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Sample records for barium 131

  1. production of carrier -free 131 cesium from neutron irradiated barium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    this work describes the production of carrier-free radioactive 131 Cs from bulk amounts of Ba CO3 (1g each) as target material irradiated at ETRR-1, ETRR-2 and IRI research reactors. Cesium-131 was prepared according to the thermal neutron reaction 130Ba (n,γ ) 131 Ba (β- decay)131 Cs. Carrier-free 131Cs is separated from the irradiated barium target, by precipitation of Ba2+ cations with addition of SO42- anions in excess and filtration of the formed precipitate . quality control investigations including radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purity of 131 Cs product has proved its suitability for nuclear medicine use

  2. Barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to barium content in fluoride. In order to obtain the comprehensive view on barium distribution in fluorite 303 mono mineral fractions of various geologic deposits and ores of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and some geologic deposits of Russia were analyzed. The barium content in fluorite of geologic deposits of various mineralogical and genetic type was defined. The basic statistical estimation of barium distribution in fluorite were evaluated.

  3. Barium enema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barium enema is a special x-ray of the large intestine, which includes the colon and rectum. ... to a bag that holds a liquid containing barium sulfate. This is a contrast material that highlights ...

  4. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), ... dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using x-rays or computed tomography (CAT scan, CT scan; a type of body scan that uses ... be clearly seen by x-ray examination or CT scan. ... more times before an x-ray examination or CT scan.If you are using a barium sulfate ...

  6. Radioactive Barium Ion Trap Based on Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient and Irreversible Removal of Barium from Nuclear Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yaguang; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-04-01

    Highly efficient and irreversible capture of radioactive barium from aqueous media remains a serious task for nuclear waste disposal and environmental protection. To address this task, here we propose a concept of barium ion trap based on metal-organic framework (MOF) with a strong barium-chelating group (sulfate and sulfonic acid group) in the pore structures of MOFs. The functionalized MOF-based ion traps can remove >90% of the barium within the first 5 min, and the removal efficiency reaches 99% after equilibrium. Remarkably, the sulfate-group-functionalized ion trap demonstrates a high barium uptake capacity of 131.1 mg g(-1), which surpasses most of the reported sorbents and can selectively capture barium from nuclear wastewater, whereas the sulfonic-acid-group-functionalized ion trap exhibits ultrafast kinetics with a kinetic rate constant k2 of 27.77 g mg(-1) min(-1), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than existing sorbents. Both of the two MOF-based ion traps can capture barium irreversibly. Our work proposes a new strategy to design barium adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing radioactive barium and other radionuclides from nuclear wastewater for environment remediation. Besides, the concrete mechanisms of barium-sorbent interactions are also demonstrated in this contribution. PMID:26999358

  7. BARIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R.E.

    1959-07-21

    A method of separating barium from nuclear fission products is described. In accordance with the invention, barium may be recovered from an acidic solution of neutron-irradiated fissionable material by carrying ihe barium cut of solution as a sulfate with lead as a carrier and then dissolving the barium-containing precipitate in an aqueous solution of an aliphatic diamine chelating reagent. The barium values together with certain other metallic values present in the diamine solution are then absorbed onto a cation exchange resin and the barium is selectively eluted from the resin bed with concentrated nitric acid.

  8. Barium enema (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  9. Radioisotope analyzer of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principle of operation and construction of radioisotope barium sulphate analyzer type MZB-2 for fast determination of barium sulphate content in barite ores and enrichment products are described. The gauge equipped with Am-241 and a scintillation detector enables measurement of barium sulphate content in prepared samples of barite ores in the range 60% - 100% with the accuracy of 1%. The gauge is used in laboratories of barite mine and ore processing plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  10. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View Denver Pollen Count You are here: Programs & Services > Tests We Offer > Imaging Tests Tailored Barium Swallow Study The TBS is a special study that is completed in radiology. The test evaluates the mouth and the throat ...

  11. Barium isotopes in Allende meteorite - Evidence against an extinct superheavy element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon and chromite fractions from the Allende meteorite that contain isotopically anomalous xenon-131 to xenon-136 (carbonaceous chondrite fission or CCF xenon) at up to 5 x 10 to the 11th atoms per gram show no detectable isotopic anomalies in barium-130 to barium-138. This rules out the possibility that the CCF xenon was formed by in situ fission of an extinct superheavy element. Apparently the CCF xenon and its carbonaceous carrier are relics from stellar nucleosynthesis.

  12. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barium into a bedpan or nearby toilet. A health care professional may give you an enema to flush out the rest of the barium. An x-ray technician and a radiologist perform a lower gastrointestinal (GI) series at a ...

  13. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  14. New barium tantalum sulphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss a new barium tantalum sulphide, Ba3Ta2S8, prepared by sulphurization of a mixture of BaCO3 and Ta2O5. The electron and powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the compound are indexed on the basis of a monoclinic cell with lattice constants. A structure model is proposed. The refinement based on the powder X-ray diffraction intensities is performed

  15. Barium calcium hydroxyapatite solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The replacement of calcium by barium in the hydroxyapatite structure by solid-state reaction at different temperatures and by precipitation from an aqueous system has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and i.r. absorption analyses. The products obtained by solid-state reaction at 1200 deg C are solid solutions over the range of barium concentration 60 to 100 atom %. The lattice dimensions and the i.r. frequencies of the solid solutions vary linearly with the atom % of barium. Only small amounts of barium can be incorporated in hydroxyapatite by precipitation from the aqueous system. (author)

  16. Hiatal hernia uptake of iodine-131 mimicking mediastinal metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a few case reports of hiatal hernia demonstrating thoracic uptake on I-131 scintigraphy. In this case, high thyroglobulin levels in combination with misinterpretation of I-131 uptake in the mediastinum, leaded to mismanagement of the patient. Here we present a case of focal I-131 uptake within a hiatal hernia initially mimicking an isolated mediastinal metastasis. There are many potential causes of false-positive I-131 scan result. In this case, adjunctive chest computed tomography and gastroesophageal barium study helped to elucidate the true nature of this I-131 uptake. False-positive findings may be caused by a wide variety of nonthyroidal carcinomas, which can concentrate radioiodine or from skin contamination. Several organs, such as the gastric, salivary glands, renal cyst, pericardial effusion, and ovarian can accumulate I-131. It should be borne in mind as a potential source of false-positive whole-body I-131 imaging

  17. Barium zirconate base ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical corrosion at high temperatures is a serious problem in the refractory materials field, leading to degradation and bath contamination by elements of the refractory. The main objective of this work was to search for ceramics that could present higher resistance to chemical attack by aggressive molten oxides. The general behaviour of a ceramic material based on barium zirconate (Ba Zr O3) with the addition of different amounts of liquid phase former was investigated. The densification behaviour occurred during different heat treatments, as well as the microstructure development, as a function of the additives and their reactions with the main phase, were observed and are discussed. (author)

  18. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.; Thomsen, H.S.; Rosenberg, J.

    2008-01-01

    . Materials and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was...... rated qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P...... <.05) than barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5...

  19. Doped barium titanate nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Kundu; A Jana; P Barik

    2008-06-01

    We have synthesized nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) ion doped BaTiO3 nanoparticles through a chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The concentration of dopant varies from 0 to 2 mole% in the specimens. The results from X-ray diffractograms and transmission electron micrographs show that the particle diameters in the specimen lie in the range 24–40 nm. It is seen that the dielectric permittivity in doped specimens is enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to undoped barium titanate ceramics. The dielectric permittivity shows maxima at 0.3 mole% doping of Fe ion and 0.6 mole% of Ni ion. The unusual dielectric behaviour of the specimens is explained in terms of the change in crystalline structure of the specimens.

  20. New barium tantalum sulphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new barium tantalum sulphide has been synthesized by the reaction of CS2 with a mixture of BaCO3 and Ta2O5. The chemical analysis of the compound was performed for 3 components (Ba, Ta and S), and the chemical composition was found to be BaTa2S5. The powder X-ray diffraction peaks were indexable on the basis of a hexagonal cell with lattices constants of a=3.32A, c=25.13A. However, the electron diffraction measurements show that the structure is more complex than that observed by powder X-ray diffraction. The compound indicates metallic behavior and Pauli paramagnetism

  1. Abundance analysis of barium and mild barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, R; Silva, L

    2007-01-01

    High signal to noise, high resolution spectra were obtained for a sample of normal, mild barium, and barium giants. Atmospheric parameters were determined from the FeI and FeII lines. Abundances for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd, were determined from equivalent widths and model atmospheres in a differential analysis, with the red giant Eps Vir as the standard star. The different levels of s-process overabundances of barium and mild barium stars were earlier suggested to be related to the stellar metallicity. Contrary to this suggestion, we found in this work no evidence for barium and mild barium to have a different range in metallicity. However, comparing the ratio of abundances of heavy to light s-process elements, we found some evidence that they do not share the same neutron exposure parameter. The exact mechanism controlling this difference is still not clear. As a by-product of this analysis we identify two normal red giants misclass...

  2. Barium aluminate cement: its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of manufacturing barium aluminate cement from barium sulfate and alumina, using a rotary kiln for firing the clinker is described. The method of granulation of the homogenized charge was used. Conditions of using the ''to mud'' method in industry were indicated. The physical and chemical properties of barium aluminate cement are determined and the quality of several batches of cement prepared on a semi-industrial scale and their suitability for making highly refractory concretes are tested. The optimal composition of the concretes is determined as a function of the mixing water and barium aluminate cement contents. Several experimental batches of concretes were used in the linings of furnaces in the steel industry. The suitability of these cements for use in fields other than steelmaking is examined. It is established that calcium aluminate cement has certain limited applications

  3. Discovery of the Barium Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    SHORE, A.; A. Fritsch; Ginepro, J. Q.; Heim, M.; Schuh, A.; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-eight barium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Barium light source method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  5. The use of radioanalytical methods in nucleation and crystal growth studies. The barium sulphate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous precipitation of barium sulphate in aqueous solutions was followed by counting the 131Ba specific activity in the aqueous phase. The main advantages of this method were the increased sensitivity and the possibility of monitoring the process to a larger extent in comparison with other techniques. Kinetics parameters including the size of the critical nucleus and the surface energy of the precipitating solid were estimated according to the model for polynuclear growth. (Author)

  6. The problem of the barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm-Vitense, E.; Nemec, J.; Proffitt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of barium stars and other cool stars with peculiar element abundances are reported. Those observations attempted to find hot white dwarf companions. Among six real barium stars studied, only Zeta Cap was found to have a white dwarf companion. Among seven mild, or marginal, barium stars studied, at least three were found to have hot subluminous companions. It is likely that all of them have white dwarf companions.

  7. Radioisotope barium sulphate gauge MZB-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and the gauge for measuring content of barium sulphate are described. The gauge is intended for fast determination of barium sulphate in barite ore and in output products of the enrichment process. The measuring range 60-100% of BaSO4, accuracy ±1% and measuring time 60 s were reached. The barium sulphate gauge is used in barite mine ''Boguszow'' in Poland. (author)

  8. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  9. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  10. Processing science of barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Seymen Murat

    Barium titanate and barium strontium titanate thin films were deposited on base metal foils via chemical solution deposition and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The films were processed at elevated temperatures for densification and crystallization. Two unifying research goals underpin all experiments: (1) To improve our fundamental understanding of complex oxide processing science, and (2) to translate those improvements into materials with superior structural and electrical properties. The relationships linking dielectric response, grain size, and thermal budget for sputtered barium strontium titanate were illustrated. (Ba 0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 films were sputtered on nickel foils at temperatures ranging between 100-400°C. After the top electrode deposition, the films were co-fired at 900°C for densification and crystallization. The dielectric properties were observed to improve with increasing sputter temperature reaching a permittivity of 1800, a tunability of 10:1, and a loss tangent of less than 0.015 for the sample sputtered at 400°C. The data can be understood using a brick wall model incorporating a high permittivity grain interior with low permittivity grain boundary. However, this high permittivity value was achieved at a grain size of 80 nm, which is typically associated with strong suppression of the dielectric response. These results clearly show that conventional models that parameterize permittivity with crystal diameter or film thickness alone are insufficiently sophisticated. Better models are needed that incorporate the influence of microstructure and crystal structure. This thesis next explores the ability to tune microstructure and properties of chemically solution deposited BaTiO3 thin films by modulation of heat treatment thermal profiles and firing atmosphere composition. Barium titanate films were deposited on copper foils using hybrid-chelate chemistries. An in-situ gas analysis process was developed to probe the organic removal and the

  11. Barium methylphosphonates: synthesis, characterization and mutual interconversions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, L.; Melánová, Klára; Svoboda, Jan; Zima, Vítězslav

    Strasbourg: University of Strasbourg, Francie, 2015. P64. [ISIC18 International Symposium on Intercalation Compounds. 31.05.2015-04.06.2015, Strasbourg] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-13368S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hydrates of barium methylphosphonate * barium hydrogen methylphosphonate * powder X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  12. A new double contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Sang; Cho, Won Sik; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Mun Gyu; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jaun, Woo Ki; Han, Chung Yul [Inje College Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    A new technic of the barium enema was proposed for the better colonic double contrast study with the average 204ml of 50w/v% barium, applied to 109 serial patients. The barium was introduced to sigmoid colon, and then pushed to a mid transverse colon by the air insufflation through an enema syringe, a new device. An advance to cecum is accomplished by the air insufflation and/or the position change of the patient. The barium transfer method was developed for the best spot film exposure, through colon, by the position change of the patient, the tilting of the x-ray table and the air insufflation with the enema syringe. The mean angle of the x-ray table tilted was -10 .deg. at the beginning the barium enema till the barium sent past the splenic flexure, -15 . deg. for the best lateral view of rectum and -18 .deg. for the bet prone PA view of rectosigmoid colon. This was a simple, better and economic double contrast barium enema for the cooperative patients.

  13. Synthesis of barium titanium oxide from barium sulphate and anatase. Study of equimolar mixtures under different atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enable the ceramization of a barium sulphate-rich radioactive waste the synthesis of barium titanium oxide is studied by using anatase and barium sulphate. As a function of the calcination atmosphere, helium (or air) and Ar/H2, two reactions are studied. A mechanism of barium titanium oxide synthesis in helium (or in air) is proposed

  14. Double contrast barium meal and acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prospective double blind study, acetylcysteine, a local and systemic respiratory tract mucolytic agent, or a placebo, were given to 100 patients prior to a double contrast barium meal to decrease the gastric mucus viscosity and to make the mucus layer thinner, in order to permit barium to outline the furrows surrounding the areae gastricae instead of the overlying thick mucus. However, acetylcysteine failed to improve either visualization of the areae gastricae or the general quality of the double contrast barium meal. (orig.)

  15. Barium adsorption on the (110) and (111) molybdenum faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizov, U.V.; Sabirov, S.T.; Dzhalilov, S.T. (Tashkentskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1982-07-01

    Barium adsorption on Mo faces (110) and (111) was investigated by thermoemission and Cs surface ionization methods to obtain a more broad representation of barium adsorption at higher temperatures of cathode. Experiments show that the substrate temperature increase at a constant barium concentration results in the formation of small barium islands. At that, barium is under similar energy conditions in the small islands formed on the face (110) independent of relative areas of the islands.

  16. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. An experimental study on barium peritonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium sulfate is universally used contrast media in gastrointestinal roentgenology, and spillage of barium into peritoneal cavity can occur. The references on effect of barium sulfate in the peritoneal cavity have been scattered and the results are varied. In 80 rats, body weight of 130 gm to 150 gm, sterile pure barium, sterile commercial barium, intestinal content, and mixed pure barium and intestinal content were experimentally injected into the peritoneal cavity. Consecutive weekly laparotomy and microscopic examination were done for 4 weeks. The results are as followings: 1. Mind inflammatory reaction and mild adhesion after sterile pure barium injection. 2. Mild inflammatory reaction and moderate adhesion after sterile commercial barium injection. 3. Acute peritonitis and abscess formation after intestinal content injection. 4. High mortality due to severe acute peritonitis, and severe adhesion in survivors after injection of both pure barium and intestinal content.

  18. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  19. Gamma-ray spectroscopic determination of iodine-131 and cesium-137 in foods: Two collaborative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AOAC method for iodine-131, cesium-137, and barium-140 in milk by gamma-ray spectroscopy (48.025-48.029) was extended to include other foods for the radionuclides iodine-131 and cesium-137. Two collaborative studies were performed to validate this extension. In the first study, a food sample containing 119 pCi 131I/kg and 53 pCi 137Cs/kg was sent to each of 45 laboratories for triplicate analyses. For 25 responses, the mean of the reported values was 123.8 pCi/kg for iodine-131, and for 27 responses, the mean was 53.4 pCi/kg for cesium-137. Repeatability (within-laboratory) standard deviations (Sr) for iodine-131 and cesium-137 were 4.6 and 3.7 pCi/kg, respectively. Reproducibility (among-laboratories) standard deviations (SR) for iodine-131 and cesium-137 were 12.1 and 6.0 pCi/kg, respectively. In the second study, a food sample containing 25 pCi 131I/kg and 27 pCi 137Cs/kg was sent to each of 54 laboratories for triplicate analyses. For 21 responses, the mean of the reported values was 25.0 pCi/kg for iodine-131, and for 19 responses, the mean was 28.9 pCi/kg for cesium-137. Sr Values were 4.0 and 1.6 pCi/kg for iodine-131 and cesium-137, respectively, and SR values were 5.0 and 2.8 pCi/kg, respectively. The method extension was adopted official first action

  20. Venous barium embolization, a rare, potentially fatal complication of barium enema: 2 case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venous embolization of barium has been recognized for 4 decades as one of the most dreaded complications of barium enema. Fortunately, the condition is extremely rare. In this report, the radiographic findings in 2 cases of venous embolization (one involving the portal vein and one systematic) are described, and ways to decrease the risk of this complication are discussed. (author)

  1. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  2. Synthesis of barium mercaptides and application of antimony/barium mercaptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿龙; 张露露; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Mercaptoacetic acid, isooctyl thioglycolate and barium hydroxide used as start materials, barium bis (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Ba(2EHTG)2), barium thioglycolate (Ba(TG)) and barium bisthioglycolate (Ba(TG)2) were synthesized. Their optimum synthetic techniques were discussed, and some physicochemical data were reported. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods were used to identify the structures. They were put into PVC plastic products together with antimony tris (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Sb(2EHTG)3) under the suitable compounding, and their heat stability to PVC was studied. It is shown that these barium mercaptides have remarkable synergisms with antimony mercaptides and the long-term stabilizing effect of organoantimony stabilizer can be effectively improved, reducing the amount of antimony compounds so as to avoid the decrease of its stabilizing effect.

  3. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, D. B.; Pereira, C. B.; Roig, F.; Jilinski, E.; Drake, N. A.; Chavero, C.; Silva, J. V. Sales

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scale height, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, alpha-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars can not be represented by a single gaussian distribution. The abundances of alpha-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heavy-element abundance pattern as given by the ratio [s/Fe], we found that the barium stars present several degrees of enrichment. We also obtained the [hs/ls] ratio by measuring the photospheric abundances of the Ba-peak and the Zr-peak elements. Our results indicated that the [s/Fe] and the [hs/ls] ratios are strongly anti-correlated with the metallicity. Our kinematical analysis showed that 90% of the barium stars belong to the thin disk population. Based on their luminosities, none of the barium stars are luminous enough to be an AGB star, nor to become self-enriched in the s-process elements. Finally, we determined that the barium stars also follow an age-metallicity relation.

  4. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, D. B.; Pereira, C. B.; Roig, F.; Jilinski, E.; Drake, N. A.; Chavero, C.; Sales Silva, J. V.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scaleheight, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, α-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars cannot be represented by a single Gaussian distribution. The abundances of α-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heavy-element abundance pattern as given by the ratio [s/Fe], we found that the barium stars present several degrees of enrichment. We also obtained the [hs/ls] ratio by measuring the photospheric abundances of the Ba-peak and the Zr-peak elements. Our results indicated that the [s/Fe] and the [hs/ls] ratios are strongly anticorrelated with the metallicity. Our kinematical analysis showed that 90 per cent of the barium stars belong to the thin disc population. Based on their luminosities, none of the barium stars are luminous enough to be an asymptotic giant branch star, nor to become self-enriched in the s-process elements. Finally, we determined that the barium stars also follow an age-metallicity relation.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium...

  6. Coprecipitation of iron and silver with barium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of trace contaminants of iron and silver at coprecipitation of barium fluoride is studied in present work. It is defined that iron almost completely coprecipitated with barium fluoride in wide range of ph 5.5-12. Silver coprecipitated with barium fluoride in ph range 4-7. The value of coprecipitation varies from 94% to 100%.

  7. Recrystallization of 223Ra with barium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the kinetics of barium sulfate recrystallization has been studied in acidic 0.01 mol dm-3 sodium sulfate solution using 223Ra and 133Ba tracers at very low total radium concentration, i.e. less than 10-13 mol dm-3. It was found that the system follows the homogeneous recrystallization model and that recrystallization rates, inferred by the decrease of 223Ra and 133Ba in the aqueous solution, are fast. Therefore, even at very low concentrations, below the solubility limit, radium will be retained by barium sulfate-a mineral present in the deep underground repository. (author)

  8. Printed Barium Strontium Titanate capacitors on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we show that Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) films can be prepared by inkjet printing of sol–gel precursors on platinized silicon substrate. Moreover, a functional variable capacitor working in the GHz range has been made without any lithography or etching steps. Finally, this technology requires 40 times less precursors than the standard sol–gel spin-coating technique. - Highlights: • Inkjet printing of Barium Strontium Titanate films • Deposition on silicon substrate • Inkjet printed silver top electrode • First ever BST films thinner than 1 μm RF functional variable capacitor that has required no lithography

  9. Printed Barium Strontium Titanate capacitors on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sette, Daniele [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Kovacova, Veronika [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Defay, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.defay@list.lu [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we show that Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) films can be prepared by inkjet printing of sol–gel precursors on platinized silicon substrate. Moreover, a functional variable capacitor working in the GHz range has been made without any lithography or etching steps. Finally, this technology requires 40 times less precursors than the standard sol–gel spin-coating technique. - Highlights: • Inkjet printing of Barium Strontium Titanate films • Deposition on silicon substrate • Inkjet printed silver top electrode • First ever BST films thinner than 1 μm RF functional variable capacitor that has required no lithography.

  10. Enterogastroesophageal reflux during barium enema: Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enterogastric reflux during barium enema examination has been ascribed to various causes including incompetence of the ilepcecal valve, shunt, fistula, excessive barium etc. Recently we have encountered a case of complete enterogastroesphageal regurgitation during barium enema examination performed for the reduction of the ileocolic intuosusception in 6 months old baby. The regurgitation occurred only in the first of two barium enema examinations conducted at one month interval for recurring intussusception. The barium-saline solution used in the present study was not more than 350 ml in quantity. No organic or physical causes of such a complete regurgitation could be determined

  11. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on...

  12. Impurities in barium titanate posistor ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korniyenko, S. M.; Bykov, I. P.; Glinchuk, M. J.; Laguta, V. V.; Belous, A. G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 239, - (2000), s. 1209-1218. ISSN 0015-0193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : barium titanate phase transition * ESR * positive temperature coefficient of resistivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.547, year: 2000

  13. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... established a schedule for the conduct of this review (74 FR 62587, November 30, 2010). Subsequently, counsel... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  14. Thermal decomposition of barium valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, P.; Norby, Poul; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of barium valerate (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2)/Ba-pentanoate) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage optical microscopy. Melting takes place in two different steps, at 200 degrees C and 280...

  15. Barium iron arsenide, barium cobalt arsenide, barium nickel arsenide single crystals and superconductivity upon cobalt doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronning, Filip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sefat, A S [ORNL; Mcguire, M M [ORNL; Sales, B [ORNL; Jin, R [ORNL; Mandrus, D [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure and physical properties of BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, BaCo{sub 2}As{sub 2}, and BaNi{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals are surveyed. BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} gives a magnetic and structural transition at T{sub N} = 132(1) K, BaCo{sub 2}As{sub 2} is a paramagnetic metal, while BaNi{sub 2}As{sub 2} has a structural phase transition at T{sub 0} = 131 K, followed by superconductivity below {Tc} = 0.69 K. The bulk superconductivity in Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} below {Tc} = 22 K is demonstrated by resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat data. In contrast to the cuprates, the Fe-based system appears to tolerate considerable disorder in the transition metal layers. First principles calculations for BaFe{sub 1.84}Co{sub 0.16}As{sub 2} inter-band scattering due to Co is weak.

  16. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound

  17. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Duarte, G.W. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Research Group in Technology and Information, Centro Universitário Barriga Verde (UNIBAVE), Santa Catarina, SC (Brazil); Caldart, C. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Kniess, C.T. [Post-Graduate Program in Professional Master in Management, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montedo, O.R.K.; Rocha, M.R. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Fiori, M.A., E-mail: fiori@unochapeco.edu.br [Post-Graduate Program in Environmental Science, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil); Post-Graduate Program in Technology and Management of the Innovation, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound.

  18. Iodine-131 in Cumbrian milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk was collected from twelve farms in west Cumbria on 12 October 1981, which happened to be one week after an unusual release of 131I from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield. The results presented in this brief paper provide reassurance that, in general, concentrations of 131I in milk were low, and consumption of the milk would give rise to small committed dose equivalents. The results also show that committed effective dose equivalents to infants from consumption of milk produced at the farm with the highest concentration are less than 1% of recommended limits. (U.K.)

  19. Thyroid stunning of 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expatiated that the conception, determinant standard and the contributing factors on thyroid stunning, such as dose of diagnostic of 131I, the intervals between the diagnostic scan and administration of ablation dose, which is of important guide sense for establishing clinical protocol of imaging and treatment

  20. Prospects for Barium Tagging in Gaseous Xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagging events with the coincident detection of a barium ion would greatly reduce the background for a neutrino-less double beta decay search in xenon. This paper describes progress towards realizing this goal. It outlines a source that can produce large quantities of Ba++ in gas, shows that this can be extracted to vacuum, and demonstrates a mechanism by which the Ba++ can be efficiently converted to Ba+ as required for laser identification.

  1. Production of translationally cold barium monohalide ions

    OpenAIRE

    DePalatis, M. V.; Chapman, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    We have produced sympathetically cooled barium monohalide ions BaX$^+$ (X = F, Cl, Br) by reacting trapped, laser cooled Ba$^+$ ions with room temperature gas phase neutral halogen-containing molecules. Reaction rates for two of these (SF$_6$ and CH$_3$Cl) have been measured and are in agreement with classical models. BaX$^+$ ions are promising candidates for cooling to the rovibrational ground state, and our method presents a straightforward way to produce these polar molecular ions.

  2. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, D B; Roig, F; Jilinski, E; Drake, N A; Chavero, C; Silva, J V Sales

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scale height, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, $alpha$-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code {\\sc moog}. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars can not be represented by a single gaussian distribution. The abundances of $alpha$-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heav...

  3. Barium hexaferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martirosyan, K.S., E-mail: karen.martirosyan@utb.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Galstyan, E. [Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Hossain, S.M.; Wang Yiju [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Litvinov, D. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Carbon combustion synthesis is applied to rapid and energy efficient fabrication of crystalline barium hexaferrite nanoparticles with the average particle size of 50-100 nm. In this method, the exothermic oxidation of carbon nanoparticles with an average size of 5 nm with a surface area of 80 m{sup 2}/g generates a self-propagating thermal wave with maximum temperatures of up to 1000 deg. C. The thermal front rapidly propagates through the mixture of solid reactants converting it to the hexagonal barium ferrite. Carbon is not incorporated in the product and is emitted from the reaction zone as a gaseous CO{sub 2}. The activation energy for carbon combustion synthesis of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was estimated to be 98 kJ/mol. A complete conversion to hexagonal barium ferrite is obtained for carbon concentration exceeding 11 wt.%. The magnetic properties H{sub c}{approx}3000 Oe and M{sub s}{approx}50.3 emu/g of the compact sintered ferrites compare well with those produced by other synthesis methods.

  4. Barium hexaferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon combustion synthesis is applied to rapid and energy efficient fabrication of crystalline barium hexaferrite nanoparticles with the average particle size of 50-100 nm. In this method, the exothermic oxidation of carbon nanoparticles with an average size of 5 nm with a surface area of 80 m2/g generates a self-propagating thermal wave with maximum temperatures of up to 1000 deg. C. The thermal front rapidly propagates through the mixture of solid reactants converting it to the hexagonal barium ferrite. Carbon is not incorporated in the product and is emitted from the reaction zone as a gaseous CO2. The activation energy for carbon combustion synthesis of BaFe12O19 was estimated to be 98 kJ/mol. A complete conversion to hexagonal barium ferrite is obtained for carbon concentration exceeding 11 wt.%. The magnetic properties Hc∼3000 Oe and Ms∼50.3 emu/g of the compact sintered ferrites compare well with those produced by other synthesis methods.

  5. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk. 131.110 Section 131.110 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.110 Milk. (a) Description. Milk is the lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the complete...

  6. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated milk. (a) Description. Concentrated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of...

  7. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acidified milk. 131.111 Section 131.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a) Description. Acidified milk is the food produced by souring one or more of the optional dairy...

  8. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk....

  9. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  10. 46 CFR 131.720 - Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use. 131.720 Section 131.720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 131.720 Use. (a) An approved buoyant work vest is an item of safety apparel and may be carried aboard for wear by...

  11. 5 CFR 185.131 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 185.131 Section 185.131 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.131 Sanctions. (a) The ALJ may sanction a person including any party or representative for...

  12. 40 CFR 131.40 - Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico 131.40 Section 131.40... Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.40 Puerto Rico (a) Use designations for marine waters. In addition to the Commonwealth's adopted use designations, the following waterbodies in Puerto...

  13. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  14. 19 CFR 122.131 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application. 122.131 Section 122.131 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.131 Application. (a) Liquor and tobacco. Subpart...

  15. 33 CFR 117.131 - Little River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little River. 117.131 Section 117.131 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.131 Little River. The draws of the...

  16. 9 CFR 3.131 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.131 Section 3.131... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.131 Sanitation. (a) Cleaning of enclosures. Excreta... being directly sprayed with the stream of water or wetted involuntarily. (b) Sanitation of...

  17. 24 CFR 9.131 - Direct threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct threat. 9.131 Section 9.131... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.131 Direct threat. (a) This part does not require the agency..., privileges, advantages and accommodations of that agency when that individual poses a direct threat to...

  18. 49 CFR 237.131 - Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design. 237.131 Section 237.131 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Repair and Modification of Bridges § 237.131 Design. Each repair or... component of a bridge shall be designed by a railroad bridge engineer. The design shall specify the...

  19. 28 CFR 13.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 13.1 Section 13.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ATOMIC WEAPONS AND SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIALS REWARDS REGULATIONS § 13.1 Purpose. This part implements the responsibility given to the Attorney General under the Atomic...

  20. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  1. Spasmolytic effect of peppermint oil in barium during double-contrast barium enema compared with Buscopan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asao, T.; Kuwano, H.; Ide, M.; Hirayama, I.; Nakamura, J.-I.; Fujita, K.-I.; Horiuti, R

    2003-04-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of peppermint oil in barium as a spasmolytic agent during a double-contrast barium enema (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 383 DCBEs with positive results from occult blood tests were assessed. Patients were assigned to one of four groups: peppermint in barium (n=91), peppermint in tube (n=90), Buscopan (n=105), or no treatment (n=97). After a screening sigmoidoscopy, the DCBEs were performed using air as a distending gas. In the Buscopan group, the DCBE was performed with an intramuscular injection of 20 mg Buscopan at the start of the examination. Patients in the no-treatment group underwent DCBE without any spasmolytic agent. A peppermint oil preparation (30 ml) was mixed in the barium solution for patients in the peppermint-in-barium group, and the same dose of peppermint oil was included in the enema tube in the peppermint-in-tube group. The presence of spasm on a series of spot films was evaluated without information about the type of spasmolytic agent used. RESULTS: The percentage of patients in the four groups (no treatment, Buscopan, peppermint in tube, and peppermint in barium) with absence of spasm in the entire colon on the series of spot films was 13.4, 38.1, 41.8, and 37.8%, respectively. In the group using peppermint oil or Buscopan, the rate of patients with non-spasm examination was higher than that in no-treatment group (p<0.0005). Peppermint oil had the same spasmolytic effect as the systemic administration of Buscopan in the transverse and descending colon. Peppermint oil had a stronger effect in the caecum and the ascending colon than a Buscopan injection (p<0.005). There was no advantage to placing peppermint oil in the enema tube over mixing it in the barium solution. A total of 157 polyps were found during the DCBE procedures, and no differences were observed in the number of lesions among the four groups. Peppermint oil did not impair image quality. CONCLUSION: Barium solution mixed with peppermint oil

  2. Production of fission 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of iodine separation from other radionuclides generated by 235U fission has been developed in order to explore the possibilities to obtain 131I as by-product of the 99Mo routine production in the Ezeiza Atomic Centre. The experiments were designed to remove this element to gas phase, and the recoveries were investigated both with and without carrier addition. High volatilization percentages were achieved in the presence of iodine carrier. Some other alternatives to increase the iodine displacement to the gaseous phase, namely vacuum distillation, addition of hydrogen peroxide and use of a carrier gas, were also studied. The method developed, which employs a carrier gas stream, without carrier addition, allows the recovery of about 97% of the 131I, with high specific activity, in a simple and clean way. (author)

  3. Therapeutical uses of 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiology of thyroid gland, pathology of thyroid , papillary, follicular cancer is considered together as differentiated thyroid cancer with very good results under therapy with iodine, invitro determination of calcitonin, search of metastasis, anaplastic carcinoma, as indifferentiated carcinoma with similar results as medullary carcinoma. This work gives a protocol for therapeutical use of 131I , in hyperthyroidism due to Graves-Basedow disease, thyrotoxic adenoma or Plummer disease, toxic multi nodular goiter, subacute thyroiditis. Is studied too the treatment with pharmaceuticals, surgery and radioactive iodine. A recommended use of each and protocol for iodine administration, fixed dose technique, dose estimation,absorbed dose, recommendations about when to use and not use 131I are included in this work

  4. Barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to evaluate the barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants. Retrospective evaluation of the plain abdominal radiography and barium enema findings was performed in fifteen young infants suffering with milk allergy. The presence of gaseous distension, rectal gas, paralytic ileus and mechanical obstruction was evaluated on the plain radiography. The presence of spasm, a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index and mucosal irregularity was analyzed on the barium enema; the presence of barium retention was also evaluated on 24-hour-delayed plain radiography. Paralytic ileus was the most common finding on the plain radiography (93%). On the barium enema, continuous spasm of the colon, ranging from the rectum to the descending colon, was revealed in ten infants (67%). A transitional zone was observed in one infant and a reversed rectosigmoid index was revealed in four. Mucosal irregularity was observed in two infants. Barium retention was demonstrated in 11 of fifteen cases: throughout the entire colon (n = 3), from the rectum to the descending colon (n = 7), and up to the transverse colon (n = 1). The most common barium enema finding of milk allergy in infants was spasm of the distal colon. The other findings were a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index, mucosal irregularity and barium retention

  5. Synthesis of double perxenate of lanthanum and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of double perxenate of lanthanum and barium on the basis of sodium perxenate and lanthanum and barium acetates, is described. The obtained compound is characterized by means of element analysis, x-ray-electron-, IR- and RS-spectroscopy. Its thermal stability and water solubility are determined

  6. BARIUM IN TEETH AS INDICATOR OF BODY BURDEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the biological availability of naturally occurring barium in a municipal drinking water by the analysis of barium in deciduous teeth of children. The grade school children of two Illinois towns were chosen for the study. The towns were chosen ba...

  7. Colour centres in barium hexaaluminate (phase I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colour centres produced by X-ray irradiation of barium hexaaluminate (phase I) with β-alumina structure are studied by electron paramagnetic resonance, optical absorption, and thermally stimulated luminescence. It is shown that in addition to the F+ centres characteristic of β-alumina phases, this compound presents other colour centres such as F, O-, and possibly V-type centres. The stability of these defects is investigated by means of thermal bleaching experiments and thermally stimulated luminescence. An alternative model to the generally accepted one is proposed, for the F+ centres, together with a mechanism of defect formation. (author)

  8. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  9. Duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, T.; Thommesen, P.

    An investigation for biliary tract calculi and food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal reflux was carried out in 37 patients with duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination. Sixty per cent of the diverticula were located in the descending part of the duodenum. Biliary tract calculi were demonstrated in 38 per cent and food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal reflux in 81 per cent of the patients. The detection of a duodenal diverticulum should result in a supplementary investigation for gallstones and gastrooesophageal reflux and its sequelae.

  10. Barium dithionate as an EPR dosemeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, M P; Bugay, O A; Kolesnik, S P; Maksimenko, V M; Teslenko, V V; Petrenko, T L; Desrosiers, M F

    2006-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry is growing in popularity and this success has encouraged the search for other dosimetric materials. Previous studies of gamma-irradiated barium dithionate (BaS(2)O(6) x 2H(2)O) have shown promise for its use as a radiation dosemeter. This work studies in greater detail several essential attributes of the system. Special attention has been directed to the study of EPR response dependences on microwave power, irradiation temperature, minimum detectable dose and post-irradiation stability. PMID:16565205

  11. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Dammalapati, U.; Willmann, L.; Knoop, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba), in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca does not provide other isotopes alternative to the recently Bose condensed 40Ca that suffers strong losses because of a very large scattering length. For Ba we show by using a model potential that ...

  12. Barium cardiotoxicity: Relationship between ultrastructural damage and mechanical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, G; Amerini, S; Mugelli, A

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructural damage in guinea-pig ventricular strips caused by barium was analysed. At a concentration of 1 mmol/litre, barium chloride caused a dramatic increase in the developed tension associated with the onset of automaticity. The ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that barium caused notable and consistent alterations which affected most myocyte components. Various degenerative aspects were observed in mitochondria and in the contractile apparatus. Glycogen deposits were completely depleted. Preparations driven at 4 Hz (i.e. the rate of spontaneous firing of barium-treated preparations) showed moderate ultrastructural alterations, thus demonstrating that the increase in the rate of beating is not the only determinant of the observed damage. These results suggest that the myocardial toxicity of barium is due not only to the well-known modifications in membrane permeability, but possibly also to alterations in cell function. PMID:20702358

  13. Barium and radium migration in unconsolidated Canadian geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of laboratory studies on the distribution coefficients of radium and barium in samples of unconsolidated geologic materials. Graphs of Ksub(d) versus solution concentration for the respective elements showed constant Ksub(d) values in the low concentration range suggesting that, at low concentrations, a distribution coefficient is a valid means of representing the geochemical reactions of both barium and radium. The Ksub(d) values for barium range between 60 and 3500 ml/g. The values appear to be influenced by the amount of barium occurring naturally in the soil materials and thus there is little possiblility of using barium as an analog of radium in laboratory experiments. The Ksub(d) values of radium vary from 50 to 1000 ml/g indicating that a wide range of geological materials have a substantial capacity to retard the migration of radium

  14. The Novel Formation of Barium Titanate Nanodendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Jung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles with novel dendrite-like structures have been successfully fabricated via a simple coprecipitation method, the so-called BaTiO3 nanodendrites (BTNDs. This method was remarkable, fast, simple, and scalable. The growth solution is prepared by barium chloride (BaCl2, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4, and oxalic acid. The shape and size of BaTiO3 depend on the amount of added BaCl2 solvent. To investigate the influence of amount of BaCl2 on BTNDs, the amount of BaCl2 was varied in the range from 3 to 6 mL. The role of BaCl2 is found to have remarkable influence on the morphology, crystallite size, and formation of dendrite-like structures. The thickness and length of the central stem of BTND were ~300 nm and ~20 μm, respectively. The branchings were found to occur at irregular intervals along the main stem. Besides, the formation mechanism of BTND is proposed and discussed.

  15. High resolution studies of barium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subtle structure of Rydberg states of barium with orbital angular momentum 0, 1, 2 and 3 is investigated. Some aspects of atomic theory for a configuration with two valence electrons are reviewed. The Multi Channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) is concisely introduced as a convenient way to describe interactions between Rydberg series. Three high-resolution UV studies are presented. The first two, presenting results on a transition in indium and europium serve as an illustration of the frequency doubling technique. The third study is of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in low-lying p states in Sr and Ba. An extensive study of the 6snp and 6snf Rydberg states of barium is presented with particular emphasis on the 6snf states. It is shown that the level structure cannot be fully explained with the model introduced earlier. Rather an effective two-body spin-orbit interaction has to be introduced to account for the observed splittings, illustrating that high resolution studies on Rydberg states offer an unique opportunity to determine the importance of such effects. Finally, the 6sns and 6snd series are considered. The hyperfine induced isotope shift in the simple excitation spectra to 6sns 1S0 is discussed and attention is paid to series perturbers. It is shown that level mixing parameters can easily be extracted from the experimental data. (Auth.)

  16. NANOSCALE BARIUM HYDROSILICATES: CHOOSING THE SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRISHINA Anna Nikolaevna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cement concretes are the most used materials in modern civil engineering. Due to that such materials draw great attention both in the Russian Federation and abroad. The possibility to enhance the manufacturability and operational properties of concretes results in significant reduction of overall operating costs. Many enhancement methods have been elaborated. Among them there is one based on introduction of calcium hydrosilicates into construction composition. The authors set up a hypothesis that similarity between properties and structures of different hydrosilicates (for example, alkaline earth metals and metals of the second group will provide similar increased operational characteristics. The specialists of Research and Educational Center «Nanotechnology» are developing cement composites nanomodification methods which include introduction of nanodimensional barium hydrosilicates particles. The synthesis of barium hydrosilicates particles can be done with the use of many technologies, different by energy consumption or performing complexity. Taking into account both these factors, one can assume that low-temperature sol-gel synthesis from diluted water solutions is the proper technology. The present paper shows that this assumption is correct. The selection of certain technology is made by the means of multiobjective optimization, which is in turn is performed by the means of linear scalarization. This method, while not always giving the Pareto optimal solutions, can be easily implemented. The particle size distribution is taken into consideration during selection of objectives and weights. It is shown that selected technology allows manufacturing nanoparticles with median size about 30 nm.

  17. Coprecipitation of europium with barium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution behaviour of the trivalent europium ion at a micro-component scale, between barium sulphate and aqueous solution, was studied at ambient temperature. Experiments were carried out using radioactive tracers. Results indicate an enrichment of the micro component in the solid phase relative to the solution. The effects of the concentrations of the micro and macro-elements on the coprecipitation have been examined. Europium distribution coefficient DEu increases from 1.1 ± 0.2 to 3.2 ± 0.4 when initial europium concentration decreases from more than 17 x 10-5 to 1.4 x 10-5 M, in sulphuric media with SO42- in excess or CBa2+/CSO42- Eu. The coprecipitation of europium with barium sulphate as a heterovalent solid-solution is described by heterogeneous model obeying the Doerner and Hoskins logarithmic partition law. The weaker partition coefficients lower than unity (λ = 0.25 when CEu(III) ∼ 1.4 x 10-5 M and λ = 0.13 when CBa2+/CSO42- -5 ≤ CEu(III) = 153.5 x 10-5 M) lead to crystals increasingly enriched in the trace element. (orig.)

  18. Photon attenuation characteristics of barium enriched cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear radiations are widely used in several applications of nuclear sciences, medicine and industry. In the design and construction of installations housing high intensity radioactive sources and other radiation generating equipment, a variety of shielding materials are used to minimise the exposure to the individuals. Among the materials used, lead is best known for radiation shielding due to its high density and atomic number. However, in construction of radiation facilities, lead in the form of bricks or slabs cannot be substituted for cement as building material. As an alternative, barium enriched cement, which apart from better compressive strength, smoother surface finish and high abrasive resistance, offers adequate shielding to gamma radiations. In the present work, attenuation properties of commercial as well as barium enriched cements have been studied and compared with that of lead for photons of 662 and 1250 keV emitted from 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. Although photon attenuation data can be obtained by mixture rule theoretically, it is necessary to determine this data experimentally before use

  19. Do all barium stars have a white dwarf companion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, J. F.; Lambert, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer short-wavelength, low-dispersion spectra were analyzed for four barium, two mild barium, and one R-type carbon star in order to test the hypothesis that the barium and related giants are produced by mass transfer from a companion now present as a white dwarf. An earlier tentative identification of a white dwarf companion to the mild barium star Zeta Cyg is confirmed. For the other stars, no ultraviolet excess attributable to a white dwarf is seen. Limits are set on the bolometric magnitude and age of a possible white dwarf companion. Since the barium stars do not have obvious progenitors among main-sequence and subgiant stars, mass transfer must be presumed to occur when the mass-gaining star is already on the giant branch. This restriction, and the white dwarf's minimum age, which is greater than 8 x 10 to the 8th yr, determined for several stars, effectively eliminates the hypothesis that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star creates a barium star. Speculations are presented on alternative methods of producing a barium star in a binary system.

  20. Designed microstructures in textured barium hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, David Brian

    It is a fundamental principle of materials science that the microstructure of a material defines its properties and ultimately its performance for a given application. A prime example of this can be found in the large conch shell Strombus gigas, which has an intricate microstructure extending across five distinct length scales. This microstructure gives extraordinary damage tolerance to the shell. The structure of Strombus gigas cannot be replicated in a modern engineering ceramic with any existing processing technique, so new processing techniques must be developed to apply this structure to a model material. Barium hexaferrite was chosen as a model material to create microstructures reminiscent of Strombus gigas and evaluate its structure-property relations. This work describes novel processing methods to produce textured barium hexaferrite with no coupling between the sample geometry and the texture direction. This technique, combining magnetic field-assisted gelcasting with templated grain growth, also allows multilayer samples to be fabricated with different texture directions in adjacent layers. The effects of adding either B2O3 or excess BaCO 3 on the densification and grain growth of barium hexaferrite was studied. The texture produced using this technique was assessed using orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These measurements showed peak textures as high as 60 MRD and sharp interfaces between layers cast with different texture directions. The effect of oxygen on the quality of gelcasting is also discussed, and it is shown that with proper mold design, it is possible to gelcast multiple layers with differing texture directions without delamination. Monolithic and multilayer samples were produced and tested in four point bending to measure the strength and work of fracture. Modulus measurements, made with the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique, show clear signs of microcracking in both the isotropic and textured samples

  1. Chemical composition of Eu2+ luminescence in the barium hexaaluminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of two parts. In the first part the chemical composition of two kinds of barium hexaaluminate (one poor and one rich in barium) is explained using the local electroneutrality concept. In the second part a reinvestigation of the Eu2+ luminescence in these compounds is reported. The emission spectrum of each of the two compounds shows a blue and a green emission bank. The blue emission bank is ascribed to Eu2+ ions at barium sites, whereas the green emission band is identified with Eu2+ ions incorporated at aluminum sites within spinel blocks of the structure

  2. Magic Wavelength of an Optical Clock Transition of Barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Similar to most of the other alkaline earth elements, barium atoms can be candidates for optical clocks, thus the magic wavelength for an optical lattice is important for the clock transition. We calculate the magic wavelength of a possible clock transition between 6s21S0 and 6s5d3 D2 states of barium atoms. Our theoretical result shows that there are three magic wavelengths 615.9nm, 641.2nm and 678.8nm for a linearly polarized optical lattice laser for barium. (atomic and molecular physics)

  3. A novel barium polymeric membrane sensor for selective determination of barium and sulphate ions based on the complex ion associate barium(II)-Rose Bengal as neutral ionophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A.M. [Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Minufiya University, Sadat City (Egypt); El-Shahawi, M.S. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science at Damiatta, Mansoura University, Damiatta, Dumyat 34517 (Egypt)]. E-mail: mohammad_el_shahawi@yahoo.co.uk; Abdel-Azeem, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science at Damiatta, Mansoura University, Damiatta, Dumyat 34517 (Egypt)

    2006-01-12

    A simple, long life, rapid response and sensitive barium(II)-PVC membrane sensor that typically follows Nernstian behavior has been developed for the assay of barium(II) ions. The developed sensor has been made by incorporating the complex ion associate of barium(II)-Rose Bengal (Ba-RB) as an ionophore into a plasticized PVC matrix. The sensor is stable and exhibited fast potential response of 20 s and gave a good linear response with a Nernstian slope of 28.5 {+-} 0.4 mV/decade of activity within the concentration range 5 x 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -1} M over a wide range of pH 4.5-10.0 for barium(II) ions. The developed sensor showed comparatively good selectivity for barium(II) ions with respect to other alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The plasticizer o-nitrophenyloctyl ether controlled significantly the calibration slope and the lifetime of the fabricated sensor. The proposed sensor was used successfully for the analysis of barium(II) ions in wastewater samples and in lithophone pigment with excellent recovery percentages in the range 98.9-99.8 {+-} 1.6%. The determination of sulphate in fresh and potable water samples with the developed sensor has been also achieved successfully. The described sensor provides a reliable means with good correlation with the data obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and other spectrophotometric methods for the analysis of trace amounts of barium(II) and/or sulphate ions in different matrices.

  4. A novel barium polymeric membrane sensor for selective determination of barium and sulphate ions based on the complex ion associate barium(II)-Rose Bengal as neutral ionophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, long life, rapid response and sensitive barium(II)-PVC membrane sensor that typically follows Nernstian behavior has been developed for the assay of barium(II) ions. The developed sensor has been made by incorporating the complex ion associate of barium(II)-Rose Bengal (Ba-RB) as an ionophore into a plasticized PVC matrix. The sensor is stable and exhibited fast potential response of 20 s and gave a good linear response with a Nernstian slope of 28.5 ± 0.4 mV/decade of activity within the concentration range 5 x 10-5 to 10-1 M over a wide range of pH 4.5-10.0 for barium(II) ions. The developed sensor showed comparatively good selectivity for barium(II) ions with respect to other alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The plasticizer o-nitrophenyloctyl ether controlled significantly the calibration slope and the lifetime of the fabricated sensor. The proposed sensor was used successfully for the analysis of barium(II) ions in wastewater samples and in lithophone pigment with excellent recovery percentages in the range 98.9-99.8 ± 1.6%. The determination of sulphate in fresh and potable water samples with the developed sensor has been also achieved successfully. The described sensor provides a reliable means with good correlation with the data obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and other spectrophotometric methods for the analysis of trace amounts of barium(II) and/or sulphate ions in different matrices

  5. Theoretical isotope shifts in neutral barium

    CERN Document Server

    Nazé, Cédric; Godefroid, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with a set of problems in isotope shifts of neutral barium spectral lines. Some well known transitions ($6s^2~^1S_0-6s6p~^{1,3}P^o_1$ and $6s^2~^1S_0-6p^2~^3P_0$) are first investigated. Values of the changes in the nuclear mean-square charge radius are deduced from the available experimental isotope shifts using our ab initio electronic factors. The three sets $\\{ \\delta\\langle r^2\\rangle^{A,A'}\\} $ obtained from these lines are consistent with each other. The combination of the available nuclear mean-square radii with our electronic factors for the $6s5d~^3D_{1,2} -6s6p~^{1}P^o_1$ transitions produces isotope shift values in conflict with the laser spectroscopy measurements of Dammalapati et al. (Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 1 (2009)).

  6. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, G C; Spite, M; Chen, Y Q; Zhao, G; Zhang, B; Liu, G Q; Liu, Y J; Liu, N; Deng, L C; Spite, F; Hill, V; Zhang, C X

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicity and microturbulent velocity) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their light elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-ca...

  7. Analysis of europium doped luminescent barium thioaluminate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东璞; 喻志农; 薛唯; 章婷; 丁瞾; 王武育

    2010-01-01

    Europium-doped barium thioaluminate sputtering target was synthesized by powder sintering method and thin film was deposited by radio frequency(RF) sputtering.X-ray diffractometer(XRD) pattern indicated that the main compound of the target was BaAl4S7.Oxygen was the main impurity which led to the formation of BaAl2O4.It was shown that both BaAl4S7 and BaAl2S4 were contained in the as-grown thin films and a 471.7 nm emission peak in the PL spectra appeared due to a combination of BaAl4S7:Eu2+ and BaAl2S4:Eu2...

  8. Barium hexaferrite ferrofluids - preparation and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R.; Hiergeist, R.; Steinmetz, H.; Ayoub, N.; Fujisaki, M.; Schüppel, W.

    1999-07-01

    Barium hexaferrite BaFe 12-2 xTi xCo xO 19 ferrofluids have been prepared for the first time using oleic acid as surfactant and Isopar M ® as carrier liquid. The initial susceptibility versus temperature for zero-field cooling of the ferrofluid was obtained by a vibrating sample magnetometer. TEM pictures of the fluid show isolated particles and only small agglomerates and a mean particle diameter of approx. 8 nm. Numerical calculations of the magneto-viscous effect, based on the local-equilibrium magnetic state model, clearly show the benefit for Ba-ferrite ferrofluids resulting from the high uniaxial anisotropy compared to magnetite ferrofluids. Rheological measurements were performed with a rotational-type viscometer with magnetic field perpendicular to the hydrodynamic vortex axis.

  9. 7 CFR 946.131 - Issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance. 946.131 Section 946.131 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... duly authorized agents, shall give prompt consideration to each application for an...

  10. 7 CFR 4279.131 - Credit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit quality. 4279.131 Section 4279.131 Agriculture... Credit quality. The lender is primarily responsible for determining credit quality and must address all of the elements of credit quality in a written credit analysis including adequacy of equity,...

  11. 40 CFR 436.131 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 436.131 Section 436.131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Subcategory §...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property...

  13. 40 CFR 141.131 - Analytical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket, 1301... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical requirements. 141.131... Disinfection Byproduct Precursors § 141.131 Analytical requirements. (a) General. (1) Systems must use only...

  14. 40 CFR 131.12 - Antidegradation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Antidegradation policy. 131.12 Section 131.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER... or social development in the area in which the waters are located. In allowing such degradation...

  15. Radar absorption properties of doped barium hexaferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since the 1950s, it has been known that barium hexaferrite exhibits a ferrimagnetic resonance at about 48 GHz. Early research was directed at finding dopants that would increase this frequency to enable the preparation of lossless waveguide components. However, more recent efforts have explored the potential of doped barium hexaferrite as a radar absorbing material in the low GHz frequency range. In particular, Nedkov et al demonstrated that partial substitution of the iron with cobalt-titanium, to give Ba(Co0.5Ti0.5)xFe11.9-xMn0.1O19 with x = 1.6, could reduce the ferrimagnetic resonance frequency to 15 GHz. The small amount of manganese was included 'to improve the dielectric properties' of the material. In this work we increased the doping to x = 2.2 to arrive at a resonance frequency of just 1.35 GHz, which lies within the operational frequency range of typical airborne early warning and control (AEWAC) radar systems. An increase in the resonance signal at this concentration is believed to be associated with the onset of a switch from axial to planar magnetocrystalline anisotropy, as reported by Kreisel et al . It is uncertain why our resonance frequency for x = 2.2 is significantly lower than the value of 2.56 GHz reported elsewhere for a Mn-free specimen with x = 2.6. Chromium was also tested as a new dopant material but proved unsuccessful in reducing the resonant frequency below 40 GHz, the upper limit of the microwave network analyser that was employed. All specimens were prepared using solid state reaction of stoichiometric amounts of oxides and carbonates, and characterised using x-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy

  16. The Karlsruhe 4π barium fluoride detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new experimental approach has been implemented for accurate measurements of neutron capture cross sections in the energy range from 5 to 200 keV. The Karlsruhe 4π Barium Fluoride Detector consists of 42 crystals shaped as hexagonal and pentagonal truncated pyramids forming a spherical shell with 10 cm inner radius and 15 cm thickness. All crystals are supplied with reflector and photomultiplier, thus representing independent gamma-ray detectors. Each detector module covers the same solid angle with respect to a gamma-ray source located in the centre. The energy resolution of the 4π detector is 14% at 662 keV and 7% at 2.5 MeV gamma-ray energy, the overall time reslution is 500 ps and the peak efficiency 90% at 1 MeV. The detector allows to register capture cascades with 95% probability above a threshold energy of 2.5 MeV in the sum energy spectrum. Neutrons are produced via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction using the pulsed proton beam of a Van de Graaff accelerator. The neutron spectrum can be taylored according to the experimental requirements in an energy range from 5 to 200 keV by choosing appropriate proton energies. A collimated neutron beam is passing through the detector and hits the sample in the centre. The energy of captured neutrons is determined via time of flight, the primary flight path being 77 cm. The combination of short primary flight path, a 10 cm inner radius of the spherical BaF2 shell, and the low capture cross section of barium allows to discriminate background due to capture of sample scattered neutrons in the scintillator by time of flight, leaving part of the neutron energy range completely undisturbed. (orig./HSI)

  17. Upper gastrointestinal barium evaluation of duodenal pathology: A pictorial review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj; Gupta; Uma; Debi; Saroj; Kant; Sinha; Kaushal; Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Like other parts of the gastrointestinal tract(GIT), duodenum is subject to a variety of lesions both congenital and acquired. However, unlike other parts of the GIT viz. esophagus, rest of the small intestine and large intestine, barium evaluation of duodenal lesions is technically more challenging and hence not frequently reported. With significant advances in computed tomography technology, a thorough evaluation including intraluminal, mural and extramural is feasible in a single non-invasive examination. Notwithstanding, barium evaluation still remains the initial and sometimes the only imaging study in several parts of the world. Hence,a thorough acquaintance with the morphology of various duodenal lesions on upper gastrointestinal barium examination is essential in guiding further evaluation. We reviewed our experience with various common and uncommon barium findings in duodenal abnormalities.

  18. Liquid-phase-deposited barium titanate thin films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a mixture of hexafluorotitanic acid, barium nitrate and boric acid, high refractive index (1.54) barium titanate films can be deposited on silicon substrates. The deposited barium titanate films have featureless surfaces. The deposition temperature is near room temperature (800C). However, there are many fluorine and silicon incorporations in the films. The refractive index of the as-deposited film is 1.54. By current-voltage measurement, the leakage current of the as-deposited film with a thickness of 1000 A is about 9.48x10-7 A cm-2 at the electrical field intensity of 0.3 MV cm-1. By capacitance-voltage measurement, the effective oxide charge of the liquid-phase-deposited barium titanate film is 3.06x1011 cm-2 and the static dielectric constant is about 22. (author)

  19. Synthesis, photoluminescence and magnetic properties of barium vanadate nanoflowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jing [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China); Hu, Chenguo, E-mail: hucg@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xi, Yi [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China); Peng, Chen [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Wan, Buyong; He, Xiaoshan [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Graphical abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate was obtained for the first time. The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. Research highlights: {yields} In the paper, the flower-shaped barium vanadate were obtained for the first time. The CHM method used here is new and simple for preparation of barium vanadate. {yields} The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. The strong bluish-green emission was observed. {yields} The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers was found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g. {yields} The mechanisms of PL and magnetic property of barium vanadate nanoflowers have been discussed. -- Abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate has been obtained by the composite hydroxide mediated (CHM) method from V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and BaCl{sub 2} at 200 {sup o}C for 13 h. XRD and XPS spectrum of the as-synthesized sample indicate it is hexagonal Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} with small amount of Ba{sub 3}VO{sub 4.8} coexistence. Scan electron microscope and transmission electron microscope display that the flower-shaped crystals are composed of nanosheets with thickness of {approx}20 nm. The UV-visible spectrum shows that the barium vanadate sample has two optical gaps (3.85 eV and 3.12 eV). Photoluminescence spectrum of the barium vanadate flowers exhibits a visible light emission centered at 492 and 525 nm which might be attributed to VO{sub 4} tetrahedron with T{sub d} symmetry in Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers has been found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, which is mainly due to the presence of a non

  20. Lifetime Measurement for 6snp Rydberg States of Barium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Li; WANG Lei; YANG Hai-Feng; LIU Xiao-Jun; LIU Hong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    @@ We present a simple and efficient method for measuring the atomic lifetimes in order of tens of microseconds and demonstrate it in the lifetime determination of barium Rydberg states.This method extracts the lifetime information from the time-of-flight spectrum directly, which is much more efficient than other methods such as the time-delayed field ionization and the traditional laser induced fluorescence.The lifetimes determined with our method for barium Rydberg 6snp(n=37-59)series are well coincident with the values deduced from the absolute oscillator strengths of barium which were given in the literature [J.Phys.B 14(1981)4489, 29(1996)655]on experiments.%We present a simple and efficient method for measuring the atomic lifetimes in order of tens of microseconds and demonstrate it in the lifetime determination of barium Rydberg states. This method extracts the lifetime information from the time-of-flight spectrum directly, which is much more efficient than other methods such as the time-delayed field ionization and the traditional laser induced fluorescence. The lifetimes determined with our method for barium Rydberg 6snp (n=37-59) series are well coincident with the values deduced from the absolute oscillator strengths of barium which were given in the literature [J. Phys. B 14 (1981) 4489, 29 (1996) 655] onexperiments.

  1. Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive barium titanate and strontium barium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors measured the low-frequency (''unclamped'') electrooptic and piezoelectric coefficients in undoped BaTiO/sub 3/ and Sr/sub x/Ba/sub 1-x/Nb/sub 2/O/sub 6/ (chi - 0.61) crystals using interferometric techniques. The contribution of the piezoelectric effect to the Pockels measurement is discussed. For an applied ac electric field in the range 0.1-200 V/cm, the electrooptic and piezoelectric effects are linear in the magnitude of of the applied field and independent of its frequency in the range of 10 Hz-100 kHz. The unclamped electrooptic coefficients of poled BaTiO/sub 3/ single crystals are r/sub 13/ = 19.5 +- 1 pm/V and r/sub 33/ = 97 +- 7 pm/V, and for strontium barium niobate are r/sub 13/ = 47 +- 5 pm/V and r/sub 33/ = 235 +- 21 pm/V, all measured at a wavelength of 514.5 nm and at T = 230C. For the barium titanate samples the measured Pockels coefficient r/sub c/ identical to r/sub 33/ - (n/sub 1//n/sub 3/)/sup 3/r/sub 13/ = 79 +- 6 pm/V in good agreement with the value r/sub c/ = 76 +- 7 pm/V computed from the above values of r/sub 13/ and r/sub 33/, where n/sub 1/ and n/sub 3/ are the ordinary and extraordinary indexes of refraction, respectively. The measured piezoelectric coefficient is d/sub 23/ = +28.7 +- 2 pm/V for barium titanate, and is d/sub 23/ = +24.6 +- 2 pm/V for strontium barium niobate. They also measured the photoreflective coupling of two optical beams in the crystals, and they show that the dependence of the coupling strength on beam polarization is in fair agreement with the measured values of the Pockels coefficients

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHR131 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHR131 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16471-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHR...131Z 757 - - - - Show CHR131 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHR131 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHR1-B/CHR131Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHR131 (CHR131Q) /CSM/CH/CHR1-B/CHR131Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXTGAAAAT...A/SFC806Q.Seq.d/ 944 0.0 CHR131 (CHR131Q) /CSM/CH/CHR1-B/CHR131Q.Seq.d/ 944 0.0 CHQ337 (CHQ337Q) /CSM/CH/CHQ

  3. Magnetoresistance studies on barium doped nanocrystalline manganite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An energetically attractive, simple, fast and a novel low temperature (300 deg. C) solution combustion route for the synthesis of crystalline and homogeneous nanoparticles of lanthanum barium manganese oxide La0.9Ba0.1MnO3+δ (LBMO) is reported. Formation and homogeneity of the solid solutions have been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) respectively. The Rietveld analysis shows both as-formed as well as calcined samples are in cubic phase with space group pm3m. The microstructure and agglomerated particle size of the compounds are examined by scanning electron microscope. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that both Mn-O-Mn bending mode and Mn-O stretching mode are influenced by calcination temperature. The magnetoresistance measurement on sintered LBMO pellet exhibits a broad metal-insulator transition (TM-I) at around 228 K. At 1 T applied magnetic field, LBMO shows magnetoresistance (MR) of 10%, whereas for 4 and 7 T, the negative magnetoresistance values are in the range 51 and 59% respectively at TM-I. The experimental resistivity data of the present investigation are fitted to a simple empirical equation in order to understand conduction mechanism in this compound

  4. Optical properties of calcium barium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on optical measurements on the novel tungsten bronze type calcium barium niobate. [001]-oriented transparent and colorless single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method with dimensions of 12 mm in diameter and about 80 mm in length. With its relatively high Curie temperature of about 538 K for the congruently melting composition of 28.1 mole% calcium and its high nonlinear coefficients, CBN is a promising material for future applications. Recent experiments revealed, that the application of an external electric field of several kV/cm to CBN at room temperature leads to an increasing opacity of the sample. This might be a drawback considering the future usability of CBN in optical systems. We present investigations on the transmittance behaviour of CBN under external electric fields, demonstrating the erasement of the clouding without affecting the polarization. Experiments have been performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature to approximately 480 K. When heating up the sample, its colorless appearance changes to a light yellow, which can be attributed to a shift of the band edge to longer wavelengths with increasing temperature. To further investigate the transmittance properties of CBN, measurements of the band edge under various temperatures up to the ferroelectric phase transition have been performed.

  5. Leachability of barium-radium sulphate sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results from the first phase of a research program designed to examine the leachability of radium-226 from barium-radium sulphate sludges. Batch leaching tests were performed. Results showed that liquid:solid contact time was relatively unimportant; radium in the sludge was stable in the presence of deionized water with a slight increase in the amount leached per gram of sludge occurring at higher liquid:solid ratios. Not unexpectedly, low and high values of leachant pH increased radium leaching. Both monovalent and divalent salt solutions also increased leaching; however, dissolved radium-226 activity levels in the leachate decreased as leachant molarity increased. For divalent salts this can be explained by the common ion effect; for monovalent salts it is opposite to results expected from solubility considerations. The interpretation of all results is complicated by the fact that in most tests, the amount of radium-226 present in the leachate was lower than the calculated contribution from the mother liquour present with the sludge. This apparent ability of the sludge to absorb radium from solution may be related to dissolution and reprecipitation of the sludge during the leaching tests

  6. Chemical compositions of four barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Y C; Chen, Y Q; Qiu, H M; Zhang, B

    2003-01-01

    Chemical compositions of four barium stars HD 26886, HD 27271, HD 50082 and HD 98839 are studied based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise Echelle spectra. Results show that all of them are disk stars. Their \\alpha and iron peak elements are similar to the solar abundances. The neutron-capture process elements are overabundant relative to the Solar. The heavy-element abundances of the strong Ba star HD 50082 are higher than those of other three mild Ba stars. Its mass is 1.32Msun (+0.28,-0.22Msun), and is consistent with the average mass of strong Ba stars (1.5Msun). For mild Ba star HD 27271 and HD 26886, the derived masses are 1.90Msun (+0.25,-0.20Msun) and 2.78Msun (+0.75,-0.78M_sun), respectively, which are consistent with the average mass of mild Ba stars. We also calculate the theoretical abundances of Ba stars by combining the AGB stars nucleosynthesis and wind accretion formation scenario of Ba binary systems. The comparisons between the observed abundance patterns of the sample stars with the th...

  7. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with I-131. Depending on the amount of radioactivity administered during your treatment, your endocrinologist or radiation ... it begins destroying the gland's cells. Although the radioactivity from this treatment remains in the thyroid for ...

  8. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131IDZ (131I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  9. Lifetimes of Excited Levels in 131Ce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-Sheng; LI Xian-Feng; WEN Li-Jun; ZHENG Yong-Nan; ZHENG Yong; LIU Yun-Zuo; YUAN Guan-Jun; YANG Chun-Xiang; MENG Rui; ZHU Li-Hua; ZHANG Zhen-Long; WANG Yue; WANG Zhi-Min; WEN Shu-Xian; LU Jing-Bin; ZHAO Guang-Yi

    2004-01-01

    @@ The fusion-evaporation reaction 116Sn (1gF, p3n) 131 Ce at projectile energy of 95 MeV is used to populate high spin states in 131 Ce. The de-exciting γ-rays are detected in γ-γ coincidence measurement with Compton-suppressed BGO-HPGe detectors. Level lifetimes of 131 Ce were determined by using the Doppler shift attenuation method.The experimental results indicate that collectivity of 131 Ce is reduced relative to that of 130 Ce and it follows that deformation decreases with increase of the neutron number on the basis of systematic comparison of transition quadrupole moments for the light cerium isotopes.

  10. The diagnostic value of barium enema in acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute appendicitis is the most common acute surgical condition of the abdomen. When the clinical presentation is atypical, barium enema has proven to be safe and useful in confirming the diagnosis and reducing the negative surgical exploration. However, the performance of barium enema in acute appendicitis has known contraindication primarily because of fear of leakage by perforation of the inflamed appendix. This study using barium enema as a diagnostic aid in acute appendicitis with atypical clinical presentation was performed to further support the previously noted efficacy and safety of this procedure. The results were as followings: 1. In case of acute appendicitis with atypical clinical presentation, the use of barium enema as a diagnostic aid increased the accuracy of diagnosis and decreased the negative surgical exploration. In women between 11 to 50 years old age, especially, it played important role differentiating appendicitis from nonsurgical acute abdomen. 2. The results of the study were 92.31% in sensitivity, 7.69% in false positive, 6.9% in false negative, and 10.26% in negative appendectomy. 3. None of case of leakage of barium by perforation of the inflamed appendix was noted, therefore, barium enema was thought to be safe as a diagnostic aid in acute appendicitis. 4. A simple partial or non filling of appendix without other associated positive finding could not exclude appendicitis, therefore, close clinical observation was necessary. 5. The positive findings of barium enema and their sensitivity were as followings: 1. Non filling of appendix: 90% 2. Partial filling of appendix: 91.7% 3. Displacement or a local impression on terminal ileum: 100%

  11. 131I–Tositumomab in lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, M.C.; MacEachern, J.A.; Haynes, A.E.; Meyer, R.M.; Imrie, K.; ,

    2009-01-01

    Radioimmunoconjugates are radioisotope-bound monoclonal antibodies that target radiation specifically to sites of lymphoma involvement. Initial studies of 131I–tositumomab in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (nhl) have suggested benefit in patients with relapsed or refractory indolent disease. However, the routine adoption of this agent is tempered by concerns about associated toxicities and unclear long-term benefit. Based on a comprehensive search for studies on 131I–tositumomab use in lymphoma, this s...

  12. Preparation of barium hexaferrite powders using oxidized steel scales waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, Ardita; Idayanti, Novrita; Kristiantoro, Tony

    2016-02-01

    Research on preparation of barium hexaferrite powders has been done using Hot Strip Mill scales as raw materials. Hot Strip Mill scales are oxidized steel scales waste from steel industrial process. The method used for preparing the barium hexaferrite powders was solid state reaction method. Oxidized steel scales were milled using ball mill for 10 hours, then screened through a 250 mesh sieve to obtain powders with maximum size of 63 µm. Powders were roasted at 600°C temperature for 4 hours to obtain hematite (Fe2O3) phase. Roasted powders were then mixed with barium carbonate, and were subsequently milled for 16 hours. After mixing, powders were calcined with an increasing rate of 10°C/min and maintained at 1100°C for 3 hours. Calcination process was performed to acquire barium hexaferrite phase. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization in conjunction with RIR analysis showed that 85 wt. % of barium hexaferrite is formed. The magnetic properties of powders were characterized using Permagraph. It is found the value of remanent induction is 1.09 kG, coercivity of 2.043 kOe, and the maximum energy product of 0.25 MGOe.

  13. Barium Depletion in the NSTAR Discharge Cathode After 30,000 Hours of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of barium released by impregnant materials in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. Examinations of cathode inserts from long duration ion engine tests show deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of barium from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of barium transport in the insert plasma indicates that the barium partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant barium-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress barium loss in the upstream part of the insert. New measurements of the depth of barium depletion from a cathode insert operated for 30,352 hours reveal that barium loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis.

  14. Studies of hexacelsian and celsian barium aluminosilicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuo-Tong

    1998-09-01

    The first part of this work (chapter 3) describes the reaction paths leading to the formation of BaAlsb2Sisb2Osb8 (BAS) from a mixture of gamma-BaCOsb3,\\ alpha-Alsb2Osb3, and amorphous SiOsb2 powders. Heat treatments conducted from 600 to 1200sp°C in air were used to transform the powder mixtures into hexacelsian BAS. The phase evolution to BAS was examined by x-ray diffraction. Several experiments were designed to microscopically reproduce the solid-solid interfaces expected during the synthesis of BAS and enabled the author to describe the different stages of the reaction. There exist two reaction paths in formation of BAS in this study: (1) formation of a series of barium silicates leading to BaO*2SiOsb2 (BSsb2) which then reacts with Alsb2Osb3 to form BAS and (2) formation of BaO*Alsb2Osb3 (BA) which then reacts with SiOsb2 to form BAS. The kinetics of the latter is slower than that of the former because the reaction between BaO*Alsb2Osb3 and SiOsb2 to form BAS includes a bond breaking process. The second part (chapter 4) of this research was undertaken to study the role of additives on the kinetics of the transformation of hexacelsian to celsian. Pre-synthesized hexacelsian powders doped with various additives were heated at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1400sp°C for 4 hrs. Semi-quantitative analysis of XRD was used to determine the extent of the hexacelsian-to-celsian transformation. This work was extended further to investigate the mechanisms involved in the transformation. Defect structures developed in the additive-containing celsian provide insights about the sites occupied by the cations added. Experimental results indicate that the doping of ˜0.99A cations in promoting the conversion of hexacelsian to celsian is by forming an interstitial solid solution in hexacelsian and ˜0.66A cations form a substitutional solid solution. In a kinetic study on the CaO- or MgO-enhanced transformation, values of rate constant, k, and Avlami constant, n, at

  15. Occupational doses in pediatric barium meal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation has become an indispensable tool when it comes to diagnosis and therapy. However, its use should happen in a rational manner, taking into account the risks to which the staff is being exposed. Barium meal (BM), or upper gastrointestinal (GI) studies, using fluoroscopy, are widely used for gastroesophageal reflux disease diagnostic in children and professionals are required to stay inside the examination room to position and immobilize pediatric patients during the procedure. Therefore, it is very important that proffessionals strictly follow the technical standards of radiation protection. According to the ICRP and the NCRP recommendations, the annual limit equivalent doses for eyes, thyroid and hands are, espectively, 20 mSv, 150 mSv and 500 mSv. Based on those data, the aim of the current study is to estimate the annual equivalent dose for eyes, thyroid and hands of professionals who perform BM procedures in children. This was done using properly package LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosimeters in 37 procedures; 2 pairs were positioned near each staff´s eye, 2 pairs on each professional´s neck (on and under the lead protector) and 2 pairs on both staff´s hands. The range of the estimative annual equivalent doses, for eyes, thyroid and hands, are, respectively: 14 – 36 mSv, 7 – 22 mSv and 14 – 58 mSv. Only the closest staff to the patient exceeded the annual equivalent doses in the eyes (around 80% higher than the limit set by ICRP). However, the results from this study, for hands and thyroid, compared to similar studies, show higher values. Therefore, the optimization implementation is necessary, so that the radiation levels can be reduced. (authors)

  16. Hypothyroidism following 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 890 patients who received 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism, the results of therapy were examined on 584 who could be followed up. Of these 502 (86%), were sured including 3 patients who had been completely healed after recurrence, 9 patients are still under medical treatment, and 10 died. The incidence of hypothyroidism following 131I therapy was 1.6% after 1 year, 2.3% after 2 years, 4.7% after 5 years, 15.0% after 10-12 years, 22.1% after 13-15 years and 27.5% after 16-20 years. The incidence increased constantly with the passage of time. Factors influencing the response to treatment have been investigated. As a consequence, the number of rads delivered to the thyroid gland, the gland size, and previous surgery correlated with the incidence of hypothyroidism. The number of doses of 131I, uptake and half-life of 131I in the thyroid, previous antithyroid medication, time between the onset of hyperthyroid symptoms and 131I therapy, and the age or sex of the patients appeared unrelated. The times taken to become euthyroid following a single dose of 131I were 5.6 months with 2000-4000 rads, 4.4 months with 4001-7000 rads, 4.2 months with 7001-10000 rads and 3.5 months with more than 10001 rads. The time was prolonged with decrease of rads delivered to the thyroid gland. It was found that the patients who passed through a transient hypothyroid phase in the period of three to four months after administration of 131I had a high incidence of late permanent hypothyroidism. (Evans, J.)

  17. Method for the extraction chromatographic separation of barium from other elements with dibenzo-18-crown-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for the extraction chromatographic separation of barium from 0.01 M picric acid solution with dibenzo-18-crown-6 coated on hydrophobic silica gel as the stationary phase. Various mineral acids can be used as stripping agents. Barium was separated from other elements by selective extraction and the separation of barium from alkali and alkaline earth metals, uranium, thorium and lead was achieved. The method was applied to the determination of barium in real samples. (author)

  18. Electron microscopy of barium bismuth titanate multilayer ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a number of years bismuth containing compounds have been used with pre-calcined barium titanate to reduce the sintering temperature of the capacitor formulations. As reported earlier the backscattered electron (BSE) SEM micrographs of the bismuth containing barium titanate ceramic reveal that the grains having an average size of 1.2μm consist of a two phase structure consisting of relatively pure barium titanate grain cores surrounded by bismuth rich grain shells. The TEM and STEM studies along with the EDS analyses show that the bismuth concentration increases sharply as one steps towards the grain boundary with a maximum bismuth content at the grain boundary. It is the purpose of this work to investigate the distribution of bismuth in these formulations including the bismuth content, if any, at the ceramic metal interface as affected by the sintering temperature. The subsequent effect on the electrical resistivity of these ceramics in the multilayer configuration is reported

  19. Economically dissolving barium sulfate scale with a chelating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.E.

    1977-06-21

    A composition is described for dissolving a barium sulfate scale from a subterranean or other relatively remote location into which fluid can be flowed. Fluid is flow-flowed into the remote location so that a stream of fluid contacts and flows along the surface of the scale. The composition and flow rate of the fluid are adjusted so that (1) the scale is contacted by a stream of aqueous solution in which each portion contains enough dissolved aminopolyacetic acid salt chelating agent to dissolve barium sulfate, and (2) substantially all upstream portions of the scale are contacted by a succession of portions of the aqueous liquid which are substantially unsaturated with respect to dissolved barium-chelant complex. (5 claims)

  20. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  1. Radiation dose in mass screening for gastric cancer with high-concentration barium sulphate compared with moderate-concentration barium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recently, high-concentration barium sulfate has been developed and is used in many medical facilities. This study compared radiation dose using high-concentration and moderate-concentration barium sulfate. The dose was evaluated with an experimental method using a gastric phantom and with a clinical examination. In the former, the dose and X-ray tube load were measured on the phantom with two concentrations of barium sulfate. In the latter, the fluoroscopic dose-area product (DAP), the radiographic DAP and their sum, the total DAP, were investigated in 150 subjects (112 males, 38 females) treated with both concentrations of barium sulfate. The effective dose was calculated by the software of PCXMC in every case. The results of the experimental evaluation indicated that the effective dose and X-ray tube load were greater with high-concentration barium sulfate than with moderate-concentration barium sulfate (p < 0.05). The results of the clinical evaluation indicated that the fluoroscopic DAP was greater with moderate-concentration barium sulfate than with high-concentration barium sulfate (p < 0.05), but the radiographic DAP was quite the reverse, so the total DAP and effective dose were almost same with both concentrations of barium sulfate. We conclude that high-concentration barium sulfate does not increase radiation dose in mass screening for gastric cancer.

  2. I-131 originating from nuclear medicine in German rivers; Nuklearmedizinisches {sup 131}I in deutschen Fluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Helmut W. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 1 - Physik; Strobl, Christopher [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Dienststelle Muenchen; Gellermann, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    The OSPAR agreement obligates the German government to determine and report the annual I-131 insertion from German rivers into the Northern Atlantic Ocean. In the frame of a research program the I-131 concentrations were determined in the rivers Elbe, Weser, Ems and Rhein that allowed the evaluation of the contamination load into the Northern Sea using a balance model.

  3. Reaction sintering of a zirconia-containing barium feldspar ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon (ZrSiO4) is a natural mineral resource known to react with certain oxides to produce a dispersion of zirconia particles within ceramic or glass-ceramic matrices. Barium aluminosilicates, particularly the celsian polymorphs of BaO- Al2O3 2SiO2 display oxidation resistance and refractory characteristics commensurate with the properties required of high temperature materials. Such properties, coupled with the high melting point of ZrO2 (2680 deg C), suggest that barium aluminosilicates and zirconia are an ideal combination from which to fabricate high temperature materials. A recent study has indicated that a barium aluminosilicate containing up to 40mol% ZrO2 can be prepared via a sol-gel process. However, the desire to utilise a natural resource in the form of zircon in the present work has led to the choice of reaction sintering as an alternative processing route. The current work was undertaken to investigate the possibility of forming a zirconia-containing barium feldspar composite material using the reaction sintering of zircon and assuming the following stoichiometric reaction: 2ZrSiO4 + BaCO3 + Al2O3 → 2ZrO2 + BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2 + CO2 ↑. The reaction sintering of zircon with alumina and barium carbonate produces a composite material comprising distributed ZrO2 in a continous barium feldspar matrix. Yttria added during processing allows a significant fraction of the ZrO2 to be retained as tetragonal phase to room temperature and thus the potential for a measure of transformation toughening

  4. Reaction sintering of a zirconia-containing barium feldspar ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, A.; Cheng, Y-B.; Muddle, B. C. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) is a natural mineral resource known to react with certain oxides to produce a dispersion of zirconia particles within ceramic or glass-ceramic matrices. Barium aluminosilicates, particularly the celsian polymorphs of BaO- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 2SiO{sub 2} display oxidation resistance and refractory characteristics commensurate with the properties required of high temperature materials. Such properties, coupled with the high melting point of ZrO{sub 2} (2680 deg C), suggest that barium aluminosilicates and zirconia are an ideal combination from which to fabricate high temperature materials. A recent study has indicated that a barium aluminosilicate containing up to 40mol% ZrO{sub 2} can be prepared via a sol-gel process. However, the desire to utilise a natural resource in the form of zircon in the present work has led to the choice of reaction sintering as an alternative processing route. The current work was undertaken to investigate the possibility of forming a zirconia-containing barium feldspar composite material using the reaction sintering of zircon and assuming the following stoichiometric reaction: 2ZrSiO{sub 4} + BaCO{sub 3} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {yields} 2ZrO{sub 2} + BaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-2SiO{sub 2} + CO{sub 2} {up_arrow}. The reaction sintering of zircon with alumina and barium carbonate produces a composite material comprising distributed ZrO{sub 2} in a continous barium feldspar matrix. Yttria added during processing allows a significant fraction of the ZrO{sub 2} to be retained as tetragonal phase to room temperature and thus the potential for a measure of transformation toughening. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P.; Shukla, R.; Prabaharan, T.; Shyam, A.

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO3) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 Ω load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber.

  6. Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P; Shukla, R; Prabaharan, T; Shyam, A

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 Ω load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber. PMID:22129008

  7. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or...

  8. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  10. The adhesiometer: a simple device to measure adherence of barium sulfate to intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonowitz, E; Frick, M P; Cragg, A H; Lund, G

    1984-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive device assessing barium sulfate adherence to alimentary tract mucosa was tested in an animal study using pigs and dogs. Interaction of gastric, intestinal, and colonic mucosal lining with three different barium preparations was studied. In both pigs and dogs, barium adherence to gastric mucosa was significantly stronger when compared with colonic mucosa. PMID:6608230

  11. Leukaemia incidence after iodine-131 exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukaemia is one of the most prominent late effects of exposure to ionising radiation. We have studied the incidence of leukaemia among 46 988 Swedish patients exposed to iodine-131 (131I) for diagnostic reasons or to treat hyperthyroidism or thyroid cancer. The observed number of leukaemias was compared with that expected based on incidence data from the general population. The mean absorbed dose to the bone marrow was estimated as 14 mGy. 195 leukaemias occurred more than 2 years after exposure, and the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.09. Similar increased risks were seen for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) (SIR = 1.08), a malignant condition not found to be increased after irradiation, and for non-CLL (SIR = 1.09). The risk of leukaemia did not vary by sex, age, time, or radiation dose from 131I. One reason for the absence of a radiation effect includes the possible lowering of risk when exposure is protracted over time as occurs with 131I. Excess leukaemia risks of more than 25% could thus be excluded with high assurance in this population of mainly adults. These results should be reassuring to patients exposed to 131I in medical practice and to most individuals exposed to the fall-out from the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

  12. Leukaemia incidence after iodine-131 exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Per (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of General Oncology); Boice, J.D. Jr. (National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States). Div. of Cancer Etiology); Berg, Gertrud (Sahlgren' s Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of General Oncology) (and others)

    1992-07-04

    Leukaemia is one of the most prominent late effects of exposure to ionising radiation. We have studied the incidence of leukaemia among 46 988 Swedish patients exposed to iodine-131 ([sup 131]I) for diagnostic reasons or to treat hyperthyroidism or thyroid cancer. The observed number of leukaemias was compared with that expected based on incidence data from the general population. The mean absorbed dose to the bone marrow was estimated as 14 mGy. 195 leukaemias occurred more than 2 years after exposure, and the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.09. Similar increased risks were seen for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) (SIR = 1.08), a malignant condition not found to be increased after irradiation, and for non-CLL (SIR = 1.09). The risk of leukaemia did not vary by sex, age, time, or radiation dose from [sup 131]I. One reason for the absence of a radiation effect includes the possible lowering of risk when exposure is protracted over time as occurs with [sup 131]I. Excess leukaemia risks of more than 25% could thus be excluded with high assurance in this population of mainly adults. These results should be reassuring to patients exposed to [sup 131]I in medical practice and to most individuals exposed to the fall-out from the Chernobyl accident. (Author).

  13. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis characterized by barium esophagography: a case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-05-21

    Abstract Introduction Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is a rare condition characterized by the dilatation of the submucosal glands. Case presentation We present a case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis in a 72-year-old Caucasian man who presented with dysphagia and with a background history of alcohol abuse. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy of our patient showed an esophageal stricture with abnormal mucosal appearances, but no malignant cells were seen at biopsy. Appearances on a barium esophagram were pathognomonic for esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis. Conclusion We demonstrate the enduring usefulness of barium esophagography in the characterization of abnormal mucosal appearances at endoscopy.

  14. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of barium zirconyl oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of the thermal decomposition of anhydrous barium zirconyl oxalate and a carbonate intermediate have been studied. Decomposition of the anhydrous oxalate, though it could be explained based on a contracting-cube model, is quite complex. Kinetics of decomposition of the intermediate carbonate Ba2Zr2O5CO3 is greatly influenced by thermal effects during its formation. (α-t) curves are sigmoidal and obey a power law equation followed by first order decay. Presence of carbon in the vacuum-prepared carbonate has a strong deactivating effect. Decomposition of the carbonate is accompanied by growth in particle size of the product barium zirconate. (Author)

  15. Photoionization and Photoelectric Loading of Barium Ion Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, A V; Churchill, L R; Griffin, P F

    2007-01-01

    Simple and effective techniques for loading barium ions into linear Paul traps are demonstrated. Two-step photoionization of neutral barium is achieved using a weak intercombination line (6s2 1S0 6s6p 3P1, 791 nm) followed by excitation above the ionization threshold using a nitrogen gas laser (337 nm). Isotopic selectivity is achieved by using a near Doppler-free geometry for excitation of the triplet 6s6p 3P1 state. Additionally, we report a particularly simple and efficient trap loading technique that employs an in-expensive UV epoxy curing lamp to generate photoelectrons.

  16. Photoionization and Photoelectric Loading of Barium Ion Traps

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, A. V.; Churchill, L. R.; Griffin, P. F.; Chapman, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Simple and effective techniques for loading barium ions into linear Paul traps are demonstrated. Two-step photoionization of neutral barium is achieved using a weak intercombination line (6s2 1S0 6s6p 3P1, 791 nm) followed by excitation above the ionization threshold using a nitrogen gas laser (337 nm). Isotopic selectivity is achieved by using a near Doppler-free geometry for excitation of the triplet 6s6p 3P1 state. Additionally, we report a particularly simple and efficient trap loading t...

  17. Equations of state for barium in high-pressure phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The universal equation of state with an arbitrary reference point presented by the author (Fang Zheng-Hua 1998 Phys. Rev. B 50 16 238) is applied successfully to the analysis of the experimental compression data of barium in different structural phases (I, II, and V). The comparison given in this paper shows that this equation suits for the isothermal compression behaviour of barium in the high-pressure phases (II and V) better than the Birch-Murnaghan equation. The applicability of equations of state for solids in high-pressure phases is also discussed. (author)

  18. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Chao; Liang, Yan-Chun; Spite, Monique; Chen, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Yu-Juan; Liu, Nian; Deng, Li-Cai; Spite, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ξt) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, α- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the α- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.

  19. Contamination with iodine-131 in metabolic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-dose radioactive iodine therapy using 131I is the treatment of choice for patients with thyroid cancer following thyroidectomy. Because of the large amount of activity which is excreted during hospitalization, contamination harzard from 131I excretion via perspiration, saliva, breath and urine may arise. In twelve patients treated with doses of 131I ranging from 1.85-7.4GBq activity levels were measured in room surface, the toilet, patients saliva and skin. Removable activity from skin reached a maximum at 24h post-therapy. Removable activity from room surfaces exceed the level of contamination which requires clean-up in a public area during patient's hospitalization. The relatively high activities present in the saliva and skin of these patients emphasizes the need for all individuals coming in contact with these patients to be made aware of the contamination hazard present. (author)

  20. Genotypic and Phenotypic Profiles of Escherichia coli Isolates Belonging to Clinical Sequence Type 131 (ST131), Clinical Non-ST131, and Fecal Non-ST131 Lineages from India

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Arif; Ranjan, Amit; Nandanwar, Nishant; Babbar, Anshu; Jadhav, Savita; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2014-01-01

    In view of the epidemiological success of CTX-M-15-producing lineages of Escherichia coli and particularly of sequence type 131 (ST131), it is of significant interest to explore its prevalence in countries such as India and to determine if antibiotic resistance, virulence, metabolic potential, and/or the genetic architecture of the ST131 isolates differ from those of non-ST131 isolates. A collection of 126 E. coli isolates comprising 43 ST131 E. coli, 40 non-ST131 E. coli, and 43 fecal E. col...

  1. BARIUM AND RADIUM REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER BY ION EXCHANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the applicability of weak acid exchange resin in the hydrogen form for removal of hardness, barium and radium from groundwater. Weak acid resin in the hydrogen form eliminates the addition of sodium to drinking water. The capac...

  2. PROPOSED ORAL REFERENCE DOSE (RFD) FOR BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a database of EPA's consensus opinion of the human health effects that may result from exposure to various substances found in the environment. A Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary were prepared for barium and compounds in 1998 ...

  3. Barium titanate inverted opals-synthesis, characterization, and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soten, I.; Miguez, H.; Yang, S.M.; Petrov, S.; Coombs, N.; Tetreault, N.; Ozin, G.A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Matsuura, N.; Ruda, H.E. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    2002-01-01

    The engineering of cubic or tetragonal polymorphs of nanocrystalline barium titanate inverted opals has been achieved by thermally induced transformations. Optical characterization demonstrated photonic crystal behavior of the opals. The tuning of the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition around the Curie temperature is shown in this paper. (orig.)

  4. Nanocrystals formation on Ho3+ doped strontium barium niobate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of two different methods to obtain strontium barium niobate nanocrystals immersed in a glass matrix has been carried out. Ho2O3-doped SrO-BaO-Nb2O5-B2O3 glasses were fabricated using the melt quenching method. Glass ceramic samples were obtained from the precursor glass by thermal treatment in a furnace and by laser irradiation. These glass ceramic samples are formed by a glassy phase and a crystalline phase of strontium barium niobate nanocrystals. This structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Atomic Force Microscope images. The incorporation of Ho3+ ions in the strontium barium niobate nanocrystals were corroborated by optical measurements, which produced an increment in the luminescence intensity compared to the precursor glass. - Research Highlights: →Ho doped strontium barium niobate nanocrystals have been obtained. →XRD, AFM and optical measurements corroborate the formation of SBN. →A laser irradiation technique has been carried out successfully.

  5. Removal of barium and radium from groundwater. Environmental research brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research project was undertaken to investigate processes for removing barium and radium from drinking water. Special emphasis was placed on ion exchange processes that can be used without adding large concentrations of sodium to the water. The wastes from radium and barium removal processes were also characterized, and processes suitable for treatment of ion-exchange brines were evaluated. The report discusses two ion-exchange processes that can be used for barium and radium removal accompanied by either partial or no hardness removal. The calcium-form, strong-acid ion-exchange resin can be used for barium and radium removal without significant change in hardness or the concentration of other salts. This resin can be regenerated with CaC12 brine. The radium-selective complexer (RSC) will remove radium without altering hardness or other salt concentration. The capacity of this resin for waters with low total dissolved solids (TDS) (<1000 to 2000 mg/L TDS) is in excess of 30,000 pCi/dry g; however, if the TDS is increased to about 40,000 mg/L, the capacity drops to 200 to 300 pCi/dry g. Thus using this resin to remove radium from spent brine does not appear feasible

  6. CNO and F abundances in the barium star HD 123396

    CERN Document Server

    Alves-Brito, Alan; Yong, David; Meléndez, Jorge; Vásquez, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] Barium stars are moderately rare chemically peculiar objects which are believed to be the result of the pollution of an otherwise normal star by material from an evolved companion on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). We aim to derive carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine abundances for the first time from infrared spectra of the barium red giant star HD 123396 to quantitatively test AGB nucleosynthesis models for producing barium stars via mass accretion. High-resolution and high S/N infrared spectra were obtained using the Phoenix spectrograph mounted at the Gemini South telescope. The abundances were obtained through spectrum synthesis of individual atomic and molecular lines, using the MOOG stellar line analysis program together with Kurucz's stellar atmosphere models. The analysis was classical, using 1D stellar models and spectral synthesis under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We confirm that HD 123396 is a metal-deficient barium star ([Fe/H] = -1.05), with A(C) = 7.88, A...

  7. The effect of 131I on salivary glands function in 131I treated thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary glands can accumulate 131I and may damage its function during 131I treated thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study is to understand the extent of the injury and its relation with dosage after high-dose radioiodine therapy. Radionuclide dynamic imaging is used to quantitatively calculate the absorption rate and excretion rate of salivary glands. There was no significant difference between patients group and normal controls in absorption rate (P > 0.05), but there existed difference in excretion rate (P 37 MBq but among the groups with dosage 131I treatment

  8. APMP comparison of activity measurements of I-131 (APMP.RI(II)-K2.I-131)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international comparison of activity measurements of 131I (APMP.RI(II)-K2.I-131) was carried out within the framework of the Asia-Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP). Seven laboratories took part in the comparison, and five of them undertook absolute measurements. One ampoule containing the same radioactive solution as that used in the APMP comparison was sent to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in order to link the APMP comparison to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.I-131 comparison and to evaluate degrees of equivalence with the key comparison reference value (KCRV). (authors)

  9. Ultra-low temperature processing of barium tellurate dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Do-Kyun

    Ceramics, metals and polymers have unique electrical properties that are combined for electronic devices and systems. It necessitates lower processing temperatures for ceramics to be compatible with metal and polymer systems. In this thesis, the synthesis, crystal structure, and dielectric properties of barium tellurate are studied for temperatures between 500 and 900°C. Barium tellurate dielectric ceramics (BaTe4O9, BaTe 2O5, BaTe2O6, BaTeO3, BaTeO 4, and Ba2TeO5) are extensively investigated as new LTCC (Low-Temperature Cofired Ceramics) dielectric systems integrated with low resistivity metal electrodes such as silver and aluminum for microwave application. Studies on the phase formation and crystal structure through thermal analyses (Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetric Analysis, DSC-TGA) and X-ray diffraction phase analysis attest that barium tellurates are formed in the temperature range of 500 ˜ 900°C, through the sequential phase formations from Te-rich to Ba-rich phases. The oxygen coordination of the tellurium ion progresses from TeO4 to TeO6 via TeO 3+1 and TeO3 with increasing barium content as confirmed by structural analysis using infrared spectroscopy. High density barium tellurate ceramics are achieved at temperatures as low as 550°C, which provides the potential to be co-fired with low-melting aluminum metal electrodes in LTCC processing. Dielectric permittivity, loss, and temperature stability of barium tellurate dielectric ceramics were measured from 100 Hz to 13 GHz. Barium tellurate ceramics exhibit excellent microwave dielectric properties with intermediate dielectric permittivities and high quality factors (Q). The dielectric properties at microwave frequencies are epsilonr = 17.5, Qxf = 54700 GHz, TCf = -90 ppm/°C for BaTe4O9, epsilonr = 21, Qxf = 50300 GHz, TCf = -51 ppm/°C for BaTe2O6, epsilonr = 10, Qxf = 34000 GHz, TCf = -54 ppm/°C for BaTeO3, and epsilonr = 17, Qx f = 49600 GHz, TCf = -124 ppm/°C for Ba 2TeO5

  10. 24 CFR 886.131 - Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assistance under this part, the audit requirements in 24 CFR part 44 shall apply. (b) Where a nonprofit... requirements of 24 CFR part 45 shall apply. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit. 886.131 Section...

  11. Treatment of hyperthyroidism by 131-iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first time, we chose to modify the dose to be administered, on using always the Marinelli formula but on increasing the absorbed dose. In a second time, we wanted to simplify the determination of the dose to be administered by modulating it only in function of the thyroid volume. Two groups of patients were managed for hyperthyroidism recurrence. In a first group the iodine dose (131I) was determined with the help of the simplified Marinelli formula: chosen absorbed dose was 150 Gy, gland volume determined by echography, measurement of the fixation at the sixth hour. In the second group, the thyroid volume was determined by echography. The patients with a thyroid from 5 to 30 g received 185 MBq, from 30 to 50 g 370 MBq and superior to 50 g 555 MBq of iodine 131. The two groups of patients have the same characteristics. the results of treatment by iodine 131, evaluated on the dosages of T4L and TSH at three and six months, show the preservation of euthyroidism or the passage in hypothyroidism among 94% of patients in the group 1 and 80% of patients in the group 2. These results are not significantly different. The easiness of the realisation of the treatment in the group 2 lead us to continue this simplified therapy scheme that allows equally to improve the radiation protection of medical personnel by avoiding the use of iodine 131. (N.C.)

  12. Radiochromatographic Determination of 131I Labeled Eugenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zümrüt Biber Müftüler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic phytochemicals are a broad class of nutraceuticals found in plants which have been extensively researched by scientists for medicinal potential. Eugenol, a phenolic natural compound available in the essential oils primarily extracted from clove plants, has been exploited for various medicinal applications. It possesses antioxidant, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The goal of current study was to extract Eugenol compound from clove plant and radiolabel the eugenol with 131I which is a well known radioisotope for imaging and therapy in Nuclear Medicine by utilizing iodogen method. The yield of radiolabeling of Eugenol (131I-E was calculated over 80% by Thin Layer Radio Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Radio Chromatograpy methods. Structural analysis of Eugenol was confirmed by Liguid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy. Lipophilicity and stability studies were performed. Due to the attachment of iodine to Eugenol, radioiodinated Eugenol was more lipophilic. Stability of 131I-E was appropriate for study period. All experimental results suggest that 131I labeled Eugenol compound may be used in the applications of Nuclear Medicine as a radiolabeled agent for imaging and therapy on various cancer types.

  13. Radioiodine 131I metabolism in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic fate of orally administered 131I in human was studied. Chronological observations of whole body radioactivity distribution and thyroid 131I uptake curve revealed that 131I metabolism was greatly affected by the amount of dietary iodine intake. Under the high iodine intake exceeding 1 mg per day, uptake curve showed biphasic descending type, that is, rapid accumulation during 3 to 6 hours and rapid fall up to 48 hours and gradual decrease afterwards. While, ascending type, monophasic and maximal at 24 hours, was found universary under low iodine intake less than 500 μg per day. Thyroid function should not be affected by the amount of iodine intake, and we analysed 131I metabolism using a new four compartments which included intrathyroidal inorganic iodine pool. The results, especially hormone production rate, were found quite useful even under high iodine intake. Thyroidal organic iodine contents were calculated as approximately 2.5 mg and this value was much less than previously reported values from other countries. Administered radioiodine were mixed up with stable body iodine and reached equilibration by around 10 days. From seroimmunological, histological (microscopic and electron microscopic) studies, and irradiation studies to the cultured human thyroid cells, we concluded that this unexpected phenomenon was derived from chromosomal damage which induced gradual decrease in cell population because of inability to reproduce. Carcinogenic and genetic effects were not serious, and only three leukemic patients were reported in this country and 484 normal babies were born from 7,500 treated parents. Thus, therapeutic dose of 131I was proved rather safe, and even when exposed to radioiodine, administration of perchlorate or thiocyanate, excessive iodine and TSH seemed effective to avoid radiation injuries. (auth.)

  14. 131I Metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I MIBG) kinetics in a carcinoid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 131I-MIBG kinetics was studied in vivo in patients with carcinoid tumors and liver metastases. Activity curve analysis showed that the maximum uptake of 131I-MIBG in a carcinoid tumor occurred after 48 hours, while its biological half time was of 8 days and a half. Although more data are necessary to understand a significant variation in 131I-MIBG kinetics between the different kinds of APUD neoplasms, it is thought that a dynamic-funtional study allowing the evaluation of the different biological half-time, could be helpful for the selection of these neoplasms, which could be treated with 131I-MIBG. Radiation doses required for the treatment are also estimated. (M.E.L.)

  15. Disposition of 131I proinsulin in the rat comparisons with 131I insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patterns of disposition of intravenously injected doses of 131I proinsulin and 131I insulin were compared in the rat with respect to plasma clearance, uptake, and degradation in selected organs and tissues, and rates of accumulation of degraded products in plasma and urine. The studies indicate that the differences in dose dependency in plasma clearance and degradation of 131I insulin and 131I proinsulin can be attributed to differences in relative uptakes and degradation by the liver and kidneys. The liver appeared to be the major organ involved in the removal and degradation of insulin, whereas the kidney appeared to be the major organ involved in the case of proinsulin. The hepatic process was rapid but relatively saturable, whereas the kidney process was slower but relatively unsaturable. The inverse relationship between initial concentration of hormone in plasma and uptake by liver suggests that the ratio may provide a sensitive index of the role of the liver in plasma hormone clearance

  16. Observation of high spin levels in 131Cs from 131Ba decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sainath; Dwaraka Rani Rao; K Venkataramaniah; P C Sood

    2003-12-01

    The - and conversion electron spectra following 131Ba -decay are investigated, using HPGe detector and mini-orange electron spectrometer. Attention is particularly focussed on identifying weak transitions associated with low energy high spin levels in 131Cs level scheme earlier inferred in reaction studies but not yet observed in 131Ba decay. Our experiment identifies 15 new gammas and 6 new conversion lines in this decay. Internal conversion coefficients and multipolarities of several transitions are determined. Five new levels (3 with =7/2+ and one each with =9/2+ and 11/2-) are introduced in the 131Cs level scheme based on our observations taken together with the results from reaction studies. Spin-parity assignments to a few other levels are also suggested.

  17. 21 CFR 131.147 - Dry whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry whole milk. 131.147 Section 131.147 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.147 Dry whole milk. (a) Description. Dry whole milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk, as...

  18. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  19. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who maintain...

  20. Merkel cell carcinoma and iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnoli, A.; Biti, G.; De Cristofaro, M.T.R.; Papi, M.G. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiopatologia); Ferri, P. (Florence Univ. (Italy). U.O. Medicina Nuclear USL 10D); Magrini, S.M. (Florence Univ. (Italy). U.O. Radioterapia USL 10D); Bianchi, S. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Anatomia Patologica)

    1992-10-01

    Two cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, a neuroendocrine neoplasia of the skin, investigated with iodine, 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 131}I-mIBG) scintigraphy, are reported. Uptake in the tumor was evident only in 1 case. The possible diagnostic and therapeutic role of {sup 131}I-mIBG in patients with this rare neoplasm is discussed. (orig.).

  1. 46 CFR 201.131 - Presentation of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presentation of evidence. 201.131 Section 201.131... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Procedures (Rule 13) § 201.131 Presentation of evidence. (a) Testimony... specifically encouraged to cooperate with each other in joint presentations particularly in such items as...

  2. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

  3. 40 CFR 92.131 - Smoke, data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoke, data analysis. 92.131 Section 92.131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.131 Smoke, data analysis. The following procedure shall be...

  4. 46 CFR 131.960 - Use of auto-pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto-pilot. 131.960 Section 131.960 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.960 Use of auto-pilot. When the automatic pilot is used in areas of high traffic...

  5. 46 CFR 131.870 - Life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life floats and buoyant apparatus. 131.870 Section 131.870 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.870 Life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) The name of the vessel must be plainly...

  6. Dicty_cDB: AFJ131 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFJ131 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - AFJ131P (Link to Original site) AFJ131F ... 2e-07 2 CO486735 |CO486735.1 GQ0209.B7_A07 GQ020: Clean ... ROOTS systems -Diurnal cycle Picea glauca cDNA clo ...

  7. Merkel cell carcinoma and iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, a neuroendocrine neoplasia of the skin, investigated with iodine, 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-mIBG) scintigraphy, are reported. Uptake in the tumor was evident only in 1 case. The possible diagnostic and therapeutic role of 131I-mIBG in patients with this rare neoplasm is discussed. (orig.)

  8. 46 CFR 131.420 - Manning and supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manning and supervision. 131.420 Section 131.420 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Sufficiency and Supervision of Crew of Survival Craft § 131.420 Manning and supervision. (a) There must...

  9. 20 CFR 1001.131 - Secretary's annual report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Secretary's annual report to Congress. 1001.131 Section 1001.131 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT... Compliance § 1001.131 Secretary's annual report to Congress. The Secretary shall report, after the end...

  10. 47 CFR 87.131 - Power and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and emissions. 87.131 Section 87.131... Technical Requirements § 87.131 Power and emissions. The following table lists authorized emissions and... Authorized emission(s) 9 Maximum power 1 Aeronautical advisory VHF A3E 10 watts. 10 Aeronautical multicom...

  11. 46 CFR 131.710 - Approved work vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved work vests. 131.710 Section 131.710 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 131.710 Approved work vests. Each buoyant work vest carried aboard must be approved under subpart...

  12. 46 CFR 131.955 - Display of merchant mariner credential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Display of merchant mariner credential. 131.955 Section 131.955 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.955 Display of merchant mariner credential. Each officer on a vessel...

  13. Surface studies of barium and barium oxide on tungsten and its application to understanding the mechanism of operation of an impregnated tungsten cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Surface studies have been made of multilayer and monolayer films of barium and barium oxide on a tungsten substrate. The purpose of the investigation was to synthesize the surface conditions that exist on an activated impregnated tungsten cathode and obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of operation of such cathodes. The techniques employed in these measurements were Auger spectroscopy and work-function measurements. The results of this study show that the surface of an impregnated cathode is identical to that observed for a synthesized monolayer or partial monolayer of barium on oxidized tungsten by evaluating Auger spectra and work-function measurements. Data obtained from desorption studies of barium monolayers on a tungsten substrate in conjunction with Auger and work-function results have been interpreted to show that throughout most of its life an impreganated cathode has a partial monolayer, rather than a monolayer, of barium on its surface.

  14. Design, testing, fabrication and launch support of a liquid chemical barium release payload (utilizing the liquid fluorine-barium salt/hydrazine system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A payload was designed which included a cryogenic oxidizer tank, a fuel tank, and burner section. Release of 30 lb of chemicals was planned to occur in 2 seconds at the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio. The chemicals consisted of 17 lb of liquid fluorine oxidizer and 13 lb of hydrazine-barium salt fuel mixture. The fuel mixture was 17% barium chloride, 16% barium nitrate, and 67% hydrazine, and contained 2.6 lb of available barium. Two significant problem areas were resolved during the program: explosive valve development and burner operation. The release payload was flight tested, from Wallops Island, Virginia. The release took place at an altitude of approximately 260 km. The release produced a luminous cloud which expanded very rapidly, disappearing to the human eye in about 20 seconds. Barium ion concentration slowly increased over a wide area of sky until measurements were discontinued at sunrise (about 30 minutes).

  15. Radiosensitizers action on Iodine 131 therapeutical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present studies were aimed to research the possible application of a radiosensitizer, nicotinamide, to increase the therapeutical effect of radioiodine. There were used goitrous and normal rats with growing dose of Iodine 131, with and without simultaneous treatment with nicotinamide. The obtained results show that the nicotinamide treatment importantly increases the thyroid radio destructive effect induced by radioiodine. Under these experimental conditions, nicotinamide induces to a significant increase of thyroid vascularisation, without changes in the proteins ADP-ribosylation activity. These results show, for the first time, the radiosensitizer effect of nicotinamide in front of Iodine 131 and give the possibility of using it in the treatment of hyperthyroid or thyroid difference cancer patients. (author)

  16. Adverse effects of 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DTC is considered the most common endocrine neoplasm, and 131I therapy has been proven to be an important component in the management strategy. Currently, most research focuses on the adverse effects of radiation exposure to 131I therapy. Some results, based on large-scale and long-term investigation,show new information. Although 131I therapies are usually well tolerated, clinicians involved in the management of DTC need to be aware of the potential toxicity of 131I and take all measures to reduce these effects to a minimum. The aim of this review is to present the adverse effects of 131I therapy for DTC. (authors)

  17. Dicty_cDB: CFE131 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lkxxksexxg*npixixppgnflkkkxpkgrgk Frame C: ---ppppxn*kkaxpxirtxlxx*xxx...quence (All Frames) Frame A: ---XPRXLXIKKKPXQXLGPXXXIKXXKIRXXGLKSYLXXPPRKFFKKKXPERPRE Frame B: ---xpaxxxlkksqxkx*dpfxx...CF (Link to library) CFE131 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U03177-1 CFE131Z (Link... to Original site) - - CFE131Z 162 - - - - Show CFE131 Library CF (Link to library) Clone ID CFE131 (Link to dictyBase...) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U03177-1 Original site URL http://dict

  18. Electromagnetic properties of photodefinable barium ferrite polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Sholiyi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the magnetic and microwave properties of a Barium ferrite powder suspended in a polymer matrix. The sizes for Barium hexaferrite powder are 3–6 μm for coarse and 0.8–1.0 μm for the fine powder. Ratios 1:1 and 3:1 (by mass of ferrite to SU8 samples were characterized and analyzed for predicting the necessary combinations of these powders with SU8 2000 Negative photoresist. The magnetization properties of these materials were equally determined and were analyzed using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM. The Thru, Reflect, Line (TRL calibration technique was employed in determining complex relative permittivity and permeability of the powders and composites with SU8 between 26.5 and 40 GHz.

  19. Barium titanate nanoparticles: promising multitasking vectors in nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziana Genchi, Giada; Marino, Attilio; Rocca, Antonella; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Ceramic materials based on perovskite-like oxides have traditionally been the object of intense interest for their applicability in electrical and electronic devices. Due to its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric features, barium titanate (BaTiO3) is probably one of the most studied compounds of this family. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been focused on the exploitation of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) in the biomedical field, owing to the high biocompatibility of BTNPs and their peculiar non-linear optical properties that have encouraged their use as nanocarriers for drug delivery and as label-free imaging probes. In this review, we summarize all the recent findings about these ‘smart’ nanoparticles, including the latest, most promising potential as nanotransducers for cell stimulation.

  20. HYBRID AND CHARACTERISTIC OF POLYANILINE- BARIUM TITANATE NANOCOMPOSITE PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Polyaniline-barium titanate (PAn-BaTiO3) ultrafine composite particles were prepared by the oxidative polymerization of aniline with H2O2 while barium titanate nanoparticles were synthesized with a sol-gel method. The infrared spectrogram shows that the polymerization of PAn in the hybrid process of PAn-BaTiO3 is similar with the polymeric process of pure aniline, and there is interaction of PAn and BaTiO3 in the PAn-BaTiO3. SEM and TEM results show that the average diameter of the composite particles is 1.50 μm and the diameters of BaTiO3 nanoparticles are 5-15 nm in the composite particle. The electrical conductivity of the ultrafine composite particles is transformable from 100 to 10-11S/cm by equilibrium doping or dedoping method using various concentration of HCl or NaOH solutions.

  1. Thermophysical properties of americium-containing barium plutonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline specimens of americium-containing barium plutonate have been prepared by mixing the appropriate amounts of (Pu0.91Am0.09)O2 and BaCO3 powders followed by reacting and sintering at 1600 K under the flowing gas atmosphere of dry-air. The sintered specimens had a single phase of orthorhombic perovskite structure and were crack-free. Elastic moduli were determined from longitudinal and shear sound velocities. Debye temperature was also determined from sound velocities and lattice parameter measurements. Thermal conductivity was calculated from measured density at room temperature, literature values of heat capacity and thermal diffusivity measured by laser flash method in vacuum. Thermal conductivity of americium-containing barium plutonate was roughly independent of temperature and registered almost the same magnitude as that of BaPuO3 and BaUO3. (author)

  2. Barium titanate nanoparticles: promising multitasking vectors in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Marino, Attilio; Rocca, Antonella; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-06-10

    Ceramic materials based on perovskite-like oxides have traditionally been the object of intense interest for their applicability in electrical and electronic devices. Due to its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric features, barium titanate (BaTiO3) is probably one of the most studied compounds of this family. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been focused on the exploitation of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) in the biomedical field, owing to the high biocompatibility of BTNPs and their peculiar non-linear optical properties that have encouraged their use as nanocarriers for drug delivery and as label-free imaging probes. In this review, we summarize all the recent findings about these 'smart' nanoparticles, including the latest, most promising potential as nanotransducers for cell stimulation. PMID:27145888

  3. A monitor of airborne 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study was conducted of the designing problems of a monitor for air contamination by 131I, i.e., choice of the detector, optimization of the configuration of the adsorbent-detector system, choice of the pump and the interaction of the pump and the adsorbent. A comparison was made of beta and gamma detectors suitable for 131I monitoring. The background was determined for each detector and their sensitivity determined using a 131I source of known activity. The relative sensitivity of the individual detectors was calculated with regard to detector SKW U 04. The ambient area of the SKG-1 detector (45 mm diameter by 50 mm thick) was scanned using a 131I point detector (1x1 mm) to assess the effect of adsorbent shape, size and location on detector efficiency, and the dependence of the sensitivity of well-type scintillators on the position of the source along the well axis was determined. The pumping characteristics of four different pumps are given, i.e., the dependence of the volume flow rate of pumped air on the pressure loss at the pump inlet, the dependence of pressure losses on the flow rate of pumped air for selected adsorption materials, and the values of the specific resistance of filtration materials. Based on the experiments, two monitor designs are suggested, one portable and the other stationary. The portable monitor is equipped with a semiconductor PSC detector and a diaphragm pump, and filtration paper impregnated with activated carbon is used as the adsorbent. The stationary monitor uses a transversely bored 60 mm diameter by 50 mm thick NaI(Tl) crystal. The adsorbent bed is located in the crystal's through-hole which is 16.5 mm in diameter. A stationary air-pump is used. (B.S.)

  4. Adrenal scanning with 131I-19-cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical experience of adrenal scanning with 131I-19-cholesterol and discuss its clinical usefulness. Adrenal scanning was performed for 21 patients with hypertension. One millicurie of 131I-19-cholesterol was injected intravenously and adrenal scannings were taken 6 to 11 days after injection with a rectilinear scanner or a gamma camera. No patient had an untoward reaction to the radiopharmaceutical. Confirmed diagnosis was obtained in 7 of 21 patients, i.e., 3 cases of primary aldosteronism, 1 idiopathic aldosteronism, 1 Cushing's syndrome and 2 cases of the essential hypertension. Among all of the primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome, adrenal scanning gave clear evidence of concentration of radioactivity at the site of tumor. In the idiopathic aldosteronism of our study, uptake of radioactivity was brightly visible on the right, while uptake by the left gland was inhibited, so this case was diagnosed incorrectly as primary aldosteronism. The kidney scan with 203Hg-chlormerodrin obtained without moving the patient after an adrenal scan was very useful for getting information of anatomical site of the activity. The effective half-life was calculated as 1.83 days by means of sequential profile whole-body scannings, and the total-body absorbed radiation dose was estimated as 0.65 rad/mCi by using MIRD pamphlets. Our conclusion is that the adrenal scanning with 131I-19-cholesterol is very useful for localization of the functional adrenal cortical tumor. (author)

  5. Thyroid cancer following diagnostic iodine-131 administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide quantitative data on the risk of thyroid cancer following 131I exposure, 34104 patients administered 131I for diagnostic purposes were followed for up to 40 years. Mean thyroid dose was estimated as 1.1 Gy, and 67 thyroid cancers occurred in contrast to 49.7 expected [standardized incidence ratio (SIR)=1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.71]. Excess cancers were apparent only among patients referred because of a suspected thyroid tumor and no increased risk was seen among those referred for other reasons. Further, risk was not related to radiation dose to the thyroid gland, time since exposure, or age at exposure. The slight excess of thyroid cancer, then appeared due to the underlying thyroid condition and not radiation exposure. Among those under age 20 years when 131I was administered, a small excess risk (3 cancers vs 1.8 expected) was about 2-10 times lower than that predicted from A-bomb data. These data suggest that protraction of dose may result in a lower risk than acute x-ray exposure of the same total dose

  6. Determination of I-131 in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our country, in the near future, an isotope center will be in operation, and due to its characteristics, it is possible the discharge of radionuclides to the atmosphere during its normal exploitation, as well as in case of accident. Considering the kind and the concentration of the radioactive material released to the atmosphere, the possible ways of contamination were determined, playing the milk the most significant role, because the Iodine-131 is in the radionuclide inventory of this center, being possible to pass to the food-chain soil-grass-milk, due to the fact that the center is located in a cattle zone. Owing to these facts, it is necessary to rely on a method for determining Iodine-131 that allows to control its presence in milk samples, when the isotope center start to operate. The direct absorption of Iodine-131 in an anionic exchange resin and the subsequent analysis of this resin for gamma spectrometry with a Nal (Tl) detector is a cheap, simple and fast method with a recovery average greater than the 95%. (authors). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Barium ferrite powders prepared by milling and annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Microstructure and magnetic properties analysis of barium ferrite powder obtained by milling and heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: The milling process was carried out in a vibratory mill, which generated vibrations of the balls and milled material inside the container during which their collisions occur. After milling process the powders were annealed in electric chamber furnace. The X-ray diffraction methods were used for qualitative phase analysis of studied powder samples. The distribution of powder particles was determined by a laser particle analyzer. The magnetic hysteresis loops of examined powder material were measured by resonance vibrating sample magnetometer (R-VSM.Findings: The milling process of iron oxide and barium carbonate mixture causes decrease of the crystallite size of involved phases. The X-ray investigations of tested mixture milled for 30 hours and annealed at 950 °C enabled the identification of hard magnetic BaFe12O19 phase and also the presence of Fe2O3 phase in examined material. The Fe2O3 phase is a rest of BaCO3 dissociation in the presence of Fe2O3, which forms a compound of BaFe12O19. The best coercive force (HC for mixture of powders annealed at 950 °C for 10, 20 and 30 hours is 349 kA/m, 366 kA/m and 364 kA/m, respectively. The arithmetic mean of diameter of Fe2O3 and BaCO3 mixture powders after 30 hours of milling is about 6.0 μm.Practical implications: The barium ferrite powder obtained by milling and annealing can be suitable components to produce sintered and elastic magnets with polymer matrix.Originality/value: The results of tested barium ferrite investigations by different methods confirm their utility in the microstructure and magnetic properties analysis of powder materials.

  8. Barium borohydride chlorides: synthesis, crystal structures and thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Elisabeth; Olesen, Cathrine H; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B; Jensen, Torben R

    2016-05-10

    Here we report the synthesis, mechanism of formation, characterization and thermal decomposition of new barium borohydride chlorides prepared by mechanochemistry and thermal treatment of MBH4-BaCl2, M = Li, Na or K in ratios 1 : 1 and 1 : 2. Initially, orthorhombic barium chloride, o-BaCl2 transforms into o-Ba(BH4)xCl2-x, x ∼ 0.15. Excess LiBH4 leads to continued anion substitution and a phase transformation into hexagonal barium borohydride chloride h-Ba(BH4)xCl2-x, which accommodates higher amounts of borohydride, possibly x ∼ 0.85 and resembles h-BaCl2. Thus, two solid solutions are in equilibrium during mechano-chemical treatment of LiBH4-BaCl2 (1 : 1) whereas LiBH4-BaCl2 (2 : 1) converts to h-Ba(BH4)0.85Cl1.15. Upon thermal treatment at T > ∼200 °C, h-Ba(BH4)0.85Cl1.15 transforms into another orthorhombic barium borohydride chloride compound, o-Ba(BH4)0.85Cl1.15, which is structurally similar to o-BaBr2. The samples with M = Na and K have lower reactivity and form o-Ba(BH4)xCl2-x, x ∼ 0.1 and a solid solution of sodium chloride dissolved in solid sodium borohydride, Na(BH4)1-xClx, x = 0.07. The new compounds and reaction mechanisms are investigated by in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mass spectroscopy (MS) and temperature programmed photographic analysis (TPPA). PMID:27109871

  9. Thermoelectric power of barium up to 8 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramani, G.; Divakar, C.; Singh, A.K.

    1987-01-15

    The present measurements indicate that the thermoelectric power (TEP) of barium at room temperature and pressure is 15 ..mu..V K/sup -1/, and decreases with increasing pressure, reaching about 4 ..mu..V K/sup -1/ just before the bcc..-->..hcp transition. The TEP shows a discontinuous increase at the bcc..-->..hcp transition beyond which it continues to decrease with increasing pressure.

  10. Effect of Silver Coating on Barium Titanium Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Obregon, Isidro D.; Betts-Obregon, Brandi S.; Yust, Brian; Pedraza, Francisco; Ortiz, Alexandra; Sardar, Dhiraj; Tsin, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles are presently being studied for optical and biomedical applications such as medical imaging and drug delivery. Nanoparticles impact the cellular environment due to many variables such as size, shape, and composition. How these factors affect cell viability is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to test the toxicity effects of silver coating (Ag@) Barium Titanium Oxide (BaTiO3) nanoparticles on Rhesus Monkey Retinal Endothelial cells (RhREC’s) in culture. The addit...

  11. Microstructure and magnetic properties of commercial barium ferrite powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Microstructural and magnetic properties analysis of commercial barium ferrite powder BaFe12O19.Design/methodology/approach: The X-ray diffraction methods were utilized not only for qualitative andquantitative phase analysis of studied powder sample, but also for the determination of lattice parameters, crystallitesize and the lattice distortion. The Rietveld method was used in the verification of the qualitative phase compositionand in the determination of phase abundance. Hill and Howard procedure was applied for quantitative phaseanalysis. The parameters of the individual diffraction line profiles were determined by PRO-FIT Toraya procedure.The morphology of barium ferrite powders was analyzed using the scanning electron miroscopy (SEM method.The distribution of powder particles was determined by a laser particle analyzer. Moreover, the magnetic hysteresisloop of examined powder material were measured by resonance vibrating sample magnetometer (R-VSM.Findings: The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of hexagonal BaFe12O19 and rhombohedralFe2O3 phases in examined powder samples. The barium ferrite phase appeared to be the main component of thesamples (97.8 wt.%. The crystallite size of BaFe12O19 phase is above 100 nm. The size of studied powders isin the range from 0.2 μm to 40.5 μm. The arithmetic mean diameter of BaFe12O19 powders population is 10.335μm. The SEM images showed irregular shape and size of powder particles. The coercive force (HC obtainedfrom hysteresis loop has a value about 159 kA/m.Practical implications: Structure analysis of commercial barium ferrite powder is helpful to prepare thismaterial by laboratory methods.Originality/value: The obtained results of investigations by different methods of structure characterizationconfirm their utility in the microstructure analysis of powder materials.

  12. Dielectric Properties of Barium Titanate Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Dopita, M.; Pala, Zdeněk

    Bratislava: Slovak Expert Group of Solid State Chemistry and Physics , 2011 - (Koman, M.; Mikloš, D.), s. 68-69 ISBN 978-80-8134-002-4. [Joint Seminar – Development of materials science in research and education (DMRSE)/21.th./. Kežmarské Žlaby (SK), 29.08.2011-02.09.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : spark plasma sintering * barium titanate * dielectric properties Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-particle Substituted Barium Hexaferrite

    OpenAIRE

    Atassi, Yomen; Darwich, Iyad Seyd; Tally, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    High density magnetic recording requires high coercivity magnetic media and small particle size. Barium hexaferrite has been considered as a leading candidate material because of its chemical stability, fairly large crystal anisotropy and suitable magnetic characteristics. In this work, we present the preparation of the hexagonal ferrite BaFe12O19 and one of its derivative; the Zn-Sn substituted hexaferrite by the chemical co-precipitation method. The main advantage of this method on the conv...

  14. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Barium strontium titanate nanoparticles were obtained by the Hydrothemal microwave technique (HTMW) → This is a genuine technique to obtain nanoparticles at low temperature and short times → Barium strontium titanate free of carbonates with tetragonal structure was grown at 130 oC. - Abstract: Hydrothermal-microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline barium strontium titanate (Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3) nanoparticles (BST) in the temperature range of 100-130 oC. The crystallization of BST with tetragonal structure was reached at all the synthesis temperatures along with the formation of BaCO3 as a minor impurity at lower syntheses temperatures. Typical FT-IR spectra for tetragonal (BST) nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH- groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. FE/SEM revealed that lower syntheses temperatures led to a morphology that consisted of uniform grains while higher syntheses temperature consisted of big grains isolated and embedded in a matrix of small grains. TEM has shown BST nanoparticles with diameters between 40 and 80 nm. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could serve as an alternative to obtain BST nanoparticles.

  15. Preparation of Nanoparticles of Barium Ferrite from Precipitation in Microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic nanoparticles of barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) have been synthesized using a microemulsion mediated process. The aqueous cores of water-in-oil microemulsions were used as constrained microreactors for the precipitation of precursor carbonate and hydroxide particles. These precursors were then calcined at 925 deg. C for 12 h, during which time they were transformed to the hexagonal ferrite. The pH of reaction was varied between 5 and 12, and it was found that the fraction of non-magnetic hematite (α-Fe2O3) in the particles varied with the pH of reaction, thus affecting the magnetic properties of the particles. The same precursor particles were also prepared by bulk co-precipitation reaction for comparison. It was found that the microemulsion derived nanoparticles of barium ferrite had both higher intrinsic coercivity (Hc) and saturation magnetization (σs) than the particles derived from bulk co-precipitation. Particles were analyzed by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The best barium ferrite particles produced by the microemulsion synthesis method yielded an intrinsic coercivity of 4310 Oe and a saturation magnetization of 60.48 emu/g

  16. Role of hexadecapole interaction in proton rich barium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the systematic analysis of the experimental data on proton rich barium isotopes, it is observed that nuclei in the region z ≥ 50 and N≤82 are the transitional nuclei as they show a shape transition from spherical to deformed shape. An interesting feature of the observed yrast spectra in barium isotopic mass chain is the systematic variation of E2+, E4+ and E6+ excitation energy states from 120Ba to 136Ba. It is observed that these states follow a systematic decreasing trend as move away from 136Ba towards 120Ba. The isotopes 120-128Ba can be taken to be quasi-deformed nuclei having E4+/E2+ ratio larger than 2.7. Based on the systematics of low-lying states and the experimental data of quadrupole moments and B(E2) transition probabilities, the stable barium isotopes range from the approximately spherical 138Ba to l30Ba which is close to the deformed 120-128Ba isotopes. The purpose of the paper is to determine the importance of octupole-octupole and hexadecapole- hexadecapole parts of the two body interaction in reproducing the observed nuclear structure properties of 120-136Ba isotopes

  17. CT and barium features of gastrointestinal and peritoneal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makanjuola Dorothy

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiological features in barium gastrointestinal studies and computed tomographic (CT examinations of 22 consecutive cases of proven peritoneal and/or intestinal tuberculosis were analyzed in order to highlight the radiological features which could provide ready identification of the disease. There were 15 cases of intestinal tuberculosis and 7 cases of peritoneal tuberculosis and 3 patients had both. The commonest location of intestinal tuberculosis was the ileocecal region (N=10 which occurred in association with colonic or ilea] disease. Bowel wall thickening in CT was largely asymmetrical but minimal and symmetrical wall thickening occurred with peritonitis. Luminal narrowing with or without mucosal tethering were seen in both CT and Barium studies. Peritoneal TB had either high density ascites with smudge or nodular omental surface with a thickened omental lining. Also detected was fibrinous dry peritonitis with thickened mesenteric tissue. Lymphadenopathy in the peripancreatic, mesenteric or paracaval were common to both intestinal or peritoneal tuberculosis (21 out of 22. Fifty percent of the patients showed some lymph nodes with necrotic centers. The differential diagnosis included malignant peritonitis and intestinal or mesenteric carcinoid. The study shows that a combination of barium gastrointestinal study and computed tomography can provide distinct features which could strongly suggest the diagnosis of intestinal or peritoneal tuberculosis.

  18. Scanning electron and tunneling microscopy of palladium-barium emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of study of metal-alloyed palladium-barium emitters' of modern very high frequency high-powered electronic vacuum tubes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) are presented. Since the Pd/Ba foil surface is fairly smooth and is not oxidized in air STM/STS investigations are carried out in air in normal laboratory environment. SEM and STM images show that the emitter surface has a complex porous structure. The cathode surface study by STS in tunneling gap modulation mode allowed to take a map of phase distribution with various work function values and high lateral resolution. Obtained images demonstrate the presence of three phases on the Pd/Ba emitter surface, viz. barium-oxygen compounds, intermetallic, and palladium. As it is seen from presented STS image the phase with a low work function value (barium oxides) is concentrated along boundaries of the substance inclusions with work function corresponding to the intemetallic compound Pd5Ba. This supports the model of low work function areas obtained via Ba segregation from the intermetallic compound and oxidation. The presented methods may be used in the Pd/Ba cathode manufacturing process for increasing the yield of electronic devices in microwave tube production and optimize the emitters' characteristics

  19. Early colon cancer : findings on double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to describe the radiologic findings of early colon cancer on double-contrast barium enema. We retrospectively reviewed the double-contrast barium enemas of eight patients (M:F = 6:2; mean age : 67 yrs; range : 48-77 yrs) who were pathologically proven to be early colon cancer. The location, size and gross morphology of lesions was evaluated using double-contrast barium enema, while depth of invasion, degree of differentiation, precancerous lesions and lymph node metastasis were evaluated histopathologically. Early colon cancer was found in the rectum (n=4), sigmoid colon (n=3) and ascending colon (n=1). The size of mass ranged from 2.3 ∼ 8.3 (mean, 4.6) cm. And the polypoid type was most common (n=7); this was subdivided into sessile (Is, n=5), semipedunculated (Isp, n=1) and pedunculated type (Ip, n=1). Another mass was a sessile polypoid combined with a flat depressed lesion. In eight cases, four cancers were confined to the mucosa, while the remaining four had infiltrated the submucosa. Most cancers arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. All cases were well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and no metastasis to lymph nodes had occurred. In early colon cancer, lesions were mainly polypoid and large. Most arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  20. Sodium Iodide-131 (Na131I) AS Gelatin Capsules At TNRC-In Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution, the production of a capsulated Na131I radiopharmaceutical, for treatment of variety of hyperthyroidism diseases, at Tajoura Nuclear Research Center in Tripoli-Libya is described. The process requires the application of a very small volume of iodine-131 (not more than 25μ l in some cases) with radioactivities reaching some 37 GBq per capsule. The application of such volume is necessary to prevent damage to gelatin material. Loading a volume of 100 μ l of radioactive Na131I solution containing 37 GBq. radioactivity within a capsule filled with anhydrous sodium hydrogen phosphate as an adsorption material for Na131I solution brings such solution into a direct interaction with the gelatin material. This is assumed to have an inadequate effect in therapy. To overcome this problem, the work team has introduced some substantial alterations on the irradiation procedure and the process of the pre-irradiation treatment of the target. As a consequence, that has successfully culminated in production of Na131I capsules with proper perspective (e.g. radioactive yield of 74 GBq from 37 GBq previously and radioactive concentration of 37 GBq/ml). (Authors)

  1. Simplified assessment of segmental gastrointestinal transit time with orally small amount of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness and advantage of small amount of barium in the measurement of gastrointestinal transmission function in comparison with radio-opaque pallets. Methods: Protocal 1: 8 healthy volunteers (male 6, female 2) with average age 40 ± 6.1 were subjected to the examination of radio-opaque pellets and small amount of barium with the interval of 1 week. Protocol 2: 30 healthy volunteers in group 1 (male 8, female 22) with average age 42.5 ± 8.1 and 50 patients with chronic functional constipation in group 2 (male 11, female 39) with average age 45.7 ± 7.8 were subjected to the small amount of barium examination. The small amount of barium was made by 30 g barium dissolved in 200 ml breakfast. After taking breakfast which contains barium, objectives were followed with abdominal X-ray at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h until the barium was evacuated totally. Results: Small amount of barium presented actual chyme or stool transit. The transit time of radio-opaque pallets through the whole gastrointestinal tract was significantly shorter than that of barium (37 ± 8 h vs. 47 ± 10 h, P < 0.05) in healthy people. The transit times of barium in constipation patients were markedly prolonged in colon (61.1 ± 22 vs. 37.3 ± 11, P < 0.01) and rectum (10.8 ± 3.7 vs. 2.3 ± 0.8 h, P < 0.01) compared with unconstipated volunteers. Transit times in individual gastrointestinal segments were also recorded by using small amount of barium, which allowed identifying the subtypes of constipation. Conclusion: The small amount barium examination is a convenient and low cost method to provide the most useful and reliable information on the transmission function of different gastrointestinal segments and able to classify the subtypes of slow transit constipation

  2. Genotypic and phenotypic profiles of Escherichia coli isolates belonging to clinical sequence type 131 (ST131), clinical non-ST131, and fecal non-ST131 lineages from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Arif; Ranjan, Amit; Nandanwar, Nishant; Babbar, Anshu; Jadhav, Savita; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2014-12-01

    In view of the epidemiological success of CTX-M-15-producing lineages of Escherichia coli and particularly of sequence type 131 (ST131), it is of significant interest to explore its prevalence in countries such as India and to determine if antibiotic resistance, virulence, metabolic potential, and/or the genetic architecture of the ST131 isolates differ from those of non-ST131 isolates. A collection of 126 E. coli isolates comprising 43 ST131 E. coli, 40 non-ST131 E. coli, and 43 fecal E. coli isolates collected from a tertiary care hospital in India was analyzed. These isolates were subjected to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-based fingerprinting, O typing, phylogenetic grouping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, and virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene (VAG) detection. Representative isolates from this collection were also analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), conjugation, metabolic profiling, biofilm production assay, and zebra fish lethality assay. All of the 43 ST131 E. coli isolates were exclusively associated with phylogenetic group B2 (100%), while most of the clinical non-ST131 and stool non-ST131 E. coli isolates were affiliated with the B2 (38%) and A (58%) phylogenetic groups, respectively. Significantly greater proportions of ST131 isolates (58%) than non-ST131 isolates (clinical and stool E. coli isolates, 5% each) were technically identified to be extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). The clinical ST131, clinical non-ST131, and stool non-ST131 E. coli isolates exhibited high rates of multidrug resistance (95%, 91%, and 91%, respectively), extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) production (86%, 83%, and 91%, respectively), and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production (28%, 33%, and 0%, respectively). CTX-M-15 was strongly linked with ESBL production in ST131 isolates (93%), whereas CTX-M-15 plus TEM were present in clinical and stool non-ST131 E. coli isolates. Using MLST, we confirmed the presence of two NDM-1

  3. Barium and Tc-poor S stars: Binary masqueraders among carbon stars

    OpenAIRE

    Jorissen, A; Van Eck, S.

    1997-01-01

    The current understanding of the origin of barium and S stars is reviewed, based on new orbital elements and binary frequencies. The following questions are addressed: (i) Is binarity a necessary condition to produce a barium star? (ii) What is the mass transfer mode (wind accretion or RLOF?) responsible for their formation? (iii) Do barium stars form as dwarfs or as giants? (iv) Do barium stars evolve into Tc-poor S stars? (v) What is the relative frequency of Tc-rich and Tc-poor S stars?

  4. Mechanism of action of barium ion on rat aortic smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T R; Dineen, D X; Petrak, R

    1984-03-01

    The mechanism of action of barium ion on the aortic smooth muscle of the normal rat was investigated using in vitro calcium-depleted aortic strips. Aortic strips were depleted of calcium by repeated exposure to norepinephrine in a calcium-free bathing solution. Although calcium depletion abrogated the response of strips to catecholamines and depolarizing agents, the response to barium chloride remained quantitatively intact. The calcium influx blocker D 600 prevented the contractile response to barium but not to catecholamines, whereas phentolamine prevented the response to catecholamines but not barium. The strip response to barium was depressed by a twofold increase in extracellular magnesium concentration whether the strip was intact or calcium depleted. Although increased concentrations of calcium in the extracellular medium inhibited the contractile response to potassium ion, increases in barium merely potentiated the potassium contracture. These findings indicate that barium produces its contractile effect on vascular smooth muscle by a direct intracellular interaction with the contractile or regulatory proteins. Barium enters these cells via calcium influx channels and is probably not sequestered in a physiologically releasable pool. Unlike calcium, barium does not stabilize the smooth muscle sarcolemma when present in high concentration. PMID:6703038

  5. Barium can replace calcium in calmodulin-dependent contractions of skinned renal arteries of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreye, V A; Hofmann, F; Mühleisen, M

    1986-03-01

    Renal arteries of the rabbit were chemically skinned using Triton X-100. In EGTA-buffered solutions containing calmodulin and ATP, small strips of the skinned preparations were found to develop contractile force which was dependent on the concentrations of either free calcium or of free barium. However, a 220 times greater concentration of barium than of calcium was necessary for comparable effects. Quantitatively, the response to barium was dependent on the concentration of calmodulin added to the test solutions. The contractile effect of barium was partly antagonized by the calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine. PMID:3960707

  6. High Resolution Computed Tomography Appearences of late sequelae of Barium Aspiration in an asymptomatic young child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium aspiration is a well-known complication of upper gastro-intestinal studies. Consequences of aspiration are generally insignificant and leave no permanent changes in the lung parenchyma. However, large quantities of high density barium, if aspirated, lead to silent interstitial changes and fibrosis. High-resolution computed tomography HRCT appearances of lung changes have been demonstrated in adults; few such reports are available in the pediatric literature. We report a case of a child who aspirated barium 3 months before this presentation. The HRCT appearances of barium aspiration are presented with a review of the literature. (author)

  7. Labelling of meta-iodobenzylguanidine with iodine-131 (I-131-MIBG) for adrenal gland diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labelling of meta-iodobenzylguanidine with iodine-131 (I-131 MIBG, for adrenal gland diagnosis has been studied. The MIBG was synthesized from the reaction of meta-iodobenzylamine hydrochloride with cyanamide and labelled with iodine-131 by isotope exchange method using copper(II) as a catalyst. The percentage of labelling was about 98%, with a specific activity of 1.5-2.0 mCi/mg. The radiochemical purity was found to be greater than 99%. Biodistribution studies were performed on mice, the results showed great affinity for the adrenal gland uptake with highest radioactivity after 1 day of injection. The stability of the product with 1% benzyl alcohol was 7 days upon storing at 40C

  8. Synthesis of 131I labeled diiodothyronine (131I-T2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To synthesise 131I-T2 as the basis for future synthesis of 131I-T2S with sulfation. Methods: Firstly 3-T1 was radiolabeled with 131I with chloramine-T(Ch-T) labeling method. Then gel column chromatography and paper chromatography were used for separation and purification. Measurement of the labeling efficiency, radiochemical purity,stability of labeled compound, and identification of the product of immune activity were carried out. Results: The radiolabeling yield of the labeled compound produced with the modified Ch-T method was about 65.1%±4.5% (n=5) and the radiochemical purity was about 96.5%±1.1% (n=5). After 10d storage at -20 degree C, the radiochemical purity of the product still remained above 90%. Conclusion: High rate of labeling efficiency and good stability could be obtained with Ch-T labeling method. (authors)

  9. Solubility and stability of barium arsenate and barium hydrogen arsenate at 25oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inconsistency among current thermodynamic data of Ba3(AsO4)2(c) and BaHAsO4.H2O(c) led the authors to obtain independent solubility data of barium arsenate by both precipitation and dissolution experiments. Low and neutral pH (3.63-7.43) favored the formation of BaHAsO4.H2O(c). Both BaHAsO4.H2O(c) and Ba3(AsO4)2(c) formed at the neutral pH conditions (7.47, 7.66), whereas Ba3(AsO4)2(c) was the only solid phase precipitated at high pH (13.03, 13.10). The Ba3(AsO4)2(c) precipitate acquired at 50oC appeared as small leafy crystal, while the Ba3(AsO4)2(c) solid precipitated at 25oC comprised granular aggregate with some smaller crystal clusters. XRD and SEM analyses of Ba3(AsO4)2(c) and BaHAsO4.H2O(c) indicated that the solids were indistinguishable before and after the dissolution experiments. In the present work, the solubility products (Ksp) for Ba3(AsO4)2(c) and BaHAsO4.H2O(c) were determined to be 10-23.53(10-23.01 to 10-24.00) and 10-5.60(10-5.23 to 10-5.89), respectively. ΔGfo for Ba3(AsO4)2(c) and BaHAsO4.H2O(c) were calculated to be -3113.40 and -1544.47kJ/mol, respectively. There was no difference between the solubility products of the leafy and the granular Ba3(AsO4)2(c) solids

  10. Adrenal scintigraphy using 131I-Adosterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I-Adosterol (6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-3β-ol) was administered to evaluate adrenal grand in 20 patients including 9 patients with primary aldosteronism, 5 with Cushing's syndrome, one with pheochromocytoma, one with retroperitoneal tumor, 3 with essential hypertension and one with obesity. Standard scintigraphies were performed at 3rd day and again 6th day after administration of 131I-adosterol (1-1.5 mCi). Suppression scintigraphies were obtained while the patients were taking dexamethasone 2 to 3 mg daily from 3 days prior to injection of the tracer until adrenal imaging. In the cases with essential hypertension and obesity, both adrenal glands were delineated equally by standard scintigraphy, and in one patient, undergone suppression scintigraphy, the uptake of 131I-adosterol by both glands were completely inhibited by dexamethasone administration. In primary aldosteronism, six of the 9 patients demonstrated the increased radioactivity in one side, and were diagnosed as aldosteronoma. In 3 cases, failed to show the lesions on standard scintigraphy, the lesions could be detected by suppression scintigraphy, and aldosteronomas measuring 1 x 1 x 0.7, 2 x 2 x 1 and 1.7 x 1.5 x 0.8 cm were confirmed by operation. In Cushing's syndrome, standard scintigraphy could easily distinguish between adenoma (one case) and bilateral hyperplasia (4 cases). Adrenal scintigraphy was also a useful method in order to assess the effect of pituitary irradiation therapy in the case of hyperplasia. In pheochromocytoma and retroperitoneal tumor, the side of the lesion was identified by the absence of a functioning gland. Suppression scintigraphy was particularly useful in detecting the localization of the small tumor in primary aldosteronism. (auth.)

  11. Tungsten and barium transport in the internal plasma of hollow cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2009-06-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport, and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from 8200 h and 30 352 h ion engine wear tests. Erosion and subsequent redeposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduce the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  12. Experiment M-131 - Human vestibular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. F., II; Graybiel, A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the M-131 experiment is to measure responses in astronauts throughout orbital flight that reflect vestibular function and compare them with measurements made before and after flight. Three subtasks require measurement of (1) susceptibility to motion sickness, (2) thresholds of response to stimulation of the semicircular canals, and (3) space perception, viz, visual and nonvisual localization, using external spacecraft and internal morphological frames of reference. Four astronauts will be available for all measurements in Skylab 2 and 3 and two additional astronauts for only the 'static' measurements during the flights.

  13. Human Vestibular Function - Skylab Experiment M131

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This set of photographs details Skylab's Human Vestibular Function experiment (M131). This experiment was a set of medical studies designed to determine the effect of long-duration space missions on astronauts' coordination abilities. This experiment tested the astronauts susceptibility to motion sickness in the Skylab environment, acquired data fundamental to an understanding of the functions of human gravity reception under prolonged absence of gravity, and tested for changes in the sensitivity of the semicircular canals. Data from this experiment was collected before, during, and after flight. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  14. Iodine-131 monitoring in sewage plant outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different hospital sites (Oxford, Sutton and Guildford) have performed sampling of their local sewage plant outflow to determine levels of radioactivity resulting from iodine-131 patients undergoing radionuclide therapies. It was found that a maximum of 20% of activity discharged from the hospitals was present in the sewage plant final effluent channel. This is significantly below the level predicted by mathematical models in current use. The results further show that abatement systems to reduce public exposure are unlikely to be warranted at hospital sites. (paper)

  15. I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging after bone marrow transplantation for neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for advanced neuroblastoma (NBL). The authors reviewed 26 pre-BMT and 91 post-BMT I-131 MIBG studies in 31 children with NBL. Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans and CT scans were obtained at the same time. In 10 of 16 living, disease-free patients, all pre- and post-BMT I-131 MIBG studies were negative; six had initially positive I-131 MIBG studies that became negative after BMT. I-131 MIBG studies normalized more rapidly than did bone scans. Two children with normal I-131 MIBF results developed new bone scan findings typical of trauma

  16. Disposition of /sup 131/I proinsulin in the rat comparisons with /sup 131/I insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, J.L.; Roncone, A.M.; Helton, D.L.; Izzo, M.J.

    1978-04-01

    The patterns of disposition of intravenously injected doses of /sup 131/I proinsulin and /sup 131/I insulin were compared in the rat with respect to plasma clearance, uptake, and degradation in selected organs and tissues, and rates of accumulation of degraded products in plasma and urine. The studies indicate that the differences in dose dependency in plasma clearance and degradation of /sup 131/I insulin and /sup 131/I proinsulin can be attributed to differences in relative uptakes and degradation by the liver and kidneys. The liver appeared to be the major organ involved in the removal and degradation of insulin, whereas the kidney appeared to be the major organ involved in the case of proinsulin. The hepatic process was rapid but relatively saturable, whereas the kidney process was slower but relatively unsaturable. The inverse relationship between initial concentration of hormone in plasma and uptake by liver suggests that the ratio may provide a sensitive index of the role of the liver in plasma hormone clearance.

  17. Iodine-131 in breast milk following administration of 131I Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Samples of breast milk from a lactating patient, injected with 18.9 MBq of [131I] Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) to localise a possible phaeochromocytomas, have been collected for 140h after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. From each of the collected samples, radioactivity from 1 ml of milk was counted in a NaI crystal well counter: The recorded counts were then compared with the counts of a known reference 131I source. The specific concentration of the radioactivity secreted in the milk increased reaching a peak at 13h after the administration of the radiopharmaceutical and then decreased exponentially with an effective half time of 16h. Dosimetry calculations indicated that for the infant to receive an effective dose 131I ingested), breast feeding needed to be suspended for at least 40h. However, the thyroid dose (assuming the infant thyroid has a mass of 1.5g and an uptake of 70%) would be about 24 mSv. To limit the thyroid dose to 131'I from ICRP 72 for a three-month-old infant; fed 140ml of milk per feed every 4h (6 feeds/day) with the first feed occurring 3h after the administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. Methodology to administer therapeutic dose of I-131; Metodologia para administrar dosis terapeutica de I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The present work suggests the use of measures guided to eliminate the resulting chronic sialoadenitis of the treatment of the thyroid cancer with Iodine-131, as well as the use of citric fruits to stimulate the salivation, the post-dose administration of liquids to accelerate the gastric emptying avoiding the secondary effects as the vomit is included. (Author)

  19. Anion and cation diffusion in barium titanate and strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovskite oxides show various interesting properties providing several technical applications. In many cases the defect chemistry is the key to understand and influence the material's properties. In this work the defect chemistry of barium titanate and strontium titanate is analysed by anion and cation diffusion experiments and subsequent time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reoxidation equation for barium titanate used in multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is found out by a combination of different isotope exchange experiments and the analysis of the resulting tracer diffusion profiles. It is shown that the incorporation of oxygen from water vapour is faster by orders of magnitude than from molecular oxygen. Chemical analysis shows the samples contain various dopants leading to a complex defect chemistry. Dysprosium is the most important dopant, acting partially as a donor and partially as an acceptor in this effectively acceptor-doped material. TEM and EELS analysis show the inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in a core-shell microstructure. The oxygen partial pressure and temperature dependence of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients is analysed and explained by the complex defect chemistry of Dy-doped barium titanate. Additional fast diffusion profiles are attributed to fast diffusion along grain boundaries. In addition to the barium titanate ceramics from an important technical application, oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped BaTiO3 single crystals has been studied by means of 18O2/16O2 isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by ToF-SIMS. It is shown that a correct description of the diffusion profiles requires the analysis of the diffusion through the surface space-charge into the material's bulk. Surface exchange coefficients, space-charge potentials and bulk diffusion coefficients are analysed as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. The data

  20. Microstructure of polymer composite with barium ferrite powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is the microstructure characterization of commercial BaFe12O19 powder and its composite material in polymer matrix; XRD (X-Ray Diffraction and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy methods were applied.Design/methodology/approach: The Rietveld method appeared to be very useful in the verification of the qualitative phase composition and in the determination of phase abundance. Hill and Howard procedure was applied for quantitative phase analysis. The parameters of the individual diffraction line profiles were determined by PRO-FIT Toraya procedure. The morphology of barium ferrite powders and a fracture surface of the examined composite material was analyzed using the scanning electron microscope.Findings: The X-ray diffraction analysis enabled the identification of BaFe12O19 and Fe2O3 phases in examined material. Basing on Rietveld and Toraya methods the determination of lattice parameters, crystallite size and the lattice distortion was performed. Distribution of powders of barium ferrite in polymer matrix is irregular and powder particles are of irregular shapes and different sizes.Research limitations/implications: Maked researches are limited only to characterization the microstructure of commercial material, because obtained results will be helpful to prepare barium ferrite powders by mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing in the future. As prepared BaFe12O19 powders will be used as the starting material for magnets bonded with polymer material.Originality/value: The obtained results of investigations by different methods of structure analysis confirm their useful in the microstructure analysis of powder materials.

  1. Radiation exposure in I-131 iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past five years, the applied I-131 radioactivity quantity has doubled with a constant number of beds. In 1984, it was 925 GBq (25 Ci). Despite this development, no changes in the professional radiation exposure were made out. The evaluation shows a dose smaller than 0.04 man Sv/TBq (0.16 man rem/Ci) of I-131 applied. This value is below the traceability limit of the film badges. The incorporation load of the personnel (27 members) was determined by monthly body counter measurements. Only in one measurement thyroid gland activity of 5 kBq (140 nCi) was detected. Most measurements did not show any incorporation; and the few positive results were below 0.74 kBq (20 nCi). The environmental load due to unfiltered release from patients' rooms was determined at the fence of the nuclear research plant. The maximum was 0.24 mSv/a thyroid gland dose of a small child in 1982 taking into account the measured 90% partion of organic compound iodine. The waste water is decayed following chemical treatment in storage tanks. (orig./HP)

  2. Iodine-131 in breast milk following therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates breast milk secretion of 131I following therapeutic adminstration of 4000 MBq of 131I-iodide during lactation. Breast milk 131I activity concentration was measured over a 32-day period. Dosimetry calculations were undertaken to estimate the period for discontinuation of breast feeding and the equivalent dose to the breasts. To achieve an infant effective dose 131I-iodide adminstration is not undertaken during lactation and that breast feeding is discontinued several days prior to administration. 26 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Transfer of orally administrated iodine-131 into chicken eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenak, Turan E-mail: unak@sci.ege.edu.tr; Yildirim, Yeliz; Avcibasi, U.; Cetinkaya, Berkan; Uenak, G

    2003-03-01

    Radioactive iodine-131 as both as free iodide (Na{sup 131}I) and covalently bound to aniline (aniline-{sup 131}I) was added to the drinking water of two Leghorn laying hens as a single dose and also as a cumulative dose over 1 week. The radioactivity of the principal parts of the eggs, i.e. shell, white, and yolk, was measured, and the radioactivity levels per gram material, and percent of the total radioactivity were calculated. The radioactivity measurements were continued for 1 month following the administration of {sup 131}I. In the case of the single dose administration, the results obtained showed that about 15% of the total radioactivity administered as Na{sup 131}I was transported into the egg structure; compared to only about 1% for aniline-{sup 131}I. After cumulative administration, about 15% of the total administered radioactivity was transported into the egg structure with both forms of {sup 131}I. This was probably because of metabolic cleavage of iodine bonds in the labeled aniline molecules during the longer period of exposure. These results also showed considerable accumulation of {sup 131}I in the egg yolks. In the case of the single dose administration, {sup 131}I can be detected in eggs up to about 20 days after administration, and up to about 30 days, in the case of the cumulative administration over 1 week.

  4. Stunning effects after a diagnostic dose of iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To understand stunning effects of a diagnostic dose of iodine-131 (I-131). Methods: Four hundred and sixty-eight patients (101 males, 367 females, ages: 6-75 years) with well differentiated thyroid cancer, following total or nearly total thyroidectomy, were studied. One hundred and eleven MBq (3 mCi) diagnostic (Dx) doses of I-131 whole body scan (WBS) were obtained after withholding thyroxine after 6 weeks and triiodothyronine for 2 weeks. One week to one month later, 3.7-7.4 GBq (100-200 mCi) I-131 was given to them, then a therapeutic (Tx) dose of I-131 WBS was performed. The serum thyroid simulating hormone level was usually above 30 μIU/ml. Results: Of the 468 patients, 344 (73.5%) had scintigraphic patterns of apparently decreased uptake in 240 thyroid remnants and 104 metastatic lesions on the Tx dose of I-131 WBS compared to Dx dose of I-131 WBS. Stunning phenomenon occured in 50 cases, including 42 thyroid remnants and 18 metastatic lesions. Conclusion: Dx dose of I-131 may influence the uptake of a subsequently adminstered Tx dose of I-131. (orig.)

  5. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Barium Chloride From China, 75 FR 33824 (June 15, 2010), and Barium Chloride from China (Inv. No. 731-TA... Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). As a result of its review, the Department... China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 55814 (October...

  6. New efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis: barium-promoted cobalt on carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Stefan; Barfod, Rasmus; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Jacobsen, Claus J.H.; Teunissen, Herman T; Ståhl, Kenny; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2002-01-01

    Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia......Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia...

  7. LACK OF EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER BARIUM ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher cardiovascular mortality has been associated in a single epidemiological study with higher levels of barium in drinking water. he purpose of this study was to determine whether drinking water barium at levels found in some U.S. communities alters the known risk factors for...

  8. Acute respiratory failure caused by aspiration of high density barium: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental aspiration of barium contrast medium during the upper gastrointestinal study can occur in patients with swallowing disorder, especially in the elderly patients. We experienced a case of respiratory failure followed by death within a few hours in 85 year-old patient after barium aspiration

  9. Medical radiation shielding effect by composition of barium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlight: ► Radiation shielding sheet was manufactured using BaSO4 and a combination of tourmaline, tungsten, silicon and rubber polymer. ► The particle packing of barium tends to be related to the tensile strength. ► The tensile strength was most excellent in the sheets containing rubber. ► The shielding ability of the tungsten and silicon combination with BaSO4 was the same as that of a 0.3 mm lead equivalent. - Abstract: Shielding aprons were manufactured from barium sulfate as a potential substitute for the lead aprons used most commonly for medical radiation shielding. Six types of radiation shielding sheets made from a combination of tungsten, molybdenum, rubber and silicon with a barium sulfate base were manufactured, and their transmission doses were compared with those of a lead standard. In the process of producing the radiation shielding sheets, the particle packing and porosity of the materials, appropriate weight-average molecular weight to number-average molecular weight ratio and tensile strength were investigated to determine the optimal mixing process. The transmission dose was measured by applying a lead equivalent test method () of X-ray protective supplies in the Korea Industrial Standard. The transmission doses of the lead standard with a thickness of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3 and 0.35 mm, as well as the six types of radiation shielding sheet were obtained at a tube voltage of 50, 80, 100, 120 and 150 kVp. According to the results, the combination of barium, tungsten, molybdenum and silicon recorded a dose of a 0.3 mm lead equivalent and its particle packing and porosity were 28–36% and 12–22%, respectively. Nevertheless, satisfactory shielding ability could be obtained with a porosity >20% and particle packing of 30%. Therefore, it is a potential replacement for lead sheet and can be considered a proper medical radiation shielding sheet with good economic feasibility.

  10. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d33 piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m−1. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response

  11. Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Sun, F. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Sbrockey, N. M.; Tompa, G. S. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Kalkur, T. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Alpay, S. P., E-mail: p.alpay@ims.uconn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

  12. Heterometallic β-diketonates containing barium and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentiality of formation of heterobimetallic complexes of the composition Ba[LnLn] (Ln = La, Er; L - hexafluoroacetylacetonate, pivaloyltrifluoroacetonate-(Pta), dipivaloylmethanate-anion, is studied by mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method. The compounds prepared are characterized by the methods of element analysis. IR spectroscopy of gaseous phase, thermal analysis in vacuum. Compound Ba[La(Pta)5] features increased thermal stability compared with Ba(Pta)2 and La(Pta)3 and it can be offered for practical use as barium and lanthanum source in preparation of oxide films

  13. Barium strontium titanate powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultasonic spray pyrolysis (SP) has been investigated for the production of the barium strontium titanate (BST) powders from the polymeric precursors. The processing parameters, such as flux of aerosol and temperature profile inside the furnace, were optimized to obtain single phase BST. The powders were characterized by the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM, EDS and TEM. The obtained powders were submicronic, consisting of spherical, polycrystalline particles, with internal nanocrystalline structure. Crystallite size of 10 nm, calculated using Rietveld refinement, is in a good agreement with results of HRTEM

  14. Mechanism of thermoluminescence in europium-doped barium fluorochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns the optical properties of europium-doped barium fluorochloride. Thermoluminescence (TL) and emission studies have been carried out with this material and the results are reported. The irradiation was by γ-rays from a 60Co source, the dose rate being 5000rad min-1. Glow curves of γ-irradiated BaFCl:Eu2+ are presented, along with the glow curves resolved into component peaks. TL emission spectra of BaFCl:Eu2+ at room temperature, 345K, 395K and 500K are also described. (U.K.)

  15. The Kerr nonlinearity of the beta-barium borate crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Bache, Morten; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin; Zeng, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    A popular crystal for ultrafast cascading experiments is beta-barium-borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO). It has a decent quadratic nonlinear coefficient, and because the crystal is anisotropie it can be birefringence phase-matched for type I (oo → e) second-harmonic generation (SHG). For femtosecond experiments BBO is popular because of low dispersion and a high damage threshold. The main attractive property of ultrafast cascading is that the induced cascading nonlinearity nI 2, casc can be negative, i.e...

  16. K-shell fluorescence yields of barium and lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K-shell fluorescence yields for barium and lanthanum have been measured adopting simple 2π geometrical configuration and employing a weak 57Co radioactive source. A scintillation spectrometer with an NaI(Tl) detector of dimensions 44.5 mm diameterx50 mm thickness was employed for the detection and measurement of radiation. The results obtained are in good agreement with the best-fitted values of and also with the other experimental values, indicating that our simple method can be extended to determine fluorescence parameters of high Z materials.

  17. Colloidal stability of aqueous suspensions of barium zirconate

    OpenAIRE

    Boschini, Frédéric; Rulmont, André; Cloots, Rudi; Moreno, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the colloidal behaviour of aqueous suspensions of barium zirconate is investigated. The variation of zeta-potential as a consequence of changing the pH and the concentration of an anionic polyelectrolyte is studied, the isoelectric point occurring at pH 5.3. The IEP shifts down on calcining the powder and also when anionic polyelectrolytes are added. Rheological studies have been made on suspensions prepared to a solids loading of 27 vol.% (72 wt.%). Optimum dispersing condit...

  18. Experiences with Cascara-Salax preparating children for barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    30 children prepared for barium enema using Cascara-Salax are reported on. The results are: 1. A satisfactory preparation is possible in out-patient children older than ten years. 2. For children aged 6 to 10 years only the half dose early in the afternoon before the X-ray examination is necessary. 3. In most cases the colon is completely clear, if not, the X-ray study is generally not influenced by rests of stool. 4. It should be considered that other - and often unreliable - cleaning manoevers aren't necessary, the Cascara-Salax - method ist time - saving and side-effects are not of value. (orig.)

  19. Bis(chlorido)(dimethyl­sulfoxide-κO)barium(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Jansen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [BaCl2(C2H6SO)], forms a Ba6Cl9 cluster in which the BaCl2 units are connected via dimethyl­sulfoxide (DMSO) and chloride bridges. The central Cl atom of the Ba6Cl9 cluster is located on a threefold inversion axis and is coordinated octa­hedrally to six barium cations. In the crystal, the clusters are arranged in rows, which are inter­connected by the DMSO mol­ecules, forming a three-dimensional network.

  20. Magnetic and structural investigations on barium hexaferrite ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R.; Hiergeist, R.; Gawalek, W.; Hoell, A.; Wiedenmann, A.

    2002-11-01

    Barium hexaferrite BaFe 12-2 xTi xCo xO 19 ferrofluids have been prepared using oleic acid as surfactant and Isopar M ® or dodecane as carrier liquid. The ferrite particles were prepared by glass crystallization. Hysteresis parameters, the initial susceptibility versus temperature and the magnetic particle size were obtained by VSM. Ferrofluids with a partly deuterated carrier liquid were investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). SANS curves lead to a bimodal size distribution consisting of single magnetic particles with an organic shell and aggregated particles with an incomplete organic layer.

  1. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data for 226Ra and 228Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The 226Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that 226Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River

  2. A comparison study between diagnostic value of sonography and Barium swallow in gasteroesophageal reflux in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahi G

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the common problems in children and specially in infants is gasteroesophageal reflux (G.E.R. Present study was performed to compare diagnostic value of lower esophageal sonography with barium swallow. This study was conducted on 50 patients 1 month to 15 years age in center of pediatric clinic of Tehran, during the years 1999-2000. Patients suspected to have G.E.R studied with lower esophageal sonography and barium swallow and at the end, their results were compared with esophageal PH monitoring as a standard test. In this study sensevity of sonography was 90 percent against 50 percent for barium swallow but specifity of two test was the same 35 percent. We can concluded that sonography is a non invasive, low cost, with less side effects than barium swallow. We recommend sonography in place of barium swallow in diagnosis of G.E.R.

  3. A Comparison between the Diagnostic Value of Sonography vs. Barium Swallow In Gastroesdophageal Reflux in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zandie

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the common problems in children, especially infants, is gastroesophageal reflux (GER. Objectives:This study was performed to compare the diagnostic value of lower esophageal sonography with that of barium swallow. Patients and method: Our trial was a triple-blind, performed on 50 patients of 1 month to 15 years of age. The patients suspicious of having GER were evaluated by sonography and barium swallow. Esophageal pH monitoring was the standard test, and both the ultrasound and barium swallow were compared to it. Results: The results showed that sonography was 90% sensitive, vs. 50% for barium swallow. Both tests had the same specificity equal to 35%. Conclusion: We concluded that sonography was a better test than barium swallows, for evaluation of suspected patients with GER, and screening of the infants.

  4. Barium sulfate suspension as a negative oral contrast agent for MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton spectroscopy with linewidth measurements and MR imaging were performed on various commercially available barium sulfate suspensions as well as inorganic sulfates and barium salts. Approximately 500 mL of 20%, 40%, 60%, and 70% wt/wt single-contrast oral barium sulfate suspensions were administered to four normal volunteers, and MR imaging was performed with both a 1.5-T and a 0.15-T MR imager. As much as 80% of the small bowel and the entire colon were well visualized with the 60% or 70% wt/wt single-contrast barium sulfate suspensions. The authors conclude that barium sulfate suspensions are useful as oral MR contrast agents

  5. Anion and cation diffusion in barium titanate and strontium titanate; Anionen- und Kationendiffusion in Barium- und Strontiumtitanat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, Markus Franz

    2012-12-19

    Perovskite oxides show various interesting properties providing several technical applications. In many cases the defect chemistry is the key to understand and influence the material's properties. In this work the defect chemistry of barium titanate and strontium titanate is analysed by anion and cation diffusion experiments and subsequent time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reoxidation equation for barium titanate used in multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is found out by a combination of different isotope exchange experiments and the analysis of the resulting tracer diffusion profiles. It is shown that the incorporation of oxygen from water vapour is faster by orders of magnitude than from molecular oxygen. Chemical analysis shows the samples contain various dopants leading to a complex defect chemistry. Dysprosium is the most important dopant, acting partially as a donor and partially as an acceptor in this effectively acceptor-doped material. TEM and EELS analysis show the inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in a core-shell microstructure. The oxygen partial pressure and temperature dependence of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients is analysed and explained by the complex defect chemistry of Dy-doped barium titanate. Additional fast diffusion profiles are attributed to fast diffusion along grain boundaries. In addition to the barium titanate ceramics from an important technical application, oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped BaTiO{sub 3} single crystals has been studied by means of {sup 18}O{sub 2}/{sup 16}O{sub 2} isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by ToF-SIMS. It is shown that a correct description of the diffusion profiles requires the analysis of the diffusion through the surface space-charge into the material's bulk. Surface exchange coefficients, space-charge potentials and bulk diffusion coefficients are analysed as a function of oxygen partial

  6. Tungsten and Barium Transport in the Internal Plasma of Hollow Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushedback to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. Thisbarium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream endgreater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length,so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollowcathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  7. Ruthenium and hafnium abundances in giant and dwarf barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, D M

    2007-01-01

    We present abundances for Ru and Hf, compare them to abundances of other heavy elements, and discuss the problems found in determining Ru and Hf abundances with laboratory gf-values in the spectra of barium stars. We determined Ru and Hf abundances in a sample of giant and dwarf barium stars, by the spectral synthesis of two RuI (4080.574A and 4757.856A) and two HfII (4080.437A and 4093.155A) transitions. The stellar spectra were observed with FEROS/ESO, and the stellar atmospheric parameters lie in the range 4300 < Teff/K < 6500, -1.2 < [Fe/H] <= 0 and 1.4 <= log g < 4.6. The HfII 4080A and the RuI 4758A observed transitions result in a unreasonably high solar abundance, given certain known uncertainties, when fitted with laboratory gf-values. For these two transitions we determined empirical gf-values by fitting the observed line profiles of the spectra of the Sun and Arcturus. For the sample stars, this procedure resulted in a good agreement of Ru and Hf abundances given by the two availa...

  8. Study of barium bismuth titanate prepared by mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Z.Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium-bismuth titanate, BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBT, a member of Aurivillius bismuth-based layer-structure perovskites, was prepared from stoichiometric amounts of barium titanate and bismuth titanate obtained via mechanochemical synthesis. Mechanochemical synthesis was performed in air atmosphere in a planetary ball mill. The reaction mechanism of BaBi4Ti4O15 and the preparation and characteristics of BBT ceramic powders were studied using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, particle analysis and SEM. The Bi-layered perovskite structure of BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramic forms at 1100 °C for 4 h without a pre-calcination step. The microstructure of BaBi4Ti4O15 exhibits plate-like grains typical for the Bi-layered structured material and spherical and polygonal grains. The Ba2+ addition leads to changes in the microstructure development, particularly in the change of the average grain size.

  9. Materials Synthesis Of Barium Hexa ferrite Used Local Natural Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic materials of barium hexa ferrites, Ba O.6Fe2O3 successfully synthesized by powder metallurgy method used local natural resources from materials waste of steel fabrication (HSM, CRM), waste of polymer fabrication (LK) as well as iron sands (PBA). These waste as well as iron sands were the main resources of iron oxide, Fe2O3. The barium oxide used in this experiments are from BaCO3 product of Merck, and BaCO4 which is commercially available in the market as barite. Phase identification by x-ray diffraction technique show the synthesized magnetic materials are agreed with the available commercial product, (SUMI). The energy product maximum (BH)max measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for the samples used HSM-, CRM- and BaCO3 as basic materials are 1.141 MGOe and 1.136 MGOe while SUMI is 1.142 MGOe. However for the samples made from LK-, PBA- used of BaCO3 or CRM- with barite, the energy product maximum (BH)max are relatively lower than commercial product

  10. Brillouin function characteristics for La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites with the chemical formula of Ba1−xLaxFe12−xCoxO19 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5), prepared by a conventional ceramic method, were systematically investigated by Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The result manifests that all the compounds are crystallized in magnetoplumbite hexagonal structure. Trivalent cobalt ions prevailingly occupy the 2a, 4f1, and 12k sites. According to Néel model of collinear-spin ferrimagnetism, the molecular-field coefficients ωbf2, ωkf1, ωaf1, ωkf2, and ωbk of La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites have been calculated using the nonlinear fitting method, and the magnetic moment of five sublattices (2a, 2b, 4f1, 4f2, and 12k) versus temperature T has been also investigated. The fitting results are coincided well with the experimental data. Moreover, with the increase of La-Co substitution amount x, the molecular-field coefficients ωbf2 and ωaf1 decrease constantly, while the molecular-field coefficients ωkf1, ωkf2, and ωbk show a slight change

  11. Thermal expansion behaviour of barium and strontium zirconium phosphates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Srikari Tantri; K Geetha; A M Umarji; Sheela K Ramasesha

    2000-12-01

    Ba1.5–SrZr4P5SiO24 compounds with = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5, belonging to the low thermal expansion NZP family were synthesized by the solid state reaction method. The XRD pattern could be completely indexed with respect to R$\\bar{3}$ space group indicating the ordering of vacancy at the divalent cation octahedral sites. The microstructure and bulk thermal expansion coefficient from room temperature to 800°C of the sintered samples have been studied. All the samples show very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), with = 0 samples showing negative expansion. A small substitution of strontium in the pure barium compound changes the sign of CTE. Similarly, = 1.5 sample (pure strontium) shows a positive CTE and a small substitution of barium changes its sign. = 1.0 and 1.25 samples have almost constant CTE over the entire temperature range. The low thermal expansion of these samples can be attributed to the ordering of the ions in the crystal structure of these materials.

  12. Microstructure of composite material with powders of barium ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present work is the microstructure characterization of commercial powder BaFe12O19 (as-prepared and composite material with BaFe12O19 powders and polymer matrix, using XRD (X-Ray Diffraction and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy methods.Design/methodology/approach: The morphology of barium ferrite powders and a fracture surface of the examined composite material was realized by using the scanning electron microscope. The methods of X-ray diffraction were used for the qualitative phase analysis. The parameters of diffraction line profiles were determined by PRO-FIT Toraya procedure.Findings: The X-ray diffraction analysis permitted on identification the BaFe12O19 and Fe2O3 phases in an examined material. Basing on Toraya method is determination of: lattice parameters, crystallite size (D and the lattice distortion (. Distribution of powders of barium ferrite in polymer matrix is irregular and powder particles have irregular shapes and dimensions.Research limitations/implications: For future research the X-ray analysis should be performed by the Rietveld method, which allows to characterization the microstructure of tested material and verification of its qualitative phase composition.Originality/value: The applied Toraya method of structure analysis appeared to be very useful in the microstructure analysis.

  13. Redox processes in highly yttrium-doped barium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes of microstructure occurring during oxidation of the reduced form of yttrium-doped barium titanate (Ba1-xYx?Ti1-x4+Tix3+O3) have been studied. Samples were sintered under reduction conditions at PO2=10-4Pa and oxidized by annealing at high temperatures (1150 and 1350 deg. C) in air. Depending on yttrium concentration, the oxidation of the reduced form of the yttrium-doped BaTiO3 caused precipitation of the phase Ba6Ti17O40 or the phases Ba6Ti17O40 and Y2Ti2O7. The precipitates had well-defined orientational relationships with the perovskite matrix. Oxidation of the reduced form of doped barium titanate results in formation of the phase Ba1-xYx?Ti1-x/44+(VTi-bar )x/4O3 responsible for increase in the resistance of outer grain layers, which lie between grain boundaries and grain

  14. The Kerr nonlinearity of the beta-barium borate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin;

    2013-01-01

    A popular crystal for ultrafast cascading experiments is beta-barium-borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO). It has a decent quadratic nonlinear coefficient, and because the crystal is anisotropie it can be birefringence phase-matched for type I (oo → e) second-harmonic generation (SHG). For femtosecond experime......A popular crystal for ultrafast cascading experiments is beta-barium-borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO). It has a decent quadratic nonlinear coefficient, and because the crystal is anisotropie it can be birefringence phase-matched for type I (oo → e) second-harmonic generation (SHG). For femtosecond...... experiments BBO is popular because of low dispersion and a high damage threshold. The main attractive property of ultrafast cascading is that the induced cascading nonlinearity nI 2, casc can be negative, i.e. generate a self-defocusing Kerr-like nonlinearity. However, the material Kerr nonlinearity nI 2......, Kerr is self-focusing and competes with the cascading nonlinearity. Therefore, precise knowledge of its strength is crucial. We perform an experiment measuring the main c ü tensor component, and together with literature experimental data [1], we propose a cu value composed of 14 different data points...

  15. Liquid-Phase Processing of Barium Titanate Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David Thomas

    Processing of thin films introduces strict limits on the thermal budget due to substrate stability and thermal expansion mismatch stresses. Barium titanate serves as a model system for the difficulty in producing high quality thin films because of sensitivity to stress, scale, and crystal quality. Thermal budget restriction leads to reduced crystal quality, density, and grain growth, depressing ferroelectric and nonlinear dielectric properties. Processing of barium titanate is typically performed at temperatures hundreds of degrees above compatibility with metalized substrates. In particular integration with silicon and other low thermal expansion substrates is desirable for reductions in costs and wider availability of technologies. In bulk metal and ceramic systems, sintering behavior has been encouraged by the addition of a liquid forming second phase, improving kinetics and promoting densification and grain growth at lower temperatures. This approach is also widespread in the multilayer ceramic capacitor industry. However only limited exploration of flux processing with refractory thin films has been performed despite offering improved dielectric properties for barium titanate films at lower temperatures. This dissertation explores physical vapor deposition of barium titanate thin films with addition of liquid forming fluxes. Flux systems studied include BaO-B2O3, Bi2O3-BaB2O 4, BaO-V2O5, CuO-BaO-B2O3, and BaO-B2O3 modified by Al, Si, V, and Li. Additions of BaO-B2O3 leads to densification and an increase in average grain size from 50 nm to over 300 nm after annealing at 900 °C. The ability to tune permittivity of the material improved from 20% to 70%. Development of high quality films enables engineering of ferroelectric phase stability using residual thermal expansion mismatch in polycrystalline films. The observed shifts to TC match thermodynamic calculations, expected strain from the thermal expansion coefficients, as well as x-ray diffract measurements

  16. Production of 131I gelatin capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine (131I) hard-gelatin capsules are widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of various thyroid disorders. Until 1980 radioiodine was supplied by us as a liquid dosage. This proved to be a rather inconvenient form since it resulted in inaccurate dosing by the physicians and caused frequent contamination of the patients and the hospital personnel. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have designed and constructed a production facility for capsules in which 1311 is packaged. Because of the extreme precautions necessary in handling radioactive compounds, encapsulation of radioactive materials requires specifically designed production techniques, special instrumentation and unique quality control procedures that are not encountered in the standard capsule production processes in the pharmaceutical industry

  17. Pharmacodynamics of benziadarone labelled with 131-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding the importance of benziodarone (Retrangor) - 2-ethyl-3-(3',5'-diiodo-4'-hidrovibenzoyl)benzofuran - in medical practice in respect of its vasodilator and uricosuric action, a working plan was developed intending to study the biological distribution of the drug rats Wistar and, using the plasmatic curve, to find out the existence of other compartments besides the intravascular one. With these data, the rhythms of benziodarone exchange were established, simulating its distribution in the organism. It was possible to develop this working project because the benziodarone structure could be labelled with iodine-131, using an isotopic exchange reaction, having chloramine T as an oxidant agent. The labelled compound was employed as radioactive tracer, and its specific activities varied from 18 uCi/mg to 20 uCi/mg

  18. Chemical and physical quality control of the HIPPURAN-131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some physico-chemical methods for analytical control of Hippuran-131I are compared. The most convenient to applicate in hospitals and in more specialized quality control laboratories are recommended. The quality of Hippuran-131I produced by ISOTOP (USSR) is also evaluated. The product met the requirement of the International Pharmacopeia

  19. Dicty_cDB: SFL131 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFL131 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16373-1 SFL131P (Link to Original ... nikkkqkyik*wwwrw*s--- ---kk*www**i*yqi*kskttt**kr**skw ***q****kfk*kpyck***iyitii*l ssfr*irkgkretrl*nhl*y* ...

  20. 49 CFR 209.131 - Criminal penalties generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal penalties generally. 209.131 Section 209... Criminal Penalties § 209.131 Criminal penalties generally. A person who knowingly violates 49 U.S.C. 5104(b... hazardous material transportation law or a regulation, order, special permit, or approval issued...

  1. Scintigraphic depiction of an insulinoma by I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy with I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) was effective in depicting a pancreatic insulinoma in a patient suffering from intermittent hypoglycemia. This observation widens the range of neuroendocrine tumors that take up to I-131 MIBG and supports the concept that many tumors of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation system may be imaged in this way

  2. Dicty_cDB: VHA131 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHA131 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16497-1 VHA131P (Link to Original ... AE014308 |AE014308.1 Homo sapiens chromosome 13q34 schizophrenia ... region contig 1 section 5 of 11 of the complete se ...

  3. Carcinoid tumor of the thymus visualized with I 131-MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine 131 Metaiodobenzylguanidine is usually used in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma and bronchus and gut carcinoid tumors. This radiopharmaceutical is sometimes applied in therapy. We report the case of a patient with an exceptional carcinoid tumor of the thymus studied by I 131-MIBG scintigraphy before and after surgery. The results are in agreement with the other investigations

  4. Dicty_cDB: AHA131 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AH (Link to library) AHA131 (Link to dictyBase) - G01490 DDB0234030 Contig-U15679-1 AHA131P (Lin ... ... 35 7.0 AB049544_1( AB049544 |pid:none) Porcine enterovirus ... 10 gene for RN... 34 9.1 (Q8T9W1) RecName: Full=Se ...

  5. I-131-MIBG therapy: aspects of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this short article the radiation protection during treatment of children with 131I-MIBG is described. A treatment of up to 200 mCi 131I-MIBG is safe. The dose equivalent of assisting parents stays under 3 mSv. The medical personnel receives at most 0.1 mSv during the administration. 3 refs

  6. 50 CFR 300.131 - Conch harvest limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conch harvest limitations. 300.131 Section... REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.131 Conch harvest... waters of Quita Sueno are closed to the harvest or possession of conch. (c) Closed season. During...

  7. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables §...

  8. Dicty_cDB: SLK131 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLK131 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16453-1 SLK131Z (Link to Original ... ... 33 2.3 DQ507350_1( DQ507350 |pid:none) Belgica antarctica ... clone Ba-D27 eu... 33 4.0 protein update 2009. 1.2 ...

  9. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  10. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  11. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section...

  12. 46 CFR 131.935 - Prevention of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Miscellaneous § 131.935 Prevention of oil pollution. Each vessel must be operated in compliance with— (a) Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1321); and (b) 33 CFR parts... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of oil pollution. 131.935 Section...

  13. Scintigraphic depiction of an insulinoma by I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geatti, O.; Shapiro, B.; Barillari, B. (Istituto di Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale Civile di Udine (Italy))

    1989-12-01

    Scintigraphy with I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) was effective in depicting a pancreatic insulinoma in a patient suffering from intermittent hypoglycemia. This observation widens the range of neuroendocrine tumors that take up to I-131 MIBG and supports the concept that many tumors of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation system may be imaged in this way.

  14. Dose assessment of medical staff taking care of patients treated with 131I due to the intake of 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Legislation requires that patient receiving 131I in activities greater than 550MBq have to be hospitalized in special closed department. Medical staff taking care of these patients can be exposed to external irradiation and internal contamination with 131I. The aim of this study was to assess the annual effective dose of medical staff taking care of patients treated with 131I due to the occupational intake of 131I. Material - Medical Staff: 6 nurses took care of 6 patients (placed into two rooms) treated with 131I in activities between 550 and 1100 MBq. 131I was normally delivered to patients once per week. After patients received 131I nurses were in contact with patients in average 4 hours per day, 4 days per week. Methods: Direct Method - whole body counting (WBC) of staff was performed daily after they finished their work and indirect method - determination of air 131I concentration in patient's rooms (AC) were used to assess the intake of 131I by staff. Measurements were done in winter period.Results and Dose Assessment: Results of measurements of medical staff and determination of 131I air concentration are presented. Average daily 131I intake of staff assessed from WBC results was 315 Bq; average daily 131I air concentration for first four days was 35 Bq/m3. Assessment of annual effective dose due to the internal contamination (realistic approach): - Direct method: 315 Bq/day x 208 days/year x 7,6 Sv/Bq x 10-9 = 0,498 mSv/year. - Indirect method: 35 Bq/m3 x 1,5 m3/hour x 832 hours/year x 7,6 Sv/Bq x 10-9 = 0,332 mSv/year. Conclusion: Medical staff taking care of patients treated with 131I received effective dose less than 0,5 mSv/year due to the intake of 131I. In the some time period they received 1,65 to 2,24 mSv due to the exposure to the external radiation coming from patients treated with 131I

  15. Toxicity of upfront 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) therapy in newly diagnosed neuroblastoma patients: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the treatment of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma, different doses of 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) are administered at different time points during treatment. Toxicity, mainly haematological (thrombocytopenia), from 131I-MIBG therapy is known to occur in extensively chemotherapy pretreated neuroblastoma patients. Up to now, acute toxicity from 131I-MIBG as initial treatment has never been studied in a large cohort. The aim of this retrospective study was to document acute toxicity related to upfront 131I-MIBG. All neuroblastoma patients (stages 1-4 and 4S) treated upfront with 131I-MIBG at the Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Centre (1992 - 2008) were included in this retrospective analysis. The acute toxicity (during therapy) and short-term toxicity (1st month following therapy) of the first two 131I-MIBG therapies were studied. Of 66 patients (34 boys, 32 girls; median age 2.2 years, range 0.1 - 9.4 years), 49 had stage 4 disease, 5 stage 4S, 6 stage 3, 1 stage 2 and 5 stage 1. The median first dose was 441 MBq/kg (range 157 - 804 MBq/kg). The median second dose was 328 MBq/kg (range 113 - 727 MBq/kg). The most frequently observed symptoms were nausea and vomiting (21 %, maximum grade II). The main toxicity was grade IV haematological, occurring only in stage 4 patients, after the first and second 131I-MIBG therapies: anaemia (5 % and 4 %, respectively), leucocytopenia (3 % and 4 %) and thrombocytopenia (2 % and 4 %). No stem cell rescue was needed. The main acute toxicity observed was haematological followed by nausea and vomiting. One patient developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome during 131I-MIBG therapy, possibly related to 131I-MIBG. We consider 131I-MIBG therapy to be a safe treatment modality. (orig.)

  16. Personal dosimetry of staff involved with I-131 therapeutic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Therapeutic doses of liquid 131l (370 MBq) and 131l MIBG (3700 MBq) are frequently used in the treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism and neuroblastoma respectively. 131l is volatile and can be inhaled and accumulate in the thyroid of personnel responsible for the dispensing and administration of doses. The aim of this study was to report and assess the radiation doses to personnel involved with liquid 131l therapeutic procedures. Materials and methods: 131l liquid dispensing and administration: The uptake of 131l in the thyroid of the physicists responsible for dispensing, and medical doctors for administration of therapeutic doses was determined with a whole body counter. 131l MIBG dispensing and administration: The radiation doses received by the subjects have been monitored using calibrated lithium fluoride thermo luminescent dosimetry (TLD) discs and a direct reading pocket dosimeter. The TLD discs have been issued and worn by the physicists and the dedicated nurses doing duty at the patient. The dedicated nurses and voluntarily comforters of the patients were also issued with pocket dosimeters to measure the whole body dose received. Results: 131l liquid dispensing and administration: The activities in the thyroid of the personnel handling the therapeutic doses of liquid 131l varied from 49Bq -1466Bq. The activity that was handled varied from 370 - 3182 MBq / week. The limit set by the ICRP for 131l uptake in the thyroid is 2 MBq. 131l MIBG dispensing and administration: The whole body radiation doses received by the caregivers of 131l MIBG therapy patients varied from 0,13-.12 mSv. The ICRP whole body limit to the public is 1 mSv per year. The physicists' whole body radiation doses varied from 0.20 - 1.18 mSv per treatment. Their hand doses varied from 0.67 - 8.85 mSv. The ICRP whole body limit for radiation workers is 20 mSv per year (- 0.4 mSv per week) while the dose to the skin (hands) should not exceed 5O0mSv per year (10m

  17. Detection of multiple endocrine tumours using 131I-MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An 131l-MIBG scan was requested in an effort to locate an endocrine tumour after the patient presented with a history of funny turns, intermittent hypertension and elevated urinary catecholamines. The patient was injected with 131l-MIBG, and scanned 48 and 72 hours post-injection. Anterior and posterior static images of the torso identified several abnormal accumulations of 131l-MIBG. To help with the diagnosis a 99mTc-MPP scan followed. Blood pool images showed areas of intense activity matching some of the abnormalities on the 131l-MIBG scan. The delayed images were unremarkable. Some of these abnormalities were palpable on physical examination and the patient was aware of these lesions since childhood. Surgical excision of five tumours was performed. Histology of 131l tumours confirmed the diagnosis of ganglioneuroma. The nuclear medicine scans successfully identified the location and type of tumour responsible for the patient''s hormonal problems

  18. Preparation and properties of yttria doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystal/Sr-doped barium hexaferrite ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The 3Y-TZP/Sr-doped barium ferrite composites were prepared. • The saturation magnetization was improved by 15% with Sr-doping. • The dispersion coefficient p could reflect the microscopic lattice variation. • The composite with x = 0.5 had the maximum fracture toughness of 8.3 MPa m1/2. - Abstract: The effects of substitution of Ba2+ by Sr2+ on the magnetic property of barium ferrite and addition barium ferrite secondary phase to the 3 mol% yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) matrix on the mechanical property of composites were investigated. The Sr-doped barium ferrite (Ba1−xSrxFe12O19, x = 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75) was synthesized by solid-state reaction in advance. Then 3Y-TZP/20 wt% Sr-doped barium ferrite composites were prepared by means of conventional ceramic method. It was found that a moderate amount of Sr added to barium ferrite could boost the saturation magnetization by 15% compared with the composites without Sr-doping. Besides, the composite with x = 0.50 possessed the best mechanical properties, such as 11.5 GPa for Vickers hardness and 8.3 MPa m1/2 for fracture toughness, respectively. It was demonstrated that magnetic and mechanical properties of the composites could be harmonized by the incorporation of barium ferrite secondary phase

  19. Bio-based barium alginate film: Preparation, flame retardancy and thermal degradation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Chuan-Jie; Zhao, Jin-Chao; Guo, Yi; Zhu, Ping; Wang, De-Yi

    2016-03-30

    A bio-based barium alginate film was prepared via a facile ionic exchange and casting approach. Its flammability, thermal degradation and pyrolysis behaviors, thermal degradation mechanism were studied systemically by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning (UL-94), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). It showed that barium alginate film had much higher LOI value (52.0%) than that of sodium alginate film (24.5%). Moreover, barium alginate film passed the UL-94 V-0 rating, while the sodium alginate film showed no classification. Importantly, peak of heat release rate (PHRR) of barium alginate film in MCC test was much lower than that of sodium alginate film, suggested that introduction of barium ion into alginate film significantly decreased release of combustible gases. TG-FTIR and Py-GC-MS results indicated that barium alginate produced much less flammable products than that of sodium alginate in whole thermal degradation procedure. Finally, a possible degradation mechanism of barium alginate had been proposed. PMID:26794953

  20. Barium titanate core – gold shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FarrokhTakin E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Elmira FarrokhTakin,1,2 Gianni Ciofani,1 Gian Luigi Puleo,1 Giuseppe de Vito,3,4 Carlo Filippeschi,1 Barbara Mazzolai,1 Vincenzo Piazza,3 Virgilio Mattoli1 1Center for Micro-BioRobotics @SSSA, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pontedera, Pisa, Italy; 2The Biorobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pontedera, Pisa, Italy; 3Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @NEST, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pisa, Italy; 4NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy Abstract: The development of new tools and devices to aid in treating cancer is a hot topic in biomedical research. The practice of using heat (hyperthermia to treat cancerous lesions has a long history dating back to ancient Greece. With deeper knowledge of the factors that cause cancer and the transmissive window of cells and tissues in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, hyperthermia applications have been able to incorporate the use of lasers. Photothermal therapy has been introduced as a selective and noninvasive treatment for cancer, in which exogenous photothermal agents are exploited to achieve the selective destruction of cancer cells. In this manuscript, we propose applications of barium titanate core–gold shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment against cancer cells. We explored the effect of increasing concentrations of these nanoshells (0–100 µg/mL on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, testing the internalization and intrinsic toxicity and validating the hyperthermic functionality of the particles through near infrared (NIR laser-induced thermoablation experiments. No significant changes were observed in cell viability up to nanoparticle concentrations of 50 µg/mL. Experiments upon stimulation with an NIR laser revealed the ability of the nanoshells to destroy human neuroblastoma cells. On the basis of these findings, barium titanate core–gold shell nanoparticles resulted in being suitable for hyperthermia treatment

  1. Wideband and enhanced microwave absorption performance of doped barium ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve stronger microwave attenuation and larger bandwidth in electromagnetic absorber, the nickel ions (Ni2+) and manganese ions (Mn2+) were employed to partially replace the cobalt ions (Co2+) in BaCoTiFe10O19, and the doped barium hexaferrite (Ba(MnNi)0.2Co0.6TiFe10O19 and Ba(MnNi)0.25Co0.5TiFe10O19) powders were synthesized via the sol–gel combustion method. Subsequently, the microwave absorbing composites were prepared by mixing the ferrite powders with the paraffin. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the doped ferrites confirmed the formation of the M-type barium ferrite, and no other types of barium ferrite could be found. Based on the electromagnetic parameters measured by the vector net-analyzer, it was found that the composite (Ba(MnNi)0.2Co0.6TiFe10O19) possessed a minimum reflection loss of −52.8 dB at 13.4 GHz with a matching thickness of 1.8 mm and the bandwidth below −15 dB was 5.8 GHz. Moreover, the maximum attenuation of Ba(MnNi)0.25Co0.5TiFe10O19 could reach −69 dB when its thickness was 1.8 mm, and also the bandwidth less than −20 dB was ranging from 13.2 GHz to 18 GHz. Thus, Ba(MnNi)0.2Co0.6TiFe10O19 and Ba(MnNi)0.25Co0.5TiFe10O19 could be the good microwave absorbers, which have great potentials to be applied in the high frequency fields of the microwave absorbing materials. - Highlights: • The Co was first time substituted by Mn–Ni in ferrites. • The substituted ferrites had good microwave absorption. • The doped ferrites had broad bandwidth and low reflection loss

  2. Wideband and enhanced microwave absorption performance of doped barium ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Pingyuan; Xiong, Kun [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Ju, Kui [Guizhou Institute of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Guiyang 550002 (China); Li, Shengnan [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Xu, Guangliang, E-mail: xuguangliang@swust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2015-07-01

    To achieve stronger microwave attenuation and larger bandwidth in electromagnetic absorber, the nickel ions (Ni{sup 2+}) and manganese ions (Mn{sup 2+}) were employed to partially replace the cobalt ions (Co{sup 2+}) in BaCoTiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19}, and the doped barium hexaferrite (Ba(MnNi){sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.6}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} and Ba(MnNi){sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19}) powders were synthesized via the sol–gel combustion method. Subsequently, the microwave absorbing composites were prepared by mixing the ferrite powders with the paraffin. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the doped ferrites confirmed the formation of the M-type barium ferrite, and no other types of barium ferrite could be found. Based on the electromagnetic parameters measured by the vector net-analyzer, it was found that the composite (Ba(MnNi){sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.6}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19}) possessed a minimum reflection loss of −52.8 dB at 13.4 GHz with a matching thickness of 1.8 mm and the bandwidth below −15 dB was 5.8 GHz. Moreover, the maximum attenuation of Ba(MnNi){sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} could reach −69 dB when its thickness was 1.8 mm, and also the bandwidth less than −20 dB was ranging from 13.2 GHz to 18 GHz. Thus, Ba(MnNi){sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.6}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} and Ba(MnNi){sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} could be the good microwave absorbers, which have great potentials to be applied in the high frequency fields of the microwave absorbing materials. - Highlights: • The Co was first time substituted by Mn–Ni in ferrites. • The substituted ferrites had good microwave absorption. • The doped ferrites had broad bandwidth and low reflection loss.

  3. Variations in soil texture and levels of 131I contamination on the 131I uptake and transfer in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of soil texture and levels of 131I contamination on 131I uptake and soil to crop transfer factor (TF) in sunflower were studied in a pot experiment. The 131I uptake and tf were significant in root and in the sandy soil. With increase in the level of '131I contamination 131I uptake tended to increase, but the TF decreased. (author)

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Barium-Vanadium Oxide Nanocomposite Using a Facile thermolysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Niloufar Akbarzadeh-T; Leila Amiri-O

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we report synthesis of new cationic-anionic Barium-Vanadium complex with 2, 6- pyridinedicarboxylic acid ligand. This compound [Ba(H2O)8][VO2(dipic)]2(1) has been characterized using elemental analyses, FT-IR, UV–Vis and Cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. Also in this study we report facile synthesis of Barium-Vanadium Oxide nanoparticle under thermal decomposition, using precursor complex (1). Characterization of Barium-Vanadium Oxide nanocomposites was carried out by...

  5. Barium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by self-propagating low-temperature combustion method and its characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P M Prithviraj Swamy; S Basavaraja; Vijayanand Havanoor; N V Srinivas Rao; R Nijagunappa; A Venkataraman

    2011-12-01

    The barium ferrite particles were prepared using a self-propagating low-temperature combustion method using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a fuel. The process was investigated with simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA). The crystalline structure, morphology and the magnetic properties of the barium ferrite particles were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SQUID susceptometer. The results show that the ignition temperature of PEG is lower compared with other combustion methods and gives nanocrystalline barium ferrite.

  6. A Comparative Study on Magnetostructural Properties of Barium Hexaferrite Powders Prepared by Polyethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Durmus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline particles of barium hexaferrite were synthesized by a sol-gel combustion route using nitrate-citrate gels prepared from metal nitrates and citric acid solutions with Fe/Ba molar ratio 12. The present paper aims to study the effect of addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG solutions with different molecular weights (MW: 400, 2000, and 10.000 g/mol on magnetostructural properties of barium hexaferrite. The formation of the barium hexaferrite was inspected using X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR analysis, thermogravimetric (TGA analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM analysis for magnetic measurements.

  7. Microscopic insight into nuclear structure properties of proton-rich barium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation after projection (VAP) calculations with Hartree-Bogoliubov (HB) Ansatz have been carried out for A=120-136 barium isotopes. In this framework, the yrast spectra with Jmaxπ=10+, B(E2) transition probabilities, quadrupole (β2) and hexadecapole (β4) deformation parameters for even-even barium isotopes have been obtained. The results of the calculation give an indication that it is important to include the hexadecapole-hexadecapole component of the two-body interaction for obtaining various nuclear structure quantities in these barium isotopes. (author)

  8. Orbital elements of barium stars formed through a wind accretion scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J H; Liang, Y C; Peng, Q H

    2000-01-01

    Taking the total angular momentum conservation in place of the tangential momentum conservation, and considering the square and higher power terms of orbital eccentricity e, the changes of orbital elements of binaries are calculated for wind accretion scenario. These new equations are used to quantitatively explain the observed (e,logP) properties of normal G, K giants and barium stars. Our results reflect the evolution from G, K giant binaries to barium binaries, moreover, the barium stars with longer orbital periods P>1600 days may be formed by accreting part of the ejecta from the intrinsic AGB stars through wind accretion scenario.

  9. The high-temperature sulphation behavior of barium-based sorbents during coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.; Li, N.; Zhou, J.; Cao, X.; Liu, J.; Zhao, X.; Cen, K.

    2000-07-01

    In order to promote the sulfur removal efficiency during coal combustion, the high-temperature sulfation behavior of barium-based sorbents was studied. The sulfation product BaSO{sub 4} which did not decompose until 1,580 C had much better thermal stability than CaSO{sub 4} which rapidly decomposed at about 1,300 C. The desulfurization effect of barium salt Ba{sup 2+} was much better than calcium salt Ca{sup 2+} during coal combustion at about 1,200{approximately}1,300 C. The sulfur removal efficiency of barium-based sorbents could achieve 35.5% in industrial grate furnace.

  10. Application of barium fluoride for sulfur selective extraction at X-ray spectroscopic analysis of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase the sensitivity of X-ray spectroscopic identification of sulphur in steels the application of barium fluoride for selective extraction of sulphate ions was proposed by authors of present work. The influence of concentration of sulphate ions, iron, nickel, chromium and titanium cations as well as acidity of solutions on the coefficient of distribution of sulphate ions in the system barium fluoride-water was studied. The distribution coefficients were calculated, the completeness of extraction was calculated as well. It is defined that sulphate ions from solutions containing cations of heavy metals and other anions can be extracted by means of barium fluoride.

  11. Solvothermal synthesis and Curie temperature of monodispersed barium titanate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles with various particle sizes were prepared by a solvothermal method. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) patterns show that the as-prepared powders are of pure perovskite BaTiO3. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that all the particles of BaTiO3 with different sizes are dispersed homogenously and have uniform size. The room temperature and in situ high temperature XRD analyses indicate that both the proportion of the tetragonal phase and the Curie temperature of BaTiO3 increase with increasing particles size. The effects of the reaction parameters, such as the concentration of reactants, the polarity of solvent, the reaction temperature and the amount of surfactant, on the size, morphology and uniformity of BaTiO3 nanoparticles are studied in detail.

  12. Infrared Spectroscopic Characterization of Calcium and Barium Hydrazone Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *A. Adeniyi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrazones have attracted considerable interest on account of their biological activities. Introduction of calcium and barium metal ions into m- and p-nitrobenzoic hydrazones is expected to modify these biological properties for enhanced activity and versatility. The ligands were synthesized from the parent acids. The complexes have been characterized using C, H and N microanalyses and IR spectrometry. The IR spectral data of the ligands and complexes revealed bonding via the C=O and C=N groups. The suggested metal to ligand stoichiometries are: [M (m-NBHx]Cl2.yH2O, x, y = 1 and 4 for M = Ca; x, y = 2 and 3 for M = Ba respectively. [M(p-NBHx]Cl2.yH2O, x, y = 1 and 12 for M = Ca; x, y = 1 and 3 for M = Ba respectively. The structural deductions are tentative pending future X-ray structural studies.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-particle Substituted Barium Hexaferrite

    CERN Document Server

    Atassi, Yomen; Tally, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    High density magnetic recording requires high coercivity magnetic media and small particle size. Barium hexaferrite has been considered as a leading candidate material because of its chemical stability, fairly large crystal anisotropy and suitable magnetic characteristics. In this work, we present the preparation of the hexagonal ferrite BaFe12O19 and one of its derivative; the Zn-Sn substituted hexaferrite by the chemical co-precipitation method. The main advantage of this method on the conventional glass-ceramic one, resides in providing a small enough particle size for magnetic recording. We demonstrate using the X-ray diffraction patterns that the particle size decreases when substituting the hexaferrite by the Zn-Sn combination. This may improve the magnetic properties of the hexaferrite as a medium for HD magnetic recording

  14. Synthesis and optical study of barium magnesium aluminate blue phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europium doped barium magnesium aluminate (BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+) phosphor was prepared via solution combustion method at 550°C using urea as a fuel. Morphological and optical properties of the prepared sample was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD result showed the formation of pure phase BaMgAl10O17(JCPDS 26-0163) along with an additional phase BaAl2O4(JCPDS 01-082-1350). TEM image indicated the formation of faceted particles with average particle size 40 nm. From PL spectra, a broad emission band obtained at about 450 nm attributes to 4f6 5d → 4f7 transition of Eu2+ which lies in the blue region of the visible spectrum

  15. Conoscopic study of strontium-barium niobate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically transparent single crystals of strontium-barium niobate, SrxBa1-xNb2O6, of different compositions (x = 0.26...0.7) were examined with the aid of conoscopic light interference figures. A regular change of the isochrome concentric ring number and diameters consistent with the temperature variation of the value of birefringence is demonstrated by direct observations of polar cuts of optically uniaxial samples. Anomalous violations of the conventional (uniaxial) interference patterns occur occasionaly in some samples being indicative of the existence of biaxial trait in their behaviour even though no voltage is applied. These features may depend on annealing treatments at elevated temperatures. The results of the study show that conoscopic images may serve as a sensitive indicator of the structural state of SBN crystals related to the effects of stress–induced change of optical anisotropy and temperature dependent birefringence parameters

  16. Pulsating aurora induced by upper atmospheric barium releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deehr, C.; Romick, G.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reports the apparent generation of pulsating aurora by explosive releases of barium vapor near 250 km altitude. This effect occurred only when the explosions were in the path of precipitating electrons associated with the visible aurora. Each explosive charge was a standard 1.5 kg thermite mixture of Ba and CuO with an excess of Ba metal which was vaporized and dispersed by the thermite explosion. Traces of Sr, Na, and Li were added to some of the charges, and monitoring was achieved by ground-based spectrophotometric observations. On March 28, 1976, an increase in emission at 5577 A and at 4278 A was observed in association with the first two bursts, these emissions pulsating with roughly a 10 sec period for approximately 60 to 100 sec after the burst.

  17. Behaviour of barium and strontium oxides in liquid nitrogen tetroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical transformations of barium and strontium oxides (MeO, MeO2) in liquid nitrogen tetroxide are considered in the temperature range of 290-493 K. The data on IR and Raman spectra of the reaction products in the region of 2500-600 cm-1 are presented. No formation of nitrosonium complexes of the type NO[Me(NOsub(3))sub(n)]sub(m) and adducts of the type Me(NO3)2xmN2O4 is detected. It has been established that MeO2 possess a higher reactivity in liquid nitrogen tetroxide than MeO. Using the methods of vibrational spectroscopy the bands, characteristic of MeO2 are signled out in MeO samples being in contact with nitrogen tetroxide

  18. Stark effect in Rydberg states of helium and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis, which deals with the effect of an electric field up to moderate field strengths on atoms with two valence electrons outside closed shells, in casu helium and barium, contains chapter in which the linear Stark effect in the 1 snp 1,3p Rydberg states of helium (n around 40) has been studied in a CW laser-atomic beam experiment. The evolution of the angular momentum manifolds into the n-mixing regime was followed and avoided level crossings were observed. Stark manifolds were also calculated by diagonalization of the complete energy matrix in the presence of an electric field. It turned out to be necessary to include up to five n-values in the calculations already at moderate values of the field to reproduce the data within the experimental accuracy (a few MHz), especially in the regime of the avoided crossings. (author). 147 refs.; 30 figs.; 8 tabs

  19. Small polarons and point defects in barium cerate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Michael; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2015-12-01

    Barium cerate (BaCeO3) is a well-known ionic conductor of both hydrogen and oxygen. In applications, it is frequently doped (for instance with Y) to increase stability and promote diffusion. However, the effects of doping and native defects are not fully understood. Computational studies have been stymied by the nature of the conduction band, which is made up of cerium 4 f states. These states present a challenge to ab initio techniques based on density functional theory within the standard approximations for exchange and correlation. Using a hybrid functional, we investigate the effects of hydrogen impurities and native defects on the electrical and optical properties of BaCeO3. We discuss the tendency of excess electrons or holes to localize in the form of small polarons. We also explore the interactions of polarons with hydrogen impurities and oxygen vacancies, and their impact on luminescence properties.

  20. Nonlinear optical properties of calcium barium niobate epitaxial thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Vigne, Sébastien; Hossain, Nadir; Chaker, Mohammed; Légaré, François

    2016-07-25

    We investigate the potential of epitaxial calcium barium niobate (CBN) thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical frequency conversion. Using second harmonic generation (SHG), we analyze the polarization response of the generated signal to determine the ratios d15 / d32 and d33 / d32 of the three independent components of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in CBN thin film. In addition, a detailed comparison to the signal intensity obtained in a y-cut quartz allows us to measure the absolute value of these components in CBN thin film: d15 = 5 ± 2 pm / V, d32 = 3.1 ± 0.6 pm / V and d33 = 9 ± 2 pm / V. PMID:27464195

  1. Barium titanate nanocomposite capacitor FY09 year end report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Tyler E.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William; Fellows, Benjamin D.

    2009-11-01

    This late start RTBF project started the development of barium titanate (BTO)/glass nanocomposite capacitors for future and emerging energy storage applications. The long term goal of this work is to decrease the size, weight, and cost of ceramic capacitors while increasing their reliability. Ceramic-based nanocomposites have the potential to yield materials with enhanced permittivity, breakdown strength (BDS), and reduced strain, which can increase the energy density of capacitors and increase their shot life. Composites of BTO in glass will limit grain growth during device fabrication (preserving nanoparticle grain size and enhanced properties), resulting in devices with improved density, permittivity, BDS, and shot life. BTO will eliminate the issues associated with Pb toxicity and volatility as well as the variation in energy storage vs. temperature of PZT based devices. During the last six months of FY09 this work focused on developing syntheses for BTO nanoparticles and firing profiles for sintering BTO/glass composite capacitors.

  2. Ultrasonic de-agglomeration of barium titanate powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, S; Mitrić, M; Starcević, G; Uskoković, D

    2008-01-01

    BaTiO3 (BT) powder, with average particle size of 1.4 microm, was synthesized by solid-state reaction. A high-intensity ultrasound irradiation (ultrasonication) was used to de-agglomerate micro-sized powder to nano-sized one. The crystal structure, crystallite size, morphology, particle size, particle size distribution, and specific surface area of the BT powder de-agglomerated for different ultrasonication times (0, 10, 60, and 180 min) were determined. It was found that the particles size of the BT powder was influenced by ultrasonic treatment, while its tetragonal structure was maintained. Therefore, ultrasonic irradiation can be proposed as an environmental-friendly, economical, and effective tool for the de-agglomeration of barium titanate powders. PMID:17845864

  3. Synthesis and optical study of barium magnesium aluminate blue phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeet, Suninder, E-mail: suninder.jeet@thapar.edu; Pandey, O. P., E-mail: oppandey@thapar.edu [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala (147003), Punjab (India); Sharma, Manoj, E-mail: manojnarad@sggswu.org [Department of Nanotechnology, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib(146406), Punjab (India)

    2015-05-15

    Europium doped barium magnesium aluminate (BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+}) phosphor was prepared via solution combustion method at 550°C using urea as a fuel. Morphological and optical properties of the prepared sample was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD result showed the formation of pure phase BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}(JCPDS 26-0163) along with an additional phase BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(JCPDS 01-082-1350). TEM image indicated the formation of faceted particles with average particle size 40 nm. From PL spectra, a broad emission band obtained at about 450 nm attributes to 4f{sup 6} 5d → 4f{sup 7} transition of Eu{sup 2+} which lies in the blue region of the visible spectrum.

  4. Bronchography in dogs. Comparative study with two barium sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two solutions of barium sulphate, 60 and 30% w/v, were compared with the ''overflow'' Bronchographic method. Two groups of eight healthy adult does of both sexes, weighing 7 to 18 kg were used for the study. The dogs were anaesthetised with thiopentone sodium 2% (20 mg/kg iv). After intubation, each dog received contrast medium by a catheter connected to a syringe, in a 9 mi dose. Two series of two x-rays plates were taken in left lateral recumbent, 3 and 6 min after administering the contrast medium and in ventrodorsal projection, 30 sec. later. The x-ray plates obtained were analysed and compared intra and inter group considering the advance speed of the contrast medium, the radiographic density and outlines. Adverse reactions were controlled

  5. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquais, J. M.; Poret, F.; le Doze, R.; Ricaud, J. L.; Monterrin, A.; Steinbrunn, A.

    2003-06-01

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK).

  6. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK)

  7. Structural and functional characterization of barium zirconium titanate / epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto González Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric behavior of composite materials (barium zirconium titanate / epoxy system was analyzed as a function of ceramic concentration. Structure and morphologic behavior of the composites was investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses. Composites were prepared by mixing the components and pouring them into suitable moulds. It was demonstrated that the amount of inorganic phase affects the morphology of the presented composites. XRD revealed the presence of a single phase while Raman scattering confirmed structural transitions as a function of ceramic concentration. Changes in the ceramic concentration affected Raman modes and the distribution of particles along into in epoxy matrix. Dielectric permittivity and dielectric losses were influenced by filler concentration.

  8. Gamma radiation induced darkening in barium gallo-germanate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Heng, Xiaobo; Tang, Guowu; Zhu, Tingting; Sun, Min; Shan, Xiujie; Wen, Xin; Guo, Jingyuan; Qian, Qi; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-05-01

    Barium gallo-germanate (BGG) glass is an important glass matrix material used for mid-infrared transmission and mid-infrared fiber laser. In this study, we investigated the γ-ray irradiation induced darkening effect of BGG glass. Optical transmittance spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra were employed to investigate the γ-ray irradiation induced defects. Two kinds of Ge-related defects in the irradiated BGG glass, named Ge-related non-bridging oxygen hole center (Ge-NBOHC) and Ge-related electron centers (GEC), were verified. In addition, the absorption bands of the two defects have been separated and the peak absorptivity of Ge-NBOHC and GEC defects is at 375 nm and 315 nm, respectively. PMID:27137531

  9. Effect of Nb on barium titanate prepared from citrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of dopants on the microstructure development and electrical properties of BaTiO3 doped with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mol% of Nb and 0.01 mol% of Mn based compounds was studied. Doped barium titanate was prepared using the polymeric precursor method from citrate solutions. The powders calcined at 700°C for 4 hours were analysed by infrared (IR spectroscopy to verify the presence of carbonates, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD for phase formation. The phase composition, microstructure and dielectric properties show a strong dependence on the amount of added niobium.

  10. Ionoluminescence of trivalent rare-earth-doped strontium barium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-VI, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Nacional Automoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ruvalcaba, J.L. [Universidad Nacional Automoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bettinelli, M.; Speghini, A. [Dipartimento Scientifico e Tecnologico, Universita di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Ca Vignal, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy); Barboza Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Calderon, T. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-VI, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: tomas.calderon@uam.es; Jaque, D.; Garcia Sole, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Ionoluminescence spectra for different rare-earth ion (Pr{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+})-activated Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1-x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} strontium barium niobate crystals (x=0.33 and 0.60) have been induced with a 3 MeV proton beam for a variety of beam current intensities (45, 40 and 20 nA). The proton-beam induced luminescent spectra have shown features associated with the presence of the rare-earth ion and some spectral features mostly related to the host crystal, which appear only for high beam current intensities. We have compared the ionoluminescence results to those obtained under UV light excitation (photoluminescence technique) where a direct excitation of the band gap would occur.

  11. Microwave absorption properties of barium titanate/epoxide resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-barium titanate (BT) was prepared by a sol-gel method. The prepared powders were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The complex relative dielectric permittivity (ε = ε' - jε-prime) and magnetic permeability (μ = μ' - jμ-prime) of the BT powders were measured in the frequency range 8 ∼ 18 GHz. The BT/epoxide resin (EP) composite with different volume contents was investigated. The effects of thickness on the BT/EP composite were studied. It was found that an optimum thickness and contents of the absorber can yield the maximum reflection loss which could be obtained over a broad frequency region in the X and Ku bands. Our results indicate that BT could be a promising microwave absorption material

  12. Study on a flexoelectric microphone using barium strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S. R.; Huang, W. B.; Zhang, S. J.; Yuan, F. G.; Jiang, X. N.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a flexoelectric microphone was, for the first time, designed and fabricated in a bridge structure using barium strontium titanate (Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3) ceramic and tested afterwards. The prototyped flexoelectric microphone consists of a 1.5 mm  ×  768 μm  ×  50 μm BST bridge structure and a silicon substrate with a cavity. The sensitivity and resonance frequency were designed to be 0.92 pC/Pa and 98.67 kHz, respectively. The signal to noise ratio was measured to be 74 dB. The results demonstrate that the flexoelectric microphone possesses high sensitivity and a wide working frequency range simultaneously, suggesting that flexoelectricity could be an excellent alternative sensing mechanism for microphone applications.

  13. Enthalpy of formation of (In, Gd)-doped barium cerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • BaCe0.7Gd0.2In0.1O2.85 was prepared by solid-state reaction. • The standard formation enthalpy was determined. • The stabilization energy (ΔstH°) was calculated. • ΔstH° of BaCe0.7Gd0.2In0.1O2.85 is higher than BaCe0.7Nd0.2In0.1O2.85 and BaCeO3. - Abstract: Solution enthalpies of barium cerate doped by gadolinium and indium and a mixture of BaCl2 + 0.7CeCl3 + 2GdCl3 + 0.1InCl3 have been measured in 1 mol dm−3 HCl with 0.1 mol dm−3 KI. For the first time the standard molar formation enthalpy of BaCe0.7Gd0.2In0.1O2.85 has been determined by solution calorimetry as follows: ΔfH° (298.15 K) = −1615.84 ± 9.01 kJ mol−1. The stabilization energy for above-mentioned compound has been calculated as well. It has been shown that barium cerate doped gadolinium and indium has higher stabilization energy than BaCe0.7Nd0.2In0.1O2.85 and BaCeO3. The reaction enthalpy with CO2 interaction has been calculated for BaCe0.7Gd0.2In0.1O2.85

  14. Brillouin function characteristics for La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chuanjian, E-mail: wcjuestc2005@gmail.com, E-mail: ksun@uestc.edu.cn; Yu, Zhong; Sun, Ke, E-mail: wcjuestc2005@gmail.com, E-mail: ksun@uestc.edu.cn; Guo, Rongdi; Jiang, Xiaona; Lan, Zhongwen [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yang, Yan [Department of Communication and Engineering, Chengdu Technological University, Chengdu 611730 (China)

    2015-09-14

    La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites with the chemical formula of Ba{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 19} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5), prepared by a conventional ceramic method, were systematically investigated by Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The result manifests that all the compounds are crystallized in magnetoplumbite hexagonal structure. Trivalent cobalt ions prevailingly occupy the 2a, 4f{sub 1}, and 12k sites. According to Néel model of collinear-spin ferrimagnetism, the molecular-field coefficients ω{sub bf2}, ω{sub kf1}, ω{sub af1}, ω{sub kf2}, and ω{sub bk} of La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites have been calculated using the nonlinear fitting method, and the magnetic moment of five sublattices (2a, 2b, 4f{sub 1}, 4f{sub 2}, and 12k) versus temperature T has been also investigated. The fitting results are coincided well with the experimental data. Moreover, with the increase of La-Co substitution amount x, the molecular-field coefficients ω{sub bf2} and ω{sub af1} decrease constantly, while the molecular-field coefficients ω{sub kf1}, ω{sub kf2}, and ω{sub bk} show a slight change.

  15. Metabolism of I-131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I-131-MIBG is used to image and treat human pheochrmocytoma. As part of a pharmacodynamic study, the authors have evaluated its excretion and metabolism in 8 pheochromocytoma patients undergoing MIBG therapy. Following diagnostic doses (0.42-0.53 mCi) of I-131-MIBG given prior to therapy, 40-55% of the administered radioactivity appears in the urine within 24 h with 70-90% recoverable within 4 days. HPLC was used to identify potential metabolites following therapeutic doses (130-213 mCi) of I-131-NIBG. Aliquots of daily urine samples were prepared for HPLC analysis by passage through C-18 Sep-pak cartridges. A reverse-phase HPLC system (μBondapak C-18; 0.2 M ammonium phosphate/THF, 80/20) with both ultraviolet (254 nm) and radioactive (Flo-one detector, solid scintillant cell) detection was used. Radioactive metabolites were identified by co-chromatography with authentic compounds at elution solvent pH's of 4.6 and 7.0. Unaltered I-131-MIBG was the primary radioactive urinary component in all 8 patients studied, representing 74-90% of the total recovered. Two ''major'' metabolites were identified: I-131-iodide and I-131-m-iodohippuric acid, representing, respectively, 2-6% and 2-16% of the total urinary radioactivity. Of 4 additional ''minor'' metabolites (< 2% of total urinary radioactivity) detected, 2 have been identified: I-131-4-hydroxy-MIBG and I-131-m-iodobenzoic acid. The 4-5 day metabolism profiles varied from patient to patient but did not change in 2 patients given 2 therapy doses 4 months apart. No obvious correlation was observed between the presence of metabolites and the location of the tumors or the plasma or urinary catecholamine levels. I-131-MIBC is a rapidly excreted, relatively stable radiopharmaceutical agent

  16. Nursing of patients with hyperthyroidism treated by using iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthyroidism was a common endocrine disease, its clinic treatment mainly include anti thyroid drug treatment, surgical operation and iodine-131 therapy. The latter have unique superiority, which was adapted by clinic doctors. The nursing method was distinguished from that of others because the principle of iodine-131 therapy was different from other therapy in course of the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Combining the nursing experiences with related documents, this article was about to sum up briefly the nursing and matters needing attention in course of treatment of iodine-131 in patients with hyperthyroidism

  17. Chapter 5: Measurements of iodine-131 in milk supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As with previous series of French nuclear tests in Polynesia, a program was instituted to monitor major milk supplies for iodine-131. This program extended from 25 July to 23 October 1973, and was terminated only after there was no further possibility of iodine-131 reaching the milk supplies. The program covered the nine major population centres and effectively monitored the milk consumed by 80 per cent of the entire Australian population. The method employed for iodine-131 assay of milk supplies is described, and the final results obtained are presented. (author)

  18. Radiation shielding of 131I therapeutic ward in department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To rebuild an 131I therapeutic ward of the department of nuclear medicine in the hospital, and design the radiation shielding to make the radiation safety achieve the national standards. Methods: According to the protection demands of national relating standards, the design of the ward was based on the basic principles and methods of radiation shielding of 131I, and combined the distribution of radioactive sources, rooms and people. Results: The design parameters and radioprotection data of the rebuilt ward were obtained and the radiation shielding was safe by monitoring. Conclusion: The design of the 131I therapeutic ward achieved the anticipated target that the radiation safety could be controlled. (authors)

  19. 131I-Lipiodol labelling and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipiodol-131 I is used as a contrast agent in lymphangiography and it also acts as an immunosupress agent for the endolynphatic irradiation in patients who need renal transplant. The labelling of lipiodol with I-131 occurs by isotopic exchange and the separation of the labelled 131 I is carried out through a solvent extraction technique. Quality control tests (radiochemical, biological, microbiological and pyrogenic) were performed, and the result was that the compound is suitable for clinical application. The labelling yield varied from 70 to 85%. Doses of 925 MBq were injected into the dorsal paw of the patient's feet which permitted the visualization of all the lymphatic region. (author)

  20. 131I-chTNT-mediated radioimmunotherapy for non-uptaking 131I pulmonary metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the safety and efficacy of 131I-labeled mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody (131I-chTNT)-mediated radioimmunotherapy are evaluated because the patients have non-uptaking 131I pulmonary metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The 16 patients were injected intravenously by 29.6±3.7 MBq·kg-1 using 131I-chTNT. The chest computer tomography was performed before treatment, as well as 28 and 70 days after treatment. Responses and safety were assessed during the treatment. The results show that the 131I-chTNT infusion was well tolerated with the 12.5% complete response, 18.8% partial response, 25.0% progressive disease, and the 43.8% stable disease, indicating that most treatment-related adverse effects are mild transient and reversible. The 131I-chTNT is promising for patients with non-uptaking the 131I pulmonary metastases from DTC. (authors)

  1. Sensitivity of single contrast barium enema with regard to colorectal disease as diagnosed by colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of single contrast barium enema were retrospectively correlated with colonoscopically diagnosed colorectal disease in 54 patients (75 lesions). Altogether 66 lesions (88%) were correctly diagnosed. The sensitivity of barium enema for polyps was 81% (26/32). There were three perceptive errors and three polyps 5 mm or less in size were not demonstrated by barium enema. Twenty-nine cases of inflammatory disorders were all correctly diagnosed. One of 12 malignancies was missed by perceptive error. In two cases with vascular malformations the barium enema was normal. 4/9 (44%) of missed lesions were perceptive errors and could have been probably avoided by a second independent reading of films. (orig.)

  2. How changes in a radiologist's technique can reduce patient dose in barium enema studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in a radiologist's technique, especially utilising digital technology, can lead to substantial dose savings in barium enema examinations. Data will be provided showing a 20% saving with only minimal change in technique. (author)

  3. Analysis of pelvic 131I uptake after 131I whole body scan in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze and explore the possible mechanism for pelvic 131I uptake after 131I post treatment whole body scan (Rx-WBS)in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: (1) Data were retrospectively reviewed from 168 female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (everyone has a Rx-WBS). (2) 46 patients were accepted by analyzing the characteristics of Rx-WBS and combing with some inclusion criteria,and then followed up. Results: Among the 46 patients (46 positions accumulated 131I) with significant pelvic 131I uptake, 6 patients had two reasons leading to pelvic 131I uptake, and 2 patients had no specific reason. Among the 50 reasons for pelvic 131I uptake, 41 reasons related with uterus, 3 reasons related to rectum, 5 related to bladder and 1 related to ovarian chocolate cyst. Among the 41 reasons related to uterus, by combining the examinations of SPECT/CT, ultrasound, CT and the follow-up results, 18 were uterine leiomyomas, 9 were intrauterine devices, 2 were endometrial thickening, 3 were uterine cavity effusion, 7 were menstrual periods, 1 were uterine adenomyosis, 1 were gestational sac. Conclusions: (1) In the Rx-WBS of female, the significant pelvic 131I uptake is generally caused by uterus, but not bladder. And it usually means gynecological disease, especially uterine leiomyomas when excluding physiological factors. (2) It is generally easy to differentiate bladder from rectum because they have different characteristic features of the pelvic 131I uptake. (3) SPECT/CT plays a very important role in locating 131I uptake in uterus. (authors)

  4. Cesium-137 and Iodine-131 in drinking water in Sweden after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident an extensive program of tests and measurements was started in Sweden. The purpose of the program was to track the fallout of radioactive nuclides over Sweden. The program included aerial surveys throughout the entire country, monitoring of air activity and measurements of radioactive nuclides in milk and other foodstuffs. The program also included measurements of different radioactive nuclides in drinking water. Samples were taken from public surface water plants and private wells from those parts of the country where the fallout had been most extensive. The test sites were chosen in collaboration with the local health authorities. Initially the drinking water program included 16 private wells and 12 public water plants. In 1987 it was cut down to 10 wells and 6 water plants. The main body of this report presents measurements of cesium-137 in water samples from these sites from the beginning of May 1986 to December 1989. Also included are measurements from the first weeks after the accident of iodine-131 an some other radioactive nuclides with relatively short half-lives such as rutenium-103, tellurium-132 and barium-140. Some of the surface water plants had concentrations of 10-15 Bq/l of cesium-137 in the beginning of May 1986. In 1989 some water plants still had concentrations of about 1 Bq/l. In the private wells the concentrations of cesium-137 have been low all the time, except for one sample where surface water had leaked into the well during the snow melting period. (authors)

  5. Calorimetric study of interaction of barium hydroxide with diluted solutions of hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to calorimetric study of interaction of barium hydroxide with diluted solutions of hydrofluoric acid. The calorimetric study of interaction of barium hydroxide with diluted solutions of hydrofluoric acid was carried out in order to determine the thermal effects of reactions. The results of interaction of Ba(OH)4·8H2O with 5, 10, and 20% solution of hydrofluoric acid were considered.

  6. Comparison of barium swallow and ultrasound in diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, D R; Bolia, A; Moore, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Fifty one infants and older children with suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux entered a study comparing the diagnostic accuracy of a standard barium swallow examination with that of ultrasound scanning. All children were examined by both techniques. In 40 cases there was unequivocal agreement between the examinations. Of the remaining patients, four had definite reflux by ultrasonic criteria but showed no evidence of reflux on barium swallow examination, four had positive findings on ultrasou...

  7. Whipple's disease demonstrated by double contrast small bowel enema with barium and methylcellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiologic findings on small bowel enema examination using barium and methylcellulose (SBE+Ba+MC) in a patient with Whipple's disease before and after treatment are described. The changes on SBE+Ba+MC corresponded well to the clinical and morphologic picture. The advantages of this double contrast technique compared to the enteroclysis with barium alone are demonstrated. The SBE+Ba+MC is a good method to demonstrate the manifestations of Whipple's disease involving the small bowel and the mesentery. (orig.)

  8. Impact of Biofield Treatment on Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Barium Titanate Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra; Nayak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Barium titanate, perovskite structure is known for its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric properties, which makes it interesting material for fabricating capacitors, transducer, actuator, and sensors. The perovskite crystal structure and lattice vibrations play a crucial role in its piezoelectric and ferroelectric behavior. In the present study, the barium titanate powder was subjected to biofield treatment. Further, the control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffr...

  9. Kinetics of barium sulphate reaction crystallization in crystallizers with internal circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Koralewska, J.; Piotrowski, K; B. Wierzbowska; A. Matynia

    2008-01-01

    Kinetic calculation results describing the observed nucleation and growth rates of barium sulphate crystals precipitated in an integrated reaction-crystallization process in a barium sulphate-ammonium chloride-water system are presented and analyzed. The scope of experiments included two continuous model DTM-type crystallizers (Draft Tube Magma) with internal circulation of the suspension forced by a liquid jet-pump device responsible for stable and intensive enough ascending/descending flow ...

  10. Adrenal scanning with {sup 131}I-cholesterol; Diagnostik von Nebennierenrindenerkrankungen mit {sup 131}I-Cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Adrenal scanning with {sup 131}I-19-cholesterol is used in patients with various forms of adrenal malfunction (adreno-cortical carcinoma or adenoma, hypothalamic-hypophyseal form of Cushing's syndrome, adrenal hirsutism, primary or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency). Adrenal scanning is optimal between the fourth and tenth day after intravenous injection of {sup 131}I-19-cholesterol. This method makes it possible to estimate the size and functional status of the adrenals. Limitation of the method is the relatively high radiation dose of {sup 131}I-19-cholesterol. (orig.)

  11. Prototype development of filter monitor for 131I processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 (131I) is used extensively in nuclear medicine because of its short half-life and useful beta emission. Isotope Production and Applications Division (IP and AD) of BARC produces 131I in its processing plant. The charcoal filters that are capable of extracting high levels of radioactive iodine and particulates in the suction flow are installed in the plant. The radioactive iodine is fully removed and deposited onto activated charcoal impregnated with potassium iodide. These charcoal filters get saturated over a period of use and need to be replaced with fresh ones. A 5-channel Filter monitor for online measurement of radiation level of trapped 131I on the charcoal filter is being developed by IP and AD, BARC. The unavailability of this type of instrument motivated to undertake this development. Current paper deals with a prototype filter monitor developed with single detector. Some results prove the functionality of the system. (author)

  12. High spin structure in 130,131Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High spin states of 130,131Ba have been investigated via fusion evaporation reactions 122Sn(13C,4n)131Ba and 122Sn(13C, 5n)130Ba at Ebeam=65 MeV. The level schemes of 130,131Ba have been extended by placing several new γ transitions. A few interband transitions connecting two negative-parity bands, which are the experimental fingerprints of signature partners, have been established in 130Ba. Spin and parity of a side band have been assigned in 131Ba and this dipole band is proposed to have a three-quasiparticle configuration, νh11/2 x πh11/2 x πg7/2. The observed band structures and nuclear shape evolution as a function of the angular momentum have been discussed in the light of Total-Routhian-Surface calculations. (orig.)

  13. Clinical evaluation of 131I in treatment hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical value of 131I in the treatment of hyperthyroidism is observed. The weight of the thyroid was evaluated by palpation, 131I was taken orally by one dose method. The dose was calculated by actual absorption of 131I/per gram of thyroid. 3 - 6 months after drug administration, the symptom, clinical manifestation and the serum hormone of the pituitary-hypothyroid axis were observed. In 105 cases, 80(76.2%) were nearly recovered, among them 16(15.2%) had hypothyroidism in the early period. The all over recovering rate was 91.4% in one dose, but 9(8.6%) were recurred and can be controlled at a second dose. Therefore 131I for the hyperthyroidism had a high recovering rate, low recurring rate and was very convenient. If prospect on the Chinese effort the controlled, the occurrence of hypothyroidism can be reduced to the acceptable level

  14. Guidelines on the management of patients treated with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of these guidelines is to assist health care institutions establish protocols for the management of patients treated with iodine-131. These guidelines are written primarily for the use of Na131I in the treatment of benign and malignant thyroid disease. The principles have some application for the use of complex 131I-labelled radiopharmaceuticals in that the treated patient will become a temporary radiation source and since contamination with body fluids of treated patients must be guarded against. The document outlines radiation protection and logistical concerns associated with the management of 131I patients before, during and after therapy. These concerns include the safety of health care personnel, visitors, and any other persons who are at risk; and protection of the environment. (L.L.) 23 refs., 2 tabs

  15. The impact of digital imaging on patient doses during barium studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium studies performed on 10 digital and four non-digital fluoroscopic systems were monitored with dose-area product meters as part of a Regional Patient Dosimetry Audit programme. The data have been collected using a computer to read and reset the dose-area product meter and also to collect patient and examination details. A comparison of dose-area product measurements from digital and non-digital fluoroscopy units on over 10 000 barium studies is presented. The data have been corrected according to patient size. The mean size corrected dose-area product for a barium meal examination was found to be 7.62 Gy cm-2 for a digital set compared with 15.45 Gy cm-2 for a non-digital set with 2462 and 1308 patients included in each measurement series, respectively. Dose-area products were also a factor of approximately two lower for barium enema, barium swallow and barium follow-through examinations performed on digital systems. (author)

  16. Preparation of porous nano barium ferrite and its adsorption properties on uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The porous nano barium ferrite was made of Fe(NO3)3 and Ba(NO3)2 as raw materials, CTAB as surfactant by method of sol-gel and self-propagating combustion. The composition, morphology and magnetic properties of nano-rod barium ferrite were characterized by XRD, SEM and vibrating sample magnetometer. The adsorption properties of porous nano barium ferrite on uranium were studied with static adsorption and the effects of pH, adsorption temperature and oscillation time on adsorption properties were discussed. The results indicate that the average particle size of porous nano barium ferrite is 45-65 nm, the saturation magnetization and coercivity are 62.83 emu/g and 5481.0 Oe, respectively. Under the condition of the porous nano barium ferrite amount of 0.02 g, pH of 6, adsorption temperature of 25℃ and oscillation time of 30 min, the adsorption capacity of uranium on the porous nano barium ferrite reaches 921 μg/g. (authors)

  17. Comparison of Calcium and Barium Microcapsules as Scaffolds in the Development of Artificial Dermal Papillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lin, Changmin; Zeng, Yang; Li, Haihong; Cai, Bozhi; Huang, Keng; Yuan, Yanping; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate barium and calcium microcapsules as candidates for scaffolding in artificial dermal papilla. Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) were isolated and cultured by one-step collagenase treatment. The DPC-Ba and DPC-Ca microcapsules were prepared by using a specially designed, high-voltage, electric-field droplet generator. Selected microcapsules were assessed for long-term inductive properties with xenotransplantation into Sprague-Dawley rat ears. Both barium and calcium microcapsules maintained xenogenic dermal papilla cells in an immunoisolated environment and induced the formation of hair follicle structures. Calcium microcapsules showed better biocompatibility, permeability, and cell viability in comparison with barium microcapsules. Before 18 weeks, calcium microcapsules gathered together, with no substantial immune response. After 32 weeks, some microcapsules were near inflammatory cells and wrapped with fiber. A few large hair follicles were found. Control samples showed no marked changes at the implantation site. Barium microcapsules were superior to calcium microcapsules in structural and mechanical stability. The cells encapsulated in hydrogel barium microcapsules exhibited higher short-term viability. This study established a model to culture DPCs in 3D culture conditions. Barium microcapsules may be useful in short-term transplantation study. Calcium microcapsules may provide an effective scaffold for the development of artificial dermal papilla. PMID:27123456

  18. Virtual colonoscopy with electron beam CT: correlation with barium enema, colonoscopy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To perform virtual colonoscopy using electron beam tomography(EBT) in patients in whom a colonic mass was present, and to compare the results with those obtained using barium enema, colonoscopy and gross pathologic specimens. Materials and Methods : Ten patients in whom colonic masses were diagnosed by either barium enema or colonoscopy were involved in this study. There were nine cases of adenocarcinoma and one of tubulovillous adenoma. Using EBT preoperative abdominopelvic CT scans were performed. Axial scans were then three-dimensionally reconstructed to produce virtual colonoscopic images and were compared with barium enema, colonoscopy and gross pathologic specimens. Virtual colonoscopic images of the masses were classified as either 1)polyploid, 2)sessile,3)fungating, or 4)annular constrictive. We also determined whether ulcers were present within the lesions and whether there was obstruction. Results : After virtual colonoscopy, two lesions were classified as polyploid, one as sessile, five as fungating and two as annular constrictive. Virtual colonoscopic images showed good correlation with the findings of barium enema, colonoscopy and gross pathologic specimens. Three of six ulcerative lesions were observed on colonoscopy; in seven adenocarcinomas with partial or total luminal obstruction, virtual colonoscopy visualized the colon beyond the obstructed sites. In one case, barium contrast failed to pass through the obstructed portion and in six cases, the colonoscope similarly failed. Conclusion : Virtual colonoscopies correlated well with barium enema, colonoscopy and gross pathologic specimens. They provide three dimensional images of colonic masses and are helpful for the evaluation of obstructive lesions

  19. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Shuler Nin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough.METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons.RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6% of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6% of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%. We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration.CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  20. Detecting inflammation with {sup 131}I-labeled ornidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asikoglu, M. E-mail: asikoglum@eczacilik.ege.edu.tr; Yurt, F.; Cagliyan, O.; Unak, P.; Ozkilic, H

    2000-09-15

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the accumulation of {sup 131}I-labeled ornidazole ({sup 131}I-ORN) in experimental abscesses. {sup 131}I-ORN was prepared by electrophilic radioiodination of ORN, using radioiodide in the presence of Iodogen[reg]. An in vivo inflammation model was prepared by intramuscular injection of turpentine into the thigh of rabbits. Four days later {sup 131}I-ORN was intravenously administered to rabbits. Serial scintigrams were performed at different periods, using a Sophy DX Gamma Camera. {sup 131}I-ORN was visualized at 10 min after injection. {sup 131}I-ORN was also administered intraperitoneally to rats with turpentine-induced inflammation, for quantitative biodistribution studies. Counts of selected tissues were taken by a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector (gamma counter) after rats were decapitated. The target-to-non-target muscle ratios were 2.5, 2.6, 2.9 and 1.9 at 1, 3, 5 and 24 h, respectively.

  1. Management of thyroid carcinoma with radioactive 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of radioactive 131I in the management of patients with well differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid. Methods and Materials: Between 1965 and 1995, a total of 117 patients with well-differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid underwent either lobectomy or thyroidectomy followed by 100-150 mCi of 131I. Results: With a median follow-up of 8 years, only four patients (3%) developed a recurrence of their disease. The 5-year actuarial survival was 97% with a 10-year survival of 91%. There were no severe side effects noted after 131I therapy. Conclusions: Radioactive 131I is a safe and effective procedure for the majority of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We currently recommend that all patients undergo a subtotal or total thyroidectomy followed by 131I thyroid scanning approximately 4 weeks after surgery. If the thyroid scan shows no residual uptake and all disease is confined to the thyroid, we recommend following patients with annual thyroid scans and serum thyroglobulin levels. If there is any residual uptake detected in the neck or if the tumor extends beyond the thyroid, we recommend routine thyroid ablation of 100-150 mCi of radioactive 131I

  2. 131I treatment in patients undergoing renal dialysis: our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Protection issues concerning patients, public and staff must be considered carefully in hemodialysis for chronic renal failure patients scheduled for 131I high dose therapy. In order to assess the risks related to this medical procedure, hemodialysis clearance of 131I and contamination measurements were carried out. We have studied 12 hemodialysis procedures corresponding to 2 cases of hyperthyroidism disease (555MBq of 131I administered) and 3 patients with carcinoma of the thyroid (5550 MBq of 131I administered). The arterio-venous difference of 131I across the artificial kidney and dose rate reduction at one meter of patient were measured. Contamination levels of the dialyser machine, filters and tubes were measured after dialysis with a contamination monitor. Direct read-out dosimeters were used to assess the radiation doses to nursery staff involved. The result obtained for mean 131I clearance in blood was 75±11%. The mean dose rate reduction at one meter of the patient was 58±18%. We also checked that contamination levels for the dialyser machine, filters, tubes and accessories were lower than 10Bq/cm2. For the nursery staff the radiation dose was found to be lower than 0.1mSv. (author)

  3. Excess Barium as a Paleoproductivity Proxy: A Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, M.; Paytan, A.

    2001-12-01

    Marine barite may serve as a proxy to reconstruct past export production (Dymond, 1992). In most studies sedimentary barite accumulation is not measured directly, instead a parameter termed excess barium (Baexs), also referred to as biogenic barium, is used to estimate the barite content. Baexs is defined as the total Ba concentration in the sediment minus the Ba associated with terrigenous material. Baexs is calculated by normalization to a constant Ba/Al ratio, typically the average shale ratio. This application assumes that (1) all the Ba besides the fraction associated with terrigenous Al is in the form of barite (the phase related to productivity) (2) the Ba/Alshale is constant in space and time (3) all of the Al is associated with terrigenous matter. If these assumptions are invalidated however, this approach lead to significant errors in calculating export production rates. To test the validity of the use of Baexs as a proxy for barite we compared the Baexs in a wide range of core top sediments from different oceanic settings to the barite content in the same cores. We found that Baexs frequently overestimated the Ba fraction associated with barite and in several cases significant Baexs was measured in the cores where no barite was observed. We have also used a sequential leaching protocol (Collier and Edmond 1984) to determine Ba association with organic matter, carbonates, Fe-Mn hydroxides and silicates. While terrigenous Ba remains an important fraction, in our samples 25-95% of non-barite Ba was derived from other fractions, with Fe-Mn oxides contributing the most Ba. In addition we found that the Ba/Al ratio in the silicate fraction of our samples varied considerably from site to site. The above results suggest that at least two of the underlying assumptions for employing Baexs to reconstruct paleoproductivity are not always valid and previously published data from (Murray and Leinen 1993) indicate that the third assumption may also not hold in every

  4. Barium silicates of the Berisal Complex, Switzerland: A study in geochronology and rare-gas release systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, C. J.; Villa, I. M.

    2007-07-01

    Barium silicate minerals such as celsian, ganterite, armenite, as well as Ba-bearing and Ba-free white mica from the Berisal Complex, Simplon Nappe, Swiss Alps, were dated by 39Ar- 40Ar. Ages of Ba-free micas are ca. 17 Ma, while Ba and parentless 40Ar are correlated in Ba silicates, suggesting common inheritance from the Paleozoic orthogneissic protolith. The release pattern of reactor-produced 39Ar (or 37Ar) from hydrated and anhydrous minerals is very similar, with apparent activation energies of ca. 180 kJ/mole and a conspicuous kink around 900 °C. White micas release Ar at higher temperature than the literature determination of their dehydroxylation. In addition to Ar, we studied the degassing of monoisotopic 131Xe produced from Ba during neutron irradiation. Xe is degassed at higher temperature than Ar, and again all analyzed silicates have the same apparent activation energy of ca. 300 kJ/mole. The decoupling of Ar and Xe rules out delamination as the dominant degassing mechanism in mica and implies that recoiled rare gas atoms mostly reside inside the T-O-T layers of the mica structure. The near-identical apparent activation energies in such diverse silicates as tecto-, phyllo- and cyclosilicate requires instead that the in-vacuo gas release kinetics are the same in all three silicates. As the only structural element common to these three silicate families are silica tetrahedra, it is possible that their well-known rotation plays a decisive role for in-vacuo Ar degassing; additional high-temperature in situ structural investigations on feldspars and micas would be needed to help constrain the mechanisms of laboratory Ar release.

  5. Monte Carlo estimation for pediatric barium meal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluoroscopic barium meal (BM) series involve an X-ray examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, by the use of a contrast media – the barium sulfate (BaSO4). They are widely used to observe digestive functions or to diagnose abnormalities such as ulcers; tumors; inflammation of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum; malrotations; vascular rings; and gastroesophageal reflux disease (a common ailment in children). However, this procedure uses long fluoroscopy times and multiple radiographies, resulting in high effective doses to pediatric patients, whose radiosensitivity and life expectancy are higher than in adults. Based on those data, the aims of the current study are to: determine the PK,A (kerma-area product) values, on the patient chest area, and the effective doses to 5 and 10 years old children. Thirty-seven different pediatric patients were studied and stratified into two group sizes: 5 and 10 years old. For each procedure, the following data was recorded: sex, age and upper chest thickness, from the patients; technical parameters of the procedure (kV, fluoroscopy time and number of radiographies); distances (focus-detector and focus-table) and field size on the examination table. Three pairs of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters were positioned at the center of the child´s sternum. After that, upper chest thickness was subtracted from focus-table distance, so focus-patient distance was obtained. Using the field size on the table and applying similar triangles concepts, the field size on the patient was measured, which was multiplied by the mean kerma (from the dosimeters), so that PK,A could be determined. To estimate the effective dose, PK,A and technical parameters of the procedure (kV, total filtration, focus-detector distance and field size on the patient) were written in a Monte Carlo software simulation. The results of PK,A and effective doses were higher than studies used for comparison, which shows the importance of an optimization

  6. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  7. Abundance analysis of s-process enhanced barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Upakul; Karinkuzhi, Drisya; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-08-01

    Detailed chemical composition studies of stars with enhanced abundances of neutron-capture elements can provide observational constraints for neutron-capture nucleosynthesis studies and clues for understanding their contribution to the Galactic chemical enrichment. We present abundance results from high-resolution spectral analyses of a sample of four chemically peculiar stars characterized by s-process enhancement. High-Resolution spectra (R ˜42000) of these objects spanning a wavelength range from 4000 to 6800 Å, are taken from the ELODIE archive. We have estimated the stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature Teff, the surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H] from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres. We report estimates of elemental abundances for several neutron-capture elements, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Dy. While HD 49641 and HD 58368 show [Ba/Fe] ≥ 1.16 the other two objects HD 119650 and HD 191010 are found to be mild barium stars with [Ba/Fe] ˜ 0.4. The derived abundances of the elements are interpreted on the basis of existing theories for understanding their origin and evolution.

  8. Structural and magnetic properties of barium-gadolinium hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litsardakis, G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)]. E-mail: Lits@eng.auth.gr; Manolakis, I. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Serletis, C. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Efthimiadis, K.G. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2007-03-15

    A series of Gd-substituted M-type barium hexaferrites has been prepared by the ceramic route, according to the formula (Ba{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x})O.5.25Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x=0-0.30). XRD analysis revealed that all the samples present primarily an M-type structure. Samples x=0 and x=0.05 are single-phase. Hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and GdFeO{sub 3} were detected in the remaining samples. Coercivity (H{sub c}) shows remarkably high values, {approx}293kA/m for x=0.20 and 0.30 with a maximum of 322kA/m for x=0.25. Specific saturation magnetization ({sigma}{sub sat}) of the samples presents a small increase up to x=0.10. The microstructure examination indicates that Gd may act as a grain growth inhibitor.

  9. Barium from a mini r-process in supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, D.

    1983-01-01

    McCulloch and Wasserburg (1978) have reported nonlinear isotopic anomalies in barium for two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende carbonaceous chondrite, known as EK-1-4-1 and C-1. In an attempt to account for these anomalies, it has been proposed that Ba from an r-process of nucleosynthesis, containing Ba-135 and Ba-137, was injected into the primeval color system but was not totally homogenized. Questions arise in connection with the relations of Xe isotopes in carbonaceous chondrites. This has prompted Heymann and Dziczkaniec (1979, 1980, 1981) to study the formation of r-Xe, r-Kr, and r-Te by the mini r-process which is thought to occur in the O, Ne-rich shells of Type II supernovae. Lee et al. (1979) have studied the formation of r-Ba, r-Nd, and r-Sm by the same process. Certain differences regarding the approaches used by Lee et al. and by Heymann and Dziczkaniec make it necessary to restudy the work of Lee et al. Attention is given to the survival probabilities of nuclear species of interest, taking into accounts the elements Cs, Ba, I, and Xe.

  10. On-line ultrasonic characterisation of barium doped lanthanum perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovskite manganite samples La1−xBaxMnO3 with the composition of x=0.30, 0.33 and 0.36 were prepared by employing solid state reaction technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the rhombhedral structure with R3c space group of the samples. The obtained energy dispersive analysis X-rays (EDX) spectra of the samples have confirmed the elemental composition of the samples. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the samples were used to find out the size of the particles. In-situ ultrasonic measurements were carried out on the samples by through transmission method. The temperature dependence of the ultrasonic parameters revealed interesting features of the samples. The observed ultrasonic velocities and attenuation both in longitudinal and shear mode are related to the paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition in the prepared samples. The results confirmed that an increase in the barium content in the sample leads to an increase in the phase transition temperature TC

  11. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Nurul [Department of Physics, Universiti Putra Malaysia (Malaysia); Free, Charles [Department of Engineering and Design, University of Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-24

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145 GHz and 155 GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangent for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application.

  12. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145 GHz and 155 GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangent for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application

  13. Radiochemical studies of the sorption behavior of strontium and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption behavior strontium and barium on kaolinite, bentonite and chlorite-illite mixed clay was studied by radioanalytical techniques using the batch method. 90Sr(29.1 y) and 133Ba(10.5y) were used as radiotracers. Characterization of the solid matrices was done by FTIR and XRD spectrometers and specific surface area measurements. Synthetic groundwater was used as the aqueous phase. The variation of the distribution ratio Rd, as a function of metal ion loading was examined. The sorption isotherms were fitted to various iso term models. The sorption energies were calculated to be in the range of 8-10kJ/mol suggesting an ion exchange type of sorption mechanism. In detailed experiments, chlorite-illite mixed clay was first presatured with K+, Sr2+, Ca2+ and Al 3= ions, respectively, prior to sorption studies with Ba2+ ions. The results of Ca2+ pretreated chlorite-illite were very similar to those of natural chlorite-illite, suggesting that the Ba2+ ion exchanges primarily with the Ca2+ ion on the clay minerals. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Removal of uranyl ions from aqueous solutions using barium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remediation of water sources contaminated with radioactive waste products is a major environmental issue that demands new and more efficient technologies. For this purpose, we report a highly efficient ion-exchange material for the removal of radioactive nuclides from aqueous solutions. The kinetic characteristics of adsorption of uranyl ions on the surface of barium titanate were investigated using a spectrophotometric method under a wide range of conditions. By controlling the pH it was possible to exert fine control over the speciation of uranium, and by optimizing the temperature and grain size of the exchanger, almost total removal was achieved in a matter of just hours. The highest efficiency (>90 % removal) was realized at high temperature (80 deg C). Moreover, the effect of competitive ion adsorption from a range of different cations and anions was quantified. Adsorption was found to follow first-order kinetics and both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms could be applied to this system. The results of a mathematical treatment of the kinetic data combined with the observation that adsorption was independent of stirring speed and dependent on the ion-exchanger grain size, indicate that the dominant mechanism influencing adsorption is particle spreading. The adsorption behavior was not influenced by exposure to high-intensity gamma radiation, indicating potential for use of this ion-exchanger in systems containing radioactive material. These results will be of use in the development of uranium extraction systems for contaminated water sources. (author)

  15. Colonic diverticulosis: evaluation with double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the pattern of colonic diverticulosis according to age and sex, and recent trend. The authors retrospectively reviewed 120 cases of colonic diverticulosis in 1,020 patients who had undergone a double contrast barium enema examination between January 1st, 1993, and December 31st, 1995, and analyzed the frequency, size, multiplicity and anatomical site, according to age and sex. Diverticulum size was classified into one of three groups : less than 5mm, 5-10mm, over 10mm in diameter. The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 120 cases among 1,020 patients(11.8%) with an incidence 5.3 times higher in males than in females. Peak incidence was in the fifth decade, with 19 cases (15.8%) among males, and after the sixth decade, with four cases(3.3%) among females. Mean age was 57.7 years. Diverticulum size of 5-10mm in diameter was predominant (2% of cases); average diameter was 5-6mm. The incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 5.1 times more frequent in the right colon (101 cases) than in the left (20 cases). The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis has continually increased; in addition it has also recently increased slightly in left-sided colon. This is thought to be due to various factors, both congenital and acquired, including longer life with good health care, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, stress and the tendency of eating patterns to more closely resemble those of the west

  16. Colonic diverticulosis: evaluation with double contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jae Kook; Lee, Jong Koo; Yun, Eun Joo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate the pattern of colonic diverticulosis according to age and sex, and recent trend. The authors retrospectively reviewed 120 cases of colonic diverticulosis in 1,020 patients who had undergone a double contrast barium enema examination between January 1st, 1993, and December 31st, 1995, and analyzed the frequency, size, multiplicity and anatomical site, according to age and sex. Diverticulum size was classified into one of three groups : less than 5mm, 5-10mm, over 10mm in diameter. The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 120 cases among 1,020 patients(11.8%) with an incidence 5.3 times higher in males than in females. Peak incidence was in the fifth decade, with 19 cases (15.8%) among males, and after the sixth decade, with four cases(3.3%) among females. Mean age was 57.7 years. Diverticulum size of 5-10mm in diameter was predominant (2% of cases); average diameter was 5-6mm. The incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 5.1 times more frequent in the right colon (101 cases) than in the left (20 cases). The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis has continually increased; in addition it has also recently increased slightly in left-sided colon. This is thought to be due to various factors, both congenital and acquired, including longer life with good health care, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, stress and the tendency of eating patterns to more closely resemble those of the west.

  17. Barium in landscape components of the western Transbaikal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashin, V. K.

    2015-10-01

    Barium concentrations in parent materials, soils, and plants of the forest-steppe, steppe, and dry steppe landscapes of the Transbaikal region have been studied. The average concentration of this element in rocks and soils of this region exceeds its clarke by 1.8-2.1 times. A positive correlation between the contents of Ba in soils, soil-forming rocks, and plants has been found. The concentration of Ba in soils does not correlate with the soil pH and humus content. Distribution patterns of Ba in the soil profiles have been characterized. With respect to the coefficient of the biological uptake by plants, Ba is assigned to the group of low accumulation (0.55-0.65) for mineral soils and of strong accumulation (6.0) for alluvial bog soils. Average concentrations of Ba in the steppe, meadow, and cultivated vegetation of the region are 1.9-2.3 times higher in comparison with the average concentration of this element in plants of the continents. The biological migration of Ba is most active in meadow landscapes, whereas steppe landscapes are characterized by the least active biological migration of this element.

  18. Abundance analysis of s-process enhanced barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mahanta, Upakul; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Detailed chemical composition studies of stars with enhanced abundances of neutron-capture elements can provide observational constraints for neutron-capture nucleosynthesis studies and clues for understanding their contribution to the Galactic chemical enrichment. We present abundance results from high-resolution spectral analyses of a sample of four chemically peculiar stars characterized by s-process enhancement. High-Resolution spectra (R ~ 42000) of these objects spanning a wavelength range from 4000 to 6800 A, are taken from the ELODIE archive. We have estimated the stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature T_eff, the surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H] from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres. We report estimates of elemental abundances for several neutron-capture elements, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Dy. While HD 49641 and HD 58368 show [Ba/Fe] > 1.16 the other two objects HD 119650 and HD 191010 are found to be mild barium stars wit...

  19. On-line ultrasonic characterisation of barium doped lanthanum perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamilmaran, P.; Arunachalam, M. [Department of Physics, Sri SRNM College, Sattur 626203, Tamil Nadu (India); Research scholars in Physics, Manonmanium Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli 627012 Tamil Nadu (India); Sankarrajan, S. [Department of Physics, Unnamalai Institute of Technology, Kovilpatti 628503, Tamil Nadu (India); Sakthipandi, K., E-mail: sakthipandi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sethu Institute of Technology, Kariapatti 626115, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-06-15

    Perovskite manganite samples La{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3} with the composition of x=0.30, 0.33 and 0.36 were prepared by employing solid state reaction technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the rhombhedral structure with R3c space group of the samples. The obtained energy dispersive analysis X-rays (EDX) spectra of the samples have confirmed the elemental composition of the samples. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the samples were used to find out the size of the particles. In-situ ultrasonic measurements were carried out on the samples by through transmission method. The temperature dependence of the ultrasonic parameters revealed interesting features of the samples. The observed ultrasonic velocities and attenuation both in longitudinal and shear mode are related to the paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition in the prepared samples. The results confirmed that an increase in the barium content in the sample leads to an increase in the phase transition temperature T{sub C}.

  20. The thermophysical properties of calcium and barium zirconium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, Daniel J., E-mail: daniel.gregg@ansto.gov.au; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Triani, Gerry; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Vance, Eric R.

    2013-10-15

    The thermophysical and structural properties of calcium and barium zirconium phosphate ceramics (CZP and BZP) have been investigated for their potential candidacy as actinide hosts for inert matrix fuels (IMF) in nuclear reactors. These phosphate ceramics, which can accommodate minor actinides as well as the resulting fission products, are found to be thermally stable to 1600 °C in air, however they begin to decompose in an inert atmosphere above approximately 1400 °C. The heat capacity, thermal conductivity and bulk thermal-expansion were measured from room temperature up to 1200 °C. Structural changes in this temperature region as well as the anisotropic thermal-expansion behaviour were studied using high-temperature X-ray diffraction. A phase change from R-3 to R-3c was identified for Ba{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} near 880 °C. The thermal conductivity for these ceramics at 1000 °C was found to be 1.0 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}, a relatively low thermal conductivity that was increased to 5.0 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} at 1000 °C for BZP:Ni (25:75 mass ratio) cermet composites.

  1. Preparation and properties of yttria doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystal/Sr-doped barium hexaferrite ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shanshan; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Ruisong, E-mail: rsguo@tju.edu.cn; Liu, Lan; Yang, Yuexia; Li, Kehang

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The 3Y-TZP/Sr-doped barium ferrite composites were prepared. • The saturation magnetization was improved by 15% with Sr-doping. • The dispersion coefficient p could reflect the microscopic lattice variation. • The composite with x = 0.5 had the maximum fracture toughness of 8.3 MPa m{sup 1/2}. - Abstract: The effects of substitution of Ba{sup 2+} by Sr{sup 2+} on the magnetic property of barium ferrite and addition barium ferrite secondary phase to the 3 mol% yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) matrix on the mechanical property of composites were investigated. The Sr-doped barium ferrite (Ba{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}, x = 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75) was synthesized by solid-state reaction in advance. Then 3Y-TZP/20 wt% Sr-doped barium ferrite composites were prepared by means of conventional ceramic method. It was found that a moderate amount of Sr added to barium ferrite could boost the saturation magnetization by 15% compared with the composites without Sr-doping. Besides, the composite with x = 0.50 possessed the best mechanical properties, such as 11.5 GPa for Vickers hardness and 8.3 MPa m{sup 1/2} for fracture toughness, respectively. It was demonstrated that magnetic and mechanical properties of the composites could be harmonized by the incorporation of barium ferrite secondary phase.

  2. Skylab-barium alpha and beta L = 6 field-line tracing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Events SKYLAB-BARIUM ALPHA (27 November 1973) and BETA (4 December 1973) were shaped-charge barium field-line tracing experiments near L approximately equal to 6, conducted jointly by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute. Image-orthicon and pulsed intensified auroral cameras provided data for triangulating the fast ion streaks. Using the POGO 10-68, epoch 1965.0, field-line model with Mead-Fairfield corrections for the outer field, the triangulated positions of the fast ion streak were projected down to the 100 km altitude northern conjugate surface. The projected positions moved toward magnetic east with a velocity of 725 m/sec for both SKYLAB-BARIUM ALPHA and BETA. Assuming only an E x B/B2 force, this drift velocity is consistent with an electric field toward magnetic south of 39 mV/m. Radiometric analysis of the filtered, intensified auroral camera records gave observed peak radiance values of about 2 x 10-11 watts/cm2-Sr in the 455.4 nm line of Ba+. The barium in the portion of the ion streak for which radiometric data were obtained had initial injection velocities of 9.5 to 13.5 km/sec in both events. This portion of the ion streak for both SKYLAB-BARIUM ALPHA and BETA contained approximately 4 x 1023 ions compared to the 6.4 x 1024 atoms contained in the barium liner. Ion inventory estimates are based on a solution of the statistical equilibrium equations. Corrections have been made in the ion inventory calculations for Doppler shifts of the solar spectrum as received in the rest frame of the high-velocity barium ions

  3. An 8-year review of barium studies in the diagnosis of gastroparesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine the utility of barium studies for diagnosing gastroparesis in patients with nausea, vomiting, or other related symptoms. Materials and methods: Radiology files revealed gastroparesis without gastric outlet obstruction on upper gastrointestinal tract barium studies in 50 patients with nausea, vomiting, and other related symptoms. Original reports and images were reviewed to determine whether gastric peristalsis was decreased/absent and to investigate gastric dilatation, fluid or debris, and delayed emptying of barium. Twenty patients (40%) had nuclear gastric emptying studies. Medical records were reviewed to determine the presentation, treatment, and course. The diagnosis of gastroparesis was considered accurate if patients with gastroparesis on barium studies responded to treatment. Results: Forty-six patients (92%) had predisposing factors for gastroparesis, including narcotics and diabetes. Forty-five patients (90%) presented with nausea or vomiting, and 40 patients (80%) had one or more other symptoms, including bloating, early satiety, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain. Barium studies revealed decreased gastric peristalsis in 46 (92%) of the 50 patients and absent peristalsis in four (8%); 46 patients (92%) had additional findings, including gastric dilatation in 30 (60%), delayed emptying of barium in 27 (54%), debris in 28 (56%; bezoars in three), and retained fluid in 13 (26%). Thirteen (65%) of 20 patients with nuclear gastric emptying studies had delayed emptying of solids and seven (35%) had normal emptying. Thirty-five (83%) of 42 patients treated for gastroparesis had symptomatic improvement versus two (25%) of eight patients not treated. Conclusion: Patients with nausea, vomiting, or other related symptoms who have gastroparesis without gastric outlet obstruction on barium studies can be treated for this condition on the basis of the clinical and radiographic findings

  4. Obtaining of a barium compound by combustion chemistry and their evaluation as Co adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, barium carbonate synthesized by chemical combustion method using a chemical precursor prepared by the combination of barium nitrate and urea as a fuel, with a 1:1 molar ratio in aqueous solution, the chemical precursor was heated to evaporate excess water, producing a homogeneous viscous liquid, that when heated to 900 centi grades for 5 minutes an exothermic reaction was produced very quickly and abruptly, forming a white powder final product, fine porous, little spongy, dry and crystalline ready to be used as material adsorbent. Additionally, the effect of water on the synthesis by chemical combustion was studied. Simultaneously, and with the purpose of comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the method by chemical combustion, barium carbonate was synthesized by precipitation method using barium nitrate salts and sodium carbonate. Synthesized barium carbonate, was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. We studied the adsorption capacity of Co present in aqueous solution by static tests on materials synthesized at room temperature using the neutron activation analysis. It was found that the synthesis by chemical combustion provides an interesting alternative compared to the synthesis by precipitation because it offers simplicity of synthesis and speed to have a good adsorbent material. It was found that the barium carbonate synthesized by the chemical combustion method using in their synthesis 1.0 ml of water, was the one who achieved the maximum adsorption capacity of 95.6% compared with the barium carbonate prepared by precipitation, which reached a capacity adsorption of 51.48%. (Author)

  5. Accelerating the transit time of barium sulphate suspensions in small bowel examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether hyperosmolar and effervescent agents proven individually to accelerate transit time in the barium small bowel examination have an additive effect when combined, surpassing that of either agent alone. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-nine patients were randomised to four groups. Three hundred milliliters of barium sulphate alone was given to the first group. Fifteen milliliters of iodinated hyperosmolar contrast agent (Gastrografin, meglumine/sodium diatrizoate, Schering) was given in addition to barium sulphate to the second group while six packets of effervescent granules (Carbex, Ferring) were added for the third group. The final group was given a combination of both additives and barium sulphate. The time taken following ingestion for the contrast column to reach the caecum, as assessed by frequent interval fluoroscopy, was recorded. A subgroup of 32 patients were selected randomly from the four groups, 8 from each and assessed for quality of examination. Statistical assessments were made using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients were analysed after exclusions. The addition of accelerant to barium sulphate, both individually and in combination significantly reduced the small bowel transit time (p < 0.001). No significant difference existed between the additives when used with barium alone. The combined group had significantly faster transit times compared to the hyperosmolar group (p = 0.02). Differences between combined and effervescent groups tended towards significance (p = 0.09). No significant difference existed between groups when examination quality was assessed. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of combined effervescent and hyperosmolar agents to the barium suspension may significantly shorten the small bowel transit time without adversely affecting examination quality. This has implications for patient acceptability of the examination as well as

  6. An 8-year review of barium studies in the diagnosis of gastroparesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, A.A. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Levine, M.S. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: marc.levine@uphs.upenn.edu; Rubesin, S.E.; Laufer, I. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Aim: To determine the utility of barium studies for diagnosing gastroparesis in patients with nausea, vomiting, or other related symptoms. Materials and methods: Radiology files revealed gastroparesis without gastric outlet obstruction on upper gastrointestinal tract barium studies in 50 patients with nausea, vomiting, and other related symptoms. Original reports and images were reviewed to determine whether gastric peristalsis was decreased/absent and to investigate gastric dilatation, fluid or debris, and delayed emptying of barium. Twenty patients (40%) had nuclear gastric emptying studies. Medical records were reviewed to determine the presentation, treatment, and course. The diagnosis of gastroparesis was considered accurate if patients with gastroparesis on barium studies responded to treatment. Results: Forty-six patients (92%) had predisposing factors for gastroparesis, including narcotics and diabetes. Forty-five patients (90%) presented with nausea or vomiting, and 40 patients (80%) had one or more other symptoms, including bloating, early satiety, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain. Barium studies revealed decreased gastric peristalsis in 46 (92%) of the 50 patients and absent peristalsis in four (8%); 46 patients (92%) had additional findings, including gastric dilatation in 30 (60%), delayed emptying of barium in 27 (54%), debris in 28 (56%; bezoars in three), and retained fluid in 13 (26%). Thirteen (65%) of 20 patients with nuclear gastric emptying studies had delayed emptying of solids and seven (35%) had normal emptying. Thirty-five (83%) of 42 patients treated for gastroparesis had symptomatic improvement versus two (25%) of eight patients not treated. Conclusion: Patients with nausea, vomiting, or other related symptoms who have gastroparesis without gastric outlet obstruction on barium studies can be treated for this condition on the basis of the clinical and radiographic findings.

  7. 131I imaging and Tg levels: values of 131I therapy in patients with lung metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value of 131I imaging and serum Tg levels for assessment and monitoring of 131I therapy in patients with lung metastases from DTC. Methods: From 2007 to 2011,50 patients with DTC lung metastases were investigated. Diagnostic 131I imaging, Tg levels and 131I imaging + Tg levels were used to monitor and assess the outcomes of 131I treatment, respectively. The effective rates between patient lesions with diffuse configuration and focus configuration in PET/CT images, patients with and without extra lung metastases,and among patients with different Tg levels (< 100 μg/L, 100-1000 μg/L, >1000 μg/L) were compared. Statistical analyses by χ2 test, Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were performed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Forty-eight DTC patients with pulmonary metastases were observed by positive findings based on 131I imaging. Eleven cases were negative and 24 cases got better after 131I treatment. The effective rate was 73% (35/48). No difference was found between diffuse configuration or focus configuration (69 % (11/16) vs 75 % (24/32), χ2=0.211, P>0.05). Patients without extra lung metastases had better prognosis than those with extra lung metastases (70% (28/40) vs 3/10, χ2=3.868, P<0.05). The Tg levels decreased to 78.3 μg/L from 108.7 μg/L after 131I treatment (Z=-0.698, P>0.05). Tg levels decreased in 66% (33/50) patients and increased in 17 cases. Patients with Tg levels <100 μg/L had better efficiency than those with Tg levels > 1000 μg/L (80% (20/25) vs 3/10, P=0.015). However, the effective rate was 67% (10/15) in the 100-1000 μg/L group, which was not significantly different from those in the other 2 groups (χ2=0.320, P>0.05; P=0.111). Considering the combined results of 131I imaging and Tg levels determination, the effective ratio was 62% (31/50) with 6 clinically cured patients and 25 partially responsive patients. Conclusions: 131I imaging and Tg level analysis are both important procedures for lung

  8. Interventions in 131I-MIBG treatment of neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Specific targeting of neuroendocrine tumours for therapy may be achieved either via the metabolic route (MIBG), via receptor binding (peptides) or via the immunological route (antibodies). Any malignant neural crest tumour, showing sufficient uptake and retention of 131I-meta-odobenzylguanidine (MIBG) on a diagnostic tracer study is a candidate for therapy using this agent. The principle indications for 131I-MIBG therapy are malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, neuroblastoma stage III and IV, medullary thyroid carcinoma and symptomatic, metastatic carcinoid tumors. At an EANM Radionuclide Therapy Committee workshop on 131IMIBG therapy in 1999 the results of treatment in 534 patients with neural crest tumours were gathered, showing cumulative objective response rates of 51% for malignant pheochromocytoma, 48% for paraganglioma, 51% for neuroblastoma, 23% for medullary thyroid carcinoma and 8% for carcinoid tumors. Moreover, symptomatic palliation occurred in more than 60% of the patients. These results compare favorably with the best reported results of combination chemotherapy. An active uptake-1 mechanism at the cell membrane and neurosecretory storage granules in the cytoplasm of neural crest tumours are responsible for the uptake and retention of 131I-MIBG, respectively, resulting in high tumour/nontumour ratio's. Many drugs are known or may be expected to interfere with (i.e. have a negatively effect on) the uptake and/or retention of 131I-MIBG by the tumour cell. In contrast, there are also factors which may influence either the uptake/retention of 131I-MIBG or the results of therapy in a positive way. Possible interventions: 1. Use of other labels, for example 125I-MIBG, 211At-MABG and 76Br-MBBG, which, in view of their ultrashort pathway, may have a role in the treatment of micrometastases and bone marrow infiltration, particularly as the results of 131I-MIBG therapy under these circumstances are poor. 2. By increasing the specific

  9. 131I treatment for brain metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong-Li; LU Han-Kui; ZHU Rei-Sen; MA Ji-Xiao

    2004-01-01

    To assess the clinical value of treatment with 131I for brain metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), we have observed 8 cases of brain metastases from DTC who received follow-up after 131I therapy (2male, 6 female, aged 12~65 years). The results of 131I therapy were evaluated with clinical presentation, imaging scan and survival analysis. The main results are as follows. (1) All cases had been survival for 2~35 years in follow-up. (2)A space-occupying lesion in right cerebellum was reduced after taking 20.65 GBq and disappeared after 23.61 GBq,demonstrated by computed tomography. (3) The sequences and doses of 131I therapy were clearly decreased for the cases with total thyroidectomy in comparison with those with semithyroidectomy (p<0.01). (4) The brain metastases with lung and/or bone metastasis from DTC were 75% (6/8) and it was difficult to cure these metastases at the same time. It is concluded that the postoperative treatment of 131I for brain metastases from DTC after undergoing thyroidectomy may improve clinical symptoms and life quality, reduce lesions, and prolong survival.

  10. Thyroid cancer from occupational exposures to iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of external irradiation, primarily of children, suggest that the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive sites for carcinogenesis. However, it has generally been thought that 131I confers much less risk (per rad) than external radiation because of its low dose-rate. A review of the epidemiologic literature indicates that age at irradiation is also an important variable in defining thyroid cancer risk, with a lesser risk at older ages. The available human studies are reasonably consistent in affirming that risks following 131I are small. However, the data on 131I exposure are too sparse, particularly for childhood exposure, to determine how much of the observed diminution in risk is due to older ages at exposure and how much is attributable to the characteristics of 131I exposure per se, such as low dose-rate. Since most of the existing studies have inadequacies in design, dose levels, dosimetry or number of subjects, additional studies are needed before the risk assessment of 131I at lower dose levels in adult workers can be regarded as definitive

  11. Escherichia coli sequence type 131: epidemiology and challenges in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Zubair A; Doi, Yohei

    2014-05-01

    Escherichia coli ST131 has emerged as a global epidemic, multidrug-resistant clone of E. coli causing extra-intestinal infections. It is now highly prevalent among fluoroquinolone-resistant and CTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli isolates worldwide. Humans are likely the primary reservoir of ST131. Factors associated with its acquisition include residence in long-term care facilities and recent receipt of antimicrobial agents. E. coli ST131 causes a wide array of infections ranging from cystitis to life-threatening sepsis. Fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are no longer adequate options for empiric therapy when E. coli ST131 is suspected from risk factors and local epidemiology. Expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems are options to treat serious non-ESBL-producing E. coli ST131 infections, while carbapenems are indicated for ESBL-producing infections. There is a growing interest in reevaluating oral agents including fosfomycin and pivmecillinam for less serious infections such as uncomplicated cystitis. PMID:24694052

  12. In vivo biological evaluation of {sup 131}I radiolabeled-paclitaxel glucuronide ({sup 131}I-PAC-G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, O.; Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Yurt Kilcar, A.; Ichedef, C.; Unak, P. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2012-07-01

    Paclitaxel (PAC) is a natural occurring diterpene alkoloid originally isolated from the bark of Taxus Brevifolia. It is one of the most important antitumor agents for clinical treatment of ovarian, breast non-small cell lung and prostate cancers. It is known that these types of cancer cells have high {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme which can catalyze the hydrolysis of glucuronides. This is why the synthesis compounds which undergo glucuronidation come into question in the imaging and therapy of these cancer cells. The aim of current study is conjugation of glucuronic acid (G) to the starting substance PAC, labeling with {sup 131}I and to perform its in vivo biological evaluation. Glucuronic acid derived paclitaxel compound [paclitaxel-glucuronide (PAC-G)] was labeled with {sup 131}I using iodogen method. According to thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) method, the radiochemical yield of {sup 131}I-PAC-G was 84.30 {+-} 7.40% (n=10). The biodistribution of {sup 131}I-PAC-G in healthy female and male Wistar Albino rats has been investigated. Imaging studies on male Balb-C mice were performed by using the Kodak FX PRO in vivo Imaging System. The range of the breast/blood, breast/muscle; ovary/blood, ovary/muscle ratios is approximately between 1.29 and 11.34 in 240 min, and between 0.71 and 8.24 in 240 min for female rats. The prostate/blood and prostate/muscle ratio is between 1.94 and 6.95 in 30 min for male rats. All these experimental studies indicate that {sup 131}I-PAC-G may potentially be used in breast, ovary and prostate tissues as an imaging agent. Also it is thought that {sup 131}I-PAC-G bears a therapy potential because of the {sup 131}I radionuclide and can be improved with further investigations. (orig.)

  13. National intercomparison on in vivo measurement of Iodine-131 in the thyroid within a Brazilian Internal Dosimetry Laboratory Network - IAEA PROJECT BRA9055

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, in Brazil, a National Intercalibration and Intercomparison exercise on in vivo measurement of iodine-131 in the thyroid was carried out in the scope of the Project IAEABRA9055 'Establishing a National Laboratory Network for Internal Individual Monitoring'. The exercise was conducted by the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) and the Institute for Nuclear and Energetic Research (IPEN), from National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The objectives of the exercise were to (i) update information on current instrumentation resources available in the in vivo monitoring laboratories in operation in Brazil and to (ii) verify the reliability of the results of measurements of iodine-131 in thyroid provided by those laboratories. The procedure consisted on the measurement of a neck-thyroid anthropomorphic phantom provided by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD, containing two barium-133 standard sources certified by the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation. Each participant should measure the phantom in a period of five days. The five laboratories are located in the States of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Pernambuco, in the following Institutions: Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, Nuclear Power Station Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology, Institute for Nuclear and Energetic Research, and Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences. The results reported included: activity measured, minimum detectable activity, accuracy and precision. The performance of the laboratories was evaluated according to the criteria suggested by ANSI 13.30 indicating their capacity to provide reliable results of iodine-131 content in the thyroid. (author)

  14. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, N.G. [University of Otago, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, A.P. [University of Otago, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Scott, N.J.A. [University of Otago, Department of Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Cook, N.J. [Christchurch Hospital, Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butzer, J.S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schleich, N. [University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Christchurch Hospital, Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Firsching, M. [Friedrich Alexander University, Physics Department, Erlangen (Germany); Grasset, R.; Ruiter, N. de [University of Canterbury, Hitlab NZ, Christchurch (New Zealand); Campbell, M. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Section, Geneva (Switzerland); Butler, P.H. [University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2010-09-15

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 {mu}A). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct from soft tissue and bone in all six mice. Calcium, iodine and barium were displayed as separate channels on 3D colour images at <55 {mu}m isotropic voxels. Spectral CT distinguishes contrast agents with K-edges only 4 keV apart. Multi-contrast imaging and molecular CT are potential future applications. (orig.)

  15. High pressure–low temperature phase diagram of barium: Simplicity versus complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium holds a distinctive position among all elements studied upon densification. Indeed, it was the first example shown to violate the long-standing notion that high compression of simple metals should preserve or yield close-packed structures. From modest pressure conditions at room temperature, barium transforms at higher pressures from its simple structures to the extraordinarily complex atomic arrangements of the incommensurate and self-hosting Ba-IV phases. By a detailed mapping of the pressure/temperature structures of barium, we demonstrate the existence of another crystalline arrangement of barium, Ba-VI, at low temperature and high pressure. The simple structure of Ba-VI is unlike that of complex Ba-IV, the phase encountered in a similar pressure range at room temperature. First-principles calculations predict Ba-VI to be stable at high pressure and superconductive. The results illustrate the complexity of the low temperature-high pressure phase diagram of barium and the significant effect of temperature on structural phase transformations

  16. Radiologic diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Comparison of barium and low-density contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, S.G.; Soekjer, H.; Johansson, K.E.; Tibbling, L.

    It has been proposed that the high density of ordinary barium suspension may complicate the radiologic diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux. For this reason P-contrast was developed (Ferring AB); a contrast medium with the same density as water (1 g/cm/sup 3/). A comparison of P-contrast and barium (Mixobar Ventrikel 400 mg/ml) was performed in 82 patients. All patients were examined with both contrast media and the findings were compared with those at reflux test at manometry, endoscopy and 24-hour pH monitoring. Another 40 patients and 15 symptom-free controls were examined with two different amounts of barium, 100 ml and 200 ml, to study if the radiologic diagnosis of reflux varied with the volume of contrast medium administered. P-contrast was found to have no advantages over barium for the diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux. The outcome of the radiologic examination was not influenced by the different volumes of barium used.

  17. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 μA). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct from soft tissue and bone in all six mice. Calcium, iodine and barium were displayed as separate channels on 3D colour images at <55 μm isotropic voxels. Spectral CT distinguishes contrast agents with K-edges only 4 keV apart. Multi-contrast imaging and molecular CT are potential future applications. (orig.)

  18. High pressure–low temperature phase diagram of barium: Simplicity versus complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgreniers, Serge [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides Denses, Université d' Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Tse, John S., E-mail: John.Tse@usask.ca [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B2 (Canada); State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, 130012 Changchun (China); Matsuoka, Takahiro [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Ohishi, Yasuo [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Li, Quan; Ma, Yanming [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, 130012 Changchun (China)

    2015-11-30

    Barium holds a distinctive position among all elements studied upon densification. Indeed, it was the first example shown to violate the long-standing notion that high compression of simple metals should preserve or yield close-packed structures. From modest pressure conditions at room temperature, barium transforms at higher pressures from its simple structures to the extraordinarily complex atomic arrangements of the incommensurate and self-hosting Ba-IV phases. By a detailed mapping of the pressure/temperature structures of barium, we demonstrate the existence of another crystalline arrangement of barium, Ba-VI, at low temperature and high pressure. The simple structure of Ba-VI is unlike that of complex Ba-IV, the phase encountered in a similar pressure range at room temperature. First-principles calculations predict Ba-VI to be stable at high pressure and superconductive. The results illustrate the complexity of the low temperature-high pressure phase diagram of barium and the significant effect of temperature on structural phase transformations.

  19. High pressure-low temperature phase diagram of barium: Simplicity versus complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgreniers, Serge; Tse, John S.; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Ohishi, Yasuo; Li, Quan; Ma, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    Barium holds a distinctive position among all elements studied upon densification. Indeed, it was the first example shown to violate the long-standing notion that high compression of simple metals should preserve or yield close-packed structures. From modest pressure conditions at room temperature, barium transforms at higher pressures from its simple structures to the extraordinarily complex atomic arrangements of the incommensurate and self-hosting Ba-IV phases. By a detailed mapping of the pressure/temperature structures of barium, we demonstrate the existence of another crystalline arrangement of barium, Ba-VI, at low temperature and high pressure. The simple structure of Ba-VI is unlike that of complex Ba-IV, the phase encountered in a similar pressure range at room temperature. First-principles calculations predict Ba-VI to be stable at high pressure and superconductive. The results illustrate the complexity of the low temperature-high pressure phase diagram of barium and the significant effect of temperature on structural phase transformations.

  20. Benefits of Barium Enema in Patients with Incomplete Colonoscopy. Prospective Study of 45 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of barium enema in patients with incomplete colonoscopy. There was carried out a prospective 10-month study of 45 patients with incomplete colonoscopy (27 men and 18 women), who were later examined by means of barium enema (33 conventional, 12 double-contrast) in order to check for additional pathology in portions of the colon not visualized by colonoscopy. Barium enema diagnosed six possible additional lesions (13.3%) in portions of the colon not visualized by incomplete colonoscopy (four neoplasia and two non-neoplasia). Regarding the neoplasia two were true positives and two false positives. Both true positives were adenocarcinomas (one synchronous caecum, and another in splenic angle). The two false positives corresponded to fecal matter stuck to the intestinal wall. Regarding the non-neoplasia, multiple stenosis was detected in a patient with Crohn's disease and an enterocolic fistula was found in a patient with sigmoid colon neoplasia. The diagnostic yield of barium enema in the detection of additional pathology in colon portions not visualized by colonoscopy was of 9%. Barium enema following incomplete colonoscopy permits a complete colon evaluation in most cases, and it offers additional diagnostic information. (Author) 21 refs

  1. Determination of barium in surface and ground waters at Centro Experimental Aramar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium can be found in waters up to 1 mg L-1 and came from natural sources such as sedimentary rocks erosion rich in feldspar and barite. Also anthropogenic activities can release this element such as oil and gas industry, agricultural defensives, chemical industry and waste disposal. At high doses, barium can be harmful to human central nervous system and can also cause high blood pressure, heart problems, fatigue and anxiety. The water potability defined by Brazilian's Ministry of Healthy sets barium concentration up to 0.7 mg L-1 and official regulation defines the same limit of this element to superficial waters (according CONAMA resolution 357/2005) and ground waters (Sao Paulo state regulation). In this work, barium was analyzed monthly in superficial waters from 4 different sampling locations, located in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) at Ipanema River, during one year, in order to evaluate the river in different conditions (seasons, temperature and rain period). The ground water was collected every six months. The analytical technique applied was ICP OES and the method conditions were optimized: wavelength, linearity, signal background ratio, detection and quantification limits. Data obtained in this work will contribute to evaluate the presence of barium at CEA region and nearby in order to compare it with current Brazilian regulations. (author)

  2. Hydro-MRI with fast sequences in Crohn's disease: Comparison with barium studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the value of hydro-MRI with that of barium studies in patients with Crohn's disease. Materials and methods: After an oral bowel opacification using 1000 ml of a 2.5% mannitol solution, axial and coronal breathhold sequences (T2W HASTE±FS, contrast-enhanced T1W FLASH FS) were acquired in 46 patients with Crohn's disease at 1,0 T. The findings of hydro-MRI were compared with those of barium studies. Results: In the stomach and the small bowel, hydro-MRI and barium studies demonstrated similar numbers of Crohn's involvements (39 vs. 36); in the colon, hydro-MRI showed clearly more affections (23 vs. 10). Hydro-MRI showed 12.7 cm of inflamed bowel per patient, on average (barium studies: 10,4 cm; p=0,004). There was a good agreement between the two methods regarding the assessment of the extent of Crohn's disease and the severity of bowel stenoses (r=0.89 and 0.88, respectively). Conclusions: For the assessment of Crohn's disease, hydro-MRI is preferable to the barium study because of the superior imaging quality and the lack of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  3. Determination of barium in surface and ground waters at Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika, E-mail: ematoso@hotmail.com [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CEA/CTMS), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange, E-mail: cadore@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analica

    2015-07-01

    Barium can be found in waters up to 1 mg L{sup -1} and came from natural sources such as sedimentary rocks erosion rich in feldspar and barite. Also anthropogenic activities can release this element such as oil and gas industry, agricultural defensives, chemical industry and waste disposal. At high doses, barium can be harmful to human central nervous system and can also cause high blood pressure, heart problems, fatigue and anxiety. The water potability defined by Brazilian's Ministry of Healthy sets barium concentration up to 0.7 mg L{sup -1} and official regulation defines the same limit of this element to superficial waters (according CONAMA resolution 357/2005) and ground waters (Sao Paulo state regulation). In this work, barium was analyzed monthly in superficial waters from 4 different sampling locations, located in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) at Ipanema River, during one year, in order to evaluate the river in different conditions (seasons, temperature and rain period). The ground water was collected every six months. The analytical technique applied was ICP OES and the method conditions were optimized: wavelength, linearity, signal background ratio, detection and quantification limits. Data obtained in this work will contribute to evaluate the presence of barium at CEA region and nearby in order to compare it with current Brazilian regulations. (author)

  4. Synthesis labeling and biological studies of 16-131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing interest in obtaining radiopharmaceuticals for metabolic imaging of heart muscle led us to prepare 16-IODINE HEXADECANOIC ACID by tosilation of the corresponding hydroxy acid, following iodination with NaI and finally, introducing radioiodine (Na131I) by isotopic exchange reaction. The reaction products were identified by determination of melting point, elementary and spectroscopic analysis such as infra-red absortion and magnetic nuclear resonance. The radiopharmaceutical after radiochemical and other specific control procedures for injetable such as sterility and apyrogenicity, was firstly utilized in dogs: preferencial uptake by the heart, as well as by the liver was confirmed. Then, studies in patients with or without heart diseases were performed. The biodistribution of 16-131I-HEXADECANOIC ACID was carried out in Wistar rats. The scintigraphic images in animals and in humans demonstrated that 16-131-HEXADECANOIC ACID is suitable for studying viable areas as well as energetic exchange of heart muscle. (author)

  5. Production of 131 Iodine in research reactors from elementary tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents the history of the production of iodine-131 in the Institute of Atomic Energy (IEA), SP, Brazil), the preliminary works for the development of the method, which were done in small scale and it was not necessary protection for the operators, the evolution of these operations until the final assembling of the equipment in shielded cells, the efficiency of operations and product purity. The problems linked to the presence of iodate in the preparations and the changes made for elimination of that ion, harmful to many types and use of iodine-131 are examined. The quality of the product delivered today, an average of 140 departures per month, and the number of departures, per year since the beginning of iodine-131 production were indicated

  6. FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE THAT BARIUM DWARFS HAVE WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium II (Ba) stars are chemically peculiar F-, G-, and K-type objects that show enhanced abundances of s-process elements. Since s-process nucleosynthesis is unlikely to take place in stars prior to the advanced asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage, the prevailing hypothesis is that each present Ba star was contaminated by an AGB companion which is now a white dwarf (WD). Unless the initial mass ratio of such a binary was fairly close to unity, the receiving star is thus at least as likely to be a dwarf as a giant. So although most known Ba stars appear to be giants, the hypothesis requires that Ba dwarfs be comparably plentiful and moreover that they should all have WD companions. However, despite dedicated searches with the IUE satellite, no WD companions have been directly detected to date among the classical Ba dwarfs, even though some 90% of those stars are spectroscopic binaries, so the contamination hypothesis is therefore presently in some jeopardy. In this paper, we analyze recent deep, near-UV and far-UV Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) exposures of four of the brightest of the class (HD 2454, 15360, 26367, and 221531), together with archived GALEX data for two newly recognized Ba dwarfs: HD 34654 and HD 114520 (which also prove to be spectroscopic binaries). The GALEX observations of the Ba dwarfs as a group show a significant far-UV excess compared to a control sample of normal F-type dwarfs. We suggest that this ensemble far-UV excess constitutes the first direct evidence that Ba dwarfs have WD companions.

  7. Electrical properties of niobium doped barium bismuth-titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Pure and doped BaBi4Ti4O15 were prepared via the solid-state reaction method. ► The grain size was suppressed in Nb-doped samples. ► The diffuseness of the dielectric peak increased with dopant concentration. ► Niobium affected on relaxor behavior of barium bismuth titanate ceramics. ► The conductivity change was noticed in doped samples. -- Abstract: BaBi4Ti4–5/4xNbxO15 (BBNTx, x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.30) ceramics have been prepared by solid state method. XRD data indicate the formation of single-phase-layered perovskites for all compositions. SEM micrographs suggest that the grain size decreases with Nb doping. The effect of niobium doping on the dielectric and relaxor behavior of BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics was investigated in a wide range of temperatures (20–777 °C) and frequencies (1.21 kHz to 1 MHz). Nb doping influences Tc decrease as well as the decrease of dielectric permittivity at Curie temperature. At room temperature, undoped BaBi4Ti4O15 exhibits dielectric constant of ∼204 at 100 kHz, that slightly increases with Nb doping. The conductivity of BBNT5 ceramics is found to be lower than that of other investigated compositions. The value of activation energy of σDC was found to be 0.89 eV, 1.01 eV, 0.93 eV and 0.71 eV for BBT, BBNT5, BBNT15 and BBNT30, respectively.

  8. Electrical properties of niobium doped barium bismuth-titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobić, J.D., E-mail: jelenabobic@yahoo.com [Institute for Multidisciplinary Researches, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia); Vijatović Petrović, M.M. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Researches, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia); Banys, J. [Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, 9 Sauletekio Str., Vilnius (Lithuania); Stojanović, B.D. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Researches, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Pure and doped BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} were prepared via the solid-state reaction method. ► The grain size was suppressed in Nb-doped samples. ► The diffuseness of the dielectric peak increased with dopant concentration. ► Niobium affected on relaxor behavior of barium bismuth titanate ceramics. ► The conductivity change was noticed in doped samples. -- Abstract: BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4–5/4x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 15} (BBNTx, x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.30) ceramics have been prepared by solid state method. XRD data indicate the formation of single-phase-layered perovskites for all compositions. SEM micrographs suggest that the grain size decreases with Nb doping. The effect of niobium doping on the dielectric and relaxor behavior of BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics was investigated in a wide range of temperatures (20–777 °C) and frequencies (1.21 kHz to 1 MHz). Nb doping influences T{sub c} decrease as well as the decrease of dielectric permittivity at Curie temperature. At room temperature, undoped BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} exhibits dielectric constant of ∼204 at 100 kHz, that slightly increases with Nb doping. The conductivity of BBNT5 ceramics is found to be lower than that of other investigated compositions. The value of activation energy of σ{sub DC} was found to be 0.89 eV, 1.01 eV, 0.93 eV and 0.71 eV for BBT, BBNT5, BBNT15 and BBNT30, respectively.

  9. EPR dosimetric properties of nano-barium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano/micro BaSO4 were prepared through the co-precipitation method to measure ionizing radiation doses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The nano-BaSO4 sample was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The dose response and fading properties of nano- and micro-phase BaSO4 were compared in EPR spectra. The prepared nano- and micro-BaSO4 samples have the same hole and electron centers, which may be attributed to SO4− and SO3−, respectively. The dosimetric signals for prepared nano- and micro-BaSO4 have spectroscopic splitting factor (g) with values 2.0025±0.0006 and 2.0027±0.0006, respectively. The nanocrystalline sample has a linear γ-ray dose response over the range 0.4 Gy–1 kGy. The performance parameters which including detection limit and critical level calculated from weighted and unweighted least-squares fitting. The sensitivity of nano-BaSO4 to γ-ray is one and a half times more than alanine. The lifetime and activation energy for nano-BaSO4 were estimated by conducting a thermal stability study, and were 5.7±1.1×104 years and 0.73±0.14 eV, respectively. The combined and expanded uncertainties accompanying measurements were ±3.89% and ±7.78%, respectively. - Highlights: • Preparation of nano-BaSO4 using the co-precipitation method. • Study of the dosimetric properties of nano-barium sulfate using the EPR technique. • Comparison between a new EPR dosimeter using nano-materials and standard alanine. • Calculation of the uncertainty budget for nano-BaSO4

  10. Radiation doses to children during modified barium swallow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, Kelly A. [University of Queensland, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, Herston, Queensland (Australia); McMahon, Sandra M. [SpeechNet Speech Pathology Services, Brisbane (Australia); Long, Gillian; Bunch, Judith A. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Herston (Australia); Pandeya, Nirmala [Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston (Australia); Coakley, Kerry S. [Biomedical Technology Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston (Australia); Chang, Anne B. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Herston (Australia)

    2007-03-15

    There are minimal data on radiation doses to infants and children undergoing a modified barium swallow (MBS) study. To document screening times, dose area product (DAP) and effective doses to children undergoing MBS and to determine factors associated with increased screening times and effective dose. Fluoroscopic data (screening time, DAP, kVp) for 90 consecutive MBS studies using pulse fluoroscopy were prospectively recorded; effective dose was calculated and data were analyzed for effects of behavior, number of swallow presentations, swallowing dysfunction and medical problems. Mean effective dose for the entire group was 0.0826 {+-} 0.0544 mSv, screening time 2.48 {+-} 0.81 min, and DAP 28.79 {+-} 41.72 cGy cm{sup 2}. Significant differences were found across three age groups ({<=}1.0, >1.0-3.0 and >3.0 years) for effective dose (mean 0.1188, 0.0651 and 0.0529 mSv, respectively; P < 0.001), but not for screening time or DAP. Effective dose was correlated with screening time (P = 0.007), DAP (P < 0.001), number of swallow presentations (P = 0.007), lower age (P = 0.017), female gender (P = 0.004), and height (P < 0.001). Screening time was correlated with total number of swallow presentations (P < 0.001) and DAP (P < 0.001). Screening times, DAP, effective dose, and child and procedural factors associated with higher effective doses are presented for children undergoing MBS studies. (orig.)

  11. Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mamazza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New apparatus and a new process for the sputter deposition of modified barium titanate thin-films were developed. Films were deposited at temperatures up to 900 °C from a Ba0.96Ca0.04Ti0.82Zr0.18O3 (BCZTO target directly onto Si, Ni and Pt surfaces and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Film texture and crystallinity were found to depend on both deposition temperature and substrate: above 600 °C, the as-deposited films consisted of well-facetted crystallites with the cubic perovskite structure. A strongly textured Pt (111 underlayer enhanced the (001 orientation of BCZTO films deposited at 900 °C, 10 mtorr pressure and 10% oxygen in argon. Similar films deposited onto a Pt (111 textured film at 700 °C and directly onto (100 Si wafers showed relatively larger (011 and diminished intensity (00ℓ diffraction peaks. Sputter ambients containing oxygen caused the Ni underlayers to oxidize even at 700 °C: Raising the process temperature produced more diffraction peaks of NiO with increased intensities. Thin-film capacitors were fabricated using ~500 nm thick BCZTO dielectrics and both Pt and Ni top and bottom electrodes. Small signal capacitance measurements were carried out to determine capacitance and parallel resistance at low frequencies and from these data, the relative permittivity (er and resistivity (r of the dielectric films were calculated; values ranged from ~50 to >2,000, and from ~104 to ~1010 Ω∙cm, respectively.

  12. Radiation doses to children during modified barium swallow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are minimal data on radiation doses to infants and children undergoing a modified barium swallow (MBS) study. To document screening times, dose area product (DAP) and effective doses to children undergoing MBS and to determine factors associated with increased screening times and effective dose. Fluoroscopic data (screening time, DAP, kVp) for 90 consecutive MBS studies using pulse fluoroscopy were prospectively recorded; effective dose was calculated and data were analyzed for effects of behavior, number of swallow presentations, swallowing dysfunction and medical problems. Mean effective dose for the entire group was 0.0826 ± 0.0544 mSv, screening time 2.48 ± 0.81 min, and DAP 28.79 ± 41.72 cGy cm2. Significant differences were found across three age groups (≤1.0, >1.0-3.0 and >3.0 years) for effective dose (mean 0.1188, 0.0651 and 0.0529 mSv, respectively; P < 0.001), but not for screening time or DAP. Effective dose was correlated with screening time (P 0.007), DAP (P < 0.001), number of swallow presentations (P = 0.007), lower age (P = 0.017), female gender (P = 0.004), and height (P < 0.001). Screening time was correlated with total number of swallow presentations (P < 0.001) and DAP (P < 0.001). Screening times, DAP, effective dose, and child and procedural factors associated with higher effective doses are presented for children undergoing MBS studies. (orig.)

  13. TWO BARIUM STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 5822

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open clusters are very useful examples to explain the constraint of the nucleosynthesis process with the luminosities of stars because the distances of the clusters are better known than those of field stars. We carried out a detailed spectroscopic analysis to derive the chemical composition of two red giants in the young open cluster NGC 5822, NGC 5822-2, and NGC 5822-201. We obtained abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. The atmospheric parameters of the studied stars and their chemical abundances were determined using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. The abundances of the light elements were derived using the spectral synthesis technique. We found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, a mean overabundance of the elements created by the s-process, ''s'', with the notation [s/Fe] of 0.77 ± 0.12 and 0.83 ± 0.05. These values are higher than those for field giants of similar metallicity. We also found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, luminosities of 140 L☉ and 76 L☉, which are much lower than the luminosity of an asymptotic giant branch star. We conclude that NGC 5822-2 and NGC 5822-201 are two new barium stars first identified in the open cluster NGC 5822. The mass transfer hypothesis is the best scenario to explain the observed overabundances

  14. Synthesis and thermionic properties of tungsten–barium titanate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • W–BaTiO3 composites were readily synthesized using standard sintering methods. • Compositions in the range 20–80% by mass were studied. • The microstructure of the composites comprises W, BaTiO3, Ba4Ti12O27 and BaW04. • The Richardson work function was reduced from 4.5 eV for W to as little as 2.67 eV. • Post-emission surfaces were coated in a thin layer of Ba4Ti12O27 and BaW04. - Abstract: The potential of novel tungsten–barium titanate composites as thermionic emitters is explored. Composites ranging from 20% to 80% tungsten by mass were prepared by sintering in an Ar–H2 atmosphere. XRD and SEM studies indicate four major micro-constituents; W, BaTiO3, Ba4(Ti,Fe)12O27 and BaWO4. Richardson work functions (φR) and Richardson constants (AR) were determined using a Schottky diode arrangement at temperatures ranging from 1223 to 1473 K. Work functions ranged from 2.67 eV to 3.32 eV with a shallow minimum at 40% by mass W and were relatively constant (∼2.7–2.8 eV) in the range 30–70% by mass W. The decrease in work function was accompanied by a strong decrease in AR from 39.3 A cm−2 K−2 to 0.02 A cm−2 K−2 over the range 20–70% by mass W. The reduction in both φR and AR was associated with the major conversion of the surface to BaWO4 and Ba4Ti12O27 during the activation treatment before emission testing

  15. TWO BARIUM STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 5822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katime Santrich, O. J.; Pereira, C. B.; De Castro, D. B., E-mail: osantrich@on.br, E-mail: claudio@on.br, E-mail: denise@on.br [Observatorio Nacional/MCT, Rua Gen. Jose Cristino, 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    Open clusters are very useful examples to explain the constraint of the nucleosynthesis process with the luminosities of stars because the distances of the clusters are better known than those of field stars. We carried out a detailed spectroscopic analysis to derive the chemical composition of two red giants in the young open cluster NGC 5822, NGC 5822-2, and NGC 5822-201. We obtained abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. The atmospheric parameters of the studied stars and their chemical abundances were determined using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. The abundances of the light elements were derived using the spectral synthesis technique. We found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, a mean overabundance of the elements created by the s-process, ''s'', with the notation [s/Fe] of 0.77 {+-} 0.12 and 0.83 {+-} 0.05. These values are higher than those for field giants of similar metallicity. We also found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, luminosities of 140 L{sub Sun} and 76 L{sub Sun }, which are much lower than the luminosity of an asymptotic giant branch star. We conclude that NGC 5822-2 and NGC 5822-201 are two new barium stars first identified in the open cluster NGC 5822. The mass transfer hypothesis is the best scenario to explain the observed overabundances.

  16. Thyroid stunning' with use of 131l in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioiodine (131l) is widely used in diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer. In some cases, it has been observed that reduced or absent 131I uptake is seen on the post-therapy scan despite uptake being present on the preceding diagnostic scan. As the incidence of such thyroid ''stunning'' is not clearly established, we reviewed our experience at Royal North Shore Hospital. Over an eight-year period (1986-1994), 271 new patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were referred for 131I therapy. None had received prior 131l therapy. A total of 1251 scans were performed in this group (849 diagnostic and 402 post-therapy scans). Studies were reviewed qualitatively by two observers blinded to results of clinical history and other investigations. A 6 point scale was used to assess the 131l uptake in the thyroid bed (or metastases) in the diagnostic (usually 200 MBq) and subsequent post-therapy (usually 6 GBq) scans performed within eight days (median).Thyroid ''stunning'' in the post-therapy scan was seen in 30/402 (7.5%) studies (12 significantly reduced uptake; 18 absent uptake) performed in 29/271 (11%) patients (12 significantly reduced; 17 absent - including one absent on two occasions). Follow-up studies in these patients (mean 13 months later; range 6 to 35 months) showed uptake in 5, no uptake in 19, uptake following the first episode of ''stunning'' and none after the second in 1. Four patients await their follow-up study. Our findings indicate that a small but significant number of patients will demonstrate thyroid ''stunning'' after use of 131l

  17. False-positive I-131 uptake in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Bae, Jin Ho; Hwang, Jeong Hyun; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-01

    We experienced a case with meningioma showing false positive I-131 uptake. A 55-years old female patient underwent high dose (150 mCi) radioactive iodine therapy to ablate remnant tissue after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. In addition to intense tracer uptake in thyroid bed, there was mild but focal abnormal uptake in left frontal lobe of the brain on post-therapy I-131 whole body scan. Subsequent brain MR imaging showed single mass lesion in left frontal lobe and the mass was resected under the impression of brain metastasis of thyroid carcinoma. Pathologic report confirmed meningioma from the surgical specimen.

  18. Synthesis and labelling of 19-iodocholesterol 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the increasing interest in obtaining agents for vizualization of the adrenal gland with radioisotopic techniques, 19-iodocholesterol was prepared by means of chemical synthesis and radioiodine (131I) introduced by isotopic exchange reaction. The reaction product was identified by determination of the melting point and elementary spectroscopic analysis (infra-red absorption and magnetic nuclear ressonance). Radiochemical analysis of the labelled compound was performed by means of then-layer cromatography in silica-gel. In order to confirm its capacity of concentration in the adrenal gland, the distribution of 19-iodocholesterol 131I, after intravenous injection, was tested in rats. (Author)

  19. 131I-19-iodocholesterol adrenal scanning in Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    7 patients were investigated: 2 bilateral hyperplasia due to pituitary ACTH excess showed bilateral adrenal activity. 1 post-surgical remnant with recurrent Cushing's syndrome was detected. 1 adenoma showed unilateral intense activity and absent activity in the controlateral gland, even after ACTH treatment. 2 carcinomas were weakly imaged. In 1 case, hepatic metastasis showed 131I-19-iodocholesterol uptake. Adrenal imaging with 131I-19-iodocholesterol is not a good procedure for assessing hormonal function. It is a valuable and safe tool in the localization and diagnosis of adrenal lesions causing Cushing's syndrome, perhaps better than radiologic procedures. Radiation dosimetry is acceptable

  20. Fast timing measurement in neutron rich 131,132I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent experimental and theoretical investigations carried out in this direction also indicate the importance of the lifetime measurements in these nuclei. Such measurements in 131,132I nuclei was attempted using Mirror Symmetric Centroid Difference (MSCD) technique, giving rise to the limits on the level lifetimes. In the present work, the lifetime measurements have been carried out by using the Generalized Centroid Difference (GCD) technique for several states of 131,132I nuclei, produced from decay of the radio-chemically separated fission products

  1. The importance of localisation within 131J-retention measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A widely used method to investigate thyroid gland carcinomas, but also disorders of the thyroid gland is the measurement of the 131J-retention behaviour using a high-sensitivity whole-body counter (HWBC). Normally just the retention of oral administered Radioiodine is controlled. However, it is possible to visualize the distribution of 131J (using a modified profilescantechnique) beside the retention in the human body and this provides much better information on human metabolism as will be demonstrated in the following

  2. Fast preparation of 131I mIBG at NRCAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value of meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine (MIBG) labeled with I-123 and I-131 in the detection and treatment of neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma is well known. Currently studies of certain myocardial dysfunction as well as drenomedullary abnormalities have performed. In this work labeling with 123I or 131I has been optimized by modifying literature method s that involve on the nucleophilic exchange in presence of Cu (I) and an excess of reducing agents. MIBG was purchased from Sigma chemical Co and CuSO4.5H2O, tin sulfate, 2,5dihydroxy benzoic acid and sodium citrate from Merck. 131I solution in the form of 0.01 N, NaOH were supplied from Nuclear research center in Tehran. Activity in the vial was measured with an ionization chamber dosimeter until, and a pre-calculated volume of sterile water for injection was added to adjust the radioactivity concentration of 25mCi/ml at reference time.The production run proceeded as follows: a) 30μl copper sulfate solution containing 32.5 mg CuSO4.5H2O in 10ml demineralized water, was mixed with 500μl stock solution containing 1.5mg SnSO4, 20mg 2,5 dihydroxy benzoic acid, 45mg sodium citrate; b) The above solution was added to 1mg MIBG in a 10 ml glass vial. The solution on the vial was crystallized by liophilization and sealed; c) 1ml 131I solution containing 25 mCi 131I was purged with N2 for 5 min, 131I solution added to the lyophilized vial. Vial was transferred in an aluminum container then suspended in boiling water for 30 min. where the boiling water with container inside it was monitored with a detector that was installed inside the laminar. Upon cooling, the contents of the vial were made isotonic by 2ml oxygen free citrate buffer solution. The amount of buffer for deferent patients is shown. An acceptable radiochemical yield 90% is obtained at 100 deg. C within 30 min. Chemical and radiochemical purity of 131I -MIBG were determined by TLC. The developed kit followed by a simple radiochemical manipulation

  3. Study of precipitation processes of strontium and barium nitrates in mixtures of water-with dimethylformamide and dimethylsulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation into phase equilibriums diagrams in the barium (strontium) nitrate-water-dimethylsulfoxide and barium nitrate-water dimethylformamide systems has been pursued at 298, 15 K for the estimation of outlook for use of mixed aqua-organic solvents during the production of mixture form high temperature superconductors by means of coprecipitation or crystallization. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Spectroscopy of Ba and Ba$^+$ deposits in solid xenon for barium tagging in nEXO

    CERN Document Server

    Mong, B; Walton, T; Chambers, C; Craycraft, A; Benitez-Medina, C; Hall, K; Fairbank, W; Albert, J B; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Basque, V; Beck, D; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Cao, G F; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Daniels, T; Daugherty, S J; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fabris, L; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Heffner, M; Hughes, M; Jiang, X S; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krucken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Moore, D; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Retiere, F; Rowson, P C; Rozo, M P; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Walton, J; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zhao, Y B

    2014-01-01

    Progress on a method of barium tagging for the nEXO double beta decay experiment is reported. Absorption and emission spectra for deposits of barium atoms and ions in solid xenon matrices are presented. Excitation spectra for prominent emission lines, temperature dependence and bleaching of the fluorescence reveal the existence of different matrix sites. A regular series of sharp lines observed in Ba$^+$ deposits is identified with some type of barium hydride molecule. Lower limits for the fluorescence quantum efficiency of the principal Ba emission transition are reported. Under current conditions, an image of $\\le10^4$ Ba atoms can be obtained. Prospects for imaging single Ba atoms in solid xenon are discussed.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Barium-Vanadium Oxide Nanocomposite Using a Facile thermolysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Akbarzadeh-T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, we report synthesis of new cationic-anionic Barium-Vanadium complex with 2, 6- pyridinedicarboxylic acid ligand. This compound [Ba(H2O8][VO2(dipic]2(1 has been characterized using elemental analyses, FT-IR, UV–Vis and Cyclic voltammetry (CV techniques. Also in this study we report facile synthesis of Barium-Vanadium Oxide nanoparticle under thermal decomposition, using precursor complex (1. Characterization of Barium-Vanadium Oxide nanocomposites was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern at room temperature revealed that, highly pure and crystallized Ba3(VO42 with rhombohedral structure.

  6. CuO and Ag2O effect on electrical properties of barium vanadate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of CuO on barium vanadate glass (BVG) conductivity on direct and alternating currents in the frequency range (102-104)Hz has been studied. Effect of Ag2O has been also studied for comparison, as Ag and Cu have idendical structure of external electron shells (d10, S1). CuO introduction to binary barium vanadate glasses as a modificator results in the conductivity improvement on direct and alternating currents conditioned with reducing activation energy of small radius polaron jump, apparently, owing to exchange (ferromagnetic) interaction between V(IV) and Cu(II). Jump activation energy in barium vanadate glasses with Ag2O increases and conductivity drops due to the distance increase between vanadium atoms

  7. The review of various synthesis methods of barium titanate with the enhanced dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S. P.; Topare, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Barium Titanate is a very well known dielectric ceramic belongs to perovskite structure. It has very wide applications in the field of electronic, electro ceramic, electromechanical and electro-optical applications. Barium Titanate has very high dielectric constant as well as low dielectric loss. Substituted dielectrics are one of the most important technological compounds in modern electro ceramics. Its electrical properties can be tuned flexibly by a simple substitution technique. This has encouraged researchers to select a typical cation to be substituted at cationic sites. In the present paper, the review of various synthesis methods of Barium Titanate compound with the effect of different dopants, the grain size on the dielectric properties at various temperatures is discussed.

  8. Plasma irregularities caused by cycloid bunching of the CRRES G-2 barium release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J. D.; Pongratz, M. B.; Simons, D. J.; Wolcott, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) spacecraft carried a number of barium thermite canisters for release into the upper atmosphere. The barium release labeled G-2 showed evidence of curved irregularities not aligned with the ambient magnetic field B. The newly discovered curved structures can be explained by a process called cycloid bunching. Cycloid bunching occurs when plasma is created by photoionization of a neutral cloud injected at high velocity perpendicular to B. If the injection velocity is much larger than the expansion speed of the cloud, the ion trail will form a cycloid that has irregularities spaced by the product of the perpendicular injection speed and the ion gyroperiod, Images of the solar-illuminated barium ions are compared with the results of a three-dimensional kinetic simulation. Cycloid bunching is shown to be responsible for the rapid generation of both curved and field-aligned irregularities in the CRRES G-2 experiment.

  9. Highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires via hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the development of a hydrothermal synthesis procedure that results in the growth of highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires. Using a multiple step, scalable hydrothermal reaction, a textured titanium dioxide film is deposited on titanium foil upon which highly aligned nanowires are grown via homoepitaxy and converted to barium titanate. Scanning electron microscope images clearly illustrate the effect the textured film has on the degree of orientation of the nanowires. The alignment of nanowires is quantified by calculating the Herman's Orientation Factor, which reveals a 58% improvement in orientation as compared to growth in the absence of the textured film. The ferroelectric properties of barium titanate combined with the development of this scalable growth procedure provide a powerful route towards increasing the efficiency and performance of nanowire-based devices in future real-world applications such as sensing and power harvesting

  10. TiO2 ceramic varistor modified with tantalum and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-linear current (I)-voltage (V) characteristics of titanium dioxide doped with small quantities of tantalum and barium (99.9 TiO2 + 0.1 Ta and 99.4 TiO2 + 0.1 Ta + 0.5 Ba, all are in at.%) were investigated. These samples have the non-linear coefficient (α) values of (20-30) with high breakdown voltages (E B ∼ 400-700 V mm-1). The pentavalent tantalum acts as donor and increases the electronic conductivity. The higher electrical conductivity and decrease in the breakdown field strength with barium addition is attributed to higher density. The acceptor like surface states formed by barium ions segregate to grain boundaries due size misfit to thereby modifying the electrical barrier characteristics of grain boundaries

  11. Prompt ionization in the CRIT II barium releases. [Critical Ionization Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C. A.; Liou, K.; Rau, D.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of electron and ion distributions inside a fast neutral barium jet in the ionosphere show significant fluxes within 4 km of release, presumably related to beam plasma instability processes involved in the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. Electron fluxes exceeding 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm-str-sec-keV were responsible for ionizing both the streaming barium and ambient oxygen. Resulting ion fluxes seem to be consistent with 1-2 percent ionization of the fast barium, as reported by optical observations, although the extended spatial distribution of the optically observed ions is difficult to reconcile with the in situ observations. When the perpendicular velocity of the neutrals falls below critical values, these processes shut off. Although these observations resemble the earlier Porcupine experimental results (Haerendel, 1982), theoretical understanding of the differences between these data and that of earlier negative experiments is still lacking.

  12. Improved thermal stability and wettability behavior of thermoplastic polyurethane / barium metaborate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, it was targeted to the enhance thermal stability and wettability behavior of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) by adding barium metaborate. TPU-Barium metaborate composites were prepared by adding various proportions of barium metaborate to TPU. The chemical structures of the composites were characterised by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. All prepared composites have extremely high Tg and thermal stability as determined from DSC and TGA analysis. All composite materials have the Tg ranging from 15 to 35 °C. The surface morphologies of the composites were investigated by a scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the samples were characterized with stress-strain test. Hydrophobicity of the samples was determined by the contact angle measurements. The obtained results proved that thermal, hydrophobic and mechanical properties were improved. (author)

  13. Unexpected finding of barium sulphate on the surface of a microspinal catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a study with a scanning electron microscope to evaluate the structure of microspinal catheter after its removal from subarachnoid space, we found an unusual case. The observation with the microscope of the tip of a catheter removed at the end of an operation for hip replacement in a old female showed the presence of grounded particles with a crystal shape covering the outer surface. Further analysis of this material with an Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) showed that it was barium. The patient performed a large bowel barium enema 8 months earlier for a painful syndrome to the lower abdomen. Authors rule out the contamination from the skin and suggest two possible mechanisms of passage of barium from blood to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and so to the surface of the catheter

  14. Barium sulphate preparations for use in double contrast examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical properties relevant to upper gastrointestinal radiology have been compared for five barium sulphate preparations and related to radiographic results. Evaluation of particles (size and stability) and whole suspension (dispersibility and fluidity) resulted in ranking of the preparations generally in accord with that based on radiological experience in double contrast examinations of the stomach. Experiments with extirpated pig stomach revealed a tendency for large particles in a low viscosity barium sulphate suspension to settle in mucosal grooves. This is believed to contribute to good radiographic definition of both the areae gastricae and small lesions. Particle size is therefore important and susceptibility to flocculation, a possible cause of random change in size during use, was assessed by measuring particle electrophoretic mobility under varying conditions; quantitative differences in suspension flow and dispersibility were also demonstrated. Fluidity and dispersibility together with rapid sedimentation of suitably sized particles resistant to flocculation underlie the successful use of low viscosity high density barium sulphate suspensions. (U.K.)

  15. Barium and strontium sulfate solid solution formation in relation to North Sea scaling problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate barium sulphate and strontium sulphate solid solution formation in multi-pressure tapped cores. Two brines, one barium and strontium rich and the other sulphate rich, were mixed in a core plug. Pressure differentials were measured and the changing permeability distribution along the length of the core calculated. The morphology and chemical analysis of scaling crystals are presented based on Scanning electron Microsocpy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). The results show the large extent of permeability damage caused by (Ba, SR) SO/sub 4/ solid solution depositing on the rock pore surface. The rock permeability decline and morphology and size of the scaling crystals indicate the influence of the supersaturations of BaSO/sub 4/ and SrSO/sub 4/ as well as the concentration ratio of barium ions to strontium ions

  16. Use of the barium enema in the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uken, P.; Smith, W.; Franken, E.A.; Frey, E.; Sato, Y.; Ellerbroek, C.

    1988-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in infants. The diagnosis relies heavily upon radiographic and clinical features. Failure to accurately diagnose NEC is associated with a risk of complications and death, however overdiagnosis also causes both morbidity and mortality as well as excessive medical costs. This report documents the use of barium enema to evaluate suspected clinical or radiographic NEC in 31 premature infants with ambiguous clinical and radiographic signs. The enema was normal in 26 infants and no treatment for NEC was given. Only one of these infants developed signs of NEC subsequent to the examination. Five infants had radiographic evidence of colitis including small ulcerations, spasm, intramural extravasation of barium and mucosal irregularity. Two of the five positive cases are pathologically documented. The barium enema can represent a significant improvement in the specificity of the diagnosis of NEC. Its greatest value is in the exclusion of NEC in ambiguous cases.

  17. Improved thermal stability and wettability behavior of thermoplastic polyurethane / barium metaborate composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baştürka, Emre; Madakbaş, Seyfullah; Kahraman, Memet Vezir, E-mail: smadakbas@marmara.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, it was targeted to the enhance thermal stability and wettability behavior of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) by adding barium metaborate. TPU-Barium metaborate composites were prepared by adding various proportions of barium metaborate to TPU. The chemical structures of the composites were characterised by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. All prepared composites have extremely high Tg and thermal stability as determined from DSC and TGA analysis. All composite materials have the Tg ranging from 15 to 35 °C. The surface morphologies of the composites were investigated by a scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the samples were characterized with stress-strain test. Hydrophobicity of the samples was determined by the contact angle measurements. The obtained results proved that thermal, hydrophobic and mechanical properties were improved. (author)

  18. Design and construction of a shielded process box for the production of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A leakproof process box, shielded with a 5 mm lead wall, for the labelling, purification, pH adjutment and dispensing of Rose Bengal 131I, Hippuran 131I, Diprocon 131I, Hipaque 131I, Bromosuphthalein 131I, etc. is described. (author)

  19. Individual-specific transgenerational marking of fish populations based on a barium dual-isotope procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelga-Suarez, Gonzalo; Moldovan, Mariella; Garcia-Valiente, America; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Alonso, J Ignacio Garcia

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on the development and evaluation of an individual-specific transgenerational marking procedure using two enriched barium isotopes, (135)Ba and (137)Ba, mixed at a given and selectable molar ratio. The method is based on the deconvolution of the isotope patterns found in the sample into four molar contribution factors: natural xenon (Xe nat), natural barium (Ba nat), Ba135, and Ba137. The ratio of molar contributions between Ba137 and Ba135 is constant and independent of the contribution of natural barium in the sample. This procedure was tested in brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) kept in captivity. Trout were injected with three different Ba137/Ba135 isotopic signatures ca. 7 months and 7 days before spawning to compare the efficiency of the marking procedure at long and short term, respectively. The barium isotopic profiles were measured in the offspring by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Each of the three different isotopic signatures was unequivocally identified in the offspring in both whole eggs and larvae. For 9 month old offspring, the characteristic barium isotope signatures could also be detected in the otoliths even in the presence of a high and variable amount of barium of natural isotope abundance. In conclusion, it can be stated that the proposed dual-isotope marking is inheritable and can be detected after both long-term and short-term marking. Furthermore, the dual-isotope marking can be made individual-specific, so that it allows identification of offspring from a single individual or a group of individuals within a given fish group. PMID:22103693

  20. Preparation and characterization of ZnSn-substituted barium ferrite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of ZnSn-substituted barium ferrite films by sputtering deposition was studied. The as-sputtered films were amorphous, and annealing at a minimum of 750 oC was required to crystallize the films, based on the X-ray diffraction analysis and the magnetic measurements. Scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis confirmed that the films were single phase with the composition BaZnxSnxFe12-2xO19, x=0.2-0.3, and their thicknesses were 0.4-1.0 μm when annealed at 750-900 oC. Atomic and magnetic force microscopy studies showed no significant grain growth upon annealing and that the films consisted of single-domain grains forming interaction-cluster-type domains. The natural ferromagnetic resonance frequency was determined at around 4 GHz, together with substantial magnetic losses that make these films promising candidates for microwave absorbers. - Research highlights: → ZnSn-substituted barium ferrite films can be prepared with a sputtering-deposition followed by annealing at 750-900 oC. → The ZnSn-substituted barium ferrite films consist from magnetically coupled single-domain grains. → The ZnSn-substitution in barium ferrite films reduces the ferromagnetic resonance from 48 to 4 GHz. → The ZnSn-substituted barium ferrite films show large magnetic losses at 7-15 GHz. → The ZnSn-substituted barium ferrite films are suitable for microwave absorbers.

  1. Barium hydrogen phosphate/gelatin composites versus gelatin-free barium hydrogen phosphate: synthesis and characterization of properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashti, Mazeyar Parvinzadeh; Burgener, Matthias; Stir, Manuela; Hulliger, Jürg

    2014-10-01

    Recently, attention has been spent on crystal growth of phosphate compounds in gels for studying the mechanism of in vitro crystallization processes. Here, we present a gel-based approach for the synthesis of barium hydrogen phosphate (BHP) crystals using single and double diffusion techniques in gelatin. The composite crystals were compared with analytical grade BHP powder, single and polycrystalline BHP materials using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning pyroelectric microscopy (SPEM), optical microscopy (OM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FTIR spectra showed surface adsorption of gelatin molecules by using BHP stacked sheets due to CH2 stretching, CH2 bending and amide I vibrations are found in a gelatin content of about 2% determined by dissolution. SEM shows various crystal morphologies of the BHP/gelatin composites forming bundled micro-flakes to irregular bundled needles and spheres different from gel-free crystals. The variety in morphology depends on the ion concentration, pH of gel as well as the method of crystal growth. SPEM investigation of BHP/gelatin aggregates revealed polar domains showing alteration of the polarization. Moreover, BHP/gelatin composite crystals showed a higher thermal stability in comparison with analytical grade BHP or/and BHP single crystals due to strong interactions between gelatin and BHP. The XRD diffraction analysis demonstrated that the single and double diffusion techniques in gelatin led to the formation of orthorhombic BHP. This study demonstrates that gelatin is a useful high molecular weight biomacromolecule for controlling the crystallization of a composite material by producing a variety of morphological forms. PMID:24996024

  2. Stability studies of therapeutic 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131I-mIBG) using high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIT is a manufacturer and supplier of therapeutic doses (100 mCi) of the radiopharmaceutical 131I-mIBG to various nuclear medicine centers in India. The therapeutic formulation is of high radioactive concentration (>10 mCi/ml) and is thus prone to radiolytic damage during transport, storage until administration. Earlier stability studies at this laboratory were done using conventional methods like Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) which has an inherent limitation in terms of resolution. In view of this, a suitable HPLC method has been developed and the stability of therapeutic 131I-mIBG was monitored at various conditions

  3. Magnetic properties of barium ferrite dispersed within polystyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipara, M; Skomski, R; Ali, N; Hui, D; Sellmyer, D J

    2009-06-01

    Magnetic properties of nanocomposite materials obtained by dispersing barium ferrite nanoparticles within polystyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer, in the temperature range, 300 to 500 K are reported. The temperature dependence of the magnetization at saturation, averaged uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and coercive field of thick films are analyzed. A "matrix effect" was noticed within the glass transition range of the hard component (polystyrene) of the polymeric matrix. The reported modifications of the magnetic properties were assigned to the competition between the magnetic and mechanical reorientation of nanoparticles within the polymeric matrix. Such modifications were not observed in barium ferrite dispersed in cement. PMID:19504902

  4. Dielectric properties of piezoelectric 3–0 composites of lithium ferrite/barium titanate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sarah; S V Suryanarayana

    2003-12-01

    Piezoelectric 3–0 composite ceramics are prepared from a mixture of barium titanate and lithium ferrite phase constituents. Dielectric properties of composites are affected by a number of parameters that include electrical properties, size, shape and amount of constituent phases. The frequency dependent measurements can provide additional insight into mechanisms controlling electrical response. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant plots of lithium ferrite/barium titanate composites will be given and the relevance of trends seen in them will be discussed. Connectivity in composites developed is studied.

  5. The structural properties of barium cobalt hexaferrite powder prepared by a simple heat treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Chetna; Jotania, Rajshree

    2016-05-01

    The W-type barium hexaferrite was prepared using a simple heat treatment method. The precursor was calcinated at 650°C for 3 hours and then slowly cooled to room temperature in order to obtain barium cobalt hexaferrite powder. The prepared powder was characterised by different experimental techniques like XRD, FTIR and SEM. The X-ray diffractogram of the sample shows W-and M phases. The particle size calculated by Debye Scherrer formula. The FTIR spectra of the sample was taken at room temperature by using KBr pallet method which confirms the formation of hexaferrite phase. The morphological study on the hexaferrite powder was carried out by SEM analysis.

  6. Growth conditions effect on growth strips in barium-strontium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth bands appeared due to a change of the instantaneous growth rate are studied in the crystals of solid solution of barium and strontium niobates obtained by the method of Chokhral'skii. Instability of thermal conditions in the crystallization front leading to a change of the instantaneous growth rate is caused by several factors: insufficient accuracy in keeping the operating temperature, the presence of convection, displacement of crystallization front in an inhomogeneous thermal field, for instance when crystal rotates. Considered are the ways of diminiching the temperature vibrations in a melt and found are the conditions for obtaining optically homogeneous monocrystals of barium-strontium niobate

  7. Barium meal examination of infants under four months of age presenting with vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred barium meal examinations performed on infants of less than 4 months of age are reviewed. All the infants presented with vomiting as a major symptom and the diagnosis remained in doubt following the initial clinical assessment. Fifty seven per cent of the examinations showed an abnormality of which 45% were throught to be significant. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis was demonstrated in 23 infants. Other abnormalities included hiatus hernia, gastrooesophageal reflux, and duodenal abnormalities. The value of barium meal examinations in this group of infants is emphasised. (orig.)

  8. Barium meal examination of infants under four months of age presenting with vomiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.J.; Ziervogel, M.A.; Azmy, A.F.

    1984-02-01

    One hundred barium meal examinations performed on infants of less than 4 months of age are reviewed. All the infants presented with vomiting as a major symptom and the diagnosis remained in doubt following the initial clinical assessment. Fifty seven per cent of the examinations showed an abnormality of which 45% were throught to be significant. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis was demonstrated in 23 infants. Other abnormalities included hiatus hernia, gastrooesophageal reflux, and duodenal abnormalities. The value of barium meal examinations in this group of infants is emphasised.

  9. Temperature-Dependent Raman Spectra and Microstructure of Barium Metaborate Crystals and Its Melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤静林; 蒋国昌; 侯怀宇; 吴永全; 陈辉; 徐匡迪

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the Raman spectra of β- and α-barium metaborate in crystal and liquid states from room temperature to 1873K, with a semiconductor laser as the laser source, coupled with a time-resolved detection system to eliminate the dense thermal emission background when temperature was considerably high.Temperature-dependent Raman spectra can clearly indicate that the phase transformation from β- to α-barium metaborate has been completed during 1273 - 1300 K. Variations of different kinds of microstructure units with temperature are identified and discussed.

  10. Calcium barium niobate as a functional material for broadband optical frequency conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yan; Chen, Xin; Lukasiewicz, Tadeusz; Swirkowicz, Marek; Koynov, Kaloian; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2014-03-15

    We demonstrate the application of as-grown calcium barium niobate (CBN) crystal with random-sized ferroelectric domains as a broadband frequency converter. The frequency conversion process is similar to broadband harmonic generation in commonly used strontium barium niobate (SBN) crystal, but results in higher conversion efficiency reflecting a larger effective nonlinear coefficient of the CBN crystal. We also analyzed the polarization properties of the emitted radiation and determined the ratio of d32 and d33 components of the second-order susceptibility tensor of the CBN crystal. PMID:24690779

  11. Chemical composition of nanomodified composite binder with nano- and microsized barium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOROLEV Evgenij Valerjevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are several possibilities to improve cement-based binders. In particular, many properties of cement stone can be enhanced by means of micro- and nanoscale modification. In a number of previous works we had shown that application of barium hydrosilicates leads to such improvement. The present article is devoted to the investigation of the chemical composition of the cement stone which is modified by means of addition of barium hydrosilicates. The modification was performed on different scales: micro- and nanoscale; the results of simultaneous multi-scale modification are also presented. The examination was carried out with help of different modern research techniques – FT IR spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray phase analysis. Identification of the new phases and comparative quantitative assessment of their content are performed. It is found that the use of nano- and micro-sized barium hydrosilicates as additives leads to reduction of portlandite by 27...28%; by means of multi-scale modification it is possible to reduce the content of portlandite much more (by 83.3%. Due to addition of nano- and micro-sized barium-based modifiers both the amount of calcium hydrosilicates in reaction products is enlarged, and structure of the mentioned hydrosilicates is changed (the formation of a fine-grained structure of hydration products takes place. Micro-sized barium hydrosilicates are chemically active additives and promote the formation of an additional quantity of calcium hydrosilicates of type CSH (I. The use of nanoscale barium hydrosilicates promotes the formation of CSH (I and CSH (II calcium hydrosilicates, and also both riversidite and xonotlite. As a result of simultaneous application of nano- and micro-sized barium hydrosilicates the content of CSH (II increases. This can be confirmed by means of differential thermal and X-ray analysis. The amount of CSH (I, riversidite and various tobermorites is also increases. It is

  12. Effects of oleic acid on the high threshold barium current in seabass Dicentrarchus labrax ventricular myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelier, Aurelien; Imbert, Nathalie; Zambonino, Jose-luis; McKenzie, David; Bois, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study employed a patch clamp technique in isolated seabass ventricular myocytes to investigate the hypothesis that oleic acid (OA), a mono-unsaturated fatty acid, can exert direct effects upon whole-cell barium currents. Acute application of free OA caused a dose-dependent depression of the whole-cell barium current that was evoked by a voltage step to 0 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV. The derived 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 12.49 +/- 0.27 mu mol l(-1). At a con...

  13. Synthesis, characterization and thermostability of barium β-diketonate with tetraethylenepentamine ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique is a promising process for high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ(YBCO) preparation. In this technique, it is a challenge to obtain barium precursors with high volatility. In addition, the purity, evaporation characteristics and thermostability of adopted precursors in the whole process would decide the quality and reproducible results of YBCO film. In the present report, the barium precursor containing 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dionate...

  14. The structural and magnetic properties of barium ferrite powders prepared by the sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jie; Zhang Huai-Wu; Li Yuan-Xun; Liu Ying-Li; Ma Yan-Bing

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,M-type hexagonal barium ferrite powders are synthesized using the sol-gel method.A dried precursor heated in air is analyzed in the temperature range from 50 to 1200 ℃ using thermo-gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The effects of the additives and the cacinating temperature on the magnetic properties are investigated,and the results show that single-phase barium ferrite powders can be formed. After heat-treating at 950 ℃ for 4h with 3 wt% additive,the coercivity and saturation magnetization are found to be 440 Oe and 57.9 emu/g,respectively.

  15. Features of Raman amplification in KGW and barium nitrate crystals at excitation by femtosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of Raman amplification in KGd(WO4)2 (KGW) and barium nitrate crystals at femtosecond excitation demonstrate spectral transformation of amplification band with change of pump parameters. The half-height amplification bandwidth of up to 45 nm (650 cm-1) what is 5 times larger than the pumping pulse spectral band 8.5 nm (130 cm-1) was observed for KGW crystal. Implementation of impulsive excitation for the low-frequency vibrations allows estimations of the dephasing times and linewidths for the 87 and 83 cm-1 Raman lines in KGW and barium nitrate

  16. CT-Guided Percutaneous Transthoracic Localization of Pulmonary Nodules Prior to Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery Using Barium Suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nyoung Keun; Park, Chang Min; Kang, Chang Hyun; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Choo, Ji Yung; Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To describe our initial experience with CT-guided percutaneous barium marking for the localization of small pulmonary nodules prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). From October 2010 to April 2011, 10 consecutive patients (4 men and 6 women; mean age, 60 years) underwent CT-guided percutaneous barium marking for the localization of 10 small pulmonary nodules (mean size, 7.6 mm; range, 3-14 mm): 6 pure ground-glass nodules, 3 part-solid nodules, and 1 solid nodule. A 140% barium sulfate suspension (mean amount, 0.2 mL; range, 0.15-0.25 mL) was injected around the nodules with a 21-gauge needle. The technical details, surgical findings and pathologic features associated with barium localizations were evaluated. All nodules were marked within 3 mm (mean distance, 1.1 mm; range, 0-3 mm) from the barium ball (mean diameter, 9.6 mm; range, 8-16 mm) formed by the injected barium suspension. Pneumothorax occurred in two cases, for which one needed aspiration. However, there were no other complications. All barium balls were palpable during VATS and visible on intraoperative fluoroscopy, and were completely resected. Both the whitish barium balls and target nodules were identifiable in the frozen specimens. Pathology revealed one invasive adenocarcinoma, five adenocarcinoma-in-situ, two atypical adenomatous hyperplasias, and two benign lesions. In all cases, there were acute inflammations around the barium balls which did not hamper the histological diagnosis of the nodules. CT-guided percutaneous barium marking can be an effective, convenient and safe pre-operative localization procedure prior to VATS, enabling accurate resection and diagnosis of small or faint pulmonary nodules.

  17. 7 CFR 58.131 - Equipment and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Raw Milk and Cream § 58.131 Equipment and facilities. (a)(1) Milk cans. Cans used in transporting milk... sanitary piping and tubing shall be capped when not in use. Quality Specifications for Raw Milk .... Adequate provisions should be made so that milk in cans will be cooled immediately after milking to 50...

  18. Biodistribution of 131I-Herceptin in breast cancer xenograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to establish Her-2 positive SK-BR-3 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice. To explore the biologic distribution of 131I-herceptin in human breast cancer xenografts. Methods: Implant SK-BR-3 cells subcutaneously to BALB/c-neu athymic mice to establish animal model. To measure the radiocounting per minute (cpm) of every organ on a γ arithmometer at 4, 12, 24, 48 h postinjection of 131I-Herceptin or 131I-mIgG, then to gain the T/NT ratios and the uptakes percentage per gram of the injection dose (% ID/g). Results: After subcutaneously planted, a 96% of tumor forming rate was achieved. Compared with the control group, bigger T/NT and % ID/g was obtained in the experimental group (P<0.05 and <0.01). Conclusion: A high tumor forming rate can be get by implanting SK-BR-3 cells subcutaneously to athymic mouse, 131I-Herceptin is obviously concentrated in tumor tissues. (authors)

  19. Radiation danger (131I, milk, thyroid, children - why?)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of reactor accidents on environment contamination by iodine isotopes is described. The main ways of man contamination are presented. The role of milk contamination is stressed. 131I kinetics in man and its effects are considered. The absorbed doses are assessed. 1 fig., 6 tabs. (A.S.)

  20. High spin structure in {sup 130,131}Ba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, A.; Singh, Amandeep; Kumar, S.; Kaur, Rajbir; Singh, Varinderjit; Behera, B.R.; Singh, K.P.; Singh, G. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India); Mukherjee, G. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Sharma, H.P. [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics, Varanasi (India); Kumar, Suresh [Delhi University, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Delhi (India); Kumar Raju, M.; Madhusudhan Rao, P.V. [Andhra University, Department of Nuclear Physics, Vishakapatnam (India); Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, Rakesh; Madhvan, N.; Bhowmik, R.K. [Inter University Accelrator Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2014-01-15

    High spin states of {sup 130,131}Ba have been investigated via fusion evaporation reactions {sup 122}Sn({sup 13}C,4n){sup 131}Ba and {sup 122}Sn({sup 13}C, 5n){sup 130}Ba at E{sub beam}=65 MeV. The level schemes of {sup 130,131}Ba have been extended by placing several new {gamma} transitions. A few interband transitions connecting two negative-parity bands, which are the experimental fingerprints of signature partners, have been established in {sup 130}Ba. Spin and parity of a side band have been assigned in {sup 131}Ba and this dipole band is proposed to have a three-quasiparticle configuration, {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}g{sub 7/2}. The observed band structures and nuclear shape evolution as a function of the angular momentum have been discussed in the light of Total-Routhian-Surface calculations. (orig.)

  1. 10 CFR 455.131 - State ranking of grant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... State Plan; (3) The types of energy sources to which conversion is proposed, including renewable energy... technical assistance and energy conservation measures including renewable resource measures to the extent... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State ranking of grant applications. 455.131 Section...

  2. 40 CFR 164.131 - Review by Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review by Administrator. 164.131... Administrator. (a) The Administrator will review applications subject to this subpart D and supporting data submitted by the applicant to determine whether reconsideration of the Administrator's prior cancellation...

  3. Methodology to administer therapeutic dose of I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work suggests the use of measures guided to eliminate the resulting chronic sialoadenitis of the treatment of the thyroid cancer with Iodine-131, as well as the use of citric fruits to stimulate the salivation, the post-dose administration of liquids to accelerate the gastric emptying avoiding the secondary effects as the vomit is included. (Author)

  4. Therapeutic Effect of 131I for 230 Patients with Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of 131I in treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism and analysis the factors that influence the effect, 230 cases of hyperthyroidism were treated with 131I, and were followed-up at 1.5, 3, 6, 12 months and even longer time after 131I radiotherapy. The serum levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH were detected in all cases. The results showed that 181 patients were cured (78.6%), 22 patients were improved (9.5%), 23 cases developed early hypothyroidism(10.0%),and 4 cases developed later hypothyroidism. 12 cases in 27 patients with hypothyroidism treated with thyroxin were recovered, but the other 15 cases need to be given permanent treatment. The factors which influence 131I radiotherapeutic effect include the patient age, course of disease,application of ATD, size and quality of thyroid, and the level of thyroid hormone. The patients should be followed up to prevent occurrence of hypothyroidism. The early hypothyroidism should be treated in order to decrease the permanent hypothyroidism rate. (authors)

  5. National intercomparison of activity measurements with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To coordinate the isotope measurements in India and to make these measurements traceable to the national Primary Standards, a national intercomparison of activity measurements with the radioisotope iodine-131 was organized. This is the first intercomparison and iodine-131 was selected because it is extensively used in nuclear medicine. Other radioisotopes of interest will be taken up in future. Standardized solutions of iodine-131 were sent to the participants without disclosing the true activity of sample. They were asked to measure on their detection system and report the activity of the sample alongwith the details of the measuring system. This report describes briefly the organization of the intercomparison, preparation of samples of iodine-131, primary standardization and international intercomparison. The results of measurement as well as the details of measuring systems used by the participants are included. Finally, based on the experience of this intercomparison some recommendations are given for the participants to enable them to make measurements with better accuracy and reliability. (author)

  6. 131-Iodine-Labeled Derivatives of the Sonic Hedgehog Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sims-Mourtada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of hedgehog (HH pathway signaling is observed in many tumors. Due to a feedback loop, the HH receptor Patched (PTCH-1 is overexpressed in tumors with activated HH signaling. Therefore, we sought to radiolabel the PTCH-1 ligand sonic (SHH for detection of cancer cells with canonical HH activity. Receptor binding of 131I-SHH was increased in cell lines with high HH pathway activation. Our findings also show that PTCH-1 receptor expression is decreased upon treatment with HH signaling inhibitors, and receptor binding of 131I-SHH is significantly decreased following treatment with cyclopamine. In vivo imaging and biodistribution studies revealed significant accumulation of 131I-SHH within tumor tissue as compared to normal organs. Tumor-to-muscle ratios were approximately 8 : 1 at 5 hours, while tumor to blood and tumor to bone were 2 : 1 and 5 : 1, respectively. Significant uptake was also observed in liver and gastrointestinal tissue. These studies show that 131I-SHH is capable of in vivo detection of breast tumors with high HH signaling. We further demonstrate that the hedgehog receptor PTCH-1 is downregulated upon treatment with hedgehog inhibitors. Our data suggests that radiolabeled SHH derivatives may provide a method to determine response to SHH-targeted therapies.

  7. Determination of 131I and thorium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for the determination of 131I and Thorium in urine have been developed taking into account the monitoring needs for people who handle with these radioisotopes. The method for determining 131I is based in the use of silver chloride to separate iodine by precipitation from the sample; the detection was carried out in a Nal (Tl) well type scintillator connected to a single channel analyser. This method has the following advantages; it is easy and relatively fast as well as selective, showing a separation yield higher than 80%. Thorium in urine was determined by colorimetry after the mineralization of the sample using nitric acid, and sulphuric acid, and then oxygen peroxide. The chromophore reagent used was Thoron (disodium salt of 2-(2-hydroxy-3,6-disulfo-l-naphthylazo) benzenearsonic acid).The absorbance was measured in a spectro colorimeter at a fixed wavelength (530 nm). The method proved to be simple allowing a separation yield of about 80%. The most representative sample for a monitoring program in a 131I production laboratory has been established. The 131I concentration in urine of individuals with chronic contamination have also been measured; an interpretation of these results is discussed. (author)

  8. Mortality in patients treated for hyperthyroidism with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causes of death were studied in 10552 Swedish hyperthyroid patients treated with 131I diagnosed between 1950 and 1975. The patients were followed for an average of 15 years and were matched with the Swedish cause of death register. A total of 5400 deaths were observed and the overall standardized mortality ratio was 1.47. The standardized mortality ratio for females was 1.50 compared to 1.31 in males. The most common cause of death was from cardiovascular diseases. Significantly elevated risks were also seen for tumours, diseases of the endocrine system, respiratory system, gastro-intenstinal system, and congenital malformations. In all causes of death, except tumours and trauma, decreasing standardized mortality ratios over time were seen. Patients followed for more than 10 years had significantly elevated risks for tumours, diseases of the endocrine, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Patients given higher 131I activity and younger patients had higher standardized mortality ratios than those given lower activity and older patients. The hyperthyroidism per se, rather than the 131I treatment, appeared to be the major explanation for the elevated mortality. 20 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Experimental and clinical studies on the intrahepatic I-131-Lipiodol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I-131-Lipiodol, a new therapeutic agent, has been used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) since Lipiodol retains within the vascular HCC following intrahepatic arterial injection. Radioiodination of Lipiodol was achieved by using a simple exchange method and the agent was used for the treatment of HCC following the biodistribution studies in dogs and human subjects. Desired radiation doses and easily be delivered up to 12,000 rad while keeping the radiation doses to normal liver, lung and whole body safe and tolerable. Clinical studies in 50 patients with hepatoma were performed by this method in order to estimate the therapeutic effect, safety, indication and limitations. The results as follows: 1. Biodistribution studies The effective half life of I-131-Lipiodol in the tumor was 6 days and retained in the tumor as long as 3 months. About 10% of radioactivity was demonstrated in the lungs with effective half life decay. The I-131-Lipiodol in the normal liver tissue seems to be metabolized in the hepatocytes and excreted into the bile and urine. No demonstrable radioactivity was noted in the thyroid, bowels, spleen and bone marrow. 2. Histologic studies Histologic studies following the untrahepatic I-131-Lipiodol of the canine liver revealed the Lipiodol particles in the bile duct cells and cytoplasm of hepatocytes. In human resected hepatomas after I-131-Lipiodol infusion, Lipiodol droplets were demonstrated in the tumor vessels, sinusoids as well as in the tumor cell cytoplasm. Extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of tumor was demonstrated after treatment with I-131-Lipiodol. 3. Clinical studies Response rate was most prominent in those cases of single massive types which measures less than 5cm in diameter. Multinodular type was also responsive rather than single massive type, however, infiltrative type of tumor or the tumors measuring more than 8cm was less effective on this therapy. 4. Adverse reactions Adverse reactions from the procedure include

  10. Growth rate controlled barium partitioning in calcite and aragonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetschl, Katja Elisabeth; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Baldermann, Andre; Purgstaller, Bettina; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The barium (Ba) content and the Ba/Ca molar ratios in biogenic and abiotic carbonates have been widely used from the scientific community as a geochemical proxy especially in marine and early diagenetic settings. The Ba content of carbonate minerals has been earlier associated to changes in oceanic circulation that may have been caused by upwelling, changes in weathering regimes and river-runoff as well as melt water discharge. The physicochemical controls of Ba ion incorporation in the two most abundant CaCO3 polymorphs found in Earth's surface environments, i.e. calcite and aragonite, have adequately been studied only for calcite. These earlier studies (i.e. [1]) suggest that at increasing growth rate, Ba partitioning in calcite is increasing as well. In contrast, to date the effect of growth rate on the partitioning of Ba in aragonite remains questionable, despite the fact that this mineral phase is the predominant carbonate-forming polymorph in shallow marine environments. To shed light on the mechanisms controlling Ba ion uptake in carbonates in this study we performed steady-state Ba co-precipitation experiments with calcite and aragonite at 25°C. The obtained results for the partitioning of Ba in calcite are in good agreement with those reported earlier by [1], whereas those for aragonite indicate a reduction of Ba partitioning at elevated aragonite growth rates, with the partitioning coefficient value between solid and fluid to be approaching the unity. This finding is good agreement with the formation of a solid solution in the aragonite-witherite system, owing to the isostructural crystallography of the two mineral phases. Moreover, our data set provides new insights that are required for reconstructing the evolution of the Ba content of pristine marine versus diagenetically altered carbonate minerals commonly occurring in marine subfloor settings, as the thermodynamically less stable aragonite will transform to calcite enriched in Ba, whilst affecting

  11. I-131 Extraction from Fresh water and Sewage plant effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of maximum I-131 body activity of a patient released from a hospital in Germany (250 MBq) is comparable to the yearly reported total release of I-131 from all commercial nuclear power plants to ambient air and water. A large fraction of the body activity will be excreted and find its way to surface waters, through the sewage system. Thus medical iodine is the major contributor to the environmental I-131 in surface waters. Due to the path it follows (patient-sewage-sewage plant-fresh water) it can form organic complexes and as a result its concentration of organic iodine is relatively high. Existing methods, focusing on the removal of mainly iodide (I-) and iodate (IO3-), were found to be insufficient to successfully extract the iodine from environmental samples, leading to highly variable results depending on the contribution of organic iodine. The reported work is based on testing and modifying existing methods. In order to accomplish the highest iodine yield, the inorganic iodine extraction is followed by a supplementary procedure for additionally separating the iodine bound to dissolved organic matter. The results show only slight variations of the I-131 extraction yield which is close to 90%, constituting this method as appropriate for successfully extracting I-131 from environmental samples (WWTP effluent, river water, lake water). Another advantage of our method is its applicability to high volume samples (20 L, 50 L), making it possible for a gamma spectrometer to detect activities as low as 0.5 mBq/l. (authors)

  12. I-131 therapy for graves' disease in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves' disease is the most common thyroid disease in Vietnam. For children and adolescents the therapy with anti-thyroid drugs is often inefficacious or relapsed in a short time after therapy. Therefore the treatment with I-131 is the first choice when the anti-thyroid therapy is failed. 45 patients with the median age 15 (range 8-16), including 9 males and 36 females , were hospitalized and treated with 1-131.28/45 (62%) patients are not cured with antithyroid drug (ATD), 17/45 (38%) were the first use of I-131. Examen findings show: an elevated concentration of serum free thyroxin (fT4) = 92 pmol/L ±62, a decrease of TSH=0.04 UI/L±0.02, the 2h uptake=51%±22%, the 24h uptake=71%± 28%. We have divided the patients in three group of severity, based on pulse rates (PR): 5 patients in mild group (PR 100 <121), 9 patients in severe group (PR 121-140). The hematological and biochemical findings were in normal range. All patients were treated with capsules of I-131, oral administration. The mean dose was: 7±1.2 mCi. The mean dose per gram of thyroid tissue was 274.5±97 mCi. The therapy efficacy was very high: 41/45 (91%) return to euthyroid status with only a single dose, 4/45 (9%) needed a second dose of I-131 after 3 months with several moderate clinical symptoms. Conclusions: The radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease is a method of choice for all juvenile patients non responding to ATD treatment. The mean dose of 7 mCi is sufficient, safe and efficacious. The recurrence rate is relative low, about 9-10%. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of {sup 131}I retention in several adsorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanoso, Marcela F.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto, E-mail: marcela.forli@gmail.co, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia

    2011-07-01

    Several iodine radioisotopes are used in nuclear medicine for treatment and diagnostic purposes. The radioisotope {sup 131}I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by {beta}{sup -} and its {gamma}-ray emissions suitable for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN through the irradiation of TeO{sub 2} targets in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. After the irradiation, the {sup 131}I is separated by dry distillation, where the targets are put in an oven, heated at 760 deg C for 2 hours and the {sup 131}I, volatile, is carried by an O{sub 2} gas stream. The aim of this work was to evaluate the retention and elution of {sup 131}I samples produced at IPEN in several adsorbers as part of a project aiming the purification of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules. Samples of {sup 131}I were used for retention and elution studies with the following adsorbers: commercial cartridges, anionic resin columns and cationic resin column. The results showed that Ag cartridges and anionic resins Dowex 1X8, Dowex 3 and IRA 400 had a great iodine retention but no elution after using specific eluents. The QMA light, acid alumina, neutral alumina and cationic resin Dowex 50WX4 showed high retention and elution and QMA plus and cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 and Dowex 50WX12 had a good retention but lower elution. Regarding to the better retention and elution, Ag cartridges and resins showed a higher percentage of iodine retention but lower elution yield and QMA light, acid and neutral alumina cartridges showed better results. (author)

  14. Evaluation of 131I retention in several adsorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several iodine radioisotopes are used in nuclear medicine for treatment and diagnostic purposes. The radioisotope 131I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by β- and its γ-ray emissions suitable for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN through the irradiation of TeO2 targets in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. After the irradiation, the 131I is separated by dry distillation, where the targets are put in an oven, heated at 760 deg C for 2 hours and the 131I, volatile, is carried by an O2 gas stream. The aim of this work was to evaluate the retention and elution of 131I samples produced at IPEN in several adsorbers as part of a project aiming the purification of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules. Samples of 131I were used for retention and elution studies with the following adsorbers: commercial cartridges, anionic resin columns and cationic resin column. The results showed that Ag cartridges and anionic resins Dowex 1X8, Dowex 3 and IRA 400 had a great iodine retention but no elution after using specific eluents. The QMA light, acid alumina, neutral alumina and cationic resin Dowex 50WX4 showed high retention and elution and QMA plus and cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 and Dowex 50WX12 had a good retention but lower elution. Regarding to the better retention and elution, Ag cartridges and resins showed a higher percentage of iodine retention but lower elution yield and QMA light, acid and neutral alumina cartridges showed better results. (author)

  15. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulopo, J; Zvimba, J N; Swanepoel, H; Bologo, L T; Maree, J

    2012-01-01

    Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO(3)) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO(2) gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO(3) recovery in the Alkali Barium Calcium (ABC) desalination process and its use for sulphate removal from high sulphate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of key process parameters, such as BaS slurry concentration and CO(2) flow rate on the carbonation, as well as the extent of sulphate removal from AMD using the recovered BaCO(3) were investigated. It was observed that the carbonation reaction rate for BaCO(3) regeneration in a bubbling column reactor significantly increased with increase in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) flow rate whereas the BaS slurry content within the range 5-10% slurry content did not significantly affect the carbonation rate. The CO(2) flow rate also had an impact on the BaCO(3) morphology. The BaCO(3) recovered from the pilot-scale bubbling column reactor demonstrated effective sulphate removal ability during AMD treatment compared with commercial BaCO(3). PMID:22233912

  16. Changes in percentage of lymphocyte subsets after 131I treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Quan-Yong; CHEN Li-Bo; YU Yong-Li; LU Han-Kui; ZHU Rui-Sen

    2005-01-01

    To monitor the extent and the duration of lymphocyte subset changes in patients with thyroid carcinoma undergoing therapeutic 131I administration, the percentage of lymphocyte subsets were serially analyzed before and after 131I treatment. In patients who received 1850 MBq of 131I for ablation of thyroid remnants, only for NK cells and B cells showed a significant reduction. In patients received 3700 MBq of 131I for treatment of local lymph node metastases, NK cells, B cells and CD4+ were found decreased. In patients received 7400 MBq of 131I for treatment of distant metastases, NK cells, B cells and CD4+ and CD8+ were all affected. However, there is no significant reduction compared to the baseline in the percentage of all lymphocyte subsets three months after 131I treatment. The results show that the sensitivity of lymphocytes to 131I internal radiation depends upon lymphocyte phenotype and 131I activity. The immunosuppression effects are temporary and reversible.

  17. Observation of radioactive iodine ((131)I, (129)I) in cropland soil after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2016-10-01

    During the early stages of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the temporal variations of (131)I deposited on the ground and of (131)I accumulated in cropland soil were monitored at a fixed location in Japan. Moreover, concentrations of long-lived radioactive iodine ((129)I) in atmospheric deposits and soil were measured to examine the feasibility of retrospectively reconstructing (131)I levels from the levels of accident-derived (129)I. The exceptionally high levels of (131)I in deposits and soil were attributed to rainfall-related deposition of radionuclides. In the crop field studied, the losses of deposited (131)I and (129)I due to volatilization were small. The atomic ratio (129)I/(131)I in the topsoil corresponded to the same ratio in deposits. The (131)I concentrations measured in the topsoil were very consistent with the (131)I concentrations reconstructed from the (129)I concentrations in the soil. PMID:27320744

  18. Comparative biodistribution profile of [131I]VIP and [131I]VIP10-28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Colturato

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various tumor cells express significantly higher amounts of VIP receptors (VIPR that provided the basis for the clinical use of radiolabeled VIP for the in vivo localization of tumors. This work studied the labeling of VIP and VIP10-28 with iodine-131 to compare the biological distribution of the labeled compounds in Nuce mice and the affinity for tumor cells. Both VIP and VIP10-28 peptides contain two tyrosine residues, in positions 10 and 22, that are theoretically equally susceptible to radioiodination employing oxidative electrophilic substitution using oxidizing agents like Chloramine T. Radiochemical purity of the reaction mixture was determined by electrophoresis and HPLC. The VIP peptide and the fragment were labeled with radioiodine with good radiochemical yield (above 96%. Suitable, but important differences can be observed in biological distribution studies. Comparatively, blood clearance was faster for labeled VIP and perhaps because of this, the uptake in tumor was lower, especially during the first hour. These differences observed in the biological distribution of the compounds can be related to the lipophilicity of the labeled compounds.Várias células tumorais expressam significantemente uma alta quantidade de receptores VIP (VIPR que determinam a base para o uso clínico de VIP radiomarcado para localização de tumores in vivo. Foi estudado neste trabalho a marcação do VIP e do fragmento VIP10-28 com iodo-131 comparando a distribuição biológica dos compostos marcados em camundongos Nude e sua afinidade pelas células tumorais. Ambos os peptídeos, VIP e VIP10-28. contém dois resíduos de tirosina nas posições 10 e 22, que teoricamente são igualmente susceptíveis pela substituição eletrofílica oxidativa do radioiodo utilizando Cloramina T como agente oxidante. A pureza radioquímica da mistura de reação foi determinada por eletroforese e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. O VIP e fragmento foram

  19. Quantitative study about influence of 131I diagnostic dose on uptake of 131I for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are 52 patients with DTC who were referred to our department for radioiodine ablation for the first time were adopted. 30 patients (experimental group) were given a diagnostic scan (Dscan) 24 hours after the administration of 74 MBq 131I before radioiodine therapy, and a therapeutic scan (Tscan) was performed after radioiodine therapy. The fractional concentrations of 131I in remnants or functional metastases were quantified on Dscan and Tscan, and were expressed as Dx and Tx respectively. 22 patients (control group) received 131I therapy directly after thyroidectomy. And Tscan was performed after the radioiodine ablation. As a result the mean Tx (experimental group) was lower both than Dx (experimental group) and Tx (control group). According to the interval time between the diagnostic dose and therapy dose was 1-2, 3-7 and 8-32 days, the experimental group patients were divided into three subgroups A, B, C. The mean Tx/Dx of subgroup B was lower than Tx/Dx of subgroups A and C. There was no statistically significant difference of Tx/Dx between subgroup A and C. In conclusions that 74 MBq 131I for diagnostic scan can cause thyroid stunning. And the stunning effect is more significant when the radioiodine ablation was performed on 3 to 7 days after diagnostic dose. (authors)

  20. Treatment of hyperthyroidism by 131-iodine; Traitement des hyperthyroidies par l'iode 131: dose calculee versus dose fixe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieffe, S.; Cuif-Joba, A.; Testard, A.; Fortuna, I.; Pocharta, J.M.; Papathanassioua, D.; Schvartz, C. [Service d' endocrinologie et medecine nucleaires, institut Jean-Godinot, 1, rue du General Koeing, 51056 Reims, (France)

    2009-05-15

    In a first time, we chose to modify the dose to be administered, on using always the Marinelli formula but on increasing the absorbed dose. In a second time, we wanted to simplify the determination of the dose to be administered by modulating it only in function of the thyroid volume. Two groups of patients were managed for hyperthyroidism recurrence. In a first group the iodine dose ({sup 131}I) was determined with the help of the simplified Marinelli formula: chosen absorbed dose was 150 Gy, gland volume determined by echography, measurement of the fixation at the sixth hour. In the second group, the thyroid volume was determined by echography. The patients with a thyroid from 5 to 30 g received 185 MBq, from 30 to 50 g 370 MBq and superior to 50 g 555 MBq of iodine 131. The two groups of patients have the same characteristics. the results of treatment by iodine 131, evaluated on the dosages of T4L and TSH at three and six months, show the preservation of euthyroidism or the passage in hypothyroidism among 94% of patients in the group 1 and 80% of patients in the group 2. These results are not significantly different. The easiness of the realisation of the treatment in the group 2 lead us to continue this simplified therapy scheme that allows equally to improve the radiation protection of medical personnel by avoiding the use of iodine 131. (N.C.)

  1. Methodology for management of therapeutic dose of I-131; Metodologia para administrar dosis terapeutica de I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The present work suggests the use of measures guided to eliminate the resulting chronic sialoadenitis of the treatment previously described with a therapeutic dose bigger than ablative of Iodine 131, as well as the use of citric fruits to stimulate the salivation, the administration of liquid post-dose is included to accelerate the gastric emptying avoiding the secondary effects as the vomit. (Author)

  2. Pinhole imaging of 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) in an animal model of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate 131I-MIBG scintigraphic localization of xenotransplanted and spontaneously arising neuroblastomas in murine models of high-risk neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma xenografts were created by inoculation of human neuroblastoma cell suspensions into the subcutaneous flanks of athymic nude mice. In addition, spontaneous paraspinal neuroblastomas were detected by direct palpation in MYCN transgenic mice. After measured tumor volumes exceeded 200 mm3, each mouse received an intraperitoneal injection of 18 μCi/g 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). Pinhole scintigraphy was performed to evaluate the MIBG biodistribution and to attempt to visualize the tumors. Each mouse was imaged on a gamma camera equipped with a 3-mm pinhole on one head and an HEGP collimator on the other. Images demonstrated absorption of radiolabeled MIBG and visualization of tumors. Analysis of the images allowed for quantification of relative MIBG uptake and for determination of linear and area measurements of the tumors. High-energy pinhole imaging effectively demonstrates uptake of radiolabeled MIBG by human neuroblastoma tumors in murine laboratory models. This technique allows for in vivo assessment of tumor burden. In the future, we plan to use this method to evaluate sensitivity for detecting metastatic spread as well as investigating the therapeutic efficacy of high-dose 131I-MIBG in combination with radiosensitizing agents. (orig.)

  3. The development and current status of 131I treatment for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune diseasein which excessive amounts of thyroid hormones circulate in the blood. The treatments for hyperthyroidism mainly include antithyroid drugs, 131I treatment, and surgery. 131I had been verified as an effective, safe, simple method to treat adult and children hyperthyroidism. Current research trends of 131I treatment mainly are problems of 131I treatment of hyperthyroidism and its long-term security. (authors)

  4. Comparison of thallium-201, Tc-99m MIBI and I-131 scan in the follow-up assessment after I-131 ablative therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Sung; Lee, Sung Keun; Kim, Doe Min; Park, Sae Jong; Jang, Kyong Sun; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Chong Soon [Hanil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    We conducted a comparative study to evaluate the diagnostic values of Tl-201, Tc-99m MIBI and I-131 scans in the follow-up assessment after ablative I-131 therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer. The study population consisted of 20 patients who underwent surgical removal of thyroid cancer and ablative radioactive iodine therapy, and followed by one or more times of I-131 retreatment (33 cases). In all patients, Tl-201, Tc-99m MIBI, diagnostic and therapeutic I-131 scans were performed and the results were analyzed retrospectively. Also serum thyroglobulin levels were measured in all patients. The final diagnosis of recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer was determined by clinical, biochemical, radiologic and/or biopsy findings. Positive rates (PR) of Tc-99m MIBI, Tl-201, diagnostic and therapeutic I-131 scans in detecting malignant thyroid tissue lesions were 70% (19/27), 54% (15/28), 35% (17/48) and 63% (30/48), respectively. The PR in the group of 20 cases (28 lesions) who underwent concomitant Tl-201 and I-131 scans were in the order of therapeutic 131 scan 71%, Tl-201 scan 54% and diagnostic I-131 scan 36%. There was no statistically significant difference between Tl-201 and diagnostic I-131 scans (p>0.05). In the group of 20 cases (27 lesions) who underwent concomitant Tc-99m MIBI and I-131 scans, the PR were in the order of Tc-99m MIBI scan 70%, I-131 therapeutic scan 52% and I-131 diagnostic scan 33%. The PR of Tc-99m MIBI was significantly higher than that of diagnostic I-131 scan (p<0.05). Tc-99m MIBI scan is superior to diagnostic I-131 scan in detecting recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer following ablation therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Tl-201 scan did not showed significantly higher positive rate than diagnostic I-131 scan. Instead of diagnostic I-131 scan before the I-131 retreatment, Tc-99m MIBI scan without discontinuing thyroid hormone replacement would be a prudent and effective approach in the management of these

  5. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, NG; Firsching, M; de Ruiter, N; Schleich, N; Butzer, J S; Cook, N J; Grasset, R; Campbell, M; Scott, N J A; Anderson, N G

    2010-01-01

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 A mu A). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct f...

  6. The Precipitation Process of Liquid Wastes Containing Contaminant Am withBarium Sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigated of the reduction volume liquid wastes containing ofAmericium nuclide contaminant has been done. The reduction volume was done byadding barium sulfate coagulant. The experimental procedure that has beendone by adding regent of barium nitrate and natrium sulfate to the wasteswith its preadjusted pH, then by utilizing the jar test equipment was carriedout the fast stirring speed for 5 minutes and the gentle agitation for 30minutes, therefor its floc and supernatant will be formed. The resultedbarium sulfate floc will trap radionuclide in the wastes. The Variableinvestigated were: the concentration of barium sulfate, pH of the wastes, theflash mixing rate, the gentle agitation rate. The investigated barium sulfateconcentration variable was started from 100 ppm up to 800 ppm. Theinvestigated pH variable was started from pH 7 up to pH 13. The investigatedflash mixing rate were 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250 rpm. Theinvestigated gentle agitation variable were 20, 30, 40, 50 rpm. The bestresult which was represented by decontaminating factor (DF) was found frombarium sulfate concentration of 300 ppm and pH 11, and the flash mixing rateof 200 rpm and the gentle agitation rate of 20 rpm, with the separationefficiency = 97.2 %. (author)

  7. Barium enema findings (segmental colitis) in four neonates with bloody diarrhea - possible cow's milk allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four neonates with sudden onset of bloody diarrhea and barium enema findings suggestive of segmental colitis are reported. The infants were not very ill and in all four, the condition was self-limiting. An exact etiology for the condition was not determined but in all of the infants a possible association with cow's milk intolerance was suggested. (orig.)

  8. Study of structural, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties of nanostructured barium doped Bismuth Ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured multiferroic Bi(1−x)BaxFeO3x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 were prepared by hydrothermal technique. All samples belonged to the rhombohedrally distorted perovskite structure. The morphology of the particles changed with the doping of barium. Effect of barium doping on the dielectric constant was studied over a wide frequency range of 1000 Hz–1 MHz. The activation energy due to relaxation and due to conduction was measured from the Cole Cole plot and the AC conductivity versus frequency plot respectively. The activation energy estimated from both the studies was close to each other. The activation energy also enhanced with the increase in the barium content. The magnetization at the highest available field (∼1.6 T) increased from 0.05 emu/g for the sample with x=0.0–12 emu/g for the sample with x=0.2. The magnetic measurements show a significant increase in magnetization around 400 °C. Remnant polarization for x=0.0 was negligible and it increased to 0.06 µC/cm2 for x=0.2. - Highlights: • Bismuth Ferrite nanostructures were synthesized by the hydrothermal technique. • Barium was doped in Bismuth site. • Morphology changed with doping. • Ferromagnetic, Ferroelectric and Dielectric properties enhanced with doping. • An unreported magnetic transition due to spin canting was observed near 550 °C

  9. PROPOSED ORAL REFERENCE DOSE (RFD) FOR BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS (Final Report) 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is the final report for the 2004 external peer review of the Proposed Oral Reference Dose (RfD) for Barium and Compounds, prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), for the Integrated Risk Informa...

  10. Magnetic studies of cobalt doped barium hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared by modified sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, M. Govindaraj; Sahoo, Subasa C.

    2016-05-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) and cobalt doped barium hexaferrite (BaFe11CoO19) nanopowders were synthesized by modified sol-gel auto-combustion technique and were annealed at 900°C in air for 4 hours. The annealed powders were studied in the present work and X-ray diffraction studies showed pure phase formation after annealing. The average grain size in the nanopowder sample was decreased after doping. Magnetization value of 60 emu/g was observed at 300K for the barium hexaferrite and was reduced to 54 emu/g after doping. The coercivity of 5586 Oe was observed at 300K for the undoped sample and was found to be decreased in the doped sample. As the measurement temperature was decreased from 300K to 60K, magnetization value was increased in both the samples compared to those at 300K. The coercivity of the undoped sample was found to decrease whereas it was increased for the doped sample at 60K. The observed magnetic properties may be understood on the basis of modified exchange interaction and anisotropy in the doped sample compared to that of pure barium hexaferrite.

  11. WEAK-ACID ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVING BARIUM, RADIUM, AND HARDNESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weak-acid resin in the hydrogen form was found to effectively remove barium, radium, and hardness, without increasing the sodium content of the product water. The maximum capacity of the weak-acid resin was about 2.3 times that of strong-acid resin, and much less spent regenerant...

  12. BARIUM BIOAVAILABILITY AS THE CHLORIDE, SULFATE, OR CARBONATE SALT IN THE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine how the bioavailability of a low concentration of barium (Ba) in drinking water is affected by anion speciation. Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 250-300 grams were maintained on a diet of less than 1 mg Ba/kg of food for at least 1 month pr...

  13. Effects of illumination on the dielectric response of barium-strontium niobate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effects of white light on the low and infra-low frequency relaxation of polarization in the barium-strontium niobate (SBN) ceramics is reported. The light is found considerably decreasing the contribution of space charge at temperatures corresponding to the range of the relaxor phase (it is, around the Tm)

  14. A plasmonic modulator based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide with barium titanate core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We design a plasmonic modulator which can be utilized as a compact active device in photonic integrated circuits. The active material, barium titanate (BaTiO3), is sandwiched between metal plates and changes its refractive index under applied voltage. Some degree of switching of ferroelectric...

  15. Barium responsiveness of the rat aorta and femoral artery during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, J L

    1982-01-11

    The barium responses of isolated aortic strips and femoral arteries from non-pregnant and pregnant rats were investigated. Barium caused concentration-related increases in tension of vessels from both pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The concentration-response curves of femoral arteries from non-pregnant and 3 week pregnant rats were not different; however contractility and slopes of concentration-response lines for thoracic aortas from 1, 2 and 3 week pregnant rats were significantly less than those of aortas from non-pregnant rats. In addition, barium caused rhythmic contractions to develop in both femoral arteries and aortas of 3 week pregnant rats more frequently than vessels from non-pregnant rats. Rhythmic contractions did not develop in aortas from 3 week pregnant rats in calcium-free Krebs. Since the effects of barium on the electrical and mechanical activity of various muscles have been postulated to be similar to and/or dependent on calcium, these results may indicate that changes in calcium sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle occur during pregnancy. Such changes may contribute to the blood flow redistribution and other cardiovascular adaptations of pregnancy. PMID:7054642

  16. Adsorption of Pb(II) present in aqueous solution on calcium, strontium and barium hydroxy apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium, strontium and barium hydroxy apatites were successfully synthesized by chemical precipitation method, the obtained powders were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), semi-quantitative elemental analysis (EDS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and N2 physisorption studies, complementary to these analytical techniques, was determined the surface fractal dimension (Df), and the amount of surface active sites of the materials, in order to know application as ceramic for water remediation. The ability of Pb(II) ion adsorption present in aqueous solution on the hydroxy apatites synthesized by batch type experiments was studied as a function of contact time, concentration of the adsorbate and temperature. The maximum lead adsorption efficiencies obtained were 0.31, 0.32 and 0.26 mg/g for calcium, strontium and barium hydroxy apatites respectively, achieved an equilibrium time of 20 minutes in the three solid-liquid systems studied. Experimental data were adequately adjusted at the adsorption kinetic model pseudo-second order, for the three cases. Moreover, experimental data of the strontium and calcium hydroxy apatites were adjusted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating that the adsorption was through a monolayer, whereas barium hydroxyapatite was adjusted to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm, indicating a multilayer adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters obtained during adsorption studies as a function of temperature showed physisorption, exothermic and spontaneous processes respectively. The results showed that the calcium hydroxyapatite, strontium and barium are an alternative for the Pb(II) ion adsorption present in wastewaters. (Author)

  17. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (60) and genetic taste status…

  18. A comparison of radiographer and radiologist reports on radiographer conducted barium enemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare radiographer and radiologist reports on radiographer conducted barium enemas. Method: Two specially trained, experienced radiographers performed barium enemas and prepared provisional reports without consulting radiologists. Later, formal radiologist reports were issued. The reports of each were compared and correlated with clinical findings derived from case note review. Results:Seven hundred and eighty eight patients had barium enemas. Males numbered 295 (37.5%) and females 493 (62.5%). Patients ages ranged from 17 to 95 years (mean 62). The radiologist reported 244 as normal, 432 as diverticular change, 70 with polyps (31 of which had co-existent diverticular disease), 31 with carcinomas and 12 with colitis (three of which had co-existent diverticular disease). Taking the radiologist reports as gold-standard radiographer reports were concordant in 753 (95.5%). There were 35 (4.5%) discordant radiographer reports of these 19 were false-positive diagnoses of polyps and six false positive diagnoses of diverticular change. There were seven false-negative diagnoses of polyps (only one of these was found to have a polyp at follow-up endoscopy). There was one false-negative diagnosis of colitis and two false-negative reports of diverticular change. On follow up there were no false negative diagnoses of carcinoma by either radiographer or radiologist. There was one concordant false-positive diagnosis of carcinoma. Conclusion:Radiographers with specialized training can report barium enemas to a high standard

  19. The precipitation of radioactive radium-226 from acidic chloride leach liquors with barium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional barium chloride (BaClsub(2)) precipitation has been effective in the 99+ percent removal of radium-226 as radium-barium sulphate [RaBa(SOsub(4))sub(2)] sludge, from HCl liquors produced by laboratory and pilot leaches of Canadian uranium ores. Radium-226, due to its low-level radiation characteristics, is removed as it has been identified as an environmental and long-term health problem. The formation of the RaBa(SOsub(4))sub(2) sludge was aided due to adequate sulphate (SOsub(4)) concentrations in the HCl pilot liquors produced. Recyclable Rasup(226) concentrations of about 66 pCi/L, in treated effluents, will cost about 1/10 that of effluents below federal environmental guidelines of 10 pCi Rasup(226)/L. Toxic barium (Ba) will potentially build up in effluents as recyclable Rasup(226) concentrations around 66 pCi/L. Barium, in addition to being added to liquors as BaClsub(2) precipitant, is present in the radioactive ore and HCl leach liquors

  20. Synthesis and characterization of barium titanate, doped with europium and neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at synthesize and characterize mixed oxides in Barium Titanium matrix in doping with Neodymium and Europium analyzing thermogravimetric curves, characteristic bands at infrared region of the polymer complex, which are intermediates to mixed oxides, and identify the formation thereof, and the crystallinity using XRD analysis