.; Mewada, A.; Thakur, M.; Shinde, S.; Shah, R.; Oza, G.; Sharon, M.

    2013-01-01

    Present work reports exceptionally high reducing capacity of Trapa bispinosa to synthesize monodispersed silver nanoparticles (SNPs) within 120 seconds at 30 degree C which is the shortest tenure reported for SNP synthesis using plants. Moreover, we also instigated impact of different ph values on fabrication of SNPs using visible spectroscopy with respect to time. Percentage conversion of Ag + ions into Ag was calculated using ICP-AES analysis and was found to be 97% at pH = 7. To investigate the reduction of Ag + ions to SNPs, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and open circuit potential (OCP) using 0.1M KNO 3 were performed. There was prompt reduction in cathodic and anodic currents after addition of the peel extract which indicates the reducing power of T. bispinosa peel. Stability of the SNPs was studied using flocculation parameter (FP) which was found to be least at all the pH values. FP was found to be indirectly proportional to stability of the nanoparticles

  2. Radiation doses to patients undergoing barium meal and barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delichas, M. G.; Hatziioannou, K.; Papanastassiou, E.; Albanopoulou, P.; Chatzi, E.; Sioundas, A.; Psarrakos, K.

    2004-01-01

    The radiation doses received by patients during 41 barium meal (BM) and 42 barium enema (BE) examinations in two Greek hospitals are presented. Radiation dose was measured in terms of the dose area product (DAP). The effective dose and doses to certain organs were estimated using the ODS-60 software. Mean total DAP values were found to be 25 ± 11 Gy cm 2 for BM and 60 ± 35 Gy cm 2 for BE examinations, whereas the estimated mean values of effective dose were 8.6 ± 4.0 and 24 ± 16 mSv respectively. DAP to effective dose conversion coefficients were estimated to be 0.34 mSv per Gy cm 2 for BM and 0.41 mSv per Gy cm 2 for BE. (authors)

  3. High-sensitivity accelerometer composed of ultra-long vertically aligned barium titanate nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Aneesh; Sodano, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    A configuration that shows great promise in sensing applications is vertically aligned piezoelectric nanowire arrays that allow facile interfacing with electrical interconnects. Nano-electromechanical systems developed using piezoelectric nanowires have gained interest primarily for their potential in energy harvesting applications, because they are able to convert several different sources of mechanical energy into useful electrical power. To date, no results have demonstrated the capability to use aligned piezoelectric nanowire arrays as a highly accurate nano-electromechanical system based dynamic sensor with a wide operating bandwidth and unity coherence. Here we report the growth of vertically aligned (~45 μm long) barium titanate nanowire arrays, realized through a two-step hydrothermal synthesis approach, and demonstrate their use as an accurate accelerometer. High sensitivity of up to 50 mV g(-1) is observed from the sensor composed of vertically aligned barium titanate nanowire arrays, thus providing performance comparable to many of the commercial accelerometer systems.

  4. Bioactive extracts of red seaweeds Pterocladiella capillacea and Osmundaria obtusiloba (Floridophyceae: Rhodophyta) with antioxidant and bacterial agglutination potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alencar, Daniel Barroso; de Carvalho, Fátima Cristiane Teles; Rebouças, Rosa Helena; Dos Santos, Daniel Rodrigues; Dos Santos Pires-Cavalcante, Kelma Maria; de Lima, Rebeca Larangeira; Baracho, Bárbara Mendes; Bezerra, Rayssa Mendes; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Dos Fernandes Vieira, Regine Helena Silva; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and bacterial cell agglutination activities of the hexane (Hex) and 70% ethanol (70% EtOH) extracts of two species of red seaweeds Pterocladiella capillacea (P. capillacea) and Osmundaria obtusiloba. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, ferrous ion chelating assay, β-carotene bleaching assay and total phenolic content quantification. Antimicrobial activity was tested using the method of disc diffusion on Mueller-Hinton medium. The ability of algal extracts to agglutinate bacterial cells was also tested. The 70% EtOH extract of the two algae showed the highest values of total phenolic content compared to the Hex extract. The results of DPPH for both extracts (Hex, 70% EtOH) of Osmundaria obtusiloba (43.46% and 99.47%) were higher than those of P. capillacea (33.04% and 40.81%) at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. As for the ferrous ion chelating, there was an opposite behavior, extracts of P. capillacea had a higher activity. The extracts showed a low ferric-reducing antioxidant power, with optical density ranging from 0.054 to 0.180. Antioxidant activities of all extracts evaluated for β-carotene bleaching were above 40%. There was no antibacterial activity against bacterial strains tested. However, the extracts of both species were able to agglutinate bacterial Gram positive cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative cells of Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant Salmonella and Vibrio harveyi. This is the first report of the interaction between these algal extracts, rich in natural compounds with antioxidant potential, and Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial cells. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of the antiproliferative potential of seed extracts from Northeastern Brazilian plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Michel P. Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the antiproliferative and cytotoxic potential against tumor lines of ethanolic seed extracts of 21 plant species belonging to different families from Northeastern Brazil. In addition, some underlying mechanisms involved in this cytotoxicity were also investigated. Among the 21 extracts tested, the MTT assay after 72 h of incubation demonstrated that only the ethanolic extract obtained from Myracrodruon urundeuva seeds (EEMUS, which has steroids, alkaloids and phenols, showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells, being 2-fold more active on leukemia HL-60 line [IC50 value of 12.5 (9.5-16.7 μg/mL] than on glioblastoma SF-295 [IC50 of 25.1 (17.3-36.3 μg/mL] and Sarcoma 180 cells [IC50 of 38.1 (33.5-43.4 μg/mL]. After 72h exposure, flow cytometric and morphological analyses of HL-60-treated cells showed that EEMUS caused decrease in cell number, volume and viability as well as internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent way, suggesting that the EEMUS triggers apoptotic pathways of cell death.Este estudo avaliou o potencial antiproliferativo e citotóxico contra linhagens de células tumorais de extratos etanólicos de sementes de vinte e uma espécies vegetais pertencentes a diferentes famílias do Nordeste brasileiro. Além disso, alguns mecanismos subjacentes envolvidos nesta citotoxidade também foram investigados. Dentre os 21 extratos testados pelo ensaio do MTT após 72 h de incubação, apenas o extrato etanólico obtido a partir de sementes de Myracrodruon urundeuva (EEMUS, o qual apresentou traços de esteróides, alcalóides e fenóis em sua composição, demonstrou atividade citotóxica in vitro contra células tumorais humanas, sendo 2 vezes mais ativo sobre a linhagem leucêmica HL-60 [IC50 valor de 12,5 (9,5-16,7 μg/mL] do que sobre células de glioblastoma SF-295 [IC50 de 25,1 (17,3-36,3 μg/mL] e de sarcoma 180 [IC50 de 38,1 (33,5-43,4 μg/mL]. Após 72 h de exposição, as an

  6. Allelopathic potential of jatropha curcas L. leaf aqueous extracts on seedling growth of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, A.; Ullah, F.; Wazir, S. M.; Shinwari, Z. K.

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas on seed germination and early seedling growth of wheat cv. Inqlab-91 were investigated. The extracts were applied at 50 percentage, 25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 6.25 percentage and 3.12 percentage as seed soaking for 5h prior to sowing of seeds in the pots. The J. curcas leaf characterized for composition of macronutrients showed Na (304 micro g/g), K (267 micro g/g), Mg (92 micro g/g) and Ca (12 micro g/g). Among micronutrients Fe (92 micro g/g), Cr (92 micro g/g), Ni (48 micro g/g), Co (38 μg/g), Cu (23 micro g/g, Mn (12 micro g/g) and Zn (15.22 micro g/g) were found. Phenolic compounds were detected in the extracts and were found maximum (8.12 mg gallic acid/g extract) in 50 percentage extract. Lower concentrations (6.25 percentage, 3.25 percentage) of the extracts significantly improved seed germination (percentage), germination index, shoot length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight and root area of wheat plants (p<0.05). At higher concentration of the extract, root length was significantly reduced. It is inferred that lower concentrations (6.25 percentage and 3.12 percentage) of the extracts exhibited beneficial effects on growth of wheat plants. (author)

  7. Gastro-protective potential of aqueous stem bark extract of Albyzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione, malondialdehyde levels, pH, volume and total output of the gastric acid were not significantly altered. Addition of the extract to 0.1 N HCl elicited very little variation in pH suggesting a lack of neutralizing ability. The aqueous extract of Albizia zygia possesses anti-ulcer properties that may be due to cytoprotective ...

  8. Antidiabetic potential of methanol extracts from leaves of Piper umbellatum L. and Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Sedar Singor Njateng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine inhibitory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper umbellatum and Persea americana (P. americana (traditionally used in Cameroon against diabetes on α -glucosidase, β -glucosidase, maltase-glucoamylase, aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase activities, enzymes involved in starch digestion or diabetic complications. Methods: The methanol extracts from Piper umbellatum and P. americana were prepared by maceration. To assess relative efficacy of these extracts, the determination of concentrations that were needed to inhibit 50% of enzyme activity was done, whereas, gas chromatography-mass spectrum was used to identify components from extracts that may be responsible for the activities. Results: The tested extracts strongly inhibited α -glucosidase, maltase-glucoamylase, aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase activities with IC50 ranging from (1.07 ± 0.03 to (31.77 ± 1.17 μg/mL. Among the tested extracts, P. americana was the most active against sensitive enzymes (IC50 of 1.07 ± 0.03 to 15.63 ± 1.23. But, none of the extracts showed interesting inhibitory effect against β -glucosidase as their percentage inhibitions were less than 16%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrum analysis, 10 and 8 compounds were identified in Piper umbellatum and P. americana extracts respectively, using NIST library 2014. Conclusions: Results of this study provide the scientific credential for a prospective usage of these plants to treat diabetes.

  9. Antidiabetic and Free Radicals Scavenging Potential of Euphorbia hirta Flower Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Malhotra, R; Kumar, D

    2010-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate antidiabetic and in vitro free radicals scavenging effects of flower extract of Euphorbia hirta. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg) were orally tested for 21 days in alloxan induced diabetic mice and blood glucose level was measured with glucometer. Administration of extract resulted in significant reduction in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, alkaline phosphatase levels but high density lipoprotein levels and total proteins were found to be increased after treatments. Free radicals scavenging effect of ethanolic extract was also evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, and reducing power assay. It was compared with standard antioxidants compounds such as butylated hydroxyl anisole and ascorbic acid. All the extracts showed antioxidant activity in all the tested methods.

  10. Large Flexoelectric Anisotropy in Paraelectric Barium Titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Jackeline; Saremi, Sahar; Hong, Jiawang; Stengel, Massimiliano; Catalan, Gustau

    2015-07-17

    The bending-induced polarization of barium titanate single crystals has been measured with an aim to elucidate the origin of the large difference between theoretically predicted and experimentally measured flexoelectricity in this material. The results indicate that part of the difference is due to polar regions (short-range order) that exist above T(C) and up to T*≈200-225 °C. Above T*, however, the flexovoltage coefficient still shows an unexpectedly large anisotropy for a cubic material, with (001)-oriented crystals displaying 10 times more flexoelectricity than (111)-oriented crystals. Theoretical analysis shows that this anisotropy cannot be a bulk property, and we therefore interpret it as indirect evidence for the theoretically predicted but experimentally elusive contribution of surface piezoelectricity to macroscopic bending-induced polarization.

  11. Large Flexoelectric Anisotropy in Paraelectric Barium Titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Jackeline; Saremi, Sahar; Hong, Jiawang; Stengel, Massimiliano; Catalan, Gustau

    2015-07-01

    The bending-induced polarization of barium titanate single crystals has been measured with an aim to elucidate the origin of the large difference between theoretically predicted and experimentally measured flexoelectricity in this material. The results indicate that part of the difference is due to polar regions (short-range order) that exist above TC and up to T*≈2 00 - 2 2 5 °C . Above T* , however, the flexovoltage coefficient still shows an unexpectedly large anisotropy for a cubic material, with (001)-oriented crystals displaying 10 times more flexoelectricity than (111)-oriented crystals. Theoretical analysis shows that this anisotropy cannot be a bulk property, and we therefore interpret it as indirect evidence for the theoretically predicted but experimentally elusive contribution of surface piezoelectricity to macroscopic bending-induced polarization.

  12. Thermal decomposition of barium valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, P.; Norby, Poul; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    degrees C and evidence was found for the solidification of the melt at 380-440 degrees C, i.e. simultaneously with the onset of decomposition. Between 400 degrees C and 520 degrees C (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2) decomposes in two main steps, first into BaCO3 with release of C4H9COC4H9 (5-nonanone), whereas final......The thermal decomposition of barium valerate (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2)/Ba-pentanoate) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage optical microscopy. Melting takes place in two different steps, at 200 degrees C and 280...

  13. Evaluation of antiangiogenic and antiproliferative potential of the organic extract of green algae chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyadari, Mahender; Fatma, Tasneem; Azad, Rajvardhan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: algae isolates obtained from fresh and marine resources could be one of the richest sources of novel bioactive secondary metabolites expected to have pharmaceutical significance for new drug development. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in experimental models of angiogenesis and by MTT assay. Materials and Methods: lyophilized extract of C. pyrenoidosa was extracted using dichloromethane/methanol (2:1), concentrated and vacuum evaporated to obtain the dried extract. The crude extract was evaluated in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in in ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) at various concentrations (n = 8) using thalidomide and normal saline as positive and untreated control groups, respectively. The crude extract was also subjected to the antiangiogenic activity in the silver nitrate/potassium nitrate cautery model of corneal neovascularization (CN) in rats where topical bevacizumab was used as a positive control. The vasculature was photographed and blood vessel density was quantified using Aphelion imaging software. The extract was also evaluated for its anti proliferative activity by microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) assay using HeLa cancer cell line (ATCC). Results: VEGF increased the blood vessel density by 220% as compared to normal and thalidomide treatment decreased it to 67.2% in in ovo assay. In the in-vivo CN model, the mean neovascular density in the control group, the C. pyrenoidosa extract and bevacizumab group were found to be 100%, 59.02%, and 32.20%, respectively. The Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract negatively affected the viability of HeLa cells. An IC50 value of the extract was 570 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: a significant antiangiogenic activity was observed against VEGF-induced neovascularization and antiproliferative activity by MTT assay. In this study, it could be attributed that the activity may be

  14. Evaluation of antiangiogenic and antiproliferative potential of the organic extract of green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyadari, Mahender; Fatma, Tasneem; Azad, Rajvardhan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2013-01-01

    algae isolates obtained from fresh and marine resources could be one of the richest sources of novel bioactive secondary metabolites expected to have pharmaceutical significance for new drug development. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in experimental models of angiogenesis and by MTT assay. lyophilized extract of C. pyrenoidosa was extracted using dichloromethane/methanol (2:1), concentrated and vacuum evaporated to obtain the dried extract. The crude extract was evaluated in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in in ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) at various concentrations (n = 8) using thalidomide and normal saline as positive and untreated control groups, respectively. The crude extract was also subjected to the antiangiogenic activity in the silver nitrate/potassium nitrate cautery model of corneal neovascularization (CN) in rats where topical bevacizumab was used as a positive control. The vasculature was photographed and blood vessel density was quantified using Aphelion imaging software. The extract was also evaluated for its anti proliferative activity by microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) assay using HeLa cancer cell line (ATCC). VEGF increased the blood vessel density by 220% as compared to normal and thalidomide treatment decreased it to 67.2% in in ovo assay. In the in-vivo CN model, the mean neovascular density in the control group, the C. pyrenoidosa extract and bevacizumab group were found to be 100%, 59.02%, and 32.20%, respectively. The Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract negatively affected the viability of HeLa cells. An IC50 value of the extract was 570 μg/ml, respectively. a significant antiangiogenic activity was observed against VEGF-induced neovascularization and antiproliferative activity by MTT assay. In this study, it could be attributed that the activity may be due to the presence of secondary metabolites in the C

  15. Ginkgolide A contributes to the potentiation of acetaminophen toxicity by Ginkgo biloba extract in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, Ganesh; Chen, Jie; Chang, Thomas K.H.

    2006-01-01

    The present cell culture study investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract pretreatment on acetaminophen toxicity and assessed the role of ginkgolide A and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in hepatocytes isolated from adult male Long-Evans rats provided ad libitum with a standard diet. Acetaminophen (7.5-25 mM for 24 h) conferred hepatocyte toxicity, as determined by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. G. biloba extract alone increased LDH leakage in hepatocytes at concentrations ≥ 75 μg/ml and ≥ 750 μg/ml after a 72 h and 24 h treatment period, respectively. G. biloba extract (25 or 50 μg/ml once every 24 h for 72 h) potentiated LDH leakage by acetaminophen (10 mM for 24 h; added at 48 h after initiation of extract pretreatment). The effect was confirmed by a decrease in [ 14 C]-leucine incorporation. At the level present in a modulating concentration (50 μg/ml) of the extract, ginkgolide A (0.55 μg/ml), which increased CYP3A23 mRNA levels and CYP3A-mediated enzyme activity, accounted for part but not all of the potentiating effect of the extract on acetaminophen toxicity. This occurred as a result of CYP3A induction by ginkgolide A because triacetyloleandomycin (TAO), a specific inhibitor of CYP3A catalytic activity, completely blocked the effect of ginkgolide A. Ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide J, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside did not alter the extent of LDH leakage by acetaminophen. In summary, G. biloba pretreatment potentiated acetaminophen toxicity in cultured rat hepatocytes and ginkgolide A contributed to this novel effect of the extract by inducing CYP3A

  16. Solar Twins and the Barium Puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Lambert, David L., E-mail: bala@astro.as.utexas.edu [W.J. McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    Several abundance analyses of Galactic open clusters (OCs) have shown a tendency for Ba but not for other heavy elements (La−Sm) to increase sharply with decreasing age such that Ba was claimed to reach [Ba/Fe] ≃ +0.6 in the youngest clusters (ages < 100 Myr) rising from [Ba/Fe] = 0.00 dex in solar-age clusters. Within the formulation of the s -process, the difficulty to replicate higher Ba abundance and normal La−Sm abundances in young clusters is known as the barium puzzle. Here, we investigate the barium puzzle using extremely high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 solar twins and measured the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm with a precision of 0.03 dex. We demonstrate that the enhanced Ba ii relative to La−Sm seen among solar twins, stellar associations, and OCs at young ages (<100 Myr) is unrelated to aspects of stellar nucleosynthesis but has resulted from overestimation of Ba by standard methods of LTE abundance analysis in which the microturbulence derived from the Fe lines formed deep in the photosphere is insufficient to represent the true line broadening imposed on Ba ii lines by the upper photospheric layers from where the Ba ii lines emerge. Because the young stars have relatively active photospheres, Ba overabundances most likely result from the adoption of a too low value of microturbulence in the spectrum synthesis of the strong Ba ii lines but the change of microturbulence in the upper photosphere has only a minor affect on La−Sm abundances measured from the weak lines.

  17. Extracting visual evoked potentials from EEG data recorded during fMRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Boaz; Yovel, Galit

    2014-05-12

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an effective method for establishing a causal link between a cortical area and cognitive/neurophysiological effects. Specifically, by creating a transient interference with the normal activity of a target region and measuring changes in an electrophysiological signal, we can establish a causal link between the stimulated brain area or network and the electrophysiological signal that we record. If target brain areas are functionally defined with prior fMRI scan, TMS could be used to link the fMRI activations with evoked potentials recorded. However, conducting such experiments presents significant technical challenges given the high amplitude artifacts introduced into the EEG signal by the magnetic pulse, and the difficulty to successfully target areas that were functionally defined by fMRI. Here we describe a methodology for combining these three common tools: TMS, EEG, and fMRI. We explain how to guide the stimulator's coil to the desired target area using anatomical or functional MRI data, how to record EEG during concurrent TMS, how to design an ERP study suitable for EEG-TMS combination and how to extract reliable ERP from the recorded data. We will provide representative results from a previously published study, in which fMRI-guided TMS was used concurrently with EEG to show that the face-selective N1 and the body-selective N1 component of the ERP are associated with distinct neural networks in extrastriate cortex. This method allows us to combine the high spatial resolution of fMRI with the high temporal resolution of TMS and EEG and therefore obtain a comprehensive understanding of the neural basis of various cognitive processes.

  18. Potential of native Thai aromatic plant extracts in antiwrinkle body creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelapornpisid, Pimporn; Wickett, R Randall; Chansakaow, Sunee; Wongwattananukul, Nitima

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of 10 essential oils and 10 absolutes extracted from Thai aromatic plants were evaluated and compared to thyme oil, trolox, quercetin, and kaempferol by two independent assays: the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical scavenging assay and the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay for lipid peroxidation. We found that four essential oils including ginger oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), Wan-sao-long leaf oil (Amomum uliginosum Koen), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus), holy basil oil (Ocimum sanctum L.), and the absolute of dwarf ylang-ylang [Cananga odorata Hook. f. & Thomson var. fruticosa (Craib) J. Sinclair] exhibited high antioxidant activity in both DPPH and TBARS assays and possessed satisfactory fragrance properties. These were then combined into an essential oil blend (EOB) and retested for antioxidant activity. The EOB also exhibited high antioxidant activity in the above assays. It was then incorporated into a stable cream base as EOB body cream. The EOB body cream was found to be best able under storage in stress conditions and presented significantly higher antioxidant activity than its' cream base both before and after stability testing. The effect of EOB body cream on skin surface topography was evaluated in 29 healthy volunteers using the Skin Visiometer (SV 600 FW, CK Electronic GmbH, Germany). Three parameters, Ra, Rz (roughness), and surface, were analyzed. After 4 weeks of application, the EOB body cream showed significant reductions in surface and Rz compared with before treatment (p < 0.05, paired t-test), and with untreated and placebo treatment (p < 0.05, Duncan test). These results indicate that the essential oils and absolutes from Thai plants may serve as potential sources of natural antioxidants for spa and cosmetic products designed to prevent or treat signs of skin aging.

  19. Evaluation of therapeutic potential of picrorhiza kurroa glycosidal extract against nimesulide nephrotoxicity: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa (Pk) is a traditional Ayurvedic herb famous as a potent hepatoprotective agent, only few studies are available on the nephroprotective activity of this herb. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of Pk against nimesulide induced toxicity. Methods: This laboratory based experimental study was conducted on mice at National Institute of Health, Islamabad from Dec 2012 to Jan 2013. The mice were divided in to 4 groups. One group was given only PK while the other three groups were given nimesulide in a dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight for 3 days to induce nephrotoxicity and protective effect of Pk was noted by giving 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg pk for 14 days to the two of the nimesulide induced nephrotoxicity groups. Biochemical assessment of kidney was done by measuring serum urea and creatinine. Also histology was done to confirm the findings of biochemical assessment. Results: In our pilot study out of 20 mice, 19 mice survived. Only 1 mouse of nimesulide group died. Mean serum urea of nimesulide group was 60 mg/dl and was decreased to 23 mg/dl and 25 mg/dl by two doses of Pk. Mean creatinine in group 2 was 0.55 mg/dl and was decreased to 0.21 and 0.19 mg/dl by two doses of Pk. Conclusion: Our study shows that nimesulide is a potential nephrotoxic drug and its toxic effects on kidney can be minimized by using glycosidal extract of Pk. (author)

  20. Feature extraction of event-related potentials using wavelets: an application to human performance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, L. J.; Shensa, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development and evaluation of mathematical models for predicting human performance from discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) of event-related potentials (ERP) elicited by task-relevant stimuli. The DWT was compared to principal components analysis (PCA) for representation of ERPs in linear regression and neural network models developed to predict a composite measure of human signal detection performance. Linear regression models based on coefficients of the decimated DWT predicted signal detection performance with half as many free parameters as comparable models based on PCA scores. In addition, the DWT-based models were more resistant to model degradation due to over-fitting than PCA-based models. Feed-forward neural networks were trained using the backpropagation algorithm to predict signal detection performance based on raw ERPs, PCA scores, or high-power coefficients of the DWT. Neural networks based on high-power DWT coefficients trained with fewer iterations, generalized to new data better, and were more resistant to overfitting than networks based on raw ERPs. Networks based on PCA scores did not generalize to new data as well as either the DWT network or the raw ERP network. The results show that wavelet expansions represent the ERP efficiently and extract behaviorally important features for use in linear regression or neural network models of human performance. The efficiency of the DWT is discussed in terms of its decorrelation and energy compaction properties. In addition, the DWT models provided evidence that a pattern of low-frequency activity (1 to 3.5 Hz) occurring at specific times and scalp locations is a reliable correlate of human signal detection performance. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boue, Stephen M; Daigle, Kim W; Chen, Ming-Hsuan; Cao, Heping; Heiman, Mark L

    2016-07-06

    Pigmented rice contains anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins that are concentrated in the bran layer. In this study, we determined the phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of five rice bran (1 brown, 2 red, and 2 purple) extracts. Each bran extract was evaluated for inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. All purple and red bran extracts inhibited α-glucosidase activity, however only the red rice bran extracts inhibited α-amylase activity. Additionally, each bran extract was examined for their ability to stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a key function in glucose homeostasis. Basal glucose uptake was increased between 2.3- and 2.7-fold by exposure to the red bran extracts, and between 1.9- and 3.1-fold by exposure to the purple bran extracts. In red rice bran, the highest enzyme inhibition and glucose uptake was observed with a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction. Both IITA red bran and IAC purple bran increased expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA, and genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins.

  2. Medicinal potential of Passiflora foetida L. plant extracts: biological and pharmacological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadujjaman, Md; Mishuk, Ahmed Ullah; Hossain, Md Aslam; Karmakar, Utpal Kumar

    2014-03-01

    To investigate analgesic, antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities of the ethanol extract of Passiflora foetida L. (Passifloraceae) by three experimental methods. Analgesic activity of the ethanol extract of Passiflora foetida L. (EEPF) acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition in mice. The method of castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice was utilized to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity. The cytotoxic activity of EEPF was explored with a brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The extract showed 68.75% and 30.00% inhibition of writhe at the doses of 500 and 250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The extract increased the mean latent period prior to diarrhoeal onset to about 1.55 h and 1.17 h, and decreased the mean number of stools to 4.4 and 5.6 at the doses of 500 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The extract also demonstrated cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assay, and the median lethal concentration for brine shrimp nauplii was 80 μg/mL. The results suggest that the plant extract has analgesic and antidiarrhoeal activities, supporting its uses in traditional medicine. The results also demonstrate that the plant extract possesses cytotoxic activities.

  3. Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibition and Associated Antioxidant Activity in Plant Extracts with Potential Antidepressant Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and is involved in mood disorders, depression, oxidative stress, and adverse pharmacological reactions. This work studies the inhibition of human MAO-A by Hypericum perforatum, Peganum harmala, and Lepidium meyenii, which are reported to improve and affect mood and mental conditions. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO is determined in plant extracts for the first time. H. perforatum inhibited human MAO-A, and extracts from flowers gave the highest inhibition (IC50 of 63.6 μg/mL). Plant extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS and contained pseudohypericin, hypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, hyperfirin, and flavonoids. Hyperforin did not inhibit human MAO-A and hypericin was a poor inhibitor of this isoenzyme. Quercetin and flavonoids significantly contributed to MAO-A inhibition. P. harmala seed extracts highly inhibited MAO-A (IC50 of 49.9 μg/L), being a thousand times more potent than H. perforatum extracts owing to its content of β-carboline alkaloids (harmaline and harmine). L. meyenii root (maca) extracts did not inhibit MAO-A. These plants may exert protective actions related to antioxidant effects. Results in this work show that P. harmala and H. perforatum extracts exhibit antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO (i.e., lower production of H2O2). PMID:29568754

  4. Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibition and Associated Antioxidant Activity in Plant Extracts with Potential Antidepressant Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Herraiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoamine oxidase (MAO catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and is involved in mood disorders, depression, oxidative stress, and adverse pharmacological reactions. This work studies the inhibition of human MAO-A by Hypericum perforatum, Peganum harmala, and Lepidium meyenii, which are reported to improve and affect mood and mental conditions. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO is determined in plant extracts for the first time. H. perforatum inhibited human MAO-A, and extracts from flowers gave the highest inhibition (IC50 of 63.6 μg/mL. Plant extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS and contained pseudohypericin, hypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, hyperfirin, and flavonoids. Hyperforin did not inhibit human MAO-A and hypericin was a poor inhibitor of this isoenzyme. Quercetin and flavonoids significantly contributed to MAO-A inhibition. P. harmala seed extracts highly inhibited MAO-A (IC50 of 49.9 μg/L, being a thousand times more potent than H. perforatum extracts owing to its content of β-carboline alkaloids (harmaline and harmine. L. meyenii root (maca extracts did not inhibit MAO-A. These plants may exert protective actions related to antioxidant effects. Results in this work show that P. harmala and H. perforatum extracts exhibit antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO (i.e., lower production of H2O2.

  5. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of making non-volatile digital memory devices of barium titanate, BaTiO3, that are integrated onto a silicon substrate with the required ferroelectric film produced by processing, compatible with silicon technology was examined.

  6. The Overview of The Electrical Properties of Barium Titanate

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Ertuğ

    2013-01-01

    The perovskite family includes many titanates used in various electroceramic applications, for example, electronic, electro-optical, and electromechanical applications of ceramics. Barium titanate, perovskite structure, is a common ferroelectric material with a high dielectric constant, widely utilized to manufacture electronic components such as mutilayer capacitors (MLCs), PTC thermistors, piezoelectric transducers, and a variety of electro-optic devices. Pure barium titanate is an insulato...

  7. Radium-226 and barium as tracers of water masses in the North Atlantic (GA01-GEOTRACES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Emilie; Sanial, Virginie; Charette, Matthew; Henderson, Paul; Jacquet, Stéphanie; García-Ibáñez, Maribel; Pérez, Fiz; Lherminer, Pascale; Souhaut, Marc; Jeandel, Catherine; Lacan, François; van Beek, Pieter

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report concentrations of radium-226 (226Ra, t1/2=1602 y) and barium determined along the GEOVIDE section conducted in the North Atlantic (May-July 2014; Portugal-Greenland-Canda) in the framework of the international GEOTRACES program. A high vertical resolution (up to 22 depths per station) was achieved by analyzing small volumes (˜10 L) of seawater for 226Ra using a radon emanation technique. We will present the distribution of 226Ra activities and barium concentrations in contrasting biogeochemical regions of the North Atlantic (Iberian margin, West European Basin, Reykjanes Ridge, Irminger Sea, Greenland margin and Labrador Sea). These regions strongly differ in terms of boundary inputs, biogeochemistry and deep water formation. We observe a linear correlation between 226Ra and barium along the GEOVIDE section, which results from the dominantly conservative behavior of the two tracers. However, deviations from the linear correlation between 226Ra and Ba are found in several places. The potential causes for such deviations are investigated. Optimum multi-parameter (OMP) analysis was thus used to distinguish the relative importance of physical transport (i.e., water mass mixing) from non-conservative processes (sedimentary, river or hydrothermal inputs; uptake by particles) on the 226Ra and Ba distribution in the North Atlantic.

  8. Theoretical study of phonon dispersion, elastic, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of barium chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musari, A. A.; Orukombo, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    Barium chalcogenides are known for their high-technological importance and great scientific interest. Detailed studies of their elastic, mechanical, dynamical and thermodynamic properties were carried out using density functional theory and plane-wave pseudo potential method within the generalized gradient approximation. The optimized lattice constants were in good agreement when compared with experimental data. The independent elastic constants, calculated from a linear fit of the computed stress-strain function, were used to determine the Young’s modulus (E), bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), Poisson’s ratio (σ) and Zener’s anisotropy factor (A). Also, the Debye temperature and sound velocities for barium chalcogenides were estimated from the three independent elastic constants. The calculations of phonon dispersion showed that there are no negative frequencies throughout the Brillouin zone. Hence barium chalcogenides have dynamically stable NaCl-type crystal structure. Finally, their thermodynamic properties were calculated in the temperature range of 0-1000 K and their constant-volume specific heat capacities at room-temperature were reported.

  9. Investigation of poly-herbal aqueous extract for potential anti-ulcer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous polyherbal extract of betel, clove, fennel and black catechu was evaluated for gastro-protective (antiulcer activity in rats using the aspirin and ethanol induced ulcer models. Efficacy was assessed by determination of ulcer index and percentage of ulcer protection.  Antioxidant activity of extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging procedure. Oral administration of the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg and (500 mg/kg showed dose dependent antiulcer activity and protected gastric lesions by about 65 to 75% respectively compared to standard drug Omeprazole (98%. The findings suggest that the polyherbal extract have significant gastro-protective activity.                                                                   

  10. Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens: possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Vergara-Galicia; Ángel, Jimenez-Ramirez Luis; Adrián, Tun-Suarez; Francisco, Aguirre-Crespo; Anuar, Salazar-Gómez; Samuel, Estrada-Soto; Ángel, Sierra-Ovando; Emmanuel, Hernandez-Nuñez

    2013-10-01

    To investigate vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) which is a part of a group of plants subjected to pharmacological and phytochemical study with the purpose of offering it as an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. An ex vivo method was employed to assess the vasorelaxant activity. This consisted of using rat aortic rings with and without endothelium precontracted with norepinephrine. All extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings with and without endothelium; the most active extracts were Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts from A. graveolens. These results suggested that secondary metabolites responsible for the vasorelaxant activity belong to a group of compounds of medium polarity. Also, our evidence showed that effect induced by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts from A. graveolens is mediated probably by calcium antagonism. A. graveolens represents an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential nephrotoxic effects produced by steroidal saponins from hydro alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the development of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigated the potential effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris, a plant of Zygophyllaceae family, on the renal complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ (90 mg/kg) to the 2-days old neonates. After 6 weeks of induction, diabetic rats were treated with 50 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of T. terrestris for 8 weeks. The anti-hyperglycaemic nature was confirmed by reduction in blood glucose and improvement in insulin levels. Diabetic renal injury associated with decrease in total proteins and albumin levels was observed to be improved by T. terrestris extract. Glomerular filtration rate along with inflammatory and growth factors, adiponectin and erythropoietin were also improved by the treatment, though the findings were not significant. However, the beneficial antidiabetic effects of T. terrestris extract in plasma were not observed in kidney histopathology. This was confirmed by the quantitative estimation of unhydrolyzed fraction of saponins (major component: protodioscin) in plasma and kidney samples of normal and diabetic rats. Hence, it can be concluded that 8 weeks treatment with T. terrestris extract produces potential toxic effects in kidney, which are independent of its anti-diabetic action.

  12. Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2012-01-01

    almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract.

  13. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria.

  14. The Impact of the Roast Levels of Coffee Extracts on their Potential Anticancer Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Benigno E; Fong, Lisa E; Biju, Denny; Muharram, Alfeah; Davis, Isabel M; Vela, Klarisse O; Rios, Diana; Osorio-Camacena, Elena; Kaur, Baljit; Rojas, Sebastian M; Forester, Sarah C

    2018-03-25

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and contains numerous phytochemicals that are beneficial to consumer health. The phytochemical profile of coffee, however, can be affected by the roast level. In this study, we compared the effect of roasting level on the growth inhibitory activity of HT-29 (colon) and SCC-25 (oral) cancer cell lines. The different roasting stages selected for this study were green, cinnamon/blonde, city/medium, full city/medium-dark, and full city plus/dark. Cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of coffee extracts for 72 hr. Cell viability was quantified using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay. It was found that the lighter roast extracts, Cinnamon in particular, reduced cell growth more than darker roast extracts. The Cinnamon extract had the greatest amount of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Relative levels of gallic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acid in the extracts were also compared. The Cinnamon coffee extract had the highest levels of gallic and caffeic acids, which have both been widely-regarded as bioactive phytochemicals. In conclusion, the consumption of lighter roasted coffee, may contribute to the prevention of certain types of cancer such as oral and colon. Chemical compounds in coffee may reduce the risk for certain types of cancers. These compounds may be particularly abundant in lighter roasted coffee. Therefore, lighter roasted coffee could contribute to the prevention of cancer through a healthy diet. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Chelating, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. bulb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The metal chelating activity, antioxidant properties and the effect on carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibition of Muscari comosum extracts have been investigated. M. comosum bulbs contain a total amount of the phenols with a value of 56.6 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent per gram of extract and a flavonoid content of 23.4 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract. In order to evaluate the non-polar constituents, n-hexane extract was obtained. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of fatty acids and ethyl esters as major constituents, with different aldehydes and alkanes as minor components. Ethanolic extract had the highest ferric-reducing ability power (66.7 μM Fe(II)/g) and DPPH scavenging activity with a concentration giving 50% inhibition (IC₅₀) value of 40.9 μg/ml. Moreover, this extract exhibited a good hypoglycaemic activity with IC₅₀ values of 81.3 and 112.8 μg/ml for α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. In conclusion, M. comosum bulbs show promising antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity via the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These activities may be of interest from a functional point of view and for the revalorization of this ancient non-cultivated vegetable of Mediterranean traditional gastronomy.

  16. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF GARLIC AND OREGANO EXTRACTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST DIFFERENT BACTERIAL STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Deliu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern world is often concerned about the bacterial diseases and the diversity of treatment possibilities. The herbal medicines overreach the medical world because the less number of side effects than synthetic drugs and their low costs. In addition to conventional drugs, the natural remedies can solve exceptional health problems. In this study the antibacterial actions of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous plant extracts (Allium sativum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were tested. Also, we tested the antimicrobial effects of garlic and oregano essential oils against three bacterial strains. The extracts were tested by diffusion method and certain variants were used. The antibacterial effects were read after 24h of incubation at 37°C. The most obvious effect was observed for oregano essential oil and the smallest growth inhibition was registered for aqueous extracts. The alcoholic extracts were more efficient after concentration by evaporation. The most sensitive bacterial strain was Staphylococcus aureus strain. However the Citrobacter freundii clinical strain had not so high sensitivity at plant extracts, we shall consider the plant extracts as a good alternative to synthetic drugs.

  17. POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS ON OPEN WOUNDS AND INFLAMMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M. Charde

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with evaluation of antioxidant, wound healing and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa Linn rhizomes. The ethanolic extract prepared by maceration technique was subjected to screen for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging method and wound healing activity using incision, excision, histopathological and dead space wound model and the study was supported with evaluation of granuloma tissue to estimate hydroxyproline content and histopathological evaluation. The anti-inflammatory study was carried out by using carageenan induced rat paw odema method. The tested extract of different dilutions in range 200µg/ml to 1000 µg/ml shows activity in range of 9.34% to 18.55%. Significant increase in wound closure rate, skin breaking strength, granuloma breaking strength was observed. The hydroxyproline content was also increased with decrease in scar area. The initial healing action might be due to increased collagen deposition and better alignment, with the obtained results it can be concluded that Curcuma longa extract has significant wound healing activity and initial healing may be due to presence of some terpenoids and antimicrobial agents. The extract shows prominent anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of standard (Ibuprofen gel. The extract shows good anti-inflammatory activity on carageenan induced rat paw odema method.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lorraine; Desai, Sharad

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess the cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers compared to those performed by consultant radiologists. METHOD: Prospective study of 200 barium enemas carried out by a senior radiographer and a consultant radiologist. The sample was a consecutive sample of adult out-patients over a 3-month period, with no exclusion. The length of time of the enema and the numbers and grades of staff involved in the procedure were recorded. This was translated into staffing costs using the appropriate pay scales. RESULTS: The barium enemas performed by the superintendent radiographer were more cost-effective than those performed by the consultant radiologist (1406 pounds for 100 radiographer-performed barium enemas compared to 1787 pounds for 100 carried out by the consultant radiologist). CONCLUSION: In terms of staffing costs, radiographers performing barium enemas not only liberates radiologist time, it is also a cost-effective method of providing an out-patient barium enema service. Brown, L. and Desai, S. (2002)

  19. Hydrogen diffusion in lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvine, K. J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, M. E.; Schemer-Kohrn, A. L.; Pitman, S. G.

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ˜32 MPa. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

  20. Phase associations and potential selective extraction methods for selected high-tech metals from ferromanganese nodules and crusts with siderophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohwinkel, Dennis; Kleint, Charlotte; Koschinsky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase associations of metals in marine Fe–Mn nodules and crusts were determined. • Selective leaching experiments with siderophore desferrioxamine B were conducted. • Siderophores selectively mobilize high-tech metals associated with Fe carrier phases. • Base metal liberation including Fe and Mn is limited. • Siderophores have promising potential for application in ore processing industries. - Abstract: Deep-sea ferromanganese deposits contain a wide range of economically important metals. Ferromanganese crusts and nodules represent an important future resource, since they not only contain base metals such as Mn, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn, but are also enriched in critical or rare high-technology elements such as Li, Mo, Nb, W, the rare earth elements and yttrium (REY). These metals could be extracted from nodules and crusts as a by-product to the base metal production. However, there are no proper separation techniques available that selectively extract certain metals out of the carrier phases. By sequential leaching, we demonstrated that, except for Li, which is present in an easily soluble form, all other high-tech metals enriched in ferromanganese nodules and crusts are largely associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxide phases and only to subordinate extents with Mn-oxide phases. Based on this fact, we conducted selective leaching experiments with the Fe-specific organic ligand desferrioxamine-B, a naturally occurring and ubiquitous siderophore. We showed by leaching of ferromanganese nodules and crusts with desferrioxamine-B that a significant and selective extraction of high-tech metals such as Li, Mo, Zr, Hf and Ta is possible, while other elements like Fe and the base metals Mn, Ni, Cu, Co and Zn are not extracted to large extents. The set of selectively extracted elements can be extended to Nb and W if Mn and carbonate phases are stripped from the bulk nodule or crust prior to the siderophore leach by e.g. a sequential leaching technique. This

  1. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of an ethanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum in rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepalakshmi, K; Mirunalini, S; Krishnaveni, M; Arulmozhi, V

    2013-11-01

    Considering the importance of diet in the prevention of cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species which has been implicated for several diseases, this present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of the ethanolic extract of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum on 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats. Ganoderma lucidum extract was tested for in vitro antioxidant and radical scavenging assays, such as (ABTS(+)) radical cation decolorization assay, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The in vivo antioxidant potentials were analyzed by SOD, CAT, and GPx in plasma, mammary, and liver tissues. In all the in vitro antioxidant and radical scavenging assays the extract exhibited good scavenging activity. In vivo enzymatic antioxidant levels, such as SOD, CAT, and GPx were decreased in DMBA-induced animals. Moreover, pretreatment with G. lucidum (500 mg · kg(-1) bw) to DMBA-induced animals significantly (P lucidum extract could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants and can be used as an effective chemopreventive agent against mammary cancer. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The remineralization potential of cocoa (Theobroma cacao bean extract to increase the enamel micro hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistianingsih Sulistianingsih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Remineralization is the process of returning mineral ions into a hydroxyapatite structure characterized by mineral deposition on the enamel surface. The presence of mineral deposition would affect the micro hardness of tooth enamel. The use of fluorine as remineralization agent with side effects such as fluorosis. Cocoa bean extract contains theobromin that can be used as an alternative remineralization ingredients. The objectives was to determine micro hardness email after remineralization using cocoa bean extract as natural material and to compare with fluorine use as synthetic material. Methods: Thirty-six maxillary first premolar tooth crown was cut and planted in the epoxy resin. Teeth were then immersed in demineralization solution at pH 4 for 6 hours. The sample were divided into 2 groups, 18 for the fluorine group and the remaining group of cocoa extract. Vickers microhardness test was used before treatment, after demineralized and after remineralization. Results: Enamel microhardness value before treatment in the fluorine group average value was 376.17 VHN and the cocoa extract group was 357.33 VHN. After demineralization in fluorine group was 268,13 VHN and cocoa extract group was 235,93 VHN. After remineralization in fluorine group was 321,08 VHN and cocoa extract group was 293,86 VHN. The results of the analysis showed that the level of micro hardness email after remineralization was not significantly different in two groups (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Cocoa extract is able to increase the microhardness of enamel so it can act as a substitution for fluorine remineralization.

  3. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  4. Biochemical and molecular evidences for the antitumor potential of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Shousha, Wafaa Gh; El-Mezayen, Hatem A; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Sayed, Alaa H; Ramadan, Aesha R

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest primary cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of 10% or less. This study was undertaken to elucidate the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms in favor of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, the aim of this work was extended to explore the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in deterioration of HCC in rats. In the current study, HCC group experienced significant downregulation of ING-3 gene expression and upregulation of Foxp-1 gene expression in liver. Treatment of HCC groups with Ginkgo biloba leaves extract resulted in upregulation of ING-3 and downregulation of Foxp-1 gene expression in liver. In addition, there was significant increase in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and glypican-3 (GPC-3) levels in HCC group versus the negative control group. In contrast, the groups with HCC subjected to either high or low dose of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract elicited significant reduction (PGinkgo biloba leaves extract elicited marked improvement in the histological feature of liver tissue in HCC groups. In conclusion, this research indicated that the carcinogenic potency of N-nitrosodiethylamine targeted multiple systems on the cellular and molecular levels. In addition, the results of the current study shed light on the promising anticancer activity of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced chemically in the experimental model through its apoptotic and antiproliferative properties.

  5. Marked antigiardial activity of Yucca baccata extracts: a potential natural alternative for treating protozoan infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quihui-Cota, Luis; León-Trujillo, Rocio; Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Esparza-Romero, Julián; del Refugio Robles, María; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Canett, Rafael; Sánchez-Escalante, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Human giardiosis is a public health problem in Mexico, where the national prevalence was estimated to be up to 68%. Misuse of antiprotozoal drugs may result in low effectiveness and undesirable side effects. Research on natural products is a good strategy for discovering more effective antiparasitic compounds. This study evaluated the antigiardial activity of extracts of Yucca baccata, which is native to northwestern Mexico. Forty-two gerbils (females) were weighed and orally inoculated with 5 × 10(6) Giardia trophozoites. Two gerbils were selected at random to confirm infection. Forty living gerbils were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (8 per group). Gerbils were randomly assigned to be treated with 24.4 mg/mL, 12.2 mg/mL, and 6.1 mg/mL of extracts, metronidazole (2 mg/mL) or PBS, which were intragastrically administered once per day for 3 days. Nine gerbils died during the study course. On day 10 postinfection, gerbils were euthanized and trophozoites were quantified. Yucca extracts reduced, albeit not significantly, the trophozoite counts in the duodenum segment. Only the high-extract concentration significantly reduced the trophozoite counts in the proximal segment and it was similar to that of metronidazole. Extracts of Y. baccata may represent an effective and natural therapeutic alternative for human giardiosis.

  6. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpenia crista leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Garima Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Caesalpenia crista (C. crista against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Paracetamol (2 g/kg body weight was used to induce hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Ethanolic extract of leaves of C. crista was administered at the dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally for 7 d. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct, and triglycerides content. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results: Administration of ethanolic extract at doses 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant reduction in elevated level of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin (total and direct and triglycerides when compared to positive control group. Conclusions: It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. crista leaves seems to justify the promising hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol induced liver damage in rats.

  7. Marked Antigiardial Activity of Yucca baccata Extracts: A Potential Natural Alternative for Treating Protozoan Infections

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    Luis Quihui-Cota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Giardiosis is a public health problem in Mexico, where the national prevalence was estimated to be up to 68%. Misuse of antiprotozoal drugs may result in low effectiveness and undesirable side effects. Research on natural products is a good strategy for discovering more effective antiparasitic compounds. This study evaluated the antigiardial activity of extracts of Yucca baccata, which is native to northwestern Mexico. Forty-two gerbils (females were weighed and orally inoculated with 5×106 Giardia trophozoites. Two gerbils were selected at random to confirm infection. Forty living gerbils were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (8 per group. Gerbils were randomly assigned to be treated with 24.4 mg/mL, 12.2 mg/mL, and 6.1 mg/mL of extracts, metronidazole (2 mg/mL or PBS, which were intragastrically administered once per day for 3 days. Nine gerbils died during the study course. On day 10 postinfection, gerbils were euthanized and trophozoites were quantified. Yucca extracts reduced, albeit not significantly, the trophozoite counts in the duodenum segment. Only the high-extract concentration significantly reduced the trophozoite counts in the proximal segment and it was similar to that of metronidazole. Extracts of Y. baccata may represent an effective and natural therapeutic alternative for human giardiosis.

  8. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2nanoparticles fromOlea europaealeaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Nazar, Mudassar; Naz, Sania; Hussain, Talib; Jabeen, Nyla; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Abbas, Fazal; Jan, Tariq

    This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO 2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO 2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm -1 , showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO 2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  9. Hepatoprotective potential of Phyllanthus muellarianus leaf extract: studies on hepatic, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers.

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    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Ahmad, Fatimah M; Daisi, Airat O; Yahaya, Aminat A; Ibitoye, Oluwayemisi B; Muritala, Hamdalat F; Sunmonu, Taofik O

    2017-12-01

    Leaves of Phyllanthus muellarianus (Kuntze) Exell. (Euphorbiacea) are widely used in the management of liver disorders in Nigeria. However, no there is no scientific validation to support this use. Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus muellarianus aqueous leaf extract was investigated in acetaminophen-induced liver injury mice. Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus muellarianus aqueous leaf extract was evaluated in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Swiss albino mice using biomarkers of hepatocellular indices, oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and lipid peroxidation. Mice received distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg b.w of Phyllanthus muellarianus aqueous leaf extract, respectively, for seven days. Treatment groups were challenged with 300 mg/kg b.w of acetaminophen on the sixth day. Oral administration of Phyllanthus muellarianus aqueous leaf extract significantly (p protein carbonyl, fragmented DNA, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and -8 were significantly lowered by Phyllanthus muellarianus aqueous leaf extract. Overall, results of this study show that Phyllanthus muellarianus halted acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity due to its capability to enhance antioxidant enzymes.

  10. Anastomotic stenosis of the descending colon caused by barium granuloma formation following barium peritonitis: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Tomizawa, Kenji; Hanaoka, Yutaka; Toda, Shigeo; Matoba, Shuichiro; Kuroyanagi, Hiroya; Oota, Yasunori

    2014-11-01

    Anastomotic stricture reportedly often recurs following barium peritonitis, regardless of whether the anastomotic diameter is initially sufficient. However, the causes of repetitive stricture have not been clarified. We report a case that suggests the pathophysiology of recurrent anastomotic strictures following barium peritonitis. The patient was a 39-year-old Japanese man with idiopathic perforation of the descending colon after undergoing an upper gastrointestinal barium contrast study. After emergency peritoneal lavage and diverting colostomy, created using the perforated region, the patient recovered uneventfully and 3 months later, the colostomy was closed and the perforated colon was resected. However, 7 months after colostomy closure, abdominal distention gradually developed, and colonoscopy revealed an anastomotic stricture. The patient was referred to our hospital where he underwent resection of the anastomotic stricture. The surgical specimen exhibited barium granulomas not only in the subserosa of the entire specimen, but also in the submucosa and lamina propria localized in the anastomotic site. These findings suggest that barium was embedded in the submucosa and lamina propria with manipulation of the stapled anastomosis and that the barium trapped in the anastomotic site caused persistent inflammation, resulting in an anastomotic stricture.

  11. The efficacy of steroids for postoperative persistent inflammatory reaction in a patient with barium peritonitis: A case report

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    Hirofumi Kojima

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Residual barium in the intraperitoneal cavity causes persistent inflammatory reaction in patients with barium peritonitis. The use of steroids is effective for postoperative persistent inflammation due to the residual barium.

  12. Study of Various Extracts of Ayapana triplinervis for their Potential in Controlling Three Insect Pests of Horticultural Crops

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    Lalljee, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical groups of Ayapana triplinervis, extracted successively with hexane, petroleum ether, methanol, chloroform: methanol (1:1, and chloroform: methanol (4:1 were studied for their effects on Plutella xylostella, Crocidolomia binotalis and Myzus persicae, three serious pests of horticultural crops in Mauritius. The most bioactive extracts were further fractionated into groups using Thin Layer Chromatography, and seven of those exhibiting strongest activity were tested on each of the three test insects. Results showed that the alkaloids and tannins exhibited greatest feeding deterrence in P. xylostella and C. binotalis, followed by phenols and flavonoids. In the case of M. persicae, A. triplinervis extracts disrupted growth and development of the nymphs, had significant pest control properties, and were good candidates for further study on their potential as botanical pesticides, in the context of an organic farming/ sustainable agriculture system, as an environmentallyfriendly alternative to synthetic insecticides.

  13. Potential Anti-cancer and Anti-bacterial Activities of Philippine Echinoderm Extracts

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    Rodyl J. Layson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In high-throughput search for bioactive compounds under resource-limited settings from Philippine echinoderms, the aqueous, methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts of seven Philippine echinoderms namely Holothuria nobilis (sea cucumber, Bohadscia marmorata (sea cucumber, Stichopus chloronatus (sea cucumber, Holothuria axiologa (sea cucumber, Linckia laevigata (starfish, Oreaster nodusus (starfish and Ophiocoma ochoenleinii (brittle star were screened for antitumor and antibacterial activity. Antitumor activity was determined using brine shrimp lethality assay while antibacterial assay was performed using turbidimetric method. Both assays utilized 96-well microtiter plates to facilitate speed and ease in screening. The chloroform extract of H. nobilis gave a positive result on antitumor activity while almost all sample extracts showed antibacterial activity against E. coli.

  14. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxic potential of extracts and triterpenes isolated from Maytenus imbricata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Vanessa G.; Duarte, Lucienir P.; Silva, Gracia D.F.; Silva, Fernando C.; Goes, Jefferson V.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.; Pimenta, Lucia P.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney A., E-mail: vanessa.greg@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    The phyto chemical study of hexane/ethyl ether (1:1) extract of the roots of M. imbricata, Celastraceae, resulted in the isolation and characterization of six known triterpenes: 11{alpha}-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, previously isolated from this species besides, 3{beta},11{alpha}-di-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene, 3,7-dioxofriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol. The chemical structures of these triterpenes were established by spectrometric data (IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) and through comparison with literature data. The hexane/ethyl ether (1:1), ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, and 11{alpha}-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol, showed antimicrobial properties on in vitro assays. All extracts and triterpenes, except 3{beta},11{alpha}-di-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene, presented toxicity demonstrated by the larvicidal effect test using Artemia salina. (author)

  15. Modified sequential extraction for biochar and petroleum coke: Metal release potential and its environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, Konstantin; Alam, Md Samrat; Hubmann, Magdalena; Ok, Yong Sik; Konhauser, Kurt O; Alessi, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    A modified Community Bureau of Reference (CBR) sequential extraction method was tested to assess the composition of untreated pyrogenic carbon (biochar) and oil sands petroleum coke. Wood biochar samples were found to contain lower concentrations of metals, but had higher fractions of easily mobilized alkaline earth and transition metals. Sewage sludge biochar was determined to be less recalcitrant and had higher total metal concentrations, with most of the metals found in the more resilient extraction fractions (oxidizable, residual). Petroleum coke was the most stable material, with a similar metal distribution pattern as the sewage sludge biochar. The applied sequential extraction method represents a suitable technique to recover metals from these materials, and is a valuable tool in understanding the metal retaining and leaching capability of various biochar types and carbonaceous petroleum coke samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxic potential of extracts and triterpenes isolated from Maytenus imbricata

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    Vanessa G. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane/ethyl ether (1:1 extract of the roots of M. imbricata, Celastraceae, resulted in the isolation and characterization of six known triterpenes: 11α-hydroxylup-20(29-en-3-one, previously isolated from this species besides, 3β,11α-di-hydroxylup-20(29-ene, 3,7-dioxofriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol. The chemical structures of these triterpenes were established by spectrometric data (IR, ¹H and 13C NMR and through comparison with literature data. The hexane/ethyl ether (1:1, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, and 11α-hydroxylup-20(29-en-3-one, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol, showed antimicrobial properties on in vitro assays. All extracts and triterpenes, except 3β,11α-di-hydroxylup-20(29-ene, presented toxicity demonstrated by the larvicidal effect test using Artemia salina.

  17. Hypoglycemic Potential of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaf and In Vivo GC-MS Metabolomics

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    Washim Khan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (family; Moringaceae, commonly known as drumstick, have been used for centuries as a part of the Ayurvedic system for several diseases without having any scientific data. Demineralized water was used to prepare aqueous extract by maceration for 24 h and complete metabolic profiling was performed using GC-MS and HPLC. Hypoglycemic properties of extract have been tested on carbohydrate digesting enzyme activity, yeast cell uptake, muscle glucose uptake, and intestinal glucose absorption. Type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD for 8 weeks and a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally was used for the induction of type 1 diabetes. Aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaf was given orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg to STZ-induced rats and 200 mg/kg in HFD mice for 3 weeks after diabetes induction. Aqueous extract remarkably inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase and it displayed improved antioxidant capacity, glucose tolerance and rate of glucose uptake in yeast cell. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, it produces a maximum fall up to 47.86% in acute effect whereas, in chronic effect, it was 44.5% as compared to control. The fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, liver marker enzyme level were significantly (p < 0.05 restored in both HFD and STZ experimental model. Multivariate principal component analysis on polar and lipophilic metabolites revealed clear distinctions in the metabolite pattern in extract and in blood after its oral administration. Thus, the aqueous extract can be used as phytopharmaceuticals for the management of diabetes by using as adjuvants or alone.

  18. Evaluation of healing wound and genotoxicity potentials from extracts hydroalcoholic of Plantago major and Siparuna guianensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, Ralph Gruppi; dos Santos, Hélio Batista; dos Santos, Fábio Vieira; da Silva Oliveira, Renato José; de Camargos, Luis Fernando; Pereira, Mariana Nunes; Longatti, Tamara Ribeiro; Souto, Cássio Martins; Franco, Carlaile Soares; de Oliveira Aquino Schüffner, Raissa; Ribeiro, Rosy Iara Maciel Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Despite the large use of the Plantago major and Siparuna guianensis in traditional medicine, there are no studies demonstrating the effectiveness from extracts of these plants in the healing process by the present methodology. This study reported the effects and toxicity of the P. major and S. guianensis extracts in the wound healing compared with a commercial product used in Brazil by macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Following injury in cervical dorsal area of the mice, the extract from P. major and S. guianensis and ointment was applied after an injury in cervical dorsal area of the mice. Wound healing rates were calculated at 4, 9, 15 and 21 d after the wounding, and tissues were obtained on the ninth day for histological analysis. Moreover, mutagenic assay of extracts was performed. Mutagenicity studies carried out with plant extracts showed not mutagenic with or without metabolic activations. Reduction of the wound area occurred earlier in mice treated with P. major and control treatment. On the 15th day, the complete wound closure occurred in P. major-treated wounds. Throughout ointment and S. guianensis treatment it was not observed the wound closured. Microscopic analyses of the wound, on the ninth day, showed the more efficient formation of the neoepithelium and skin appendages in animals treated with S. guianensis and P. major, while ointment treatment presented no re-epithelialization and absent skin appendages in wound. Thus, P. major extract showed good effects on wound healing processes rendering it a promising candidate for the treatment of wounds what also justified its traditional usage in wound treatment.

  19. THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OFHOLARRHENA FLORIBUNDA(G. DON) DUR. AND SCHINZ (APOCYNACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekou, Yao Patrick; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Yerbanga, Rakiswende Serge; Achoribo, Elom; Da, Ollo; Atakpama, Wouyo; Batawila, Komlan

    2017-01-01

    Holarrhena floribunda is a plant of wide usage in the Togolese folk medicine. A previous ethnobotanical survey on the latex plants of the Maritime region of the country revealed that this plant was included in several recipes curing malaria and microbial infections. Therefore, this study aimed to seek for the effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of the plant in the treatment of these diseases. The antimicrobial test was performed using the agar well-diffusion and the NCCLS broth microdilution methods, while the in vivo antimalarial activity was evaluated following the four-day suppressive test of Peters. The acute toxic effects of the extract were monitored after a single oral dose (5,000 mg/kg body weight) administration in NMRI mice. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of leaves of H. floribunda was active on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MICs ranging from 0.62 to 1.25 mg/mL. The extract also showed significant parasitaemia suppression in a dose-dependent manner. In the acute toxicity assay, the oral administration of the extract to the mice did not affect the relative weight of vital organs, and there were no signs of toxicity or death during the study period. The LD50 of the tested extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg, indicating its safety. This study demonstrates the antibacterial and antimalarial activities of leaves of H. floribunda and then, supports its medicinal use in the treatment of microbial infections.

  20. Supramolecular curcumin-barium prodrugs for formulating with ceramic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalasanan, Kaladhar; Anupriya; Deepa, M K; Sharma, Chandra P

    2014-10-01

    A simple and stable curcumin-ceramic combined formulation was developed with an aim to improve curcumin stability and release profile in the presence of reactive ceramic particles for potential dental and orthopedic applications. For that, curcumin was complexed with barium (Ba(2+)) to prepare curcumin-barium (BaCur) complex. Upon removal of the unbound curcumin and Ba(2+) by dialysis, a water-soluble BaCur complex was obtained. The complex was showing [M+1](+) peak at 10,000-20,000 with multiple fractionation peaks of MALDI-TOF-MS studies, showed that the complex was a supramolecular multimer. The (1)H NMR and FTIR studies revealed that, divalent Ba(2+) interacted predominantly through di-phenolic groups of curcumin to form an end-to-end complex resulted in supramolecular multimer. The overall crystallinity of the BaCur was lower than curcumin as per XRD analysis. The complexation of Ba(2+) to curcumin did not degrade curcumin as per HPLC studies. The fluorescence spectrum was blue shifted upon Ba(2+) complexation with curcumin. Monodisperse nanoparticles with size less than 200dnm was formed, out of the supramolecular complex upon dialysis, as per DLS, and upon loading into pluronic micelles the size was remaining in similar order of magnitude as per DLS and AFM studies. Stability of the curcumin was improved greater than 50% after complexation with Ba(2+) as per UV/Vis spectroscopy. Loading of the supramloecular nanoparticles into pluronic micelles had further improved the stability of curcumin to approx. 70% in water. These BaCur supramolecule nanoparticles can be considered as a new class of prodrugs with improved solubility and stability. Subsequently, ceramic nanoparticles with varying chemical composition were prepared for changing the material surface reactivity in terms of the increase in, degradability, surface pH and protein adsorption. Further, these ceramic particles were combined with curcumin prodrug formulations and optimized the curcumin release

  1. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory activity and melanogenesis inhibition of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. extracts

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    Mahadeva Nayak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. belongs to Moraceae family and is endemic to Western Ghats and Kerala in India. This species is found to be effective in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer diarrhea and pimples. However extensive biological evaluation on each component of this specific species rarely appears in the literature which restricts its applicability as medicinal herb. The leaf bark and wood of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. were separately extracted with hot ethanol. The wood extract was further fractionated to isolate major active molecule whose structure was determined from its NMR spectra and LCMS analysis. All the extracts of A. hirsutus Lam. were then studied in vitro to evaluate their potential on tyrosinase inhibition free radical scavenging activity by 11-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl DPPH method and oxygen radical absorbance capacity ORAC. Furthermore their effects on melanogenesis inhibition were also evaluated by using murine melanoma cells. Activity guided fractionation of wood extract yielded a pure molecule that was characterized as oxyresveratrol. It was observed that antioxidant activity was higher in wood extract compared to the leaf and bark extracts. Isolated pure oxyresveratrol exhibited a significant antioxidant potential with ORAC value of 366532570 mol Trolox equivalentg and having an IC50 of 4.3 gmL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This molecule was found to be effective for the tyrosinase inhibition with an IC50 of 0.1 gmL and melanogenesis inhibition in cultured melanoma cells by 44.62 at 0.2 gmL. Oxyresveratrol also exhibited significant inhibition of lipopolysaccharide LPS induced tumour necrosis factor alpha TNF-amp945 secretion from J774A1 murine macrophage cell lines. This study provides substantial evidence for the presence of oxyresveratrol in the wood of A. hirsutus Lam. with promising anti-inflammatory antioxidant and skin lightening property.

  2. Anticancer Potential ofCitrusJuices and Their Extracts: A Systematic Review of Both Preclinical and Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirmi, Santa; Maugeri, Alessandro; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schumacher, Udo; Navarra, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, a huge body of evidence has been accumulated suggesting that Citrus fruits and their juices might have a role in preventing many diseases including cancer. Objective: To summarize the numerous evidences on the potential of Citrus juices and their extracts as anticancer agents. Data sources: A systematic review of articles written in English using MEDLINE (1946-present), EMBASE (1974-present) and Web of Sciences (1970-present) was performed independently by two reviewers. Search terms included Citrus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, Citrus fruits, Citrus fruits extract, cancer, neoplasm, neoplasia, tumor, metastasis, carcinogenesis, proliferation. The last search was performed on March 16th, 2017. Study selection: Study selection and systematic review were carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Prior to the beginning of the review, Authors defined a checklist for inclusion criteria, thus including articles which meet the following: (i) published on peer-reviewed scientific journals; (ii) Citrus juice used alone; (iii) extracts derived from Citrus juice; (iii) for preclinical studies, an exposure time to Citrus juices and their extracts more than 24 h. Reviews, meta-analyses, conference abstracts and book chapters were excluded. Data extraction: Three reviewers independently performed the extraction of articles. Data synthesis: 22 papers met our inclusion criteria and were eligible for inclusion in the final review. According to the kind of study, the selected ones were further divided in preclinical ( n = 20) and observational ( n = 2) studies. Conclusion: The studies discussed in this review strongly corroborate the role of Citrus juices and their derivatives as potential resource against cancer.

  3. Anticancer Potential of Citrus Juices and Their Extracts: A Systematic Review of Both Preclinical and Clinical Studies

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    Santa Cirmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the last decades, a huge body of evidence has been accumulated suggesting that Citrus fruits and their juices might have a role in preventing many diseases including cancer.Objective: To summarize the numerous evidences on the potential of Citrus juices and their extracts as anticancer agents.Data sources: A systematic review of articles written in English using MEDLINE (1946-present, EMBASE (1974-present and Web of Sciences (1970-present was performed independently by two reviewers. Search terms included Citrus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, Citrus fruits, Citrus fruits extract, cancer, neoplasm, neoplasia, tumor, metastasis, carcinogenesis, proliferation. The last search was performed on March 16th, 2017.Study selection: Study selection and systematic review were carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA statement. Prior to the beginning of the review, Authors defined a checklist for inclusion criteria, thus including articles which meet the following: (i published on peer-reviewed scientific journals; (ii Citrus juice used alone; (iii extracts derived from Citrus juice; (iii for preclinical studies, an exposure time to Citrus juices and their extracts more than 24 h. Reviews, meta-analyses, conference abstracts and book chapters were excluded.Data extraction: Three reviewers independently performed the extraction of articles.Data synthesis: 22 papers met our inclusion criteria and were eligible for inclusion in the final review. According to the kind of study, the selected ones were further divided in preclinical (n = 20 and observational (n = 2 studies.Conclusion: The studies discussed in this review strongly corroborate the role of Citrus juices and their derivatives as potential resource against cancer.

  4. In silico Analysis and Experimental Validation of Lignan Extracts from Kadsura longipedunculata for Potential 5-HT1AR Agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxin Zheng

    Full Text Available Kadsura longipedunculata (KL has been widely used for the treatment of insomnia in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of the sedative and hypnotic effects of KL.The content of KL was evaluated by HPLC-TOF-MS, and a potential target was found and used to construct its 3D structure to screen for potential ligands among the compounds in KL by using bioinformatics analysis, including similarity ensemble approach (SEA docking, homology modeling, molecular docking and ligand-based pharmacophore. The PCPA-induced insomnia rat model was then applied to confirm the potential targets related to the sedative effects of KL by performing the forced swimming test (FST, the tail suspension test (TST and the measurement of target-related proteins using western blotting and immunofluorescence.Bioinformatics analysis showed that most of lignan compounds in KL were optimal ligands for the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR, and they were found to be potential targets related to sedative effects; the main lignan content of KL extracts was characterized by HPLC-TOF-MS, with 7 proposed lignans detected. Administration of KL could significantly reduce FST and TST immobility time in the PCPA-induced 5HT-depleted insomnia rat model. The expressions of proteins related to the 5-HT1AR pathway were regulated by extracts of KL in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that extracts of KL had 5-HT1AR agonist-like effects.In silico analysis and experimental validation together demonstrated that lignan extracts from KL can target 5-HT1AR in insomniac rats, which could shed light on its use as a potential 5-HT1AR agonist drug.

  5. Potential anti-inflammatory effect of lemon and hot pepper extracts on adjuvant-induced arthritis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hend M. Tag

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis and related disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA, are common diseases affecting millions of people. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of lemon and hot pepper extracts on adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA in mice. Arthritis was induced by injection of complete Freund adjuvant (CFA subcutaneously at the planter surface of hind paw, the lemon and hot pepper extracts were administered subcutaneously at the same site twice weekly (100 mg/kg, for 2 weeks starting 2 days after CFA injection. Arthritic scores, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C reactive protein (CRP, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and paw histopathology were assessed at the end of the experiment. The extract treatments reduced the severity of arthritic scores in the following order: lemon fruit peel (LFP > lemon leaf (LL > hot pepper leaf (HL during the experimental period as compared with positive control (RA. LFP, LL and HL extracts significantly suppressed ESR, ANA, CRP and TNF-α as compared with RA group. HL, LFP and LL reduced the IL-1β by 63.02%, 47.22%, 44.92%, while IL-6 cytokine production significantly decreased by 29.74%, 28.96%, and 23.93% for IL 6 as compared with RA. Hot pepper fruit (HF extract treated-group showed a significant decrease for ESR on the other hand there was non-significant difference for TNF-α, IL-6, IL1β, CRP and ANA as compared with RA. Histopathological examination indicated that LFP, LL and HL extracts alleviated infiltration of inflammatory cells and synovial hyperplasia as well as protected joint destruction. The data showed that all extracts except HF have significant anti-arthritic and anti-inflammation effects and suggest that these effects may be mediated via the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  6. The composition of potentially bioactive triterpenoid glycosides in red raspberry is influenced by tissue, extraction procedure and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J; Allwood, J William; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Brown, Emma M; Latimer, Cheryl; Dobson, Gary; Stewart, Derek; Ternan, Nigel G; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R

    2017-10-18

    The beneficial effects of consumption of berry fruits on a range of chronic diseases has been attributed (at least in part) to the presence of unique phytochemicals. Recently, we identified novel ursolic acid-based triterpenoid glycosides (TTPNs) in raspberry fruit and demonstrated their survival in human ileal fluids after feeding which confirmed their colon-availability in vivo. In this paper, in vitro digestion studies demonstrated that certain TTPNs were stable under gastrointestinal conditions and confirmed that these components may have been responsible for bioactivity noted in previous studies. Sequential extractions of raspberry puree, isolated seeds and unseeded puree showed that certain TTPN components (e.g. peak T1 m/z 679, and T2 m/z 1358) had different extractabilities in water/solvent mixes and were differentially associated with the seeds. Purified seed TTPNs (mainly T1 and T2) were shown to be anti-genotoxic in HT29 and CCD841 cell based in vitro colonocyte models. Further work confirmed that the seeds contained a wider range of TTPN-like components which were also differentially extractable in water/solvent mixes. This differential extractability could influence the TTPN composition and potential bioactivity of the extracts. There was considerable variation in total content of TTPNs (∼3-fold) and TTPN composition across 13 Rubus genotypes. Thus, TTPNs are likely to be present in raspberry juices and common extracts used for bioactivity studies and substantial variation exists in both content and composition due to genetics, tissue source or extraction conditions, which may all affect observed bioactivity.

  7. Antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects of methanolic extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects of methanolic extract of seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel were studied on smooth muscle preparations in vitro. The influence of the extract on rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum was investigated using acetylcholine and barium chloride as agonists. The extract exhibited ...

  8. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choochote, Wej; Tuetun, Benjawan; Kanjanapothi, Duangta; Rattanachanpichai, Eumporn; Chaithong, Udom; Chaiwong, Prasong; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2004-12-01

    Crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens, was investigated for anti-mosquito potential, including larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue haemorrhagic fever. The ethanol-extracted A. graveolens possessed larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with LD50 and LD95 values of 81.0 and 176.8 mg/L, respectively. The abnormal movement observed in treated larvae indicated that the toxic effect of A. graveolens extract was probably on the nervous system. In testing for adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited a slightly adulticidal potency with LD50 and LD95 values of 6.6 and 66.4 mg/cm2, respectively. It showed repellency against Ae. aegypti adult females with ED50 and ED95 values of 2.03 and 28.12 mg/cm2, respectively. It also provided biting protection time of 3 h when applied at a concentration of 25 g%. Topical application of the ethanol-extracted A. graveolens did not induce dermal irritation. No adverse effects on the skin or other parts of the body of human volunteers were observed during 3 mo of the study period or in the following 3 mo, after which time observations ceased. A. graveolens, therefore, can be considered as a probable source of some biologically active compounds used in the development of mosquito control agents, particularly repellent products.

  9. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anticlastogenic potential and antioxidant effects of an aqueous extract of pulp from the pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Khouri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of an aqueous extract of Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae Camb pulp, popularly known in Brazil as pequi, against clastogenicity induced by cyclophosphamide and bleomycin was evaluated using an in vivo mouse bone marrow cell micronuclei test, an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO-K1 chromosome aberration test and an in vitro antioxidant assay based on the oxidative damage to 2-deoxy-D-ribose (2-DR induced by hydroxyl radicals (•OH generated by the reaction between ascorbic acid and (Fe III-EDTA. In mouse bone marrow cells the extract showed a protective effect against micronuclei induced by cyclophosphamide and bleomycin but did not interfere with polychromatic bone marrow erythrocyte proliferation, except when the mice had been treated with the highest dose of cyclophosphamide. When CHO-K1 cells were pretreated by adding 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 mL of extract per mL of cell culture medium 24 or 48 h before bleomycin or cyclophosphamide there was a protective effect against chromosome breaks and a significant decrease in the mitotic index (a measure of cytotoxicity of the CHO-K1 cells. The extract also had a protective effect against oxidative hydroxyl radical damage to 2-DR. This study suggests that C. brasiliense pulp aqueous extract has anticlastogenic potential, possibly due to its antioxidative properties.

  11. Antibacterial Activity and Aphrodisiac Potential of the Ethanolic Extracts of Fadogia agretis (Sch winffax Hiern Stem in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salihu Abdullahi Kiyawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity and aphrodisiac potential of the ethanolic extracts of Fadogia agrestis (rubiaceae stem in male albino rats. The antibacterial activity of the extracts were tested on four hospital isolates of staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas specie and Proteus spp at a concentration of 500µg using disc diffusion method. For aphrodisiac test, healthy, white male albino rats (Rattis novergicus weighing 270 300g aged 5.0 5.5 months and female albino rats weighing 150 180g aged 3.5 5.4 months were used for the study. The male albino rats were orally dosed with 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight respectively of the extract at 24hours intervals. Their sexual behaviour was evaluated for 15 minutes each. The plants extract was found to inhibit staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas specie. Aphrodisiac effect of the extract resulted in significant increase in mount behaviour. The antibacterial effects suggest their possible use for the treatment of infection that showed in vitro susceptibility. Also, the increase in the mounting behavior may be responsible for the aphrodisiac effect.

  12. Assessment of antimicrobial potential of 10% ginger extract against Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriraju, Anjan; Yunus, G Y

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis are the three oral microorganisms most commonly implicated in the causation of oral infections. All these oral microorganisms have shown resistant to routinely used antimicrobials. There is a need for an antimicrobial agent which is effective, safe, and economical. Zingiber officinale, commonly known as ginger is one such plant product which has been used from ancient time. It has been shown to possess promising inhibitory effect on many of the oral microorganisms. On review of dental literature, there was scarcity of studies which had tried to assess antimicrobial potential of ginger extract against S. mutans, E. faecalis, and C. albicans; hence, the present study was designed. To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of 10% ginger extract against S. mutans, E. faecalis, and C. albicans. Laboratory setting and experimental design. In the first part of the study, 10% ethanolic ginger extract was prepared in the laboratory of Pharmacy College. It was then subjected to microbiological assay to determine its zone of inhibition using Agar disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using serial broth dilution method against S. mutans, C. albicans, and E. faecalis. 10% ethanolic ginger extract showed: (a) Maximum zone of inhibition of 8 mm, 14 mm, and 11 mm against S. mutans, C. albicans, and E. faecalis respectively. (b) MIC of 1.25%, 2.5%, and 2.5% against S. mutans, C. albicans, and E. faecalis respectively. 10% ethanolic ginger extract was found to possess antimicrobial potential against all the three pathogens used in the study.

  13. The skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin: in vitro evaluation using reconstructed pigmented human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J; Chen, M; Liu, J; Huang, X; Chen, J; Zhou, L; Ma, J; Sextius, P; Pena, A-M; Cai, Z; Jeulin, S

    2016-10-01

    The roots of the herb Paeonia lactiflora ('White Peony') are used in association with other herbs in traditional clinical cosmetic practice in China as oral treatment for skin pigmentary disorders, such as brown or dark pigmentary spots. However, the skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and its main ingredient paeoniflorin has been scarcely investigated by topical application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin as skin whitening agent in cosmetic application. Paeonia lactiflora root extract (containing 53.25% of paeoniflorin) and paeoniflorin (97% purity) were applied topically on reconstructed pigmented human epidermis model, a three-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent, showing morphological and functional characteristics similar to those of in vivo human skin. Two specific methods were used for quantifying melanin inside the reconstructed pigmented epidermis: Fontana-Masson staining (2D quantification) and multiphoton microscopy (3D quantification). Compared to vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO), a significant decrease in 2D and 3D melanin content was observed after topical application on reconstructed pigmented epidermis of Paeonia lactiflora extract at 300 μg mL(-1) (-28% and -27%, respectively) and paeoniflorin at 120 μg mL(-1) /250 μM (-30% and -23%, respectively), which is in the same order of magnitude as the positive reference 4-n-butylresorcinol at 83 μg mL(-1) /500 μM (-26% and -40%, respectively). These results demonstrate, for the first time, the depigmenting potential of paeoniflorin and thus the potential interest of using Paeonia lactiflora root extracts containing paeoniflorin in cosmetic or dermatological applications for reducing the severity of some hyperpigmented skin disorders. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. The Acetone Extract of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) Possesses Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanih, Nicoline Fri; Ndip, Roland Ndip

    2013-01-01

    Interesting antimicrobial data from the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea, which support its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, have been delineated. The current study was aimed to further study some pharmacological and toxicological properties of the plant to scientifically justify its use. Anticancer activity of water and acetone extracts of S. birrea was evaluated on three different cell lines, HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 using the cell titre blue viability assay in 96-well plates. Apoptosis was evaluated using the acridine orange and propidium iodide staining method, while morphological structure of treated cells was examined using SEM. The acetone extract exhibited remarkable antiproliferative activities on MCF-7 cell lines at dose- and time-dependent manners (24 h and 48 h of incubation). The extract also exerted apoptotic programmed cell death in MCF-7 cells with significant effect on the DNA. Morphological examination also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping, condensation, and culminating to budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound fragmentation, as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. The acetone extract of S. birrea possesses antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against MCF-7-treated cells and could be further exploited as a potential lead in anticancer therapy. PMID:23576913

  15. Rapid, potentially automatable, method extract biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to detect and identify BW agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.; Burkhalter, R.S.; Smith, C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Whitaker, K.W. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The program proposes to concentrate on the rapid recovery of signature biomarkers based on automated high-pressure, high-temperature solvent extraction (ASE) and/or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to produce lipids, nucleic acids and proteins sequentially concentrated and purified in minutes with yields especially from microeukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and spores. Lipids are extracted in higher proportions greater than classical one-phase, room temperature solvent extraction without major changes in lipid composition. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with or without derivatization, electrospray ionization (ESI) and highly specific detection by mass spectrometry (MS) particularly with (MS){sup n} provides the detection, identification and because the signature lipid biomarkers are both phenotypic as well as genotypic biomarkers, insights into potential infectivity of BW agents. Feasibility has been demonstrated with detection, identification, and determination of infectious potential of Cryptosporidium parvum at the sensitivity of a single oocyst (which is unculturable in vitro) and accurate identification and prediction, pathogenicity, and drug-resistance of Mycobacteria spp.

  16. Antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of Euphorbia hirta leaves extract studied in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sorimuthu P; Bhuvaneshwari, Subramanian; Prasath, Gopalan S

    2011-09-01

    Euphorbia hirta, commonly known as asthma weed, is a popular folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments. Recent studies have indicated that plant has potent antioxidant properties. As part of an ongoing programme to validate the use of some reputed herbs in Indian traditional medicines, the present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of E. hirta leaves in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats. Oral administration of E. hirta leaves extract (300 mg/kg b.w./rat/day) for a period of 30 days indicated the antidiabetic nature of the leaves extract. Determination of the lipid peroxides, hydroperoxides, and both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants evidenced the antioxidant potential of the leaves extract. Assay of enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) revealed the non-toxic nature of E. hirta leaves. The hypoglycemic activity of the leaves extract was comparable with gliclazide, a standard reference drug.

  17. In vitro antiinflammatory and antioxidant potential of root extracts from Ranunculaceae species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, J.; Tauchen, J.; Landa, Přemysl; Kutil, Zsófia; Maršík, Petr; Kloucek, P.; Havlík, J.; Kokoška, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 109, MAR (2017), s. 128-137 ISSN 0254-6299 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-07193S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Buttercup family * Cyclooxygenase, fatty acids * Lipoxygenase, medicinal plants * Plant extracts Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2016

  18. Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Okwudili Onoja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aframomum melegueta Schum (Zingiberaceae is a perennial herb widely cultivated for its valuable seeds in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of methanolic seed extract of A. melegueta. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay and in vivo serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay method. The extract (25–400 μg/mL concentration produced concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay. The extract (400 mg/kg showed a significant (P<0.05 increase in serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the control group. The extract (400 mg/kg showed a significant (P<0.05 decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the seed of A. melegueta has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement.

  19. The Effect of Convolvulus arvensis Dried Extract as a Potential Antioxidant in Food Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aini Mohd Azman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antioxidant activity of the Convolvulus arvensis Linn (CA ethanol extract has been evaluated by different ways. The antioxidant activity of the extract assessed by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP was 1.62 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, 1.71 mmol TE/g DW and 2.11 mmol TE/g DW, respectively. CA ethanol extract exhibited scavenging activity against the methoxy radical initiated by the Fenton reaction and measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR. The antioxidant effects of lyophilised CA measured in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w CA stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP (80% O2 and 20% CO2 was determined. A preliminary study of gelatine based film containing CA showed a strong antioxidant effect in preventing the degradation of lipid in muscle food. Thus, the present results indicate that CA extract can be used as a natural food antioxidant.

  20. in vitro immune-modulatory potential of crude extract of leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makgatho, Ephraim

    . Nat Rev Immunol. 12: 180-190. 3. Ehrman, T. (1994). Standard method for the determination of extractives in biomass. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 43: 1-7. 4. Kokwano, J.O. (1976). Medicinal plants of East Africa. Nairobi: East ...

  1. Preliminary Study of the Potential Extracts from Selected Plants to Improve Surface Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Ting Vong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Environment hygiene is important for preventing infection and promoting a healthier environment in which to live or work. The goal of this study was to examine the antimicrobial effects of Citrus aurantifolia (key lime juice and aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum iners (cinnamon bark and Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime leaves on the kinetic growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Antimicrobial activity was quantitatively evaluated using spectrophotometry and viable cell counts versus bacterial growth time. The fomite surface samples that were used in the second experiment were chosen randomly from the laboratories. They were assessed both before and after intervention using a mixture of commercial disinfectant detergent and lime juice. In the kinetic growth study, the lime juice effectively eliminated P. aeruginosa and MRSA. The cinnamon bark extract was more effective at inhibiting P. aeruginosa than MRSA. The kaffir lime leaf extract demonstrated bacteriostatic activity for the first 60 min, which then weakened after 90 min for both bacteria. The lime juice extract and commercial disinfectant mixture effectively disinfected the fomites. Further studies of the use of key lime juice as a disinfectant in the hospital environment should be conducted, as C. aurantifolia exhibits antibacterial activities against endemic microbes.

  2. Assessment of Nigella sativa extract as a potential antibiotic alternative feed supplement for weaned swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    New technologies are needed to help livestock producers maintain health and wellbeing of their animals while minimizing risks of disseminating antimicrobial resistant bacteria to humans or animals. Nigella sativa (NS) is a plant containing bioactive constituents, such as thymoquinone. Extracts of ...

  3. Polysaccharide of caper (Capparis spinosa L.) Leaf: Extraction optimization, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarei, Farzad; Jooyandeh, Hossein; Noshad, Mohammad; Hojjati, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Three-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology (BBD-RSM) based on the single-factor experiments was used to optimize the extracting parameters of crude polysaccharides (CPSs) from the Capparis spinosa leaves (CSL) including extraction time (ETi, 60-120min), extraction temperature (ETe, 60-80°C), and the water/solid ratio (W/S, 6-16). The optimal process conditions in order to the highest yield (6.73%) of CSL-CPSs were 119.8min ETi, 72.84°C ETe, and 15.97:1W/S.Structure of polysaccharide extracted at the optimal operating point were identified by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). CSL-CPSs (50-300μg/L) revealed significantly scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)and OH free-radicals in vitro. A much more antimicrobial activity using this polysaccharide against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriaeandSalmonella typhi) was found than Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus panis and Staphylococcus aureus). CSL-CPSs can thus be used as anexcellent antioxidant and antimicrobial ingredient in food and medicinal preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial potential and phyto chemical analysis of different solvent extracted samples of viola pilosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, J.; Panni, M. K.; Shafi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of susceptibility of medicinal plants for bacterial pathogens is significant for suitable choice of treatment. Different solvent extracted samples of Viola pilosa shoots were investigated for their antibacterial and phytochemical activities using 0.5, 1 and 2 mg disc-1 concentrations. The antibacterial bioassay was assayed by disc diffusion method against six microbes. The studies revealed that ethyl acetate extracted fractions resulted in maximum growth inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus at 2000 mu g disc-1 concentration. Similarly, Xanthomonas campestris and Klebsiella pneumonia were found more susceptible to n-butanol extract. Maximum reduction in the activity of B. subtilis and E. coli was recorded by n-hexane fractions at two mg per disc. The most susceptible microbe was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results further revealed that all the tested microbes were found completely resistant to water extracted fractions at all the tested concentrations measuring 0% ZI. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of various bioactive compounds including flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, fats, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates and tannins. (author)

  5. Biological potential of extracts of the wild edible Basidiomycete mushroom Grifola frondosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaus, A.; Kozarski, M.; Vunduk, N.; Todorovic, N.; Jakovlejevic, D.; Zizak, Z.; Pavlovic, V.; Levic, S.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides (FP) and hot alkali extract (FNa) obtained from fruiting bodies of the wild basidiomycete Grifola frondosa were examined for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. The structural properties of FP and FNa samples were investigated by FT-IR and high

  6. Anti-Sickling Potential of Aloe Vea Extract Iii: Gas Chromatography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neutral metabolite obtained from ethanol extract of Aloe vera was characterized using the Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. The results showed that the oil contained five different compounds, which included hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester; phytol; 2-methyloctadeca-3,13-diene-1-ol; cotadeca-9,12,15-trienoic ...

  7. Anti sickling potential of Aloe vera extract IV: Effects of acidic, basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of acidic, basic and neutral metabolites from A. vera extract on the sickling and gelling time of human HbSS erythrocytes were investigated. The study showed that the various metabolites inhibited sickling in vitro and increased gelling time of HbSS blood samples. Moreover, a significant increase in the number of ...

  8. Potential behavioral and pro-oxidant effects of Petiveria alliacea L. extract in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Thaís Montenegro; de Melo, Ademar Soares; Dias, Rui Guilherme Cardoso; Varela, Everton Luís Pompeu; de Oliveira, Fábio Rodrigues; Vieira, José Luís Fernandes; de Andrade, Marcieni Ataíde; Baetas, Ana Cristina; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2012-09-28

    Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial shrub indigenous to the Amazon Rainforest and tropical areas of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa. In folk medicine, Petiveria alliacea has a broad range of therapeutic properties; however, it is also associated with toxic effects. The present study evaluated the putative effects of Petiveria alliacea on the central nervous system, including locomotor activity, anxiety, depression-like behavior, and memory, and oxidative stress. Two-month-old male and female Wistar rats (n=7-10 rats/group) were administered with 900 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extracts of Petiveria alliacea L. The behavioral assays included open-field, forced swimming, and elevated T-maze tests. The oxidative stress levels were measured in rat blood samples after behavioral assays and methemoglobin levels were measured in vitro. Consistent with previous reports, Petiveria alliacea increased locomotor activity. It also exerted previously unreported anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in behavioral tests. In the oxidative stress assays, the Petiveria alliacea extract decreased Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity levels and increased methemoglobin levels, which was related to the toxic effects. The Petiveria alliacea extract exerted motor stimulatory and anxiolytic effects in the OF test, antidepressant effects in the FS test, and elicited memory improvement in ETM. Furthermore, the Petiveria alliacea extract also exerted pro-oxidant effects in vitro and in vivo, inhibiting the antioxidant status and increasing MetHb levels in human plasma, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of therapeutic barium enema for diverticular hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Komiya, Yasuhiko; Inoh, Yumi; Kawasima, Keigo; Naitoh, Mai; Fujita, Yuji; Eduka, Akiko; Kanazawa, Noriyoshi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Tani, Rie; Kawana, Kennichi; Ohtani, Setsuya; Nagase, Hajime

    2015-05-14

    To evaluate the effectiveness of barium impaction therapy for patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. We reviewed the clinical charts of patients in whom therapeutic barium enema was performed for the control of diverticular bleeding between August 2010 and March 2012 at Yokohama Rosai Hospital. Twenty patients were included in the review, consisting of 14 men and 6 women. The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The duration of the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 19 mo (median: 9.8 mo). Among the 20 patients were 11 patients who required the procedure for re-bleeding during hospitalization, 6 patients who required it for re-bleeding that developed after the patient left the hospital, and 3 patients who required the procedure for the prevention of re-bleeding. Barium (concentration: 150 w%/v%) was administered per the rectum, and the leading edge of the contrast medium was followed up to the cecum by fluoroscopy. After confirmation that the ascending colon and cecum were filled with barium, the enema tube was withdrawn, and the patient's position was changed every 20 min for 3 h. Twelve patients remained free of re-bleeding during the follow-up period (range: 1-19 mo) after the therapeutic barium enema, including 9 men and 3 women with a median age of 72.0 years. Re-bleeding occurred in 8 patients including 5 men and 3 women with a median age of 68.5 years: 4 developed early re-bleeding, defined as re-bleeding that occurs within one week after the procedure, and the remaining 4 developed late re-bleeding. The DFI (disease-free interval) decreased 0.4 for 12 mo. Only one patient developed a complication from therapeutic barium enema (colonic perforation). Therapeutic barium enema is effective for the control of diverticular hemorrhage in cases where the active bleeding site cannot be identified by colonoscopy.

  10. Pyro- and electromagnetic effects in ferrite/barium titanate composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Pan'kov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available New solutions for tensors of effective pyroelectromagnetic properties of piezoactive composites on the basis of boundary value problem solution for electromagnetic elasticity have been obtained. For the solution of the boundary value problem, new solutions for singular components of the second derivative Green functions for displacements, electric and magnetic potentials in homogeneous transversal isotropic piezoelectromagnetic medium with ellipsoidal grain of heterogeneity have been used. Calculation results on the concentration dependences for effective coefficients of pyromagnetic and electromagnetic coherence of ferrite/barium titanate composite with ellipsoidal, spherical and fibrous inclusions for various polydisperse structures and those of a layered structure composite have been presented. Considerable influence of the shape of the inclusions, features of relative positioning and inversion of the properties of phases on the effective coefficients of pyromagnetic and electromagnetic coherence of the composite material have been revealed. The conclusion is drawn on the preferable use of the pyroelectric phase as spherical inclusions, and ferrite as the composite matrix. This allows for more than a fivefold increase in the effective constant of pyromagnetic coherence of the composite material in comparison with its value for the same structure but with inversion of properties of phases for constant volume fractions of the ferrite and pyroelectric phases.

  11. Flexoelectric sensing using a multilayered barium strontium titanate structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S R; Huang, W B; Yuan, F G; Jiang, X N; Zhang, S J

    2013-01-01

    The flexoelectric effect has been recently explored for its promise in electromechanical sensing. However, the relatively low flexoelectric coefficients of ferroelectrics inhibit the potential to develop flexoelectric sensing devices. In this paper, a multilayered structure using flexoelectric barium strontium titanate (Ba 0.65 Sr 0.35 TiO 3 or BST) ceramic was fabricated in an attempt to enhance the effective flexoelectric coefficients using its inherent scale effect, and hence to improve the flexoelectric sensitivity. The performances of piezoelectric and flexoelectric cantilevers with the same dimensions and under the same conditions were compared. Owing to the flexoelectric scaling effect, under the same force input, the BST flexoelectric structure generated a higher charge output than its piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) and PMN-30PT counterparts when its thickness was less than 73.1 μm and 1.43 μm, respectively. Also, amplification of the charge output using the multilayered structure was then experimentally verified. The prototyped structure consisted of three layers of 350 μm-thick BST plates with a parallel electric connection. The charge output was approximately 287% of that obtained using a single-layer structure with the same total thickness of the multilayered structure under the same end deflection input, which suggests high sensitivity sensing can be achieved using multilayer flexoelectric structures. (paper)

  12. [Using barium fluoride fine particles as stationary phase for TLC/FTIR analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Pan, Qing-hua; Ding, Jie; Zhu, Qing; He, An-qi; Yue, Shi-juan; Li, Xiao-pei; Hu, Li-ping; Xia, Jin-ming; Liu, Cui-ge; Wei, Yong-ju; Yu, Jiang; Yang, Zhan-lan; Zhu, Xi; Xu, Yi-zhuang; Wu, Jin-guang

    2011-07-01

    In situ TLC/FTIR technique has tremendous potential in the analysis of complex mixtures. However, the progress in this technique was quite slow. The reason is that conventional stationary phase such as silica gel etc. has strong absorption in FTIR spectrum and thus brings about severe interference in the detection of samples. To solve the problem, the authors propose to use barium fluoride fine particles as stationary phase of TLC plate. The reasons are as follows: Barium fluoride wafer has been extensively used as infrared window in FTIR experiments and it has no absorbance in an IR region between 4 000 and 800 cm'. As a matter of fact, the atomic mass of barium and fluoride is quite large, thus the normal vibration of BaF2 lattice is limited in far-IR region and low frequency part of mid-IR region. Therefore, the interference caused by IR absorption of stationary phase can be resolved if BaF2 is used as stationary phase of TLC plate. Moreover, BaF2 is quite stable and insolvable in water and most organic solvents and it will not be dissolved by mobile phase or react with samples in TLC separation. Additionally, decreasing the particle size of BaF2 is very important in TLC/FTIR analysis technique. The reason is two-fold: First, decreasing the particle size of stationary phase is helpful to improving the efficiency of separation by TLC plate; second, decreasing the size of BaFz particle can improve the quality of FTIR spectra by alleviating the problem of light scattering. By optimizing the synthetic conditions, fine particles of barium fluoride were obtained. SEM results indicate that the size of the BaF2 particles is around 500 nm. FTIR spectrum of the BaF2 particles shows that no absorption of impurity was observed. Moreover, the elevation of baseline caused by light scattering is insignificant. The authors have developed a new technique named "settlement volatilization method" to prepare TLC plate without polymeric adhesive that may bring about significant

  13. Inhibitory potential of rambutan seeds extract and fractions on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Soeng; Endang Evacuasiany; Wahyu Widowati; Nurul Fauziah; Visi Tinta Manik; Maesaroh Maesaroh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Type 2 diabetes is a global health problem with increasing prevalence related to several conditions; one of these is due to obesity. Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L) seeds contain various phenolic compounds. The present study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical content and the inhibitory potential of rambutan seeds extract and fractions on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and #945;-glucosidase, and triglyceride activities ex vivo in 3T3-L1 cell line (pre-adipocyte...

  14. Aspidosperma subincanum I. characterisation, extraction of an uleine-enriched fraction and potential health hazard due to the contaminant ellipticine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Daniel Federlin

    Full Text Available The bark of the Brazilian tree Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. ex A. DC., Apocynaceae, has been characterised, and its constituents concentrated to obtain an uleine-enriched extract with the aim to produce food supplements. The concentration of the contaminant alkaloid ellipticine was assessed, and its potential to elicit toxic effects on consumers evaluated. It was found that this alkaloid posited no danger.

  15. Extraction, Structural Characterization, and Potential Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides from Four Seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinzhe; Xu, Yaoyang; Chen, Hongbo; Sun, Peilong

    2016-11-28

    Four seaweed polysaccharides were extracted from Sarcodia ceylonensis , Ulva lactuca L., Gracilaria lemaneiformis , and Durvillaea antarctica , respectively, by microwave-assisted extraction. The effect of three significant variables (extraction time, extraction temperature, and the ratio of water to raw material) on the process for extracting polysaccharides was investigated, along with the optimization of the extraction using the response surface method (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design. The polysaccharide structure, monosaccharide composition, degree of sulfation, and molecular weight ( M W ) distribution were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC), and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). IR spectrometry showed that Sarcodia ceylonensis polysaccharide (SCP), Ulva lactuca L. polysaccharide (ULLP), and Durvillaea antarctica polysaccharide (DAP) were all sulfated polysaccharides and, except Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP), all belong to β-pyranosidic polysaccharides. The average molecular weight ( M W ) of SCP, ULLP, GLP, and DAP was 466, 404, 591, and 482 kDa, respectively. The quantitative and comparative results with external standards indicated that the main monosaccharide in SCP and ULLP was mannose; and GLP and DAP were mainly composed of galactose and glucose, respectively. Then the in vitro antioxidant activity of all of the polysaccharides was evaluated using different assays-2,2-azino -bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulfonate) (ABTS), hydroxyl radical, nitrite scavenging capacity, and reducing power-and the relationship between their antioxidant activity and chemical characteristics were also examined. ULLP presented the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity; ULLP, SCP and DAP also showed a strong effect on the ABTS radical scavenging activity. SCP and ULLP exhibited excellent hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, about 83.33% ± 2.31% and 80.07% ± 2.17%, respectively, at 4 mg/mL. The reducing

  16. Extraction, Structural Characterization, and Potential Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides from Four Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhe He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Four seaweed polysaccharides were extracted from Sarcodia ceylonensis, Ulva lactuca L., Gracilaria lemaneiformis, and Durvillaea antarctica, respectively, by microwave-assisted extraction. The effect of three significant variables (extraction time, extraction temperature, and the ratio of water to raw material on the process for extracting polysaccharides was investigated, along with the optimization of the extraction using the response surface method (RSM with a Box–Behnken design. The polysaccharide structure, monosaccharide composition, degree of sulfation, and molecular weight (MW distribution were analyzed by infrared (IR spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC, and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC. IR spectrometry showed that Sarcodia ceylonensis polysaccharide (SCP, Ulva lactuca L. polysaccharide (ULLP, and Durvillaea antarctica polysaccharide (DAP were all sulfated polysaccharides and, except Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP, all belong to β-pyranosidic polysaccharides. The average molecular weight (MW of SCP, ULLP, GLP, and DAP was 466, 404, 591, and 482 kDa, respectively. The quantitative and comparative results with external standards indicated that the main monosaccharide in SCP and ULLP was mannose; and GLP and DAP were mainly composed of galactose and glucose, respectively. Then the in vitro antioxidant activity of all of the polysaccharides was evaluated using different assays—2,2–azino –bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulfonate (ABTS, hydroxyl radical, nitrite scavenging capacity, and reducing power—and the relationship between their antioxidant activity and chemical characteristics were also examined. ULLP presented the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity; ULLP, SCP and DAP also showed a strong effect on the ABTS radical scavenging activity. SCP and ULLP exhibited excellent hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, about 83.33% ± 2.31% and 80.07% ± 2.17%, respectively, at 4 mg/mL. The

  17. Avaliação do potencial antioxidante de extratos ativos de plantas obtidos por extração com fluido supercrítico Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of plant extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oselys Rodriguez Justo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of ginger and rosemary extracts, obtained by supercritical extraction. The extracts were characterized by HPLC, GC-MS, phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity. The main active compounds were identified and high content of phenolic compounds was observed. The extracts presented high antioxidant activity against the free radicals ABTS•+ (350 and 200 mM Trolox/g, for ginger and rosemary, respectively and DPPH•+ (145 and 80 mM Trolox/g, for ginger and rosemary, respectively. These results suggested that the attained extracts are potential substitutes of synthetic antioxidants used in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial and leishmanicidal potential of Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Vanessa Carolina de Sena; Lima, Nathália Oliveira; Oliveira, Flávio Augusto de Souza; Santos, Ana Paula de Azevedo Dos; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Oliveira, Waldesse Piragé de; Pimenta, And Raphael Sanzio

    2016-01-01

    Malaria and leishmaniasis are prevalent in tropical regions, which have environmental characteristics that are highly favorable to protozoa and vectors of these diseases; the transmission of these infections in sub-tropical regions, although recognized, represents only a small fraction of cases. Plants are constantly being used in the search for and acquisition of new drugs, and many compounds derived from them have been used to combat various diseases. In this study, we evaluated the action of the dichloromethanolic extract of Myrciaria dubia leaves against the protozoa Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis, and Leishmania chagasi through bioassays. The extract from M. dubia was tested for its anti-P. falciparum activity in an anti-histidine-rich protein II immunosorbent assay. The antileishmanial assays were performed using the resazurin method, while cytotoxicity against human hepatoma (HepG2) strain was determined using the colorimetric MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2- thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide] method. The M. dubia extract presented a half-maximal inhibitory concentration equal to 2.35 (1.05)μg/mL for P. falciparum, 190.73 (6.41) μg/mL for L. amazonensis, and greater than equal to 200µg/mL for L. chagasi and L. braziliensis strains. The cytotoxic concentration for 50% of the cells was above 500μg/mL for HepG2, indicating no toxicity and greater selectivity against parasites. The results obtained indicate the presence of antiplasmodial and leishmanicidal bioactive compounds in the dichloromethanolic extracts of M. dubia leaves, and point towards future studies to elucidate the mechanism of action for each physiological effect.

  19. Antifungal activity of plant extracts with potential to control plant pathogens in pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Diana Cerqueira Sales

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study concluded that mother tinctures can effectively control phytopathogens. The mother tincture extract of Myroxylon balsamum showed antifungal activity and was used here for the first time for inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi. This study paves the way for the development of bioactive natural products with phytosanitary applications, with the added benefits of an environmentally safe and economically viable product.

  20. The remineralization potential of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean extract to increase the enamel micro hardness

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistianingsih Sulistianingsih; Irmaleny Irmaleny; Opik Taofik Hidayat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Remineralization is the process of returning mineral ions into a hydroxyapatite structure characterized by mineral deposition on the enamel surface. The presence of mineral deposition would affect the micro hardness of tooth enamel. The use of fluorine as remineralization agent with side effects such as fluorosis. Cocoa bean extract contains theobromin that can be used as an alternative remineralization ingredients. The objectives was to determine micro hardness email after remi...

  1. Effect of heat treatment of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the antioxidant potential of their extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpinc, Petra; Polak, Tomaz; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Abramovic, Helena

    2011-08-24

    The effect of different heat treatments of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of their hydrolyzed extracts was investigated. The results showed that total phenol contents increased in thermally treated seeds. Heat treatment affected also the quantities of individual phenolic compounds in extracts. Phenolics in unheated camelina seeds existed in bound rather than in free form. A temperature of 160 °C was required for release of insoluble bound phenolics, whereas lower temperatures were found to be optimal to liberate those present as soluble conjugates. The best reducing power and alkyl peroxyl radical scavenging activity in the emulsion was expressed by phenolics which were bound to the cell wall, whereas the best iron chelators and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavengers were found to be those present in free form. The heat treatment of seeds up to 120 °C increased the reducing power and DPPH• radical scavenging ability of extracts, but negatively affected iron chelating ability and their activity in an emulsion against alkyl peroxyl radicals.

  2. Antioxidant and wound healing potential of saponins extracted from the leaves of Algerian Urtica dioica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razika, Laoufi; Thanina, Affif Chaouche; Nadjiba, Chebouti-Meziou; Narimen, Benhabyles; Mahdi, Dahmani Mohamed; Karim, Arab

    2017-05-01

    The Nettle is a herbaceous and vivace plant of Asian origin. It is integrated in several areas especially alimentary, agricultural, industrial and medicinal. The aim of this work is to demonstrate through pharmacological tests a possible antioxidant and wound healing effect of crude saponins of the leaves of Urtica dioica L. The extraction method is based on the degree of solubility of saponins in organic solvents. The antioxidant activity of the leaves extracts was evaluated by the diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl test (DPPH). The wound healing effect is interpreted on the basis of the healing time and the evaluation of the surface of wounds. It appears from this study that the Nettle is rich in saponins, either 4.08% to 30 g of plant powder. The results also showed significant antioxidant effect similar to that of ascorbic acid (p> 0.05) with an IC 50 of 0.159mg/ml. As regards the healing power, treatment of rats with the product based on crude saponins is achieved after 15 days, either 100% of wound reduction. This value is much higher than that obtained by the reference product (Madécassol®) on the same duration of treatment with 93.73% of wound reduction. The achievement of pharmacological tests has thus shown that crude saponins extracted from the leaves of Urtica dioica L. can be integrated into the pharmaceutical field or even in cosmetic.

  3. Aqueous extract of Annona macroprophyllata: a potential α-glucosidase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindis, F; González-Trujano, M E; González-Andrade, M; Aguirre-Hernández, E; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α -glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α -glucosidase with an IC₅₀ = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a K(i) = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (K(i) = 0.79 mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature.

  4. Aqueous Extract of Annona macroprophyllata: A Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Brindis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α-glucosidase (an in vitro assay and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α-glucosidase with an IC50 = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a Ki = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (Ki = 0.79 mg/mL. The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature.

  5. Potential Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging Activity of Doum Palm ( Hyphaene thebaica L. Leaves Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Al-Azizi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of the aqueous ethanolic extract of Doum leaves, Hyphaene thebaica L. (Palmae, was studied. Data obtained showed that the extract scavenged superoxide anion radicals ( IC 50=1602 µg/ml in a dose dependant manner using xanthine/hypoxanthine oxidase assay. Four major flvonoidal compounds were identified by LC/SEI as; Quercetin glucoside , Kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, Dimethyoxyquercetin rhamnoglucoside . While , further in-depth phytochemical investigation of this extract lead to the isolation and identification of fourteen compounds ;their structures were elucidated based upon the interpretation of their spectral data(UV, 1H, 13C NMR and ESI/MS as; 8-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5, 7, 4`-trihydroxyflavone (vitexin 1, 6-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5, 7, 4`-trihydroxyflavone (iso-vitexin 2, quercetin 3-O-β- 4C 1-D-glucopyranoside 3, gallic acid 4, quercetin 7-O-β- 4C 1-D-glucoside 5, luteolin 7-O-β- 4C 1-D-glucoside 6, tricin 5 O-β- 4C 1-D-glucoside 7, 7, 3` dimethoxy quercetin 3-O-[6''-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (Rhamnazin 3-O-rutinoside 8, kaempferol-3-O-[6''-O-α- L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β- D-glucopyranoside (nicotiflorin 9, apigenin 10, luteolin 11, tricin 12, quercetin 13 and kaempferol 14

  6. Antioxidant and DNA damage protecting potentials of polysaccharide extracted from Phellinus baumii using a delignification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qun-Li; Zhang, Zuo-Fa; Lv, Guo-Ying; Cai, Wei-Ming; Cheng, Jun-Wen; Wang, Jian-Gong; Fan, Lei-Fa

    2016-11-05

    A delignification method was employed to extract the polysaccharide from the fruiting body of Phellinus baumii. The three parameters, processing temperature, ratio of water to raw material and amount of acetic acid every time were optimized using the Box-Behnken design. As a result, the optimal extraction conditions were: processing temperature 70.3°C, ratio of water to raw material of 34.7mL/g and amount of acetic acid of 0.32mL every time. Under these conditions, the highest yield of polysaccharide (10.28%) was obtained. The main fraction (PPB-2) purified from PPB was composed of fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and mannose, while glucose was the predominant monosaccharide. PPB-2 exhibited noticeable antioxidant activity and strong protection against oxidative DNA damage. These findings implied that acid-chlorite delignification was a superior method to extract the polysaccharide from P. baumii and PPB-2 may be useful for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-Cancer Potential of Homemade Fresh Garlic Extract Is Related to Increased Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voin Petrovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of garlic and garlic-based extracts has been linked to decreased incidence of cancer in epidemiological studies. Here we examine the molecular and cellular activities of a simple homemade ethanol-based garlic extract (GE. We show that GE inhibits growth of several different cancer cells in vitro, as well as cancer growth in vivo in a syngeneic orthotopic breast cancer model. Multiple myeloma cells were found to be especially sensitive to GE. The GE was fractionated using solid-phase extractions, and we identified allicin in one GE fraction; however, growth inhibitory activities were found in several additional fractions. These activities were lost during freeze or vacuum drying, suggesting that the main anti-cancer compounds in GE are volatile. The anti-cancer activity was stable for more than six months in −20 °C. We found that GE enhanced the activities of chemotherapeutics, as well as MAPK and PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, GE affected hundreds of proteins involved in cellular signalling, including changes in vital cell signalling cascades regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and the cellular redox balance. Our data indicate that the reduced proliferation of the cancer cells treated by GE is at least partly mediated by increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress.

  8. Air (CO2) double-contrast barium enteroclysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglinte, Dean D T; Kohli, Marc D; Romano, Stefania; Lappas, John C

    2009-09-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s in North America and Europe, air (CO(2)) double-contrast barium enteroclysis took a back seat to biphasic methylcellulose double-contrast enteroclysis in the investigation of small-bowel diseases. The widespread application of capsule endoscopy in the 21st century has identified a number of limitations of radiologic examinations in the investigation of mucosal diseases of the small intestine. Evidence-based studies comparing barium, computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) enteroclysis have shown that in spite of improvements in small-bowel examination methods using CT and MR, barium examinations remain superior in the depiction of mucosal abnormalities, particularly the apthoid lesions of early Crohn disease. Barium small-bowel examinations have been recommended in the patient with a negative CT or MR enteroclysis study where the pretest probability of Crohn disease is high. A recent prospective comparison of methylcellulose double-contrast barium enteroclysis to capsule endoscopy with review of the literature has shown that air enteroclysis depicts mucosal details better than does methylcellulose double-contrast enteroclysis because of the "washout" effect of methylcellulose on superficial mucosal features. Recent articles have shown that air enteroclysis compares favorably with wireless capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy in the diagnosis of mucosal abnormalities of the small bowel. This article describes the authors' technique of performing air double-contrast enteroclysis, its clinical indications, and its pitfalls.

  9. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    Large Debye lengths relative to detector dimensions and the absence of confining walls makes space an attractive laboratory for studying fundamental theories of plasma instabilities. However, natural space plasmas are rarely found displaced from equilibrium enough to permit isolation and diagnosis of the controlling parameters and driving conditions. Furthermore, any plasma or field response to the departure from equilibrium can be masked by noise in the natural system. Active experiments provide a technique for addressing the chicken or egg dilemma. Early thermite barium releases were generally conducted at low altitudes from sounding rockets to trace electric fields passively or to study configuration-space instabilities. One can also study velocity-space instabilities with barium releases. Neutral barium vapor releases wherein a typical speed greatly exceeds the thermal speed can be used to produce barium ion velocity-space distributions that should be subject to a number of microinstabilities. We examine the ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped-charges

  10. Preparation of barium hexaferrite powders using oxidized steel scales waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, Ardita; Idayanti, Novrita; Kristiantoro, Tony

    2016-02-01

    Research on preparation of barium hexaferrite powders has been done using Hot Strip Mill scales as raw materials. Hot Strip Mill scales are oxidized steel scales waste from steel industrial process. The method used for preparing the barium hexaferrite powders was solid state reaction method. Oxidized steel scales were milled using ball mill for 10 hours, then screened through a 250 mesh sieve to obtain powders with maximum size of 63 µm. Powders were roasted at 600°C temperature for 4 hours to obtain hematite (Fe2O3) phase. Roasted powders were then mixed with barium carbonate, and were subsequently milled for 16 hours. After mixing, powders were calcined with an increasing rate of 10°C/min and maintained at 1100°C for 3 hours. Calcination process was performed to acquire barium hexaferrite phase. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization in conjunction with RIR analysis showed that 85 wt. % of barium hexaferrite is formed. The magnetic properties of powders were characterized using Permagraph. It is found the value of remanent induction is 1.09 kG, coercivity of 2.043 kOe, and the maximum energy product of 0.25 MGOe.

  11. Suitability of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) extract rich in rosmarinic acid as a potential enhancer of functional properties in cupcakes

    OpenAIRE

    Caleja, Cristina; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C.M.; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2018-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) and its extracts have been frequently reported as possessing bioactive properties, offering the potential for use in development/enrichment of food products with additional functional capabilities, providing health benefits to consumers. The antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity of lemon balm extract, as well as its potential hepatotoxicity were thoroughly evaluated. The extracts were then incorporated into cupcakes and their preserving effect, ch...

  12. Barium chloride induces redox status unbalance, upregulates cytokine genes expression and confers hepatotoxicity in rats-alleviation by pomegranate peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwej, Awatef; Grojja, Yousri; Ghorbel, Imen; Boudawara, Ons; Jarraya, Raoudha; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-04-01

    The present study was performed to establish the therapeutic efficacy of pomegranate peel against barium chloride induced liver injury. Adult rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: group I, serving as controls, received distilled water; group II received by their drinking water 67 ppm of BaCl2; group III received both 67 ppm of BaCl2 by the same way than group II and 5 % of pomegranate peel (PP) via diet; group IV received 5 % of PP. Analysis by HPLC/MS of PP showed its rich composition in flavonoids such as gallic acid, castalin, hyperin, quercitrin, syringic acid, and quercetin. The protective effects of pomegranate peel against hepatotoxicity induced by barium chloride were assessed using biochemical parameters and histological studies. Exposure of rats to barium caused oxidative stress in the liver as evidenced by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs), H2O2 and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (AST) and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) activities, a decrease in catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, glutathion (GSH), non-protein thiol (NPSH), vitamin C levels, and Mn-SOD gene expression. Liver total MT levels, MT-1, and MT-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine genes expression like TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were increased. Pomegranate peel, supplemented in the diet of barium-treated rats, showed an improvement of all the parameters indicated above.The present work provided ethnopharmacological relevance of pomegranate peel against the toxic effects of barium, suggesting its beneficial role as a potential antioxidant.

  13. Barium Depletion in the NSTAR Discharge Cathode After 30,000 Hours of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of barium released by impregnant materials in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. Examinations of cathode inserts from long duration ion engine tests show deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of barium from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of barium transport in the insert plasma indicates that the barium partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant barium-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress barium loss in the upstream part of the insert. New measurements of the depth of barium depletion from a cathode insert operated for 30,352 hours reveal that barium loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis.

  14. Comparison of the Cytotoxic Potential of Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Vapour Extract on Cultured Myocardial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Tsiapras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs have been marketed as an alternative-to-smoking habit. Besides chemical studies of the content of EC liquids or vapour, little research has been conducted on their in vitro effects. Smoking is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoke (CS has well-established cytotoxic effects on myocardial cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of the vapour of 20 EC liquid samples and a “base” liquid sample (50% glycerol and 50% propylene glycol, with no nicotine or flavourings on cultured myocardial cells. Included were 4 samples produced by using cured tobacco leaves in order to extract the tobacco flavour. Methods: Cytotoxicity was tested according to the ISO 10993-5 standard. By activating an EC device at 3.7 volts (6.2 watts—all samples, including the “base” liquid and at 4.5 volts (9.2 watts—four randomly selected samples, 200 mg of liquid evaporated and was extracted in 20 mL of culture medium. Cigarette smoke (CS extract from three tobacco cigarettes was produced according to ISO 3308 method (2 s puffs of 35 mL volume, one puff every 60 s. The extracts, undiluted (100% and in four dilutions (50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%, were applied to myocardial cells (H9c2; percent-viability was measured after 24 h incubation. According to ISO 10993-5, viability of 6.25% (viability: 76.9 ± 2.0% at 6.25%, 38.2 ± 0.5% at 12.5%, 3.1 ± 0.2% at 25%, 5.2 ± 0.8% at 50%, and 3.9 ± 0.2% at 100% extract concentration. Three EC extracts (produced by tobacco leaves were cytotoxic at 100% and 50% extract concentrations (viability range: 2.2%–39.1% and 7.4%–66.9% respectively and one (“Cinnamon-Cookies” flavour was cytotoxic at 100% concentration only (viability: 64.8 ± 2.5%. Inhibitory concentration 50 was >3 times lower in CS extract compared to the worst-performing EC vapour extract. For EC extracts produced by high-voltage and energy, viability was

  15. Antioxidant Potential of Extracts Obtained from Macro- (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata and Micro-Algae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis Assisted by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Agregán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural antioxidants, which can replace synthetic ones due to their potential implications for health problems in children, have gained significant popularity. Therefore, the antioxidant potential of extracts obtained from three brown macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata and two microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using ultrasound-extraction as an innovative and green approach was evaluated. Methods: Algal extracts were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction using water/ethanol (50:50, v:v as the extraction solvent. The different extracts were compared based on their antioxidant potential, measuring the extraction yield, the total phenolic content (TPC and the antioxidant activity. Results: Extracts from Ascophyllum nodosum (AN and Bifurcaria bifurcata (BB showed the highest antioxidant potential compared to the rest of the samples. In particular, BB extract presented the highest extraction (35.85 g extract/100 g dry weight (DW and total phenolic compounds (TPC (5.74 g phloroglucinol equivalents (PGE/100 g DW yields. Regarding the antioxidant activity, macroalgae showed again higher values than microalgae. BB extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the ORAC, DPPH and FRAP assays, with 556.20, 144.65 and 66.50 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, respectively. In addition, a correlation among the antioxidant activity and the TPC was noted. Conclusions: Within the obtained extracts, macroalgae, and in particular BB, are more suitable to be used as sources of phenolic antioxidants to be included in products for human consumption. The relatively low antioxidant potential, in terms of polyphenols, of the microalgae extracts studied in the present work makes them useless for possible industrial applications compared to macroalgae, although further in vivo studies evaluating the real impact of antioxidants from both macro- and micro-algae at the cellular level should be

  16. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar D Patil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay.LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4(th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2(nd and 3(rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2(nd and 3(rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2(nd, 3(rd and 4(th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2(nd, 3(rd and 4(th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively.Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management.

  17. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4(th) instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2(nd) and 3(rd) instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2(nd) and 3(rd) instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt) is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management.

  18. Centrifugal Jet Spinning for Highly Efficient and Large-scale Fabrication of Barium Titanate Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Liyun; Kotha, Shiva P.

    2013-01-01

    The centrifugal jet spinning (CJS) method has been developed to enable large-scale synthesis of barium titanate nanofibers. Barium titanate nanofibers with fiber diameters down to 50 nm and grain sizes around 25 nm were prepared with CJS by spinning a sol-gel solution of barium titanate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with subsequent heat treatment at 850 °C. XRD and FTIR analysis demonstrated high purity and tetragonal perovskite structured barium titanate nanofibers. SEM and TEM images confirm t...

  19. Fractionation of potentially toxic elements in urban soils from five European cities by means of a harmonised sequential extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Christine M.; Urquhart, Graham J.; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco; Biasioli, Mattia; Costa Duarte, Armando da; Diaz-Barrientos, Encarnacion; Grcman, Helena; Hossack, Iain; Hursthouse, Andrew S.; Madrid, Luis; Rodrigues, Sonia; Zupan, Marko

    2006-01-01

    The revised (four-step) BCR sequential extraction procedure has been applied to fractionate the chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc contents in urban soil samples from public-access areas in five European cities. A preliminary inter-laboratory comparison was conducted and showed that data obtained by different laboratories participating in the study were sufficiently harmonious for comparisons to be made between cities and land types (e.g. parks, roadside, riverbanks, etc.). Analyte recoveries by sequential extraction, with respect to direct aqua regia digestion, were generally acceptable (100 ± 15%). Iron, nickel and, at most sites, chromium were found mainly in association with the residual phase of the soil matrix. Copper was present in the reducible, oxidisable and residual fractions, whilst zinc was found in all four sequential extracts. Manganese was strongly associated with reducible material as, in some cities, was lead. This is of concern because high lead concentrations were present in some soils (>500 mg kg -1 ) and the potential exists for remobilisation under reducing conditions. As would be expected, extractable metal contents were generally highest in older, more heavily industrialised cities. Copper, lead and zinc showed marked (and often correlated) variations in concentrations between sites within the same city whereas manganese and, especially, iron, did not. No overall relationships were, however, found between analyte concentrations and land use, nor between analyte partitioning and land use

  20. Biological Activities and Nutraceutical Potentials of Water Extracts from Different Parts of Cynomorium Coccineum L. (Maltese Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucca Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Maltese Mushroom (Cynomorium coccineum L. is a non-photosynthetic plant that has been used in traditional medicine for many centuries. In this paper, water extracts from the whole plant, external layer and peeled plant were studied to determine the main components responsible for its biological activities, i.e., its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-tyrosinase activities; its cytotoxicity against mouse melanoma B16F10 cells; and its pro-erectile activity in adult male rats. The results of electron transfer and hydrogen transfer assays showed that the antioxidant activity was mainly due to anthocyanins in the external layer, whereas the external layer and peeled plant extracts both inhibited the microbial growth of several Gram-positive strains. In contrast, the whole plant extract had the highest anti-tyrosinase activity and exhibited pro-erectile activity when administered subcutaneously. Overall, this study elucidated which parts of Maltese Mushroom are responsible for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-tyrosinase activities and thus which extracts have potential for use in nutraceutical formulations.

  1. Potential Anticancer Effects of Polyphenols from Chestnut Shell Extracts: Modulation of Cell Growth, and Cytokinomic and Metabolomic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sorice

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a hydroalcoholic chestnut shell extract was characterized and tested on six different human cell lines. Gallic, ellagic, and syringic acids were the most abundant non-condensed compounds in the chestnut extract, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Tannins were mainly represented by condensed monomeric units of epigallocatechin and catechin/epicatechin. After 48 h of treatment, only the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells reached an inhibition corresponding to IC50 with an increase of apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization. The cytokinome evaluation before and after treatment revealed that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α decreased after the treatment, suggesting a potential anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of this extract. Moreover, the metabolome evaluation by 1H-NMR evidenced that the polyphenols extracted from chestnut shell (PECS treatment affected the levels of some amino acids and other metabolites. Overall, these data highlight the effects of biomolecules on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and mitochondrial depolarization, and on cytokinomics and metabolomics profiles.

  2. Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Akanji, M A; Oladiji, A T

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the aphrodisiac potential of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Rubiaceae) stem in male albino rats. The aqueous stem extract of the plant was screened for phytochemical constituents. Male rats were orally dosed with 18 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of the extract at 24 h intervals and their sexual behavior parameters and serum testosterone concentration were evaluated at days 1, 3 and 5. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins while anthraquinones and flavonoids are weakly present. All the doses resulted in significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and significantly prolonged the ejaculatory latency (P 0.05) and reduced mount and intromission latency (P 0.05). There was also a significant increase in serum testosterone concentrations in all the groups in a manner suggestive of dose-dependence (P 0.05). The aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem increased the blood testosterone concentrations and this may be the mechanism responsible for its aphrodisiac effects and various masculine behaviors. It may be used to modify impaired sexual functions in animals, especially those arising from hypotestosteronemia.

  3. Phytochemical determination and extraction of Momordica charantia fruit and its hypoglycemic potentiation of oral hypoglycemic drugs in diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongia, Abhishek; Tongia, Sudhir Kumar; Dave, Mangala

    2004-04-01

    Momordica charantia (MC) fruit was subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological interaction studies with oral hypoglycemis in NIDDM patients. Phytochemical, chromatographical analysis and extraction of methanolic MC fruit soft (semi-solid form) in CCl4 + C6H6 solvent system yielded 15 diverse chemical constituents--alkaloids, glycosides, aglycone, tannin, sterol, phenol and protein. The CCl4 + C6H6 MC soft extract was used orally in a dose of 200 mg twice daily (BD) for pharmacological interactions with two diversely acting oral hypoglycemic agents--1) metformin BD and 2) glibenclamide BD in 15 patients of either sex (52-65 years of age) of NIDDM. It was observed that with CCl4 + C6H6 MC soft extract plus half doses of metformin or glibenclamide or both in combination caused hypoglycemia greater than that caused by full doses used in the study with 7 days treatment. Conclusively the extract acts in synergism with oral hypoglycemics and potentiates their hypoglycemia in NIDDM.

  4. Genotoxic potential of organic extracts from particle emissions of diesel and rapeseed oil powered engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Mazac, Martin; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2012-07-07

    The present study was performed to identify possible genotoxicity induced by organic extracts from particulate matter in the exhaust of two typical diesel engines run on diesel fuel and neat heated fuel-grade rapeseed oil: a Cummins ISBe4 engine tested using the World Harmonized Steady State Test Cycle (WHSC) and modified Engine Steady Cycle (ESC) and a Zetor 1505 engine tested using the Non-Road Steady State Cycle (NRSC). In addition, biodiesel B-100 (neat methylester of rapeseed oil) was tested in the Cummins engine run on the modified ESC. Diluted exhaust was sampled with high-volume samplers on Teflon coated filters. Filters were extracted with dichlormethane (DCM) and DNA adduct levels induced by extractable organic matter (EOM) in an acellular assay of calf thymus DNA coupled with (32)P-postlabeling in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal S9 fraction were employed. Simultaneously, the chemical analysis of 12 priority PAHs in EOM, including 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was performed. The results suggest that diesel emissions contain substantially more total PAHs than rapeseed oil emissions (for the ESC) or that these concentrations were comparable (for the WHSC and NRSC), while c-PAHs levels were comparable (for the ESC) or significantly higher (for the WHSC and NRSC) for rapeseed oil emissions. DNA adduct levels induced by diesel and rapeseed oil derived EOM were comparable, but consistently slightly higher for diesel than for rapeseed oil. Highly significant correlations were found between 12 priority PAHs concentrations and DNA adduct levels (0.980; pengine and the test cycle than on the fuel. Our findings suggest that the genotoxicity of particulate emissions from the combustion of rapeseed oil is significant and is comparable to that from the combustion of diesel fuel. A more detailed study is ongoing to verify and extent these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardioprotective potential of Punica granatum extract in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Patankar, Pankaj; Ghadi, Prakash; Kasture, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    To determine the protective role of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) seed juice extract and its butanolic fraction on heart rate, electrocardiographic patterns, vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes together with morphologic and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. The effects of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and butanolic fraction of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg., p.o.) on cardiac parameters were studied. Isoproterenol hydrochloride was used to induce myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, heart rate, ECG, pressure rate index and cardiac marker enzyme levels were assessed. Rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) showed a significant increase in heart rate, ST elevation in ECG, pressure rate index and a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes- lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase in serum. Isoproterenol significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and increased vascular reactivity to various catecholamines. Pretreatment with PJ (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) for a period of 21 days significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on heart rate, PRI, ECG patterns, levels of LDH, CK, SOD, CAT, and vascular reactivity changes. Treatment with PJ (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) alone did not alter any of the parameters as compared to vehicle-treated Wistar rats. Punica granatum-treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Punica granatum ameliorates cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol and may be of value in the treatment of MI.

  6. Occupational doses in pediatric barium meal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipov, D.; Schelin, H.R.; Denyak, V.; Legnani, A.; Ledesma, J.A.; Paschuk, S.A.; Sauzen, J.; Yagui, A.; Hoff, G.; Khoury, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has become an indispensable tool when it comes to diagnosis and therapy. However, its use should happen in a rational manner, taking into account the risks to which the staff is being exposed. Barium meal (BM), or upper gastrointestinal (GI) studies, using fluoroscopy, are widely used for gastroesophageal reflux disease diagnostic in children and professionals are required to stay inside the examination room to position and immobilize pediatric patients during the procedure. Therefore, it is very important that proffessionals strictly follow the technical standards of radiation protection. According to the ICRP and the NCRP recommendations, the annual limit equivalent doses for eyes, thyroid and hands are, espectively, 20 mSv, 150 mSv and 500 mSv. Based on those data, the aim of the current study is to estimate the annual equivalent dose for eyes, thyroid and hands of professionals who perform BM procedures in children. This was done using properly package LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosimeters in 37 procedures; 2 pairs were positioned near each staff´s eye, 2 pairs on each professional´s neck (on and under the lead protector) and 2 pairs on both staff´s hands. The range of the estimative annual equivalent doses, for eyes, thyroid and hands, are, respectively: 14 – 36 mSv, 7 – 22 mSv and 14 – 58 mSv. Only the closest staff to the patient exceeded the annual equivalent doses in the eyes (around 80% higher than the limit set by ICRP). However, the results from this study, for hands and thyroid, compared to similar studies, show higher values. Therefore, the optimization implementation is necessary, so that the radiation levels can be reduced. (authors)

  7. Selectivity in biomineralization of barium and strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Minna R; Wasserman, Brian; Finney, Lydia; McNulty, Ian; Legnini, Daniel; Vogt, Stefan; Joester, Derk

    2011-11-01

    The desmid green alga Closterium moniliferum belongs to a small number of organisms that form barite (BaSO(4)) or celestite (SrSO(4)) biominerals. The ability to sequester Sr in the presence of an excess of Ca is of considerable interest for the remediation of (90)Sr from the environment and nuclear waste. While most cells dynamically regulate the concentration of the second messenger Ca(2+) in the cytosol and various organelles, transport proteins rarely discriminate strongly between Ca, Sr, and Ba. Herein, we investigate how these ions are trafficked in C. moniliferum and how precipitation of (Ba,Sr)SO(4) crystals occurs in the terminal vacuoles. Towards this goal, we simultaneously visualize intracellular dynamics of multiple elements using X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) of cryo-fixed/freeze-dried samples. We correlate the resulting elemental maps with ultrastructural information gleaned from freeze-fracture cryo-SEM of frozen-hydrated cells and use micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) to determine sulfur speciation. We find that the kinetics of Sr uptake and efflux depend on external Ca concentrations, and Sr, Ba, and Ca show similar intracellular localization. A highly ion-selective cross-membrane transport step is not evident. Based on elevated levels of sulfate detected in the terminal vacuoles, we propose a "sulfate trap" model, where the presence of dissolved barium leads to preferential precipitation of (Ba,Sr)SO(4) due to its low solubility relative to SrSO(4) and CaSO(4). Engineering the sulfate concentration in the vacuole may thus be the most direct way to increase the Sr sequestered per cell, an important consideration in using desmids for phytoremediation of (90)Sr. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The enhanced epithelialization potential of the aqueous extract of Prunella vulgaris in thermally injured rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li Cheng-Cun; Meng Qing-Guo; Liang Xiu-Qin; Xiao Ji-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the wound-healing efficiency of the Prunella vulgaris extract (PVE) on thermally injured rats. Sixty adult, female rats were divided into four groups, with group I serving as a sham control (without a burn injury). A burn was inflicted on the dorsum of all the rats in the second, third and fourth groups. Group II rats served as the burn-injury control group without any treatment. The burn-injured areas of the rats ...

  9. Anxiolytic and free radical scavenging potential of Chinese celery (Apium graveolens) extract in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tanasawet, Supita; Boonruamkaew, Phetcharat; Sukketsiri, Wanida; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the anxiolytic and free radical scavenging effect of methanolic extract of Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) in adult C57BL/6 mice. Methods: Sixty male mice were divided into 6 groups: control, vehicle, positive control and A. graveolens (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg). Different behavioral models of elevated plus maze, open field, light/dark, hole-board and pentobarbital-induced sleep were used to assess anxiety-like behavior. Biochemical parameters including monoamine oxi...

  10. Microbial food safety: Potential of DNA extraction methods for use in diagnostic metagenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Andersen, Sandra Christine; Christensen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    ) yielding protocols. The PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit performed significantly better than all other protocols tested. Selected protocols were modified, i.e., extended heating and homogenization, resulting in increased yields of total DNA. For QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) a 7-fold...... of the protocols to extract DNA was observed. The highest DNA yield was obtained with the PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, whereas the FastDNA SPIN Kit for Feces (MP Biomedicals) resulted in the highest amount of PCR-amplifiable C. jejuni DNA....

  11. Gastrointestinal tract wall visualization and distention during abdominal and pelvic multidetector CT with a neutral barium sulphate suspension: comparison with positive barium sulphate suspension and with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M R; Erturk, S M; Ichikawa, T; Rocha, T; Ros, P R; Silverman, S G; Mortele, K J

    2012-01-01

    When examining patients with contrast-enhanced multidetector-row CT, we determined if the stomach and small bowel were visualized and distended better with a neutral barium sulphate suspension than with positive barium sulphate suspension or water. After obtaining approval from our institutional review board, 156 patients (women: 84; mean age: 54 yrs) with no history of gastrointestinal tract disease were randomized prospectively to receive orally either 900 ml of neutral (0.1% w/v) barium sulphate suspension (n = 53), 900 ml of positive (2.1% w/v) barium sulphate suspension (n = 53), or 900 ml of water (n = 50), prior to undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic multidetector-row CT. Two independent radiologists evaluated the stomach, and small bowel, for luminal distension and wall visualization, using a five point scale. Results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The walls of the stomach, and small bowel were visualized better in patients who were administered neutral barium sulphate suspension than those who were administered either positive barium sulphate suspension (p barium sulphate suspension, the stomach and small bowel were distended better compared to patients administered water (p barium sulphate suspension (p contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic multidetector-row CT, orally administered neutral barium sulphate suspension allows the gastrointestinal tract to be visualized and distended better than either positive barium sulphate suspension, or water.

  12. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  13. Diagnostic role of barium enema in carcinoma rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this barium enema study was to evaluate its role in patients suspected to have rectal pathologies with complaints of change in bowel habit, anorexia/weight loss, bleeding per rectum and acute/sub-acute colonic obstruction. Results: barium enema study as screening test for colo-rectal carcinoma was undertaken. Contrast outlined the colonic growth in 35 cases, out of which the cases of carcinoma colon were 24 including 13 patients suffering from carcinoma rectum. The percentage of carcinoma colon to total colonic growth was 68% while, carcinoma rectum to total carcinoma colon was 54%. Conclusion: On the basis of these investigations, it is concluded that patient's compliance is important factor in the early detection of colonic neoplasia. Though results of colonoscopy are more reliable but in practice, barium enema (double contrast) is performed initially to outline the lesion and then colonoscopy for biopsy purpose. (author)

  14. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or more...

  15. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would... of initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from the...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN P-00...

  17. The diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease cannot be made with barium esophagograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh, C. M. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years, barium studies have been used to diagnose gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), but the value of this test is controversial. Our study aimed to determine if barium esophagograms can be used to diagnose GERD. Barium esophagograms and pH-impedance measurement were performed in 20

  18. Measurement of Elastic Modulus of Alumina and Barium Strontium Titanate Wafers Produced by Tape Casting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MEASUREMENT OF ELASTIC MODULUS OF ALUMINA AND BARIUM STRONTIUM TITANATE WAFERS PRODUCED BY...configuration testing method. Samples of barium strontium titanate (BST) were made using a regular powder pressing, sintering, pelletizing, and...fabricated using thin wafers of barium strontium titanate (BST) and aluminum oxide (alumina) ceramic during launch of a system. Sandia National

  19. Study of wound healing potential of Stevia rebaudiana ethanol extract in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goorani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Stevia rebaudiana has been used in medicine as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, anti-fungal, and antibacterial agent. The present study was conducted to investigate the healing effects of S. rebaudiana ethanol extracts on cutaneous wounds in rats. Methods: Full-thickness excisional wounds (2×2 cm were induced on the back of 32 rats. The rats were divided into four groups as follows; untreated (control and treated with 1 mL basal cream, 1 mL S. rebaudiana ethanol extract 10%, and 1 mL tetracycline (3% for 20 days (short term. Animals of each group were euthanized at 20 day post-injury and wounds were assessed through macroscopic and microscopic analyses. Results: During the experiment, S. rebaudiana indicated a significant reduction in the wound area compared to other groups. Parameters such as arrangement of the healing tissue, re-epithelilization and epithelial formation demonstrated considerable changes when compared to the control. In addition, treatment with S. rebaudiana decreased the total number of cells, fibrocytes/fibroblasts ratio, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and enhanced the number of blood vessels and fibroblasts at 20 day. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the wound healing activity of S. rebaudiana, lending credence to the folkloric use in the treatment of cutaneous wounds.

  20. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticle from leaf extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. and its biomedical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavoukkarasu, M.; Balaji, U.; Behera, S.; Panda, P. K.; Mishra, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    An aqueous leaf extract of Desmodium gangeticum was employed to synthesize silver nano particles. Rapid formation of stable silver nanoparticles were observed on exposure of the aqueous leaf extract with solution of silver nitrate. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR). UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium peaked at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. SEM analysis revealed the spherical shape of the particles with sizes ranging from 18 to 39 nm and the EDAX spectrum confirmed the presence of silver along with other elements in the plant metabolite. Further, these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, thus implying significance of the present study in production of biomedical products.